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This is a project report on the basic overview of a THERMAL POWER PLANT and all other systems that
are required to carry out the process of power generation. This project was a part of our curriculum of
four years B.Tech degree course. This was a training program for 21 days at Mejia Thermal Power
Station under Damodar Valley Corporation; carried out by 5 students of Siliguri Institute of Technology,
named as 1>Abhishek Mitra <2>Dhananjay Kr. Tiwari <3> Prashant Sharma <4> Anirban Chakroborty and
<5>Sayantani Biswas, belonging to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering Department ,at the end of
4th semester.

We have carried out this training under well experienced and highly qualified engineers of MTPS, DVC of
various departments viz. Mechanical, Electrical, Chemical and Control & Instrumentation depts. This
report covers an overview of a thermal power station, detailed specifications of MTPS,DVC, mechanical
overview, electrical overview, various cycles and processes (viz. Steam Generation, Turbo Generation
and Balance of Plant) of power generation and details of control and instrumentation required in
thermal power plant. We have taken the opportunity to explore the Control & Instrumentation
Department, its use, necessity in power plant and maintenance of various instruments used for
monitoring and controlling the numerous processes of power generation. We have tried our best to
cover all the instruments and their brief detailing in this project report. We have also included our field
experiences of MTPS and maintenance section of C&I(Control & Instrumentation) of MTPS and Logic
Panels provided by BHEL (known as FSSS) and DCS/Microprocessor based system provided by SIEMENS
and also Logic and Microprocessor based system by MAX-DNA. We have also covered a section on
SMART TRANSMITERS and ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTATION.

All the above mentioned topics will be presented in the preceding pages of this report. The main aim to
carryout this training was to familiarize ourselves with the real industrial scenario, so that we can relate
what we study in our textbooks and their practical applications. This project report will also help us in
our future in many ways when we face the industrial world.
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 1. Dhananjay kumar Tiwari
2. Abhishek Mitra
3. Anirban Chakraborty
4. Prashant Sharma
5. Sayantani Biswas
have carried out this dissertation training report based on the vocational training done by us in
the highly appraised, one of the most technically advanced and one of the largest thermal
power station in West Bengal the Mejia Thermal Power Station ,under DVC .

We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to the authority of SILIGURI INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY&MEJIA THERMAL POWER STATION for providing us the rare opportunity to
undertake training in the power plant.

We would also want to thanks the highly supporting and experienced engineers without whom
we could not have know the plant better.

We would personally like to thanks to

1. Mr. K.C ROY (DEPUTY CHIEF ENGINEER)


2. Mr.P.K.DUBEY
3. Mr. TAPAS SENGUPTA (AE)
4. Mr. Gunjan Kr.Chowdary (AE)
5. Mr. Tarun Prasad (AE)

We would also like to thanks the maintenance department of C&I (unit iii) to make us
understand the instruments better and the staff of MTPS to help us learn
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Damodar Valley Corporation was established on 7th July 1947.It
is the most reputed company in the eastern zone of India..DVC
in established on the Damodar River.It also consists of the
Durgapur Thermal Power Plant in Durgapur. The HYDEL project
in Mython is one of the most flourishing parts of the DVC. The
MTPS under the DVC is the second largest thermal plant in
West Bengal. It has the capacity of 1340MW with 4 units of
210MW and 2 units of 250MW.With the introduction of
another two units of 500MW that is in construction it will be
the largest in West Bengal.
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The idea that STEAM has potential energy and can be converted into kinetic energy was given by famous
scientist, Sir. James Watt. This idea became the governing principal of many mechanical processes and
finally led to the success of Thermal Power Energy. The need of establishing a Thermal Power Plant
came to engineers by the realization of the fact that Hydel Power could be utilized only for certain
period of time in a year. This section will give the basic requirements for Thermal Power Plant.

>? 2       The basic requirements of thermal power plant is determined by the
type,size and other specifications of the plant. It is required to know the immediate capacity of
the power plant after construction and the extension of capacity in the future, to determine the
area required for construction of the plant. The basic things that are taken into consideration
are 1>Station Building <2> Coal Store <3>Cooling Towers <4>Switch yard compound
<5>Surrounding areas and approaching.
>?    The geology of the site should be cost effective and the subsoil must be able to
withstand huge load of foundation.
>?     Water is required in power plant for two basic needs, first is for steam
generation and second is for cooling purpose. Thermal Power Plant requires huge volume of
water, nearly of about 3 to 4 Tons/hr/MW only for steam generation. So site of plant must also
have reliable and huge water sources located near to it.
>?  Coal is the prime requirement of any thermal power plant, it is the main source of fuel
as it is most economic and residue of coal after combustion is also used by many industries like
cement industries, so the plant must have reliable sources of coal and regular supply in huge
amount like 20,000 Tons per week.
>? 2
  It is one of the another vital factor of the plant as huge burden lies on
transportation in daily basis because of huge need of coal, furnace oil, hydrochloric acid and
other chemical products along with mechanical products.
>? 2
2   2Due to heavy rate of coal combustion residual volume is also high.
The main residual product is ash. The plant must have facilities like ash pond to dispose them
safely without harming the environment.
>? 222 The plant area must have route available for transmission over head cables to
the nearest grid lines or load points which will be capable of accepting the generated power
output of the power station.
>?      The tropical climate is best for erection of thermal power plant,
because areas having high humidity and fluctuating temperature lead to dew point and
condensation which as a result damages the electrical machines and corrodes the insulation and
over head cables. 
>?
    2  The airfields must be studied properly to avoid mishaps as the
chimney height ranges from 500 to 600 fts and boiler housing is of 200 fts in general.
>?
2      2  To run a plant smoothly requirement of skilled and unskilled
personnel is very important. So recruitment of workers and skilled personnel should be made
carefully and in adequate amount.
>?   2Some considerations like availability of hospital, educational institutes and other
facilities must be taken into account.



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Mejia Thermal Power Station also known as MTPS is located in the outskirts of Raniganj in Bankura
District. It is one of the 5 Thermal Power Stations of Damodar Valley Corporation in the state of West
Bengal. The total power plant campus area is surrounded by boundary walls and is basically divided into
two major parts, first the Power Plant area itself and the second is the Colony area for the residence and
other facilities for MTPS͛s employees.

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1)? Total number of Units : - 4*210 MW with Brush Type Generators
????????????????????????????????????????????2*250 MW with Brush less Type Generators
2)? Total Energy Generation :-
3)? Source of Water : - Damodar River
4)? Sources of Coal : - B.C.C.L and E.C.L, also imported from Indonesia
5)? Required Water Consumption : -
6)? Approximate coal requirement : - 73,00,000Tons/annum at 75% PLF(Plant Load Factor)
7)? Ash Deposited per annum : - 1.30 million Tons/annum

>? 2
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1)? The plant is designed and engineered by both Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) and
Damodar Valley Corporation.
2)? Pipelines of 17km long and 1473mm in diameter spiral welded MS pipes laid to transport
river water from upstream of Durgapur barrage by pump sets of 500KV pump motor set.
3)? Rail cum Road Bridge across Damodar River near Raniganj Station.
4)? 2KM Merry Go Round Railway System.
5)? 20mtr high RCC multiple flue stack.
6)? Direct ignition of pulverized coal introduced for reduction in consumption of fuel oil.
7)? Ball and Tube type Mills for more mill rejects and less maintenance cost.
8)? Boiler of 200ft height and four corner firing system for better combustion.
9)? All major and hazardous systems like Steam Generation and Turbo Generation section are
incorporated with FSSS (Furnace Safety Supervisory System) for better safety.
10)?Other logic systems like EAST and ATRS are also incorporated.
11)?Water treatment Plants along with two artificial water reservoirs and Two Demineralization
Plants loaded with PLC system.
12)?Chimney height upto 600fts for less pollution.
13)?The plant is loaded with latest technology sensor, transducers and transmitters for more
accurate analyzing of various processes.
14)?All the units are loaded with intelligent smart microprocessor based systems known to be
DCS systems provided by KELTRON, SIEMENS and MAX-DNA for process control.
15)?Station Service Transformers of 6.6KV step-down type are also available for better
distribution of power inside the plant for various requirements.
16)?Switchyard with individual step-up generator transformers of ONAN/ANOF/AFOF cooling
Transformers of 220KV for supply to national grid, along with other safety instruments.
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THE BASIC SCHEMATIC OF THERMAL POWER PLANT COMPRISING OF ALL SYSTEMS IS GIVEN BELOW

THE ABOVE DIAGRAM IS SELF EXPLANOTORY.DETAILED EXPLANATION OF EACH SYSTEM IS GIVEN


BELOW.
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š?        Boiler is the main section where the steam is
produced by coal combustion. Boiler consists of boiler drum, water walls,
wind box, heaters. The boiler has 13 elevations named as AA-A-AB-B-BC-C-CD-
D-DE-E-EF-F-FF. Coal is inserted into the boiler from A-B-C-D-E-F elevations.
BC is used for insertion of Heavy Oil and Light Oil after atomization with steam
and air respectively. DF is used for insertion of oil i.e. only heavy oil. Both the
elevations have Oil Gun mounted for insertion of oil in proper ratio into the
boiler. Liquid fuel (viz. Heavy Oil and Light Oil) is used for initial light up
process. Other elevations are used to insert secondary air from wind box. The
furnace is divided into two sections named as first pass and second pass
separated by Goose Neck. The combustion takes place in the first pass and
the heating of steam through super heaters takes place in the second pass.

š?    Boiler Drum is the part of boiler where the dematerialized water is stored and is
inserted into the boiler. It is also houses the steam that is formed in the boiler. Water stored in the
drum comes down to the top of the boiler and forms a ͞Water Ring͟ which is then inserted into the
boiler through the water walls. Water Walls are basically tubes along the walls of the furnace, it is
here where the water is converted into steam at 1300϶C and then the produced steam is taken back
to the boiler drum. The drum has a propeller that rotates at high speed and makes the steam and
water separated due to centrifugal force. The pressure of boiler drum is 150kg/sq.cm and must be
always maintained. Water in the drum comes from feed control station via economizer. 

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Courtesy SIEMENS DCS SYSTEM and C&I Dept, MTPS, DVC

š? 2
  2  2 One most important point is to be always kept in mind that all the
heaters that are used in thermal power plant are mechanical type heaters, i.e. heat exchange
phenomena heats one medium by exchanging heat from another hotter medium. Super heaters are
actually suspended pipes in the second pass section of the boiler, the flue gas having very high
temperature heats the steam that comes from the drum before they hit the turbines. The steam
from drum is carried by these pipes and flue gas heats them to raise their temperature upto 540϶C.
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There are three super heaters named as Primary Super heater, Platinum Super heater and Final
Super heater. The steam is cascaded through the above heaters where the pressure is kept constant
and the temperature is raised up to 540϶C. The main concept behind making the steam super
heated is to make the steam absolutely moisture free before they hit the turbines because moisture
content of steam will damage the blades of turbine by corrosion.

š?   2    The turbine section consists of three parts named as High Pressure
Turbine (HPT), Intermediate Pressure Turbine (IPT) and Low Pressure Turbine (LPT). The
super heated steam from the super heaters enters the HPT and hits the blades at
150kg/sq.cm and 540϶C and rotates the shaft. The exhaust steam of HPT is taken to high
pressure heater and the other part enters the IPT through a reheating section called re-
heater for enabling the steam to regain its previous state. The exhaust steam of IPT is used
for several purposes, one part is taken to deareator, another to high pressure heaters and
the left out part is taken to LPT. The exhaust of LPT is taken to condenser.

š?    The turbines are attached through a single shaft which is finally coupled with the
generator͛s rotor. The details of the generator are explained later in the Turbo Generation section.

š?   2 The exhaust steam of LPT is fed to the condenser where the steam is converted into
water by the principal of condensation. The condenser has two extraction pumps known as
Condensate Extraction Pumps (CEP-A & CEP-B); these pumps create a negative pressure i.e. vacuum
in the condenser for better suction of the condensate. The outlet of the CEP is connected to Low
Pressure Heaters (LPHS); where the temperature of the condensed water is raised to little higher
temperature for better efficiency of the overall unit/plant.

š?    The condensed water from the condenser is taken to deareator where the water is
made free from oxygen mainly i.e. free from air. The deareator is a direct heat exchanger because
the steam from IPT is sprayed to the condensed water from the bottom and the water is sprayed
from the top part of the deareator. This results in de-oxyfication i.e. removal of oxygen from the
water.

š?    

2 
 - The outlet of the deareator is connected to boiler feed pumps, there
are three BFP in a row out of which two are in running condition and one is at standby. These pumps
have the highest pressure through out the plant i.e. 160kg/sq.cm and consume the highest power of
3MW/pump. It is so because the BFP pumps the deareated water back to the boiler drum which has
a pressure of 150kg/sq.cm, and in order to pump the water to the drum it needs higher pressure
than the drum. The BFP assembly consists of 3 main parts, booster pump to raise the pressure of
water from deareator from 7kg/sq.cm to 17-20kg/sq.cm; asynchronous motor and hydro-coupling
of shaft of motor and pump for speed control and longevity and finally the main pump that raises
the pressure from 17-20kg/sq.cm to 160kg/sq.cm. The inlet and outlet of the main pump is
connected in a feedback system that practically equalizes the pressure of inlet and outlet and as a
result the huge jerk that may damage the BFP due to huge pressure difference at inlet and outlet is
avoided.

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š?  
 22   2
2 The high pressure heaters are also mechanical heaters that
receive their heating medium from exhaust of HPT & IPT. The BFP outlet is connected to HPHS, there
are two HPH named as HPH-5 and HPH-6. HPH-5 receives steam from IPT and HPH-6 receives steam
from HPT. The BFP outlet is connected to HPH-5 and HPH-6 is connected to HPH-5. Steam of HPT &
IPT heats the water up to 200϶C and the pressure is also increased up to 175kg/sq.cm, which is then
passed through economizer. This is done to increase the efficiency of the boiler. These heaters are
sometimes bypassed during the process if required by the operator with the help of three way
cock/valve of pneumatic type.

š?      Economizer is another heat exchanger type heater. Here the water from HPHs
comes to get more heated up for better steam production and high enthalpy resulting in greater
efficiency of the boiler and unit as well. The economizer receives the heat for heating the water
from the flue gas. The flue gas which has very high temperature comes from the air pre-heaters
(explained later) to the economizer and heats up the water mechanically which finally reaches the
boiler drum.

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š? 
   The flue gas produced as a result of combustion of fossil fuel in the furnace is
taken to the air-preheater. The air-preheater is used to heat up the atmospheric air to make hot air
used for combustion and transport of coal dust from mill to furnace; which is called secondary air.
This heater has a unique process of heating, it has a shaft attached to a rotating wheel type
structure (like turbine but arrangement of blades are different). Atmospheric air sucked by FD fans
passes through one side of the rotating shaft and the hot flue gas passes through another side. This
way heat of the flue gas gets transferred to the atmospheric air and it gets heated. There are two
air-preheaters named as AH-A and AH-B. These heaters can be found beside the boiler in the burner
floor.

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 The flue gas after passing through the air-preheaters
comes down to lower temperature that is feasible for releasing into the atmosphere, but one vital
job remains still left out, i.e. to remove the carbon content of the gas so that it does not harm the
atmosphere. This job is done by ESP, the flue gas after air-preheater comes to the ESP unit. ESP
actually works on the principal of ͞CORONA DISCHARGE EFFECT͟; the ESP unit houses two electrode
plates called emitting plate and collecting plate. The emitting plate is supplied with a very high DC
negative potential (in order of**), this results into ionizing of air molecules surrounding the emitting
plate which is called corona effect. The collecting plate is grounded and a positive potential develops
on it, as a result when the flue gas pass through between them the carbon particles are attracted to
the collecting plates. The collecting plates are attached to hopper where the ashes get deposited by
hammering action on the collecting plate. For a 210MW unit 24 such hoppers are present in each
ESP; these hoppers have mechanical transport system for proper disposal of ash. For better corona
effect the emitting plate is made corrugated because this way more air molecules get ionized as
corona discharge points are more in number in corrugated plate. 

š? 2THERE ARE BASSICALLY 4 TYPES OF FANS IN A THERMAL POWER UNIT
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?    This fan is used to create negative pressure in the furnace, i.e.
furnace pressure is lower than the atmospheric pressure, as a result of which the fire ball inside the
furnace cannot come out of the furnace. ID fan also drives the flue gas through out its path and
above processes and finally ejects it out of the chimney. It sucks air from inside the furnace and
ejects it to the atmosphere. Mechanically ID fan consists of one 3-phase asynchronous type motor, a
hydro coupling unit for coupling rotor shaft of the motor and the rotor shaft of the fan, scoop unit, a
pair of journal bearings and lubrication oil system. It is the only fan which have hydro coupling
because this gives more accurate control to its speed for maintaining the negative pressure more
precisely since controlling of negative pressure is the most vital factor in any thermal power unit.
The lube-oil system has two motors out of which one remains standby; for maintaining perfect
pressure of lubrication through out the ID fan assembly. The second motor automatically starts up
when the oil pressure drops below a certain level; this motor increases the oil pressure in the
system. The lubrication oil is cooled by mechanical heat exchangers; this system is mounted in the
lube-oil system itself. Water cools down the oil flowing in the tubes inside the coolers. There are
three ID Fans in each unit of thermal power plant, named as ID-A, ID-B, ID-C.

?         - Unlike the ID fan, the FD fan is meant for creating positive
pressure in the furnace and also supplies air for PA fan and secondary air for combustion. The FD
fans take air from atmosphere and expel it to the plant (i.e. in the furnace, wind box etc). The outlet
of the FD fan divides into 5 ways; 2 goes to the air-preheater, and remaining 3 goes to the PA fan
supplying cold air. Mechanically FD fans consist of one 3-phase asynchronous type motor, a pair of
journal bearings and lube-oil system. Unlike ID fan these fans have direct coupling of rotor shaft of
the motor and rotor shaft of the fan. The lube-oil system is designed same as ID fans. There are 2 FD
fans in a single unit.

  THE SYNCHRONIZATION OF ID-FAN AND FD-FAN IS VERY IMPORTANT AS THESE
TWO FANS COMBINELY BALANCE THE PLANT. WHEN WORKING TOGETHER IT IS CALLED
BALACED DRAFT.

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 - Primary air fan is used for mixing of cold air of FD fan outlet and
hot air of air-preheater outlet. The main function of this is to transport the pulverized͛ coal from the
mill to the furnace via classifier. Mixing of hot and cold air is necessary because it is needed to
maintain the temperature of the pulverized coal from 80϶C-90϶C for better transport of coal and
better combustion in the furnace. Mechanically the construction of PA fan is same as FD fans along
with the lube-oil system. There are 3 PA fans in a single mill of ball and tube type.

!? 2     2   2  - The scanner air fans are relatively smaller in size and
consume low power as compared to the above mentioned fans. These are simple motor operated
fans that suck air from atmosphere and utilize it to cool the flame scanners (explained in C&I section
later) inside the furnace. 



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 The coal handling plant comprises of track hopper, crusher house,
conveyer belt system and bunker. For running of each unit at a minimum of 75% PLF requires
20,000Tons of coal per day. The huge demand coal is mitigated by B.C.C.L and E.C.L collieries,
extra demand of coal is sometimes fulfilled by imported coal from Indonesia. The main
transportation system is railways and trucks. The coal is directly unloaded in the track hopper,
which have bottom discharging system. Coal of size up to 20mm diameter is passed on to crusher
house and the rest is manually crushed up to 20mm diameter size. In the crusher house the coals
are further crushed down to 5mm diameter by mechanical procedure. These crushed coals are
passed through strainers to the conveyor belt system for dropping them into the bunker above
the feeder through STACKERS and RECLAIMERS. After this process the coal in the CHP is handed
over to the MILL.

>? The MILL consists of FEEDER, MILL for pulverization of coal (BALL & TUBE TYPE MILL) and
CLASSIFIER. The stacked coal in the bunker is dropped to the feeder automatically; the feeder is
housed with a conveyor belt system with motors and pulleys. The feeder actually governs the
amount of coal to be transferred to the ball & tube mill for pulverizing. The flow of coal is
maintained by the speed/rpm of the conveyor belt of the feeder. The coal from the bunker drops
to the feeder͛s conveyor belt at a constant rate determined by the bunker level, in this condition
higher the rpm of the conveyor belt greater will be the rate of volume of the coal transferred to
the mill. In the same way if the rpm is lower than lesser will be the volume of coal transferred to
the mill.

Thus the coal from the feeder is transported to the mill where the pulverization takes place. Here
the ball & tube method is utilized for pulverizing of coal to 20micron diameter size. This type of
mill consists of arrangement of iron alloy balls inside a tube like structure that is rotated by its
auxiliaries. The coal is fed to the tube at its two ends where it is crushed to the above mentioned
size, these pulverized coal is taken back from the mill to the classifier. In case of ball and tube
type mills, there are 3 mill units; out of which 2 must be running and 1 for standby while the unit
is running on load.

The classifier consists of strainers; the primary air brings the coal from the mill to the classifier
where the pulverized coal is passed through strainers. The strainers allow 80 %(approx) of the
coal to pass from 200 mesh and rest is fed back to the mill for further pulverization. Here the
primary air is utilized to maintain the temperature of the coal up to 80϶C-90϶C for better
combustion. The classifier has 4 outlets and each ball and tube type mills have 6 such classifier (2
for each mill unit). The coal from each outlets of a classifier goes to each of the 4 corners of the
furnace; therefore coal from each outlets of all the 6 classifier goes to all the 24 elevations (A-B-
C-D-E-F of each corner) of furnace in all. All transport of coal from mill to the furnace is done by
the primary air produced by PA fans.


  BALL AND TUBE TYPE MILL IS STILL IN USE BECAUSE OF LOW MAINTAINANCE COST
AND HIGHER MILL REJECTS.
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Courtesy SIEMENS DCS SYSTEM and C&I Dept, MTPS,DVC


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š?  
 Water comes from the water reservoir to the demineralization plant (DM Plant)
for removal of all minerals present in normal water for making it non-conductive and increasing
the efficiency of the overall system. After DM plant water goes to the boiler drum via condenser
and the feed control station. 

š? 2    
  22  Water from the boiler drum comes down to the top of the
boiler and forms a ring head and finally goes to the boiler through the water walls. The
boiler/furnace is lit up by ͞four corner firing͟ technique; this produces a ball of fire and reaches
a temperature of 1200϶C. This as a result converts the water in the water walls into steam at
high pressure. This steam is sent back to the boiler drum where it is separated from the water
with the help of high speed propeller. The steam is taken to the super heaters via water pipes
where it is converted to superheated steam for total moisture removal. After superheaters the
steam divides into two ducts called Main Steam Left (L) and Main Steam Right(R) and finally
reaches the turbines.

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2       

TURBINES are form of engine and hence it requires suitable fluid for working, a source of high grade
energy and a sink of low grade energy, the fluid when flows through the turbine the energy content of it
is continuously extracted and converted into its useful mechanical work. The turbines used in thermal
power plants are of STEAM GAS type which uses the heat energy of the steam for its working. Turbine
Cycle is the most vital part of the overall process; this is where the mechanical energy of the steam is
converted to electrical energy via turbine assembly. The turbine assembly comprises of three turbines
named as High Pressure Turbine (HPT), Intermediate Pressure Turbine (IPT) and the Low Pressure
turbine (LPT).

The steam that is generated in the SG section comes to the HPT through main steam lines via control
valves. The steam when strikes the HPT have 540϶C at 150kg/sq.cm pressure. This high pressure
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superheated steam rotates the turbine, the speed of the turbines is controlled by the controlling the
amount of steam through control valves. Generally only 3%-4% steam is enough to rotate the turbine at
3000rpm at no load. The HPT is a single head chamber type of turbine.

One part of the exhaust steam from HPT is taken to reheaters through cold reheat line (CRH line) which
are again of mechanical type; for restoring the superheated properties of the steam for further use. The
reheated steam is brought back to the IPT via HRH (hot reheat steam) line. And the other part of the
exhaust steam is taken to the HP heaters (i.e. to HPH-6).

The reheated steam͛s mechanical energy is utilized by the IPT which is a double head chamber type
turbine, where steam enters from the top-mid section of the turbine and leaves the turbine from the
front and back section. The exhaust of IPT is divided into 3 parts, one goes for the HP heaters (HPH-5),
another goes to the deareator and the last part goes to the LPT.

The exhaust steam of the LPT Is divided into 4 parts, 3 of them goes for the Low Pressure Heaters (LPH-
1, LPH-2, LPH-3) for heating the condensate, and the last part goes to the condenser for the steam
condensation process and regeneration of water. The condensation is done to minimize the production
of DM water to make the process cost effective. The steam is converted to water and extracted by CEP
from the condenser and transported to Gland Sealing Coolers (GSC) via Ejectors (EJE). The GSC cools the
sealing of the ducts; the condensate is taken to the LPH from the GSC for heating at lower pressure to
increase the enthalpy of the water for better efficiency. Water after LPH reaches the deareator where
the oxygen is removed from it and is taken to the BFPs, the BFPs increases the pressure of the water up
to 160kg/sq.cm and sends it the high pressure heaters (HPH-5 & HPH-6). HPH increases the temperature
of the water once more and transfers it to the Economizer, in economizer the temperature of water is
again increased by the flue gas and is finally is transported to the steam generation process via the Feed
Control Station.

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The 200/210 MW turbine installed in MTPS is of condensing-tandom-compound, three cylinder,


horizontal, disc and diaphragm, reheat type with nozzle governing and regenerative system of feed
water heating and is directly coupled with the A.C generator.

TURBINE CASING: - The turbine assembly comprises of three types of casing.

1)? High Pressure Casing


2)? Intermediate Pressure Casing
3)? Low Pressure Casing

OTHER TURBINE COMPONENTS: -

>? ROTOR: - The rotor is basically the main rotating part of the turbine which is also called the shaft
and is attached with the rotor of the A.C generator via coupling.
Rotor is basically divided into 3 categories and they are as follows: -

1)? HIGH PRESSURE ROTOR: - This is basically made of single Cr-Mo-V steel forged with
internal disc attached to T-shoot fastening designed specially for stabilizing the HPT
and preventing the axial shift.
2)? INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE ROTOR: - This is made from high creep resisting Cr-Mo-V
steel forging and the shrunk fit disc are machined from nickel-steel forging. This
basically adjusts the frequency of the blades.
3)? LOW PRESSURE ROTOR: - This is made from the above mention alloy used in IP Rotors;
blades are secured to the respective disc by riveted fork root fastening. Wires are
provided in all stages of this to adjust the frequency of the blades.

>? BLADES: - Blades are single most costly element fitted in the turbine. Blades fitted in the
stationary part are called guide blades and those fitted in the rotor are called moving or working
blades. Blades are of basically three types, they are as follows: -
1)? Cylindrical ( constant profile) blade
2)? Tapered cylindrical blade
3)? Twisted and varying profile blade.

>? SEALING GLANDS: - To eliminate the possibility of steam leakage to the atmosphere from the
inlet and the exhaust end of the cylinder, labyrinth glands of the radial clearance type are
provided which provide a trouble free frictionless sealing.

>? EMERGENCY STOP VALVES AND CONTROL VALVES: - Turbine is equipped with emergency stop
valves to cut off steam supply and with control valve regulate steam supply. Emergency stop
valves are provided in main stream line and control valves are provided in the hot reheat line.

>? COUPLING: - Since the rotor is made in small parts due to forging limitations and other
technological and economic reasons, the couplings are required between any two rotors. The
coupling permits angular misalignment, transmits axial thrust and ensures axial location.
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>? BEARING: - ›  


are manufactured in two halves and usually consist of bearing body
faced with anti friction tin based habiting to decrease coefficient of friction. Bearings are usually
force lubricated and have provision for admission of jacking oil.

   
is normally Mitchell type and is usually combined with a journal
bearing, housed in spherically machined steel shell. The bearing between HP and IP rotor is of
this type. The rest is of journal type.

>? BARRING GEAR: - The barring gear is mounted on the L.P rear bearing cover to mesh with spur gear
L.P rotor rear coupling. The primary function of the barring gear is to rotate the rotor of the turbo
generator slowly and continuously during the start-up and shut sown process when the temperature
of the rotor changes.

At the time of shut down the cooling of the inner parts of the turbo-generator continues for
many hours. If the rotor is allowed to stand still during cooling process then it will suffer from
shagging due to the temperature difference between the upper and lower portion of the
turbine. It is therefore kept in barring gear for maintaining constant temperature through out
the turbine.

The same phenomena is observed during the start up of the turbine, because when the steam is
supplied to the sealings to create vacuum, the stand still rotor will suffer from un-uniform
heating and hence suffer from shagging. It is therefore kept in barring gear to avoid such
damage and it prevents the breaking away of the turbine blades with sudden flow of steam into
the turbine assembly.

>? TURBINE LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM: - The LUB-OIL system of turbine comprises of following
category.
1)?  

  It is mounted on the front bearing pedestal and coupled through
gear coupling to the rotor. When the turbine is running at its normal speed of 3000rpm
then the oil to the governing system (at 20kg/sq.cm) and to the lubrication system (at
1kg/sq.cm) is supplied by this pump.
2)? 2  

 It is a multi staged centrifugal oil pump driven by A.C powered
electric motor. It provides the oil requirement for starting up and stopping of the
turbine. It provides oil to the governing system and to the lubrication system until the
turbine is running at speed lower than 2800rpm.
3)? 2 

 This is a centrifugal pump driven by A.C motor. It runs for initial
10 minutes at the starting to remove air from the governing system and fill up oil to it.
4)?    

 This is a centrifugal pump driven by D.C motor. This pump is
foreseen as a backup oil pump to A.C oil pumps. This pump automatically cuts in when
the A.C power fails in the power station.
5)? :  

 This pump enables the complete rotor assembly to be raised up
or to be floated in the bearing assembly during the start-up and shut down process of
the process. Thus this prevents the damage to the bearings when the shaft is too low for
hydrodynamic lubrication to take place. JOP sucks and delivers oil to the journal
bearings at 120kg/sq.cm for lifting of the rotor.
6)?   2The oil of governing and lubrication system is cooled in the oil coolers by
the circulating water. There are five such coolers,4 are for continuous operation and 1
for standby.
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?  ? Ê ? ?


?
   THE MENTIONED CYCLES CAN BE EXPLAINED BY THE SELF-EXPLANATORY DIAGRAMS GIVEN
BELOW

>?   2       2  c      2 2     2 


 

     2 22  
 

Courtesy SIEMENS OS220EA, C&I, MTPS, DVC


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>?          2  c      2 2     


   
  2 :      2


Courtesy SIEMENS OS220EA, C&I, MTPS, DVC


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? Ê?  ? ?


ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT BASICALLY CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING PARTS

Õ? GENERATOR (For generation of A.C Power)


Õ? SWITCHYARD (For transfer of produced power to the grid)
Õ? POWER DISTRIDUTION SYSTEM (For power distribution inside the plant)

>?     2. transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by
generator. The A.C generator or alternator is based on the principal of electromagnetic induction
and generally consists of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. The stator
houses the armature windings and the rotor houses the field windings. A D.C voltage is applied to
the field winding in the rotor through slip rings, when the rotor is rotated, the lines of magnetic flux
is cut through the stator windings. This as a result produces an induced e.m.f (electromotive force)
in the stator winding which is tapped out as output. The magnitude of this output is determined by
the following equation.
;!9!! <&%"
2.0. ;.9/9#+*($).(
 ;2"0.*="2&#/'=*."+)#+.%(+*.3.0
;0.1$.*)8+*)8)%.4.0.)&*(&0+*2.0"7
;$/3.0&#"$0*+*"2.5+*(+*=&#"2."'"&0
='+*;
* ,
2.0.
;$/3.0&#4&%.
*;0.<&%$"+&*4.0.)&*(&#"2.0&"&0

From the above expression it is clear that for the same frequency number of poles increases with
decrease in speed and vice versa. Therefore low speed hydro turbine drives generators have 14to 20
poles where as for high speed steam turbine driven generators have 2 poles.

>?    


 2

>?     Rotor is the most difficult part to construct; it revolves at a speed of 3000rpm. The
massive non-uniform shaft subjected to a multiplicity of differential stresses must operate in oil
lubricated sleeve bearings supported by a structure mounted on foundations all of which poses
complex dynamic behavior peculiar to them. It is also an electromagnet and to give it the necessary
magnetic strength the windings must carry a fairly high current. The rotor is a cast steel ingot and it
is further forged and machined. Very often a hole bored through the center of the rotor axially from
one end to the other for inspection. Slots are then machined for windings and ventilation.

>?    Silver bearing copper is used for the winding with mica as insulation between
conductors. A mechanically strong insulator such as micanite is used for lining the slots. For cooling
purpose slots and holes are provided for circulation of cooling gas. The wedges the windings when
the centrifugal force developed due to high speed rotation tries to lift the windings. The two ends of
the winding are connected to slip rings made of forged steel and mounted on insulated sleeves. 

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>? 2   The major part of the stator frame is the stator core, it comprises of inner and outer
frame. The stator core is built up of a large number of ͞punchings͟ or section of thin steel plates.
The use of cold rolled grain-oriented steel can contribute to reduction of stator core.

>? 2  2Each stator conductor must be capable of carrying the rated current without
overheating. The insulation must be sufficient to prevent leakage current flowing between the
phases to earth. Windings for the stator are made up from copper strips wound with insulated tapes
which is impregnated with varnish, dried under vacuum and hot pressed to form a solid insulation
bar. In 210MW generators the windings are made up of copper tubes through which water is
circulated for cooling purpose. 

>?     2  22 
?      22   8(0&=.* is used as cooling medium in large capacity
generators in view of its high heat carrying capacity and low density. But in view of its
explosive mixture with oxygen, proper arrangement for filling, purging and maintaining its
purity inside the generator have to be made. Also in order to prevent escape of hydrogen
from the generator casing, shaft sealing system is used to provide oil sealing. The system is
capable of performing the following functions.
'? Filling in and purging of hydrogen safely
3? Maintaining the gas pressure inside the machine at the desired value all the time.
)? Provide indication of pressure, temperature and purity of hydrogen.
(? Indication of liquid level inside the generator.

?   2  22 Seals are employed to prevent leakage of hydrogen from the
stator at the point of rotor exit. A continuous film between the rotor collar and the seal liner is
maintained by means of oil at the pressure which is about above the casing hydrogen gas
pressure. The thrust pad is held against the collar of rotor by means of thrust oil pressure,
which is regulated in relation to the hydrogen pressure and provides the positive maintenance
of the oil film thickness. The shaft sealing system contains the following components.
'? 9&+%4$/49
3? 9&+%4$/49
)? +%+*>.)"&09
(? +##.0.*"+'%
0.$0..=$%'"&0
.? '/4.0"'*?9

>?  22  The electric power generators require direct current excitation magnets for
its field system. The excitation field system must be reliable, stable in operation and must respond
quickly to excitation current requirements. The excitation system of a generator comprises of
'? The main exciter 
3? The pilot and auxiliary exciters
)? The voltage control system

>? 2  2It is a static device which transfers electric powers from one circuit to the other
without any change in frequency, but with a change in voltage and corresponding current levels
also. Here the transformers used are to transfer electric power from 15.75KV to 220KV or 400KV
that are provided to the national grid. The step-up generator transformers are of
ONAN/ANOF/AFOF cooling type.
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>?      2   @   The NGT is used to prevent the generator from
earth faults. It comprises of primary winding and secondary winding, the secondary winding is
connected with a high value resistance. When ever earth fault arises heavy current flows to the
primary winding and as a result an e.m.f is induced in the secondary. The voltage drop across the
resistance is sensed by the NGT relay and it actuates to actuate the Generator Circuit Breaker (GCB)
and thus the generator is tripped.

>? 2   The switchyard is that part of the plant that is used to transfer the produced
electric power to the national grid for consumer consumption. It consists of sub-stations that may
be of step-up or step-down type. A sub-station comprises of following.
'? TRANSFORMER
3? ISOLATORS 
)? CIRCUIT BREAKERS
(? LIGHTENING ARRESTERS
.? CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
#? POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS
=? BUS BARS and CLAMP FITTINGS
2? SUPPORTING STRUCTURES FOR THE HANGING BUSES
+? CONTROL RELAY PANELS
>? CONTROL ROOM
?? FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT
%? POWER CABLES AND CONTROL CABLES

>?
  2  22   2. 4&5.0 (+"0+3$"+&* 8"./ + 0.4&*+3%. #&0 "2.
(+"0+3$"+&*&#4&5.0"&'%%"2.(0+<.'*(&"2.04'0"&#"2.4%'*"9"+.A4%'+*.(3.%&538"2.
.%#.A4%'*'"&08(+'=0'/9



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?
>?     Control and Instrumentation in any industry can be compared to the nerve
system of the human being. The way the nerve system controlling the operation of various limbs
of human being, C&I in the same way is controlling and operating the various motors, pumps,
dampers, valves etc. In a Thermal Power Station chemical energy of coal is converted to electrical
energy, this happens in three stages which are boiler, turbine and generator. The actions
happening in them are controlled, transmitted and monitored by C & I department. In this art of
state era a remarkable revolution has taken place in the field of instrumentation. Digital Control
System (DCS) has replaced the conventional instrumentation system. The main purpose of C & I is
to guide the operating personnel, to operate the plant efficiently, to test the performance of the
plant, to record the history, to generate audio-visual alarm and tripping signal if required.

>?
  22
  2  B  There are mainly four types of parameters to be measured,
controlled and monitored. These are as follows.
'?  Flow means flow of any fluid like water, oil, flue gas, steam etc.
3?  
 Temperature of boiler, turbine shaft, flue gas, coal, steam etc.
)?
 22 Pressure of boiler and boiler drum, steam, lube-oil, water etc.
(?  c Level of boiler drum, hydrogen, water, lube-oil tank etc.

>? 22  2 2  Instruments are basically divided into two classes called Primary
Instrument and Secondary Instrument. Primary Instruments mainly comprises of Sensors, Gauges,
Transmitters etc and Secondary Instruments comprises of Indicator, Recorder and Data
Acquisition System (DAS) etc. Depending on the importance of the parameter to be measured,
these instruments are mounted (i) on SpotͶmainly Local Gauge( Pressure & Temperature), Rota
meter Type Flow Meter etc, (ii) on Local Panel or Instrument RackͶmainly local panel gauge, local
indicator, transmitter/transducer etc and (iii) on Panel at Unit Control RoomͶmainly Secondary
Instruments i.e. recorder, indicator and DAS etc.


š?
 22  2  Pressure and vacuum are the most important process parameters
of the thermal power plant. Still drum pressure, steam pressure at turbine end, deareator
pressure, furnace pressure, lube-oil pressure, furnace oil pressure, feed water pressure,
condenser vacuum are the most important process parameters. The instruments commonly
used are 
-? &$0(&*$3.
0.$0. '$=.Curved or Twisted tube whose transfer section differs
from a circular form. The tube is closed at one end and if bend or distorted has the
property of changing in shape with internal pressure variation which causes the cross
section to become more circular and the shape to be straighten resulting in motion of
the closed end of the tube. This motion makes a pointer to travel on a scale thus
showing the pressure applied. These types of gauges are basically used in the following.
'? &+%.0'*(&+%.00$/
3? 2".'/+*.
)? '".0+*.
(? %$. '
'"2
.? +%$30+)'"+&*28"./'*( +%+*.

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-? +'420'=/.%%&5
0.$0. '$=.Diaphragm is a flexible disc usually with concentric
corrugate. This converts pressure to deflection. Commonly used metals to make
diaphragm are Phosphor-Bronze, Beryllium-Copper and Stainless Steel etc. 
.%%&5is a thin walled metal tube with deeply convoluted side walls which permits axial
expansion and contraction. Materials used are Brass, Phosphor-Bronze, Monel, Stainless
steel, Beryllium-Copper, Inconel etc. These are used where high force measurement
required. These are basically use in Analog Transmitters and Limit Switches.

-? $3.'*&/.".0Both tend opened up U-Tube partially filled with mercury is used


for this purpose. At one end atmospheric pressure is applied and the other end is
applied with the applied pressure. For the differential height gives the pressure.

-? 2"0'+* '$=.  Any form of container when pressurized is strained, it is a resulting
which is sensed by bonded wire type strain gauge fitted onto the surface. The O/P of
strain gauge is calibrated in terms of pressure.

-?
0.$0.25+")2Pressure switches are also applied as limit Switch; these are basically
constructed with a bellow, spring and a micro-switch arrangement. When pressure is
applied to the bellow connected at the bottom of the pressure switch, it pulls the spring
just fixed above it. As a result of the restoring torque of the spring it contracts or relaxes
opposing the direction of force applied by the bellow to it. The spring is connected to a
micro-switch; the spring makes the contact to NO or NC contact depending on the type
of connection and generates an alarm or trip signal as required after crossing the
maximum restoring torque value.

-? 0'*/+"".0  There are two types of transmitters called as Analog Transmitters and
Digital/Smart Transmitters. 
Smart TransmittersͶICP are integrated circuit piezo-electric sensors with built in
microelectronics (amplifier and signal conditioner) which operate over a simple two
wire cable is called smart sensor. When microprocessors and miniature electronics are
used with transmitter for storing important parameters like range, scale, calibration, self
diagnostic troubleshooting etc. with a remote with a capability for sending data to and
receiving data for a measuring unit located at field. It has following advantages as Drift
Free, Calibration remote and easy and can be directly connected to modern DCS system.

š?  
   2   Like pressure temperature is also a most important process
parameter of a thermal power plant. Temperature is measured at various parts of the process.
Temperature measurement is done of steam, Drum, SH & RH metal, T/G lube oil& bearing
Babbitt, Generator Gas, HPT exhaust etc. The instruments used for temperature measurement
are basically of Expansion type, Radiation type or electrical type. The instruments used are: -
-? A4'*+&*2.0/&/.".0For measurement of temperature at parts of process which
is of comparatively less importance or high accuracy is not required. At these places
expansion type thermometers are used, usually Mercury filled, Mercury vapour fill bulb-
capillary type and bimetallic temperature gauges are used for the temperature
indication required for guidance of operating personnel. These are used in steam lines,
bearing, water lines, heaters etc.
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-? 2.0/&)&$4%. - It converts thermal energy to electrical voltage when a temperature


gradient exists between two end junctions of a pair of dissimilar metal wires. Open
circuit developed voltage is a function of Seebeck co-efficient of the two metals and the
difference in temperature. Usually K-type thermocouple is used in a power plant. K-type
thermocouple is a combination of CHROMEL (+ve) and ALUMEL (-ve). This can be used in
clean oxidizing atmosphere upto 1260϶C, so most commonly used in thermal power
plants. This could not be used at oxygen starved atmosphere as temperature ʹmv
characteristics will no longer follow standard curve.

Some disadvantages of thermocouple: -


1)? Accuracy ʹ less than RTD
2)? Resolution ʹ cannot be lowered than 10mv/degC
3)? Drift ʹ characteristics curve drifts at higher temperature
4)? Leads ʹ only composite leads can be used
5)? Construction ʹ high precession silvering soldering with borux flux required.
Some Advantages of thermocouple: -
1)? Response time low as the wires can be made very thin so response time can be of
the order of msec. Grounded elements are faster than ungrounded. For metal
temperature measurements surface cement type thermocouple are used for fast
response.
2)? High shock absorber as the construction is heavy duty.
3)? Small in size
4)? Probes can be made flexible.
5)? Cost effective.

-?  @ .+"'*). ./4.0'"$0. .".)"&0   RTD works on the principal that metal͛s
resistance increases with increase in their temperature. They are used for measurement
of temperature within the range of upto 400϶C. 
(<'*"'=.
? Higher accuracy
? Can be used over wide range from -200϶C ʹ 500϶C
Mainly used Platinum and Copper type metals are used with Platinum being more
advantageous because of noble character, commercially availability in pure form and
high melting point. Pt100 is mostly used in power plants for Air, Water, Water Windings
etc temperature measurements.
Cu53 are used in power plants for turbine bearings and generator winding temperature
measurement.
+'(<'*"'=.
? Not suitable for high temperature and vibrational site
? Circuits to be made low voltage driven otherwise self-heating take place.

-? 2.0/+"&0  Non-metallic semi conductors with negative temperature coefficient of


resistance are used for this purpose. These are more sensitive and smaller in size used
upto 100϶C, used for HT drive bearing temperature measurement. These are mainly
made up of mixtures of metallic oxides, e.g. manganese, nickel, copper etc.
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-? '(+'"+&* 2.0/&/.".0  Radiation energy emitted by a body increases with


temperature and thus this property is used for measurement of temperature by the
formulae W = OeT^4 ( W ʹ Radiant energy, O ʹ stephen͛s constant, e ʹ emissivity of the
surface and T ʹ absolute temperature).
(<'*"'=.High range of temperature measurement
 Direct Contact not require and long lasting.
+'(<'*"'=.High cost, regular maintenance and calibration not uniform.
This is used for furnace temperature measurement.

-? %'/. 2)'**.0  This instrument is to measure the intensity of the flame inside the
furnace. The construction consists of a convex lens, a fiber optic cable attached at the
focal point of the lens and a photo diode circuit at the end of the fiber optic. The light of
the flame is focused on the focal point of the lens by the lens, the fiber optic takes the
light and the light travels through the fiber cable due to total internal reflection to the
diode, as a result a voltage is forward biased by the diode and output is observed. The
voltage at the output changes as the intensity of the light changes, a signal conditioning
unit is attached to it which transmits the voltage signal to the control room as current
signal of 4-20mA. 

š?   2  Flow can be measured by flow rate and flow volume. 
%'+#+)'"+&*
?
0.$0.(+##.0.*"+'%#%&5/.".0
-? c.*"$0+ $3.  Available in two forms. Nozzle entrance type consists of a cylindrical
entrance section followed by a nozzle entrance throat followed by a conical divergent
section, pressure taps are taken at face and throat of nozzle section.
Conical entrance type consists of cylindrical entrance section followed by a conical
convergent section leading into a cylindrical throat which in turn is followed by a conical
divergent section. Pressure taps are taken at a distance of half pipe diameter from the
start of the converging cone and in the center of the cone.

-? 0+#+).It consists of a thin metal plate with a center hole, upstream sides has a sharp
edge of the hole. The pressure taps must be one at upstream and one at downstream. It
must be used where head loss is not considered.

-? &77%.  Restriction part of the nozzle consists of a convergent portion of rounded
profile and a cylindrical throat. Corner pressure taps should only be used. Nozzle should
be used where head loss is not very important.

-? +##.0.*"+'%
0.$0. 0'*/+"".0  This type of transmitter consists of a diaphragm
type capacitive capacitance. Pressure is as applied at two terminals of the transmitter
i.e. at the high and low terminal. The plates constrict or relax according to the pressure
of both the terminal and hence the capacitance is changed due to change in area of the
plates. This is connected to a bridge circuit, the impedance of circuit changes with the
change in capacitance and an output is observed which is calibrated according to the
pressure difference of high and low terminals.


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-? .)2'*+)'%84.%&5.".0
? $03+*.84.%&5.".09
? '0=."%&5.".0
? 4.*2'**.%%&5.".0
!? '#%&5.".0
6? %"0'&*+)%&5.".0

š?  c  2  
-? +0.)".'$0./.*" '$=. glasses are fitted by the side of the tank directly to have
the level measurement locally.
-? *(+0.)".'$0./.*"
? 2
9
? 
c 22 
?   
 22 22 
!? 2 22 
6?  22 

š?  2 2  The analytical instruments that are used in power plant can be
broadly classified as stack monitoring instruments, gas analyzer and steam and water analyzer.
Few analytical instruments are as follows.
?   2
?  
  
?
    
!? 2 A A 
6? 22@2".'/'*('".0*'%8"+)'%28"./
C? 4  2  2 
D?  c 2  
E? 2 
F? 2  
,?  

š?
    2  The combination of Proportional, Integral and derivative is called PID
controller which is required to control difficult processes.
When the error changes rapidly the controller can anticipate what action is needed for more
correction and so that the error reduces. The corrective action is called derivative action. The
combination of P & I and the rate of change of error are used to reduce offset caused by any
disturbance over a period of time.

š? 
 @ %.)"0&
*.$/'"+) &*<.0".0   An I/P converter converts the electrical signal to
pneumatic signal by flapper nozzle device and force balance device. It has a supply line of
instrument air and a signal input, the 4-20mA signal transmitted by the control unit is received
by the I/P converter and it supplies the air pressure at its output required according to the
supplied signal. The range of I/P converter output is 0.2 ʹ 1 kg/sq.cm of air.

š?
2  The positioner is a high gain proportional controller and the primary function is
to ensure that the control valve position is always directly proportional to the controller output
pressure 0.2 ʹ 1kg/sq.cm regardless of gland fiction, actuator hysteresis, off balance of forces on
the valve plug etc. The pressure range of the positioned is 0 ʹ 5kg/sq.cm
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š? 
  The damper is a power cylinder device; it is used to control the vents of the fluid
lines. It consists of a power cylinder, piston, positioned, I/P converter, CAM and feedback unit.
The o/p of the positioner has two outlets, one enters the top of the cylinder and the other at the
bottom. When air pressure is applied at the top; the piston moves down and closes the vent
mechanically connected to it. When air pressure is applied at the bottom; the piston moves
upward and thus opens the vent. The feedback is transmitted to the control room via the CAM
and feedback unit.

š?   cc 2Control valves are the most important process control device; it comprises
of I/P converted, positoner, diaphragm and a spring arrangement to introduce restoring torque.
There two types of control valve namely air to open and air to close. When air pressure is
applied to the diaphragm it moves towards the direction of the air pressure and the spring
arrangement gives the necessary restoring torque to the diaphragm to maintain balance. A
feedback system is also attached to this valve for sending the feedback to the control unit.

š? 2   cc Solenoid valve are used to allow the flow of air either in full flow or in no
flow. It consist of a solenoid that is actuated by a 110V A.C signal, this as a result excites the coil
and open up the valve system. The feedback system comprises of two contacts, one for full open
and other for full close. These are used in purge air ducts. 



























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? Ê? ÊÊ ?    ?  ??



The furnace safeguard supervisory system (FSSS) is designed to assure the execution of a safe, orderly
operating sequence in the startup and shut down of fuel firing equipment and to prevent errors of
omission and commission in following such a safe operating procedure, the system provides protection,
should there be a malfunction of fuel firing equipments and associated air system. The safety features of
the system are designed for protection in most common emergency situation.

2 2 222


'? Prevent any fuel firing unless a satisfactory furnace purge sequence has been completed.
3? Prevent startup of individual fuel firing equipment until permissives are satisfied.
)? Monitor and control the proper components during startup and shut down in sequence.
(? Make continued operation of fuel firing equipment until safety interlocks remains satisfied.
.? Provide component status feedback to the operator.
#? Provide flame supervision when fuel firing equipment is in service and initiates fuel trip
upon certain adverse operating condition.
=? Provide master fuel trip when adverse condition exits.

š?   
  
a)? Both I.D fans off.
b)? Both FD fans off.
c)? Total air flow (secondary+primary)<30% of MCR.
d)? Furnace pressure very high.
e)? Furnace pressure very low.
f)? Drum level very high(10s delay).
g)? Drum level very low. (5s delay).
h)? loss of all fuel trip.
i)? Loss of reheat protection(10s delay).
j)? Loss of 220V DC(>2s delay).
k)? Loss of unit critical supply.(24V DC)
l)? Loss of 100 V AC(2s Delay) and loss of fire ball.
m)? Generator class A trip9
n)? %'/.#'+%$0."0+49
o)? Both emergency push button pressed.

š?
 
22c 2
a)? No boiler trip condition persist
b)? All HAGs closed
c)? All PA fan off
d)? All feeder off
e)? All HONV closed
f)? All LONV closed
g)? HOTV closed
h)? LOTV closed
i)? All scanner sensing no flame
j)? Auxiliary air damper modulating
k)? Air flow greater than 30% and less than 40% MCR
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š?   
 @ 
a)? Oil guns not engaged
b)? Lo selected
c)? Ho and isolation valve not open
d)? Local maintenance switch
e)? Steam atomizing man isolation valve not open
f)? Corner start time/scavenge time expired

š? 
2c 2
a)? Mill release available
b)? PA fan on greater than 20sec
c)? PA general s/o damper open
d)? Ignition permit available
e)? Coal elevation start permit available
f)? Pulverizer/ feeder start permit available
g)? Pulverizer outlet temperature not low( > 65 degC)
h)? Mill both discharge valve open
i)? Pulverizer breaker in service

š?   
22c 2
a)? Coal on belt
b)? Feeder in remote
c)? Pulverizer/feeder start permit
d)? Ignition permit
e)? Coal elevation start permit
f)? Mill outlet temperature not high and not low


c   
 
  
 
  c

Ê ?
ALL THE IMPORTANT CYCLES ARE EXPLAINED BELOW BY SELF EXPLANATORY DIAGRAMS.
c   
 
  
 
  c
c   
 
  
 
  c
c   
 
  
 
  c
c   
 
  
 
  c
c   
 
  
 
  c
c   
 
  
 
  c

 Ê ?

??  ? Ê?

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?? ?Ê ?Ê Ê ?  ?