Practice Book for SIIMI.

ATIIC 57 and S I'IMATIIC PCS7 Control :Syste:m s

iD,ibJi('Sl'l',m;flilll]c in~rn.·Ullllili!}n. of the Dc:IU'st~rn.:: .Bi,b1Jicnl:m:'k

The Dtl!n,"~W.~ [Hliblimh~t ~'i!lts; mi;5l!llii[JI~',:uiO:Il ~nl the G!!!'J;tllan, 'n~uih;Jf]rd b:IMio,gmp]ll)'~ ,d(iwl~tilI bi'Mjfi,raphi~ (him ,LmC u,V'JihtM,c1 GO ~Iic :1:ttll:!l'til~t;:.1 i1t~p'ida!.b.ddb.de.

1;1~ .;l!I.Ulw!", ~ran~ma:to~ ,~ntilpuhl itd'Iii!1' ~il:ni!i1!!! I!M:~" gJlC'~t ,~~ wi~h, :ami ~~;la~ and ;ill!ili~:trnljom;, in this br;IO!k; .. Neverthc:lr:.:'i.s, errors,c~n r.tell"er be f;;'Om;p:lIL.'itc:ly ;~","Oidcd. TI~ :r~ll!bl islJL.C:r" ,IU,ItlU.lr' anti u:,u.1ikSilmor :1!:;'t'c,(1't flO I'illbiill ijl,)f, •. I\~~wti ~~ of :!~gul bX'l,is. ~;o;.i!!!JruJ.llljirn'l:,'l:I1~oo. ~In d1l;ill!> ~ fmy be lmd~mHI,;:!;. "'lIDs:; ltllli;! by tlllmi iPw"Ll~ FrM IIM:ir own, pUfiIilooes ,~'I~I '''i'iol!ll~' ~he' !i.igb~~~, of the OW!i!~r.l·,

'\l;rww,publitC'L'ili· ... r~:i!!n{l)';!]I,de.fbo.ot."

Edi.l~ Siem~n:i: .A,kti(llfilit""e~l~ch·~tt. ,Bedn Ii and Ml!I!uk:1ni

TrlIfI'll:1 at or ; 'R;OMMI :H'UIIIU:'~, Otffi'ifi;C: Moniklll :Fllrst (n:IJ)O). (i~nJflan)f Publt~ 'Publi,c:iUii!: C(Drpcr!rili~,P,l!Ib:ll<tlilM(~,EJ;,lJm:E!;Cn

Co ~lt5 by ftib:lli~i_;s Kflmlllunijt[l~ionM'&'iHUTI.ij' Gmlhft. OW"" J~'ilnngc!i1l nli!ol, pubUcatio!'! ~rul! ,;:!III.P!Jnf;~oF:~ P!fi\J!:eeh;~d by (;1;l!pyt'g~l': ..

A'n,)' u~ c:r it '!OUI2i~ d~ lh~ ;l!1li1rii!:l; :ptOVliiliionili of lih.~ COPl'iiiUbl, ~!lw wj:!IKnU lIiic: t;':fm~m o~ ~he: publi:i~n:'r' i I> (on'~:dd*1iI ;il!.lliul w,iU :iil1!i;iUll' :peni.lh.ies.. 'Thil!li ,iKpt,'Iie5 pUI1'clldm'Jy 110 ~prOOu(:li{lIl,. tr;:!Usm!'t~(m. mir;mAI'm;un~ 'm:' Mhi;;_!" p11«~'sii~ifli, :lQ~ 110 MDl'lIge « PfOOl't$singil1!' !1l!kYctrQ11!!ill;: lSyM!!i!tl!S" It .(Jilso ~ppl]if;~ 1:(11' th~l 1,I:l>I.': of i;!1(U~i~~"1iI, iillutiiIJ~I..iO'.i'iif> or 'f:;Xfmd:N ifl'mm the I~:x.t

Contents:

l

'i m

1.1 L2J 1,;2;2

GD:D'l~.ro,l:I~r-s O'nd !lheir :N!am~lt5, II I II .. , .. '" I II I ~. ~, ,II ,II I II I, jI, ~ ~, ,I. I II II !II !I. ,I; .II! 'I. • I· I' H !lJ ·1 I I, !I !I 'I' Ii II 11,4,

De,si!S!l3tlol~ According t,p A,p,p~i,cllili{m a~lle~igll .', ",' ;, ' _ ,. , ... , .. ".. 1,4

['h:.!l~SID1:j[I:ior:! Ac:ciIlrdi1:u;l: to f:amm~wr Cm:nrpoJDJenls. ""', ,', • , " ••.•••• i. t i&

1!.2,.3

·~.1.5

'1 .. 3,

:S,!m;b"ril:~, IU~ed .• ,", .. ,. '" , , " " " • , '" '0' 23

1.4

1",4.~

1...4.2

COil!l.ru:roU~r' Jnpu~: S:i'Q:DaISi ., ,0 0 ••• " " ,. 0 •• ,; _ • 0 0 •• , ., " '. 0 , •••• , • , ,0 , ••• ' •• ' " 0 •• , .' • ,', o. 13

pll ....... ,-!··-- - .f#! '1." - JFO -'.---~·-=.--··'l-·I;. CO-.·M· .,i'"ii"IC·'"' t:""l!

u.wuEliUlt:!;, 01'; "'iMlQ!! '!I..UDII;ft,l':'!!, w,~. ul ,,;,, . ',_ .i':!; I., ; .. ' "~,,. . .f .. , ••••• ' ••••••••• 0 • "' .' "' .....

2JI

it'\ ' "f' c'm''').' .II'F· ~·c- ro ,,']' 1I!lI ... ~,i' , ",

il!cUlm'liI~m 0, Ol'~~"',iIllr-l. ~.. 'Il.<[)llI~m IU",I !J'I;II.i;C~:!) ..... , " ,0 ...... ,. " ,0 •••• , ,; 0 ••• "' ••• " • "' .,

'1.2.2

2,2.4 .J.2.,5; 2.2,,6 ~l2:7

"'11,0 ""I!L!I!'!"d!1

CDnm_.;:ctilofl, S,· stern II • ii • .., rlJ I' .p I! II iI'li !I 'll'li I !I II .. 'I' 'Ii Ii 'I! • II !I'iI '. 'Ii '11 ii' .. ;t, .. I' Ii Ii I' • rI' '" Ii Ii iI !I ii it. 'Ii

,33

35

Saf'elY ,Requilremll~llI'.' •••..•.....• , •. , ••.••.. , " .. '0 • ,', '" • " •• , ., •.• , •.• , •• " a • ' •.••••.• Opemtiol1 :ond '\lii:S:!laliz;~:U~(lm, .,. , •.• , ., , .' .' ' •• , , , • , .•.• , .,. , , ••• ' •• , , .•• " ' •• , '.' .' ,. " " .,

C'ofn.rJI'l~l\~~,)1 :~nnl f1J!~~~bl~~ty ... " .'. , , .. , ,', '0 ,. 0 ••• ' • ",0 • , •••• , •• , "' "' •• ' •• , •• Co, ° 0 ••

TUning Aid:, nn ~l:fiii~n~r "'.1, +. Ii iI ii ,1 • .1, oJ; • .,.!§ " iI ;1.;11 .... +.·Ii "'. iI· ~ ... ,Ii·j, .j3. II; ;II ;I. ,~ .. ~ ti;.;;; !I ;II.;to,t.,t; " ~. iI ~.

CtnJitr"(llllen witlJi, IIlt.tgnd 'Tuming A~d .,' .•..•• " " .. , ., , • " ., , , .• , " • , ••• ' " •... , •

,3 Adooil'l[:s ijlui,Soosom For PI !Col!!ltn~ :§h1stiCln. , , ", .,' ..•• , ". , ., .,' , . .., ,46,

3J. ~ f1!tlir.mee of :Fi nalICbntrolf:]el'lU,uTIIE.!!, on Ce,m'IDrnIIS,ysi;em ' • ' '. 0 ••••• , •• ,.. 4jJ

3. :1. ~ CO;llU:EilLcto:1f!iLRel'Q}j":;; 3fn;~ Semico:I1d:l!tCh~f RQ!!liJJ)is ."' •.• " .•• "',' , •. , •.•••.•• , ,', .... SQ

114 53 3" 'I .sVgu;hibl'I~·15~MP~ mrs rund Ml:ltQfS, .••••••.••• ' ••• , , .. '. " , .•• ' ,;, .• ' .' •• , .• , 53 53

3,'1.1

3J.3

'] 11 ,i!i;:

~I! 'I"[):

.. - - _ - - .. -,., -'" _ ""'- -""", 50

5:2

Sigmuls ,fmm Directly C{,Ul!IlOC~ Therlllm"OIllp1c Ii • "' .' ", " • , •••• , '" •• " •• ' ., ,0 .. , •• " ,,55

:3.2:.2

:t2.:1 813!1!1d~ Sigllt:l~S (O .•. U)"V; 4, •. 20 mA.,IlI"O., .. 2i[lmlA· ..... , ,.,' , .... , ';'.' ",,_ .. , •.• , 59' 3.2.,4 M~il~iri,ng: 'dne~pfl? '~fAfia.loi."A9SlU~~itio]~ ... , •••. , .•.. ' ,', .. , .,' ~ .. , + •• , 60 J ;2.sRc~lBl!ti{!I:!;, A.acUfil-ey and :Repe:ttn:bUiD;y • '. , ' ••• ' .' ' ..... , .• ;, " " .••• ' ••• . • • • • • .• t),2

4 'RepresenmUDD flr :~_, Con~mr!IIs;, '. '" •• , • , • • , .•• , .' ••••• , , • , •• , , , • "" " •• , ti6

~I M

4. '1, Plmrmi:niSl, Dc,umf:~I~s A~coOrdi AI ~o D')rN' 1:9227,. hl'i~1 '." .•. ,.." .•.. '" , •... ' 6S

4.3 C'o!l1m:D!Jillers :ii1: the: Configur,attCifi (1lU~ ," . , •• , , ..•. , .• , .• , .' •....... ,' , •..• 7'0

4,,'.ru SQtl''lfllEre COI]l.t:n)l~ j:o BTL Tex1i Repf,~!j,e~:U!l'Uioo .• ,. ,., ' ••• ' ; ; , '.". , , ,. ,., •• 70 4.:3,2, :M:oo~lnr COl:uro]s ,~n. CFClleprese:amtioll. •• ",. , .' ..• '. '. '. , .' .' .' ", '. , . " .. ' ., " " , •• 1'1.

41,.3. j, .hmmC:leri1;m:iom, Illf Om.1lpiK't Loop ,Co.llitmlSi _ " _ ' , •• ,. , .•• " "3

,4.1.~ lC'on;ngwmti,og;J ,oU':II!IJ! Cnn,1n}Ue!;s :in .. thc: 57 .. 200 , ...• , " •. , ..• , ,,' "3,

,4",3.,5 CbGifigl.luu~o[J ,of PI COll1tfoU£:I"S ililllb~ :LOGO'ILogi,~ ,M'OOllW~:c ,i " ' " " , • • • •••• 74·

4L:5 .. I,

O:per,a[i,m~ 1!D~T C.ontm~1 :FMs .. .; ' .. " " '" '" ;. , • " •.

76

'~"'S"'2

~,.S .• 3

s

s .. m 5,,:2

.S,2,~

.5.2.:2

5,2,3

:'),.2.5

sas

"';1; . ,; I! S'[P. "IDI'II'" C' 1'1 -:1'''1

upeil',~t!iCll1l. '0\11 ····."::A"""~ I. ··,O:l1trn_ e:rn, , " , .• , " .. , ..•.. ' .' ,', •. , •. ,. , 0, " .• , ., •••• ,.' •••. , • ".. 'i:'

O:~,ri'ltln,g Modes '.; , ..• " ,;, '. " ., , .' .' • , ' ...• ' .. ' .; • , ., , .' " ;, '. " , ,. , , • 'i' •• , • " " " " '. ,.' 18,

SIi.l.liIUl1lim~' {!r:O~nlli'",g 'Mooe:r; .. ';' , .•.. , .,. , ...•• ,. , , ,',,' •..• ,,', ,;, " ..• , "S

S I,~ri.i nl11J (I~ ,Controll Leop 'flCi[ lliJ tnple-!;I!i: .. '" " '" •.•.•• ' • " ..•. " , , ••... ," • '. 82;

5,,3 •. 2

Starling o~ Con tre I, Loo[ll.lh~lllg1;G;s~. .,,' " , • , , , , • " , ••••••.• , ••••••••.. ;". 83

SA 5,.4.:1 5.4,;1

IO,e:rati"~ Moo,~ 'FOilklWiill1g OQlllJtrolleli OlPfoi'ON. . ," , .. , ' ., ,', " , • • . • •.. 84,

S:tr.Elii~bt.".forwru'ial C.Onim:1 .of rn; Loop .... " " " .... , ,', '" , .. " , .. ,. , . , . ,; .. , ,. lEIS

IControl, 'IiI,-I',i~ll'ru PC'edback' of ,;! LCUl[!1 •••• ' ., " " ••• , ., • ' •• , ••• ' •• , • ,. " , , • ,. " '. , •• , ., •• " ." a~

86

!LS . .l

5' . .5.4

S:PC :llillclk,UR " ,. , ...• , " " , " , '," .• , ' , •• , " , _ •• ' ,;, " , ._.. 86

Sare-ty ,MQI,ipl;1l9~~d V~da:blc ' •.• '.'. ", " .•. , •. " • ' ..•. ' , " ,', " . , .• ' , .•...• ' •.• ' ...• ' 'I' 98:

(I 6J '6,.'~ .'~ 11: II ., I~~,i~ .O!'!!I'

'unrtioW! of:l :p';~ 'C'mUrollc((" .' •.... 'i i, • ' ••• ; '" .' ' •••• ;, • ,i i' •••• ' .' '. '. ' •••• ',' 89 BIi:LJnCllt~.l!ff' FgnctiQ~$ {l~' ~~.c: S~l,poin[, 1,[;iU;l~,~1 , ..•.• "'." '. . . . .,' , ..•• ' ' •... , .' ,;, S'g :~arJ~~fln il~ Assignm.ent of Si . .'t~hu .'. '. '. ' •• ' .' .' " ••. '.' ••• ' _ ' .••• ;, .' •• ' •.•• " 'I' ' •••• ' •• ' '. 9'9

&I!em ij~ A~1g~ I~,enl; ~rSe~pobu: " 'I' '" •••.••• " '" ' •• " '. , •••••• , ' •••••• " '. 90

6.l.3 6J.,~

6.2 ti.,2. ~. 6~.2,l '.2.3 ,(il.,4

6.1 6.3,,1 6.:3.2

'f;"" 'G.,4.·~

'6\,4.2 6,.04.3 ti.4.4,

e.s [1,S,1

6.!k2 6.5.3

"

'7.1

!ill !!!' "!' L! ~I 'I'!

!I!!!' 'I' 'I'Ll!

S~tpoi:llt, .R.amp' .',' '. ' •. Sel,po~lU: .L.imJII,i.la,g '"

ElemeiilWj!i' 'l1lilttiQn~: ,elf ~!I1e ,A!:lmlIViJ}iJ'e' Btll:n.ch

ii, ii' Ii !iiI III' '!i

ii' i!!1 '!l ,Ii l!l

Ii iii ii, "I ~ ,. '"

!I' "

iii iii II • III' l~ ii Ii iii ii ill' i!l ,I, lili iii iii .' II' iii ... 'iii iii ill Ii ill] lili iii Iii 'Ii iii II i!!]

'Control SIIn!CII!U'e5 •• " .,' , • , • , " '. '. nWSll~nc-~ ViL1rblbbl 'PcGdifol"Wiillm

iI. !'II ~, ... III ill II iii

., • ii ~ i jI • 'Il iii .. I '" r!J ii iii ii' .. II!! iii' ,,!I '!' ., iii iii iii ., I~ 'ii iii iii ii ~. ,i 'i' liii

.. ;I. 'I,.";" 'I I' ",;. II; IF. 1i,,;,.;I' 'I' ,i; II!

,; oil III ,o. 'i' '"

I •• il fi, II I. 13 I • !I' ~ .. Ii • !I • !II I! • I! • II! III ,Il ,. Ii Ii

'L' - -'- - i'" -

_ m,~lilza,I!OD '".

,Ac:IU[l~"Vfl~ll~ M:IDllIi;[orim:a:

IElcme:l~I;m:y :P.ulli»ctinm, flJE (je l1emt~(!Im 1Of: :E:1J'W.r SrnS,mlDI'

ReSPOhS1:' !...Tb~'_hO!ld Iii Ii iii! PI iI ill' Iii iii 'Ii ii I .. I ,11 ,Ii ,II • iii! ~I i! '!I

~dQ 'Gel]er!ldQ~-!, in tfl. 'Ra.tio. C'o!litmUer'

PI ii' u

Ii Ii iii Ii il!i ,II l~ ~

31 'I' oj, If' I!

Ull

'7.,S

Ul[i;

'.6

",.1

'1.;R,,~ 7.8 .. 2 '.,8,;,3

H BJ 8.l 8,1.~

8 .. 2.1 8.2,3 8 .. :2 . .4

Elemcntary Plll:n~tioRS of tile ,AJ,~ori:tl1lin1 .' ••••••••• " ••.••.•• " ., •• ' 0 •••• Swmlm;d, 'P], or ,PU) AIgori,'ihID witb :ID COnlpD:nel:l1t .. i m ~~,e :Pom,on), B:mn.cb p~ or 1l.~D·-;~I-:: ~-~·~t.I:- W.'~il;., D- .- ..... ~-:-:- c-;-,e.-:l ':-- ~fL-c Feed~k: 01,- ,-cita

__ -_ .. r _ R_~n!;i~rn ... IIJl:U .. ~mpo:rLrL In _~L . _mfI _

p~, Algor.il~rn wi.'~h D OOiJ.1pt'ltVlI.lf'U I'm d),~ Di~Ulm~icc~ Va.m:Dh!le. Bbmllcb

P' ,Aru.sorilhlJf!~ ....•• '. , ..•.. " .• " .•. , • ", ,.

BL~wG:rruIru}PiiHti.:ms of 's,i;gnail. OUiII)fU![ •

L"---' -l' _. Q .... iIi!. 'It.lll· - -- 'Ii' "1- i'~ d '\(,\;;;;>':'111 1:.'1-

_ !.IIll_ u,~ 'Ii.!~ ~'i',ltlllTllpll!! ,3~!.'l__ '_ lIl!I~d~~.c: • 0, •••

BI:em~lltrnryF!Jin.t~h~'.ii!s, ofB,i "JUi~y 'si.gllla'i a~n,~miti()J!i

Urnrnl~ng: 'of' :Mil_n,~ai M1iIni!,pu~amd. 'Vmiia'b1-e ••• -. • , , ,

'107'

Ed-di b..E..b-'

'i_ - hi or E-z5.waId • __ •

5--3 - . ob ,

Ne-,g,alive f~but,k .'.'_ P,gsitiv~ r~~bfl~k , .' • ' .. "

!!I';I. i! I! I ~, ;I. ;~ I!

!i !i' " If! 'f! I! !I' ~'!i L~ I'! I!

'Tj- "I· muo 1'..,'1"'-"'1'1" 'I'_., ... ~~ .. , ... .11 'if'i"";-m-c n~'I'I'n-c'iI'1" "11'"1'_"

L_. I~I~; ,_-'ljIJ~~II'll~J~ .• ,~,,!,l~~"._. Wl~ ~~ -'-,li,J--"-~J I, •• ,~i!! ," iii

Calls in SIM.ATK:' T.JA, " " • , ., , . " .' " •.. , ...• '. ,

•• ILJ!' !!i " iJ 'i! 'ii ii'. iii Ii! ii ••• !I' iii iii !!i

:lDivi:s~O(n, '(lJ~ Cyclic and, ~IJal.emBiPL",driv@!J .P,W,gIiPUl SeO:~]D:ns .," C~ock :D,i::iimbulio~Dnd: SmWlplin,g 'nm~$ (I:nlll~ flUat<.:li'omEI~m~:rn~ . l!:nil~rvtd '1J~\d~~om wj~h, I:ile' 'L'P_SCH E'IJ :8'IOck, .•. ,. ..',. ,. Stru'l.':tum ,eI :CliMoorui'lar. Co rum II , •.••• ".,' .•••• ' •• , .••

iI ii'.' ,I' Ii"

ii, • ~ 'Ii 'ji

.J'" ,iJ.1i

'Caru~s ~~, .LOGO •• u '. '. , , " ca~ms i~. SIMATi.C' PCS?

'I' L!' 'i! '!!

_I -' __ J "_

'1100

U~ ~lO U2

Ii, !ii"I,

:117 :1.:1.1 'I: ~1 :~n' nB U9 U9

!II ~ .. 'Ii

!i21 ),22

ILLI '!' IiiJ ~, "

I'"

!!J'!,!!!!,~

9 ~

91i!1 !Mr.-It. ,S'IJOPS I • Iii I. IJ •••• iiI " ~ I ••••• Ii !!!. II Iii '11 L~ ~ '!II I! !I' ~ 'I' '. PI +. 'Ii Ii 'Ii Ii iI PI '11 ... + 'h Ii Ii Ii iI ii ,i .. II! ill Ii Ii •• , 125

~, ~ ,. I l'n sil:rb I I Dti:on ,:and Clliu:c~dil1ll!,! ,or ~H:le Siw:I1:!I'lal Cillrlin~cii.ioM .. " .. " •• ,I' " • , ••••• " •• " •• 125

9. ~ .. :; .00f:t:~aJh '\h\llliU~S ,(ilf Cllntml: Pilrn'n~(l'liG'I:'"s ••••• ,I, " ., "' " ••••• '" •• ' " , •••••• " .' •• , !

9. ~ A,. UI1C;f1ir..i:ud:!,DI1 oil' [l[oc~!l, Value!;; ! '" •• ,., • , • , " ••••• , • , ., ,. , " ., , , , ••• , •• , •• , ••• '

'~. ~ .5 Ad!j 1iIi~~ml!:l~il (iI'f Ilhtl: Fiji '"~ ,uel1lor:ator. St;l\9resi, • _ ' .••••••••• , • , • , ••

9.,[1..6 ,AdiIJJS1llI1CI]I, o:[',(i C3$Cud~ C~r-imolll'er ",,' ,', ,,' ., "" ,.,"' .,., , .....• ' .••.• ,

'51. 2; ll.~t'urditrlg err Ole Stc'p"fo:m;w ,RC~[.IOIlSl of '[be IPnxoos , •. ,.,., .... ".,." •...

9.:2J. Prrll:'P!lr.tJIlknl Checldlislii .' '" ,., ..••.. ' •.• "' •. ' + •• , •••••• " ••••••• "' .

'!l,2.:2, ·m'it.lul R!C\Ccr,d~l.1g: •• ,. , " ." •. , , • , .• , • " ., , " ., ..... '" ....• ' _ • " " ., .... ~., , • '. , •.. ,

'~,.l.Jl .sysiel1l:5 will] ,PuN: ()~I:[lly R,.~SpOIl~ •••.•• " ., ,', •• , .... ,',.,. ,', •......• ,~ .... T~ltq,perntllIDie' ,Sysmel'llllS "o.lI'itb A.elruve l{eal~lI1gQa!idiPa.!l.s~,,'e C{miiVlJit , " , •• ,', .•...

Teut,pIlrBIUJC SyS1J~e;IlI1Ii.'~' wil:ll~!~ve :HeOlJingaWid. Acti\i't.: CClQlifl;1J •• , •••. ". ' •••••

g,.?; .J!u!iju~I'MntiIU ,Rtl[lir!S ~ :S:~l~cl.i.{)n.! ti mi I:~!~"d is \r~"I~I~';D:ic):1i! , , • " • " ., • , •• " • " , , ••

'9'",;'1; .. ~ Aj{iju~i merit or the' .s ium!fl:Hu!l1 m:e fO:Ji" Sotru.wam Contml s, •.• , '" , , ...•.. ", .•...•.• 9., ::),,2: A;dilll~1 anent Ac::cf:Jnli:u,g III ad.euJHillLl~#R.I}"\'wi~~k . ,. , •• ,. + ., ••• " , ., .••••• ,. ~l,3.3 .A~j(l. unentRu[~~ far SY5~'!:m's;wi.l h ,~8illlfiH~s, ACQO;jilnn~: 10 Zi:egilletJN;ic1!Lols 9.::t4 Adju~lm-,tn'it Rurn~s Ae-oomhag tcR~I;e ufRiise ",. , ..... " .. , •...... , . " ......• 9,3.5 .A~Ju~m~c!uRY]c~ forEfwlJ)it~~al PtMil:'"OpU lui'lll!IIuG, ...• ," '" "' '" .•. ! •• "" 'I' ! ' •• ! , •• '

!l5 I[:J;S

9'~6 :lPCS7 I?~I)·'l'il!nler' ., ., •.......• ' " " .. , .. , .•• '. , .....• ' . , '. , ., ., .. ,. , .• ' • " '. , ..... ,. ,'". l~ 4'

9',1 C'o,DlI.Urrl iSf],ioftlli ribS of S;l~,20D 'vi't~ ~t1elll~egmt AtD~Oi~lIn~f <, •. , •• , •• ,. , ., , ••••• ,., 150

10 :ENnIllD,1e..!l •.• " ••• " ., ,_. , .•.••. , ., ., , •• ,. " .•.• " • " ., ••.••• , '" "' "' •.•..••. '" ,,, t5! 1

II ·i • i .. ~ • I! !il !!I '!II ...... 'II' oj, !!' !!' •• _ !! IIJ! ... ~ <II

,;, t. _ I. ' •••• ,i ,;, I" ii ... "" .. '!" 01; ;;, ,,. '" i; .. !! • "" !!!. ;!; .,; ." ,I! III ., .!! '"' !!! ... II; Ii ~ ,.,; i! iii, ;II ;ii. ill iii' ,I! oj! ,~

(,l' -'a...I';I, '1'- rI. '.- - nU U:IK~, .1.1lI: .. if!X.

'r r r Ii. n.'" '1't .... " "1 " ... ",t' r r, 1 ",t i,t,t,·, 2 z,o' ri" r" 2' j' i:" '"'

126

L"~

L!!!!!!'Y

128, 131'

l:U 1.32 tU 13],

1.35

lJ7 I:H~) 1:39 1,40 ~4:1 M.:I 114:2

M4

'~5_2

1.54 !~~R,

A IProof!~S, is, C'll~si;dt'N'ii;;"d to ~:!l!!rnJ ,e:J1cl~~s.ed !i!ySle!lnh~ wbich mul~n[J~. eilll~q;)! tmd/tW :i:nfCinma: .. Ii on i~, coovenedarldl('Or n:al1ls1KU1'Led~ Mastering {If ~lfIe p;roc;;-e-S;!i~, al[tI proce~~!ivaJ.oC$ in the ~od'u suial envi mnlfllCliI~: 115, 'lite' I1Urill, ,:lfJ,1 ieaUo:ll 'of (.'{UUI~~ deviees m oquwPfille!.I'It. Th,el'll: eemprise II:be'hlt81~1" ,of eq,u~~ef1i1 feqimiredf:b\r lh~ (m~ln)1 (I:.ino1'ion" ill'icl!!!diQG is!];rh''\3re'~ wirh at Ie-os'!: OlJH3 se n !'ifl'.r fo,[ ~nlm~lIIrilng ~fle oontmUedl v,ml[Jb~ICi, :[I C0:11I1panitor fer 8,ell.crnUOe, tbe .&'ys~:em d,C(~fitlll'i{ln.3I1dl ,am, arilhmct~c til[>cui~ :fCif C;al~CfLllati,on (]if' a lirUltalip~I~Jiu'ed 'wtJi~btlt fAun, ~1! S,!'itenl deViialtol'l, wbicl~lhen aers 0:1:1 tile proe~ 'to be oDllt[oOlll!ed. CO:I(i:ml, d,e\II:iee-s are usu uruly' imdilvidow coruml! 'lin~L"I 0.1' :ijtlflw,illi!C; 'cU!rutrol,ler.s • .and :nm used in lil1oc.h~ne oou5lm~nml '~I) ,crna:·, trol It.!itiFrill'llloo. press!n'iL!', t1:ow" qlW-Ij'U~t:r,. dos,ir~. h~!;;el .• , nrih','mtr.,Ullfl" 'po&itififill" s~. illS-WDOI! ood..." ~f} proL"e~!ii, e:n,girllee.ri[I1,B ""aJ~, ~() c(lmtrc;d co:n:oenb'Uil:io:m" l,.'(Jodu~ti,vj~Y..VOOD8i.,y" d~ElsI1~Y,

~ •. L " . '

c,~~emruca ,t'Ompo!!iiUl!Il)U" 'li!!lC.

Th~!iwwde; f:iel'd ,or[' ~pp'~i.cll!1inaffi1i' lis i;ncx~f.loo eveu 'furt'hc:r ~m, tllml th~re WJC diffa:rtnl pftOOuQl:ion ~qUJi:~ll1I:eJUI:t:S for ~lfOO~t 'Ii.':\!cry ,control ,c,f tbe ,nIbo\'o·m.efllll,iJli'i~~ pt'oce-SSeS" 'm:.i.ldllg ,cJ3!!iisi,fiic,8;" ltaor!J iIlf the Ul.~k ,WJroii'l, allrm.l&'l hn:POs~tb]e"A, 'I'l'UJlU dru:ff~liItl mruoo, ~:s. mmtic R1.WGCliI oontrnEluoos, ~n~~~s and di;sc{)~lilll!l)~]S'FOOJU(,~lion ~~Sli)e.!), (btlJlCb '~Si~. :rec:i~. 'p~oouoosew.). us well as, d~s.er-e~e pl'QC~~S (oltle-ofli lP~es~~s).

Alm(JHit (veryC::(!luro~ of' II ~j:5c: ptJy~tCu'J, vlJJFiiable c~hi,bi,iS ~IS ,{"'W!1, !1peci<l11 prob:leln 'wl1ic.W'l1 IliS, fmqu~rnly deJ~mld~rn om ~1rI~ Rctlllllrnur and sensor S:YS[O:IlII1i.~ l!I~Gd, Sensor sJ"s~c:m5, m;t':, unde;t.. Z;;i~.!i i'D' I". r!ufi!~., I' c'lrr· :U~" w'"II' w1lili-h ~Il.c '''-e;-:fc~i~d ""'Eirn'I-~,c.a:-'- be: ,i-. ~c*d . °ft.c sensor ~1'SC~jJ)

,,_.J L 00 1!;I_e ~1~_lIq_e!il ~. Lfl .. , lILC," ,lL nIL ill! u~t::_ , __ UC:u __ J'I_, moo, , ~tL ,, __ ,. Y',I,L __ ~

~:!l ,!t mnlnhJiln!'C !'nd~ p'mf\riid~d withn ~(lnd-s)i:lili~' (O:HiI:plif1e'r) C;i:1lC19i~L TI[('.book "Hanlilbl!u:ffil dlCl" J~z:es:silJ\llilomadsi,erung,'" {M:antml, C\r 1'rf'JlOcs:;" A~''IQminWoo,)1 [4,] pIi'J.ytd~ a, dJcua:iled n~'i,ew ~'b~~ of tilt m~k:ct .ond mmso ~. cO!m;p.re,h~i]lsilm d)~~cfilP[~(l:n, (l!f tbe :rn-ode of OfJeI,-mlonul1d 'Ibfl VJlriow;proc .. -dooos Iil~! by acnUlit:.lJ and sen~'!)r s.;.¥'slem~ iHI lJ)~eSiS i~lIUml;[lJtion., The Specil~d ,;.,. ... ~~l!"""~~ end ~jl~"'''''''"'''''''' ... r· i'k ... ~ "11''''0'· ous ... o.n:i.FAII.,. ... ~:!tl!~~ ... ''1Iil~, w:ILlli-" "I''''!~",:ri'i...,.d. 'brieifl)lJ be I ow. Ij~ _iIl~ iIr!i. ~ U~~l~tl!.r-~'I!.o\~~" .. ,"-~ 'IJ j I_U"" . i!lcll Y~f::! ~,_ n!U'I;,,;I'.· ~. ~.,r;;JJ. _1!Il'11l~_ '_ ~ _ ~~ y,'"'-,.~--::J,"'IL~, __ :J''''_~~' __ ,!I,_, _,.:I

l'etl.l!~.ml'f,i""

iMasl~rnn~, o~ C{l:f1ItlTrtllh;:d: sYSitem8 fltur ~t:;mpeiFd:!1.1irel'!!, ofl:en Sit I'll ul1ljmnrny e(illfl,si:c:l~m ~Q !oe'lon,g U) ~I:u~ ~·s'ilrrlllle··' ,co!'n«l~ imtk:;, The syste!lls are gsu~!~ily nO'11.-~,)rlUllne'tdcalll[di'ffere!·u resptlft!se wl~lI1, he;:l:lillG; ulP~nd. ~(M)lill1,g d(')WI~.).aill1d1 ~se~s ~~ IUH1.'-~rumC'li1f ~S:fK.mse (h.lCl; ~o tl:l~ 'm::~!J.!':l!fiIJl'SJ ~OO't!I]:r!; 'lli~, Tilili~ resalts i!lil, ~illlle.OO!l~t1mjng, ,t,'lOm_missiG'.n:ing because of the long, iheatjn.g:"uIP and coo.ling,·dow'o tim.~, :and [!he' imfluf~Dcin;g O.f~lljllOOll~IJernPQftBiI:1.M:'C oontmli fi~S~OOS. by ,mens lof dle~ oompef:!~tLQ", Such ~. re;s~Ee: fOl" ~he C'llntml~elJ sys~eIJ~ OO:liI:lp~~cal~s iffi1.e ~lptWtn~~'ttiJoll sad ruljuswemt or 'the: (on'lmlle:ts, .... tIlJe ,.."111 'o,f' 1he oon~m1 eqJIII iplU-eIi1~: ellmpnis., ing j;lj !o(i:n:Structi~W uru~ o:r :llufl.w,we flJljlcti!iJf:i oomai~iiH,g :at: :le3s'l tl:L'e' OOn1pam1n-r and ~rn.e mth,m~l:iti G.irclwi;l. The b.lU~r de'l~flnli'i~:S ~ll~ tr~nsmj I'lSiOti mspm1:S'"" of ILl1*C' (;"ODbli)~ 1C'q;uli:pmell'l:. A'lt!h,!lw;~h wm,~U,lire 'C(),lltrols. bela!1ti~, to 'the :dow control sys~~m~! ij:lp1!i'msi'l~l~h41tl: rof ,~qmipl,ex t!!ID,pell""uure 'CM:lrol, Sy:l;~.e:lll~ ls e::t!:~reI1lei1y dlf:lieil.!!h, and ~;(,~~~THII 'Clpt~tllh·,..:;;!ttnf;! ~:oolls seld{I!~~

Ii l

Ipro"r,ide uS'ab~e oo~ltlls, in IPmct~ce. ,Nev~rt'be'le:s~:. moS!l: tbemlal, prooe~cs fOl'p~aR1: and ,ITUl!'.ihhn:e COll!lotlilJctim] :ilOO :p.rmddm wa.'1Jh mmpm::m lC!on:l!ro,)1efS or .so(h!,,~b;,,11St-d confrol eqll:i~,f!lllel.u., nnt I'e:.un foo ells'l: reasons.

,ReswS'wnc{!l ~rl1!1i;OmetC;rs" dlif;;'nitl~l!IP~cs ~fid,pyrom.cl'Cf$: ~ used ~g !:11C~~'iJjR; m~ ~en~pem~ tl.llOOS .~i.l be' comtmilllcd.

,Pressure ,!!:nl~l:rol:Si'-'1i,e; B:ene:ru~~y '!l;:on :;::idtrt"d us fast oontwils whicb may evenl :mrn.::iliDl ~h~ {!ilpe~d) !ilmnlts or CtJrnpt.tl oontruHiIln Olf !i.o:ft"lr\lare··oosedl CQJotl:ioW i~qU iI'iJTU~~t .. A dli rr~rentruUitiun !:l'l made beliwecmll pres1!Urc: niUldl d~ft'ere:ntial, fKcss~re: n1en.._q:Jril~g, :pruct:dLLrelfl •.

In 1i1l.'OO!i!''-;S enghlt:edl1J!,l,;! :!I[wticpre!'lsl~oo mea:!:uring: sy:M~mJj; :liirem~h:d)' ~Ised i:nl liq~,id .!i!ild peousmed la, COIilII'mlled :syslems: fOil' IPre'uuIIJr-e :&IML~!iu8illy pure (leLa;)" s)':si~n~s of loor o:rder~, aad '[h~n:fore enlSY to ~IJllJUi ze, OpIil.i~tfuo!i1 ilI_x:lloS. geru:~~~ny :provi:de el,,~eiPl iOll!aUy gmud .~~~Jt~" 1:1: Ci!l~l ~Q~ne cd~'ic,3ru 'f'OJ It tp:reS~Ill'[e ~(Jnuj'~)~lcli' :if ~bllU·OflT :m~h;rn,i.sml'i :i:"1 ~ pi pe~~ne :iiy~k:!tI C~1iI (or 113,\1'(:. ~O)I m'att mlilp:ifH;y. TI\e OOIIliPCI~S9truOill of sudden ~IU::M~ ~Iil ~~ure ,IRces 'I ry big~l. d~~m:!.lJf:ids 6]l the dyil~frui~ ~f.ft]m~~ ,~f Uiie l"iOIUr.olh!t lI:nd rutJ1UCI.WlUlt A.Nlrop:rJ.:ue '!l::Q;l'D !:i([UCUV!$ n~!lt'fU~ ca~ ht:lp J!Ifl: tlfils Cll~ '[<1. ;~{1iid Ih:igb e".:!Ip!:udilom 'on. the: 'cilectronics sldc,

PreS'lSU!F~ meiltSumme~~mcar.riied 'l'Dli~: 'ils'iag i.ndUC1ive·" 'PJ~~7.o:re~i~ti~\~ or '~~JX!citl\t~ rn>~dhl:N;ll 'wi{l~ tSlr:ni,n pugG-s or 'romn.i!iDce w,iJl'fe sensors .

.lAo~'ii' oontro~saifi1d ,qul.lillJi[ity eonltm,ls:rum C'Ji.~ml'l:m(lLy :s~,glliiMk~alllil ~IlIProo~ss. GiIllg:i~oorif~g plmns, and 'lh~k oootmW .r~s;ponse :i:m practice is :Slfl1UU to f]lCssim oolllroll" al~liI.cmg'liI dlC~ mMtenmg; cif ct'e'ld II;i me!! ~s: :;In,;JdditliiofUll dwlti1i'cu.'I~,y.A plC'requi:5,itc :€org'ood. flOW'=:md. qi.ul'm~i~!II e(ui~ro:l is u hiigh..qu~Ji~·!f s-~n!iUI' s)i!i~~m, hn;ells:i~jve ~D tnterier-em:e. Wl1Jen ~llml~!iiQW~ill~, .~ nO\\!' IO~~ Iliq.u:id~,.prob~eJft't f~,eq'l!IenUy oocur h~ fr_olCl.it.'t: w~th 'I~~ oonOOI;·[l;i' a'llho.mgh 1~lI!e!;e are 1:101, d.loo0t:ly .rtcQgr:dlcd as :mc~hl !uUJI HI"e ,as:sign,cil 11:0 title: COlWlJOUcr by wi ~tDe, TIK:: dir[lierence between m~£lislJ;.lmd ~iglll!~Jill~ p~JPfll:ni(lnnl '1;0 ,qtm:lnlll:yol1 f:UO'r,!!' rus to,'h $@und I'll! Itl~~:8~.de!rntiQn Igf the tiirnc' um:it"

'filll~' and ,qtlan.l:il~"' :a~. me'~S:tired us,j1nlg d~if~~Witial presslmfe., JXlsH:hre dl:;l)l~cem{)lJt. now. M:~ aUliIlWIi'$ le'l!B>etronmgll1ullic. Clmolilis ,mel: ~JI1,.a.<:!Ii!1:11(! "H(:IW' [p:~dUfe--S, :Modemflowamd, q[Ulanlil,;!!, m1.'lo\'lJsulib:1g un i~_~ .W'e. ~reqt:t~~~]y (h;.dgnoo ~~, uiiIJ10ilOilmos 'field de;~Jt~s eqi.! j,pped. wi~h their owa ;~d~nl'Ctic Ul1Ii.t, and IC()lu~in ii, c{i~;~ftief:u. ,cora:lwl !p.iloeJ fOt t~k.'"SJp'.~·dfi~ standW'd,izadml uf IhJem,'C~l!Ir'Cd :~iigjDlall as WflIJ as ~oc'Si1: dispmay l(af ~!tu~ IlitleoSiIilred! 'ltiilml'le~.

. ~

,Do~i~~s,'

])()Nitig: il~ ooh!l,id~reda. ... ~be ~.p~~on~ng:gr divl!i!l.on of specHlc (Jju:af.!tit~s. JIiJProcess:engi.· neeri:llg, d'm~mg ms nile!]! ~ssoohuCld 'W~tll r-ocl~~, .. Bot.cibru or. IColl'ri'ltlWillS ,@pe,mHOtl~, .:lIfe' poss.iib:h::., ACC{}MWi1g, t(), '[h~ deflnht~f! ()f.a I~k~~ruoop 'C0J!11ro:l ~u n,ct~cl:i" dO~]IlG Is can!l!ro:1 ;air ~l1e mare~ riall fbli!i!,;1 aflt~IDcrrd@re vier.')! similar ~o pm.:'!SI.J]['C or ql!JHIl~~t~ cOlil!lm'I.Wilth .Qi dosing, corrunol, the Gamtrol nctio'R is, the addition ,oif ~i,q!l]do:r SiC)1 ~d ,cnRl]}OmliuUs ~g, lIi ibill~cb Of co:nliliIlIU('iiiJ 11, p:~:!l" Th~s tmi;k i:;; haadled lby do~i:rn(8 pumps. :be,l~, scales, o:r rotary. '!!'~brut~om O.fWf.l·rnDJ '[II;nda~g ufI:ilo,;,.

'n~ pft~~yitl~ urn;d!:JuMti:ly' r!!!!fl~:m;rs rnellt~luled above can 'be IIJ sed t'O :me:8.S1u!!'tl!: ~e: ,conDUct!! qu,amiily.

:Leve~ conwo]s in :prooess ell~iQ£'.en'n,~ ,j n 'l11)e;i~' p~lai~l :ff)~n. ,1lJi"e: arlen roll~id!epw, as ea'iJr' to n:ll;v t~Qi;illfid can be Ii,e;.,dill!)t ~' usi DG,P{D) t1Jl1IltroU~~. [Ill pra;cti(iJ~j' in~~!ilc.d dGlIl1lJ!M BlUCY be p]ace~ ,Ml tI~ ~r.aftjng, of c()n~m:1 cml~l~~ ~t:lr !ipdllJ I!t~e-&~e~ ~lWI~\':a ~~n:lbe, oiT d:istur. 'bam.:c vmili'blG\s ll1ay tlavc [!J be: It;OJlii~dtl\.-d.

:FJOOIS" POSi'li,'\iI~ dJSprnIlCGlllG:niI:, base. p[,!~851J!.!'rej' '~tl]lilcitiw IInrid oonducl:tv(l: .WS:ii.iml'mil!l.~S :(iI,W' [pIlSc'5~b:l~ 'liO :ll11lea."I!Ii!i'elc""~ls. as 'w~n as Ii'llIIlfl~j~l1l~ aMI rndiQ!1~etrh:' :f:Jil!ete,i'S" Iii nrdt ~mn~dyce!!$amld! w,~:lgh;t.

O~~ie,ni~'tion', po,;witimJ:" :;fN!'ed' ,ami 'lJ.~_.,tmu;e

.a -C"!i,i-1ar' Q 1 ' ---,- "$'f Cfil-i'!IPe;d ;-- nrl dj"lmrla!:, are llilr:e.adiil!' ,1:imiJ~:in(i ~sfo:r some :::r~dia:rd oi)tI,~

il_IL l Lt po 1.1, rIi, Sl,~"_ rul_._.:i:i_ -. - ---- --- - -- -J ,~ _ __ _ _ . t! ' __

trol II mts" Pure: (f,ri,entD!lion ,col1!trol in OJ :sy'Ste:m .of llil,ip dyn,run~c: :ptlfturmooce is rooq~,elltly il1~Pl,§lS~bl'e:lO l:nrlpl~n'iel[i.tfor' :s;peilid :00 3.'IQ 111.8., Exceptions ,aK: :s:lower !pos:iti,O:rlI1i'r~g ~llsb StJOB es dnaeer '~Qlljtrols" rn;l~Cl 'posi'fiooillg, contfo1. ete,

AI..'I·'i~ ",,' -"~.':',.-,' · ... il~Il..~,,_·,:.- j-._'""," :'I'I·"f(.-'-'r";"~" """-','iG'I",, ~_..1, l..4Id'-:',-,:-·<:

,n. uh I ere M! at~c:n til: HlI~ I!'e'I,ween liIlG!!~Ii'!i!1I i"eflil.\elll. 0 , Or,li!IU3t~t:n. POSUL n, ~,I""""'" 31ill.1 _.181,3~U;~.

and (h.~!l: ~_m recmdd Ilm!!:lng h~ti~(arlll.e!litail s.h~nI'IQAg;le: tocodler;s" ss:~ el~Qnde:~ lU1d rndse €il'u:odcm b'y means ,o-f llWoomf'lu:,'ilJde:cr.emmiiLlI) eoomttiiig,

The' ,coflrl:rol G:f cfu~mb;HJII variarole--s is fR{tlll€ntWy ,H~s(Kiia~ed WUll OOIll~ntllltillcml ,~of:lil-rolj, stich D;s:pHc(mlro~j' 'OJ(.y!~lll ,c-ol~trc__)11 and. "'J~lu:~r b;io(.ilu:'IIllleaJ 'V'_Jti:aMr:s" SlOlllle --of' wilic!h :aJie ,(I~'lI:er~ milricd.lI t)rnng, !.i;OmplltK nm:al,yti,cml 'pr.ootd:illlre~, '1I'bennil] O(lU,linl Siitch ~ tb~ ~l:mpei'lU~'re QG:flr" ~ml ()If a;ra, ~:M:i[llherk1@.ic :re~tiQ~ or 't~mfemt~oo ICQnO'ot~, ~n~ol'~nu!~ :f~~nn~ ~1~y!l. fill if<!l~ rt~nt rome:: IIIlIi i'j,g,ch bioohenl1llkm1 p~8e;,o;\" "nu::re ~C\11,1mls !Call be I!;O:I15i~de;rcd as ,oon~pk)t ~op:ies, for pmoe-jis c-nljne:erinE: since tin:: procecs_SeA, are ft'e~u~ni[ly nfll1.-~~mc.x;, tllfOO""YW1arnt. liS!5ocl:;mcd wim a dead. till'm. arndlor nOIil",syntmtlri~aJ,

1'.l.tl1:Cl11e:ly ,po\,l~er:fLW~ 'OOmplnl1:f :\i:ysl:elll1s UR: reqllllill:>6din order to prndit:K':e 3[J :ideal t.1ontmlmu d!t~rrt r~r:suc:hpl:t)Qesse-s.l1h.e p~a:nll!ifi.~, a~ld Ciilmm'is~i01ji[l,!i: cf,$'1lJch if;ldivi[J~Ia:1 fo,y~~:e.rns can h \\"e'ry' eomp'le;M:,. fhr tb~s 'reasom. me use (I~ ,~ompa(::l ,~(ljnl~!DU~I',S or ,mf~W3:re·bas.ei!l OO!l~fOm ,equipment :For such, proces.m, i!t wid,c{'y ,c,ru:oumered ill j-IKIIISU:Y d~5]iliu: tlK p;JOb'lcms d~st,riJbed ,~OO'\\le;. 'Tile: ooq!.dil'i:'.mer:m:: frm ,c~l1lm~s.;;;~G:ni;1118 amd apl! mh~3Jli{'!n m,I!I'S~ :I111[ !be. under:t:itimlElwd! h~re wh.tn !pli1fliilUfljQ:.

C'o1l'trol Slmc.UIRS 'in 'Ih~ ooftVl'm 'o~ .fRe~)'-pmgl'.[JID1iIlmla'bte' 'G:umi:roUer.s 'Oll s!iDUdMd oontr-ul unns Uii!ilailly Ipmvid~, ~,tI!€~h::~ieillll i IlI:lleiiVeltlfioll1 pJ-5-Sib~n[h~s fol' ,ove'ldclil~S, ,0' tfliluendl1~: the c1~n..IOO]l ~Ol'l~ffQUCT mn ~[5 :iIi1:ef,:J~lkml wlth :3, hostPU::, A flil'lY mfil,w.tt~ .sohni'un i,s, ~n --''''''~ii;'ilj-i''''-,:IV "1U:"""I!n.'I~ ~-"S'I'''i''':-i"~-_''''''i1, 1\ ..... ,-'m"i'ml--=-I'lU.'''I~l!1!or~ Wil'l:i w","rich sl1~lrI, bo!l~. ·c.ontl1{f~ lle:l'\.VOcitS

t,."..~ .... 1 ..... i,,;!,' 11~",!u _ e u,- u, .. r"""",,-,~ 11'.... !; __ .k __ ~_=, .. .:i- _ _ k _ ~L_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ _ _

eau ~ :prodIlU;:l}d and ,m]jl.!l:fi~Ei"d.

Tile '~oWtOW~tlS; -elm be liefened u) as ,e:xat1'ilp!es of tbe: r~qu~ il1'lJaJyses: l1le'umClDeIU {If ~}1~, Q;I1;;yg;ml, moistL'U'lJ:! vji~(»iji.ty" ~'i_J;l1r~i~ of O;u:c ps! :El,a."i, wamil1li~sensorn. o;s well as m~.\!IW·' ~nts ~;\iing 'photollretry" gas cbromalogfa'phy~ mm~ ~pectmmetry ete,

O~:lIltroru~el'S - iln dlf.l. sease of ;t}utt'l:tnn'lic C(lnl1'!C~ ~ys'reltls ~ ,arre: f!.u\ctiotnw. ,elemellts whl~h 1lC(. OilIDa,p:hljr.iru(:£t1 vruiab~e: byrru:.'!l of an ru;!:l!ltJlOr 'detPend~DG, OM mi. 3wy'zed pFOOCSS 'tmillibl!c (~n~SJund usil1ga :S~1ilO~') itl ,Q C['(}8~dj, am1lilog: citrel.lwt w,i'ltru. e);aC'l nlfl'lh~matic"rn dJGI~nffilioIlS. "li1i:is is, ~b(n.w~ infig,l, ~,

t

~11l.iJrc ,LI

!Ba!lic: now 'D'r :soiil!! Dais hi, II ~gtro,R~!T

In pl:':m:ti,oe;, (;Irn:li~m]rneiTS ['j@~ onl), oonsist, ()if a ,n,wuhe:M;,1tj,ca.'l de:n!fl:iti,onl tail:go:r:i,ILhrm)" they aliso (IJJltUli n a n~lml1M~rr Qrfcom~rollf".~tioI!s fw o~mtk)I1l!., m{!1ni~o:rim~,! :~illet.,y fUrnlctions iit:md l,il1ildog poos'i~iliI!'itls, in ~, oomrol,li.u' ~elwort.

AU oo.nn'!O~I:et~ deoori,bed ;be~ow (PID ,cO'JUmUcrs) cmlJ be oos:icaUy d,ivided i illiO:: reco,rdi:u,g ,of the 'ilnplilli' ,C!:i:9lla~'[h Sc:n,ccDtiiln ,of the se.lpc~m.gei[lCl~doD !Of IE 'en-or S~IDI~I., Il:lgorltmn (P~ .l! D~ :z IGOJIilPO[WliIJ]~:S) ,rind g~n:emtiml of lh~ Q1lJ:tpLWt s:i~~" EaCb 'Put Qf ,Ill co:rttrollg,r us ~. :rwllml1leT' ,of dWlli!~h!1n!I:, 'O[u~o:nflJl, FU!Jlcli.ons wJiose imp:lemeruation or actlv,alioD.si~w fiC:lllu1)1' wluc41lCC;S me eomroiler response ood ~1js(J de:llne.'l Ul,e n:Eallre: Of' 'C:a:I!eg<!f)' of 1'h;~ lOOny d:ifrtr~rU ~.ypes of C'CU'illMU,I2!I.';

10 ,tlcldj;tiollii to the, ,aOO'l"Cl"iUflCiRI]Ul1!cd poo!lib<iUt~cJ;'i 'fo,1' r:m:rnilrlg 0<1 C]fi'$SI:r~lai!llg: ,~o.llIiIroUiC.~i'l :nnd C-:Ol1!itr~l~ ,eq,1!I:ip!n'ent accordi!l1!:g!iO,the:if par~me]e.r ~elJnJn\lS~ the~ :a.xe: m:at!1Y iO'Iih:e:r poosi!lili'I:i,1:ie5 for di:'I,,-'i.!!~Cil. ;Allo,d nMl'l~:n8,. 'lillis 'iIM~de mtlg¢ (lm. tf:llliliS I l~fl~D wilith ~q,~liY~d:i.illi~: m~n~ns:s" r:;C1I1.u~f:i'y oomi:ri,'Iltu:t,,>; iO' '!:lire ~u~l"Jl~ed l"all~p[!e:dl:y of 1:11S ~@P]C heaJn([o~ el.1Jg~neeri:l1g".

111ese il,er_ are .1 i:ste;d. I~I tlliJeD1N :1.'9225, stMd.d of ~ 981 "~[}cs:igillatilQn!llld as.siigntllC;[l'l of Onl1tlu~~e:rs·;. l~,e 'Wl;mJ, ··"lJflItrol:[e.r' CilD be, pr-.rJcC«lCd b:y fll!J Rcti,!l) lI5, (e",g.lielJll~rature clOlltml· ler, d3!110i:~:r OIllprroUer, ,Pf\!)G~s(:o.!'lJlroller" l[)'J e~~llecl'.tWQ·,s:tep c()I1L'll'Ol1e.r!,~'I~ roinroU~r. ~taJtc: s:pail:~ cOfitrcilll~r ~IIC. )'1 the :res''!:I]t beim:g, i31i1i3!hrtlG!ii[ ~li'Ical:cu]iiJ!bl,e iIliunl:l)e:r 'Of '~erf;1lswl!li~JlI :cu_riJ fOO~lhYll.'ll'y collt f!lsed !t\iC'1]j by e~,~I!I~,. Old~' ij s¢.I.~ction or oon~f'Om~~r ,eX3'm;ples, nod. tliJeir ~~!!jru,Bnm.el~f!': wi 1m ,be d~:r.eri'bed be:lmli' .•

1"II'w: t:c:mll1r(lu.rr,l·j-'a~' oo,J'lil'oU,er is freqlll't1!I:1i:ly IlI!SOO, b.11 'idie:nl:!l~Y ~.s'iJ11lSle cOIurol. t:Jn~t: :iiftl! machi:ne er ~manp,li1!rnit CIlJnsll1i:!'"t~oo" w~~, tb~s~' YD~lS are finqlu.~nlIDy~5~dw Qo,tnrol lempC;T4JitlUC. pr.ussliJre 00.1" I.e\iet C'mu:ro:III.eJ1l orlhm type o;m: .f.1MrrdOt~tj:z\.~ by tbeir ng~ed ,and a;ppl_j!Ca!I,I~Iru·

t,,;i ]0."",,-4: ~s:s "I nte p,r"'-.l"J'"('''f1a''I'''"O' ..... ,.~ ~ '1""""'"\1') ~Oli" ~"""i'I"I'I-~'if'i' _~_ ...... ", •• _.ii '.· .... :1- ---.IO;S" ,,...- .11 'I\'_ -c ... -, i'--c ['1'" - .... -- ~ ~ .• ==-_-. , __ " n.",,- ...... ' ., _ .... Ii;' "",,,\11! ~ I!-,~ ,'. 11'- I • "'''' .... ".lI' 1"11:' '1!""""5~",,!, .... ,,,1 '-,",- ,1.1.",,_ ""n.!oJ!'OW ",,~l,-p,_. "",

.. ,:r' '" i'i"ii3JUfliWatI1·[.:od' ".,;;;; ~Il;.'-II!' u "''''i'lIil}''''H'''' 1m I -, "i'-'''''''n''''''''''S'''Jf eon 'tro'I'I"'r"'!I!"I~'~' ""'''0' ,n~"""fi>""' ... , lIi'I'!iIi","'1 ''''I'll)' '\,I!l_ !!j..I 111,11"_ ... _" -Ill!""" '_"!L.'Ioii· .:'~I.J" . .t~l __ '", "": !i~l:.!'.~.~~.·-'~ ~ll!l11!'1!r!l"V',FI''''''~'~;:in,:]I!!~. """'''"-'I .~:.' ~- '.'11' l!'IIhl un, 1iJIr"''Ii,lIjiiiU,uI. lJr!-_I_II/!J.i;':i!!UI U

UIDlI hillcrfu>cs mo :a h.oot: leo:ntmi :syt;;le.ltt. 1n.d;l1IJs~lll cl]QGtdb~ffi are 'o[teml fitted in cmlbUl .sb ·o~ c{!p~ml c~bioot. OOo~,i .e, ctese ~Q the machine:,

·~'1.':-5iS t~ntKlWIl'l1rn have ~ (iJt'!-'5i.gl'l s!mihn; 10 ~mu~ ~nd1ll.5trrblj] cmlllmll.er:;;., wrnlh rug:goo. IJIil,hrer,'ii311 and ~x]J[lfld:!iliMG: 1Pn::xi>~~ hn\u1:tt~"i 'for feGtl:m i:ng IillG'aslured V,ilIIlll!I~S ruldl €<u ;(Illtp1JJ~: o~ iii. maniipliIlmed ",'arialbl~. O'W~,opJ:i~uz~tiofl.~Pfitct~OJH~, g ~,f;ue: !nJcro,fOOts!jor oo~ool~e f wii~fri, I~ Q~m'"dtm' pal'H~rn. !.ind an ifn~Ra~e to ,11 host. :sysOOOCi" l'miJ additi:on. p~, GWilroH!!1"S JiaYll een .. trol'c:m,gineer.imglum;;tioms. 'wh~r;;;b f'c!rn:tit 'the c{lntro~ of ,rnI~ :im,pofllulli. p;roc:eS:';61;,,, I~ess 0011- troUer!i. fm1 rreqruem~J:li1 iMt1l11cd in CG'nwJ parJ~]~,. :;)_!~d PO~i.s,e:.,~S qr~il~ eO[ll!p~l.e;):11ld cQanllll!l.I:_!~i~ ,CO]iI;dOIl ilu ~OSl ;p:moec'Ss ,coBt1'01~ Sj.f.s:tC'mt~,

Uld~'fers(J'1 (;"()J~,t'l"f)llef~~

U!~ii\i"em;d ClOiU(n~~~ws :am ~~~ ,conitroll~r$, jn ~~m ~'Olm o:f ptug-~n c;3J-:ds n~I!ffiI in n pm,grammi~bmt '~O:n1lrol, sY!iL~m (S~M,ATIC S'jl'iC1lPCS"j!I\~i[j AC) .~ ilf;! aPROfUJUS sy:ne'm. '111e omi5siuf;I 'ff.f a, ~:para:lc iOpern1Qf ~lmel m1jle!iln~ t~ilI~ the: '(ioD!uoll.Cf· o:pem~i!)J11 can be i:nl~~.1m Oex,lbru.y mid l'IIjvernally iin1l,o ttle aUl~wr l1~·e e-)t,h~,t:ing pK~~~,,~ oontm;)~ l:CJwl. (DoT :proeess ",laoli zR1:icm •. JUj:';~ ]lk~ proc-eS'!i c.olnroUeB. ~1l1~ IUlniil.'!l:ISRI eo 111 IJ(II I ern, hlJi'~~ dn:ir QW'iDllli'llilg,oo :lInll' uni .... v.emnl :pooc~ss :illil:erf~s Omwog atld bm%!lY~ far rooomh~g Irnea_~wll!l(lS and fOIi ()otpum @f :m:, m:anmlpu]a1oo ,wj~bte. IWmd OWinop111liltixntwO:lllj ~Uillcltiio:n s, ComnlUIIlIJC"do:J!l: W~Ufll file host !.;'Oilluol. sy,stem :is via. 'IDe 'back]l~nne mt~ 'or ike .I?ROf~ BUS"

Special ,gf .s,~CI(jfr t~'Qtm$iets

'S"w"l','lail cnl~t"'l~~~'''''' '.'- 1i1II!\1i1.N-·~'~ .·""llIIi ....... II ... r!'l wll"'I~'I'l iIll'''''''~ 1 .........• ~ •• .,,,.:~,~1"IiI' .• ~ .... ·dl "'p' [illl'l:IZ·'··~ ili'p,,'''' .. '!:. J.~.~~',-"" ._,=I-- 'L!lj'~·llll_:~1L!I I~~~ l~ll!l~-.'?Ir.ci~ 1~!!i:1 .. IbIV' ~.J"':"" ·_· .. lh ..... , ~ g'_,'_:;' ~'" III ~'!!·~Ih.ll~:-,_u. ,....,:u·. v,. II ,IJ'~ ltl~~11 iIiiI

pru1:i:t::u:lar se~~m. r4.0f' ~lrun'1P'h.~! contml.ler:s u;rr.; :!J!!':I:lIi 1'.fibl~ flOr the ,I;fIi~11c!i. ~!ii:tdn;i;, im.d!us~ry or r~Jr. ln~i.lklil,g, 1;1gt@l1!~ati~l~ W¥I leh ~re de:dgmed as i'll,dJi,¥id~laL u~lh5M oolnple1e" Ol)mp:l~~. mi(~Qmpl!l~~r syst~no; wi1h s~cia_~ oolUrollt~r a~goo,(hms .. A.ddiitwooa~ ~n .. loopl timlilfl)]

,!!'i;""d' ~ln'""'FiL"""'i··I''''n-c· ·1t-u'- -n"~·I""'ili'~ then '~"'t·l,£,jvi''r'''' !;;~ ·1·1]·'~"II~ITIc",,,, .1,,,, .t'", .. , ~ .. ti'.""" th<>:n- 1IIIir(l·I·li\ .. '"'P""], .. : ...... jj,ro-·I .• ·

Inti _ II! •. _ ~~!!!J "II ~U!~ ~. ' ~" _ - !!;,o'~ >'W"I~.1!' ~,I~!!~ 1i:2M" ",,!II,J' IIJ~1!ai' ILl II" ,.,..""" ~ ~. "~~.\I~.i! 1~!I.',u I~," tr~~ ~ _~ ... " J ""'''~ -' .' ~ •• ~u'" ¥v.!ti~~ .'",

t~rn. OJ: ~;~i~l!lpJ~'" ~e~ cij(n;~.roll~fi1. Th(l~ ifS n whol~ [:'oU1gC o[ ~~ia] ~~IUpI1Kl~lrnS iu[h~ SlMATI:C ,s~mllil1,wbi'h IiIl3JS, resuU~d in a lW¥t Ilumberof ~'ii~iall~fin.tmi.lle:I'S.,

.sCifrn~n! .c-OJi.rmUt!·FS·

A.II. s(JJ1F(wMe t':OntJ}o~llern in, ttle S IMA1'TC :;~'CI,n~m are .;iI~~[J, ·proce:..liS oOl~~roi~:m.or ullh!'~~'1~ oontarolmers :!dm~~. tln~)'! me· avuUulbleior UI~irvefflnl use, ICIlIllOO: expanded Iby c:.-2ilsli.ng. 0:11' ~ru]h/~d .. IU~ruy .gelem~od, ~up.pLc.emtfl~y~\II'IKtLOIll!i" .iJfld, ,can be OOTrl~!i;un:d. into' IUl1iilvc~a] controllers usjll,S thc~ wiile.: mm~e of SlM:t,']'IC S1' 00 I:noo:IJJlle-s ,mild :field ,fJevjec$., Togetln~jf. w.i'tlru the: 'VlS~.· uliUlltkiD f'{tci~Lties ~rovjd:ed. 'by ,sUdA1i"IC •. [hell' exceed ~iJlle 'IlcJ:.i:billill:y of process. OOO~fG]h:fS, HOW~'C'f" 'l1~i:~crea:sed o~r'bead fo.[ oo~fig~~ti~u ~Jul OO~t1~wtlss'i()!l~B ~li!tSt ~ fefite'ltlooftd,

Wltcfta.s .8'1:1 hanl.w\WfC OOfrUlillJ]illen (hru:ht'itrhl1 (nn'~rollern., ~es~ ooo~RlImm :and 111illVCllai cOl1l!trollelfs.) ~ l1!UliiJf;i(l~n.O'U!';· (Olal,u:ol Uflli:I~Il~d ~he1'~rOf:¢ €req~in"·I:y ilj !lied 1n. ~Iam~ wi:(h 'h~Gb :flltl'I~: 1io~cmnce' demaJlws. $O'ft~ ,cOfwlroUClli, are l 1~if.ll~'i:t,abJ~ Iii I~k-Gd, 10 Ib PLC liDI() 'C'3n :n,~, long~F c:my rmJt mC'J:r fbnc~ iO.l.l1 hl ~~ e\'~Ol ()f a. PUC .fwJ!lJro or. w~n l11llfi is in tJOO S"ID.P status (SGc: TuJblo t .. I). ,F:I1t' thLs, nla~o:l1!, m.mlld oomm~l~r ·conllgu:rn!ions ~mos[: sofn'ltlm IcoO:ITOI. 81l'L1C'- 1JlJ[re£ wi,tll :!S!JIbordi'l1~u-e ~3tilllw,aR' back/tip Clontro~~m) OIoooo:io,g l'I1Cl'Gas~n~;I.)" usedi 111 COlUrol Jl~lams, III ~~:lin, Hile :w.f1.wnro: (;.'(Inlro.t products ,can be· dhdd~ bl1:n tbme :QlfmJ!ps:

501"*'"iif!lli ,prrml)u~l: ini SIMA'FI~C',S1

r oorn;ttji3il, rol1il1'O!~iCr'

:S:J:PA!fi DR::! ru. U122. DRZ4

Ut1;i~n1 c~Dlmkr

FM3~5! ffi'i.M 415,S.

'!ffi~mFmJiIJl'(!: oo.ntml~\er

SJ~It',;mJ'lt (stlntl ... !looe}

~'WIfC ll'WIduilll: tn, ,SlrMl,NnC 57

PC57',CtlI]llro,' ',I, ~~E'S,'" ,1'·200' I PIDCooIm]

I eRn 4;1-4))1 ,

Slllln&Jd PlI) Cl)nl,[l)~ MooLliIM' PliO Cb:rnwl

'FIll) Tem,pmitl..ll\':

CQ'rrt,~!lD1 em .:5S!S9)

• CO-lf!i]!P',(\ct oontl"d ~1n!iCtull'r,l'S '. Moo~d ar control fllm;:~io:n:s

;!i Oiuililn~:l:£uinn and ClalmIU~S~~(lI:l~[fIg, lOOm~·t

''Ilu;: 11lI,~~f call 3pply :p~urn~i!u:;l(;r as~sii!!nme;lUil:s, (ii~d so;m.etimes also tJi1.cpos:i~:iQin ()~ :stm(:~!lI'OO SMtc~es) to define lhe~ ~,y;pe ,@f iQi}m~IJ~e[. The :fiIlncti!ou ,of a ,atti.C'I.IlLnr type e,Em 00 crnnrifu:.d li11""rotc ;;";jif> -iat'-'bkij~,te~'ih(tr ·il:.~ c-'O;il· ..... II~r'n 'i,lte,o.~- CO--I:¥!,II loop

d.'_"," _ ~pp~''d'p-r I;':~} !!t'J! __ "",J.to!!l!lL __ !'l!!.!,,=,,-,~ _, Ill. !-c!_ - - 1"'",[1 .,.n!!l!l'''''~ ,~ _,

11i:is ilillii,l;lil~i!I, lihat O:~le upplle--s :ill 'CoD~ll.i'"_~, ael1.inl 'vu'li..le to< dil~ Cif,}llj~nJilrne,it :1.iii{PU:I:. ~liId, ,Cniil~ec~s ii,i, l'Wor-der' 0:1 o:nffilergtaa~icrocordjo:G: Function (e.,G.' trend d:ispmiQI:i~ anH_Mi, :s,y~lem ~5ucba~ \'VjN)(JC :fro:m smJ!o"'I:BN:~n to tl-w mG'(k~I'~s M3~Oig. {'unput, nUl S'~~po~nlt c.amnl be: defin~ ,e.i~lIler u.'iing the '''ru:wmml. ,openBlio:n" of IDe' o()n,tKlill[!er or by ~l\soapiP]ymg :m arudog 'vnrnue, Tbere is thenrn;g,feediback. (If l!!h,e Olilltput :i\1~g:n!.l:L ~o tbe in'~lt. Onerefern to, th~~ il':l1tin "ope:n c@ntmJ~

't- - - ,",

oo_p .•

11~ d'" w. .' '1..0' ,II.. - d~'~" ~d . •• - d •. \ In,~I'" . d 'I 'I

ae unterence Ift.i tW'OO Ill. I~~~e s-mn: !M-(l,17.~ ~tpM)JmJ]: Me me ~~m ~l,ilZ0~ aetna 'YJlue

(,0" ..• HlO%) results in. ~ih:e :S,YSilc:m 'l!;f:n)t, .. :vhicJJit,i sidle[u~~,ed !by die ~em_e;r ";te;"',. The ,cOln!t/Wller ,= 001" m.ore ,exllctly. the :lilri:llunctWc(1JJ.1mcti:DJlI falgorit:hm) :~tD'l'ICdiin. iflhe controller' - lre..'lr.:::L"t IlCoClDm .. ing. :110 ~llis sygl!eITI ef:fOii:.

'n,l(t p' c()ntw,Uer

With 11' oODtm:l~tcll'.as ~!bOWlal ln Fi.,g. ~ .2. ,0 ~ys:~:cm 't:',!l'.(10,[ Olll.c CIJI'Of' ::dgIDlIll}is m_lluUii~noo by tbfJ PfUport~(imlllga~n K~. In lwbucd CMe~" 1~~ varlab]eXp, (proptlrti,o.n3~ oond~ Is !!I,SOO .i.[l51~eatl of Ii ·(·r.o-i:tianr~l-iJ~n 10[.-,-"- fn'-,'.o·). ~- '--'IHtinll-~' - tletw'ee;', K ,-Ii£iY' j .. , ,.,'ie' c·,L."'d l.,'

__ III p~ - ,1'0.- -~-!I!! s--- _. 8m:!] - _iliLf. U~e iP:\ .. _. - _li"!!!.J;P - _. --"' - -11' il . - "'P oS y_:S_ n~ _ u)'

!qllallioDJ L1: . .

.V _, l,~nl%

ft'!!i - -.-. -

..r~

(L..l)

Eqii31~oa, :L",~, ~S Wi'lid as !Itmg 0., dll~ cQ~lmll :IQOp SPl'iOClJ ~~ eU!IlStlllilt th(,i(uJigiltQ1LI;t the lGQmpl,!flte 'w{u'kjng IraJ~,me: i!)f me ~M,nnel, The msull\ of '~: p,rOOl$C~ ~tw~tl ~ propoldoo!l'W gmml ~Qd the: el1'Ol' S~,~lloJl is R'[cmd ~o ,u.'i tl1lJe propcmjonall oompcnc;lil (P 'COm;potlC!At). 1ht': (OD_~,ptGte (ofitroller' is d'eacmiYllted by the y,~ueK~:§' O.

I J

i~~~~~I_~~~~I!~~~~'I~ ~~--~IIU----~~~I --------_.,

~n 40 00 130' 100 Time, fiji

t- 1'00 ....

,.

801 ~

.

610 ...._

.

" - I

40 .... ,

(I

Tbll; PI 'ool'lllmUciIi !i!Uiperilillposes ,H, IPrnpor1,iul~H' oompomcll1l: UIIlUJ, an ~nq;rnl ![Jompoment (Il'Olnpo:nItDi].Wlith a, 00 n S'I'a nt, error ~ignat th~ reset t Ifne pat'dll'l'et~:r Ttl re:nmrnlS i:n a iraster' nf 5~Ol"ll'ler i ncm1li~C: or decrease in 1_ [,oompO'lIent de(pCrWing 'on, me si:gn of !the e'mJT '!l-ignnil", Thi's, is ~l1(~wn, ~.m, ,Fig., l .. 3,

~, tln;e ,sIMA;,TIC' ~emli!n{lIl@Gy;.tlu:: ~rnmg'le.r T~ fi!ll~egrnH{)f;! time) ~smos;lIy l~~ inS:L~ad ~~ f~ ~n.~I,tirw.;:}. 'Depemrliq em;m1iC: :proou~tt ~hc.WistlCi3ti!'d doc(lme'ln~ttm:J,de:ll~les'Wm~1~ o:fdle ~~~eF t~Jl is IU'S~. If tlite 1{i~ltPtH: of ~M PI eo:n:tfoU.er (~;Qt (l11~' ~c I ~(bom,priM~~) :reac::l«:s :~ fimj:t set CI~1J the, QnmtroUcf, 'I'h~ iio,twgmLof (I (n!fwlpo!lU;ID1nm~lJi~t IbrJ, ~L~~b'l'ed rOf ilIi s ~i~~in'!l" TI~i:s iSirlStlfC~crrcd (01 il5 bJOC:k:LI1G: '0;[' thel,co:m:ponc:rnll a:t Om ~o:r~lWner li.lt i~i order 10 a,void iilUegm]1 dIlH"O[i'mll, TI~ iiillile"lmLJOii ,Or ~liim ~n~~gni!l.ilng ~;I~~i,n is am wi~ti'MeliiC Wli'l w~i:ich 'OO~:· pi!l'l~nitC 1ifiilC intcgf;i,1 of II seq;l!ep~~ ~s~m)l: ,iI~ ili:s anal:og;ilWpu~.,

bt).:T'i c'"" ..... ii'l -r.· ~-u _ 11 00 ... I'~VUil'!'

The: PD· 'fj ,co:ntroUe.r :!!IiI:peri:mpiOOes a. pmpomcm!D~ eOm(pmlCII1I:1 nnd. !I3i. :rea!i, dlffc;remdal roOlpO<nenil (D cQI,npo;nenO. Th~: p.31nm,er~rr l~, :resuhs ~1i1 n ~a~ddemcllwn,~e i:nthe 0' oom,pQ\nernwh~m, the emu s~,Sn31 chan!&'es, dependi;~g, <In the sii,gm .: ofthe error. sisoa:l. 'The 0 comSlOI~n!l, is numo~nt~:tlly fCd,!s''Ced ~cordiq ~0 fliQ ~J;:lIDoenJli~ fl(l;~t~c!il, wj~h lliu~ H.rnt.: CQ~t3111~ 1'1:' pmvid~d, ~~.e en'O:r :s:lgn.<3lIJ. remmns u OCIrl.31fl,g.ed .. Th~s ~s s'l:ul,wn ln f.i:g. :I.~.

IOI!l"ut¥a~abie V(~- vpft) *" ~p)

40

." auUllmi: the cnmtnllUil D' m::i!Cl:I'li :,In\'l'oitr ~ .. 'I'h't: 1"" 'ro'D h.JIIi'i'I M~' rlllire~l'!Ccl • .3Ild r3..""~C'r tU~liliae,y n!~ det rc'l~ll,

'How~~I': r. i r rf.1 ~~ i'iel~chJdl 'DlIlmller lhoo l ~vi ~~ I he :O;3ml~Jiutls.ruti;l: (!If ~h~' '~11IiH:l!1) I tllr. milllflU ftC! lilDn~ 'li!!:i IJJIII u~ Ibi2i olu'Ulinll,i::f.' mJ'lipl!.n (the. '~tUURI~~,iJr ost':U'lInes).

The' \~~ l:ut:, 111 :: (JI..I[J is , ,.~ iti(]lly i'!l1~P='f.m i.s:dble" s i!ill."C' ]]11.: tlIl;lJoiJriwl1!ll \V,QUI! aJ ~!Wi!"C to I i:f.my (m I, ::uWi 1,1 h.hm by (~_ TIl~~ i. dc ~l'i~I,m;d ~)f u P.~GIU1I.!~l!r h:~I, in I1ti! ~I1:MI,~ oLd 1 i IEM ENS, 'm~U1Ji p~UII.·l~. C'e:nain !I.\'~ w~rn. pnx!l~J~tt!i te.:g. Strl'llld.uro PrI] Control ~ 11.h 'ru~m"& h"viJ D '!>.Clfl'1~ilC rPiJral1~h:: r [_i.~Ht:::;:: TRUr'!J or :.11': Ii. ;OIl! ~Jn 'l1r lh~ 1 n'l.iIl1lJ-.rm'l::n~,

Thc.:FIl!'llI;cti.QJn oOift'he :D C'lJm~(J!Ie'rnil: 'rHeums 'lbot ~t rus possi:bte to! de~.e.r,lllfa;jlm~ tlil!l'l slep' t:lidlh,'I, or ~hC' fl'~Q~~puJ~;!i!Qro (lit, 'Illl{: pf;\fiC~S oDntril!lIJef, 11u: ,~r;::ri!U~~ ~Ui.ng{D!~'lh~ m~c,~~med. deriVijiti;V(: ~~~.ijii]!l ,g:~}jln 'V~ ~:s ~hc 'fll~ilO:i :5, 1ihlis wille 'I:i!DS n IllS'I.o:riC31~ 'bat.':lkgmu:l!ld. Alll~Qe II:i:m.e wl~.en !c)G;nnro]I,~~, WI~iro Sil ill de:~:!d.~l1ied u~hru,g q~mtl'Dmil ,3H1[lUfn)~I'Sil a defl.l~tul (jGlm!:'Dli~ilIlHol1i O!fres,isllOl'!l!, 'l'esu'iu.tdl i n til ius va~~u:e~ TIa isvl'due was tbG!iD1, lG,~ed IfIlu,the,r fur ~lme fi,l'Si, bm,prnilr,~ oolThtron~rn (sol:~.waret rlnilfJ:\~l'~re). ~ti~ ~ometiim~~ 9pp:a'DPririo~e '110 II:i~an.gil.l ~his V,~rnlle', Detil91ive :fDF tin:' ewTc:ctk'i of ~he D' C@I11PC;Ii1CilJit ls the' area ,pmthllice.d by ~fru~ [nte~mrn ef ~llile dWft'iSifeiDliiCIl, 11l::lc:~rn (sJhiCIded area hID Flg,· L4l',

111L'C '~:~I.~W~ y~ ftli 81PA.RT '~o\l!IltroU~ws ls ~~ usinS the mm'ICl sh[~¥10'~ Itrt EqlW!ltJ]@ill W,2. '1'1 i ·It!.e til,UIil: d~I:w'y conS!;L1jjnt 'wh'h Vllhu,ch tilt:' DI tOC1H:poIlL'CrU :rellllms, to 0 IlI,gnim.iLmd 1'f\ruhe eomrelter's . ':Dmp]wng Ii rn'lf:,

lb' '.' "ii, - . .". - ,0 "'~!'I -I' ~ . m "L.. n . .' - I' ·li'II,.", .-t~ ~,,- 'J" :Jr' _ ,,:;:: '., .... . n.ll,. I""' ,-.11 e Vallllle .~ '\' - , SWI C. leiS 01 ~ U.IC JL,!' o!Ompo:D'lell!.. ~ ue: r-oIuC' r' _, ,~ "" I -.~ IS ,nOl:':fifllalllW'y lX.cu.

llil :p~!:ticn~ror wi;I~~ "~Pl[J Te!1lP~n~Ulr.g: CI,](I!I~mr" :~!'Id FM: 355-2. the :rn'l.io V is d:e~clfr:nwned~mml, TDlrM ... l.Ao, Imdl ~!i; id~ nnHloo ~hl:l;re lUi ,[) ... f,

1O!'_:IIi ~ifIi, ili'!!rP ~.'Y

r~~ 2C:HC 111 !!!! 4"0 see

7:he PllJ'·'7!'I, ,f},'O~llTJller'

The ['U)~,r:11 cOIft1f:'01nlguridl1n ~s s.\W,perim~~d 'CBnl~ 'l'IlC r~nctiiolD, ~~ponc!l~s :memtiioooo above. MIl~l: SD;;1,ArIC ,conlroll.ers,a_fC b;.'lS("'d Ol~lllllis, aJgorilW1iIJ~ (c;",g'.: Staoon pm CUD,1mI,. Mo{hid.M pru COn/rmJ" CTiIU._J1iID ,of KSi)., Dis is, S:hown in "~" 1.S" The: r:acJli;y f~f:" di:!ll" ~brning :cc;liI.~filj in.dl\i:id.tud compo:menL~ m.eans 1:ham tb~s ~ypi.! of 'C01iiUClller ~~"'f;8 :a~rn others (I~ PE ,and PD eo:n1mHe.r,s.).,

S;pec.ilJI' "'"ft'l

Paf;nm~it':r-b3!Seci. conltJio;ls ,rn:..a s:peci:all types slJch :t~ti!, ,a.g" tim; l~{,I)D' COrrNtruUcr 01' Ihe,lollLoG ,eOI]) .. tro~~~r:, Whil~ i~;SC OOIJtro~~~rs, d~r;; ccmpo,nelll!S d~s.cri,'bed. ,above are modmC'd <l'CclQ,rdi~~, iW ,cel:tailin ,event'!;: c -c wi11m e.eno"-I ~:"s VJlIJI'w.::-s 1b"Oi' means ~,f,- 11- st P.ll.'c. ,s;m:b rn::i~me!~r'("'lO-ctroill __ ..... _ _ _ ur . ,_ ..... 11!D r(.""'~"'S'l ..... ".I ,.a I,li, D - q~. " ... ,- .. 11' ..... ' .. _.!C __ . 1]., ..

~I!I .1Jw 'Ca.~~ 'rlf prote-s,s oonU1fi~~elfS is (iO~' :I'Qcomm.-end;[bl!e for 'p '~rI?D ,comfrollers" :1~ammel~F ronlKlts 'b~oomt3: :prob~G:mBrticlll In ~llG ,C'aSr!i of ~Ilroo~:s:s C(D,IllI1rOl1!l!fiS wi:rb alll aeliv,uuOOI lOOm[Ulo,e:nt.

The 'PIID S·ell~·Tilil<l'iI'err {'\Ie ts ill lfa S)ICOl1il:ailn:s a ~OIl1C ccmurorn wl~ffill I 'CtD\liI1JKn\e!n~:, llmdi eli l1liiinU~CS the :probL~I~lll d~~rib\,~ ~OOVC.

Contro~~elfS ,w-ce' 'freqllA:ntl.y ~Iso mllll'lwd accordi:lThg hJ their field of ,a,;plicatwcm •. t!~~, tilwc:pll>oce5:S "II!lri~Jble; 110 be ~'lI:nmUed, TI)g~ ba .. ~ic~iny include Ilgm..per,~ltme~ 'J'e~!:1~!re" Row" ~(Wle] ,a~ul, '00" ellta!!i0:1I. ,cO:I~l'mlle.rg~

,e'I=10% KJ,.~: 2ir;

fll ~ 040,o.s l", IlII 20~O fl, T~ = 20,Qs

Ii". ' .• Jj'_ •.. 1 ., ,. ""'III 1!i.I~~ ~~'

~ .... v.,,=

=, .................................

In~mror BhfiBD a

20$, ~ 4a~

10-

'_ .. !!":'I·""-, I.'.;'f ..•• ··• "".' 'I!-,.. np ~~~~

,,/

~! 2.,01' ~Gi%

.-.'

I_l 100

I ':210 iIi1 FIiie ~'I]

I

.t;O 00

'W' _,j,~JI. ,''1'" , ,I.

'I'n-"'!'~~ ~·t~

.~".II!I:Ylre 1.5: S!!.~.,...ft:!rc~ ·resp(n~s.c of ~ P~D- TI iI,."OntJiOUcr jf~1 nn '~fil~Jnl contrnl ~-f:1

~ '_ =.J • =!17-=' W

l~i'np!,'i'~lti.re oo.m~:l'JI'l:l;)in

'The :ran;~e orr u~ml:;eml~R: cO!il~I]II~ ls ~Rme~)i w,id~·, :and (he ITIajority (]iF' 3J I ooonl;1n~ C:llIr.ro:l~t[.Y IUiSOO :i:11i1 pD'OInmr.a.<dJmecO'llllm1. sy8il.enu, ~ te:m:,[XlI'3[ulIPC; I~Q9.tr0l1~rs. B ~CtUISil tlli2- ~ime. d~l,ays rum OO!:UffilW~'ll!!d :!oIy;,\i~_~rrr~ :foo *eln~mwm ·~:~'mq~!1.~]Y ~. I'~ng. (!!',ndy v~r, kYW dJn!amb:;pcrrcm1U-fU:':~ Rqwircrnet1,tis UifC Ic,xpeel>ed oOf the llc1ltI:IJe[,atlloo oontro!.tm. HOYI'(Wer~ m~l1~pGWawm OOJLruro!ls dl) ~.1tj;SI; (,~,g~, for ~llastics ,UmlU f3~ure .lWd 'prooeSSI1.1g) wbiGh :p til ct· stltli Ill-It d~ma"fI·: ,--;- i~''k'7'' s:trm:ru: -~, "'f·tb-, C'"'illlij~llhr';;;: "'1oi~II";,I··.t· s-.-:-·-·~Il 11--'1' :;I!~·:-;-"l h .. +I,tiJo!'il'~

_______ gc if: !:NS I.m ~~ m "' e _ .... __ !.!! ... J_e_ ~ """""if'''' IglOO. ila~ ~;peil::la i!lI!Il.y ... _ ....

WfS~~lil~ ~ ~q:uJred :for ~~ce5-e: ,CQ rnltro I le'ffi " n,e~ are de'scribctil ~~ t:l1.0re <fl!etai'l in SectiOilto2. 6" ,8 and 9' •. Stam.dard te~lpel"attm[e sySlilE:mS can IlsuaW~y be .readily co:rnMI~ed usJn,g PI ,c{unrul."' 'Ie~'QifPU~ CijntroUern.Pro:blems are only ~;Q be eltpe'Cl,¢(Iwfjth the: GPliJm.i:~atiotJ, wjh~n cem:m.a sS~m'lWtl:Q:rn;'C;DLloo of the IDI'DH;g: [l13C01liIi!try 'li1mli :3IId. the ,3..synIDkUry' of tilecolnilmlJBd. s.]i':!ilem,

A higher d:ynamic :p-e_lifl[n~rnrUilC~ is n:qltired ,of 'pres;~IJ!1e c-Qn~rnUer.!l, becnu$t: tbe: mj~le de19-1~' wn, 'cootro11Gd S'JlSL~ms far presSIUOO ~ ·r-n'i[LWiUII:,¥'sooa •. LargG ~1'U:fl1'bcrs of: ~SU!ro oOlltro~l~f:S ,3~: IC'inCO'lI11il'C:re:d in ~he Pr:or,"ICS$, ~ndllJfill:l. They ifC'sUi'k:ta n[)wi~o.g medium b)1' ~\1ariilb]e ;~QDiI1lt by 1I!t:1~1\l:!i o~ an. a;PJII'():pri.al~ UCI,U:.l~c)r.., S:tandru-d Ciollll'oWI:ed, s.y~'lenlS fm p:re-'.'lsli1oo C3'1'I.1be ", readily Ic~1:rolled m~i:!il:g pmcQ!ililmlle~, The l,i1l~l@ens.ati.l1)~ l(j:f if;neriiere~C!!':~ i s a~ rumpotta.1L1' factor w~l~n cnmIll11~ss'io'rl:i"l iPre~s;lItr-t oontr-o·~s., :r]nd i's lWS11I3[lly c3!Ii'I.ied OUI illy ~lppropriutc'ly modify .. , ~;'1-'1iI' il'I'-1'"' - I'Jj·!iiO'''''''li",,"'(·,'''' ~ I' 'I' I'; IAo.~, ...... .,., V·I":"i .. ~"" I~~"'~~~""i"~;''''r\t~ '''''''tIi -"'[1'"' "'''~ri~''''':I- "'01'" -) .. A "1Il'IIw.~,,, ')- i'lIIli¥'! ... i;I' ~ ... I, ,.""'." -,I',,", ..... ~I;I" I!.!! ,"~~ Ulih,.."",· .<' .",~,Ul~,,· ~1~""!111~~"-""' .... 1 ,lI,. "' ... ~c,.~ .... ",,,,,,,,UI,,,," .' '" ....... , ,n, ",~< ....... d ",if r"~

c:f Jj)R:S'i'>\'lJ1e oomml~;cr i~ ~lhc d~ife'KJlltj.al prec"li.'iUW col~lmill,cr, 11Its;Oll 1y dlitfc:n, ([iom a S'tail!ld~l'd p.r:e:SSlU'C ctl.otro.Uell" :in. the ~nMne,r :i~ wfdcb .~ acnm.l Va~Jnl: WS ,record~d.

20

'R,ow OOl1tRlru~e:rs lfii'eqllcmty ms~)tJnd 1~ll:it:: .1}"~S~re ~(uurc:lller.~. 1m 'p~aelil't'-. lli'm'i.tVf1r, U :is ~fro., (luer1lil:IYflimiDl~mO~:Ic'al u-~ ex,a~ly me~s.l!lre the il(:lV!,'. Det3!i led 'rundam'"iI1:1_lfli~& :amdllfiW£iljll~lt ~nfOf" 1:T!3tim~ m~ actuators CD, be ~(1u~ld iin wnoo~!iptlb]th:aUons [4 JI,. (6)1 ancJ ['n, The ~,ymal1!ii,c :I~r., $onnwn~' of (he Qomrolled :5'lI'~~em :Fol! (n;,!Cs5!!1mpaniarly dt,peiDd~ en rt!'!,c oCI~raiHm:g l,lIaage ~ll ~bh;h ~ CliJl~twl.l\er is ~'or.kilf:illl,. I:I~ l1&1!i'li.on • .fjOI~ ... ~~ueari~ies (irll~. OCUla!lOrs, (~ at£() key .. '!!!.-'W'd "'Eq:U;!l~-,peK!3l1itoge chaructelijs~lc" J :tlil1!dpO'SSUllly dead trumes m_ifi!;yinlJ(:d~~' WltIDl the conrum:1.

Le~lei cmu.mJlen

,A, Jell'el 'rol1lrmlle[~a.bo· Imfe.1"ln!d tOo asa 'po~iliol' oon(mlm:eil"" ;coo~m1s ~he po:!dtinn or te;vell of:il, li!qt!~d .. In 1(iD1)OS~ 'C::II5C-Ih b:.vd:!l. calli be ~ppm(nri:~tely otnnmrumed ~ls~mg P 'COI1!I:rolleni, (JIiPD, eeatrol.liClrn,

1.204 'Designa.tioo, .A«?"'Ordil:ug Ii)' Control Stmc~u:re

1m oert~~p oootro! app~i.'catio~sl,. ~~, ~s necc~:$!);_i)i' ~:o tink 5'C\ie_til~ oCcm,tWUer:s iJlJlo cQn~rol stn~~" ~JIJJ're&l" Tbe III(M;;( impolil'.lllint 1~.ylpeS ~:re:

~f s:at~s:faetor.'y oon~ro~ :I'e!:!ults :iI-£e,nm. ,adrui~"~in a slIilS'le-loop COf:1tm~ :s~'Stcm'. it is PJsrs~b)c tn :improv~ the~()trulmlrlloaspG)n5fi hy 1:18~llg~ i.1ddi~io:,i'L~ m~IlS'UifGd. '!larhlblesfrorw tbe .proGc:!'S.A !;MC~de QOiUml:lc;r !O~L'5~S!ls. of'a fll'la!te:r o!lJ]1ltroine'..f ~Ild a sl;~ve c01Th:lrollerr. Tl:Je'(m~p!l!t of tbe Ilu!.ste:r iOOIIiumUe:f ls l!s-~d :3S me :setpo:illl~r~lllr' tbe sialIC) OOl]tli.Ji}~t~]i'~ l1J\e :S]MVV; cQllitOOlle.r 0:01)'

.c - j',-I' -' .. ..t., "'1~1l '-'1- -·C··~. ,.--cd:· ... -- _ [iii~'- -" .'_ C'I - -'-ll--' -.- ;---c---c'-'I- ",-J-' .- ---·-_'1--" C - -'.' "IRI.~.,;-.-.;_

0011 .. 1'0 ,ii· pan (!~ ~iiU~ !(ltOOcss, ,010_ tuC m_a,-,~e:r 'C'QIlI .• rQ er OOnlro s .le t"Ol:r:I!pd,~~C p:roce-Sti~ 1I ~I!;l. CiJ~-

cfit'le; ~OamlT():U~r ~s ('''(;msidlGNd lu ,(oore detnU In SCCti;ml '1.

mn Wlll'C p;rooessc!l" d1G: ram~o.lbGtween. II:woor iI!Il.O'lC cnl11!:poneo.l1L'J :is ifn.oro ~n'lP'O'rtlll~:lthalll tbe nbso~Ul6;wlijjJtJs o~ [00 ,cgmtmlloo VitUl.ilbJe., A. mti:o' w[[lrol1tr'i~ used fOm" ~n(;b nQ;uirem~mJ~, Am. ex:am!p1e ls d1.e~ru:J'9iF mIxture or 9. 'I:mn'ler..,F.'m e~mnp1e, the .ratio IcornrtmUer' meas-~ drte ,am O.OW ;and. '1:0I],tr-011l, dlG supplJ 'of,SiB'S M.~OO;rd1ng ~D au ,&l~:jllstablc: milo. The sflt(pOhwt of a 1i11lio ,co.lnmU.er' ls IliI.'Ierre fruife a. H.G'n,..d!_i1iW.enSI,ona!l \I.arilab,le ... '11~:e ,..ulo r3C~()r'. 'nl~ 'ratlo oontml,le_1l" IS 'wm~Jid:e:(t\d in mom d~ul~]in S~cti{ln 1.

Bfcm:ling '()OIuro'ileT:N

W,i~~a, b;lemi~fI.S: conr~(irn.Lhe proPOlijo:~S, ~o 100: mix~d :f]ll'lSit be' te:Ju ill ~. derfinoo ~~n'~gc: !SJ]nlilar tot],l'rDli,Q, CWl~ro:1.. .A iI".I!Ili(l oolurorui'et ,i~ u~1 f~r [lids i3!!'!!, a sla,,,,u(;'i;Jl1ItrutliCr 'W1~i,d~ IlUii'ii ,fj

:Sll.l~ri:rn~d ~11~!lt·er 'C(,Hi!troUer: This: s:~ci~I~~y~ olf rn1iQ oontro~I~!i' is 31 so ~r~dl ~o t:l!s: a mti.o Ic~tb;!i CfJ!1tmrn ~)r'lbl~lul_lm:G ClJnOOn~JIi, Appl.)':i'I~"g dliSROO"'~ I:lx,a'lmp]e ;of tl~oor.Mil" liD' [he mHo. C3;.IYCOO:e. lJ.e ~ml'Ul~r ,eomtroller ~s a t£l~~Ilemtum 'Cnl~troH~r' wlliich :~ue-flts II higher' tU' lower tcm.:pt:rDI.tlre roy coo~mmng 1M inlet lIIil ~iah'·C\. The· sl;!JJ.l(C cOlilIroUcr oontinues '[(]I controll the: ~nb:.fulrtC~ (fu'f.l mtlo}1 i@f .gM wiWI mr. The; bfepdi:llW; oon!nJller is 'COl~Pil:idenM.I iilfll nm~' det.ail in Sccu'OI1 '7.

'1..2;.5 ~igmulog AtCOO'rd'lHg ~g, COlunllm rm~jj

U'.tli!ng~'h~. ~:trm1p~ei 'Of a lliIe:ilt~nG cJQntm'll,cr:, :i~,i~ po.ssi1ble to' sbow ~ti1a1: 'CC'RtroUC:rs '~1311JJ be :llsS~S"cda.ccurdin.g~o the type '~~'f p~¢N~ till b~ ~il1t1u'Q~IJ~d+ jh~$~ "c(!!l1nl!l~!ell'S";DIJi1~ 1!ll~u.aJI:y equippoo w.itbl ~rdgMy annpl:~)!: struetures ood ~.Illilunbe,r of addilifimg~ ~,wj1c,bi~g,ffilt'!ictii)'~1!i~!ld spec! ~ll fll~:U;;1.i(lGlS whi:cll CDSlIilU1. be provided, ·or omly wHh grHll d~mc u hy. ~.t!j~ng ~~e .i,p'" ,m~!'I~ of 'I!; lasslcal <.Il1!J~1'i@ID. ~~biEll];J(llgJ'."

Th,e Ildlfa:m'lu,~C~ 'DfthcI ~,p=(J. and ~CKwbrnc H1Cili:ti,ct !I'rov~dcd by fro~.]y :llfOgmmIlUlb]~ ~Glnuro~lers ,ure :p;inl.cu~ar)y' evi,oollt here" penni,lting sarc: nnd tCCOIOmlcw ,iJ:m:p~cmC;IJi3li,ml or .t!udb ;s~~of";S;'pedlici\!~rn{;:~iI!.!Affi. rile: heating ,cm!llruUe,rhz. e...'1Sy 110 cxp:l3!in ,dc-spi'L'ei1ts froqm:nUy h~Sh!l)' ,com:pl!.1)l, d:es;igJal. t\h'~lo,~t rI,.'VCi':f h01!lscit(lld 111!iI,1!i;; !J! lliIearrung: '~~iIl1m:lrnG,I'., This ~~ of 00.11-' troller hus fI nU!I!l!lmr '~Jf s,lleC~al fil!l.D:eEiun1J. (e.g. ooil~r [I:HI!arn:teJrdlhmre dlliflracteTtis'ti,c" PUInIP ci.r-. cu:i~ry. ,ada:ptiv·e: Ih:ea~jlilg ~:im.e 'QL;)dl1l~1.ai'i[J\n. dfne;s,wjt"" Pro,blTIlms, c~~.) .. Pilffi1~ll:lI'la:r1y ~~!e fle;fn~ in~ (:1:lM'd(;;tt::nsruiic i:Jn,'lel1:ten~il!ld lin. ~ryheatin,g !l;lOnux',I,lc-r defhl,e~ the :f:!~t!P<lliIlU, :ro~ g~tl~mtLul1! (Il:f the:pdmnzy t'i:rollllaLi,Dfl ~~mpe~;nture of the. ]~flf~l1g W~I;eI~ (,OOj,I:C'.!' W-:d!I~r [e'i1:.~raWlre) d.c~nclt!1g, en ~ he O1!.!:i.8i:cle te!lllpe~m~mlre.

1.!.6 .DcSigrudiolll AooonJill,g. ito ,Sct,pewt 1),pe DJmd, ,source

De:pefl~l~ng !jim 'l'in,e ~,,.~and ii@Ilr;Ce or 1!~,esel:poiliU" ODr:uf'OUe~ ,can. ~Iso, be divided as fo1'loo's::

Error ~tgnal ,~ES:~

A. si ngWe-l(alIj;) ,co:n.l'mll~f w:ith afrn::wd 'or o,pt;r~toli=cQ!'Iil ro:n~'bl,e ,~Ipohn {S:P) ls rdeltrOOlu :as

. .

a ffu~cd. sc'lpoi'l1/l eomroller. The 'sm]Kij f1Jt ~~ th~re:f~ o. Oi1!i1~wn(whi,cb ~i.I;n, 'be ItnJdwied lll~ilng,

I .c " iii "·'1 'e"' .. I~. 'I.., ~.L".I;. • ."." '."".'C'C!. ,C,.c,i'",';I, ,.'-, ",i .-.,.',- ·~'II·· A" , .. ' ,. " , ......

~ '~mJ,~mJi U,IU .. dill" ., .1!lJ slI,m¥s IoU!!. u3!Slli: ,C,(fCWIl} Ch n ,~lIIlt~y. :l'JCtpOl!lh Cill!nlro~~,er.. , setiI'M.lJ1!I1 cen

be defi:!!!edat ~Il,)f ~jme br)!'rnrJ ~pcnwJr :irwlervemtiQIl.

En oor.u;ra~'t: 1[0 'Ut~, ~oo se~mmmi: oo.ntroUu de~ri'bed Hoo!!re, ~lliIe S-Cil'po.irn Sf (If n &1 ave eon~m~I~e"r i.:>. a vuri~tbh;li deri.'l'led. from 3!Jli atullog Wl~lue: arid oolilln~c'led ·bID rtih.c :pro~1l!, lihe: oriiIPn or II'h is S~!ln3] (;'·21" bee,g~ ,an eqLlla~~D:n ~OO'~i~1'lI £O'm,p!'.n~r)l~ ;Ii ch~'!Jl"l,cleri~"itic, OJ[ a :!'iieri~~!iJli:l" In.ecte:d '~on,II:t~:ne;r. Dlmc[ i:li1ipllt of 'll'lif:' !U!~llO:i III by .an(Dpt:m~o:li" ip:l:er.\'e:ruiom ~s Inl(Jl: [MDS'sib'llli,

'~:Ifi 'CO:iU'id~"( to thl!ll: sl~.ve eeutreller, ~ih~ m~~t(l:r i(loli1tm~ier dees no,~. di rer,;:t~.Y >e)l,}tput j~!';, ~1.n.~pu~ bu~d"iltiab"le (L,'t\fNi) ~o nh~ IJO or aO(Ul)tur.., 111][ ~l!!, Ol..lllpl.W[ mIDllei!j ~t~i~~d fuwLher ():w Jflt~f'"

22

'CO:ni~CtOO :l'1lJ the tCl1ll1i'ly of tbe COJIIlro~ com:elll. !For ,exnlU,ph~~lhisc,;an tm a uDiirruJmH •. ,~·te.e .. dOfl~ ct. characrerislic" 0[' ~e SCtpO~iW[ ~op1Jj.t~(ir' an;other oOifiJ~ro,I~~,r (e.;g. sJllve: OOJfi~~nu).

1im~~,.~'Cht;dl~1ed cQ~f;q-J/l:'e1Sill,~g,J'{lm amtmi$er:,r

]f 'the .5i!i[PC~ll1t (Sf} of OJ llbi~d ~(po:im1~ conmlHcf' i's, defLncd by it :se'l,Point :Sl:qlije~,~~lpOint O!ilnt!!ll:jif" ~~nllC Kheduiller Of EhiI10-c,cliltmrub:dprogf.'amICltnoCtiilllfi, ;sml~d! in ~he PLC tlf .cPU j, one:

,_iii'",,,,,,, ,I .... <iii mfil'r ..... ,- ....... nt ..... ilil .... ~ .. 'I'~I""'" sehedaled , ........ ~· ...... '-I'I,-.:r .1I~"~I"i~J w !Y tr'!!.~~lIillU11.~..J !liR-U_ YJ1II#iI,HL"'1IJ ~!I! L~ .~.!I!j;-o:;k.., ._!ii;IU,._:~_ J 'Ii.!L.Iilll~'YI\ ... ;;;,

'The: OlN' :st~aR.ts '~s-e :symlm~s w:bleb. canno:~ k d~s,pla.ycdJ~, 011' ,om].y ineom.p~m~dy!. ill d),e SlM:A.T.r:C ,graflli.c-fbaso(l etlgJ~I!U;f(fim,g ~oo'I;[i (Cite :rep.,reSCl.1tatiOA. prognn.nmll!lg e(lltws" p,a:rm1un~ri1;M~0:1Ii 'lOO~s ete .• ). lFunh":'l'mom, ~h'!l'CCinrun~fln. ·!EI'I.gUs:b. IlfId LllIte['l'la'im~3~ le!'1'111l1!i 'have ooe~ ~a_keti into' ~OThS~def;:'_dJ:i,{jn forde:Lini:rion of the ,s,IMATIC ~~r:m~., 'Them.cw deililpanon1j are (h~re:F(I~ mrrift;l~ny lba~d on .u~ iiui~mDt~m;!I~~rt1w~ at!~ (If! ~~I~ fEC' :~ ~ :;,] ,·3 :s,too'd~.l T~b[~ I, .:2 ~h~ws thereia:l:io.Bll:hip ooh¥eem ~ih,e :IDJ N studuJ!.Is ijilld ~he sYRlool~ used j~l SIMAT~C.

SlritJ~y :!l;peaklln.s~ chis, :!:ecLJ!!l1'l could .a~so be ,D~sigmed,M ~he ~Vi.fiI1some;. C'tl'JnmUem c~m, o~ eeurse nlls<l' be d!a.<;:i'il6edlaoocm~ng, IlL). thl; ~:}\pe uf' 'i'npllll: iI'nd 'GJU(ptll slgl1Hflh" 11I:i8 liS ,also UilC case :in IDIN 19'2:2:51, ,and ,alliM\~"iew ,o:nil.~ 'WriOLl,!; eo.II'lmller".i~~. pmv,idied in 1::iIS:.I.".

Por cl,m~y re'iso:ns· and because oflhe~::dG!lIi'11c:aDce ~or' F~1iiCal con1rol eng;ineering:. i1~pa· I"..I:liIl ~a..'!IjOGi is 'roSiHvOO ~.Iill lIruis hunk. wllb.:Ih, dt~ WJ'I cO\lts~du;r aU cmnnJUMlDJ, 1htedi Iu ~1rlil.D'~_N lSua:Qdacd ibut cal)' ex,laifliiii! thQ~: moSl comlWl~I)" ellCQilillill:eNd in ~~,e ind:~~miaJ cliWwimn:ment: (Jf p.rogrnnlITIuble c,ontJ!itlUern. All SrMATIC ,control, ~):Ilxiu.cn~ o,l)Br:"dte i_mm~ninU.rwitlil, d~Si~l. s,iglllilrns. Am~li08 :iililpul mool'llles (~.i8 •. 0" •• ,I,I] V,. ;[\1.,.. ;2!1J rrnJ.\) a:lihd d!igi.I:~m moolJm~ or fun~itJ!;n mmhll~~ {~.g. ~lIOod!~I,~ w~th SSI :iiHpUits" CO'!Jlllew ~~~oduile$. ~I~~) t':(l!l\'ie111 ~If!e~ wdt!e-s ~!llto dig .. it;d ~:igll,ahi iC:')mll~r diNC~I! er !.'.!sinl!;, softwaoo, fu IlCtiml8 in oOOler ~l]Il.Jroc;~~s Uum],F~I1~~r ~[I OLe erUin ~~ WG~I, ori fn~g~t fOI'im1at. OJ .as amy Oi~htr digi~~~U'y ood~ ~n'rt)tlnmlitm.

'Di,g~l~l.oo ~ma'iog ~l'ipuru.~Jgn311~ am u:red. in l'()!U'ro~ el,s~n~~riD3 (aellIDa:1 value" :8eL,poilu' il1ll:J.!:u). ·fl,g., ~.8 'SC:h~'IMU;{;any shGW~ n 'lypfcw sllsna1. 'nu~ 1~~II~lw m[ll~,e; ()f lI'ailue:s ~s omIl' rased uoca .. 'sknl!a~rny .. TIK::liIUJ:l~, fle'(ml!.t-!i!n, apflicultoo for Oml~m:]~ is Iht ~~anJ:ru!JruklOO ran,ge 0 •.. , U:ID~, C(),lnn~r si;,gnal~ are ~'~SIO 1!}!lIOOUn~e'~., m~ are of rolh~ ·~l'lQnda'ry'ill:l1\P'O!1:mlCe in Ih~ IJf,~c~jh:.".3ru control engincerins; :mH'iocilted with ~olmlnud)\lt eomtrollern, R~p~~emlad"'~, O'f ~lh_c~

2J.

RdmiI[J!R;!I~ipbc:l:wecn,llJ.lC' SYUI'OO,]S i:n lI1eDlN ~'9:a26 ~lmldJlfds ,ll:mll~l1Le ~uglllrJtions IlIiSCIl wi1lb, S,IMAT.I'(; rlOf Gonlil'ti~ i~n~nG~rlQG, ~1iICI.!l,

m

~iWb!.'!l: ,[l!tirn'l'lm II~rnN ~11J1:Z1lo ~m~'IJjC;r SWDi'I!J;\1hll' i!ii' I

liifiid

U~N ~!!JU~

!!lihm~lIl1d Hl'Iifilrn!lIJ«ruil

iIllI!mlfl!linl, I~imf.. !!;D~~;ll"J! hn"rml

~

S~I1l!~k UlII!i:'

Cv,r~u
w SI'
'" py
l{l rut
~ U.'IN
ti:p ,rmA~
Til tl
T~ to
TI UJU-\O'
'rI El"lfIIiIiI"liHl'ni. n~Uh'll ~1i'\jbj:&!Jt! ,

i'>[lin.!p~lli!iI~1 'icMbddr

l&t~t tI!!!1~. Ink'" ~ml, tl~itn nme

r,

En'liI ~ 1,1!llk '~,) ~ em errer

I..~ 1I!l.m11:.!1~('}J, "'OI.'.IC

:H~I'i1 Ihn~. i1~rI,'I'I,· di~~ !I"llomJ ! ~If

IllC':tn' 11J1n~. limlll il"(!lL~rtiUII

r,

M!!lUU ~llil~'lJnlT!1:

II!ifil!i

'M'm!:f' m,l!f!ip!d.iloo, \d::lh¢

I,~lli'ioo 11" P;M_ fM 01';'1 l'6I;ru PuJt~ ~lr.J.iCII'

[perloo ID i:fI.i)

! ~r~'j;g dl!l: • .iIii!t~1 iIiDIIil:w.1 &\Ill~n ~ :~:H,~d;'~ r,U)'C'l:lIlicrnl,,'I_lw I~DD"C~I.~.).. 'th!: ,C'OO~rnII~n! IrrtJiililRli:QJ if'! S'1"D' 7. ~ I~ too~rnl ~~:!\;I;:f.~~oo' 'mJ!>!l~le~ lAd ~;!l5.. ",1 ,!!!<:!ll! f!'limll.bil :l!1~M'A:rr!i!iiIWi_;lJRc

,I' ~f~'UiJ ~bti:! ~.m1, ~Ililil«rii!!; ('imdioo li:il!x:li!:llt~Dll; (;'fKU, (;!ti:'~~ !!Ii ~ !PeS': ~~ 'IJ"bl'i!~. !I 'nllllii:!lii1i DJ'!I!! 'fD/Dt."IJIIl, iI! ,;lib!;!, ~pxtfi~ ~lIll!:~t~ !}[Tht~lJiiG.

Iypesoif signals iif:u:':llI.Id~ the :rur:Qrilj~~i!l, Qr ~~m;tI;I: \f'mil'~e~ ~O:i' !'ipi!eGl CD~L!'OIi!l, O\DlI :hyd~ll]ffi~liulr'bi,ne.~ !I:nlll tile; >oul111!11:lo1 or: 'hea!l, qlllamu'i~:i~!! hll buildi IiIlgalJ!g,'lnmal~@IIiI. lFi'S.I • .9s:'hiOW5, II~,G PtIJS~ :Il!:ig-' nal ~SPOlllse ofa 5~r'i:lil,·Cioded. bl-IlI![i1\Y si,gtlnt

A 'OOIiliIJC,Uer' Wtth ill oontJIlU,{f!li 'cu~p'in ~rujgnal: lsreq,tl1iredi ~i!J' drive: ;tlillalog :ilC~t!_aiOO[8; (,0', •• ~ ()j)o%" O. ,. ,', ~ ~JV; 0.,. ,.2i01.R1A or 4,." .. 20 :nv\). This Cll~tpllt function rep,Rsents the basic Form. o(arf' all fur""

";-h -'. ,ii, !Iil-, . ~ . 'i"~ .' ~.~., . 'I~'" . ,'- '1'.'" ~, .. ·'1' .. 'II j, - .,11 b , ;l,L,,- . '~I ~ ,'I .. -c· .• :i-i "!;i' ti_ L . N oon,m~~c:r OOillPU1~ ~'llOeua:nB" me ,Wl::l _ og va~ue ca CUi!l3~f;lu ,'I ~~IJ:; C(Ul~,fO(! !]I _8(1" !Jlm ~._ OU~-

pUll: ililth_e set .ran;l:e standlumized fm:r~ 0% .•• + ~ 00% (in. indi:liid'wd cas.esa:1so ... ~ () %, .,." ... ~, 10%) Of' -~OO%,.".4-HlO~. Thtl' SIMATI.c l.ml:1~mm~tm; alway;'!, ¥.-'Ott: ~c'C:{)[dJim,~; u, l~~ pcl5itllJJ11 ,a~80!ri~bI111. The:speed ,algorhh mknowWl, ~ro!l~ SIM:ATIC ,S::5 :is no ~om~r ,ell;)eelued, in ILffiu~ SIMATIC 8;j1', 111~ pos;im:i(!!!nl <lilg~rh'hm ~3:1culHte:s II 'crmll,iill:m)1JI8;,31i1~liln,g, outlNJ~ s:iglllal~ the speGd a~8mithm calcu~;Jtes, a. diiffer.en~Su;led O'ililpu~. ~~BIlUi!J11 and ttl'u's, {nltpu~s po.sidoo:ioB; ~nere~ :rm::Ii1~I, 1'H ~im~ts of the mlmipml;atcd. vw;;obJc ,output eaa be 1i1scr;.modi:ficd rill' 'IOOan:'l, 'of' the

--_ .. , ... ~,~-- j~'I!1- --- ~"---'" lI'--~-c. .. " ... 1 '''~ .... , -]'"' -"-: --I",-~I ~. ]1 ·8' .~: c w- ,,,1"·-,' . d '. - ~

~rer~ 'ppe:rl:llllitU, . iIiRUC:2111Wt..l;;!!!f'I!If~:r .Ill1!1!lm, W W ,,("IS:, ..' S:i1O' esa ulgl,'UI)ii!i ifIIl~Q:I()g

:s,i~"I~ (If CO 1I-' mnl:Q-g 5< vaJ\!J(l ;ru!!d~lmc"discteK:. This s~cp,ped Si:gIHI-1 ~s so fine: in modem ~ot~trol

III the .. 111

SysteJ1lS ']~at , ,response 18 qI1llIlSL·'M~-,-,Og.

TWo,-s,tt:!p ,C:(JJu,roU~rs'

TWtF51C'p' oomtm]lus (~lii~!It :feedbm;k) ere :fRqueot1y u~n~mnod tQ be 'pUR BDl:ilt si,gnu:] ImnsmitlGB w~[h ndj,wsuliblc 'll,ys1~ruis Il8show,~~i:m 'Fig. '~ .. 1..o" Thts~ype of oonooUcu;' doo.";, nrH, kfoog '1:0 tho groll, of P1 Ii) 'COlItro~tcr&~ oorKI ~s '~~n:mm'ly 'emir to im;plcment U8i:1~S op!JD,-b.lO, ool'iillUlll~dm.ol(Jgy eq,Ui,IMl1t The,]! are om~,Y ref'e~, ttl I!u~rc :fm' oomp:ldeoess millS-GOS, ,WliJ 'willi not be dea1li: :~unlhcf' ~n tb~s 'wIfil5jd~tiiOti.

P,I£) ,:tI.1;;'ilt;ilJ:l!8'c'·()J.I'trotle,r/j'

T.I~ PIV' ;s,wjl:c:1ru~flg oo,luroUerg, am oftt!n des.i:gflllt~d ,a:s ,co,lum:I~e:rs wi~~a, 'pll .. rn~I)Huse,-l1mdn· ~Ilrcd o:r f:lulse~w~d~h·lnQ(h.!llmoo ,Ilnnl,og s~gl!lal:ll or."aooomrnn,g, ~o' the DIN :~ 9226 :sttm.dard, ,11.~ "controllers wwth di KWllitinmcuJs 'lJutI11!1~: S\ign:ill,"., A diffe:wrniti:ation :is made hetween P'UJ. swit:ch:iog '~(m:Dto'J1cft whil1l t.Wl}mS~p Qetlon I(alsol reierred to :a,.~: pulse CODtmU~IU;S, in lilhc

"

srMAT~C t\!nni nornn~~) ,IlMId PIO' sw he 11 W 111 I: 'C(HltroUeH wHlli ~m>e·Jst~lP acti'lln., ''I'bt'l' ,coe:troUoo sys~~rn hiiC:II~di,~g ~hC:HCul'.;nml' 1klICI1'mines w~~icb of ~Ea,~ twn oolmtmllers is IIII$edi. The fUll swi[~h'i~g ~QfUronerw~th 'lW<l,J~U~p w;lifi!~ is llI~ed ~t'I.r ~"Q~1IroUed :.oy~~ems wili~h ,3 :non"i f1tegm~; iIi',~.-,;ponse.aiUld the 'PlD sw[~!::hlri:g) rCf)'mllm~~er W',iil'lla, th~"S'I:Cp a>etLmll fot ~lU8Jtn:n; witnl'l1, an ilru~ gml oos:rmnsc,

:It i~, nm: IllwlaiY;S. i:1~Sy [0' immedi,i~ilitll~y .~C:i)gni;l'.e w'tle,lJu~r; ~n .{jc~.tI~lar Oil' ['hep~oci.!ss :~~p'jiil !'l(,':: :is stl~-Jm1~.elmU~lg IOl' not A~ Ln'l~grnl ,(,h.oldlllg) 'rtSPOI:])[!Ji!: may 'be l,lidd!!ll SOflt~bere: :i-n, ,3, sequcnce of p;n,),si;ca:l oomvmi,Qns ~e;l~;;(.~I:ricai 'e-ner:gy wnt'" ml:a[JlitUl., :ro1;aJt.inll i [l1~~l'p~~~'itio,p. :pu~illon :i[l];tolcm~rnlllJu-c ete .. ). ~Ilcll thiis die~emlrune:s th~ s~:ICCl[,mll !]if' ~lle eO:Jlltl[iollme]'olJ!ltput. ;~n:'lIDC(·U~'" Estfi'bli,stliTh,ef~t ~f lh~ !;i~wc·'~1!t're to k ~I:eCilcd ~s II~cm~k 'o~ til(:: OOgi1ls~J(lini:iig ~n!.\lfuficer ,a~ ~'h;c mC~~~fii1icall~Hgj~.eer! [f th~ ph,ysicru e"ec~:o:r linked a(tuattfJl Qjth~~ s)'$tc:m respOirlse' l5unclear. ,clarity' C:J1l be ficlueilad by ~a~lJliftl~lh~ system 'Cui tow,ifig ,a p:\lll~~d ctum~ge •.

'('tie f(d]c~iliug cases ~re shown in Filig,;, :~; l l:

'" F(il1Ii(lw~l:lg: line ~e,mpel':'il'u_(\e rlse ,ill1JJ 'lbe ~mitggc:red stat,e. the II,em'peml~Jre [tll~s;_tgahii ~n. Case ] :FnHowliillig sw'iu:!bi "g...of:W" and a:,p:pmac~.e!iO the bliLl:am V,3~1l~ asa:il:l.F'00:t11 tempe!'1itu~), "le: el1lef<gY insened ~n~~ the system is flollrol:ainoo" Thf'ougll, rluUIi'liOl~ and losses, dl\'~' iiOYRtem 'strive,s to och~e~~, :i~lli ori,ll;i,r:nd em'f!iiU',MY level" SlI!Ich a fC;;'i.p;lit18C 1,!"lt':k1!lId! be C1;:!I1Jilbited h, UMI '1;;100·' '!'jlilc{!Jl ~~,earuet trigg,:ereil1by a re~lay. This is thc~refure a m.]:I'i,-~nt~~I!~ffi'I~: sys~~m, respense,

~ ~Ill Ca~ :2! th.~ :syslem l:enla:iIDlS a~: ~!le8flll.ifmliwd t~,m;ptn':aluro ruil;wl!, or js ~WD ll:li:.re,EIISM ,d~g~Uy (~b~ 1l1;'L~t :is ~'arrn~d 'i1Ifp). Th~ (UWIigy .illoor~d. WIlto i~e ~yBite'm Is rfcl;aiued" Such a :~!!~!Ii.~ oou~d 00 ge-:m~ra'!~ b,' a '!MlOr-driv,ecl!i ~le3tin!: .. ~lve" Tilg,e~s:eV<l! l'4!S: <l(!)jlllS!t ~'Ile RIIlW '@,~:Ifl iag by meuns, !!Jf a :sp~ndle df~V\l: wllti~h relillliiilin~ ~n its current po~iruioJi'l, W~,lelJi ilIl]~ dirive nl@tOI" 'j~ f1tfilppcd. 1l1£: ~l:lregrn'l res;ponsc: of II]ai:!!l, :~y~l~0.11$ g.~fle:ra:IOO by [~e a~LI.!i!lti)'t

·~..._-------, CaS'S '~I

~,

IBinary :~nal

:21

N,u~'~' TIUlf'e' ~ ~I G '[IVr:li:C~5~1Il' I,~'!;d co.lumlLen, ~~~iitll, .hem:J:omQ~UJ:I~od ,~I~i!·widU~ 'mOOU~IJ:I.iolrn (e .. ~" ((I'll a plmst'DCS e.'ttm(]i.!!'1. "~:i:fii Js ne~u3l1y :lIi.p.lIH.mm!1! cOllirollcr (!l~~ .se~"l ill'" 7,,5) with '~~ I ti~ ~~n~nlU:iffi for l~n~3~ ilH,[;, ~ f001Jl~~.

f,ID sw$,,,h,ili'g controllers wilh lwo· .. 'uep lJclritm

Tbnt!l: I.S :all s.wi:l:ern-.;ilg ,~o.luroller w~,I;b twn.sl,ep :l1ctruOm1, I~(ll' oU!ipnt respO$l~e" 'wi,th l1:ul~~ .. w,idth m1~oo:I@I:~u~@ft1 )., '[n ~~ D[N ~ 9126 ~tM!d·@_rd!, th~s s'lg;IUil ge!lc:I'SiU~n :if! mfc;rRd t@, ~SB ~~:loor:ltffin~ UO~,!l, :!l"~'lo,G s~gI'!:lI .• As s'h~WT:! i ~ F:ig,. :1, 112. :jl ~~ntrn~:leill' wIDth :~n ~na:IQg Olll'!J~l)Ijt p!;l.~~s om ~ll'd:s, 'WJ~H~ 'L,M:N 'liO a ~rU,·es.-conli1ected pll·lse .. w~id'l~i moo,'lII,alior, "nib; :ilnIJ tum convertfi 'lIle '~lfJa'lo,s' '~I.In~ rulUo' ~ roiJ~3r;y sigfThal w~i~h iis 'Wi~ood te, a ~wi~c:I~li m,g., il!.OI~·i'~l~rnti.D,~ ,~u!atc- lC'~ m), "Ii"iIi.es - IID-· ... liill~-'-f11liLijJ.,·f;,vl'l c,h"-.c <i",':iIDilm': wi'l:!: I.'FI~.·- 'l'iNO ·".C s,,'f-: .-~ IIO·'-'-"'''"~I,: ~~d. iIi""iI"I}10·<~. ii,I\-' ~' •

.!!WL .. e _re _"lJIIJ!t!l!J ,,/ ,_ Lc __ rung W.L ~ __ ~ _n.y . _ [pQ~Ul'lm \ p",w","" ,[Jse_~ V,11l!' u~ !.:i,,~,,~_

'1IJ;1imes-· ,'1-el'lIIde' ,oon-a ~~c- -"_ -'"nlO':'!il -,-'-c,'.I.:-c-me--"d '",a'I'Ii'~';' [;md c:1e:e-'c'"- ",--"- I:'.e-~e·-c'

~ IL_~e HL,_. __ , __ !'III_r:,~OD'S., reJ~...)' ... [!Ii'lIIIL_", ~LIIOL . __ ... ~ , L_lfIC ~lrlp IlL';k_fS.

TIlLe Rspomc of tllils sip;oJJ ,se~lD,efnU)r means mIt 3 lieu o~ elIl€IIIY is inselil!Cd :iIUO me: :sysleM if" the l~rru.sge.rh~1 i 5, per,liI1Il:loe!m'I:. Th~ p:uI~[HNiidJtllil, eonl;''C'rmer dhdd~, ~e timfL! 3<:4Js, ~n~o ';'qll:llly ~arrg= s:edi!J'M, (pcif~od, PB~J.M)" arn,dwri!;ls ~flie on and ali dilfr~U(lm~ wi'lblm '!hfjse sec(ruO\nl:il.. The: .s:m~Ueli t~is ~riod c;~m. bemflide:, Illhe fru~er ,~ ne,w analog vaillUi:' tam be nUlp'ped im birnl.MY rmrID,

t·," Ii - ,,1.," '1 i/O: . I., ,. ,', •• '1 ". ,~ r.~·1 L' ~".lI

. ~1ITIU1Uli iI!lippw), ID.O (uUl! M aresu reo {h 1.I;I(.l: CD.rli\1leBI.Orli iIlc~lI:.I!mcy. Silml.Ofe'ul'!l': :nSlltlS, :mu, .I:W. urug t.'U,gcs

of ~~e-p.· iJIi~":':C ~NIiU'C- ces MI!.t"m: be oonlJloru~ab'lei- a '''':. .s. d of'ii'fiPr1cdfl 00 ',~~ ~ilille :;]CCiln,:~n.t ;]!, c u·'~,.

---,.-~- '"'--ru--lli!--" _::1_ ----- _. __ R __ gIl_ il'"",---,,1 ... ' __ ""'" Lq __ W

m~lIIt, ~s. ~ .,' Ol:le n:'f.e.1ll! I~@, Hl~ r.ifSOl,l!IIt~Qn ,11m the, bi!l[LlrY ClilnitpUt. Tlll;~ cml~m;.1 Inoo!1IJ les 0:1' ·Ilm'd, .. wa~ (of:lllmUe:rs exJbi'bi.l: a i5iigl1li fi.caun: :ad va'lua:g~ h~frie 1C{l\m~~ lIn th(;.sofit,W'Ij!~ velrSions, s;i~[lc~ 1~I~y ean ru-sol,v.~ ~h~ d~i§lru~~d mdpUt ~03 :f,~:w tnni'm~~ccmds or'~lf€!n less, '\~h~~Gis, II~a~ OOfl: .. , w~'i'~!'5i;llns ~ I h1i~d tOI the IC:ll'cles of th~ ~1iI~c;rru'l me~~ds ~nd lhefe!fo~ p:ll~~dy mqulfll I) sigl.iJifi,cu;(~l po:l1'iQlri. tlif 11'ltc: ,1)tm:I}.'ioor ,e~pll.ci'l.y jUS[ :f(l(~ 'Ute :pll~~e B~n!',lm'lJliolb!"

8~)I""

..

00' ....

u w'"i' ~I' "'1 '~''::'''Io.I~ ~ IL.~U "_ !~~'nl F>'181",~~a gy '<;11" NlI~ ~1l'!I! rn 1.J1!.U

40 ....

~

.~O~

- '~~~~~~~~~F-~~~-----r~~~---------+'

~ ~ I I ~

D ~ ~ 00 100

-

, i

I

iii

- ..

I I

_.,.. .. ~ 20

O.2'·II'lER_ TM

~ ~

{I'.S· ~FI;_ m

I I~

40 60

.....

I 100

(jI" ~., ~ieFt,:rM .....

Figure I,.n

F!lillIlClit'lUili ,00f.::1 )ID Ise.wi.dlilll moou:I:i'llrnl' whi~!J gt'!lli1!rlBli~~ n ~\Io't];.:srq ootioll. f~r :milfl.iJiUcS!l'-till:img 00Ili!'(!~ from ~1il~!1~I08 maniil,pu'Ii!!'I~, '\!',ru1ab'l; :!>i:gmd (L~1:N) of l! :P,ID 'OO!1!tn:I!I:.:m

PI1J Yiwitchifl8 C(}IUlf{~11t~f';J,'W,jJ'/~ thf'(;!~b~t(f'1l ,(JC'lion

A s\vil:cli!in!S CC~IJ1lfOUe'1 wilt. il:ttme-s.te·,p ~ctiol~ '1'lilg@:et5 !iCtliD~avs 'with an .lll1ilt'gml, re~,pon5e (P:ig, :1. ~ :1 C;)tse:2 )., 17,1£:. ~. W 3, shews ~ p,n) ,controller' wi1:h sericcs,oof!1J1cctet1J si.glli1ls~raemunr '!N~Ul1.~_) biu>3~y 00 tpl!ll~ [01 "inerc3&e"'(,QLMNUP') IllUm '''die~N&~er (QLM__1~D]I,,~l Ex:~Jnp~~s o~' such .rJ;~ IU;(tl!m:'. i n c:lud~ mQlur.;~CII!l;t\I@d POl~iU!I'i(iimeteFS! irI . .muf~ri\i'e~ 'Vil]¥e~ aliJ;d dl!'!mpet:!j;~, ~lllU'irrl'i~l1~ dam~pers e'IC.

TilliS 1:Y1~ of ~~:\!,d~chi.l1ig control ler h!i~'" been ]m;re.asilliglly Itppl led since: il1R:; :1il:iI~RJdJUB;C:tn (111 of mocl:~dllr {.';OinI rol .!i!~ruc~IIJ.!~, ill II be' :«~nwa(~. fOIf switc,~_~ ill,g ~c\n'~m] Ic:r"o'i:. A C!(l[:t!tin!l(~usc{mtroUer ls ~ben fc-lIowoo Iby 'l! ~Qiflwarc moo~I.1!;; whJc:tw Cf!~~;r!Jllnt~s pll1be~wid~h m«lul,M:iO:Ii!I de,pendJf!g om, the ~,I),phd s:igJud (ILMN)und liltlJ~pMlS. billar, si\!ll:na]~, A pmi tion [~dhct :;igmtl ('froXlT!J tb~ ~S;."il. ,Of simuru3!l:ed) can 'be' cGl!rn«teti ~o the ~rnmete:r t.NMfLJN on tllijlS ifunc~,i()nl blocik .. ''lIhe' [p1J]11 se;.IIi,Wicl!I'lru ,~~;nlwn~r (pllilse,·widl'h ,llludurna10l) thl.l:IlJ ope Itil res II'S ~1.!1>i'llJbcnll'i:IlI1~I,~G!'~)s~t~nll1 CQIlIf])I.c.ircl!!iilt wJlichrm:c:i'lli~ i~:s po~i~jonl ~[pain'1 f:OO!ti ~Ili~ sel!iiClls-OOl1mec~edl (P~DJ' ,~o.n!:f1lI.~e r:,. C:OI1TI!PH(iC~lhiIS. 'wUh the posml>'JI fe~biU;ik 8JIl nl~1 from the .vroce:;l~';~ ~nd th~u ca1cUll.l'ltes the: pulse w~dth~'if~:r npe,nJl:llcrea._~afl(l~:IGse/deci:ei1st;,.

Th,c ft:.Spo(nsl.': .ai' thws ~igm}ll g~ll~m~DI only :illlsms ,cine:rgy ,iDiW lileooe or otJu;r; 'pos:itiomilnG. dll'!ecdc.m iflleilP,plWt '\,rnr!"~ailtllc chanC~s. The:[~s;ller the: ,:u=~:lUliior can. follow the inptlt, ~he flihf.l[ll'Cr ~lJe :po:;,:jluno1img pUii:Se:i" This ~i,gn!ilsener:amili tI~refore 'requ:ire-.'1l time HC~I~U'lh)iIi :mnni n~ MTILrM: (l1lbe d'umltml f")I~rJ omnli']~w~y '~I;'08~d 110 ,co'l~~pl'cte:ly nl~~11 (40 :in, the ex,amille} l 'In CUlcl'll,3~e ~(!i 1JlOO](i:unirnlg m[J(;rer:m:nts:.

O'~~~~~~~~-r~i~-+~~~~r---~_' 00

QlMHUP' ,

o '~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~j~~~~

II} 2'1) 40 6®i 00 100

labMN.DN

o 'i""; --""""'l~:---"'l""'--""""i!i---""""""'~~"'r-~--"""_.Jlooo_ ...

10 2.0 ,40 61]1 80 '100 Tiniliel [all

[ii'gore :]',[3

n~;OO1ilfJ!n, t)lf' a, (I'1!1I_~' g""'1\llo"r.ii!ltNWIrJl~C'h ~f!!~~,t~}i. ~I thn.·(N'Ii~' f!Qi]en, ri{~ i(l.t~:g!1~Mng !lC~!UliOI11 :~m;(jll an ",,1)[log m!liniplII]!l:t~ vilrinb~\Il; (LI'I~N) of:3 PID o@II~ft1l]e;r

- .-:-

.:- - I'

, .

~

'r;;J'

, .- . '

,- .

"'It .• '.:::':i~~~_-_. ,r·' ··f· 'SIM·· ··.·;.:T-)';C.· le-- , iII,~ -cl p.-.,- .J~~ ~"I ..

Ai., LlllmDla1',y'~ .•... , , .. _. 111. I. ,'. _ ' '. 1.Dll!,ro ,. rOu'lu.;.~

Thm>'le 2. Ii provildf~s a C()at: ·e;(DI\"eili'Vrn~W' .of tlliu~ control, pJ!iOOrucl's, bel:ong;!lIlg to [he: .sUJmAl1C S1 'iUfiI',B'e.

1bJbl!!il' 2.2 li[its CQntfOlp~!Jcts from '~lwe S ~p.ARr 'ORpr-oo~ss, ,co:!1~Ug;r m!l,~~' which can ~ C'@DJ:l~[~1i ~:O3, hosE SlM . .(UC S 7JC7'/P'CS1I'INlnA.C 'lPffill[ilL~ Prollib:u;s ~m~er:Fa~'C. 'The e~~~mc Ctnltip1Ct oof.lii:r.{)ml'~Ii!l, 'Illf ti'ie SWART' 'DR :ti'J:~gllil rn!11!rrgad1f-j~U-III:'\>~ iCo~~m~ 'ulli!lirs, for '!TiUQ,)' ;:lip PIDil-' ~a~'ions, Th:ei~' ~a_iDJ~ Sg'I'O~ :r1l!'i~'li(J\!w5, :mgaIDl~ ~ey ~;:m d!)mlUJI;:h rniJre dl~fW ,JlJ5i ]00, ICQ,n'iro'l." Ex~mpm~ :fieal, IUC S, :l.'lifCi thi: i:Jl' l:l'ig)la, f1e:xlbi I iii,)!, :;}nd :sinlp~emailillnrlrniII.lB.AU ~~lese c:on~fOrn ullll_i~s ha~' if! =-t':,~r.S/~~ QpenU(!l(U'i:rnirerf!W'~' :fgr local QPeim1 ilJlJ1I, end o,plk"1al i r~~erfacl.:' c~Jftls f~r PROFJDUS :IJP oomnil~lions. They C3f;I ~herefClre bB ClJina~:p'le'l:eruy ~nle:glll[~dl 'i!~D.'In 11l1~ SndATrnc w@~md,

1.2 Selecliom, ,of COlllm~ Pmd:uct

The d~ti~!iO:I1II liD h m~dll by :a.plilinll!l'il~g el1igim.ll~r corrucem:lllIlg tllile Clontr1Omltilf 'tiO 'br.l. t:Jised in. ;],pm[IDculW" pmjee[ ls II.I:UWfn:l1ilJifliEIIlif!rny freqm;:.l1iIJy ,i:nflruemted b'y elI.'I:emaill pr-e-SSII:IR:!l" TtLe blnlg~l'I,

:1:'Ul ("[mIml i'n :51·;!UUi

ll'!!~ u ('oliL'I.~11 i;n ~"'E'li>"

'1~n)1 (,'un:l"t:'i!!Il fin, 'CFt"

:PIDllI"'fi'lllll~WJI;. II'u"re Cml~iIru~' ~Ilil :.'i!!""n~t! "

S~rn[1]c ctl'lMrol l~{Ii In S7.~IU wllall Inl~g~1 i.!ilt~~!Jl.!inol;l.r 1:4, ;md hJ,I!;hl1'r~

SVi,f I C!iI!UP om! ,ul. S:'fE]i' 1, V:U 5P J l..:M, inl.Cr'l~umlo.:l:loli'I 'l..W'crhell.tl!, ».Ltnp~.c

rund iniglU-f ~ Fr~,!;. ~ulilJ [llIr.LFDlelt:rb;;;t- hal1d~im~

I~Or:l S'\V,

f~D ~!I!!IMrollu w~th i;rnlie;m~ iPul~ G.!::n-cml.!ll" wn! M:! r"'t\!nilll:E., ,I~ktll~ !l!e~]o~ for iemper-IlU n:i ~oo~1

~IOH~Uldl~~rtID 1:'11ll1 ('o[l!trnl

:!nw iDl:lth1Jruil ,p;:J~i\.:ISI;:!~: FI1i!io. Ilmn~tlle· I:f."'Jdll'·U.l'·1U~~' I!..~nml'l!~ "i.i!t!C'lUn~ widl ~inlrT!!

l~i~liflf! !ioh~"'l1!u. cliN."i!I', manu Itl :1ntl nn'i'ement pwdmeu:m'lI! i'l;nI

:1"," '~Il~.!lI'QI~~r ..... llli pml'c'(in.cd "C1ll1uml :!'!IU.ctUI'iU, r~r IrrlPl~ liD m~'l.W1m MI1U'l'll1 wla 5 ~l!]nll\!r~!l

i\'1,00J1I~· r l~.IU "!l!!'!!!,ool

:sw OJiHI(I:I'I;~I.pt1C'bgc.. .... : 1;1;l:~. p:iml1l~- M:il'llmlltln II'lilt:IIlW)' '1i'eiIIli'f'~m!lnl'll,O, willi

1~j!'lr.!;cli'i:jjJ ~\"JII9ib reo ~lIxtr. man !Jil~ ifi1!lli;imuliflllf'l'!." 1~llit}'

h,llodtal!11" ~r:m:1I f~!' ~Ul.Pa_'" l!IDl'!uo'l t!!.!I~ t(lrnttnimt'!.!;ffl r.!l'!,mIDq ~!.!iremfliJ:ti:!l:~M(!I !1!llIllmu(u R\ntimfh ~~ '~;I!;~.mpl~.,

~'H[ll

~~. 'If·.'hwru:"

S'\1I,." O,purm!l! J,lud Dlile: F!l ... ln.d, elee- (ll1!1 i! [e ~~'r-nl}l:lUni,!l'Uitin!l -r(~~ .ulll l'll!l !.''O!'!f-

!oon rc m4m!!.l~ tr"Qn~!,j;:

]::lJjI1 r(If,~~ullJl;l:! I!oi(.lU-O,lin'imiiM 1l(,pID' wnPI!'!r.nLu!1: Co"!llroll~ ean b!'!"~9Jbll'li"d, ""il.i'l! Stllli!il~ P$ MC!I\Iu~:ttr 'illi C'ul'I'bil'l1 w FM vi.l e. ... =amllll~~

,:!irtP1L~1;j1b ~.~. lIlD!,;;

H"~" ~r~I,I\C! IlJn !,"OOIll]~ ,1111 LSr.·· ,p'I.ml. Hi,tJ,11ir. ~;{~el ~iI!di f~J:o.~: i'ull~~-wld! II IIWl!;lu 1.3-

;,]lbl't=· i~rt 'l'fth!!, , 2t.J{aS, ~ i~~n -

I '

.2-.t:h~.IHI!g'IIi!'i-(..w;uihH Ijl i (:;m, Q\l~IU.!l d:~ribulid.IPl!ls:i:"""'id~b,..:l\DlYJQlI.I!i!~ \'IJiiu ", irl ewn~

jDl~I!lILl'iIl'l'I witili ~JI:tw~ Ill!fI:T1~k~! ~~. fillir lril~ ~li!riJl; stillli~_rn!JlII!..~lttli ~~.ml~I}D'

r~:135SC IrlM l.!lt; s

H\JV f0.11 J!l,~~ C, R\{11S.~ S ~vrth lc~ml~gll- Bai;kup 'Cllp;Jhlli~~, t,I!'irlrl flnc~ 3S" for FMI l~S

b.'lodiJlt'i wJ]h l'.i't'I!1il~1~~d ~1!I1I .• ~.!!iQ'UJl);I~ mI~ blClrup ClP!lJLIml~ f6rrell.Jll.M ~tG:!p i:U CfJt1 full U m, PI D t'oIii!Un'l~ h:r ,rM iJiI111;f~ilStti 'rippJ icullcrfllM \\'l:'lIls 1.~illf.1U1I1j1ll: r IlIU~ it~nil!peltl ~lLm

\,ilfU!!1JJ I~. uDlnml 'iimlm::lnll' 110 .

~M l5..~·,!

"M 1~5.,,! 5,

1-1\\,' ('tlnunllr;:: r !l!t'!\hdc 'w;I ~h ·~rllill! .. r~~· Sp~if~~r'.ed fnr I!,:q~pe.l utlre ti.:'iiliIU'ml. I i.t'lil

Ii rm 'p!l~k'.,,~~ eomm lJil'l i{ilf!iin~. h~!lh iitCliro r.J!i~)1

EnhnTloo:d rn~l~ !'!"ithifU~IIil~U~pa.a mi~li.Qn QJ OI!l!1ImIl=d ~m!mo r~f l~n;nP!iI1l!UAm. ,[JI~ rOf l1~odnl;~~'a),1li IiIg ~ ~~I ~ fUfl11lll r~rn::ti~lfL'I~ ~llLln I~I OiJ.IIIi, t'iUfl1immQ·· rI'! ~Ui~~on ul P CJQ"lp}iln~m ~o ~lfOifn ~rongh gtrw.! fl!:mb.~~ !;if"illiKlh. l1iall·~~y ;mJJC!Ij ~nFUI.~

l!\'\t' W!M -ISS· C, f:;.;I. 45:5 S, 'IW:i:ch ~Ii~. B~kllr ~prltli lin;~~.iIJ'JlI;e.gmJ (111111 ne sci f-

ur.J.lim~ p~llll:~ fur FM 4~5 u~Ulil!:J!! il'lJf r.!ll'iiJ !;:nnfllJl1 ,,,,';i.lJ1 ~!!~ L~r ~flI'!Hl!)1 :\olfli,l{'mU'~

Im3£ll1ii;I'l,~'C)ml!i![D'iLlCll:tOn s~ci fiC,3[[OnS :ud ~~dlI'.:US~mlng:r rroqU~l.." fre~l.!:Ii:'nU:y 'thW3.1i1 thC·i~tttl:IIi' 1!:edh1icIl1SCII QIlrtilQ)Q'·" HO,\\YJC;V1C!i:. :such IPfi}:S~U~~ '~~i It rntQllk C!Jii~5i.d~Rd :in thc~onow~n:g elabelmli.o.ns,. amd the .ideal erue of r:ree decwsion.·.ma~d~.g wm k DS!1'UJmc~l The d~ejiilh"i:l cril!,crin, IFtl~ se:l~c~]J:1gthc: ,colJlitrol, pmd!llJct· arm::

:u

- ~l'!Idusl.ir:ila.l oI:(l'liro"ll",,: ,,..,..,. I' 'o:~11 '''''''1"",1 i---c'r-Ilc n--:, ~'rl' il. S ~.,- c' c.., ~ ';jel!.", C - I'" -- ·c 1

___ -_- __ , ' .j _ ._ ._"_ :L..-., ,I...... """'... ..... .. _.,.1~ ""r '1'<11 _11 _Ill ''_ ,,;I' ~!;lo.;pnlJhi', ~h~lIOir QOO-. !IUIOIl,l5:

~hioo, ;[!~ !;q.!,I_~,p.m!i:lilt, Q1i' di~"ut~ru,mpt!i Igy-!PY~, ~ul~; ,,!1:riiQi!J!l< :~d~fin~

rol!l!~mK~.~~n aPfiluicMill1in~ CiOIlW] MfUI:cltli:il'S ..

~C'ss. controller' ~Or :sim· ,:S;pcJDOCI ,ooil'titl~l~r willi 2 ~[:poilUlli., ,e:itl'i~r COfililil.iOO!l: p1~ C~.:ltOOpl ,eornwl", ' IiIr di~i;l~timJou!!i IOUlput'>, '''o!U.ijol.!!li prt&:llnl!:iI 't:·OffiItml snue-

,s,'PC/DOC'i 1!:l0;~1~~ with f.il!::niiily liM' lfJ;l'ti~nrullC1mn@Clhm of :Sl!!~,ptll!i:lllt; l!:i('~1' CO:lltlfllllOI,lS m dli~fil'il'i'iilfullIYliI~ OOl]ruti>!,

vmi.ous ]Jl'ied,din.cdl ~1l111:rn~. !l~IUf1"9. -

:2 ;indE"""~n!; SfiCIDOC!1 C r-o " ,-, ,- . _Ii.e ' 1I!o"'"

_ -If'" - - - - ---- - ,p- ~ 00fI fl; IJ!oiI

IaPlioITilrli 'CfJ!PiilC'C·tiYIl raeillilf ftir :g;1I ~~$S, \i'-alu~ ,~i~ ¢cmtiOUl:_Ji!,!!iO O:~ dli~mIin'!i!"l'!:R~ OOlpt:r:tS, predeilin!!d aad expa1'ld~h'I!!!, 'l;untnl1l; S!lrU(iU~,

iPwCG5o!l. 'CQmMn~r' f:r:JfIilO:.m~~x c~lw;.e(J..'loop' ,rmnwls:

m~llfufl.!llK:tillm mdt '~~J];J'·CI:_nll}eotlhtc' coowl

I -

I :I.uul ~h;::~lmioo, ri,!iflit" f~~r

, iCiompiJ'ex crG£OO.loop ;(''r!lID'M.

I!;rol m~b I

- - -

'1111~ ~~i-!!tloMl~ ~r>c ,i1ndl Dlx:'~!t • n-i!I 1'1 !!I ~.'~',~ p~~ ~I~. ~ w ~~i.M!! 1t'lI~YITl.': !k~lll '~F! 1~1i::' ~km '·'f'}I~t.l1:!u: I'II~ O-~!Ii proo.~~ c;;1fi~iW·.

.. R-eqi)jJrC;~llts (Df th~ preeess (l(:;on1m~1 5truCtl.:!I;('lS, dynamruc peNunMDee and posslb~:r mnfllUi"

e:IlCCS 'by on~er p:roccss, 'wtiabLils}

• Cooml~t~g;IJl ,s.yste:ml (P.ROf1l13US or cenltr~II"a~~IQ,g 1/0 CQ1nloct~o;n)

.. Qlll1!l]ilj~,)" fmmewmk ::lind d,,yml'ff:I,ic per.fomu11i1.oc :reqU~[~GJ1£!~t:::, of ~ht ,cantRil. sysoom .. :R~qJI!t_i:re!)JeiJts of 'th~ ,~l11:E!il:Or:s, ,and sensors I!!SOO

,II Cffil~~Jl q~ulli~;y ~q~lwJTe'm.erwt~,

II S:nFe.ty :r:cqlllll'tfiOOUI,'I;.~ ('e.g-" bfK.:Jk~JiP :s:trn~,giiCs)'

• lOp e:ra'li 0 1:Ii" viSl!larniml;ioBI i:i.:md dJiiita flliimilLe,emCn'l: :~qli1!UiC~f~t!!; ('vnljooli.o!:!~

'. 'R,~{'I .. ,l.aiinunf!iil1t"i (Gili' nexiibiU'[v .. · lured !li~:II,.~(!uent' ~~:"'II:'fic~full;\f',, .. i'il)"'iffil' i~-!- -'-,-;"-C-- cl'; -'-,

'1: . "'. '" 1,iI_ ,,1,- - - - . ~.'!vr..m._ - - -- .. _~l _... !!!! l"oo(l!,]-~ , !!J!JJ:DIllllg, n!I[hJl me.

S.LmolltallJcul.:i& ,cIlR!jrnoomlio[l of IfI!~ ~hul!lc 'GUlll.dlli:OIllS us~aI~y' nllmady fuJls dlllri'ng [[u;: pIJalil:l'IJi,n~ phase <of II -prilJ:ect because mlh:e reqllliJred ~n~omlrujG:n CrulIOO[ 00 ,o~i'med from. the end, eusl!Dmer:. Th;~gnly cb()~,e ,a¥:ru~ab'Je to the pLm:lnlng en,~~n~['i'5 ~o use emPtlri;cal vaJue.s; as; the 'bru:~s 'fur prooolJfls.elm;:!uoll, A ~~ljlJ'.l~ Illf a dooi.s]ol}, nee 'fOE.lh:ilir-diw~re or :8:o:ftwme products is s:h;~n as ~m C)l;3m~]e 1,1] ,Rg'" '2.2. Onily 'w,llenl 'llle.elemetnll.y quesUolls of the d~c~s1ol1l tree 'biJ!\i'e 00e[1, i~uru!ij;!we:r6dHlIld; all lllnat]/ui,'V1ocaJ: (n~l[[tml.)i d~ffi!\,ioJ~is!'ldJJ n.n1:fOs8ibl'>e' s;llolJ!llJlJ :pri~~ lJ~ ~8ed as, tbe ,cri[e;na fiiJ[' d)ecidi:n;g \\~hicll v~r-;S~(lll ls U~ be used ~fl the 'q,u()mli,ClIl of order, U~fo:rtyg:Silt~)I' a oo!llplete &cision tree CilnrUJl be prhned here ~runcetbe; po8'l;ibi'l i~:ie~ of t_he v,m'Dln; p'~an't >Ot~ll'fig.umtiQi1I!'> ~_re ~.~ Vet$Q'tiJe: 't() ~!lMill, 'th~'6n)laO;nl, of ,3, genendly app;Uc-,lllbi~ procedure,

C-oni:rolled ;!i)'~lem~ are ,3vaili,afll:le wn pratttce \!i'flich call, only be '!lptWnlal,ly hal1dl;ed 'lJIsing IfL'l~Y :IOJl;ic and lI1L-emiid ne~w()rts.

These sys.tems aad pKJdu£~lS e',,!{PCriCIl1C-oo aI boom. .t!] tJJJc 199f}s" TILe 1!l~t]:tnms,iMm. fOE ~m ~U}S be;enno.~]C'eaib:ly tre<iu.iCsd 1:1\ ~'e me:lllltime.sillloe the e-xmremely d~mcll!llt ~U'H!ifi,g and '!)ptlmi~t~(1n l~ onl.y nmS:I~r:ed by vefY few s~jlaJl'ists. TheoofQoo these 'pIrOdlJo1~ WI~I Dot be dM~t will' a:ny' fiu11bd I'll this book, l'II1Fl)nrUi;~jmlll en :FlI.lzz., C'r!ti'iOOrn++ nnd NGUiI:'(lSY.!~li',l!:m~ ca 00 :Fooind. at WWW.bldIJl.S11il.·.:s.ie:m>ens.deJ.i.·I.J)sliit~Jnd.U:!itr:yjmailil...i.s[3JrtJ}tm.

3:2,

l~

,SnHwarel product

r

I~ 1pm:iu:ciI 1It!~ml~Yd l!'il fiJ!lit CPU!

1Hi:lrc!i~, ,j;!ftid~,

Ji,glIJm :2.2

E1!i,lmlel: (Jj~' IlIn,e idleci'Sii.'ul tree~ f't!rWlu::Uie.tl" l:I1c conllJt,l :slWllfld, !be ill!l1l;p'lc~l1ood u:!!~nu 1h~:IiV~' or :!iOnw,,": pnl'duc!S

D,i"~t:', co!l'Jlilind' 110 'r'cm'/~iQ,'l.'iiOli'

TI1- C(I-:l'Ft:!I:ill-: -,~ fi\ft. :.- thcnl'OOCSS '!\~ (i.e' c,ontro~~~r th~al'd~ or :sor[~) CiOIiffii, Iii. "'.,-fficrl ,(lion:

__ C __ ;Ill .c om -t .... !ll----It'------ ~Q _!L 1;: \ . 11' __ , 1IJ'tiO"''''1.I4L. _

'1!I'!i!i~g CCI:D1Wl'JfIiOrnll,d OJIl~!;Q)g, cables, The IlduoJ.va:I'I![~~S li'!ii~t'!Ord,0d by' th~' iSeiDiSom;, u!ndi ~ts maasueed &i,g,nali. (.Q!n, 'be '~!D,~eC'i~, 'vi:a, a ~1li:l!:l(t~ Ma,]og 'C'2l!b~e, 'to ~Q iirnl(pl!IDt chgnmeil G:Dl the iCelWt~~ ulmt !Q~ nll: fLC 'or 'I~ 'th;!l: [lIJ'OCCSS c(ulnJmer~ The; iliWlowpulated li!;iJnaJJ:le (_a_WOI or 'b~naQ') ~s 11[j1l~p;U~, by O!rte ,of' ~,h.e oofil'tmU.ef~I!il. 01li1~Pllt ciI!li3Ji1I!u!I'~\j allLd 'CQmmectcd ~n 'lIl't'ii :aCtilullllDf' V~HI :s5G!11:n!1 (1~'bI4S; If;! ;!}ddi~:i{'ln I!n l~~ h~8b wilTing ~~fbl!'3d w~th 0, ~rur.a'i 'COQllleet,lnrru sySiI~m; pr-o'b!.,ems ~mq.ueOJu.,y occur ffin pmdlce {e.l. BMC) w1~icl!l wm be '~O:M~deretJ in rmore rJ;eta:!'1 ~n Ute: nett S'6(:m:iO'n. If tll1,oe: '(J!1llC1IUlS is ]oco(cdl :i'n, iIJi 'hamOOlOlls ilJr.-ea., ir:J,l!!:reo.1:ef· em:Jlmi'1:. is mq;u!ircd ,i u order ~[J, O'$e~r'li·e 'I11~ exp~@G:i{ln'rotecU:cu:J, lfeqUii;re!l1e;n:t$1o In SIJliC~ I, c-aoo ~~ is G!b~ohl'I~~.y ~GCC;$s3Q' to U;sG:EJ;-.c(Dim;~hb~G; liludd de,,~i!o)~s >nnd, tb~ PROFDU1S,·,:I?A bus s),sllew, (5~, Fig. 2 ,3)., T.hl~ a'bb~viumlio;[IJ "l!~!'! ~1lM!ds fiolf s!.libj~C'l 'te, ~iplfisiolil b~ Or 'e,xpllJ'Sfu@fi"J,lIfOOl[;, 1l~ 1ti~11!!l, m:eas, lllia .P~-t must ~.tooated :pu.mc'lI)]ur.Ly carefwll)' tood, oolJ1s,ci}elilm]ouS!~y!, :fo.'I'~au]~s in one (if these ·af:e:"'S may RSIJ~tm e'.'itwme da~t'u};Ge, t:o ~r:s.O.]1;5, or the ,ctfuvilmf:imemt.

Frlgum ~,

CO!:!Iipm1.rS'CIn ;or c~ntr.d Md ~!l:mblll~rli ·!';onoo,g;:liliu1!I .$.li'!;it~m~. TI~~ c;:o.:lIf:!ilp]~ ~fi!1 llw :~~Fl. !:ihQWS "IfliU:':!l,~ ,l;On~ro'l via !'!!n!!1los iJ:nd ~l'nr!!Q' !cf!~[(:_.,. i!hi!:!-!: '~iffli ·,hl: i!ii:ghl.show:;; ~h~~ail!( :d~[llcll' Il:e I d:lJ1J is. sYc5'Ie;m wi'illli'R).oFlBUS.UP .otl1lld: :rRORO US~fA ~nl ·tlm i'hlllrudolJ.!~ rure>m,

Co."'''IC,c:a,nl !·(Ocfil~'gfi'IJ·ld;b~riN 3J'$t,el,'~

\Vi'lmnl liM:: :fllc]d. tT,e\-,j:ct:' :!!y~!a~JJill;[I~e' p:tiOCe&."i c-olu:ml'le'r is co,n.rJ,ecm~d to- the; se ":SOliS om] {IJ.-cluelo:r.:I '1/-'- ,r.::·I··llk-,. J-c (I,.-~ ,-- ,.-1-' ._'11.,-.-;-., •. 1:;:'"'-. ':iii, I':CO s'li.iIIiJ:- ,-c.,c :1iII"'rc:,~IC'(!!", 1- '--,'II":-e"'l '11-,lcli d~;tI~ire

_ 1:11 a .11C I!.4!!UiS" .lln ~.ii~t:Gex[ C:iU,a~n:,r~I,~,lg .•. ;~., I;ji!! ,.mO _ S :1m ex,,_"_P.IC _ ~ rum wnn: Ig.- lL __ fL_ 1_6 _ .,_,_,

the SriJ'RA:N'S: ,~ as i], Rp!1:·tl!iin:mtlw (Jf th{:wid~~~:~diQ.rn! 'offi~~d de\'li(:e~ behn'i:gi~8 '~o' th~ SlEM1SNS podll:Ct m'n',[!iil 1(~lle a1~@1 'l~.le ::t3). Th.er-e ~Il': Stlvcmffi :re.~SOlM! in f3.ViQr' iJI£ usi:rag i'r1Jw~miseI1lJ ~~:I~ (lCiv~~Ii;nd fieldbus ~~h~6IoU:

~ RcdU!~ed! ~£u'bUniel ,rcc;uuirenl~nl;S.

~ l~r' ~roba'bi lily or cabl i'llg f~jJruL'i I! 5,i mp~;1ll Q(DRnniss;iDlli ITh,S

~local di,pl~y ;~md .alsn :IOC'D.~ opcmmiorrl, iif ~OOG8Si!l1)' iii ,!lUmpl~ ;ilJll~ ~iilfe'~-e :if;l h~DI,iS ~~

~, Cef,it~ em:i'I~gu:rJ~:iol!: o,:f' Flet~ d,(!\1 i{l'~s using S,rnMAtn: PUM 1('P'tm:t:S$ '~\riQ!!: 'M:muIFr)

SmtOCO\Il)E St~U'lV.EIJ sIms SJPART :mR SI1~iR~\NS r SI~S.ti.P

Mow pm~~iOIll, imlill oonamI !I!J'e~~1ci:1

I .Fmqti:(;~,y ~O'Jl\~fI~l' fO.~ .. !tiriab1.c;·$,~d, Jl_JC mol(l'~, PtjiWtT ,R,\!\~rsin~ :5wlloo IIIlrJ!xlii.ile :fm ooLII.!..'!!itm~ AlIlI!Ooomm!sim.lgl!O~riil!1 ,itmld prut'e~00:IfLn'il;III!.!I~n~[5 I)fl.~p~ ~mnsP'ii~!~

34

'~ C'en'lr£Ull pmlrnll_lln~11G,

• ~Simp~wfied. l11ai_ntenmoe ;o]ld validat~QiIl. 'j]f 1h~ pl.~~ ..

A~'liiot,dit!:g, ~u ,[ht VDUVD'E" d~t'OC~'iv<:: 3S'~ '7', ·;v;(,1!l.id~~~mf~i::\) de.nn.ed. u~ the fOFllmJ .lM_flld. ,sy.!!)~r.:n~= ,wile :proof that ~hcoo is. :I. ~}ilgb :prubllb:ilwty ibm It !:lfOCe~swill~ perm.1nentl.jf prodlliCO a ,moc~ wjib thG: d'etFiJncdi :B~~ffu~aiti.1!)li1 und ql:nll:~'.)'. 'the q\!ja~~ficati,oftll 'C!J:liI1(p[,i:l)cS the: ftJr:m:arn ;md :sytll' ~~tI1iM~~~ p'roQf that ~,a.s ood ~q,uj!pJl~ru. (fO-f eN,am.pt~ the pfOOlhCri,otl.p'ant ~_I];d 'Proc~s (i":Cr:l~roltechnQilOID')i are sllrUJlJ\b~1: fOf m~' intended tasks. W~n pllioonin,g su!:'-JTi :plruUs :i~ is nece.ssary ro c~mid~r :in deUlU ~~. ,~HvisioEru ~f lndfuvidllul 01' !:>CgmcniJs for' 'IllC ~\cn'l 'that. ~.seg!Mn~ ~~y

f···· i'I "Mo., .. ''\1' ,"1 ,,,,·r'I'·f' ·,-.- .. w'Ui'tJ t· ··ci .. ,t .... ~:,j, -"So. -, --. ~s:I' k~, L .. , -c. :--.~> ..

au, ,~" 1-1"'" a 3.1, av~~J. ,y 0' ~m!l""'~ .30 i ·ac~lIlll ~_I\I1'h!':S~ ri,,, _:rn 1rnI~ , i,.~ g~umn10th,h

:2;2,1 Q!iI:3ol]i.1y .Fl'3m~rk f[li1d; 'D)1'I;amllf,l' ~ffO:rRll2111~' O'r $. CiO~II[lOILoo;p

1'1!1 acld~twt!·m. I~' 'Il1Je nombe., 'of' oom~lrul:e~" 'lI~ de;IIIlW[frOll ,of ~11.e ~l1!llle ~if~le (eGo ~~an I ~mmtrlt'a'i ~1W.~~rru Lim fun.;;tiOI1 ,catl's,) of Un~ illldiv,idIU'H! 'currutnlll.~rs ~'M (h~ilr ~Up,J.e'l~Ifi~MyFI!I'JL(iI~on~ ~s ~~tJPlfil~ml W']Iiie~ e-.'lil inruatill1g. l'h.e: qU3tnJ~y [r~liInewor'k. 'nIt; rnH~1be1i of ta;11J~l'!:d. cm~'m~:h::rs mUfj~ be ill1i~!all:.Y deln.ed, MId wllflth~r ~!:1ey ~tHiw 'to 'Ilmsl:ef .Fast :procf:;sses. 11a,i~ is n,ooe, s ~nry fUll" [l$sC;.~~m'CFlt (If ~Iim nmclliJOliY ~ui.pcme:Qit$ in tlho CPU. Tbbilt :2 .4 shows iblOi::k s-i7..¢S wnd ~eir' el-e(;Yi~io!)J ~i~s :foo ,n Aumber ~f selected fUDllCtiOIl$ QJJw two dileJe'Ju t)'lptes of P;LC, Plea.__~ !lot':i ~.H!it :mtvl 'dcvi{;e~, itlId releases :are being tom~illuoltsl)' d~eJ()pcd, ~I'U'J lbiii'i: llfle CUI_j'io rent"1'3JI!1Cs m~y b3.VC ~o be ooil3Ji:ood ft(i!J~ d!le re.spo:Et!;~b!Jc: dc;pr:Ull11em~ or fmm *e lmtemet,.

MemofJ r~il~J;ill!em~nts 1iIJild Ulel!:i!!I ii 0 1111 'ii.1lWi. fOI"' "n'' eontrols Cilill~ be oCiIIlt:u~med 0." Jon~s li.!srung th~ v,aJue:s ~~j~h!d ~tl T~blt:; 2.4:

(2"2)

lir-(N'I.'p,le

nll"Ce' tempenJ[u~c ,oomlmls, (lhree,.stc:p' '!;iO'ntltil.)' and 1,'\1170 ~sl]re e<MIttolbi w[tll ,a~al~,Q, il:mI,"' trol :~ ~IJ be :i:m;pLemCJiitOO. In an. 8i'·,3, l S" The SlruirlM~ :PID CO]'illimll 00 RWm, pnckag,; Is ~o 'M: used,

In order to ,~~'Ih:n~ ~~e 8iUll,le tiw!1leb1~it: is !U;~ce.o;c~a.ry liO ec$!~i:~I:e, th~ d,lrlrnilina;il:"8 ~il!~e C\11l~!lt if.t~r em!;:~ ¢';'()'llIll'Ql ~()G'p; Tech n i:c;_lri'11 ~e!i'!i~-8 :Eilmost olw~J!i. ~l);~"!~!iit or ,a :r-;~rie.'i (IF SUiGC~Sm'll'iI!i dYl]amric ~'m:IU,snli:s~iIDIi! e!~'R1elilts, W~Jll.,~mi!:'n'ua~~d ccntn.Ji~~;~d s)~s:I:ert1s whr.cffil, C1l1l1f10'[ oscin~1.'e cm~. 'be:Hp:pl"U~in~ru~by aPT I element The; t~Illl!~ CQ:RsilUw'l: of (his. ,a,JI'cI"O'L:ti'II1l<flnom, ,~ht'in'C.Il~. is rcftmd tOilS tllte ClOmiDilliDi ;s,)i'S~e,ln dme: cOtn:.sta-ru (~[)) or .al00' ~he 'eq-Ulfl;'1i:1ent tiJiIW constant ('7~). The, po!;W[Jo11ing ""peed. ,of '[hc:aetllQ;~O<I O:lll!1St. be: :slilulJler (slgnJJficmldy .~> fattnr:; rlOr oor· 'rect oollu-oi) 111191.1 lie domj[l_J:uiQ~ Siy!l~em t~r:Il!::: constilm~ (equivarncnt time tolmilRii 'rl~' or~ 'ww~b pllre de.b.;;I' s:l;':sfe:ms" 'l;h~ deb.l.), tlme 1;~J; S~: .$eoliO:I1II 9.2.,3), r11. mauy R,f~rellce oouks" de:fITnii.'·· tlou {Ii ~1J1.i! !liampl~ ~i:~ ~~Ijj m::oordJi Dig ~:o~he fo'~owins :mll!e of thmrmib:

A:s. s'hown. run tbe next ~"(;l1o;nil the ily'~' o:f uctmaliQT used makts iIli. :SJIll:tdl]cml~;oolitdootiQIl, ,If ~£ ClJnl~£J1iri!lil:e: '~Jlc8ioee.r hi: fQ)r~~d to use a Illo.Il-.lmtes;mrtll,S: iI~~Uail\Ur becll'ltSeI of :pJ~Y,iicam ~m_aRdft, ~hc' ~'i;;!J~nle' time' of lbe cootroUe:r is (:nt' ~~'\l!i :1n1Q~J1;;')nt dil~n the: ~'1J11Mie tJlme of the

. If IP.""·~- t"

IPlnldud BI'ii!l."J.l ~, 11-8. ~.~.~1!lnl:' II '~",'tutlu~ [11]11.-

lit 1't:iJl!!tll!i I}:U: 1'C."~Jdl I ~nS'.Jnll~

In Wn 11 kb.,,1tII "p,IJlltU"A'llI~,'I!.l'

II~kbl~r'J \1,;;IJlu ~ I~ I'~i,

t;~~Ultlfl~ 11Dle [q, S'1 'lID' i\l,p~lirU~IDJlIIllI'

'i!~JUI;~ '" In ,1"11 ~I

.'.

··~·nlr.sml ~'lll!!rol'"

I 1m4, [ ,''co m:.,;c ", I Im42·'CONTJ,"

I :m4l·',PUUEO~"

1..3 0'.4, ([';1,

1..9 (U 0$

L 1 ~k2 ij,1

0.06 0:.07 OJ);) I

FEnC>Dn~mJ ~ICFC·!OO'

l,4 I[l~ 1,fl~

,~,3i '~'.3 " ,tt

LS 1112 IO~~~

U,~J~ !(I.~,9" !iJ'D4~

:PD III ;'COm- ~C' FB2 "CONT_.S" FD3 "PlfLSEGBf'

:11'D) lbm~ll.ItUiri CUfi'ltIfiiJII

"I'iiiil<i:!,grtll e'(t~ool';

7,9 0',4 ~;.I r !U~

Ii :9 '0. ] ,1]~7

o.! ~:' 10,.:1 57 '[D.CS)

I FOSS '''rCONr_CI~' f.llS9' ·'1iOONr.:_S~!

SJlmul!i!ii:\di P:[D Control

MmdUJ1W' [P;[jD Co-mimll

p,mn Sd~·1UIlI~1I"

flU "PID:..,ClPi'o 1.~ Rl U lo.ll'~
fB"lI' ·~PID~..ES·· 7.S (I,Jj; r.s ,n)' '11
'''"
fC:':!' ;'l!P:_SCliE:D"ol 'IoGll 0..1 o.r3 '[I.!}-1
flU 3, "WNGD4,.;C' 1.6 OJ O,1~· 0,0'16
flU'!, "l.MN{ji£N~" 2.~ 0,4 0,,5 nos
fEU 9 '"'lPUY' 1,,6 OJ 0,], OJ),!
:m2U ;o';'ULS:EiJ:~T' 1.1 0.2 0,1 1),01
IFll5 "51" .. Cilm'l!i'~ 0,'7 (1,.5 0.,15, 0,01
fC~ "l:P __SC[tE01iO I ,I (1',2 0..!.3 0,.0.3
PI '1UNmNO_C' r 4J< O'.S to O~I.3,
PI "1i'U"""~N'G'_S'" !l;;.~ (]'.5 2.6 (l,.2:~
FD '~I~ID_fM" tJ6 11]1,2: :1 ,RY u,,~~
rn ",AJZ..JSf' 0.3 '~I.~ t~
ru '·Fl.JlZ;",,(~S5" i[}.:J 'i.a<.2, (U'i:'i'
FB ··I~_PruD" UI 1(]1.2 l."i u ~ ""u~ nY'~"'~riIl 1m'" Wlill-· t:;·'"".Ii~

;'~fcl~~ ;~~-iw~~~i~,:

~ l:P!U J:I,~' ~;IIO I CPt;! Jol!II'I;.Vf~m: !cP;i:j jj:i.4, "CIlI!J;:J:'ll""

"'~",1J~ ~.l'I'lIk!l 'wIlt! (ffiIl:euip;:l4lllf!lIti:U !R"JI~~

,. CQn..U!OO!J\IIlI !!'l:iWJ~Llffwiil1 1)'1i'1>:'''I, ~ KmiJfI.iiI.mI:~lifilD'lkr ~imimli!lI., I tmn:.!lQl r~.r.l?lb, 1br'~1 ~'Yl'l;i14~ill. 'mlli I~ ~ ~~Il~ il!rn!l'~eoiI

rQl' ~: ~JI!;l: ~1rn1U11l.1I!! aMI ,m: m!:il ~ IlII til :il'~l'IIfIl rIIW'ilI].~

l1!!J!lim~· -.

~~~

'pull~ (imp!;!~;j ,~[;'id me I~~:r pm of ~hcl iP~S.'S ~SQlD,fo~~ :m,~t be ~!'QVi~~d r~~ pfOOe:ssi:~,g. th;~ poils,e O'Ultpllt I see Taib~c :2:.:5).

AI~JiJcrliJ;,gh so~,w.91r-e oontr{Ji's, have Ile [:acilil~.). fO'l execu~:ing, the' :pumlsc: ,I[:net~ti,on II!L~ the 'CQll· [m~l:eli1' hili Si:l~~fi; ti,me if:ll~~fr'f;'dpl lev~I:5., me OOAWliM e@mrnmrn~cfS mpidly ~ilCh [he ~i,mill: of ~.ssi!ble ~pp,'lwcmtiorms,.·llle' ,1{lLIlrui.n!1l er:i:gi~neer·.,en bins!!lo ~1wi!~e OOlt~o ~~e.,adO!ed.,rn!]oilP'~o:rn· ~rol m~LWI,e ()f~n e:lj;terrHiill ~j;u:l~ei ,B'~IfiCl!l;I)c)J,. fo!' c!i;amp,:le th~ .fHM:AT.I:C ... 2 .. PUUa'~ modu:letio:r ET 200S,. The: ~U!I1I~titiill, medules PJd 3,.5S/FM, 355'"2, ,ruJd. :FMl 4,SS pro¥~de it 'oosolli!!iU,on dow:n 110 .W as :U me digi'lal. olmtpu~ .. The, ~QllNe."r. tt:J,~S s.ample ratiC' fur' II:n.e pu~se output. lIllie .~u:s~er ;al1d :m~m G'XifiC~ ItbB nlI.npiPiilli:g Il:r ~:b~ ~ontroU~r~'s OO1i'~(l'g 'lJutfu~ ¥.::II~:i!JI~ .• TIlIi!5, DiS S,l'miOW,1iI1 :illi1faS. 2 .. 4.

,1!."fl1frJP1.u;;

.Amnc'!lJjl, 'CQ(fI:l~irll!\:~ rnsto, be ,b:@w!g;rm u, ¥"' mp;idlyusj'nag :3, ~ri.il,C'·~'O!'JiIr-olled eleetrienl h~!lter; De 'ClIJstome'r spac:iileJii ~lIrI.1lI:1 0 dOlIli!!!DJli.n;g s:yg[em ~im,e ICc:llI:sotmu Oif 8, S w,n :meMllreri ,O{~ CDnl" paf;l~'le :aml.~h~r:Jes. AccQm.~~~ 'iD I~lll~e !,'lioove C~ILWat~Of;l:i ~e cO'nll:rollcr ,~arm ~lIle'fefore be: ,~"g!lI~d

~1.K'k, :FO: I (!;UlG,l!lgl In l mn~t~IJ!;~C :IlB 'Qlf\o -t :E~IU'llfIl1 IRrrnl'l lim )
, klb,~·tf,l~, I IWI~~lhi:n 1'~Jl~,~~1
_II ~1~'lj~. .:~"~ !"
~'1~1 "'r]lJ _'e] ... • 7.~ ~J • .$ , 1.?+~ . us K7
,foIl ··P:rel_ES'" '].:.~ (Ji • .;;i J r.s J -0.:5 9.0
Fe ~ -! til _'SC 111:1:'11" U~ u.~ I UI~' I '·0.2 I'll'
...
T~.d. ~S.'!I!
,11)10(;& I f.''::ceL!llmIlQI Lim~ IQ~. t:q,Un'lrl.~R' llI'eo;!lJI~. ~n. Wl!iI!!I·J
1~'1 rlll'L"il l'~ . I
1:iU.1 "PUJ_cp~' I. ;~ ., 'II . I .. ~ 2.~,
H!,2' "Im::u:;s" k1 II :1 . t.5 'I"S
I~"'LP ~ri:IF.D'''' 0.11, 1 I • (1.,1 ~ ~I H
lnt.lll; 4~,1 I ~'~ h1fflper..iUPl: n-~ ~~tJ, ,m:: di~llt!!d IIdHI !1iJ:. "LP:.St"!i[W _J;l~h iJ~:i. ifl!!II~ o:n~ II;:fO~Wli ~11j.nlkr i ~m~ I!n !!flo)' 'I!!!!O:I !Iim:! '~r 'l":iU!J I, ~m!!'!ll '~kf (~ ~li!!!!l 8),

~ ,?!,\Jm '!:,,uC w1'lI;lclmllml IIKn' 1.11(1 '~Iq)llIi!ii~'II.IJ=: iIll!iii !:')"'kl ~~Il['IiIIIllJI!' i':!. ~~ wr,IlIDuaIIIIIlIQ:b.ul dl],ru h1I !f:IM'1lI.1t..

w~tbc:u~ ~n,~~i'!:!l'tj,t'ln :im, l!h~ SOO-:mS cycl,e" wll~~'h i,~ J1JO' pmb;l~m i!'O!" c:tl"'~i!'!~ C,Us: with ~h.e :Inudi-, i D,g o~ 9J nnmu!l, u~e~ :progrmn.,

Thc, period fER.. TM o~ ~e !plJILse O'tU]lt:Jlt should ~lI~n nruso k i:ral~:is I[],(l'lie'gri.d since It :is not

"~ .. ' -si'bi', ';, --.-~~..,: ~1Ii.'" V,7~11l:-, • -: ·c·,e:'Ii:;IlJj ~,"I~" 'h", eher iIj."'''''''iilI : 8! - iliII ", .. '10 ' ~ -]UC i'I,f' ;ufb, ~h' :, - '.,

S{':n .. _, t'C te I1nl~ ;iJ!!wl:S, _ OIJI! _!J: ~~gJU~I~ IJI(~)! ,lG-- !~~IUSC __ 111 __ nw _:g: WI __ ~Llp__ _ _ s e O~n

t.lin~~ef will >onLy ~mQJ~ vwo, 'Ihe diG;iWj. Ql,Iitpu~ fd,llowhlg. e')!Jli;ry (If ,~ ~:me" ,~n md~r' 'to a.'Ch~e.'!!I',e: an :~col.!im~' of ,at: l,ertSt ru'~ .~d ~'ile oontroru~er output" thls '!JU~'l!t "itdoe' mus:t .alsi/ll 100 IrmH~ppedl ~Il :11100 :ne~p~,. T,ld:s lm!am Ilho[ ~e fbm:irung Gdge of [I;~e p:1.Ul1,!!~ (I,u~,u:t (500 Ifi~. 2.4) 'lIiU$t ,wS'o, 'be: :!ildju~tab:le by the pll:ls~ b!oct wJ:! the; S,ms, ,Srild.

The re~1.IlJ1.t ls ~iliIiU[ mel :pliil:se OtilIl'Um. foUQrwing; da:e ,oomooller mus'!: be ;C3Ue:d :ill1l 'IBis, ~rld hJ ,gl!.!1W:~uu.oo, dl:is, ~iQIINe'Vg'r.. 'Ibis, is ~, deil'!l!nnd 'W'hic~ is ;3 p:roblelU 'for c'Crt~[J CPUs;, :pum,clI.I]ilJJdy wf :5evcn1ll. cnn~ml cnmtp(Jts have to roo 'pRliCcssed (sp~it, 'f;llrls,e (If' ~.e\!!;ml.p9mne:l, o()nmm~ :Ioop~.) .. hru thfus e~~ ~lh.e usc: of ,a, fn!lln.cti:,op :m.~lJmg' is, ~maV(li;~a~Ic:. ~'~i:s ~M'ClIlI))' pnssihllC. ~.CI 'plioviJ~e a gen'emlly Ippl~alibrne: ru]e or d1,um'IJ 'f'Or w'tum 5i~fl'\l!ltlreeO:TaiLTOI'su:e mlOJC appropria~e thn~. so~u" tio:n:s whb fllllloCttm:l mMu~;~-s.Brai:b 'V&mi:ons :M"iJ justli6,oMe:. In m~ CDS'; o:f C~lDtml!s, ·\~.i til ,Io\v dyrrumlldcp:r£QmrJ;DIn:celiieq,1Jl,i:n:men~s!, l.fl" mol w;i:1'iTh stOW' oornrol~.; Ihlighrrullrtiber ItD:f' o(laruro} loops (>,8, wi~1 SIMATIC 87' .. 300 ilI!llCd :> I. fi,wffirnb. SIM,.(TU::' S 7 -4(0) md hJ;W' 'i::olJlJtml, I!1DsIDlJoor.;., h],1 c.!l~mMd!i'~ 'll~{];' 'fIOfiI,w@oo \liio:IJ!!j~.i,gfIDS, urn adW!IfiiI1l:S~!lS. Fl!lnC'I:it.l'n :m;oouIDes aR. ,adYflJD1'Ia.gcgUS WhelR t:ta.e ;oa::~lU;3tan''S iltflld :s,yS[;~:m1 liespc:IlFe'Hre sti~!rn l:IInc.lear d!l!!1ri'fII!glh~'Pi1ImiDlq phwsc, ",dl~re h~£h~:r d~llUmd1Iii, are pl,3ced en d, rt3111~C' Plrf'm~~m:e., ~.aflllty fllllc~]on!S~ ocmilml qlua~rl,y ,3!1!ldl er IUiCUI::"!.lCY. Iftmtl. ,1r1lnn~Il:!l, ~o,!j,neer :has tit;> po:ssibi,I,it;y ~or i~f1J!lJl!ncjlll1l :s(l:lec~]ion of U~ aCI.U- 3~m, the (!lemand ~roll!ll ~llte vte;w,oiII'U, of tITle oC«:1~m:i ,einsi n,e~r rus :ilIDwa.)fs feu arm;l~og-diriven. ~n~"~11 i;g~n~ ,OC·IIIiI-nIQ~· c field d~\!'iol!ls i!iiiince ~lle:, e 1li_I"C eQsier ~o 'coDI.mi !'Ision.,

---,

Ogu!m14l

R.c:~unil'~li~l], Jt:jlill~: pm:bI'G111. 'iJIf :~~:~tio~gr I1R d~.sl:I:um 'OOL~ p:UiI~_ or u liC;m!~n.l~ c;o:tilm~h::r' oUlIi fiiOfl~ifIl,u:\grntiti:Bi ~1,I::~Utllnr

PER 1M' '1

.~' .

31

R[t:(Jmn~ein!l1l~I'I!IlIII: l1~e period ~PiilR"JrM' (IF rn~n: pu!:,,!! I[JlIi[PIlJ~, ~'tLt1u~lll_ ,.., ,t:qlloill 1)0' ,~r.ln f~ "mil i,ph: 'tl'r !I'~ s::~mpl'c rffimi! 'U:VCt,15 L>~ $/\?I., P E._ T) " P'~ll 'Col\lllmi '141, -'1'1/43': ffi'ER_T ,1,1= C¥CLlE)"

Tillie cOifl~ro,I'quu_1 hy = ,@It 1l~:50 tile: ;mcyrH.C'Y 'oif' ~ loop ~Of'l~rom= Is, ~c;R'CmU)' Sre3lUns:. :n ruea- 5J1.a;n: of tJ1C' tlUlll i!ly ,of:ru ,cUIl1J(rol: Oim':. ex:pre.'!lc.d mere' ,8ciifilnlifi:cally. ,rd, :m~l1sure of t.lu:'sruun of a~lm I~~r siG;",~~:\i foIlQWb!g,~ ~lu'~llge i:~lselpgilf;U 1][' the'i~I(111en~e ,~~ ~ djsl;tDlfb[!!'i!;c ~ri~b~~, fig'.

'lI ,;:;: ~ ,'I"n-· . " ~ .'. .,' I:. .j·n,·

.... ~, S,ulOW ,U 0 yJf! !:c.reru iilfillit:e..'Ul lfJeact!,ons '(0, ~~iIC sam!::' J I.Dmp 10 se:~;pcn IliI w~m~! uh~erem, COrll'"

'U'oller ~tm~ngs,

"iju~ "a,g:~res$~ve" Ql:nlltru]ruc:r:-el~~mmg hin;; u. gm,y tm'ckg)l'{lliJ~d:., !HUll !·cau~'ic!u.'i··' "e'l~hag iis, eruss .. 1~1[i~~l.Jed. The !Iarge!, 'Ul:!ll' voUIiluil;lS 'of m~e areas bc~'W,ec nl the .$el.poa.n~ Ill1id actual val'I!Ii!::. mile poQI'C:f ~iIrle cOmilrol1 ,quol i'l.y ,f)oorlf,dffing, ~o the; I i m!ei]lI"q;u,~ruiil,y cnicrioli1. ;$i'l'lQe; both irre.1~ i 1m fig. :2.5 IUI,¥fl' l1I(p:prold~mlld,y '111G same CDntent, 'll~e '[",'If() se~~illmWl are cqual.ly ~ocd c,r equJJ)1 Ly b~c;J. 'floe rou .. ~'io ~j~ :seui !~G; i ~ u~ed. 'r~f m~re ffe(ffita:~~u:l, iiiilp~lcl:i;ce thulYl 'I;~~~ ,3gg;A'!~'t~ive sen! Qlg, ~llIiCll[l~w~y becDJU:S!C' ef II:he .'imOOI:h.cr o(pernihul o~ the ,:11I111l ..

lin "'!I!riOt!l5, tl:u'!\[Il'eti.cal. c[JntI'IO~ telrllil!]6enng, ,a,ptlB. d~l!]ierelll1'l, C'rii!~ri3 :l.1'fI~ d!:fill1ied For ~h!!l OO:n~IIiiO~ ~lJiJ1ii~,.[n afldrnii:~111 '10 the; C'@mrn,101l. "1~lmC'M l~uil.1 i'l:Y ,~WlilliemifDm'~ referred ~!J :~OO'\'e.,I'h;!ilIJi~ ~re' uJs!J' 111n~ "'~llIlldru:~'ic qUJlI.il,,), cnl,er~om"', It~~c .1'lTeA e,ri~c:rior~"aoo th~ ',I,cx,l:ended ,q,u~ltWr,~ti,~' qU~~l}¥ eri terien", :H~)'WgV~T;, ~wWl~e lhes~ cri'lcri~ fm;' ~'~;~m~:I, difficult to' d'el~rm~in~ ,i~, prm:~ice. 'Ihey 'wm rtO[ 100 cgnsidll!mcl:Wl!Y ~1!u'!!lI'!,~r h!1!re,

AC'Cl~nrq ~()lI~Fldl!mJi,rJUs o/,(/J loop c,{J/l!smi

[111, or!Ci!;l1i" ro jll!!:dse wbich t)'p1l uf t~llUru~ :is ~u ~ 'W!,$cd, H iis fI:~l l'l-c~eS'~:l'!rr}~ [{l IP,rt]lvide a LeG~ul.i'" C"3Uy ImU~DJnI bn,gfu I' ,~"lllI.r,ifh:mi:aJn MJf [hill' d1~li.ifl,'d 'C()ntml, ttOCUWRC'j-" ,~~h ('V1'!e8'liorro to cuW>i;~m~lffi

1!!DO I

So:tp.t!iiU I%I~ lidu!i.l ~y6l%ij

40

,FiJp~2.S

.Eval !1I!lli'!]JfiII t!JIf' mh~ ~nn· Uol (~uml~l:y or I,Wel dif~ell':hl'll, conl]lumlcr SCt'Iin~

cCl1Iccmiog the rnlllJl:rol, aicc1lLra~:ris :prov iMd th~ stcrect~~ a:f]SWC~' of ::to.l ~C 'or ~em~rai['U1r-e CI]'¥iU'O.Js, With a ~~ me~uri[lm: ~ge 0_ 400;O)C. ,even a d~m=md o-F;:!;: II.O"C :req!l~IJ-es a s'lntiom, .. · :3Ji)' aot:iUI:racy elf 0.25 '%, wJl~cb llk~5 imo' oonsi.d:u:~n.mlOlI :arurn f!cffOB 'of th~' {il]:n1p]e~~' "hailOt I(S(!;nJ~ :SOt" r~sm:i~te:fi· MIfllo'g-'V!.duc ~Qqll.l'i:siti:o~;o ~onlJffi.I.ler.; O'U'I.puU 'jSIDl~I, ,ge~eratitOlt, :mm'i:i!pullll:ed v3fUJabl~ omlvenliol! aCl~iI~Qr1), Th~ sl:ati,m:unlfY ~cc;Uimcy ,doo;!l, no~ i:I;l!t"'~ ~luil~rm;~: m~3njm1g as tile 'COlilltmL rltu'll~I;!J.

J ,I

S~II'iG'(l, 'G'Y\~1rY IG(HmJliIW[c~D:lI}' 11Ii"oi'o;i;labl,~ .drug]ull Ih.~rmurm;~~r hll'!!,3 deelrnal ~uc: O:lIDi,~ di,s\phIY~ mlhi:s 'C!.H;~~lll~.r dc;l'mlJlJnd is, ,o]s@, '~nd~rntruull1!b~~.Ho~\fl!1lV~r. rn41~ !lUi~S:lion oti.sC\s whg!lh~r ILh~gJ~ di s,I~.ys nlaU,)f cOflles:pond to El:1e exac~: value :and 1110\\1' R~rOO,u:c~brnc: rnj~e re511JJ:I'~'S ,aR·. If mlliu: ""0]11'" tml.a~ur:;m:kl!' d-enl3.rJ""1:(ffis; .D:mde b tile Cl~s,~ame~, :for '[lite olDnlp:iete rnoop ;Ill'il~: :re3rurny ~liS sllrie~ as uSlt,laill~,Y ro:rm'UJ~I;i}led. lhroogih. ~~IDio:rnrnjCei~ I[hey ;mlJ: .. ~ be: '~~C:'atly iiUifcwmu:d ~b~l: el1!m:'mCl!~IS :itnve5;1,'" ml!!!:",'!:~o.~ts imJU:!ii '~ e!t.~eted.

A 11 elemeats i iii the: c:h~mn ,of 'l1:H:: 'co:n'I'rt;!1 loop mi.:i1s~, then ~potlsess: III !;;iom~mbl,!.1!: q!!J~1 i,ly class, E~r~r.y AlD COil1YeriJeii w,itb rm :ll·:bitresol!~'I.ion ,~nd. 11 '11~~3suring, rmtIgc of 42JO<tC {!I1,mady irM~S - d-' ,'".! " f - . '. .' r:ol ill-C-c-: b -, .-·~'I!.wrl(l)--s "-!iil d- -'c' ,_,.,-·-'If·,,- 'fI-c- -, .,,"If. R!:;ldZiI'W{](D11 C'fl.D1JWQ '_ •. , 1 .• w_~ WI_'!!I;!!!ir.t ~ _'.c_ .,'!i:'~ I..!lrem':'.!"!i __ ~e: e!TIJ'.r.i ~~U __ ]iIiIgj_rogIT! '~ __ "

~rm'i:li.ng dlv:e; to th~ 'CJ\l:rmn,'~ now (of !!Lpprol. I !'!1!A) tIl,,"d :ffQrn ~'e el!,rn,;:ll!tlVCJilitaJ~e; !'i1~~I,IR.!iVD.eln. 'C'mJI1 iII! the Inc~sll!uii'rI~I:C~;istG~s and ~C'I1J1p!l:ruJ~lUfC e.mn} [iHwe, ilillO[,.YiC'1, Dail:iUJJ co:nsidcwed,. :[I, ~s !even 'WOfSl.': wh~iJI, USIDl'Ig, mermoccu~Les. which. llaVic to' be ciOmpcn:sn~ .~U. the cold J:'an!!~iO:I1, usffioS PT W OIJi. The' ~1TO:r ,c:hi~mn ls e~Cim ~@Il:S~1' lin! ~ihi:s, !ema, at! cam :[m]U 1m: :il, ~[ells'i'\1'l! ermrs ,j IlIi [h~ wen'l ease, V"lllIrlO1ll5 m8llilJLIfactu.rer.!i, iIJ~ devices. which PJ.'UCCSlS IlIII1I;-iiog '!!a~lII"':5 One:IID spGeify brea'UDitakiiflg eoor to':I~:mnt.i!;ls w;ilIichlilrave, certainly on~y oo.~n.,clll;ecked .iU r~"c;mble ~est'poi;ru~.

The; 81M ATIC Ilrmirs ~~d. ~(I~Glrn][OG dl'l!lJ;h lII.! rail~·ss ~~(;Hrucd Ol]l~r.wrnsc i 111 '!he, '~~-c:hn[t:~'1 d!citll, ;;UllP~Y '~D' ~.e deine!J mcas'IJ.liim,g range. It is dellJr ~@, :~nde"Lmd,wi1aL tite above:-:mentWcfloo dt;lTIlmds mean ~or.' the IlClU9UlB. The ,~1l1l1 :plll~ and 'lhe error i r1J ~~moori.zn'l:iomu must be ,ruma;1 equal, to ~~ro. Ilhepcsi.'llonil]g s;p~ed OOiJll~t be able [0' ~tiL[QW the. CQI[I;fO] ler'sWl1m!og, sig~al lrrirnmoot wruthou~: tl ~bll"" ,a_nd m~mec~Jiini.'cs :Md de:sig~. of the tl~tlUl1I0.r mllllUSt be' [roo: of' WOOf:

These ~emml1!ds ~ only :~p,roxi!I1DU!f~e]y ~i1!IUs:l1gd ~ ~1iI.e propcl!:ti,Qnai nClgI3~'OfS, With. s/ijt;l:!,

.;1 ~I~ II • ~I" ," 'I" dri h r,: "'I

lui!:$fln:r:hJ~,. ~ow.:pniOe '1ll!l.Soontanll.lO'I..IJl, ,3CI1II.lHltm:'s 91Il'e e UrI"lIJ11une· , .n,g . t '.:II'V!nm. t le ,S'lm;:!'.

"I~'(l:I Th:e oontml 1(JIUJJll.)' is'S gni IiC,rul~J 4e~n.cl,e]u tm ~tu.~ mou~1'I lIng lm:::U.ian mF ~:tn ~ nc~uO:I!Or .1Un:il!IJ aJn.i! ;;;Cnilim ... "1 l i!.'o ba~dcall~r v::I1'id 'ltlii!U OOLim the recomill;l,G or the' 'm~3sa;u'~d !;',21'h!l,1!: ~iI1d I:I'~ ~leLUllIu'r mUM be :J~ diIJ.e us l~ilJZlS'il~le ~~ ~ttle :prim~ul) p,bit:b"",111 ~r rh.)'iIlic,ul :[l!i!lir]1 'jllli ,onller 1m :J,i!I\(lid ]l1ilIy. [~I cUlrn;pf~s.tIUl)n or cOQrwm,ion pRwe'!:'iSldS em Ill.: .~:lIh froM (he a\!lUf;Uilr1~~fls'Or I~O th~ ~ilipn !Jlr acli~on.

2.2..4 SoFtly 'R!HIulmmelfli~s

WhelD], prnanlalim,g a 'r!on:'trol Sy:stlUiWJ. i~ i,-, nI~~~~M'_" to ~u:klt i,nto, aCl~~VI!U ~r.1iy :r~ili,y~. ~\1aU~bi;~,i:l.y or !&:rF~~y !ilr.:iIJ~esl~"!.~·iD1 :!iIlC:1~ :3 case :i~, lWl~y 00 1D1001i!8U~y '1)0 IJI~ bruikup ·r;o:rm.trol:s., ~f nil :f~llruts ,tire !pre~el1ll. 'Ill;~ ~OSl~. :iit"D,:rt.wafe .oCI1l~M,1:Ic:r ls !iNOlltd n~. :mnl ex.chrIJDIJ.!,'es p3iKess "I1'.I.dues, Wi.lh III 8!1II,'OO[-I. di name s~~u~by oontm~~er. wtrii~llI 'D~rntes Iliiol-e Of rne~~ as .~ di8trib..n.:d i,nlPytli)'~up~t I~h::-ivi~ ~n ·this :!ncd!~ (~ IA~ .. 2,(n, If ~ffite CPU ~r '!he IcofD1jr1ilil.mn~c'3ilj{)Q ~!li'h;. u~~ s'ulwmiifUI!~-e >eaD1'I:!"lJ'lier "til~.C~':i' '!ll!¥er COllll[IIfO'] oillie' p:liO(l-es~~, ilnd co:unirrl.tle., 110 contr-ol, Ilhep~llru: 0.1' .a~, 150;11: ikcc:'p jIj, im, m _ oft ,o~ratin~ St3t~. ,A, ,[I:i:ffc'mluialma:n i $, 'm~de hCRbetweefii S.PC WD.'tW DDe bact'Ulpl ~~M~S (see ·~'Sl.'lIfelY moo~s';' ln S~ti(l!iI1 ,:5).

mrnl adldiitkill ~tJ the ,custymer de~m~mds o(lncen~i:fiUm whid11 ~ss' val~e,:s ~Il!d ~o'lll~m\1 plU1l'ln~'Icr::s~!'e to Ibg 1!i1l1l00J!li'loreal OWCiy,e~D1 modffil.l;:d. by wihieh e~~lp~lJy~es dnluil!l1:Q: !!l!l1mG:!q;aB.'!3m,lt Q,p!l!iI::~moJil. ~ucsti,(lns~reql1c:rn,Uy hav,e. ~o 'be cl;(lrHled dllllrim11 Ot~ pll1lJnn~ng: plruDS~ ,cmrucc,min.g which ~lu~'5 m;!Q to 00 :p.rooe8~(1 ~Il trend curve d.iJ5p·IIt}"I!l. ;mdlcllJi,g:"~rm.3RljJ:ives. P:nrti,~!.ih;rud:li' :ill]l ~;b~ rood. aad 1tlli1:Elllm'occliliticaJ]. ~mu:!;u.Hl~ries! .. Womg""te~r.m quru.ity proo[.vWi(l.~tklll. ef puceStS. Icli:UiiIJ arrbd. ·repc·,0ito'ilirn.,.· of ,i."IC(iaurol fe!ildt me i:ilIiCliill'BiilnS.itn, ·impoHl1f:i!l::\li.P\i·()~Jl~ ~oI1iIrOLi!i)'sl,em:s (C"JIll. PCB7], w:tl IPFe;fe.mbIIB ~m Si;Edi. a. 'C~S!;l.I;o SiCAtIA. s)'sooms {1Ilirer~i!5o!D}' ,CQf:1jtrol. ;~[Jd dl~ta ficq,Uisitien ) •. SCAD~. ~ystl.':m:ii ~. 'Lh:'U;'Ll.fGl~ 3JIlJ~0'ltamous (&o.f1,'\wJ:e) ~Ilprni)cal.iolil!., whic'hmitl [lsll!aU,· Ctmn~~wd ~fi u :progmIfinmJ1Jil~ '~fin:rrol:ler ~j,r~a, 3 bi.!!$. ~,ysLiCm l11lli1t1 retu:dl!writll' ~he flJe"s ,(Ja~aib~ll' and :perhaps ,a~i\lo SIDW and lmpdaie ~J;uesc daJl:l. hili aill! own damab.ast, Compued. ~Il' thi S·, :prooess cunlrorn ' .YS'~C~]S 1!a;Eli\le un iform damn (g.Uljil~gC'f'lt'Cf:lt

2.l,~', ClOmplluxJty and F'lexllibmt,y

~f.custQmer- demwuuls 'for OJe:dbj]rul:~8mujl slW·bwql1c'ID:'I. Il!lI1ooi.fjcailloll eif ~:~,6 cOill~roll sys~em dUlri'nl' .fUurutime: ~ p]nced when. prurm:an.i.Rl!1 ,:lIloop' emumrn., Im.Marumar oi];r:nmii s:ys~e;mg [e.g .. Mooular PIU C'on;lml :in11: IlIs~odation '",ruth CF'(: Verniom 5: or ffiligliAilr~ :j]j!ij, shl:lwn run Wuroer in Fi~., 4 •. 9)1 ;;!ire to bt! p~:r:em~d. HowG~er .. :i r 'Ih~ .C'Mto.mer·pro~~~ eruea:mr ,nnd fixed ~oo, OCIUfDill" '(s~an.d!3D!d ,coluo'I,cJullJIla,;';],preden:llled con~mb]; (see: ·N,g. 2.1) S'110Urud 'be seleeted,

SRafldory mnoor. e&.nmr

SiP'ART OM:!!

.FIiRDR :2.,

smll":AJR1' 'w!ltrolWil' :t1i5, Ib~tl!ll) !;o!1tl!oller

(]i~ n hiSll ... qi.mI'il.y ,i:{l!IlIJ1.irtlil ~~rn:c:tIlIrc w.ilJ!l Modubcw .PU) C'olllmrn illll SIMi-\TIC iS1~OO

... ~c"! •. '1·' "I'Ii.··ni- ~ ·;ti';'I,. 'P'lD ~1:1',,:·I\·tn ~r' .i!!1!_ ~_ _ I !Y! __ II!~, .ndJ!. . = _ __ !!~' .I!.I!l!! __ ~_

USitll~ ad~ruri,(inal fllla'D~[~@nbl~k5 .ilttl !dn.e .PilJC' (TUr-CES $~rst~p C@:ni'lmUe;rsmd, ~...EC fot. 'CQOJU ruUOYS ·~O!1troners). a'~D ,co:uUfOJlercM k ~.:p3~ded ·~o, a se'lf;"tgn~!1g, C(Jntro~l!e~. pm, COiD~,m,Uers con. men 1M .optfum1j~ o~iii.nc: .. The flll ,$ em f.··"[\J-Ill_CI'· 'iii ;s!pOciuUy d-esllglil~d. ~or 1G:lli~pe:rn~l!ltre ,ool~tml s, btu. cOD also '00' used for pte,_~li~ ~Oow :llI!1d l!s\!\!!1 cO:llu:ols. A" [premql!!i ... s[~~ isa ill~_aibl:c:rnld .llSymptotic tm!Il:s~c;n'l. IicslRln~ wirth d'e~D.Y.

Pmx~s:s~s lliM lbe;refo:ro '~Iu::;I~d~d wbgjcl[3~ady @&Cii~]a~e 'Wffith(l'!JII~ a oorU]{lU;er! .. ;md proce.sses wi.lltQu~. cC~~lu;;atitm •. U~'ie w.i~ ex.rl:elJ1eily ~ar:G'e: Ide:IHiy or dlead, trumCi is :aruso wmadvir!l;aibl.t.lu: ~ln-c :mDmgmll,litI;fl :Pro 8;:·'lf .. Trnoi:liD' ~Vf!J1iJorl !Ull) ean b;: ~d~cru Jor PIDI C'o.niunl. ,$'I;an(hIrd,P]D

40

-

:n~'U'1:\e ,2,.,

Cllnrig'!lml'iOI11l CJt}rn !il1If Stmml9ml ,ro C!::ifliirnl •. The: :pre~~infll'(l S'!rucitUJre n!'-Sl!WI~, i!l1i n simp]~ and d!!'tlt'!jj.·{m:!imUe;r;. M'odi:lif.atinms, 1:0 ~11I111i,vffio!!IJI[i iDum::tiD:M (e,g., 'i.1I»e l'J~DI cculimmler) eoo, 100 ;e'amed, (m~ by ,Ilfoublc c'll:tltio,s, theOO~:P<iflLdil!l,8 lllOOit

ContIiO~., MIOdurnar PID GontfOW, PUJ iC'ulI,wl UI!Ir~eg[lIl~d in S:tElP' 7,.FB com .,.!c, FBi OONTJl. anali, F,FLPULSOE.N!) 1L'lj ~I,~ PIS fer ~. ,~55,WM ,45~1. 'The; p,rn Sc~'f~ TUDer is hnGgr3~~d.i1ilthe PID J'G~p.rlmNtlre C'C:rl:Lm~. :FB S:S ,9m1d fM ,3,5,5 .. 2. HOYiever~wt s[_luul~id: 100 rememkrod tha~; II o@nufo~llller eqjwi.,ppcd wIth tile ,p,[n Se.lf .. ifulUll tUS 'mol ;On,lMltlpi~ve con;trfiUer •

.se~€.lllllIJdIlliS CQ!ltm~I!~rs {~m::'h as e.G" the PtE) Selr:-Tu[I!I~fJ dif:itent11~llu~ the cGI"!~ml Pllr;'olimf!~ef5 from ~mn,~ pfill!;CS5 vmtl!!)fJs m:oomh~l!l~o ,n dgfin~~ p'~m:~IJ~' 'o:rs"st!i:U~ :id,~!]tffifl!catiorru", iFo~~Qwin~ lC'lle,e!dmg or ~~!! nJs,~I:I:S" 11h~' ~~Q'rs ,OR: ~tI~m ,auton~~ui.cmU}1 tlreS;Mi~l~d ~@I lll!l c@ntm:l]u~ .fumJu:w '~~_r·~lIJI·nJi'll:1:"lJ camt be tri,!;l\lcmd '1J!!lltllg ;[]nomJ:i.et SiciP ~hooge [n!ietpcwfl~: wi~Jh; H i~e'llned Ilri1imulIll.m. MOJUC;, 0", lilmG '(M:Jru~I" hJaDild:,. odsJpliva onl'mn~rs ~mtJ!!memml" d£~eflTrlBUJ UC}W' OODtro~ ~rn_mi:~~ts ~mlti th~ ~'Js, vill,1J1U:S;, an.dl '~!UID '[bewcfoJe~,~1Uirm;medwa~el~~ te ~h::mges; ;ill'l, 'lIfi;~

.; ~s'm-cc ,- joe;!; ,-c - - - fir --'. - ,0 -c-~-~ti'lJ c

~) "-- __ mru _p;:t.IlSC _III-fllng '. ~f!:!l." _n.,

Stn~lI~dn;rd IprtldlIDcts ~tlr' ,udtlptivg ~OJ~,!I,ml~ ~ n{!~ el!Drre~tmy @J'vu,ihlble ~mI, UUl' 8FM'ATH: '~!lS~. ood, mlirn!l: be ilmJilrn~mcmu~dl ~~~ lleql.lli,md eitlllilU' lJJiS~liIg moo!;l'ior ~lI!JnlitioraJ'!. ,at ~m~e i.w,pprni:c~tij(J1l :Ie"!ltl~ or :p!.Wreb~d fWlom, o:~_r 'Wf:II]OifS. '[',llIie; ICQllllPmil)!' or tp.:rli.s,.-'Sy. ~~m:le 1m 'P'["antfUllit, sll"pp~[e-s e.,(:1., nn ~dil,ljve' S:1:at~ oontmlm!~r AOCO as :3 ~imnc~'I!Jrnl b~oc:k 'fur S:lM:ATlC S7., .a!l!l:di tUwi.~, ~Il.'JjS [oo~\I1[ Il1sllr3d. by' S:i!lHU~~l1~. and, j,m::ilu.f1 as II pwttu~r PIiOOIliCI, im, th~ 8:j,:I:lDll.elrus rC3!l:aID@.'!l,. Whc;m compu·, ~ns; '[hi:: ~c~~ru~ front '~lI~O<,IiD1~til~gJly ~Nln~ !;~lI1il;!ll!UerS w~th th!l~' ~f iOIDr:u:n:d~!:~ ~n,dli,\fid~uilly Udap~cd w ~h,~ pl,r;uit.'by ,~tm;ri~liiCGd C;filltro~ en~:i;lio~II'S! [bill U!ilI'I:OlTIilUC, sDIDutmillilis ,DR, ~mG~l1il~ wone:iJf ~erliljn ~eQond~ry ,mm~wli!Jns :filr ~hce :id)e[i~i,~catiQn fft'lOOdJUfC ,ue V~!):liWiled~

"'i, ., ,gc .", .. ,··..-u- -- . b!L, 1- --,~. , , - ~ iTil.,.-:i:- .Ii, "'d-

"".~t1' ,.,J(!I,DU;u, ,er:s, '\JI!r:~ru JiI'd!:,G,IlIJI, -,I.unmg"Il-1.I,

11le- pm SCU"'Tulil.e;f' ,~Ui ,3 Sl!j~~~ 'FlJmI~lilon 'b,l~k 'i;'aU be ii;:mftltbb~~d ~~R'meW~ 11I~:i'M:y Yiimh

.'. . !III'[ . -e ;1" i~~ .,.,,;i'I···~ ,. . 'I' '1- .III ili

VMiiQ~5 c<om:ml!l iBiD!!. : nt~reorrulll!~C'UiQll (J~ Illn~ tCiIlImllW, ~,r mm!l.l, n!lDl!'r mil; Ciam, '~'!' lCWl!;1,I'U'r, I:1J]j!jll ~ire·'

~uerDJI:ly ,raUiI'!;!.:: ~n, crro.ns., Tlu:reFore 'l!WO ,eo:n!W1'Iers, are now Dffel\i~ wlirn~1i il1ilegram se~f."II,tu~i.ng,

s:~ U; 1001Di

PI«: v. f HOlm

~5Ii!IJ v . lr. ~!lilaR

!!i'D,

_iiP'"":i!!lil!1I!'I

... ,- III '-""---,----,----"....,.",....

:&I:Jtii.1QI1IllfiLlt4DlIOO ~,tMrnPlII'I

m.. 'pt,i ;00 'IiIm .

~ ·nillllll~1

iIIf~ ~@'!I<

H~ J

:E"I\g!l~ 3.B

:S1ll1:r"Q,~limi1.Qli~J~ ~rolm1 ~ n iinrulili~1 m.t~ wi'i.h I!.ionsl_;(InI, ri ~ in t~ !!I~~m.tgro (dJ'Iiutd Iliru:)~ thl': ,o;p~imil'cal.i~ luu: ;lltm'adl' ~~!1 ~o:mph~ledJ ~u ,!ltil~ :~umi":gpoin~, ('Iudt ci'Ji!:lc).

mn,1i '11~r:lln;)1 prnr] ~Q!IlI!!:lOl h:r d[;f~ru,tdl

l'~c tum ill,g p'~OdYK ,~ef. F~ig:, ;2 .• 8) jt!jc:~tf ws OJ li~ili~,ef ,dt'~c:lopm:Cll~ of tile Sci f .. Tuaer w:ith 'lh,~ fo:Uow.i:111 m!lvamage:s,:

., The I1'D~~d Pl [) p:aI1i!lTIe~g;!, :s.gll :i~ 'idn~;m,~,y d~~f!Niim:d ~I: the: '!II.] mira~\~~ffi!'!~. Thei:rw,m1l!:!l:dill.e pfunse 3, ms ornrnii'I'lei1 \1!f!ith c:m:.fu'l P:I ool:ltro~. i:[ l IUDt fleceSHl1I\!l' ~o '\'!ill'lh :fm~ I :!li:;n,il]ll!lfY 6~al! ~tMg:,

.. The: Ilniil:i';:]] ~'itil!!e needan I! 0111 g:er be C)l:,il!iC~:~)' :iitatiiQr:u~ry" !M;t1l:00S w~th a COr:l!S~~rnl!, gMllllerll: <1;;Ql1,' . 1;30t ~mn (Mr :ri~e' in 'iempe-rJI,u:nd ,WN ;11::;@ a~C'epu~til.

!Ii 11~~' fllcili;m,!.'ls f(l:i :IIDS~,"lId~~~I1'1 iOlm 1lII1, the \vc:rr~rnll!lg pOi:~I'I, hI.9;'1~ been ~!ii:lend~d.

1'en!J]'Qfitll'lU't' .PUJ ('0'11'$,1"111 i~J. £'f'£.P:7

for ~h~ Ili:rs~ tWlllf!'. aim UU'~il; :rUljlC'lionb~octs :fl"lqujred. :ror:.. lypilico'JJl, '1~lflpem!~Juro OClnlI'iOW~U3Jm n!l'W comrDi:nGitl in '0:1'10 siIms~e b~oc~: ,;i, P~D ,controller wj~1:1J ICO:ll!lro;J ~Qme. orJj~li ne umnwl1Q :proc£l" ,[lUf'e" allid jpll lse g~11elml:or. Tillis ,~r.~S1;ic~dllly :~dk1J;e~, ~~l,~ ""iri!l£, O'~e'ri~emJ ~n,d ~I~e numoor ,@f i llI!i)elii~~~ :PiJmll:m1~l:eliS, :rel,e\l!1lI1l![ I!J' the 'il:;;soci'kltCd. l'LCpllogrr,il1l11, AU ~'hree ,coml:pon~m~~ are !!Jpt~ .. .Ilu;a~W,y el~Il£:l1ecl ~O' unae a;1~u[bell'. re.-;;mmli:i 1~l!J ~WiI. ~ OOh!JJli.'on will:lru the: ~wr:Jl~'II~t PJli:sibl~ ~~'an;dli,n~, 'f@1! rnlllifil user fFig. "2,9). ASI!~Offild v.~1Ii5,I{'m Qr Lh~ b~oc:k, ,rw.,ide:s ,~l PW ~,I~p' oomgjifJ]~~iI':,

:B)ilull the blocks :lrulillitl tbe ::nH;:oc::Dll.1ed pamr.trlNeIl'TIIZ~I,ion 'toi!li~1 be:h:l!n.g 'ID ,*ne ·t:mn:dl1m wope af STEP 7.

Tins rllrth~r dClIIcl,o,pmClm:l: of ~l1e FM 3550 'C]O'.~Cdi·IOO\I' ,control mooJU le has OOt!'1l s:pcc,imll,y de.;s~gmGd lFllf ~eJ1:I(Jl1rnmlt!re 'GfilWtrul~,. It ,cunl:ajlls a fW I) ,~ol!litroll~f ~i~, i.fU~gf~! tu~:i~gproce'" dUlle: :siooi:lltr '~O (he· ~m~lrn.t!ure PiJD' Cij!1!ro~1 in S:TBP"/, ~iowU!'~~r. n'diitt!lnaJ ~!lD:~c~:iI]:n:GIII'i.lies 1l1C~1l ~mu'~1 :i'i. rus sUlita~'.le :FOf rile :mlid mmi!lllu:pperrpcri"ufl1:mnce :mmge8:'

-'.

_II=

!II! • .iJfi "".I~

--

_II
."1
...........
-"", .. .)! ,~
--~"' .. !!P ~ I
-'~ "" ~I!mo
Z
1ii[.~~lIt 0
_11:.,iII· U
_I .... ."..
. '","'"'' "'f
... 'l..lmoo:> m
u,
- !,J +

fIB ;.'fIiCOm,;,,(;f,l!-

DdO

I _".J,

, ,.,'IYJan';':'

... Iop.

rI~WlIft' :2,"

Tet'!1!(X!rau,li~ pm' CIJ;T<lilrul h:Q1 S,TI~P 7: a ilroI!W. [lul!!-gml :numt"tioJlI 'IllltlCk

'WONT ""CP!l!:p1i~C~ ~ CO'nn!~il~Mion of thrucpnwiollli blocks

g~! , r IBI!llJlDJ

\I'OOMI:~ ~ S9'8S51

Mcnljl ",ar~ ar UJ,2(J2

b)

_II

FlIlJlliro 2.1'111

AUem,I]_;[lI:io[l of'I'he P' '~-1f1l1ponenl >OI~ cJIiIlX!Jle; im ~I~irrl'l':il). N'o , 1i!.'.flmpolu::nt 1'9 f!irt ~ecdlK_l(.·k. lal'g,ojul!]lP in n'!l!lJ!'lijl~IIJ~.!!IJ,'!d wriim.blr: (al1\1w)., o~vfihoois '~oo ~;prgil;:': bj !PI ClOmPl'_me!l!t 2l]~: in H1~ f~~!ml:~, O;Plll'llllm. Jli1l1iiIj)I'.Dnl!le to ,C:lmn,~ lin !«.lltp~un~; iCl') I~ iil,'Cmpommll."OllI:1lpllnm:l~r 'ill'll 'Ih~~ootl:b~u:!k, :no JllIlflf' Ln Mlan'i!plilil:l/I~d, V:ilkfinb~!~ '~ltlli,ut,g rnhl'lti ~oo Icul,G

.• Aic~II~~ ~,e:atil!ig and coo:liilll! j Je'., 11 rrnn IC!llbltfollei' 'tri~rs 'tWO di~f.f;:re;m];j(;1lti~mrs, (spUt ... .illirlli!j!c:) depelll(Ung en me sm:!!:H: (]ir dm:e s,y~~em ".i!evimhm., 51nceahe IW()! I.'I.ctuulo:r.s: can r-f:spond di"~ren~ly" :lIepamle i:dei[!~iil{;~ti!on of tbe he."!ting ftndl c{n);I]!1~ n!SPO:!l!]!CS is ~J'il!l! req,l! i:red :fQf th!:!l ~11~·'I!Ij liLi Ilg. ms:ultilng iin ,(i]Ue:mln pmlm~roe~ I(CiontmUII:l:I" ,~ln. tpe['.iod or: pUll se gCllern,,· d.on) far h~lti'11S, WIld C'<;mrn~n~ .lllis fY~lel.iQi'!!~r1ffi~~~ is ~Ol :pres~n'l '!I,i,iUh ,~f1Jl of ~hc othrglli' {,'!(lml1m;j prodLU::in~. AI ~ppru~c~l:it'!n ,e."amiplll!l ~s p~,3~ti's cx:trud!ers\~hilcl1 ~re hC'QI!f:d lliliy C]~CLnc sin, lutlili.te~ ",run scm[il::o.ndu:t:tmi" re'l:!iys;. :aml ooolc.d b:,1 ifans viio meC\~iI1&.lnDili:JiliI e:Ollltm::i~o:rn.

~, t'onti.nlla~Js di~tri,bu:lio:n of 111 c!lmnpo:o,~nt 11.0 s(,upQ~m ~.mrn;ch ,~nd fcedbEk, rn,mmc~" Wi~, .o~ru o~rnc:r ;CoiDl.'lm[le,[S;. 'the l' CCJ!IR,PO:l1Jflllllm, ca, be tflm!l:fe'fl'i'ed. Uf ,[!lit I1U)1 by one lIli~: cO:lll~h'.!Ji.'eruy irl.'ln ~be flWdbill"Ck. The: conlim:u,}'IlUi d.ws'lrlkrt@iiil~Ill'a:i~s lexaClly ,app>~~atl1ed ,oueWluiliti:l)f:i (if th~' eflects of the: :P' oompo!llle:lTIlt w.ith! jU:R1PS in selpo:ilnli!:, runl 'Ii~l:II!ii, ~;I'I, {l~t~iDlllll:lmal respmls:e 'lo cl~ang,~. in sSllpoi'nll: (FI,g. 2. UJ:) .

• 1 AID enm1\te.I~:~O\n wii~lll ~; 4=b'i~. rem~JnliiOn:ti [~tJ:~ts; :iffl 11 s~i,gn~l~rcam'l l~nc:ret1~-e i'l1Il :m.~a..~lJ!lre~l~QJ't aOIi:m:JlIilCY 'wi'l'b ::li 'COI~'ilt'iil'SiOlili li:1 Ill£: or :IOOI1ili!i.

• lc:rf~:~rntum 1~(;I\m])Lm~t!IOt1i '\-!lihl!:ll'!l !l!.i<!.!'b.,g iU!h\;l:rmbO!l)IJIP':I~si15 'po~~M~ by :ani:!l'l.'~mid CC:!l1~·· 'i~@iIiI of an e:.'\;:~;em:3JI .FlU 100 '0[' II pammret!llnzm co!:d jlliH1iCd:,on IU~mpeimllU:re.

A"lv,lJ/ltog~s oj ulfh~,,{ll\:' e:mUmfters

'" SuWij\-."II;mi!e' :C!JII~U~:rn ean be ,repeg;~OOJI!y u!:d rulll a CPU \Yl]thOUI!, 'CltITO ~harg~

" WUlIen usi D~ sof!,w,me !COIIl:Iml:iC'1'S theR is no! [;Ommlllllwcal:ioDs t)'!!;"I§i1£'.fl:d 'UI' ,corum I, mo[iurn!lls .• Cmn ilt.h,{1"Ulg~, e:i!::ist i,~ ,~n~dog mlOoS are :pree:mt ,[ifid wi lIb .~ h:ig~er i[l'i.!irmber oif':eQlI1'1:ltil 'IOOPiil !! Sw~(t:ti!lling lillpa:mtiom;, iiluu. lalhC u~r pr!il~mm C'HD be' :sffiml!'l~.:y 'iIl'lCiOrpDl'9I!~d :ill1~[O :modulu :5@:I'I: ..

W3n:: stNctures

" S:~ebd fUinc~lh:lifa!.~ (,Ill .1. ~~etl!n~ clutI"'JCI:Gllih~ie,. h.);: di ;'SJI'D:rI:1" !E!iIG.: .• ) flnJ, be i luegll:lted :Ill!ni'e .:;,'itn" ,~~y in :!l(lfrtw~' sohUjlU:'!~,

'i11IH'C'fQm :ioo:p COrnJLroi1;, iIlf mOO:[I,13f' d~sils;n.pmvid:e ';]J Im~l'!:,imur!1 O'f ~l~;!';~td~ity.

I. 'Di!ldi~JD'f1.1i' 1U£ ~e' m!!!1l l!:emse riJ:h't5 For !!mfli:'o'rr;Ln! ,lrlJdil!td:.s, p.J.rmm!i!~:1! liz'lJIi.i:c::5ni'io:Fmrarre

Prurnm[l~erul!i ti en 1!l~~I'I~ W~ IlIrn 1Jl!!;~ he ~'II.IR'h l.S~ ':o,t': prn1tU~ 1)I'@r C~c:'1J, '\\'C'~:SLuti 011. Mu hj., le Ij~li:lf!~es or ~g,P'~' 1,~i!;I!"s(::!'l r!:lr"t'! ,I'!,,,,t dt1fe~~J [(]or Ilrllmll1~~lC!il~l~un~1 ~I:~~"'t~.

~JUjllUj f~~ 'd]flWa1l\~

siFli,gJ!rt [ic~Il~i.l.'" .;mJ' .1"1,;;'\Q.jllln:n,!d rur mll'l'liln~ i!ofi,wm (1~~lllt:~~llM,f b~m~'1(~ ftlr ll:;;J~ in. CPl!.1s , \,,~ I~I~ tllu.chll'!i,ll1ig ,rI lI,n WD'N puek~lgc (,e ,g. ~'I U!l!ld:ard, .p'r~)1 I[;(iml~;liul Fe). ;1. :'!'iJrnlll~ I ieense

is ilnc~ud~d \llih~c)_ 'IXnnillSi OlJ1\e Qf '~llme rlIDf1I;I(~(:ln bl,Qcks on &:!t3C'lly olle CfU. Addi~ion~lli .mllti.me [l'cc nse J1I'l1JL!!i~. be pun::~.msc~ ffiT' IiISI! '0, I IlJIlIe F18,!'j on li!!lrUUl'f CJ~U~ .• ~llLti nr'i;l U:~1,U:11- .able :Itt OJ Ilo\""'tr ~lih;:e" In eaeh CIlSIl.. lht e u'lid~d(iI1'i (], U8t'i Olld: ~ ICl!ta$l:ti:gitr 'f,; 3m ,~"Cii,~,f;;d 'O:lIl 'Iih~ sulil~ ~rtific;Jte en~I,([I~d\'1l ',I'h ~ihn,~ m~i hi'e pmdUl:l.

44

·f'IAf]~~~(m modul~tj ar~ d~-si,gned for ~lji§l~r ,d.!'Ilmllnh:: ~rlo:lil'Mncc~, ,co:ntrol qIl8li~]l' :rund :s~fety furrotlOll, d~ln[lnd8, F~ncth~!l moou]e:.,>, are pM.icg[~)i' l'tlq~:imd for ,curU'roll.ers, wi1!h Ptl~SC ,g~r-uJmliors, for' mon-ilmtegJntlillig actunWt8· de~mdi~ng en tha; sy8~c:m lI'l1J1iC C!on!JHl~lbi of too:prooc,'\is.

'" e'Of1i~plelle >co,fI'iro.l smru~IlL!N~:) ,ru~ 'present 01'.11 ~1:100t tn.!l.odul,es wt:d1 ~C(':d (lUrn)' '00 enabled '~$ing :S~fUC"llue s",du:1bl;es, TI}~s if.i fre(I,~el]lI:,Y :~uPPUl1ed ~y conil,gmll(lIlJll ·~ools:.

• Tlit~c dia,s:ml&'1 les cap~birnil[Y of ~~e fM IfIloorules,meaifi1& tl1a1l 'Ihe au L~aifl :rem;1 "f:ilSl:er to urgent e!'!enL!L

II!! TJu;: '~lnal.o,g.,c'\i~1~ 'pl'OO~~s.ijJl is t!l.ilorodICl'COlfiWJ 'ooq[ij~m~ruil' (e',.!I., a mrattfii,TIiuer fawll'l ean sct a M;-QLltroUer ~o safety mode wimnoM!t ~. s~i,(1}]j. user programi l1~v~ng to be pres~n~ in the CPU},

~Mooi'flcalion~. are !It};,t~fm~]y :simiffil'le durin~ c!l)ll1Jm~'!ll!*iot1:i~g, Ad~i,ti{ma] f~fllcti,mu~ m~e par.l'!~teri,~gd ~fO~ng ,efrlable hit::;"

!Ii 11u: SlfART Ad 355145;5 ~!.W!1~d()!n modutes f'Oti&es:s i3J InuikLrup ,c~p.ilky I(SPC b~cku~ - &.-,,<:' S~t~(,1!,f!, .s.5),

~ S:pet\:ia~vcnj()~~ ~or :t~!ifipe:faty;oo"con.lrols wi~1b Ua.e as'sociated o:pti.rui1:a;liorill00~S ~!'iIj'm, oom· ware 'iI1Qiltl.'mlle:rs lI1i~o speci.idruzOO :sec:lnr IGOl1itroUI!3l';5, (e.g.f.M 355-2).,

The. fupr;i~lOJIi mYlt.md'IJ!I'es &flmemJl'mc,.!'i. comai!m oorrll:l':lex '~unC[~CmUl wbi.ell c;:alll!'lOI be i !upilleutelued mn the: CPU f~r C~l':'acil) roilSOJl s' {e.g, 4ld~Plh~Ci ifil!I'~C~. O(lrrect:iQ:I1II;On"";pUI~r~ ete, )1,

S~j'/mn!lry

A:!iO fm: us C'Q IS ,31Ild sp<'1Loe' rt;.~llireme:n;I~'i ere ICClIll!!Jeme-dl, c"J()nsLe~~3t]CI]lS (m,1liuliJ¢r 1Il):I' ,C;:Qi!l;trollers. sell 00 r ~Ylpe., aClua'lnr type an!!dll!JJeed re.q,u:i:rer.mel1~s)' :;tre a\i~U;1!ble, 'for brulri ''\,te.rn~i)l:l!:! WhlIC:~ :p.n .... \1~id~ a C@~[ ad,'i;lutli.l,~¢ :for 'lime Ofil,e QJ' (JIlihe[" llleiliSioiil. Arnlllo1lJgh [[, can !be ~31d, '111m oolh \I'e:t:S:ions, are i)f(.J.]babrny ,~q~3ru~.y e:t(,peDis!;.oe 'when ,cm~!!!.'id~rif~g :a~ill ~lllpHcmil1lnsi' rut!.$. werth c3.1cldaUns ~I!I. ~mJivilidlli.ml eases whiclbl ef ~b.~ ~wo ~YPG':<: of ''-'!olU1~roller' ~.;'Iiti!lu~d be :U:Set~. pl.'itlvi&d the ledllil,ical den~gi1d:s are ~~9j~j~~'ied.

3, Aematnrs and Sensors, fora C,ontro'I,s'ystem

AgliCfll dr;:llIJl has ~1f;euuJ:~ lbeen wriHcl!l in tb~ intmdu(;tulo,m, COilllcerni,ll,~, ~re;m,0'l~·.conJlrol;loo inal C'Ofllro~: elle,f:D1lCflts ;[lIl])d. ac:l:ilI!aU:li~. This, ,~lei'D'ly i.nd[c~I:eS :h:OV.1• ,i:mpq!!tmlt tbe; ;iflrflillUi:QI;.C of ~he acmU}Wr rcspCli1:ge: is en the control ~tStllm, It ~n f:roqrll.'CIIl!ll)" (lCCurs Ifni ip:_ruct~ce thaJr (he: aetuator ~~S ~!hel~rg~~t ~mnUMce o:n the cOlmplele r~spol1ise of !1Is:ys~em, ru~d tll~ i;,~ClrdJ,\lruieii i;s mai n~y ,oC'cL!lpl~d w!:i'b ,eQi~~roUimg ~:t1e ,ilC~!IIIiit'!)r's ~n_flJ(le]]l)Ll. Un fm:1lmatcly" tID'll'; :auempt is m_~~ '\:II,~he.l1i planning to ,S:i1ili'l!: ,3CiIJi.lat,Ot'~Oiilts (md, '1J..H.'l,t,i'i;l:fom at tlile wm:ng ,p~3C:~), :and. 'Ul~: ~;s~"'\r. llilg:ii" ~iIiI h3ird,v.~ure CI,li;\l:I:snoo theill,!l::01llimL:ern~ m3l1Y m.l:m'W!; on s;i~e ~rIid dl!J.rrit;lJ.g oonlmis:!:!:iorning.,

PKun, ~econtr-ol en~ ineeri ng vjC\\poi mit. two nspccl~ arc i mpcU1'.Emt·fo;u' ilcl:mat'01m. On the om; bllild. the: rosptm.se :l1ll, i~he, ,ccrlltrolloop dc.pends en rhe: IfYJ~ o:fac~til!.dflil· dril'll',e;, ,3:114 en the otlu~'r bry the physk;al c:ff~t ,on the medhuf!J to< 00 oontr-olled.r, 'RiC aUl\il~i.rn:y energy used ~s dc-cIJl·hrl~ :r~r the type of clrhte', A dinr¢r~f1tiotj(U'Jll iSIl~Lld~ bet'll~!i~~n ~1,ec]MA1il(:i:ilul'Dli,cal odrivc;slu.ciu3~~ ddve-5 w.iUiJJ pn,eurna:ti.c :SUP:l"l.y,DMld drives wi~~ bydn~Jic ~upply. Re;fe:fe:o~·es [4j, 1,6] ain:d I'~:I pmrvwdc detilHed. cl3ta 3mJd iinforrn~~~o~, ~)oiim1;aJ eeutrol .c,I~l'I1el]t~ and pos~tiOllers especwally ~tllt :pmcc,"i~ i3ugJinto"lGri t~gprn3!1!1'IS. ,A, nuulbeT o:f importMlt. (e'j'.iU~ wllrn be: exlPl:aln~d in mm.ore detail below.

At'tll{~g j1'rwl t'(lJ!'fr").{ ,t:lerrumts,

'f'~nl1, (R;c oontm~ e:n,g~nt;'eIl'l1Jg "\iew:pomt" :analog fiuru -control. e~cJnent§: ,enmprh;epropcrl'" tiliol1il1l. ,m::~,U~IOI;f;, i,lootIJ,gtul ::u:lan.21ttlif8 ;ftIUJ "Io1~d de:v1ees. T.nre:proponi'onru ncttJIiltnts fJ[~ those wi'~b ,:m~dog; "'Olltro~ rEly Ilbe s,ta!~daro copiUro:! ,eofl,giMMog. s;igmJ]s 0" .. 10 V~ 0.".20 ,m;\, ,4, •• ,10 miA. A~ [::;u3slbe oonl'r;ro~,I{!lr ~~ ~"OnoofJ[~d~ it i$l!.l'lir:nPllftIUl~: whe~her I~M ~~t~(an:ira~ ~i,gnal is c.Y!1ver'!~~ ,el<retricaUy into L'nlltml, ,e;n.ergy nr by !1l!1canS uf a~ru ,a~I:Jilo,s:. eJ]ectmlulie-tl,. m:arl'ic JK).si'lioll1!f (UP' oon'r'cl1er),

The ~'C:rml ''prnponJ.'lIllidu ref~r.s to [Iw C.l]iIIlNiltrs[ono~· tlll! CQjl1lifOJ l'J,jgm~ to a m(l~b!ln:it'iI[ vtm .. ;:a;'bie (e',"g" position). A pmJlO~j('lJl;W rumnttor m~ a ba~~ 'll.~'I!'e 'whiliclh.i,::; oontmmed by 20'% ,gen.,· '~J'3il~S an op~l'I.i'n,g :ansle of 2(~% 'of'Lbe:' meG'liI!!l~ticilrn(yudjilllstubll!l'; run.~!a.H:owe::~t" ~Jh,is docs not :U:ilI~fl!nUrtica[Wy g~ne[,~~e lO,% of ~f.ae ~lUl::dmrum. pO~!l:ib:le now: .. Tillis ial.(iWl!l.1l ~Ill~t pmpnrti.onal !2I.c:ma1.t')(S liI~a-y ,!,;e~i n~!y C',;dli'Oi:13. p:'h!y:s~i,::al, lrun8n~i~~:tii en ~p~!'i~ .. e wht~lhl i~;li!,ut rn~f!e.;Jr and th~re~tlrelllin"l'\SII~' be :liil:learii!ledllB.oi!o:rtl'i,"~ to ~l:1e d!~ltu, ~}Ji(lvid~d by me vendo:n' (~e'e also Sec[~mil ~l.I.4). lilIe f(~nt~wjtlg, Ci2Ll.1l ~ :llKm~~Otled ~S' e'l':.~~llples, ,o:W Fupo.l'tio.JI aru :actY~lOrs;

'" StrQk,~ ,~C'II!!!.~~IOr. Wi:l]l silnS]il::...~a1; ,carnml. \I',al:ve w~lh V·ipon p:lug

• Thre;e,,:nla:n,ge :Illiollsi I~I:I 3JLld 'Im~l1ilm:aHc di:ap:.n..gm drive

!II !Plug. 'V,::Ih~~ wIDth eleclmJnm.:·hnn~cal nctuuWl

" jEI0~~ri!:!' tb~U v.i.'IIl V~ 1;.vrndl s,Prirrug .. h;mded, ~in.~~j~ .. nctkm snd d:Ol!!bl.,e-llclio,[JJ pan;.,'wm :.1C~illl{nOr aneW :il[idiI:lS, valve",

'Wi'lll tl1~~G iJClt~iJ!ton! d:J£ positioning rnlm~ is ,lim, :illrl]X)[l!:ant ft\C1IJf' 'mhG:nl planning ~i!; oO(J!lro'l ~:oops., TIh:; ,dYID!-;U'nicp'--dm:lnar.i!;,~ of a 'Ol~lrcd loop !Carl) be ,greatl, inOueneoo "1 tln~ wrn:,kIDS ~:pe@d ofl'IiK!: pogi:riollem 011' IIJOO o,pemUng lim~ of [IJ~ c:(Jl1lrrol 'w~ves.

"111e f1e~ld d;evi~ (!leeBh~o :intcIILi,gcmt ootmuorn) a;re ustlU~ Ily pmpo:nio:n~I,., li:nearri:zed acttl3-'

'Tib.. ~ "AI ,;, {Ii. tI' (-~ • ...,11' 'I • . -'" I

~GJS, ~,~~,' ,~, I{l_ ~Cfi1lequ,!P~YI WI~llt~Jelr '(JWflt!!.hK'liQi! !]lIiWC'), 'PQSl'h~~m:.. O,pe~11'lUl!llg e~e!iTlCJJts"

~od, (~ p:o~~mrnwng Grpa_T3i~~ml~ti,(ln ~nt.en~e¢,A,I,thou~l1!, ~ilcse ~ctM~l!Ots arc lrelativel!:; ~:ltpe:D1S~V~~, ~~ i I~c!l\etl_s:ing tl:u:mber o{ sueh ds::vices i, , olI~ood (In, tli~ :nt~rk~t every :y~ar. '1lle uS-~ of 8Uc'ftJ aenullQl1;fmque'udy pays f'Or ltse~f thro~gb tbe l"w rommJssi:onmtlg OJruI :senrjei:ng: oO'Sts,,·nlC f:ci~l]~i£i~, ,can rbelM!iu~oned as ,e-~~ptes of sueh iIilIL'ei~~s,e:fWl netlJD!1011l:: :r~qluemc-y 'COIIJVCners f~UM(JV.ERT)., e.g. ~Ol" 'cpc;rn:liO:I:I 'o:fa fim. SIPAR]'j! SlPOS. srr.RANS; ,etc.~lWd

_I" " .1 1 - -.' .-," T;~''''' "-" , -, . II' .- "lh- -iI<..""",,,.. -

'!(J~glW!_j ~, eclropt:ni"d''I1l1i~I~~ !pOS<liUOlWitS, .! .ne po:s:mOfl'lilg lutUi: is ;llh$) l!mptlliltuIiitW~ . c h~ aetu-

alO,f'S. Mid IIlt'lllsl be 't3~eli ~n[CI ;(iomsidel!r'.a~ ion When. p:l(U(iThlI11S Uw comrolloop5.

B'iM,r;,F ,( ~ u!',ik'.hi;!1:ifJ'J a~u,,a'tors

B~I~a:ry sw:iu:!~~i m.s; a~'tiUIlGtS, a:re clt1!l'idc.d ,acom:d~;n~ [0 dl.G oonlmID ~llgLnomng v.i~poiJllt 'In II] m~thiltlj'al O'wo·~tcp,}1 IctUDlOrs., el,~nruc O,W(Nd:tp) actiJJil~OB., o:n~ imre,Gmtwn~, OI:lZlee·s~~p)o 00liu..'lton wi~liI.ru1d WilM:lWt poS][lO\llI fi~i!dbac],_::.

Jr\fledr,gni~tll' ('It'tio'.s:fe:p' d:tltl.vtan1' rue :ow~t(;lhilii,!: ,e:lem~lfIbl w~,i~h nn'ly ,mcQgRi~e~ iI'I~ linp:ull: s1lltes ~' ~nd "l" (onlol. Uwc:rutIC~M~d),. TI1~~~ elemems are Hot .~If .. :i'luegrali.mg. tbis ilI'i~ms tball~~' il'ppi,~cd po5:i~i!Jaim.g l~iIlelil:Y is mlo1: 5l0i"Cdwhe:n fh'C- w~lrol, s:ig:R1al ~5f'til:'tlOi!;,ted. ~g_ai!l,. 'S.ut . .··fil~"::1OU reI :!il,w·'I["lf--;- .. ~Ii'!iI'l'~' B!~ of" u . ;.0 '1-.'" I-:fi~i i ,~I' .~,- '-at "'111.:'-1 ,I'S '. w'l..' lL. ___ cnre __ ~, "_c __ n _1~_~_~_ng,eL_ne_w[ C __ Il __ OO_Be ILl'!,;; II)._Cu. _11 ~ c~m_m_,lll;:: _~LcnL 1.0 _1~liCU

one has .aml, 1 mlmegmtin,g, response, 'W~u:,n us.iD(g i m :9 CORlroUcr y,f,i:rn ,[I :pulse.;wrud~lJt,.llllOO~I!ilted, lblnflty mVlplU' :S'ig1IJlrn" the ll!lM,OO[, of 'poss;ibo:le ~w~tc~i'l1(g Qpeliil~h):I1s imtU,S1, be COil [i!!tidemtt

'BwliI wlilcn u:;hl,!!l" N l:t\y~ wiJh u :!;~":it-e ~ilrlC:! of :mm,re; 'I'hool Ollie mLmol11 t.!,w,i~:cb~llg: opel;:m~o:~ui. such a ,combbu,limll wm re~~ullt. i:1:I1 v~l,'y short j~y in 'the oOP~Nl g,ys:wm .. W!UI, ,iI peri,oo of ),11]0 ms, [I~b, iimi:[ is ~llliJld~ 1~~!lM 8ft~:r a f~ d~y~. Sucb me c.1;um'lllC'1l1l .3uu;~nors ~1IC1t l'h~:fOfC be u~ for a In.{Jm~in~wt~Hg ~,y51~~nresiPOI1lSe. For :ilC~!]I~I!!Jrs, of th~s [,),pc. dbSCIi\~· ti{):tt11 ,of tb~ n~j~jmug III ~)tI]~: {llumim ,(and mininu!illU 'illil~f1puhre periotll) ~~ ~mpMtm[ rt;r ~I~e 8CIi¥IDIGC life ,of h- a(;~ualm and ~ts 00 ntro !I ~ rn;ils, 1iliIiC o(lmnliss,:lo:niIrug, enginoor can fi~nd ~~.e,~c d:atu in the. druu S.~1li providml rby mille 'v'C;n ci!m:: Tab!.Ie: :.t:l ~~hGWS t)!I)iclil de:fzu:dm 'll'afflues.

E:l~lIrfDi-,ri!u·,,".,g1 :-~ ""~lf-'--': - :- : bn :i'OWi~Oh;--" e~e- -enj,!,\,: c- lj-:iC;Ir'l-I'c -~ -c .'1"- tho '!~'C-In ~_.rc .. rL.C . ~I"!'i} ._.r.p§ (J~~ .. a.JJf'S ~ne _l!",t, .. _IBQihl,_LJlL.~, W!!LJI~ ~iI'L)' ~·co.gJilJllJ; ud; !JlP'L

:shUlts i;'fJ~" ai&uJ ," ~ 1'1 I(o.ru/(jg, OJJiC!il/c;'l~d)l. 'lmt 'wh:ich ,(nile Sldln.bl~ fOI tlil,e oontli'ljl,()f n()J1l-~Iil~!!l· gm(~ng, 's~:!ml:m 'r~:ii'I)('HlI~!! 'becl"U:!S!: of Ul't!li~rr W~alr .. :fN~ dc;s~gl'l. Rcpre.~in~aH¥~ ·0£ ~'his II,ypc: inc'I!1l~d ~dacs ,and d~cl I"Olrui.c ~Ia~rs (e.g. :~!lI~d-st3~~ reI1a,ys) wbkflii 'C~tlll directlyc.,omtrot elee ... tricu] heater,s wmlO'dl fUl1:hetr :physJc~W oon\'ers~mj" The 1lt:l~lll~lJlttID pul~: dOIr.QtWll91 is rheRfi:)fc: un.'im,:porl:ant fm- th~s '()"(l'C of ;!lC~llI-D~m:,;

lnt.e.rntftfg ~thr.:ef;-,f';CI)~ ct-tI.UtJ{;t),TS "Kt;~h' piJ'Niti(Jl,t /'Udbatk ~oo ~'i,wilChin~ (lle-Ments wi~h t,~ro, l=:i'--..--CC.f ,- ---~l'I witruich "'--llly ~ ...... ti.'-'il"'E Ilil:,,"! S;ijlt·e;,'i, .~. ;[jJ,;,~1 •• [" ~1~ ""· ....... '·1':"1 if~ the ;:,;t1U'C table ~ilil 1'-11"".':,

!IlI'_niill) ~!ilp1J~._ .. IL ",n >I ,_,",~[iJi_iiL __ ' .... L !II __ !,"'"_ - ",I. .!""",W", --- - .. - ---.- ---- -- .-- - -e"

1 'l),

... P,~ '.- i!!'

SlIL'Ch d~,dces i!!IStJW Ii)!' ODn.v~1l ~ine el~Tic3l+ IPlleul'l!.ali.c Illl' bydrnul~c pndt~Mljmg e:mltrg)l' linin :3 mec'ilIJln:lC'arn :8!to,re.di 'wrl:a'h!\li,.IIIlI, tb:is case' ,U .. 5 wen. c"b~r'l{'d,lioll rOf the :md:l11i:nililllm J}IlI~~ dl'U,.t~O\1il1 i s run QSpeCI j!m;po~:iun fm-pmaIJlWl,i'fI.:g ;!lind cclimliliss:icu~i~g ..

,i\:-; a 're~\!h (Jf.lhc~ :rowy 1Il1l01lntlr ofthemil}[Of ln ,F~£:" l.l" '(he :sp:imdlc 1l1.1Dl1\CS tile .YtJ!l.~~I:~, an:d dl.C '\I',a]vc: opcWli~g lbecnr:nes r~rger' or ~liliIall,er' d~peooillg, 0,11 i!M moto~"j;s d:iroclb:m ·G'frotl:l,~itl:l\. 'tf the m.~tQr ~$ :statiomuy. the pl!l!!lg rellMtins in ~ts currer:u ,~~i'tion!, Md III~ ()penli~g is !10~

41

I~oslttoo foodbKk (C!pIiQ1118i~

'------..,

I Spindlo

I

,Qc1 ......... _.....,-I Q2: ---I

n

'1

cl1;Uli1!;~d, Th,e s:pimmm~ ~Ile:~[cn~ ~lwncticill1l!l ~,,'l ~ rnecl~n~~~I' i'!]t~~ri1ltilfl~ ~lelrnl;!!I1t T:I~ di~pll;'l:y on tbe lItIeclla:mica:l ~::;c!ll!e~ mIIS,1: a;El!rec, wifl:! the ilTanl!GS outpu~ ;::i~8f1al~ elf ~~h: cOJlIIml'lef <mlmi,pu~ In~~d, 'lJo;~ili\bl;c.). Th~N:flJre; Ilhc FKlIS~1 ion $ocdilnu::k is wllll.llil1~d lin [jle ool_l~m]r:aJl. and! IlihG pmdr.klfl [If (he p'hllg eorrected ~f ~t(;c~~ 'Il':jg ~~c bi;":[}~l'iln;plnS "OPEN~!I··CIl..OS.I2,H C~ :Rig, ,3'.2)"

for the UCI1~'Hw:rrs Wi'l~1 uIlIJi)m@8, feeidba:dk! 8~nernli'iJr:Ii of (he sigulJl i III! ~he oonu,@~I)eili" j,"" ;ilCl uamlly ver)' ~ilimp'I!.!;. "f,liWil 1:13.;.;i:r:::' pri.nc,irpll!.ll i,~ a :5.nbmrd ilil:Uc position oolfltm] IClllt) w:i(h tile ~r.mlog IDmlMmir.u.ilaIGd ",ooiinh'la from tha' P[D ail(uithm as ~bc ~Oil,pui ut, and rnhc ,iJC'luarn l~i:ti,iQn 'lI'arntlc: (posUion f~d~,D;ct). lih~ ,pus!:! i.Ol1l'tf ~~ici!Jl~y tG'ni~if,'bi, \!Jf' ~ oofnllat'd!1m 'Oii ~Il~() a suibotd~llale ,\\!omlroller which OOllt(-Q~S U1C' 'binmr)" (liurlput:!l (O~B er Close), 1I.ili~ ~,ype of ~~u~l\1)r' is ,~noounllered, ,~e"bf.l, ilirl<ill less illp.rnc:~lce. ,sinoc' the elOfllfeqal ood to obtaJll the arna.IGg IPO};~~!O 11 :r~OOlhac:k: IS 'CUiidde~3ib~~ ~~i.gnnl. CGlWCl.iter ~n ~Cnl:ITl'I['Jl'., \'\'~ffi'n,~. ;~par.l.lCi rutrd;o~il1ipln ('}(fl. 'ellJl,· t_m!~er).

An, integ,f'ill.rn,g {tkn~·s,r:t,'J {l.ctl:ttJtal' K~ifhm.lt po,fi,iiS,il1lJ',/e,edktk will now be cOI'D'$rudered, In .Il:l:m::1hII:liIiC :liI~d SIT.m.llp!13!1l,~. Orn~sfri.at~IOl~. ~hl3: s(}'locwhu~ higheii' _inves!,m~11I~: CIJ~t,;" for i.!Ji::~!U::.l:I,m'·,

r----------------------------------~

,i I

.. Posi~,fe.ed~, !

!

I

III

- III

'I n n II ~=;~t~=~

_Ulll ~~!:IY~: ~~.

-- III

'I ~

lL_

I

--

Irill:egm~I'!,'Gl altruiBi~~

~I ~I

------------.--- .. ~.~ .. -.-.-.------~

~-----·----·-------------------------I

'.!I o!'1!in 0',,,,"," I!

II C~~er ._.""t!i. I

! I n1!=~(!JdJ , Open _ ~ ....•.

II ,/ lIUl -.'.""""." "'"",8<. "~:~'

u._ _.- .... -~ .... -I,.,.

C rtO!€!d II II

. I' I

--~~~ ~ Ii

Ii, Iii

rr-./l----J il

~ ..... - ..... , ....

9mlJl'~!m ,of actu.alrDr poail1nnl

hlitegraUn-g lII~tor

II!.1UJiI :lIDsj~it»ll re~dllimd!: wiirh th~ M!!ioc'ial!~d ~ddwlrnOiIII~li wilidns, 01reIi'beM" or 'I:h~ 'CO!i~ for i,f;lt~:I~~G(l'n,'[ aC(t:.!oloTS,,;ue :freq,lJIcntrn),3voi,llied. Che;;l!ip'3C'1iW!!~tc.nr$i are ~lliIen umd 'wheft :lwm:itati'oIilHIi ~fI tlfl.e iWCulmCJfh:D.v~ t'll be ;:u~~efled.

Wh~:rt M~ng sln:::tID ,!iI>C~!l!lI!!il'OJ':5:t 'the: OOI'1lb:{)U~Ii' has '~O' :s:i:ml!!ll[ltc' ~Gpo5ili,on '('lJlliom '1l1I" I!t'ls$, exactly), ~lI' anlle"o''Ill dds" the OO~'llt'ts {Open, ;md C1,0 IliiA!:JI run tbe CC:IlR:l:lc:r; ,are: i!l:O:9'11:ectm iln,1Cm~ny to t1i I(Sii;mu~p.,[ioR), in~f!,~ratm'. 'I'be' :sp:ed '\",!,~th 'wbi;cb, 'the~ .~Il~e,~r:i!u.cr must heilaerea:s.ed or decl'OOiSed IDliJJS,'I, k m3tch.ed tOi the ru~~iMe "'" 'I'h~ nme :from the cloSl."d ;pos;illioJ] (0%') tip Ul lliu;l o,peQIi, mm~i~ tien (1,00%,) "",·!Of Iile DC'IJIJ.EUO!r to 'he siJn1u~atent The i,n~esmto:Jris; o:o11y :DCl~i,'i',9ted 'by iruh£l 0'0111,. nolled b~no;l] 'mJ'i,ln] fm 'O~11 or CI:o~e. The s]mul;aiti,on pmcecliwre :slilcwml, rnn Fii:g., ',.3 rnnl;hld~; 3, ,Bream, U!nce!JJlUiinty., 1l1,e ~im~il-lm;lm ('f&uu!li:on b'1.oc~, wwth gm)' Mck:gm:l:.md wn Fig,. ].3)., wllk,ll1J si m!DJlii!iC! rh!:: i.!.cU.!il!1Qr ~~li(ln. d\oes :IIDOI: 11!!3.Ye a ~ililk, ~o the :ae~!I.!~,d ~pos~i~'io.l] of ~he :g!;;~!I.!~l(lr~, arn'~ tfle ~YiO v,amU!1S !(lctu111~r 'pMi,ti,on mnd SiIIU!U.'ImJ~t!:d ptbt;i'lion) ooaml:d ~ivt:1i11C fmml 'O:l'ii! llul!bsr.

lFOf IC1\ar_mp~t:, i,f the ~'uQ)IQli_ ~~!1r:!itedl or btoc:ked by 3, ~{lrqg,e chn~h~, m~ltlt~i~allimi~ IP~ ~et:[ijjmil'i Of' if' m :rn~cHn[cmlin:OOf\feD[i'Dn WS 'In~de Ol~ l:l~e l)'CUUUOI' lW:il,f. the I11tllJal POsl~mOlJi1,

MMlC"' I'.,. .. ..i ,--..:","'1 ... in I~nl

__ '. .P:IJ!O;l!URII 'IR! ..... !I.IRl, .... ,"IG~

$I!!J'!,u!a1!lQA vajye lfn II,%'~

.Mm1IpYl~tJu:l,

- 'v,jul'ahie, fJ;c1il'il1

sa' I (~1'I'U'Oller" ~..--r

- 1.I.n[%]

QG1 .. __ r

AIlNs: I_tiM, 'I~e weard SilmuJialDMi rn;artlpuDailmHl v.a.ullles, ,oot!lcid~

"

-\'. -

Ael.ua'lOr ;PMiIlon tn 1~%1

eo

100 1ilm9 [liJ

'so

'va'lu~ ;n,rw:J ~~I~ shtud_~~n1ue dl~rg~rrom onc: ~olhcr, l:naeclJr~c:ies,i:r) speci.fiemwf.U'l of the ft)n~im~. liI,eaFpht)' arul ch'fimges :Lilli 1~l(l acl.~J~~fiIi iIlech~Ul les ~s a ~-~uih of ,ns,img :~ f~u:th:eli reaSlIJn!li \~hy the: :S~lnubll'iol1l 'l'r~2~~ n(_]ll: al,ways. OOI:l'C'Spo md, cxClclly ILOW true _pm;~[h;n~" There :rn:e Ule're~Uf:e ~t,ppm~~m~liQ:~ prQ(,.~du~s forsy,",chrcmb'1NiI:ifill1i;

'The s'1mp'le 'sYlliChflilml:l:.:.9ittunpil'llcGdureasslinnes tliia'. thl!.'; ;a!;;~ut!Jt<l[ i s ~yn~'hrol1!i~d if ~be :in~er;;; ~a_~ j_l!Irn,c1!j_fwIOt is, at d.Jc ~i m~t. of li~'s ~nroefnm~ nmg!! ~O% Of :rn 00%) ~n~d ,leaves the OOi'respo:nd~ng~ t1Dnt~'QJ bi~s a~ti,"I'e if) th~s 'IWSiiti,o~! The f~d-bu:~k is via the ~~-';;-S.i" ti!is ~edQ~ :ru~\,,;ti~!:js wlth or: wii~l1!oul: b1ilUlary ~ei.erlil;m,iC::,k s-iigno:ls (llcn.ruo;D:r openlc'los~)I. The ~prilflL-J(.':iprue: ~Ssihmvl] 111111 ,fig. 1,,4., The FilS;. ~l11ows how I.w·o Vil~ties wl:t~dJlJ are dwe.Il;lJlmlg bBcCUmie ~s,)'micbrollb:ed a~3~~i v~a '1'00 pl,lt"tCeSs and Cl~rtnro:UeT jf due di,re(t~o,1it ,cco:m:lff)l, R:lllrn-n:r. r.;IIiti(lm~ry il.1: ~he ~i~tlJ~. of li~s:ilm,·· l!da1lo.n '\1\i)I~e,

Ap:r-e.r.eq;llI:i.si~e~0.r' this proc:edure is th:l'I: the ,actllutor :h:1'l8 a wear.·fn--...e, el,ccl:rica~ :nndlor 'mec'l:mn'ic;'I11 Hm1~ 8wi~ch·off. If '~t: is ,cstll.bnshed dedlTI\S comml;s:don~nB, nt the ~rm.~'ro:ner .rep,e'a~e{Uy IcMries GllIt ~bis s,ylu.im)l~izatillittl; ~iil is 3 clear sia;1i ilhat ~.he '!,I,3.~u.e .~ot· ~hc:actlJiii;tOJt runria:le !M~:s, 1il!!l1: been CORGC1:h,{ ili'ec:orded or tJ~:. B'llIch I'Ii~Uire5 are ,of O~J~ :::L\Soci,atiHI! w i~h

!:!II I:JI!'

:Ill ~ilmj~oo :a'~Ci!l_l mt.;y.

An Ln~pr(Jved pt!oceduoo is irn]l~c'gm'1td til Stud3irG P~D GOllliJOrn" 'Wh~re the plsl~'m'J. sinltiiail.ion ~nd,lh!;:· Ic()mpome:nJI of' 1:n~ ooo~lru~e,r :aro calcuWated ~' IhGsam~ in~G;FdWfr:

£1.:1.1 'Cnotoctors, RCL!oY,(i ,Wld ScmicoodudfJil Relnys

Coultm:I.('I'S" irelli~Ys :am] sem[Q!.ondlll!C[.t'W relo:YJi M"e rep,re-o.Se:HiI;~{~\I'~S @f' swi:!:eh~Il~, (twn-s:I.ep') a..c'lilJ~t{!,~, Cbn~~t~ ~ncl fe'l~ys, h;w~;!l, fi'!~i:l:e :!lI~l!:r!~~r-~f sw~~ch'il'l,g nperai:i,Dns ('e,g .. Ilcna!nd II, flll~ilt~,res:J1'D'IlI~~ (~lluewl~h an {u:dell" of magJll;i~,liJd~ of 1 .. ] [I :o1:S" Tnblc 3,1. U SUi: i! nUmKf' ,of swwtit-Jil I'n,; times for ''\i'mOYS $wi!:Chi!:lg ~1~!!I1C:--\I!I!l.~~ S~mjcOJi,dtl!;i:tm ~1:.'J)i'~, ti~i!t,~: g nlf~!'~!,¢~p!l;in~, tilim~ (::truUUMJg~ '!jfCf)' sillL'Oti) ",ihid.1 dlepel]ds on the J illle (rcql1emcy S;iRCCI the :p8t5sag-,e 'through ze,r!l:J -'is ~~si've ~m'lt( 'wl~e!l ~sjn(l,Dlltt;:na;J.iliti.n2l current,

I ''lIOO·-· ... ,·'l.

L_ .. 1".1 .•

I. :1.0 ~mi'i

!Pliletl!ll'!iu)ml~, etc(;twp'~e!;l.'ffi'.aitic :[!Ij!l!;d el,ec~ri~' driVte;s: ~ u~d for CQnoo~ \lnl'll'es, ami, ,~!'it'e varuv{l:!l.. Ail!.f!.!IfIIlHj'ti~ (_i'r.h~1io iI'!.lt:' ,~lln'1lfi~~I~ri<i'..oo b::y thelm' :r\IIl,Gged;~s:!'i" .~ Iligih :aPlf1if1Oil(:'h ~)yn;]imics. iind ~1lJ.e '!'[cry l~il~h ,po:.~lli-'(Jnwn~, fm:cCi;'!1. tbe)' del i'v,e;r. U ~~,e ,1I1J:dH~ry energy (of.lf;rlFK'-s~edltil!) f!Ji.ih~. [liu!:y ~luunm~:lc,~rnruy ,as'!'>UlIDle a deflll:ed ,pt)~hi'oD.

llil pr;Oic~kc;,lh~pnc:~ miJ('~c driVlf:s i:i'retd'li:etlil C{lJim~,ctlld ~f:t smes wi:thi ill! oo·"afliloo UP ,co:n'Vermr {e~g~ 0'.4" ,:2 bil:iJwh~dal g,en!::II'1I~C;.~ rhe C:ol1ili't")I. llJli.f ir(~ IIJ~ pnc!ijln~a[~c: \!'.G~Vl! dri!le :fm:nn a Sti!in"

,so

d:rU'di afudo~, sru~m;lL U ~~~i'Fi 1lltP' oon'ltc'lte:r is, :fit~~d :io Ole' '."", .. !'I'Ve" one lrefCl'[1!1l, ~o :ilJll d~ctro,Jmeu::m,t][ru,c! dr.I,'\I'e.

I!:. I ~ ~tc\ dt..:!jII~~ !l.,~\ _ I'''' _ ... IV,mrI',-~. thatfh ~:~ de ftc.", JI!I,'re,' t:1m!ijIi!l.. r :Ul llla c SIJ~"lf (I~c,. ~

, .... OC Ji'~C . ..lI"I, e~ W!:ilI',.'tl ~ue iIWI<. _1UI~3g,e ~~.~ _~ ~!!CJl' _!ll~_th fe'l,_,L_ iI ~'_I,,!,!!I,e. __ ,XJ..LLifY _~-!ilP~) _',y;.

Q(lImlPms~d ,air). n~y UISl!IltniUy OO!lVCR the drive CIlil1rgy directly i!fD:[O ~,posjdoo v:i~, ~ :(I.eam' t.Iln~t. Eler;;triic drives ,Me iIl;efi:ew~]i' s;1.ower maJll pll!eum~ti" drivC'a, od requ~fe :sp!..~iw, O:uJ11,U!l flJWlC" ti,i]I'iI:!li (pul:sclp."II!l!l.C QOnvefil.er)1 ,elf ~lliIf': ool:litri')~I!!eili'.

Re:, l,S, IIlse-s am ex,ample ,of cO:luroil",a!hi\C,s ~[)f' wiater (VDe d!iRttir~e$, 2, W '3, :and 2: ~ 14) 1:0 lmdwC'nl~ that iilt is :itftm:po.rmnl~cu· oolh iPlunn~llg ItlU:d ICimllllfni:s:siolruif~S 'il.lHgi~Il.Gem"S ~.o IIm,QW' [11;11;1: Ellile iU'e:.'ipo:niSe of ,3i1l ru;:t1ll3mor reQ:1UI iP1a,),Q, s]g.ifI,ifk-.1lint.ro!:rJ for' mile 001'1[1\011 r!!l)!,S'llCm,a:di :m:rU1Ci &:'iu~ng of ~lme oo:nmmru~eri .3:nd tbHt the used ::1I~U;,!:I!'IJQI's. mliJsl ,aiIw,ays, 'be c'Oosi.d!erod e~attrnJ' prior illO 100m .. :mj ssi[lnrnng, 'W:i~ffim :&I, elosed 5~mltight,·'!.Ilay '!!'iJW'\!<e' (~egJ F:i;, 3,5). RO' 10,", ws present •. Wwth ~ cW~d thooe",wlIY \fDillve'. the 'fuUft'!lW lS s;till. prescllIt,. ex.oe:pl thD!~: 'I:!ae ~~q,lIIjd k~a'\!le8 ~he 'vollve via a d.i~·, 'f'C.oon~, ()LWlpU~: tbaln, w:i~lhllhe 'II',1J,~'I,!\2 'iIlpil:l1i.

A d:ifren.mt~9~jiO:~11 :i!i hil'ltcall,y 'lUud.e between prnug; 'vahw'S. diHphrilgli9 'v-ill'Yes and baU \i,nmV;eg. All these \'gru,r.e~ ~ C~b!l.Jrokl~ri~edby the ,~'!} val~,e' ,~!ild the K~ I "'!l.:I~e.

it,,! k; ,rt!'I~!,e

The I:lm'!! ,( i'lli I11IIJ:lill,)1 of "WallieI' .(:lll. 4. ",']OClC) 'llll!OC!ll!Ig,b N1sic,:1Irurn,Y rul/y R-Stl'i(:[~{I!Ii1. is ro~eli'OOd. to ~S, t~,he k" v,D'lue o~ a V,f]WV'~" This Dpplies, un <IDe Ii tIThe: rnlK~.oq~rus;ill.e 'lha~, a dli frerontwa] press!i!ir-c' or:l, bar ls p!:t':~!tu ,~u IIJM!l re.SI~!",i!,ii!:ion,

The ~b!lol,u;1!e ,k.". value I(cnmulog ,~alJu~)' or II ~(llJtnl~ l~,n'J"e: !1!t the' If"!liled silroke I( ~ 00%) i,., referred

;,~~ •• ,0) ~...... P ,.~ .. '-I""" '1"'lJ",,"; m· !I!" ft .... ~il' 1i'\~ __ II .. , .. t~"'... AII' .!Il. ..... ",,,,~,,,,,,,~I "I!",."I'!It"!l: ~""'" ",1i'C".",i'= .r.... ji" 'v;""~I"""'''' I~v. ~I ~U~ ,A.n 'I!'~_I!!;I~,!!, ,V!YI,I_ l,~ 1I1U!Ii!I3P.o 11 .. -IIU!tJIl!W~!laIlUdJ., v.I, '~II~ ~1I!.J1\1jll~JIl'~l~ _ IH~ _ ~.., ~I l~JIlI".. !!Ino~llU;'~t~f ,-~ !I\." ' .. H ,!I.I,!,;~~

prcis!!'nl at ~OO% stm:Jm C.~D diW:~1I' 'by :It lO~ from the ,eilll,vis."I,gGd, f(~,~'!¥Ilhu~.,

A val'\i'fJ: ch3JllC~~ris'l:ic 1& 1!.uldltltm'I.ood. UI' be the: d,epcndlellu:" of 'u.~ k',!, v,~ruue om the: 'wl;vt ,stroke. A basic' drufFe:rel~tialiJoln rus :flli"de: OOrWei.'!'fru ~:wo "OlaJ:w cbamc~erisroics': lilQ; ,eq;lI,~ru·:pe~C:[lIta:se cilllIT:.'

SII

:F~gil.lJ'ie J~' Vllh~' GOOmclcll5lilic's

ujl ,sBu.:iI, .. olf'Ii'DJ:"I': b) Un~m,,::il:J.iint:~ii:'.ni!.~llk Ifol!" P{I"!i~,!i[l:t1iil1l~ rotilD Slv = !H]' el' EQQJm~:p!;~IiI!.:tSc clmmC'!f:Iis,!iic S\t = as iluu11 ,Gntdienl~ 111, ,::;:; l.2l

,d) IEq,lJlmJ'~iIX:!t:JDlclige ,c:!tnmt:~ri5tic Sv .'0' :limJ: flf3rljf:~llt ,n ibl J,~g:1

u~l~ri,s~ic: and ~J:J!l :lilllemt 1t1~~iIlJ3t':t,Ci~i:5ti,!t:. nlli~, ,Iru~ mO:I1i-'I~egUgi b~e c:!fCCI:S on ~JD;rLl COQ~~O~ ~ys~e!ll:l ,di:'peodilllg 00 s;c~~eti,'lJn of the~lC1]1nloli. es,p~c]IJUy ruf: th~ wur,k.h~g ~oints e:hiang,c' :s:iGI~1:i fic[U'U]y:. 'fJ].e mwrgclI' the flow bec;;o!~ i:~ :an ,e~~en!~:i\~ p~p:= s.yst,e:Il!1., the 1~1i~'r 1~.h:epre:l:8u!l'~ loss It~lmu\Sh Dmvms:isum;CJCs.Ti'U.l: fG!knmo:Jll:Srup' ~tw~en :IiIiml' Wlt~ ()m5SiJ.![roi I!o.:!l;s. ~m1l:g1lii ~,aW' res! SIUmC!I:11i

,can 'h!:.l,-,~"hn~I'~-I'!ii d'.,L·C· 'Iio,~ iIT-'-~ . , i'l11!l;dJ·; !,':, c1l."lr- .,!ii . '!'tIC',. - --- -- arp.""""" -'-'-'--~ - ~ _~- n~~·- f!l.!',) III '1,--,Iil_llhWC C,~lI;tIi_ ,!ll.:I~en._~~c.

This c,a.n be: eornpe nsated usi nlS eqll!iIlIIl·J,peroe:m'~{!~~ '~~3rn\!ll!S. :P:e:g" 3.6 :showl;he lWO [ype:s; 'lJ:r ,ch!lmlc~eristb:l'." The ,Ililirre'lerllt C\ho.ru.cI:er.ii!!~:ic!';i.llidic~arteI.11lrJtl,lJir;ge dlffeeeneescan IIlIn;Stlrut i 01 ~he: 'sy;:stcim 1re:i~lnU!CJ :J;! mp~y ~mll4gh f!!::lectiliolil 'cf rnilin;e 'I:y'~ o~ l1Urn~,,, The: hlR':ItlUo,n, of (.'iom~erill!ii~I:· WII!(l, :spell n !lIi}n~Wi!'!{!m1i~y '~.at tll~ ~(UUroJlCl QlWtptU III at thc; input w '!lIe sys~~n1) !)si ~!g nll.n:em:i:ution .rwlnc~wo:lll II tJl1e i'n;pul c:am. o:nJy nJrnlcti!cm if flO funher nCWI.··]wm:ariti.e ! 'Dr enGelS. 'of di Sf· 'lUrbWlTlce '!;'wrffiables:~· w.h:i('h Il:o~ld in~~ue'l1cc Itile wc:rkiulg ;poi.nl (liE tll~ ·~.u.:!~!u[nor'- Of& ~pm~nt in. 'I:I~~ ~~'SI ,of UJe' s'y,!u~nL HO\\V!~Vi~t, th~"i~ ~~.ddc'Jll1rn~t~ ease :im,i:li<tllli~jl:rjtiji ~pp~~~~ljlons, It \l,IIOu~d 1~:I~efief!l)ti~ be ideal, fmm I~Jhe (on'l:ro'l eng~neering '~~ewpol[iju.if ~1lI~ ~O!!]''l:!ID'Q:i:\'lsii,o~i·ng e,Ii,gi[I.t~~t ooul~d I i Iltll!:alt7~ ~ 1IIlC!!!1I"I i mePll'l1ity' i n ~ffi!e ~:U::I:UU'IClr ,3~ ,Ih:~ co:nrnIM:Ucf ilJm~i\!Ilt,; an:d a :1110111,,1 i 11!,(!3;rility (J~ m~u1!l :SOlft'l!(lW :[III: '1~1!13 Q(l!ntm~mi!i;1" i rIIput

'NII!i~)~~ g~J:flili rlil ~11iI i,pn~ng ~f ~~~U~lttN - am!.!, pafll~tillj;~fl'y ,oJ vg~l\ iI,;_S - ;2'> 'r~ qU[;l'[lIllly tll~ lfiUasun l h,r ~(i~Il~ro,1 "'}dl!ms db nOJI WDirk Cfl'fmlClHI)' ilJr wibf ~{lnlfiOllh:r$ li'ilmJ[!lJ~ tic' I.IdJ~i'!~edl. ~fnn nt~IlIJilIIDr i~ al~il1l~,lledi "mle 1-ii~£' ~ill!Bet' ~fL1I.1lI",C cf~lLU1lIin(l; dm.dill,. it ~nl(y hli'! Ilre~c Cf.!Ji~IIJIn.m: h 'Ilp~rul~ u~m~:Jc I pGmutDlend~ lU 1~ln'fZ ml.lw~1I"' U'milt 3J1d1'~~;[~~'rop: po,s,sibl,)I in ruJI c..'il:1I'I.~m~:ly lIi1on-'lhn~:I1r rmlli!e., 11 li~ id'md ~or. rhe oolnro~I'ral' j,F[1ita 'Wl'ldns~ i»ltl'Dl O'Hlilli,~ :MclJiJJttll.lr i's u[ robJilil\lfll.y lJ:lirge !J;~!1iilil~ [lin tll~ mng~Q .... 'IJ:~'%.to 111i£i [!bl.l!'lI~e 'Ii:Ng,m,prI;J.

3.:1..31 ,DumpeD :IIm]1 :O!l!JUerll-1Vuhltes

Ilamp.mi ,umui! hme;rI1,' '\I3h~~ I:lo:r' rniiqu.ii:ls, ,:llI1d gIL~es ,{~.:g. ,1I:ir) _.i,"flm~)' Icon~ilisl of p'~vol:ed ~~s:~ orlollwr.s w;hi.ch fl"O"!!'mdG ,3,~,.R'.[!!iOOr 'alrl~~~GJ§ m5ms:tiJn~cl:O th~ no,wi!l!g :mlL'!diuu:m .• 111,\!:se .often

h!l!'\1\e a"efj mQJli",Jjo,eam- 'Ch~leoristlc. The mltlry :move~:l'il of ' the damlp¢1t lr¢s~II~Pi, 1:1f!D}, :~i!!1,UI"' soldo] nQ:n·Uinenrily, The! drj.'I.~S o~' the d;amper mf£h.tml'C:'l: rue t:iS:Mrnru~ very :slow !IQi:ni:na ,aciiu· ,Q!lO:rs wIth an adjllshm,]c !J,JJer,ntwm~: angte. The dri.~:s 'lJIfsNat-il,lry :s,witch 'off DiIlIiromodeaUy :01. the

A". f'1iI . '0-- . A"':.' '. ·.4"1 M· 'butl~· . - .. -, . S " ~. . (-

,e1il'll-Qo 0_ ne raniEl,e •. · 3 1'1:1 per Yi~"'esmwh.!~;y IUEe!__ H1i_lI-,;_lnl1l.a~iI:O~UOtl." ,..::WWIC_limglWQ..,

sl~p) milll;)~m'S were p~'"Vii(lUiS'ly ~~d alrnlYS[ e."(~litjsi\f"emy". N(]lWad.a:)flh (M1pOl1iliom~ da_m~r dri'V~s af:ie~ ~·o:rei:~iPO!1l~!U, U!l~g-ss s'p~-ei:m.e(!! otherwise !by the \\gifldor:. it rntn~~T:u:l'm, p~rl~ !IJIIUfo!l'= ~101~ ~f~IIOO ms ls :re£.OilmmeruiaIblc ~Oli' tbe SWi,l:chip;tl; {U!ifO"5l:ep) 11CUiI11'o1'S.,fiS. 9.·~ ~10W;.1, an

'I {I' ,~ '1:.. • .,

e1i1i~niP_.e ~!: a yail'i~!pcr Ci!~affaCU~l:'l:st[c:.

So~enQid wl:ves M-erepm~!iltative-~ of mecb.ruliit~l. s\Viltc'h~ns U~-(h!lteiP~ ~ttl~tofS.1ihe~ ,~R: less s1lit~'Je fOIf 11;1 on1JrQUiq pIl)CeS~" eSP"CiaJly :f~ ~01.1ltJrOJ]~m,s: ~i1.e 'f'k)w' ,{If :liqUlids; ,SiQt~~Qid '~;tiI'!o'~ in JfWpes dlro~i!lh w!l1tich ~iqo~ds now ~~l;Ilt ill sl!IJb:s:talU:i:dkl:loc:ks wkic:h C3'ft fre~elWt ~

11.'. 'I 1.," .:111. ..lor, 1..-. "'1' ." 'r, .." ,:1 .II I

'_I'I:G;Iil!ef IMC~JIi~!liiC;SJ_I! l'llDiJI ~(U'lll~ oomp elli! pj~ sys~elil1. . jil!;)ii fife: !!:lllj~r OOIilII'UtClelJ! tlO\llfI~Sm'l!ln

or gtlilt· ~y,e-s :and .:t1'oOs.ed iU. a .~I1ed li:m it: of ~h~ ,mate sem~irolm;, ct the.y are lijJ~ed t~ ~Gm~rol sa'S,., ~~U8 meDli 3."

In 'Pn>Cc:-s:;cngi meetLng •. me dos~ng (If Ii-qllld~ i~ ,extremely lA1pmtanl '(fiU Seclion 3,.lJ;).

iif-l- ",,,i"iPt':; ~ ... A ,i;"In.p-i'jl~r',-,.~ t.,r,., ~h~ '':'''"1' .-l!;:"i" :~-m'i,n[m'B~ i'lI-,-'I"'~: ,d: i:~I:""'~'i"--' of ~ 1'00-'- ms is ""f'""-'"

'U1Il !!o""s :ti1." ..... bl/loi1!J YUI'!;;oj,'"",I1!", wJj ~~_i .... !!!'!!';iI1N,,",~, g . y~~~ l",t1-oiJ¥ . '!01!~~~_""~W 'V~ IE. ~ _ _I._~ J:i I~",,_ ... ~~~

ru.end:,.ble: 'for' the so~e:n.i!l:jd 'V.nl\\'e;s,,,

'l! '1-1 ·5- ''"'111-::-.",:1;.!1.., -~I ·Pu~· -mnil' '10-"" . ..._ .. "" ..... - l!iiJ.L1 .~" 1'. ·!rw_w~1ii5~~. .~~,,'!IlI Jl.',I~,,;~Uilj-DI

PYm"p-~Dm!d ~1f!OI:orn ean fuudl.y k I!L_~-d ~~ ~,f;tgglo.rn 'fOil" 00 ~I'lro~ !lo)~~tmL wilh.o:u;[ rynh~, ,;tllU:;" :in,el--r -I' 1·1' , ,i::'''' '; -'I' 'wi', ,N.l.ih1 - c. :m.:dfF·d-J, nm:' ····1 :I~ ar .-;.-ess 1'0 'I'IIe, 'i!.':lll'Um.1Ied . ·:ntlh1:

--ru} 1!IUl L5 • .:~~mp Y SJCilL _I QflJ (:L _ OC _ _~oo _ _ ,proc _ ~._ _ _ _ __ _ _ c.'(; ., •

',fogclm::1' with n,freqU\e-~lCY 'ccn~l\Ienu. mlwYIll'fiU:l1e~l wliJI for \!llf~alo.l,e..:~peed. gf:ar:ing Of odnlf (;oj)]ti1i'im)lJIs:l~ a~j:uM~'b~t cQjui,pmcn,1: it;cti,ng, ,om, the speed or ~orque" Obm~p:Basc) '!D;O III t:S, u~d 'pumps ,opc~ 'UP' D, w.i& ,r~ng,(! of poss~b!e ~ppruicBtions ~IJI1i (iontro~ CJngillleenl~g. 'The ~Il!N~~im,' 'urut: is, de-cishrc fOTttU:: ~ype ,of' 3CW~till)r;, ,and Aot Illc m,otor '011 ~ump' :i,:scil'f~

Varir.l~:!i~"':d dt1l1,!'es, ~ Il!Ii~-,d! '~iJ' ,~Q{n'lJ()l r!p~s:5i n!ow~ {pu'lll!ps). for p.~£SilIDre cot!b:lmls (vemlil" ~!l.n')lli .amul, e)l.'liT\l\k!:s:)" flnd :~Oli halndl in,g mId sllppordmg en.~il1eerh~g pRlCe!i!l.eS (:Hil~rn. ~I~rifi~S~-S. il.tl mld j.nef:!ol" cl.e:a:ni'l1,g elCJ~iiipllJu~u~ ,!!i!c.). ..

3.,1,.6 :~f:ig A.crualOI1J

De dm~ns: O\f']~'1,u:id!s, min bei.JD.pl,ernThu!n~ed, 1U.I:s~ng: ptlilDpS ot"valve,s ,co:nllroU~d.b'y a_P_pMionim,g fillll1e~l~, Dos,l~ll@; fmm pualOO '\~~Is ~s ~I so p@8s;ib'I~,

The oommel1ils in, Soo~woo ,3,,'~ ,,5 a'l~o, a:ppli)' t-o rJOSJn_~ p~mp5. Pfamps fOf~O:rrulL!n[t:lOOS dosh~G, of ~q,llli,~, are cOlltr-olJ\ed by adjrDSJlift,g (be :s1mte, ami. the; stJ'(1_ke- naJl:c. IHul, 'can also be used, ftlr~ ens,.. . '- - -;. ~ :.II.".~'· - -: 'f""c":":j-- - ---'1-,,,, _-', '~"'VC "It: :tV. - t;- '-: d c'ru'i' ;- e~ ,3md 1h"'I'" INij\.-.l"':ili. '. ci'Ui ......... '1 and th.>e.·-'

!I;Je"'~ 'YoViil.llDlg. ~01'~'I]J,g pl_~I,_~Piil • __ u· - 1::, .... __ ~_~ I!~g _~,t'_"',Hl'. --, ""'~--"--'-"e _"""'1.!1i,""_,______ __

'Fr:e)"1!1£ ~ t!!iJI .,- -:--:: -, 'mm-:-~d :., '~l ~wr-:-Ciin fi.cl\d t-·-hodl c.o''!& do'; -I i'fIhlC(l: jM]\.I' -cartIDc::ul:lu"d-. -tI'I8'fftli:~ N"r--

, q- n _§ ~!lCW __ ilL UUl -~g -. -.-. ec __ - J)~ -- .!'KI. 1:"-- - - --.1 p---~-- -"1------- r-"

fo:rm~e.~qJIIl-i[ern~!I1t~ on d'u~ CJ!)lltffi~ :fI_y~!trem.

E)($i,nlll Ui!lIDmg, val,yts w~tt1 :!!l~rt.ware do-si:n.g fu~c:[i:m}s '(c',_g. il~1te ~bmo:logiJcall fiUIf:lcdQlI1I 'b~oc:k "·OOSB·'frnmPC:S1 !N'-itt~, adWti_lilieed ~'iwi~dliN)I~ fQ!I:Io'lv"uf dos~mg al1;~ c~(:~:ion fl.'JliiCti,m:ls) is c~li,ried (lut liO,~c~ile[ with a ~h u:t .. o:ff '¥:":hl'~ i~, pres..,tru_r.i:~ed !j;ys~CI1l~, (~"~~ oC~P1[pple in S'~tjcyn

'~O)" TIlIjiOU'!~ t~mtr~Ji.s, ur evenPID flow t'!QlIfI~wn~rs ere f~uen~ly' ~1'800 !IIpstr'@'imI hID ~he :pi,p~ng: sy~l~m 'b(~eauoo 10:1" ~n,on .. '~m~sl:.am. pm::s!!:fu:re t'llndl~~o!li1s in order' m uch~l"vt ~iUlC'l :!iw,i[(:~~i l~y,-.lJif of the now of liqi_j,i~. Ci(iI')I("I! :of 1b,~ ~5~ iH..orr!;;~II'i.'C pl;aces ~'~f;ijl(i;(;~nUly hj,gheJ dyfilJ3mic ~Ii~ :rQil1il1ar~e !f.eq:lIlirernent~ ;()~ Illlili'~, (h:_MI.l~g, ~Uim1~~Q"~ de:pei!ldi~lg on the s;~gd ~md. accuf:iMtl !'(~Yli~~ Ii'm";:nts,

'I"i!.. d' '''f II" ,~, "'I' ... h '1'1. • ~ ,. ""'1:,' L " JII."I ' , ,," ~.

~ ~;ie_,ogWa:l~ '10, ' ~(hWu 'part~c, t:.!i nnil, '1,1 _,,," imlllll\cl'llllS IS sl~m~~ca:tnJty :more ~~J:mwlC,tl:' U~ prnc.,

( 'C', 'I'll, ' I~IL . 'd" ~"i' " iO~ ~~I ,"~lfI: Stli"'J" _ ,I'·'~~'" '~' , he ~ , '," ....-ii,!'iIl, ,OL'~ ,;. 'II,'", "ioil: "'III, ',," -~" vl- 111,00 "I~mil, ~~I.e0.,_lin,g _~ ~~qlllllu._., ",- L ,par ,I Cd:S Cnlll, _r.: ~_pp<JuL !llU .. ~ !,!\ill~lJIjtne:1jI ~!.: .. ~ ~y U[ :Bro, _I,

1!~!~tri~aJly. Vijh~J.ne~ric d~i I~S CO~Ult'S d)l;l mnll led; ~~:1~1 v(llom~s;, lW";!, SI!O]JS the: dos ~n{!. {hrlrVi,';

'i!.Ii.'I"",". 1'1'1"' d"'fI'l~d I\u!tlll ..... r 1,"",,, iI'.~",." "1>·""'I" .. d· {1II~'iV~Iii-Iil-"'lr"I'C' d~""'~""i'I' il!,' ,..,,,,,,,,,;i_il UIlI'i' ":-'V 1".'Q''''l'·I'I'''I.!I,'- ,''''.,' II ,_"'_,_, Ai' _' " .. , __ I~_""'_ _ """', I~~ •• 11_'" ".., _, ~ '" _ ,.,1 J,,,_,,, . """.','lS • .,. ........ II,"~_, " ~1 J .. _ ,I. , ,,' ,

rIllls.ly f1'l1l1lg a II~nk Wffil05!i."; c:hHns,e h"ll wtBi,gJrJ~ WS tI sed tu OOlll,ml, Itthe drl;v~. A dgifferel~l,i ndo'm. ~!i :made lml.wee.rm ~ll.U:rruS and ,e:m!plyln~~. Theplio~':I~ltu 'when do~h~g solid pank'ICrs ,aR~ lus,!u,~I~)' as:soc;i B(cd 'Wwth d'le mectlilll1:i!l;:'a~s:IoI" ~:c:m '[If'[rn:: :!i~~ti~ nmf!i6"a1ics Gf ~~e buiH~ n.m.1C'ri51~s: iHI d

.. __ . . .._- _ -- _ ". "~' _. __ l!! ,.!!J i11r¥'!I!II!' .. _ rJ. .gi'"''!JII1 \!!I '__ "_ - ~_ , __ ~_. - Ii -

le.~~, 'Wirth ~h~ ,!.!OIl!lrOl i:t~I,f. 'fbe ~oJ~owjr!1 ean be ILDI!l~d !l· ilflmtl'~OJltroil ~~e,'ml~:rlts for Idooi!~g, ilnailk 'Immc!ria'bil";

'~Viin"~\1'i~)r:u :fi.:.t1ld!.!f '. S:tmi fe:c[ler

'" Screw feeder

'" Co.rnIv;~'Yo:r 00:1,] ~31e ,~1:(,';.

M'itlll)l of ~:m:S'€: fin~1 oq.ll~m:1 el,e:llJ;icaall', 1m:'~Q;l1!ly!!' oomlr.'oUed 1l!'~I1Il!l~ :liiimg,le-i la;g;e 'Of t.~-!(l-&llJl,S~' !ilJ10'1ru ,acIU:l!nlS.,

S I'MAT~C 'with i'U.;, sO'f1I.w~u~, OCifil~Ii]UUli" p:U1l)t~~;;;; contff~l1(;;';f8ilod lIrnd.vers~j oolllJi(i~l!;:'Ln;; gemlf-'

",11\, "" .... , e ~ ... .,.., .. 'II ",I, ..... A".,,,.,I] ""DC "t'I'"'!! ,,,rl,I'J!'I'i"~I" ""f' (fL '-I O. ~,1' Q" ''''''$11 .n A, iHI ",If"I, 'n';' '1.... ,,, . ., •• , .... !I~ .,'''' fD!T!]- m' L

i!-1l_'_1.;' 11~ .• ~_a~Ikt~.:.'" ·aIJ_ I_ .. "'I! .d_~l.U.lUiflJl !i.1I_o ii.-_"'_Jle l~'!i, e ~~~ Ill.!!_. l~ .. ! ~ ,_.' ·Y~" _,~ ... ~,.L~ ~ ,_n~ '~J'I'''' !:.~'IJJ! _, .. _~, ~,~ 'A~~~ ~.,. r:l· .a ' '!!!

N11.IOO" NI :IIOC'!O [em,peranne 8~gm_a'l'5, ami 'tlle most ccm,m,onl 'Ineli11looollJpEes, In ;addi~ ionlj ~l~l'll}f :.»t=Ml,tj]Ulild ~nn1Cl,g l!1fIiOdph:;s (,'m1 l}!~~'I;: f\llJth~l:ligm!ml't (~'.,~ ..... 110 V" ,+ 11()1 V. ()," 50 111V).,. WIth 1oose. ICO:ll'lrollcr,~ andafl:ttLtl,g mcKhllles. free s.crnectiiOn iis po,~si,b~e fD1leacll (,Iu'artncl or :il(lr gmUi.l~S o~ r(l~lr chafm~iI~ wi~lt Ule aI~)w·'me!fiIUo~d :\itanidlafid sigoaJs •. The moomoo ,MUll D),g va1~e~, ~re o(lf:1verlled.t}nd.i.I.'~ilJl~uble" irn;l:urm;l Iy ,~J,;~ both ~1:andlrdlz:ed, (0. '". 'II CKl%)1 ;J:Dd p:1ruYrs:h;a~ (e.g.

M •• ,')0-°(:---, .• , V·" ," 11.11

'I)" ,. ,'",', .. ,,'. or~.fl l'!ii.J 'Vllnli'ies,

11'k:e w~~ll. d~.e ~ll1al. om1l~m,l I.der:l'I'eillil:S" t1WFe; are. fI,l1.S0 ~iill1l~,;u'umd: 'li1fm-itnear se!fli.fii],l1S. The 00'0.Iline~,f' Seiil1r.;OIi'S i l1I;c:I~ldethe: PI'!. 00" NI'~ 00, HI ~ 000 stinsurn;amdi ~'he ~~uii' of 1~~nnocol1pl:es. No n,·HHe~m sensers tm!oo llSllDl1y [p3Ssi.'\.tGi ~lenHlull~s wmu",selmns.l1Illil:ss:i:on ~po.lflssi::; li~lilear.izedi '~1l the !,noolt!r(,e iiilr' b:y ~h~ ~~nw.arn;, Fi,;, 3.,' shO<W's i!:!! IfU~!moo:r ~lf ~.hc 'f!1!IQ:,)I]: ,comllWn !11iof!~~il!1c;m:

SCnS'llfS.

M{lS:I' ,~n~llil'Ig ~r:Jp:!!Il mm.:lulc:s of d1;f~ SlMAliC' S, :ro'llJll8~ ~rov;id.e ~n~,potiId,j;~glliln~rt~~Jtlo~ funcliom;, mill the moollJJle;. Umtversail '~'Olnmller:5, 3ndi ~1lI1l!!:~~j)'.n moonle:\l l'I~Illi'lUy ,all:1tO pn'OVtde 1i1~.l!1d,.y-mu:de ~~Iileari zatl(J1]1 ~t!lrnc~lo:ru:; fUfI lhe :r:tlo:!;1, O(];j,'l~;~nt\l~ !',!ells,nrs. ,S:peciam seu so rs :m!i.lI!i!~ be !lii~It'Hl:'ir7;Cd b,Y the It'iCr.. Tfu~ pcn:ntl,u,cndy' inCll'eosi n,!:!: mmlKf of ~imeilrb:ed $Clilirio:rn ,awi hlb~e: on 1,~u;:lmlli'kc~: [Ire f~q~IJ~]J.' d~ilg~,~d ,it.'i ,~o1ive sen 00 P!, ~IiJd11 dleir ,oWlfI. :i1rn1i}mi'1izlni!ilIl,. elecmc~i :ioo~ltti;[Jn anW\or level OOM'Crsb:UI1,

54

2~ 10 c- ,

. I

I) I

'WheijoonneClin,S sefTISQfS" ~all~ts ,are frequclI'I!tl.yfl1adc 'm proc,Ua: whid~cali1, lead ~ttll the si:n~pl}1lS1 Cll.~ '1:0 itlhe cmitlple1\fa ITl:I!ihu:e of tbC1 ru~Q~@tl: In[ptlt. ILnI 5l1Cmru :::Ii case, tl)"llublim.l:Jooti:mg :is re~~ ,~t&ve~y s:il~FII~" M~ romI;dtc~ted ~,~nd ~is:n;~fi,~a!~'U,y nwoo dooS~rogs For perso:ns~ eovimftment lIllDdprQC&'Ss - ~ig th~ I::~whe:m: ~!he anilug inplli dei:e.l'fiUhil$S a.w.lu~ wbjC:I~ does 'Ii\'l)t ICOi!,,res.~I!I(I, to the 'true, vailue" Here a.r-e.a, :nlltmbew' of importrurnfu m(l;]mentaLq w!nikh must, roe DOOGir'i.i\ed. wben pl~llnjng;, :i:IlI,uaJlbl\g :ilin:dl oolmnwss~il:I1i~llg ~IUI aruali@g 'wlue ooq~u,hd,liiDn. fmJ;ct~(in:

.. UllilltS.ed 111l' 6:fln.cU,'!mle£l W)Rln~ Il'IIput'l ~muIIIflD] the :8Ji1:11i[Og OUilpmts as fmque.nt~y ;iIDlOOtT~ei]Y' carri~d O'lIit) soo!l~d 'be' bm~gtu 'l~ ~,e sal" potcntiol ysing ~ppropri3~c.lne{u;l(!rej (gro!!!M., ing or OmlillN[icnIli tl)ge1MI" of Ih~' chwssi's,groUlldj., In ~~ C:~ of biglll·r,csi~,~~l1We ~JIp.u·I$~ n~h:l~t~llmlJl, s'lum·ciLrcummg: ,of lila Impul~s is :me'la1lil~,Gf,lJJl, Please ~:)bSeM the res:pe'1:i,'l\'e tOOS'Cri,Ptiol1l, in ~.he :rnan.unls..

' • .A.mal~g ,ca:bles O>aAilCularly aU \I'OU:agc :!;1~,l'tlill,3 0.", .10 V •. lju~mlOCOlJ,pl·'l.':gl' Pl':I.'OO), m,u;tl[ be S11~ieMool! a'lld! the s'hi:dds must be IWIJJ md!edl whh ·iI. larg:e"ilma co:ntact and (;~l}8C [,(~ the mod .. ti~e.

.. III ~~Ie C~ of dli tifcfie:nce-:s ~Il t~I!lGIl{)IlI]d :p{u~n,~ial of tOn~y ~[ew mV, Ull~ SllJidd. I!IJl~.yoo Ofl~a.'" l1Ie:cted,U!t, just ,ORe' end, ml~f\V~~ art ooth ends,

.. 'Thero~nfun~, ofa1lilfllog c3b'1~, :IUUlst Ibe ~'tQpr-lrn~t 'froml tha~: of lhe l)Ower cables as, :faf as, pills,· slb1~.

110 C'a.bl:e '1Ii!:fJI;g:llu; mUf;t nrD[, be g:reatelli" than, Uw. mal( i IHlWill l,cnSI!~Ui dttflnoo h~ ~'I~l~e;lruni!eal: speci~ic~li(Jili1!s of th~ II~JJ;rj}~I~es.

~, The :moUDt~mQ: locati01l of I~eD~Ofil ~s 'ilnCfl,allv;;~'mr \y,inIicIJl detmt1'lrnte~; ~he comtnUttbi li'lyor ,~()~ttOll q~lity of aprocess,

A lUlU f.iloor iJt[ ~lfipG'ftanit Iype~ or :S!,'l'~:!i(l!: ,~U:1d UIle~rmOO~s of ope.r,~ltom, wi II 00 d~ri'bed rbelfiw,

3.1:1 S1pnlis :rm:f.ll1 D:~re.dl,y Connoch.>d "f,bcrmoeoupl!es

T:1~litn[!lc'nll'p~e{i (abbre.vi.a~~on TC," ia~ ~~n~.o.~ wh:ie'h iUrlJI iz:~ the dlfferel1U ptl)l:e!f!ti~ill ()f ~~.j(lJi ,(iiif:·, Ife~!rI'l, ~1lle'l:firuS (llJjlc:ud ,31~O;ys)1 ~fthese .ore ,e~lectfi,'caUy oool~e.'Cted. at ene el~d IlII~ 'if d iffccmDt I~tin:perau,ne.s are pre~n~ ;~I dilc begi,n:mi n,~ ilind end oflhi:!:' eendaeiors, The lali~r th~ Ilclnpe,rarttlW

II~ ~

II~~

"'"CuNi 'CuoiCuNi ICu~CuNi Fe,Cliltlj'i

NlCi~·Ni Ni(;1f·CuNi,

IPt I OR ~"·:Pi,

!PI, I ,nt~~I'~P1, 1P~3iJ'lb~:~lIlU~

It U 1 ,~ K E

'mN~17m

I ' ,

ImN43j1U~,

11m::: ~!HW ~ I, mEt' j;M ,Pun I, liEC jB4Pi1n I mEC S:941lfurt I ~IK' SS4.IPtm, I [I3C Sill4 ~,m11 I EC:' 'S~ Pan; I

di rJ'CI\CIl1~., mm Ja:_r;g~r tile; d~l~crn.m'b~e' ~if[filllif.llli1c.c in VOlltl,S~,. '11Ul: [!C:i:ntiom~~d~ OO;l'1I~Ge~1l11 lllliae (jim;. ftmrl~lJ~ ill II;empciml:arurt: (nUlchilne!ro!jd j~J Inct~@Il) ood Ulie dJl,lereflClll i m'To:ltIlS~ ;js I;Ol Hnru;ml.,

fil. ,3,'7' s:!~)OW,s 'IJim'l' d.i:flierelu au~ m:iml,inns]uJ.ps, t'iUl 'be Fo:r di.liere-lU, oolnb~mn:Uom£, of me~nls '[DIN ~ECS84 P.mit I). 1111:! '\\',w1CUS 'lIu:mlocoul;l]es aft m:amed :il!l ,mc[itCe by IUn;e~r' , 'rn:teCJ:I~lC ;~bbm:v~HlUO:l1ilS, (Ilype d~sign3~~Q:ns" see Thlbile: 3.2;). Jim ~o!Wtm.'iJI '~IJ llmi~ l~i[itit~ ~'ag[!;~1i3tUI1ie: mea:.;miing, :mf:lGct'Jif I~mslanl;':e ~!lu:rnn,{).nlete'fI'i ~m;d OOIUIICI; lhemlom.'etl:il'S ."",. w.h'eoo' 'Ilh!!: Ilem~,rn'I:!J fe dlli:1!perliljJa:J!ifJ~, O'f ruhe ~~!1Clric OOSi:stll'1l0tl. ~,f iii Cl(lnd~liC~o[, made or metal allay OJ i!!i611l1l:i-cn.l1)dlllil:,':tnlW!g IIlIHtC'rjuhi, ~S! 'UiSOO ,DB lJ~c: Inne~sWJjrh1g efFcG'I - v,an,otls 'l:h:6m:lOC(l!iUpl!BS< CO!l!l III"OOlllrd '~emm~~rnltllloos fm' ,~O\le 100J"'C'.

A 'l.'I~ilruerlll.i'at~olil i~al~(l' :Jmmle lbe.twil:en ,S'~Qu:rl!d~d .mLn'Cl! nCiJl.'·g;fCi'ulnded ~~ler,JlI1occu,le5.bg 'the' l~ilmiOiD' eUl!l!l'. llb~ :po~~~m;i~1 of U~l'J' ITlIeu.suri,f:i,g, tj,p is; ;i,cl)~lumcal; u) ttun (Jif '1;ll~ 'm[ig;~,i n~ 'b~'. IGm~liD1ded, ~cd 'fii:on",.-. m~lnde:di 11'!tem~rn:nlil;nl"-_!irre-iDelUm!i,i rn::[ iiJ'IIif;U: ~1i'lT"" - fill: OilJnn~"i:i'''n s'~-5i~e' -; s

-- - -- - -- --[1- ,~ . , . _,I'"_~ -- -il- ----.I -- -1.- ,n. (L_~:n:_w CdL - y. L IT!I!!'i

,aJl the: :!l!11:IlIi~\OS i Il]Jput. :[n pr:~c~raa;:e., ,c()r!,filiJ~5i[olrri frcque~.'~]Y O(;~ur:!il ,aru 1:I~i s po,jlllt "R~,i:ra~i.)jtnUf!!Li'l1)ll guid~U !'!C5 and ~IiiGwi!il!ill!; i nlrumuul:on ,~:r '11TI;t]l ~ndivi,t!it!Il'1 ,md!lllCI}1. 1UIl1Jj' t 'be (]ibsl'i~d ~nc:tmy. D'CJI~rmi,!]Ia~JQ.Il, of tlli1e Qoilld jl1!'1ctioQ '~lllpc'rnl'Utre., as ,alm'OOdyro~ticulCd.is ,~)!,trem~:I~ ~~1~~ 't~DM:\vhgJnl,de:~~l'l'D1Iii.rnli",1J ~~e tcm~mlllftl: JUa'sffing U]~f:1J1oc'Cm;pl:es. Thill co~d jUmI.ctilon ms tile ti6m1~ .. i1]J91:u Uu!' 1l1urtsilhJIl fOOlll. the two d1~fJi~we:D1~I, metals (e",g. :iromioonS!IMUin) [0 a, :lllillmrlOll:liI table n:t~tal (c"g. COi,pPGl'Icop~r')' (!!lm Fig;, 3,.8) .. FiJ1I:J:li~S me :1lJj!lO .fmquentlll' mrJd~' tu::m m 'pGu;;[ic,s: 'w~iC!h ~umt .ilf~ si"cn~fi!~wlu, f:gm~ifieatm!)lll. '!l'E ~~e ft;$uH.

'llIe ,cold j~;nctijDn II~mpeJ-m;i:l,gl~ h, :IQgico:I:ly ~Iiltg::nni'ned '~~'iW!.g Q djrre~ill,lUllt rm}~~lIiJri~g prim;;iple '!,\'itnJicll does I.m~, 1i1tq,ui:re Jl eoMju~tth:m ~~mpe['~m;II'iC;. The U~ of PT ~ 00 el:ciI!m1l.'lllJl], i most!: rommon.

1m!'!!

C(lltlltl'~

(n 51: ~rmlna~ ronI'llOOOOI"1!)'

.Anll]og IlII'1odlllm W,I'nWl!1'YJ1 CDrilmDet

I CntlP«

..................... _+-_----11'

~eI'IJnoJ Dlarn~

,56

A:rm_j mHiJle UnlYruul CnntJrQIJDf

'Ccltd j!l.lnClilolill

{1 at, 'tDnTlilMlJ ,oon~oo)

Ma,d\11i1~ plBmI!

A SO{wu.l\v.ilat, older rmttuxlfO'I defll~,i:aag 'InC: ooi,lI junction 'Iienl~mt~re wlli~icb :us bud}, ruJ:s~d 1D'IO'W~days i,s, [0 tn '"'P' 'th~ oolltiJ jlln~itiO:illl~mpc'rnlJU;m ~DtiS~3tU usi f],1;! 00, !!Xile.m.a;1 tu~~~~r '(~e;~Fig, 1l9')., ~lf~ 'Il~i,!:i. Ca8tl •. a tl:ienmlJlyi [~s!llfl~md ~~ru~:i:mam strip hi h~ldl .al UJ O@mSIl11IU <re'Ii3:liwrn,)~ tl'i:gffiru), ru:cm,p~rn!I!Il[l'G ttili:ng n hGtn~r. TIle (.1OrlSLrult {in 11h~ showm, '~x~ptei ]!]~C) Citlll mlrI,GlIll b~ 'l1!~OO IllS

jil!. ... iI!., .. ,,~!o: ~I'I~ ~ii<. ... '''''1' ,.,,1 ""!I'I' ,,,,"I'.~ .. , ' ...... n"':'I'" ·11·j';· ...... ,111" .... ;f>.,m"'"'-I,,,,,,I I'P ~I!. .... j' .. ·m·!I'IP-ju .... · ""I!! ,,:1.,.,., A'!Iu .. .,.u""'j ...... , .. ,!' uJ~bili'l UU;!.g .... II :. 11j!lilt,.,. H:J )1d_gJ~O- ,!!l!liJl~JM!Ir.> D~,IIiI. :Il! !b!IJ~U ,I,i!J',fl '!in=UJlI!iri!t!!!1 'iii",!!] ... = !~Ib_ .. 'lr.l \I;","..r.:II'RJ!I; !IlI!l;., ulll t,U!I;.,' 1!.t1~'!i.rJ~li':!!! Ii'!w IBU~11IL_,

rn~i,.

A funhcl' lIOs!libii~ity LS, 'liCnIllPlmllllioo ,:lcq,1JIis~tiliQ;n, IJsi1l\g lSJ, oornpc'ID:5Il!I:in,g box.., wbe;ro mile 00.1 is oO"mJ~~ed. ~fitjj! theL1.le~Yrircig; rC1R1111:!1[ rut ~ m.~Hn'bew Q~ mOO'fIjJ:es •. e.g.E1' 200S .• Thi,s, OO~ (.'lDn~W:!lN ~. m~:m.sm1Il,:£; hridge 'cmcui~ 'to whidh an e:I!'wmlll '\i'o:l~age QilIU$1 be !!;,':c:n;n,e~~.oo=mdl '\I!'hi~Jh deliV<!;'lI:"S;J, oompen~l,i.o!1 \,"a:h!~ ~g the' i.npum m@dy'le (Pig. 3, Ii O),fQlr :[1 more detaffi~ed d~"'!Wri.ptiof:l1! mlr~f [0 l))eMillfuia'lifl en th~ 51";1',·300 :illlnd $;7 04:00 ltu;xl'ru.lI~s i:'Jj~d th~ BT 2,OOS dli,stmltUWlOO, un :S)1s1e~!n"

IE!n~PIJ r.lllnt.l!llll~j~: 'mlll1l:l11~ ,¥i'd~ ~~~:eI'iIil!H!It·tIi1llplJt!:s iI111liY OC,;Uir JUiluri n;~ 1(lti'I:Ii~",Iifl'mn) (~rn .. I ilFllll dill! ~ I~O !;,'ulirf'k'Sn [II] ef tbi2' I'IIIIDSmlflJ Iliip!O (~o;:pe.t:idl· \l1'~th OJtlll-blmg Illlmnm."('IIID,pl,~s • This flruaU!, n..."'iulb ,im LriG!I~I"ing or lit!: I1llmlluru!!'s I.1II~m~ilil:t:u~~ nUln~luril(;U~ ruanjJ~ li,oo. hut .Ifg i~ ro~ uF lh~l~UI)]~~' ,jjll!:Stm ~t~Qm is hO~ iii! 'iJ ~lly ~ ~udd~1'I lW.elllil. The s,low fi: ... osiol~ ~UJtts iln :~'1~Jl!illti~g: 00 11 tilt" I :~ijs,!,[!ncl!!S: ""~I~i!:h ~al1 ~.!.:; III '10 :!.~~!ltifi!i!IUU !J:mJ'r.;.iu m1llilIUIlifif;;: mI!HU.

The ;Jimall '\I\Q)i.H1l'lc' \\fI lillit-o., !l'r Ili~~ III~ !!rm:[ienWifp~:~ Im!;~!'1 lha~ ~'lih '!ljeMurs 11m: Sll r91witJiI~l!i: ill'll e~i&:Im1i!MJI!lm!!tic inlcrfCJl;lm::es.. "fhms JlI'fIllt.~'~ 00 'o'w«m int~, !lI;.~m,l_u'l '!io""b,~~iI rD'lutil!lg ilJ!le cll'l~s" Wh~iIJI,~cl[ernill1lifa.iIll.~ ~'lrail' R!IOWLfllnns l'illCi.'I'!ior:ll. m1Jd i:n 'nlu;e: liIicldliJil(m mcosYIiII!.\I:.

MOOld~,s; ,Wi'C: ,ruoo g",.ai:i:ilbl'c wllh an loml'tm:!i!!t og~d jl,ijmd~~n,! pe:~i'ljl:i'i1\B nll;:Ij'j'fiQCC!:uJpLes~!i) lbe OO"iii'U!(i~~d ,d~~~:i[ly '0]"11'13. oom;>,s,polllld~o:g, IG:(tL:.!I!I,S~OD I:eudis"

3.12: .si~1iI:lills, hm. DiPlelll COllln«tedRubtalJ1l~ ThcnnomCl'te:n

,1111 COglm'~, to! 'lh~: d~llf~mnJ[i'lIWml'l~g:e: llfieiIJ:SruJ]'elnell~, pri:m:Gli,le or Lb~i'fllllllooQIlIP:Ie;s.; li';esiJlUlinc~ mlmermomemers de'lefmin~ dlei'f ',">;llue b,), mleul.Wci:JJB tin:' resrusL1WDce of partjCi~ lar :3W~O:)'S 'wh~cffi11 dj~i!li;!{e];' dli:lJ~lfem,~. :reii~~CiIlc.e v,~IDI!le:.'l W~l;fl tile 'b;iQillpemtu.re '~h~ns,e~,. The m~ :1 i m.port~m~ :repoo-· [ieitim~ti:\Vu ~s the PTUlO ~e;m!lor.

~ ClI""OO!J~ Unlv"CmtI~ mlfI'lwiJer

Cold ~LI~C~Q!l CCrnpeoo31i1ngl ,00,1

MBcJ1lnBf p!lm1~

Cornp* '1'-' -------K Comp-lM

II fII (J:I1ICJ t~J Ilfl~':![a N the reS,i!'iI.Ui!ll"~,. ,Q, ';O"sIQn~ c!llrrunI: IS '!,':U!~i\,~nt\d bU!l fl, 'l,empc'm;I'~m4i;!lpel1li-' lQ)e:DI:!, vtli:tall~ and (oil!l.l]et':~fdl (I] Ilffiu~ Inu:1il1:lI1lc., TI1e cold j I.!I!nc:~ionl is, IIJa,~re$ll.re O:II!a illlerl :~r!l:li" St:l'C~1 t:Yll>e!~, of SCns,ul'" ,lJitld: tbey' are >Ii I~ll ffiif n'Ilflr;e IlIt:.d:!].l;mlt, 11,0 !ii:Ql'lo~io.n Ilb.t'lIn ~1:u~r,liU1lJi~GlulPles, The leu IiII1';l a~l JlIiPp~~edll:o time: resi~~u.noe ~Hfierm.gn'leh;:·,U' iis sillillje~~, (0 II: c~nhd:iC'wry o~:n:npro~fu.t ~:: en tho 'g)ne hand, U~'C til4!lTenl ml~' t 100 ~~G(it~d ~s ,s:m,g!I~ ilIj, ;possilb~e I~(j ,:revent ~df ... h~ali:ng Oif ~llilc ,s~n~or., aJG!d en tllilc orner lum;(ill!, :it ~lY;tit bc M, hi~hJ ,M Ipo~:!ii:IJ~~ il!1! officI' ilo o'bU,illf! ,!IS ~!.a me,Q~ured Sill!!:f11l1 Uii, pc88i~Je. To sLI!,ppmrt '[i1;c mCWiUnni!, ac:cu[".l~:. SC:l19fnte: ,ton;~lIc~o:l'5 sheald be IUj.s~d to ,!lip,ly th~ '~IU~,i ~~) fi~f>i,s'l_ce t1iCtmQI~U::]'!, ,:uul,s~.oi1lllid be tI1O:u~cd up ll(Dlllhe· ~e:ll~il!f ~em:l ~fid 'o~!lecl~d ~iliIere, Thffisi s reEem:d! 'll~)' as ·0, :Foiu.u';,,\vire ~y tern (.Fi~. :3; I; ~l );, Mool!lb:~ !d~'

1\0:0_ mOfhll1 ' iUIIlII'Ire:isDJ mmrlMlL

M a n~mfll pl'anl

AllillIlog rmtIdulo Unlvntml WlIi'G~Qf

Mli!· mleJ I

,planl,

, IrnA PT100

OOOl'uu:OOI'!l Mad!

,e;.llst wIth, ~, ~wire: sysoom Wh,i.ch m~~~uro ~~ ~ine! re-s~sttll!~ce and. tm tillS llue, aceO!!im'l ~nthe ,cMculnli{)ll, ll}iJ :;ame· atcl.!iracy ts lb~n aell~~'.cd ,38 with a :~ouf'"wim I~MlJren'LlUU.,

'Th~ '~Ifia~~~~, fMsi,lita~itl~S ~ tn Ib¢ ~~~~ ft'[Ul'i ~~,~ ~~!~~ :1;esL~tad~", If Ule :~,BiUi,~ oon .. d~IlJC~t~r().I' ~I~c ~lle:{l~'!U red s;ill'f~'1!1 and for I.'l:t"l),Jiit',atioIJ1 of ltllile CUi~IU. ~ CfillnG~~~d l~rl~~I.'bel1!, I!In,e ro~u'I~, is U1e.'llWfCe~WjJnle s:tstc!m~ whe~ irn,c~!l!:;;ecl 'l;im'i(~tklllS in a~tlmq h~,,"~ ttl' be, ~ep~cd . .to. lll'roc,,,,wi~ ~y.~~em is :Ilbnw~l, lin :F.ig •. 3., ]:t

:9lr--:Mi£l

,iI1-IJlf~'

~' !l=7f'IIOO :S~I~it-':1f (~~'"(l hI!!" 3" 13) has ilL~ mil:ll~ fm~rnlit!i plu:lh~lIIm ali!;})!' w:lili,clil, deUI!fI:r:~ ,31 nominal resistance .of el3cdyl 00 D, ,~u. Oi:lC. The PT'l 00 :~e:mNO'ffi do notha\1le !UlC~I, 3 gnad dymaiUl!liic pr:rfh~ilU:llIIiliGC ilUl, th~:rnlito!~G;)tI,l!:s fur lrust u~m[Xrr'tI!l'l!lloo' ;t>:yiS'~Iil::lns s'Uti'!: lh~}i' ;m:e: tlsl!ldly of' I illigCIi'

- = ",. _" _'-

~'i "~' , 'PT 'l ,00:, ,i"-C - ,··'I~- 'i-:-~ ~~.~ ·~I<ri ., '~h ,-- ~l·~·-·iSfc ",,'Iii-' ~ll"S: [L'~·"''' 'i-c D: iro.~' ,4,"7.11,"'l'({l1 ~ .. ,.lI

~~Z:.e,., ,_.", ~!;!ilJSQ:ffi ~LSI) ~!~~ a u,;j)J.(jW ol,l!i:eall' iC.,.ilnu;:J:::Wl! •. L .n!C.H.._~ !In~ ~!'!. _·b~ . oil 1_",1 iI!!I.Y

'[cor: S84! .[' ,.111;. ' ~ ',. "' .. ,,,,':1 '1·1 ·1011..·· '.~ Ii. ' 'I'· • ~

,I:'.I",-,.;,_"'" ,. ;)!I!lQi [I~"" 'lif)' ~'I(': ,!'!1I.eMili.i!.W. (~.m:1(l:_ i:l!1o'!: I!!~JliC~. ~!Iow~~'r" 'uru, 'vat't~'llllS t!1t1'IQn~~ ClJt1 ..

tlrfi[ler£ do, no~, ullillb'_e 'Ibe cO'm,pl\:te DIIN mllJglC il11 'oroer to' '!reel' the o~~meDd rOIi Dp"licDti,Oll of ~h,e CUlIT':lU wi;Th'tiu Gcooptabl,e I i,ll'IiitS. Co~pondin.~, daWi cam. 00 fooilld 1m fbe~eclmjcl,d ,jes<cript~lJnli of the ICiITlililrolltCl' nu;",h,:Jle.'1 :und utliflil,o~ Inp'u~ madnles,

T-t. .. rl'!l"ii'~OOc .' ·I··~~ ~'I~ e .'>'''''''''''''''' I.'I·'I'~ 11'~,,,, ,0'"'" ....... ' I..,,,, .. ~ •• -~!,>",'I'Il'I' .. ~. ,,,. 'ij;rT~OO~" I' .. ..,.~,"'''' .. "''!i':-''''IH' "P>i'>r ........ _I.I",,~ ~ J! . _ ~I!,!'!l!. r~, ',,1IJitl!V :li'!;.'!.,~1IY''''''' ~_'''''''',,"i _,"'" st~ •. I,"'" 1;1:'1""""" ~~ 0 ,! ,'~~ g Ir .iI! ~', . '''''''\L'~''''''i'''''''''''!.':·''', ~u, !La ...

ool'fespolIDd~DIQ; nO:JnimllresiYlltan.ce~ (.500:0 and 1 (OJ n l.1e-specli,'lIclY)3!I:{[I""C. l1u!!se stl:ms.ors are' II·i"~'~ '\Vb, ~~ 1 ~-'C ~ a .. ~ '-,,'" ,d,--:: nd .. ~·S~' ''1i'1r~irrufl''·tn ~ ~s .. f Hlie line :resiif>uulIces are·~~i''Crmlfil.,,·

!JI~ .. I!~rn ,_a!];c J,\:l!,;urnc,Y _ermKl '!;! e~,L~. U!i: , ,De __ !;.e. o_,_ .. ~ ·_1. ._, __ '. g .. ~ __

c3l1;lly Iess h:.':C3Ju!u.~ D:f' the higher resi stI!IIf:l:Ce. '\I',i1!lUt:!l,.~n ,alicHtion. (he SUlTIe3l..'>Culmcy can 100 2Jl;:lliev\"~ will:::! ~ si:gnl~~alltJly' :sm:l~Uell a;p,pli ed eli![M:!:!1: ond rne;_reCore wj(l:Ired!JtedM!~f"'hea~·in\G.

'The: N I.~ 00 ~ltd NJ lOOO ~n$(lrsnm: u'lsO'oosi:soum.c.ci th~T!lnl@t~~ «()~N ,~3,"J'(0) 'wi'l]~ a 'r'KIm~ ilt1:l~'I! ~~i!l:t!1:nee of loon j),l1d lOOID n re,spetl~jve])' ,~U O~C., ~~()W'eiveTi,~he'.se sen~rli nr~~ o.r!5~"" oll,dMJ 'i:m,porml:'u::e :ini Il1dustri,a~ IIp,plica:ri.onth and. ~DVe therefore been. nmW\fOO from 11'lu~' standlWid b)~ ~iJle ~ShUl{(laWS (;~m.1I111nme~.

'I '''1, "3: o£'!l.u, ... .:Io, .. · ... ~il ~ ...... ;I!.-" r~ J' A 'til' AI '''W1I m" A. .nilii" n. ... m. 'liilll '" 'II

1~~.I-"'" ~'MllQ;y~PU ~.I_RIlN,~ I\V't + ii' - ~Q" ",tIl ~~'!!'i!I! +~ ~ ~ - u~ ~i!!! ~~ ,_ --!l-'"

I,,+~~~' M

ArmJlUI~1 mD(lulCi

UnJ'I!e 'I mm:mlr. t

L"'*'

I~

I MJ:U:ltl~n1 • r.ol1l I

tro~~!21S. Il d;i:rre~relli:i;l1miOl!D ~S :m,~gje: bC:I:'!lI'I~en ~:WO I:Ul.~WIJ t}1ll!oS' cfilr-alsMi~~e,r; Tile fClJfo-'wir-e trans!"

-"'1'1'" ,'" C-.- ",~~,""I b' ',. "'-1.'- ~~I ~ ,'.' JI·' d 11. .. , ••.. '1:',',= 'li 1.11 "J"h-"~ -' .-.'.-,-" "'."1".'

nlJi~.er I~ pt'i'!iWeoou. ' -.'i ;run ~, emlilll :!il1.lpp. ~mt , ,S~i,OW"ru ~Q. 1'".1&, .,l!' •. '''i!i'. J ... ,e (\lll(i~WU'~ 1nf'~1!HiIl11MIS!I"

,(f1:e;. 3.1: S) 1Ii;~~~I;'ilS. hs IPOwC;:f' 'from 'ill'te !Kl",,veiU' sup"I,' of Ilike inl~I:O,Il!, WIDlPU modurnc or liJllm~:tSam c@lI1~m:,[~el",

".l..., M, ,li1iSIlil'i6in, P,EI1: .. ~;nI'" 'D""~ iII.ii,t'''1ij A-·" ~11iii11"~I~t.-;'""'~ _-'- _ .. ~!.L, ... __ -I~b- , __ ,_,,"-I~,'_~ _.~. M,I_~IU!,I:!' 1!i;,:q'!Il!!~~. ,1.~mI

In G.en~rn] m~:u~ri~M\g i~~ciJ.~Il~ru@~nr.wriO'~s, '!I'u~du~sam 1i:19m'!1,na. utlJd d~.,cribe.d :fur acqubd,·· t:l1]\n, of me,~s:!,g-~d Vgjj~~~i, ,and 8i\gmlll1l~ssilng mill, d:igi~~I: c@lnp.tI~c·rn., control: '~lniiLs, rntlD.d proce:ss ICOmilmI: $:lf t~'rM, ~8~C [9]). Measured-val-ul'; ;~.u;qu.i~:~tm(linl. i:!i c:h13~~'I~ri71~d by in~:)JJ~: M1JilUfi~m" All~gffi,. m;~nip~:~efS ,amid tht:, ~n3]QlV~i,gi,,:am oor:vve.~er.· (Aj~) e~nyc;rll1.!!:r). '1rla,~ 'm~as~rin! f:rimu:'i,·, r~]e of ~Wl,~ AID ,r::UU!,V(;;:"iCr in pM'it I!,!llm~ .r;a:!1, hu;Ye ,ij!'ff(;--,c;ts en the: oontr-orns:y:s~en~, ~Ciit'!i!.Si,;li .g~ it~ '~cd'6t ,3d"'~IlIII:ase.'! ;JJnd cnS!;]d:va;llIjU-ISe.~., n.'I1'ef! n:f:IIJllese kll!lQ\!.i1I!I ,pmced'D.I~. ,ar-e mai.n~y 1ILI~e:dl iin the; 51 MAIIC'. !I'lu.i1 ~re ~rieny de.sclrnhd ~gere:

,11,1'll!Jlnl~imJ QJ' thJ.(Jl-,,'i,~lJ,tJ :lM'tJ.rl!di~1't:

Arru ulder ;!l.f!d 1~~'Il1~inly !!~ld!est S,PN'3,d. m~@,'~uri"~prilJ.'C~p!igrQJ ~lJl ~1;l\!il\rers·:io!11 WJ~b!lQ~lo.~ WmlPl..I:ts I{ [O:!' Si,~NmATrnc silsmal, WCldu!iBS}1 nf [Ilrooes!!. rnJi1d ull1iwmIllil. CClI:1JIOOml:e['3. ws U:le ~m~egrJti.o1il p17'D(:e,dl1l!~'; ,311S[) II'e'fc:m-d to and de' 'Cirmrn.'d :tilSi 3 d:I..IIUll .. s'IQpe AID C'ol1!!\J\:c:ner ~n ~9]11(~ge ''t''lc ,3,.4,). A 1 rnmm 0 lJI,gh Illlimis, [prtK.'icdl!J:re ffis .ru113~m'Vcl;,y ~dow" lt ffis !e';d.rulJ'gl~l:y lr~h.l~l:1!I]l: tni:o,tearfell'nll:eS ln ~I]d!!!:l'itril;t1 ,ejJ,v~romment'i,. E1octromu~nct~r.: ~n~c:rfereil'lces :[!Ire ,pnrlJi'u:lllI.rJ)I 1ll',1ll 'ein'l: ~l!Ic-r-e '\:yi:th n mult:iple o:.f me ~Idln~ Cru-qjl!l:C!:l1:1cy. M~jt!J!il~J!mm.enls hlJv~ shOWmil 'l]1IInl 400 Hl" phIJ'lS m pmh.-:iJ.!I,I,Dd}, dG'!:m;nlnn:l:il1l~ tm:11 in Illh>m: il1liL'e['~erem::G fmquen:cy spectrumi:111 BlJm~~

Wi U~ the i,nl:~S~r,n'inl1l :pmxeclure. I:h~ m.e3sulfie;d val,l!I~ 15 ~1f;1~e'JIm:ied ov~r :0 (lh~~) f~IU 'W'a'\t~ 'Oof 2:0 1]!I1S 3m, 50 I-iz. :IJ'ielll1:li11 !mg of th~ ~n~~iG1m:I:o:r ffis cmi~1:1 out by mefilllS efa referem.;~ :s~gmml.

Tab]Q,3.3,

Exlil',act ftmn 'Ihe tecihnilCaru ~pecU~c:u imu. o:f Ilhe SM: ~], lamSiiln.s. hiplJi' iliiUlduile. A~g, I :2hil. ~aken, Ef"O:i!i11 'ihc :[l~f~p~~'ului!il ''67'·:300., ,~"-300 iiliul:om~dij"-I :5iysu,':I'll/n~1Jilc d""t~"

>!i' Pa~leri,,_.aI:II~

Oi' Ilnl~~lilon 'Ijjjf~ (ijciil ms:)

~, ~~.liC '~~r.!ioo 'time '~i!'i mfl)

'Yts 2.~ ~.O

1,6113 j,1

~oo rnQ:2

1be duml ion ,(moil ,e(lia:r~'lu!Iilt.'efllemrl, ofrhe' di:s!l::na~e tip' m L'{l:1l1ple;l!I~ di:\iCllIall:~ Is e\lalna~ed m;. g, mecl1~M re of t1nte iflppl ioosigl1JJilt This prim,cip]~ iil;!XI,(lITnUic,~~lly >e:llmlILI1~OOS 1~ uijteJ:II~riJ:1g :f~'~,Uellt~~ rshtoe m::,g.ilti,voe a~lI ,positi,ve lluerfer:in;g !pulfle5 co.c~I:pen~te. 'ooc 3nmher. As ii, res.lIDl:t of (h~ JO.li(g dtU~!li!t~(ljjl ~me f(Wr iii rniW ilit~~il,l:'!:: ""a~!tie ~)m.;;, will~ a.llIW'iti: r~mcy of SOHz~ a:!ld ~ 6.;' ms 'w.ith 60 Hz), th~s p'roc~dure is only suit!lrble :rorrelDt~"''tly sl~w oon~f;ol :sy:s~eiMiS (,domij,o ilIiting Si}j:f!te~mJ ~w:me O!Jm~:lan~ ~] ,.2, ~~cumdl'l. 'Tb'i:l'i ,i:SUi:l!~H.~lljYifi\ilme!C nt ftll,' :m,f>S' 'r:emper" a~lWrc C1@n~ltO~83iIld ~~I~ ~sual c'Orul!o~s .a,'i$('l!Ci:{lIe;d 'wi'lb p~s engin~ring:,

l'I~;"Mt!iJ"I~~'N's!!ial~eoodirl'il

A ~dg-~ific~nl~.::;r f!18~er ~LeilJ;uri f1I,~ p:iind:ple fUll" .AlfJC()IWe'i}l~om wi.th !Uli.met j11l:Ptl~ f:or SIMATIC nU'H;h,de,'). ~s bl$tu'I1'I~n~WlD s \'~h1(!;codi.n~., This pF(~do~ del,I"'f:JfS II~ >cun\!nro mea .. ~'Ilred ~hliC·ror SIMATJ:C 57 umalog Inod(d~ w~th~n a f\C>w mlcf~sec{}nds, O;:ee Ta~le ,3· .. 4)., Tb~s ~,)'pe ,of 3iil:a!Jti!,,,vi~Wue acqu:is~ti.{jIJ. L;; therefore :!iu~t~b]'e .fur ra,:;~. cnll:l'ml~ :foll.ich as speed COp .. lIjiO~S. P:roblems may occur wi,th di!e:!i!c~lI1.1iE1l:og II1IIOOllme."'i :if ~he ~ii1~or m-1Il~ 3nal(lig-: ... ·:;dm.~ I!i n~s are subject. 'lit) el,eC!~ roIliDl.aSMIClic ilue.rference~" ,As ~ mllW[ o~ be.'1t8" ~onB, .. wave ~lluel:fUf;nces. m~y d~, ,occur as ~requC'lie~C3 :s1J!lpedl11lpo~d en ,the d~enDJn~d. 'val,u:e;. :I~ Is, 'Qft:£m, Va)" d~mcuru[. ~ji) mrotl,1' Cln ilhcsc i:fl:I:cril.!i~lilee~ us! n,~, so:fi.YIa.ire ill:go:ril!iJiuns"

!Jiut:c:e:s~iW!' GI'IJ/llXimlltiOl-l

'1I'1-, ... i'_ ... U· ""","",,,',,,,,;01, "'pp""'''' l;m- "'1-"""""""" d ..,", .. ,";:;1..=", ~Ii. ... 'nn"","';il"l~'"' ""if ' ............ i.·r: .. ..:i ""'" -I'~'''''' :mcof:l'·'l· .. ··I'·.,·I .... n ~, iII~f~ 'I.'ii?,1! ~!I!I ,'Iio!'!idi!WII:I!!~ I"'~ ~ -. : ij,1Y.~!il J j];" [ VIL~ ~-Q'!iilIIi.~~~1 ~ll~ I,~ I ,I~""~~l.!!i~~ '!il'l ,l!tIHI~~!Ir:§I ,~!ir~- '1!'1trII IY~ !II':!!!.!IIi'~,!fi..I! ~.'I, .'~ !I

1'1u: :IJ~9sl!ll!ed. $~gWl:2IJ't ~~ ,a,prt"),)till~lfIl!ed :~'e,p"by .. Jlte,p.lni~i:l1ilJy Ct');~rlSe:" w~d dlen ~n, :rel,e:;ne(J],), ;,t- ~ "'~~- r[ll~"')~, un t] ·1-:1' - ,; -1- ~~ -,- r.a '\i'-,1 II - ;a-ifmI!"iIo""',--- 'a:I-'.a~v e ~~N'i. '-d.:!I ~. c .,I!., -- ;--UiJI"",,·,1 :1l":moi;'!-li ,,!D!!!I]:I!:._ ~'!"'"l _tld,- _1= fC~etc:II!! ........ i!lI_ie __ p~", .... \I'!;llfL""~,, "'''''~~'''''--,l'''''1'! ,,'i!!J y~e: Irne __ I~ "J!E7"'~ •

''fab~3A

~U~l~l fr<M:ll, the ~~h!l!i.~1 ~ifi,c[i,tion~ ofllliJe ,8M 43:1 :!UTIaTo!.l{l: :input tv!.!iM!hll.e.,AII~, • ~4 bii~" Wl~!1 OOfJ! me n:'[CU:IlC:C nnlDlJIlI!] '''S1-JOO. M,7 .. JOO iillil,tQnn:ation Sl'-:;;te.mhnoou~c data,';

M~tlnfi& pri.neiill1~

5:U:tJ,pfG,-~smm Qf inltr(i~cillif~lU~,)!

.. 'Pa!r<!mt!i!til~ljte ~Qr i~lede:rin! freq~~y 'I '(lrder

C'OJ]ii.«lf8i~Jil i hme ~r cllio1J!I!ooi :Bi!!J6i\c 'oom~il;.lQ t~mcpef 'chw!nn~~

~~.WJ,m"oodil\8: ij'i1jlng OO'Wfb fll~~r'

GJ· Mil 00 H~ ,~~, H):

'& 40 48

I 1[11 ,illS

Sl~s

S~gIJ/o.,,-del!(J p'roccUllU't!

TIle modef:WJ (,Pt. t'iomple:.~ s'igma-dwm (" .000(;0' rOo.r AID ,co.nv,ers.ioll 'Wi'lb :!Ii11!U,,,,!;g ~nputs is based on an imegra:tor' 'Wiil:l] a series-cennecred and IOCf'C<l·:bacl;; c()mpamlo[' I( ~ ~bi~: COllVe'n'~r) ~b.llt gen~mtc:!i, 3lvarJable pulse lime fr~m, wllidh 'Lb,e IIIOOc8!1J!!'OO valae is lh.:,rived. 1l1i~ i ~ ~amoo oot( in M LSI ~~il'" ThL re,I~U.'!rely s~ow m,C:3S'lllri:n,g procedure: aU~s 11 VCI]' ~,igh aCC~l:fi'CY w:i~Th11 hi,SiIl sec IJfi~y at thu "a_tD~ dm~ I(e:ee 1'ablif.l 3..:5). U!lC 'i)f 'tb~s proc:cCdrl.lIre is wotthwhle: vdtb UlIloo,IJ,les w11h ~~i,gh reso~uttiG'it :requ~emeJllts, aDd Fe]: oompig;c; m~asgd~,g tasks (tempemture '!r1fi:{;'CJr4i I1I,g w~tb di!l!ieC1 eonaeeucn). Fjlle'rilng of the: In.~e:rfetin8 :flmq~UIf.lm.::ics, is usu~u'y eU:_I1'~Qd

') d 'I d..·· II ..... 1 'I' 'b' ." ~'i. ~I fi I ~,~~ l

,mn en [lt~moull. e, ap~ ts Im,p!ftmel!it~ iI!j 'In8 a ICOI.l1I,:ulanO:n1 (.II. uaFIJ"~n:' nners ww.(;ump_ex

ooA'waf'B' fj,I,lers,.

'DIlI'E'l.S

l!;iJ.lrool fmrili th!l: 'I~h!llt.-aill ~~~fiICa'll.{)lll;: of ~he' -SM 4:3, ~ ,::!:l!Ialo,g 'illliJm~ :nilOduila;-". iUS· Ef.fO" MJ b:il. ~~e!1 from Llu: n::f~n:;firI."(l IntlillliUOIlli ''''S7 ·300, MI,·3'OO ,!I.Il'~!on1!iltion ~')'i'lh::Ini'l/lmud!,l:lt d~!J.{I}·

SII!lIPPIfP;S'~ n ,ur im~fif~f~n. fr ~q,lDe:ne,)' f'l t lHl'l'eflibun Ii ~ '~'I!!II!ni@ii

.. UpciJmDJlg ltiIM (8 chllnrnl~s. )

OJ U'~lil!iJll: ruDe u r;l~mtcJl )

,iii!: 2:5, '11M ,<:g I!IJI:'>

. h~". ,

I :r ",

3.2.S; !RgQlpltolltAceurac,)' mull Repe-lItnbilit)"

oS i,gn~fi,c~mt '\f~!i3b]~ iilr a.~es~:ing ~tl i;I]flUI:{!,~ i Ill~ut, il1J add,itjQlJ1 lin ru[!ge otDtl'ing Mml!" Me Ule resoilutto:n. actur,~cy' ,and repeatahility, n is fRq:uenUy ll~ cas~ [halt th~~ce, Ilenn_.;;, ,il/fie IC.unJf~l£td ~n P[;~u::lioe:,

Re.mluti'O.1l. ofmTalr(Jg·t~(Jlu'e .t1cql,il'i,tilm

'I-".eresolmion ~f all ,;.mal,o, '. i.O!pu[ iii, rbe Dum'b.efJ' of bj~s Wilh;;.\!h:ic;hi ~~t Jooasurod sismll ~!l mp'R!!~luled, w,i~~,hro t!lle m<x!ll1l[r:!' (~.g:,rur the 1fM' 15!I:112 bllts wiJru}1, it ,cooti'n\~ IiJme of 20 ms, or :14 bi,~ with :I. 00 m""I)" or, mcoordi ng to [[ 1.0.]. 'Uu't:: re~@illuthD11 :is the ~~nallj;)'s't Ch3'9,ge ln f11castlood 'v311!1et wil lch CiUl sli ll be de~i:nnffifled by the ~tlCiJslfi ri~ equwp:rl.lenI,

Ac,· ·tI',l,mr,)~ ,oj ('J!(J'/og"'''''ll'IU: IU·qllf'illi(NI

De UCCUJR'C,)' of me ;analog Impu,t Ohi.. j,s BOI. dilo llocur'J.CY ,of the Ico:ompl.'lo:le- c()I9Im)1 ,systeD~) is, lmderstDiKllo. be tille flCCUli11.q" in t~l.e oop:resen:lati:oil oFlile,m,eagllr-ed value,.1bi's i:fiC~ude5, tbe eOOOj, of ~~~ sigoa1 LmIPUt. oU:Il;veli1i'io:n and digili zation, :arnd especially 'In.nsJRiu;er eerers, TIl is. 1,OI;p] e!im~ of theseq!l!'!-lIl,ce aJl,w,ays ,re~er!', to :~l1,e rb~~,~.:ic'ajle w]we ,of tile: Rpreselllla.6011. If tile lne~,~urc:rn'l\iiru, ;js ~~I'"r3.'S wiithiHi 'Ihe, ooUom pm1: :o'Ih~ measuring Irnll,gl~',. ,even a 1,4i .. bi~ ~ln're.(.._ slon will. !!e-!!j,y~t ,j I~ il:n.:rgc il[J:m'CcN;J:mcb~s in IltU.~~.a '~re.d-\", I De ,;1il:quliJ!i:i~~o:nl.

Repel1'ia/J,i.li,,)t

1]11,'13. lre,PI;mj~~bi;mi:ty or ri, fesu~lt !p\,'lire~ ~@I ~ib~ d'i'ffe:rence iin ~lhe me~sll!lredl~wIJ~c di:splaf ~:i:JUnwilng rep~'mlt~d II(ppmi;tm:i:im~ o~ ~tl m:erumr~d ~igl1lla:i ~O' a'll, arnluillog mn,ln. 1'1 shmJldl k 'bcrnllW O. '~I " " of th~ 6lrulli·SC@JI,e ,~tdlUu~. '''U~ typrnt~a!: _~U~ rOf s~~mthlfdnuxlll~es :i~< O.'~ ~ or: 'Un:e fuU .. ,!'C;liIc r.;fJfll~ flIf <, 0., I, K, .for ~em;pellllU[lC: :Ill'ea:fiUIRA1cmts.

N'llJ~"':: 'Viti, ~II !ii(:llf-ruw.:..lr!'e c:n"1 ml!'.. h 11iI1Wil k ,tl,....e.U'!jN;~d i1~1 I.h.: i rmlm~ HmdlD~i ~!I'~ if.lflll La r Sil'1 poi ru, n ~ :tl~~UIiII \1iI'1'~u!s I!Ilfil ill!, s!!fi~U')ill! imi.:':i"! U Ii 9\~ mD1~1J i,'!, :s.a~!2:t'l~d 'I.,~llic'hr i s: I~~wr· 111~'1i! '!&. lUi :'I'JcIl~11 ' ~ pa. si.bI~I!. Wi,1~, mMl ~llf1ii\\mm p!iJUJ~ '!'lti Ii::~nl m! 1!Ill1i! ~!Ilr l~m pom~u e m~a:.ijjy:re mn!lIlIS ~ It:~[i'!ll'l' C' )lfD" 111 l'lle ft!lJi ,illilJl~:i~~ .. ~~I~t'l :u~U!bil~:h:m: FT II t:w.J Qr 1!11e('il1l1g· i('o~pl~};, use~ '~nure rUJ '1~I!lIjl'l,~rblrl)l~~n~ lOp ~~~et:1i0~ III ;JI~grn~~yriQS, Ilmtw Ir:$Utrtl·,I.'!~" M:'alc ~~lU:Jru 11'SiC'~th: ,,"mwe). De ,D1null,og moolm~ ~~ 'ofFc I" ;;] ~:BwlluUQ mUl~ hl adllwtii~m II~ tim: slalflduf,~ m_m~i:~ ~rhe' I '1I\i1, 3~S" 'FM 1 ~5,.l '~~1d PM o:1lS15 mHu'IWi I[I~~W ~.ev~ml m~ ees fll·lili!.i;s,

'WiJIi S,~·MATmC S1/PCS7', tin:' c'OliIfiglJJJf,3ii:on irnd ;r1~ju8Im(!m'l, Cif d~liI~c Uy Cl.Jl'Ilill!\':~~d !Jf eentf;Ed~~ ool'ineC'lled g~" om IUHI ;aclillHn~r:s is ~y 11I1il'j;JJ!'iS !of Un~ S I,MAl'I:C ,M~nlJ:IlI;er 1(iI~~ Dr sigm~!1

~l_'~ .;;I..:I·~I'"·I.:'IA''' """iIl1U .... '.,UfII'·I'IlI·0' I ....... !IJ\ .. I\ 1;''''''''''1'iI11II+ i.''' .. '' 0>1- '['I'iIlJ!O "'''i''~''iIiI! , ...... ,..;iI",n .. ., """~ ""'·I~,~ .. L, 11'1 ..... ~!.I1'Ii'" ""f'

wmIU~: __ I~_L!~ __ U,I~V~ , -~. __ ._J.~lII!UlI~"""'I.!j,~~~~~_U'l!JI~ ~'!I!!!i __ t~ !I4LIlll:,,",lIJU.,'lblll~-~!LiJIL~ ~Vlj '~I_"I~~"'1JJ U-"~JIW'~II~~I!lJ!l_1

t:IIUI~ 3..16

EMClin~~~,e o~ de~ l1i'lui!1lfll Qlf II)lpe Oif IJlii!"JSR~m~JII: nnd moosu;lllFJ,g, II':'dnl~ Fnr",n 8<i~m:nllejll ,3i1il log iJlllp!.u, 1!ifil000ul!i: lQ£in~lb!oli '"''flW..c~ll!iirolll,'' ~ool gf'the SlMAT,J:C M:lin~Ger.

63

1i!t'IIJ:.!i1 ,,3Iu llio:.IiI.i!lli"oI!!h.~ !IIt"II~ rii!1lal'YIiI!u lii!ffi~'~~, Illftlli1 ",-.:III", ~.l'Ibi ~.[f!i

..

. ""

mr~9]C~"'Hdue HC([~,i;S~iWO:lll ~cu.I1lC\I!I:i. VOI'I:3~~ el:e.)' IlflllJtS[ be; ud!diliol;luUl'" ct osi'l1(g tn, ,co{i:i:nJg c~!e- 11ii!.tIU.

\,Vffilti [he SlMATJ:C M:ma,I~ii' i'l :is JIJOt orwb :pos:5rubrl~ to U~ the: hardware oonttilQumm:i!:l!n, fUiii!;;t~OlD1 ,... ,if!ls;o !;!ibbrrgyi~aled ~I) ""HWoiCo.OJflg" .,.,. mOl I~cmlfjgtllre ::!!nd ,add~~ the 'OOI1ii$(JMuld.i:n\llj ffilar-dr. wa_re" i'I: ts ~W1,e' '~se tha~ i,lUa,~i:tuh:le moou:lg-;,'j ilIrtl '!Jfrg~d in ii, :luu:idw3~ cama'logWUldi c~n 'br.:' ,~~Gcwd bJ( 'I'll!;: user dc,pefid~mg on the: measlIDriJ!g pnnc:ip]e :re~llffired, for eM41m,pWe:. D, di,lIefC.IU, m£~-.u:~illl~, :prinei;pme or 11, (Hffe:remt rneMudns ~mge Ciln llJe ,assigIDIeD1l wiithirrJ cer1;oifll Iii mill'S; ~o each aJiI'3rnc;g, ehannel t'lfll an B- cI!JOIlUml~li,1 :tnullog iinp!1!l~, ,lnl\du'lc: '(Si;:C ,fig. ,3., W 't!~I, FILln:lllelil~lo,re, IIIDi.tij, UCi,~n 'fo,r,m can b!;l' Il!i.cd 'LO SI::~ tln~; 'typc. 'of dJi'O:!ilIiOilmc:~, moni:~ofil1l,g i r 'thjs ws ~IJIPp:Yncd lli>y the 'moou'lc.hm :S.IMAT.i:'C: S1lPC57" the eO:fThf:i\gu~~tllicXl, ,rumd! mdIjU$~ftllefl[ of 1f,t~.ld ,devwc~s; ru~ carried, OI!U IUl~mg sm.t}(ru::' :PDM,. :~~, ls ;pGlslSilb:lcll\o mdj'l]Jsro: lh~' devilcC',S, 'IlsilllB tll~ ,cc(l!lfj~Jlltm;Liom scm~n rOm!ls (R,Gi- :tI7) im1:!iutl~IGd run Uro, ~ool. '('Ilh~ SITRANS: P; shown.hrufi,g, 3., '18~; ls ,~n ~:m'f:i,lc ·(;f l!hoB w:ioo filiUd1il!C[ rmi~ of S,mMBNS AJu). 1b~ 's,rfI.ANS :p IIJta;ngS~ln~[tG:F of rnll.~ DS ssri~s ,~j]

"g~~J.,IM

SQurcc smJVU~'NS: ,An: S1T.RANS .p

'00 used ~Ol m'!l3S1JI1'!e dlf:lb[~n[, IPmssUlro-s.:,lel''i!ls, 0'1 .I'IOW,s" "T.tle: .os, :se.ne:s lucllu:d~ n s~cl~ru ~ilEf" :5100 :fOil" co;nll1ectmon 1:0 PI;ORBUS, P.l\. wiinli.cb ~s a \\\';mian~ Oit :PROfiLBUS D:P. rS:hwe the '!lCH~[8US,PA. ~.3S a ~(lJwe,r mall!/SmiS510iQl ml!eQJI.dthefil'fbfe 0 SiI;IUlill~er Id.iss~""Iil\gd POWl!il'i .esc: de''!lices t;i'illn be. l!li5Cld in ;]I ha~O'us. :ama.

:r:m drie S"7-:2:00~ Ith'll. s:ea1im;g 'Of I~UW!O,!. ~ml'U,lil \r-al:w:l tIlClI.1J 3~ 'f,~~uell Mid the ualnBl(Wil!;iital mlni:pu'la:l:ed "'1,a.ri,tbleiin STEP 'J,··M~ClrolW[N ls rClurir:d. i;l1u.lJsi;~Ba sweda1 ~m:gf1l rO'I:1llI h:llb.e im;!lh~~1ioo w,i:z.\Uid :PlD (SG~ ,F1.,~'. 3. J'~)

4 Representation g,r Loo:p Centrals

Tbtll r~~eUiHnru@1Jl of OOIl tro I, ,s.~8telm ocoo I,oops ln ,aCeOI',dRIlCC, wj~liJJ :smndotldls IPmsupJXIWS that '~he :Ietrers~ ,gmph.lc S')f-lnools :~n~d terms u500in ~lRe. CioilUrom cngi:n.oorin~: dOCU~flms and the OU~8'OW llli~ v~slWanZ..ruti.m:l syiijt~ms ,gre uaiferm a~md stH'l:W)om.~z.~d. 'l1~ese Iloo dJeil'led in vu:rilo.'U s, DIN direc'I'i,ve·s .. DIN 19,22'., Pa~H~ ~ .. ·5" DU'~' 28004ilJ1lld DIN 19222, spec~ry l!nn :Ihe qU{lted. SUltJldfi'fl()l~ f~m ~pp~i~d :m p:roo'~s's '~mlg~~]i!iig r:lanu~,~r'Ur ~1;U'I1I1pl:~lil] tll);s ,~ta~mm~ml ;ilI1tdUlStry. the miil1t.r;:a~ ,oi~ ~r:uJu~try" 111:1, cU~F'O:OO1i:AS ~s.ecdOOIs of ~1V{er' :pl [nus" il'Ona:nd :steel worJi.s,the buUdi'l1I,. mi fi~Fig;i.lmld: qual1l7iim:g; indu~1 .. y. ililJC[:l~~ ,~nd. cellalose rnhdulI(t)"Ihc fUl'Od and 00',,1- ,erfJ~e.~i n.dl;l~try, g;a~ aJnd 'w~ter e!1g:iAeef:'i!lllh ai'f~O:JT!dilliQni ng. '~i~.

la '!lite :foil:lowhl"g~ a, sinlrllifll~d ex'ampleo:f ap~Mi~, tbr :(Jl~ ,f('J{l,lICli:l)f:I of: di~p..'fi:~Gll, C(iJows ils.t{), 100 u~ed! 11:0 .demOf:l.SittntI:e the vaTioos ~,yp.es of ,st:xndanlimd, RJ}rese;nimt~!lln. :fOr ,itqLncer.i'l1Jgl~m ... e~:s~f'i.

Th~ OO~1~~Ji1~~li:{lllS offID(I",,~cha r lii,'{IIrp:rooG'S:i cIl,Bilinl!cri~l1I.g, :pl.im~:!i:for IlCt~UI~,Q(mj ~llOOf.S;i ~qulp!TIeoot. m~li!·irntoo. rl~tltcUlnl)On~~ts and pi:pi !~~ Me· dcfilil~ iln the [JiIN ~t3:lIdm:d :2cBm04 Pout :~ . 1,h~ 'Ilo,,;'Cbafl~ '~iU1i be ~Cmhl:J£l~llly div~d.cdiJilito' h5ic ~IOW1(;liuru!1. IPfOOCss UO\VG:!m, and '1"1 10\''',O~ru1,

B(I;fic J'owC!jart

1be bat!~c fWQw~bwrt ;!'i~e:.g ,in F:iS;, 4,] uses :rec~iillgh:~ and COilul~~ion Unc!! t,opmvideHfl, a~ .. dl'lu.:i, p're~'lie !I:mli:on of ~tle :rmul:une~:~~ effoc/D8. amtl nm\f,s. 'bc:t,v,-'ee;l1 'Ihe ind:ividmd: phun seeIili:mn.i DUd. ,prtXluctiml SCt-l!u,eillu;e~.

DMlf1g ,ot 1k;l!.lIfd5

p'

[)c~lng of sold's,

1&---.........:· ~,

L...- ----lII IEmJdlIProdUC4;

F1illimg

,PI'rX(lSS Iton~d!(J'lT

Un:' ,~S Ilowthafl (pal'll. or: ~ plOll,'l for 'tl~e ~,1l1{h:rt:tmi)ffiI or: paID Il t!i ls sllmmll in Fi~,g;., 4. 2) :~,)'im.' bo~~:r.0: the ~i~s'swsill1g ,lllrnp:la:ic ehunr.nA,ts, eonrn,bi nsd 'Iif:l,g~~llia~r 'by rui:n!l~<

P'i'j/()11'Ctfttl'tl'

The PI n~Q\\!idlM (A~. 4.,3,) uses g~,~iiC ern~rne"~s u) ~~se'!il;l ~~e 'lecn1l8:le3ll ,eq,liI i:pm~-ml~, ,of.u pliJJni. As in U[U~ poovi:QUS f1owcllo:fits, ~Jim~ ~rll:p:nic 'e:I~m~m~s _: ~cmn~t,tld by~tin~. The' ohb~,., 'v,ialion '''[P,11' smlflds frur ipi:pi,I~G ud imst:ru.memJ~ation .I.1Q'W~'Jn,DJt., The: cO,n,trol :,~s~em .fe,CA': 11 ~bfiW.rn1 in :F.1i!.~.ll!i :ru ~:@W controll wi~~, rogi;sn'u'lion of ~h.e cOrnJtrol h~d '!i':mnlDle a'ium :~~llJ]t :m~ ?s·, !;;~~~'i in [he c,ontrll~ fiOOliil W'h~n ~1iI.e IWP~'I" ~tid ~o~~~er niltl~~s are fJe(1c'bed:, 'I'he' 'cu~lro'l, :t;,ysl1em FQIS*' ,4,:1 ]!:l aml:l1nle: Ol~~eJ wruth :prosel, '(luanJ[it". ,IU.ld th~ cOil1lm'] ,si)'s~~1!Jjl,1'iRCA_4,1, hi ~. ~ll'm ..

1'!Iii1!' .... 'I' .. ' ... '" .... "''''~m'~ O!"·!I~iI,. ""'""' ... ...,;iI;n!l.'l' ...... ~ ,,r"u"111 ''''l'''"'~:!t''jiN· "'W'I-l"'" ",,1'I"""wf"""I"I"m-,'II~ ""S: ' ... "'''' .. ' .... d· S''''''''' ~,(]!.II!l:' 11~'!!'l~M_J~I~ ~~jJll~_"I. J! ·~·I_I~WI, ~~~!~I,y~1 ,iC!' w~IIJIlI!iJ· 1Il~1 ~.:!!~...:~I~\rI! '~._ !ir.'~'I!I[j II;.!!.- ~!I" l C!l, 'c- IJ~!]~II~ '. 1-' ''!JirI~·II'-.,,!Ii!t:f'· ~!lInJl

S'1

82

IN1

Heating Ooollng

FllUIIlQI i'

,end ptiooiiJD'Il

~ ... ,~-~ ~

HIM'I!'!i~OOiC

~--II

_ ~... . ."'~~_IL !I~ -- ... -I!~.

' ..

~'\IDlI",4.3

Sec;lic:rIi !(Jill" H p~ s~herl~a1ic of 11 p~~s; eil1!l~,nefllll'inii1 plant used, ~D 1'['llI[J,IJ~a(tan.: [)llvnt'i

Id~lrullficl1m:iQ(l"I. {'if [be h'ndi;'li.ic!:~orula'l.k!l. Qif'the, ,~S!.~ COrnUJ!)I. !i;(lblli)]Og}' (PCf.) ~s ~Irried !OI.:U by .Ieu~rn de:fiJn~ in on" i 9,:227 P.m I .• nl~Y :3m used :ha! 'Ihe pi.l RdheJm1<1'11I,ics 10 de· fine lhe; ~m-@,;!~ SIJroeIl1llC'U ,P'il'Ua1ll~. w:hJich !;l\IliO 00 ~e.__"«lri:b~d.by. Il!_ta;~ ty~ of inJu~1 W!riBb!.~.i I., prom! ' ~ms. the: loeaItiO\IA, Ilfl.dI :i,!:s :p~th 01'1111011,100.,

Fjg. ·4-.4lmSf:lS: 'lhr-ee elt_''h;~s ,~u:oordi.D,1!J ~o DIN rn 9,222 ~o filllmv 'how ~lh~el~c[rical'i' 'fReasorri"n.g :~md cG)tlnm11~dl:n:[i~o.~:lI'· 'OOg. ~s.)l·mooll, I{i~, "jc~f:iY ti~mWgd E_M,SR·'I:~g ~y;m,kib;) am ~pmsem~d: such aJ ~1!11Jjb():1 i~h:l~n(Wli~d ln ~llile top pan b!( ~~.e tag ~~~_ters itndi ~n 'IIn;e ootwm :p~rt by the ta,:g d~'iG:nilmfficnll (nUlmlOOr' 0(1" ~ombilaullJtijol'l of 1111:nMi:b~l1s11~ll~~S.) •.

Cl!1t.'I',;\',iJi",(uirJ'Ii 1~·1.'tt,'.r5

The clas!l!ru:ITuC:<JILiOIl leners :~r-e d:ei1i:rn;cd aceurtl'ing 1,0' .rUN I !l2,:n', PaJill. ~~. 'Tablll 3~ ,Wild :WlI. ~t['ac~ ill, sh~wn ~n Fir'!! 4,6 nel.! iCft'e~Ile: m~'" measured \j'..--'1:Jiif.l c I,·,-·-·-j· 'w-5-rb-I'-'j - -d- ··ts:· .-- '.--

_,,, "" . ,_ ._. -ill.· '-"- .--J --- .. --- _u~ ·!·!L !,'~· .iJfi!i_I!i;I e ~n' .. p!.Wt _~nl:!! ,Ii.: .un .l., prooC!S5U11,

rn.1d: ._: ,~UVi.d:0d in~G.'.I' i a_i;[i.~ru ·1ii:I.I~ri' Bup.plemill!'ail;ary :ICIII~I" 31td !ulI!cees;si:v!!l: liUle:r-. :F1,.g. 4.5;., I~n! ideilll~:i lies a di:ffel:\enmill~1 p!leS'~l!re !cIJ.1l1ml'ler :!1~~m:di n,g lin D:IN ~1922',; Pari: I:. The ,rnce'l/;~. VOoll.~ !.D~S of tlWe (n~gre ".tL~~ pres"1iureoof.l1troller ~r-e V~5.UMlilli ~ed i'l~ ~_'e COfl~m~ room.A~.4.5. 'right,

,68

r .. ·'- .............................. -4 I .

Filuft4.4

11''''''''' "~3""n!\~'· t""'I11_",,'!"_ '._", ...... ~'I .... j,'Ii . AI ..... ,,, ·-,,,, .. tl'\n;lll_. ("~l'Iii"r\; '''''''dl g;~'!i.I'!if';";ill!ljI!I~·~~ "'~~!I\I~~~'~ ,_~~ .~Il_~! .~ ~~1lJl\1! ~~'Y"?!I!!' ~'I;l!!.I!,"I!I::'. _jL'!i~ I, ,''Si"'Ii'1...._~_llr I~I!.:.'_'

·C:l:s.cOO~C()MIW~ 'fitlli" 'I:cmpetaiure and flo,"" (rni!~n)

I -' .... -t •. n· . "' .. ~ ...... ~~, .·····-:r:'i'·'~ ·D·!ifi,.N' -]01\""1' 'n'n-' ~ '·'II-··.--·- ...... ~··· ...... d. -J-.-i-C,[-·-:I rep[lCS'C[Mii H, OW' C(lnlli.l.!.i!J~al' aCC(~b'lI.Inrlg liD U"', ::f ... _./" .ira ' . ~ I' WnOse li~~U't"'" ' W OC \iliCUiI ,

'W.h:u:~), is sli~jee[ to lower :limiil, ~looi'l!OJ.i.f;I,g" whleb eau Si!:II~d. f~UJU :m.e~~~!,amd W:11@,s! Juro .. eess '\\'ulues ,i.ln~ mcon:1!cd"

[i I,s e'vld;ellt ttud l.llC siJPl,leelnent.::u.y and ~l!lCerulS~"'!; Ilett(!,1"S lll!,i~ IJI11'I!II,uulmy ,~c'I,m::Iililg: ~Inll ;~~ ta,ll>l~ '--C~iI}lS'inCiU~G:n, IDet~e-rn, far e!lcc[ricH.l. meHsmi'n,;S nnd, cOl!llim'l i:~(!:I:mQll!};g)r :i'l1Fig, 4.6. In ~h: e'l:as!'iific~tion uiedl above: :for dl.e !9ow cJOliltro~~e~. (Iu~ I:e:t~e:r ··.R·~ hi, :i"n d~e. ~ooor1d ]Xlsii~-iO\n. HrOW{:,Wf, ~liIcre ~s ao rc!Olfy 'for!I'R,'" :i~ [he 'coiliIJ Inn fOIl' ~~ ~l1Pf.1]emeilll1MY le1JtCr" U :mU!il~, therefme be 3 SI1L'Oce-s;s~ve, loem:1T 'W~th ilJl»!:~:mi;IiiI"C '!rernrdli Iii__!'~',.

- - - -- - -- - --- ---- - - - -- - - - - -- -_.- - - --~ -- _. g, - - -- - ,!,

.A~I fnrther ~ell.l,e.ni; ~ dU,Hl! il,1(l1~lma~ca~l;y ~lltc'~:S;!!I:ive' h~~JIi~rs,;, hill the case ofl i Ini,1 m(}li1;i~cuilng fM-I~~~on!l. the ''''+'' and ,j.,~~' s"'~n.bol~'ii C;M :~~~ be !l~d :for tbe ~1-)fitOor and Imve;:rl.bnib,.I.eJFer ~fi

rI I J ,Ii""'!'

II:he ,t::crn:trclll s,Ysmem FRCA= 11 in FilS:. 4.3.

(PDI,e,\

.- -.I j,. P", -----....._.....,_,"'IIi

, . " ·t.....·~ulrvelleMii'C:

I ,~aUC~1

,.,.,.......... SIJ~gl'v& l_r'll:

CliIs,pia)!

L

'~.

!n~!1 !€I~(U' IP~:

PI!'MSl!! fe'

s~~ l!!Mlei' k IFgiiJq~g ..

'I~ ".ucoo ·. 9 .. Sih.ilo.· :- '.kI. :1kJ1'. ' .. e:::

10 Autcma1~ ·00fi~

II

'1-_ ' SL!~emtMllD!iy'!81k:f A: r, 001. 'Pfesent ,. '!II

'llis IS ~kln:t a :$tK1C~:s$bi'OI I ol.i8 f' Sll.l~ 1et1er"R~ R'eOOJdingl

PlIU"' 41.S:

Two e1.:'ttlHlplecl!, of :lin. e~~Cltb;:~I.lneasu_d_~l.G, undo ml:'l,troll~«:'~"QI()SY Iliilg! pIt(!~re ,oo1l:trol*t:l(I~~ft)and

i!1ow '~Dln'ilk'r' (~s:PO

G~t:

tt.kion\l!t1Io(l 'Y8!!iQ~, QJ~tQ!'

I~'~ ~mrto~, ·~~i .

GI'OU,P :2:' ~;I

S~, ~Ier(~} '!I!

I II ~,

I~~

I Mo,·,.. !cdilll !i!«!,' !'JoCI~.' qlJ;1Q~ 'II\ol!tat!I9,,~ii ,'!iJ;

I~

I

~

,

,

4.J CORtooUed in lite COI1,fig,uIfIUoH CUI

4.3,.1 Sflflwa:re CnQ~roli; in S,TL 'I'~~RiIlp!reS:enmlE0n

Fig. 4. 7!!1liaOWSi >Ul ;!!.C~UOIl! iIJ.f rnlll;:: [MJ'gl!l1l'l1ll mlng pre8(!lJI~llrn tl:n~ oon::~ Pit{i:k:lIg,~ ''''Moditllli~ IPJD 0::1,11'11'0,1"'. Uu: pm,g;ralJl.lIllIIWlg of '[11m,,> exalDp~e was CUl"j,ed. ,OO~, usl q Ule ~afWaro l,i1l,gnHtl,-, :ming, cd:irur 'of STEP? n'll tile: Sll(tit~~~rnit :list ~Pf:~~ntu~jo:n {SJ«L:), t~e :n:gbt·]IDmuJ. pal1, ,of Ithc' S,TL ooi'~OI," co:n1l1lll~S. Olf.l '~]OiI1l£~Usrnuad~1.m.ct~@ll~ ,of I'be: Ubrilries" fallowing '1Jl1R:h~5e and eer:~~ i,[J[:l'l~rut~t:iiO:fi of Iile s~ft~, pruik3g~ ~"Mod~L~ 'PIO CQ~~tml'!! ~ the ~Lstoo bliOC'ks calrl 00: ir18,~1l~I'ed and ea:l~edl ~iliIer-e im ~'I~ mochJJar Il~r oOJil~]sU'Ucnue in ~e:<t "iOrm. Val~Qs are provi,dcd .for ~le ~ll1101jO!lI$, (c\g. rID ~Oill'lro:[Ie<i:) usine: ttie :p31~l!mel'Cr 'b:~ (l~ 'I lie ~loc.ks, ·Of rnwnbd il'l~@ o1h~n' 'ifund 10m, 111Ilshl!!; tmn&r~r.' pamlne~ii1Illl. "[hJ~, li:n,klll,S jsc.arrnoo 'Gut iliIs~mg e~the:r :g:tohaJ re$Q(ilooe~ ~e:'!SI' bil[ ~nelOOric~ alu~ooui 'hl:m.:k, ,clemem~.s) tile loeul wrj~'brues (stm:k "il1,;niab:le~.)",

~I ..- _. --=-=---------=---=- ----=- =--

fl!<I.'L -. r -I r ,-

lftJl' ,-O,l.tJl'CTij.":". ~

tn' .-;;~ .tt~_r.

C!'- ~ ,-1'.1i'IJ .

wm I 'Il'n: LI:

43.2 Moouhll[' C-Oli11tml's, ~Iit CFC Re.~nIUUOQ

fiil'" 4,.8 "':l~ow.s am e;x.tmt:t 'Il~ lill\: oO:J)~ro:] p[~d~na "'M'gduI1u ,P~D C@~~m,l" iml rhe grd!ph~c. 1ICp~f!!m~ltiol~ of 11]1!ilICPC. VCirnh:lI1 ~~il1l~lHm:io:"", ,s:ds!: for lh~ ruJ. s of Modular :P'IiD' oCnnlmll i n 'l1u~ CFC' Ire;p.re:._~rnll;3tffioilll, (C:'~l' M!Mh:dIl'l'PlDI Comtllio:1 ,c.''lJ1l1101,R used wH'hr eFt: VGr:sio~,4.:;(:x,~, In mtmdwl.iiofrJ to IIlli1C cilcarcf Ilmdi I!tInfC ~echnc~ltD'By,·b~seti c!li" phruy pnssi,bij~i,U~, fin' ~wm,lc cl,ose,d!·, loop 'WJlIJLmls, ~rp ~(I, oomp]IJ'x oor:um!! stl'llm~mws" :~pn:~nto~io;~, ,o.f tbe; c@Il'6i~l.unma(nin 'CfC IPJ(1vid.~s :fulTtb~f' ad~I:aGP~ 'In, thilis srnphb.~ ~'~5~jl'li!1ti'CJn~ ~~ ~I~[od c~mru '1'~iI!el, and ll~1';l in~p~":mu'cl1lt~d.,"D.n ~~llJll!lll~C of lilt!! rund:i¥il(h:nd '~l'!Ift.w9.m bl,octs ,C!,!L1!i 'be' ~oll,gm!i~d. ·rII 'C;!lCI~ b1.di: .. V~dUIllI, ft!!fl'clku'l cool.! mld cllm be mooMled~epfln!.tel,'y f~r' ~;u.:h Ibl~~ '(Inllre 'l'h~'!ml,a ~a~~rj!J], Sr::e., lion, ,8) . .A ·oonu-n"l. S:lmcluR wlth elHlmG'n'U'S hUl,m:lle'l'C,n:[ ~b;m:nnlill,gi!cl.ll cllill t~m~s CmlJ mGmfnm ~b - ,~. r; ',~:[ . _ ," . _ ,A:!S ~I, '" 'W'i:!" 1l-V; ~r"'1 -1:)',1\ 'w' ·1~Ql.r '~'!..t'.l' _'f.C-.:liiI! fftl-W - ~,~'C""[J'!;: ,e:, [ive-',clI~~:re ' .' . c: Ill! -f?'U- ,In !JJ:nICi w" p ,gy~ lIu.! :l!i~ ,CAU IP~~CS! .... W!.l!Ii! __ [ [u _ :li~grn ,_.II WI!!'O "... ~liJ_.n _Jli[!~ _ '._ r __ U!_~_ flII,

pimlfO:m s~~l:ion.s, m~ :t~ 'Iln:: ease wj~, the :STlliil.::prese'n;l;~tb:m" Th'e CFC rrepn:se;nJu:UrucJ!I ,of Illl~ oolltm~ ~tructure ~s mere~'ore :for eleuel .

.A :rurt:b~[fi!iWlPQrliitU, ;lJid.v,rnUiliSc 9fh C:FC 'oop~e!1l1:liii[lDti :15 Illite iil:a41liDma~;ic d!QCLWme:ntlJlti:tln or such ,S~,hic ,[,:ooJls 'pmv~d!:gd .>e, Ib._i~ .id:~3 of ![In;~ SJrnp:bij!!l im~e:ooDf:I!ltcrion is ,p1S(D, C'o:ns;i:SteJl:I'Iy i IIIIpbl~mlJ.U][,ed., ib~s ~lmflS mat mh.e u;s~ ,of ~Ioba] '[-eSQlOimeS :1.8 omitl:edwbem IlltOeml1lD),S ~e nrullt17.alm" :~:e~en; W:hich ,~ :nat :~illlwmd or Inot used CUrIll ~I:s:o 00 sunnre.~~ hI. ,ere's.

II~ ,= .''!Jr..~ Ilrl,~

iiar .

J~,uft4 .. S

Cl~laffi~i'!liPTe~nu!!'1itUII i.'li ill, Il~U;J1!l i~IlI.'!.t01 :h::IOP' I!Jsi'ili,G :!UMATI:C ere wi:~h :~liInction:!l, 'om ~h!: ~\tooulw: 1'[[11 CO:mllrol,

If.k .~i.U ~ ~I v~ ~ Wtrtd~ I~

- -

BJ]]1II181 * .J.I!ill ~

~ Sr~

s~~ __ ......... .........j('" G(! .... Cibl,&ll

UCr-1i

~,*"rW ~r.1 VI!i:\abIII!

~ .~ y.,..

110

PmN n~ f'UJe

12

41..3 'lII' h--m- .,!"';"",,j;!o:n: of' liI"".,.-- - 0'" 'L i -:-;- ('" - - .,_..'I ..

____ ..:J __ ~.'_lIjL_el·y;;g:!!!I ~mp_u. ~p ~Dl1Iiu~

81M A;:fJ:C ,Pro'l,rilde..s, cQnti .. !Jt.u::at~g~ 'lOOl~ f-o:r :rei!dJ'··~:~YS~: oontro~s (e,g. '''S:ta~dJ~ pm' CCR'" ~~!~ 0'.r·!~FM .. 3SS·') w:i,rbwl1~c:lru ~.~sm.(!l~wre :s,wHdlCi!i ,e. bec,dillsplia,yedl.olilllhe;'ModowsdC'Sk." ~O:P ~nd, USlBd ~n flilru~"'aropbwc mede f'Or. ~~.~:iW1SS,. Th~ 'Mluml,li~ri~ sel. by '5~1'~~r.W1;g ~I!w FU~ ,,)I.ml~' 001,. A dJi.affio.:s: 'wuindow ls 'Ul,an. opened witlru wlhiieh Inne aUNspondi;I1S, 'Fun.ctiol Ibl.tH;i»:, C3:~ be iE!iO~s:s~riI iltl1lld ·~i:sui31l'i.~d:. Ope:m'Lur O~t!lS8 alld ~bif;i'; visual i:Z;i.I~~~(Uli 11J.f SUc1JJ1 0: 'CIJ:lifiI![Jm::t 'I::O:mllroll~If' is ,iI,lw~)f!!,ih~~wH;~od w~lhami inslmicc uat3J rDllocll:. ([)JI'l, wW!J;ich is SC;J!I!i;il~d :~l th~ lK,ifilIn ilThg o~ ,iI d~alog 'wi,tb Un~: ·b'l1lir~sp!.l:lJl~ijng. !~u"'tmll~r. rllfi:~.!;t9'~ Uui,~, rus 11!h,i{!l D·B,:I ~ll:, m; slmWl11 ~n tb~ UUe Ilble'.

4.3.4· Ccrrtflgur:atlon. or :P~D ConLro'Uers :m the 51 -lOi

Up to ,e~g~l[ :PrD oolum~~:en 'COJIi1J be u~d in ruIu! S7-:l(J!O. '~rh~d~ iJmie deflm:dl ~J1Ium IJl1tmme~el';iZled 1I.lS~S; m~ STEP'1',·:,Miit'm'W]N crllldismUon so:f1w9!m ,Q1I!IIdJ the wi'zud '[~'Jnsmructi~lLl wi!Drd: .P~DJO')!, amd:afton0:tual'D!caJlly C'n;l~rodi m ~hc user program :iWilI dille Fo:rnn 'Dlf SllHbIiilUUmrill"'B: !(R;g; •. ,4 •. 10).

rn:aD, [bis ,to'mfi.gll_17d.hO(n, dC--8klOP, ~~ ~~d!!r pt'U_r.)mfH~tS, gGI1Il];rilllGd 'd~:i~g the wimtd~, h li.n~ed '10 WLWfIllter ~un~1:iDm b~ock'C, (c.l, 'letpoinl n!!mp~ :3u~cmalti!c.iIDlmlnI31 mooe~! c'3~i:ulali:t'ln. olf" If:l~g,~al m;J!n:iful~U.ull ~n':I~. cOO,)!.

----

F ''1'' ~ ...... ...,.".. nr .11'"'1."''11"

- ---

~.-'l:" ..

I'

"'J -...:

I ~.

:F~Q1U!fie4~:U)

C'mlll1l1fl!JmlioDilfoll11 :[fllll.I~.e sr:EP 'j!.M:I~foJ\VU!il' :pro,gw:'MIiI r~r B :P~D' OIlIllIN~ler iiiol S,7·,:t~ ,(in (h~i!i 'C:t:li~Il'~~1 wi~houtlillul1flu:llllfou~~lii~ m~:)

,4]..3,5 Co:nOg~l!',a;~i-on! of' P,I: 1('lonl:mIIJers llnl UJ,C' LOGQi~L.I,e ,Module

PI ,~I);fnroller. .. C'~Ul 00 ~llstiiUl!d in [he Ii!OOO~: logi~ mml:tI,le" 'On tll1.c eme tmlld, ~~l:i~ ean be 'C'3!rri'ed ,om ~ro:lilTh me fmnl; (.n!t~:I3iy! or - rot:omm~nded ~ U~i'ilg ~be LOGO! s>o:i1: C'gni$grl oonfi:g., utrmm:ioli]l :lioftwm:;l!: (~~c~ Fi!,. 4.'~ ~ )

!Ill

~~--------------------------mm

ri1''''--bD

h' (II

, I~

fiG., 4. ~ 2: :s:how!i ~lliuc ~;I~mdard lilt er i 1D'lerfa,of: 000" ~i splrn.y > or (I ~i:mprue' PIDpfOO,ts~ COilll~roU~,1!" tOW STE'1 (' 'S'j!;!nthadPlD C{l\li1~,y,l"]I.

Fi"g.- 4,.13 -8!~,ows, '~:t1ie stm:uJnrtli user rnnte'lf:ace ,ora, :s~mupile flO p~~ eontreller in ,l'C!:i~'. 11leSie' de~ailed d1i~phlYS ,~f i n'CJi:\ddIHI~ f'unC'rj,ons 1!11, PC!;'" are ~fr:.rwed 10' as :r~cep~ji1~-e's. Tha :[3cephl~e: IDW ~he !,;1O~\!j!.tlre oontrol!I,~r CTRl_IPU) 11:;)1~, 'wrioli.!'::! 'repfie!lcnta'lio.nll, I(e.g. sl;1:rrtdMrl" !il11J:iIDU'lcnauQi:.:. !p[imme'~ern. ~~ilmd, n~e&:liiI8Jes. etc.).

~1'~. 4,.13, :sho~l~ the co:mp~cte -view oif 'Ih~flll.c~:phl~~ CI'RL_P'] D (LOCJ1~)., Th~ si~ di s,pl{!)! I~ Ie" m~i1]11;S, lu Lh~ wlJrli:mng, M"e:a OO!nn-;'[~.f;Ili.':e :!)ill 'l~n:eI!Op Idt 'wiiLh ni!~ :s'1J.]ndu.nl [ierpmsc:n,1L11ll!@r:i. i n 'wh~c;h lhe' se'!:poi nt" aCIL\I:a!, \~;J~~Y~ ,[!!nd rn~ud~'UI'I~I:ed 'v::..tiia:blie are dwspl,a,yedl in dec~mlli. for.W!I'j and Ule

. .

!'icl,p~J~n~ ~u:u_~ a.cl,illla~ value IUS baq;mphs in ildd:i,l:iOI'll. Tilt': ussr can de-lilDU,! the '~ype o:f ~tpc'ilrH

ffinp11l111(iruennd/e_:\literm:aj1 :tIIndramp' 'fiu:mlclian) :E1lI. ~.ffi1i1; Ilop C!l:IUer. A'II f1le1is.~~e. (:f:~U:~UI., limit vla~In~iuon~. ~&JC meSS;3~CiS cC ~C.) asseel a~Ld with rhbi COif;i~~l]:1 ~oo, ~n:p~~e!1~ :i,!~ tlie '!,op Ilf.l:fL '~rn1 ~ffin~ ,ce~l:e,:~ foornl()n ~o right, ij$, the: !:isli ofcolnrol. ~mlneters GAIN, 'TN., 'TV. TM"';LA~(l. '[~,YST; :1):8A DB e:~c.,),iollo\\ied ~by 'Dh~ :p~iml~lerets, for' 31,!lRll and wlI,mi[J;lg Unmi~ mQlIIi~oMIf!~ of the:

Rctlllal, ,nllue as, w:e~,~ as ~~c 'IAPPCID' ,1l1l1dlow~r 1~IJrlit!i of Ih~ siMpoi:n'l mld IIUUlliflUI ~ued!~aria'le" DJD!d em dM~ f~f' lej:lm: biL~r;: l\r~f:id dfusphl~ i,nc]udi-i),G 'l1~~, 'po~s!irbiH~:y :For II!!~.'I. tl:i~~~l)y oW ~ is[l:uriiClitl

, -

~~ 11'1, -: :I'_~~_~~,.~ol~~r~"b~~ • :I ... .'~'!!I'

fo'l'pn: -tl.l:l

CH.n: 'or I~ :5:I!I,"d~d, !P1D' C~ftilrol illlle,&llll'l!d:r st3!millmll wn ~,TI3IP7 n'oo\~' ,di!l1pl~}

y.lliuJes. 'The ~~mli,I~~\\find(w"f ,am 'I!h~ bDuD~: :ri,;ln in, :Fi'G., ,4,,1.3 is :~rve.d ,[btl" batt'~~, mooe lit~Wffi'i[g the B~t:Llo'ih F.1uible ii.!p~:iUin p!ll!t:!k3g~ :mind is niJru 'IlIIscd i 11, ~hi!i !:X:~111,p~tl'.

It ~",~:md~ ~:lt_~!ll!;s or mle ;f~sign of lU~o;;el!' ~fu~rf3~~!! Ir.or oontl\Orn~:~",. DIN I, gQJ,~; d~~!D~ 'l.11:~: :DP~9EOOec 'QfmC$s;a,S~ and opcro1~ingsta!~~ • an~ VD'ElVIJ~ J'OOg fiIl:,~u'13;i:c'! r''lJ_,q,rtJtla. thi! (c,'laD'S iJf':u ;cciUl~ro,1'le!r moop Id~s;pl,~,)l I,n I~',e iUBcSc,j' i,ll~t:d~ci!:.

41.ft'l O~ef,dUOII O'r COiIl1fO'~ 'F)fs

The :FcM ,]S50md: FM ",,55 ~lwm;!Hnrll :llI1.M~~CS {see F~,~" 4. rn ~'ll ba;IOIllJ,g, 'Iltl 'lI:I1~ hHRlW:ta:~ com~ro:l .. :I~'rst t:liltd do 11110'1: :h,~w 'I'hl'!irr !OWl) l,Is:er i[IJl\ed~e. 1l!~)' c. ~ ,a~~\!led '~~;,ing :$lIlUdlw;d 'Dpeim;UOIJ or :UlI:::iJsiiociia£eoi 'CPllJ. usinG dt~, Op~r1li11Jil j,Ultcmmoe (~,g. WinOC,peS1 0$,) 'Ot ~[so .[ji['lCctJy USi:flJ,t M op~mmoJt Jluud COP) [mm the fi'Cl~d (loc!Jil optl'!II" ti.a)Il) or 'by :meDJI:S o~' ,apllO£raIllllI1lmg de¥h:~ ~mw~ ~ven~, >Glf s.ervilCi:Q~', A p-ml:lmRl_rm!illlg d~vio~, U'(]) will} S,TEP7 ~i!i :[I sed :IS a W1:nOO'w,5.~,l'ic,mfuml1, 'fbr' pl'lOg~9nmlingl' opem~joR a:o .. flIi monilorifl~:, lit!!, weU i3S '01: diiagn;os,tic:s, ~~ S] MJli.Tme 57' COIftr1pomr:-nltS"

Tl1Lese nLI:sef ,i.rnerl:ooes, ,~~Ilw.~ trun :imdividJI!uJ:ID d'c.siip d~,peIllCH"8 on thGpw:ti,curupf displ ~,y Yni~" ~md. !1m OOllfl~lied te tlIe eenIlOU'CMl '!li:~ the MP'lfPll}f;I:UUS ,i[[l;I)lrf~. '''filiIi:!! pwm:icliI~ I urr~,y ;:I~'plies tQ the U~e--'b~d '~~'IU diSP:I~!r's; (i1)"~FJd ~he on runl. Of'l '1 o:pe~a_taf ffil~ncls. 'Ne' st3:audw:ds fer .g,l1mB.m-

-I':'''n- ""f' u """f ' ... ,1"".-"",,,,,,,,, .. "' ... , 11,,,,,,,,,,,, ... Ir"" -r' ;;11.""", '" 'In ~(!'7' "1'11- -11.1 .}II!Y· U;_ .' ~_. AlJ.I~~rWirfI.1I.I~, 'iI.Il!l~' tJ'Ii~~!II;,I',.,,~-4! ~y_, 1~1II1~~~1i _!I·I lJ'"·~~1 i ~l J':J

thG' FM 3:5:,5 aad :FM .]SS .. 2, m ~uPfO:!1£d Iillsi'~g ecrrel.. s\polrudiIO:g brnocks, nnd:ruc!!]plates.

.tlgUt~ 4~~4,

P_!J~til.; FM 455 (I ~fl) IMl-d fM ]S5 (wighi I

4.5.2, Operation. 0:[ 'LOGOll...olje ,MoclilJlc

'Th~ diefimtwoJil mldi O]XlOOUUr ,3CW~ 'il~ se~ll'Olrnll.S: ,8!n~ ~r.wnc~~J;S or the P,[ ~@llmlm:l~r ,of ilIt~. LOO:O'I' ~:@,~ic nl,ooul~!!' een be: cmiei~ 'DU~: Ul\ii!~g: th~ :fiillllU Id~spl:a~' ~IIlrW its, !ooyml. (~e_e .F.ig. ,4.15), :PFi t'\on~o~rull!rn a;oo OII1;ly 3v,amlrn:1b:le M, an 3ddi~icI'I1~11 f"Ylaclion i:al: LOaO! ~rn~o!l!I, OB,AS, arid ili~heli'.,

'TbelOGO'! :Iogic' m;u}ti;aml~ {:~.[]n be cO[I'J~ui~ctgd. ~Q til£; ,Bm, bus S'y!il'b~ln VIDa ,::JiD HlB1KN;:<. com .. mru mi!0111:iqrus, mooull~. SCiI;po:irus fo]'e'xtem~l: iWQrg ~:em~Q1'!!U'e oo!llmrul~~ or WlSl1HI!18 oontmW !ihadi:m(1:J s,ysilem~~am tlt~1lJ b~: d~'.~H~d. Th~lo.!:!l~l:mm1lJ]elbeW1, becom't':s till! open~O:T terDnli.D1~l.

FlGlj_oo 4.,15

U~!l:D" iiilllerJli_~iii (]:Ii I~Dl'l.'l' LOO'C"! :Ip~ie mCl!.h.:ile

4.5.03, O:penlWn, 'of ~Ur/UtT· C'ontrollun

Tht:· S:ITIPARl' cQ\I1!l:I'Ullet:S h~w ,(Joe[I!I:HIililild n1L~ SlEMJ5.N's. IClos!!:d-iloop <cQin:lml 'OOC!h.IlIiCltD'g~ in me~ pmol$S engineeri:11Ig S1ec~o,r For mMl,Y YCM'S. W:itBJ, [litfl'i:rnll,rod)ll'ctmo\l1llof tIlIe PROFIBUS ,and fROFlBUS;·])r liel)~lnws u:ce'hncllll!y" thBSI!' ,de'~lC!dS tlilld '(I'll!: SIMATlI'C :mn,S;= liI~w lm,o'l/ed 'wJ)' c:,lo~e ~o&~tlJe;l". n,e~UPA.RT fierull d1'N:ices ~re .3l1!1. :im:pormnt C'Olm,:poD~rn1~. i~1 ~~te :peS? ~: ·c'cnlllJxlll ~s:lI'stem:, mdi,Dm pm: of '[I~e: PCS;' sllsndl!!rd I ibra:ry"Rcld dew,iCGS·' •. f.ig. ·4,,16 :st:UVilJs. the ~~i' iliu~!I4I'l~e!i; of :aSWART' 011t:1. ru Ifoit 'whh:~ ~ ,cQrm~ndi·m,I. OS 'faapruumc 31 .1;]1 ,~ii!;l.S i;n :l?'Cf.r;,

Fti,uR 4 .. 1', U:&.er,ilrlt~ii!lfDtte of ~he' S:[P:I\R1' ,DR2l

5 Opera'tinK ,Modes

As ;Elil reDdy 111cnli,oned. 'lhe "II'ari,@us ooml,iQrn~ers are :rliOl ofJIly idlelUll~ed, br;y pUR: compmmng ru~Cii 'inn ,a!iS'o by their c:ontl1n~ mec:iThaJiliSnls,. The most h:rn:pm1nnt ,cCJlIl,Unl :fhc:i.l,ily of <'1!! cO']1:[mlJeri:s il~, mooe ;selector. The 'MaflUaIJautc:m.arlic mooe :!lcllet~or is, the: m~t 'weU·klllowlill run pritctiQIl:'. ]f tliJe oomm:foUe:1" WS I~ m[]m;ud ~~e" ~llile clesed ,~nn,trol loepis (I~c:R'Cd'O {l.nd the irwHmrupu]!1!iood. v,ari'abl~, se:l:manuall,y. :[~ 'I'he 1~('lIflltrolleris ~n ~ij.tomildc' ~00e" ~he OGillIool Woo, is ,closed, ~I]d 1111.1 mm:ni,pu]u'l:ed 'wna'bl,ilil i~ ,3U~Om:tlJli;c:lJly ,C.:JImCIU 1:l]ililUI by ~]J,('.lil~,~ontbIl11 and (Jm~·Hln. P;rool,His ,control,leff. ~dSlO' dli,fJereml,~,ilIDlie fiJ.nther 'fJp!rari.n,g .mooes I(see Fi,g. S" I. )., 'ne suoonl:in~~e IUOOi!:S, of :mifllnual opillm1"iolDl d~sil::tribe the: manner hID wlil;ich the m3l1l1;ipul.3~ed Vlll1able is maIUD!id~)" run:nuenced ... ' 01"1'0 lbe, I1.ltnre exm'ct. ~,O"!A1 UlLe aellJl3tlJIJ' ~;s. ('CUllN.lUed. Tile !'.:ubord:iil!il(,e 1T.l(l(]~S of al!l'ltlm~~:ic Opt:!7iltW(bW'! d~~'icribe the t~ o:f ~~tpo~Wi~ input,

,lm~le~: ' ill :Jil,ll of 'I he 0"1"311 Ilig I11tOa:le:s: ~.e, ri bed be'IO\v alrt hn[J'hHlIn r:ntedi 1'111 thv

SUA 'TIC c0niro~jpK'dI!t(;~ • •

En pru!i icu1ilf. ~he PID( [)j I!:muml1~rs, bY Ihtl s IMJ--~:IIU:: S7-'200 In! nt I?lCs. and .l'()GO~ 'ha,\~!i:- nlimiood '[tinge ef OPC:mJ~il,e,ilfi'ibd'Q~ ...

S(lI(jtJ1l,,~'OdfJ

.s;~if~[~~ made is it nlfflHI3JI 'I~m,oo~" 3111,(1 !l:\\~,i~GJrues ~ll1e l!.:ollll:rol,llfir' Q'l.H:PIlliI ~o 3. 'PHm'me~~riZ2lbm~ g~fely !i~~I]:illJ!l!h!t~d "I';~!'I.!lb:11!: ~f ~ S!lr~~~'''iIl'l::;leY~!1l 'eil1e:n:l '~"'CYrni.

F~iliJ'W"'\Up

Fol,low-!m:pis ;n 'm,21nual, lau:m<!:e. ;tl1litJ swlite'h;es the cOllJitroUer 01!l'lput ~:o a n13;rUJ;a!I :mDd!lilP~I.u~ed \',rn;i ab'le ",I~ leh C.ITin be mooii l1ed by 'l:bf: IfJ.I!U!:D'. In rn~~,e 'GiililSe o:r SJ(lfI,~lljM"1I"!e cont(-.o~~;f::n. as u:\l.'ed ,in, the

irn""",,"',' f:~l"lllow-ulf1l '·A'<;~'IU. ·~';I.' "~U~I':I'III-I "'f" ' ... 1; "'I"~ln."I'''il':>'<!' "II'i""n· ",1~1iI ... "CI .... i!:II" ... ~1 ~U' '1'1,,::; "''"'I""'I'm' 11Ii'I"'""'[!:""'ll" !f."'~~ ~ '!Ii __ ~. "_ ',' _ __~!' !I,!!!!.!I~if!.!i!_'_!i."! !M!!V!!r." ~ __ I~t".~ l v H IIHIHI<IdI lIHIIJ~l!i!. Y J!ir,lU, .. iIII I JnUI~1I!ir.' Yl'!irl'~JII'Il"...,U1IUJ.' U!lf!i.' '!ir.'W! lUll ~""I Vol!!Ia , III.

Ml!l.'Ui'tl.l. (fIiIl~~1 OS ,fJj1'ell'ilUitmJ'

Milln~~~ (!From OS o:per3t~on) is a mEllfmaJ mode:, itll'~ slli!it~hes ~,e(ionLT-QI.ler,"~:nUp1JJ.t I~;o a ~ue de:fifiLi!d b:lf' the i!lI,!t;ti!1', wlrnich in iIllim cam be: defined b, a: vaJii!l1L'J: set usi,n~, bl iil'!,pijlJi'l!ijlll1iU~: \r,aillUC: of ,:II vlJ;:IIJaU:i!lUion syslieml (f:aoepl:m:le ,.

BlGi.1l,iJlg

,B,I:oc:ki r~g lsa 11110m11JHlIl, l'D1Lon]e; fur ~l:ll!rdWoa~ CO'l1.l;rCI!I h;:rs, and. ,ami, ,a',Hom~H~: mode rQir~o.r~""~re c@mJi{l~me:ll"S. m1d~rooz.etii, llil;~ cl.:.u:mnt :1'JlUlifl~pU]:liil:ed Wlrialbl(li~ Wi.'ii li1:l8.rn,i p IJllru oro cd V8rii8'1~ :is Ibl,i)ct(.-d.

Operating mo(fes (softw,are) »: '.

"

~

IFlgu~ :$,."

SI!JIIiTI'Fnar~' '®(I :process oummn:e;rr I1IINXiLte'"" 'Le~~: schemeef Innrdiwaru 'OI:m~ronel':t'> IIScln£: 1Ll'x.mllipl'e of ~npARl' ~nU:(jIU~r" right: ~hiCOll;]: ,o,r :soFt,ware .oo!l!m[~' usin,g c;uullple 0[' C"L'RtjP,lD 'L';Jif PCS'1

sec

S;PCJ is 0lIi1l :~mt1lmutic mode (~elpoi,l1it c@ntro~) of ~ t"Oi'lI:ml, :mlcmlde (~r CI(D:ifim~IIJ~ ii\fif~,'iNl1~'. rnJrivin,g ls ei:li1ef' 110 ~ p;re"ii'~01.Hiruy delIDned am:! Fixed !lel,,Poiint al" ~(}il, Se.I.fJO~[U df',~ned lOy :iilJ :h,o~t 'OOIJlJPtl~~'lfi' er hO[i~ lonn~lil)] pft!!lgf~~n"

l)DC

~)OC b;, m~ allli[lmu:tJc mode (.m1:ill,'CCI~, diSinlll, ol}ntli1o~) 01:" a CJO 11 tro I: nlodlde. The, ~n;ilni,publ'~ed \I',miab]~ is ditlilled bj' a I!Ul'Sl. o@mp'uu:er or ,3, hma oon[OOll ~rogram. aM I(~;e amgilritllm pre" C1U in au.loln~Jn!i~ Im)de "~I]tm;bers;'" in slnndby mode: i 111 the Ibm;l:.gmlWn;i1!! (~t m~Sl:eOS i A~, The ,KUllal", \~.al1luc :tWql1msitiOf)! is :~lt~~rn :ilt':~h'C iil'll :OOC made, aad the 11,oot CfjJ:!iIJroUlill can iI;.!~5~ t!1]S milZmsuood vaWue. IF there hi it !.~I]lpYiWr or' CPU fmWm~ of ~~ile Iloot PILe" tile i,."'()IUl!Ul!i!rer latH over :in a bOfilll?'le,~~: 111i:.lfllllCT. Tbls ~l~pe .of t8t~o""~r l:!j alse 1I1;e:~eWi'i'tl.d ~o as 0 b:li.~'kup' ~sp()!nst.'l, The bi.l~kllt:jI, re~pon!-le of the: ,Bri' 3,~S, ~UltW ,P'M4.5S nloCJu~~~ .Ila~an:!i !luu !I'll'!.:! :N!1I~!:~~,r~ :FM: oon~iJtlUesl!o, (I~ro!lil~ :shu1[qldl the: CPU .Fn:u1Ior S'lo.ll'"

.s(Jf'e~j! S{!~IJ(}i:1lt

The .s;alety sel:po~nt iJcl,W]1 uutoma[ic: mode efa (~O:l1trol moo~ I~ 'Wh~Cmll :tS apiPlicd in 11:~,e e"'CI~t

o!"!;" •• :""""j .... Ii·"'.~I1il'I!'."l'I;t' ;,~.. ,.,~.mll·"""~"" ....... c"mru'· ,1:; ",11".0\01; . ~] 1'1, i·I~", n.r,[,· n· .. '1 ..... ~'" ,n I ...... ~II ......... 11f!1u1' .... r ....... '" ~~"'~I! 'Y!i~, ~J \,T"l!ti.J!II!I]JIJ~_IIII. __ ~ "'" 1!".01 .!"'l'Liln~ ..... VIll...IJ!.I!, ~glL~lIl_ 'l;.lfJ! ._. III _. ,ltII-.!lW~W!lII~u; I _IJI 'l.lI~ UIlJI • _ g_ "-'Ui:t~!jl U 1Il~I'I.:J".,fIJ 'Ii.'UI ,F.' IL,II!.:,'1. Vt li.!.l, ~jh,,""~I~,

f.~o:ltlrOlpro;g;rn:D1 IPfISiSel'!, on till.::: sc;t:JllOi 111ft l~lbe' moortille (:fo.I,I~',·ulP' oontoo~). In the: c:,.'\,,~il o€ a ~uru~:l! thl! moo'llde: doos ma'!: corn:ll'ol ~omilin:g [{lIl the ~laSI setpoilllJll~cci'V,cd but 'to, 3 sal:~m.y set-

'I' t .' II . "~_AI f' ~'I'

pelJ!!:] :: :spet::nLJii' (i~ra!oo(~n~ :0\1" I us: C3i,"'~;

In acld:it:~(li~I, '10 Ithis, nUlllrl;j1 m~1~rfutrleLi.t)n!j; 300 carried etn in the Ci(lIUR~lmer ~:~.i.ch are [ili~efi h:id.{]t'r;l:IfI, ~rom,lh~: user ,lJliid wl;ii(;:b make the i.flidl~vi.dmd iCll]'Jt]['o:l1~rn ltppellr tnhave h~~l1ly dwffc:rel~t ~IIUI,";t~[!n;\;"

5.2;.1, DumpJe.ss.Manwll Automatic SU'iu;\hO\'Ei'F

A ibu;m,pl.e~ :5;wi'lchcJver fllltDm, manu:ftlln~od'e to al!l!i:olDa~jt; 1Dl1ode. is, ,reqll~ll:,ed in mrl~,'1 plalu!!;" 'W:i~~out ~9is fumc[~on. ;a;11! ernm s:ign:aliio, the n(:':'S~,ilUmri!1l~l'i>c cy~'le wVIi.dd Im~ak~c the '~on'!mller

Au1'OilTlai~C" ~tlJYM_n1

1o~1p;:u;1:"C ,5':.2

E:;;;'MlI:ph: O'r oon~pless. ~.wiltl'Ltli,\'er [mlm. fUclllllillrnil ~!!li 1l1ILtDm:OOil:'. Th!1! l~l]lSC' of' tllll:! C'QIRrOn~iIi (lU'lpUl is ~mWlilI ~!J:nOWilr.llili an,Y P'liI]'I'1II11I!i1' ;lullljlJl·~:I· Imcn~ 'fIIflll~ eu~p'Uli, ',,:lIu!:: In mlllnilJiI!l moo~ :i'fu!li'iii1iIb~Uefi~ i!liW il~hil'il,g over ~o iIIu~o:nnnli~ 1'1110& \,!!f'here [1 c'On:struru errnr s~;Cl1lllnl i 'lP~IIU~ T,~~mis ;no JUIll~P 1111111: ~~ me of !1,\,!f;il:ch'il1l(g O'I\~r. Ihe conUilli(IiI~r oOIiUI;inuif.!:, withol!U .IJi bump from the I~a; limIitlnu;iliill <OUI;pu~ \i',~:lu~'

:20 o ~~~~~~~~~~~m~ITm~cl~~~ll+

I)

o 20

40

I~G~, wi:lh ~ P'j iilllnp' undl ~'brnpl~,!I' nloo:i:fy the o:u'11P1.IJ1 wl,'ue by the c',~~cnJl:I!I:od mUm1i:p~I.!ltedv.".m[Jjb~c;. This 'is ~'l!IJ~lly ~1,'!l~~5i'nl!ibh~ ,olITld ean ih!lll'!te II. tlc:g:.~tivc: ,effiel!l;~ on t~ 'Proo~ss;,

[0 U!l;r; C'\lent 01:" D bu!n~,Ies:s: S",' itctwve:r Frolll nlll1l1ll11nl1 ~o nunHlrtstic IRu:de. 1:l1e ma1l1uailmullilii"puI;(]l~d '\\'lIrhD.blc IlI1UIU 'be OOITl!CIi:d in nl8mJUlTIII; mooe for 'P.l:CD') H]:Q,oritf:UiI~' o:nd 'wri,tI~1l run~o 'lj~aJ:: [ crUI:lPJlfl;enm slJI;cb ~l;t!illllln;e l1:uIJd:pi.l1l,[I[ed. vnriable ,~~ I}(lt jtlmp :rbl]@'''inS s\\vh!l:1J11~g {l!,,~'1' ~o lIuJnmDltiic., Thi1l. is sh;Q\~ll ~n :Fiig. ,5.2:. :Ex,p~ssed ~,imp~.,'., i.e' ,eol1:1ro1 m~I,~ori;tbm WS coJcUJiil~cd back;wurd:S, ill} mUl!I_;!Jl mode. mIDdtln:' ,~$t'I~t consum.tly l!l!:r!ll:ef:! inlg, the ,~ g;o:nrpon!:r!'i a;~co:r:(H~,m to' Form!,;.1 ,;, I.

"f ls ililrr!~ oUlfurn: ''Ii';ih;lWz I[manual, In~f,lip'llI!$!I~d vudublc), IP lila CllIn'lml:mIUIG 1~J:f th:c, ,p' ,ccnlmiPomlJill:, .lind :Z ~~i!]: current 'vnhi~!G !Of the ~!)!il:dt ilWPli!IL.

'1,:1.2, :1!Dm,:p1'i~ AiUt£!nu'!ti~~bun~gl S:w,~~'ehgvcr.

Jt!lS1: Ii Joo the blWmpllie::ss :f!iwi'I'c,hovlCr [rom mantUi][ [(Ii :!!!!ul~oR!n~ie m!Jd.:. ~li1e bllunpi1r:ss; ~v,ri~ch(lver' !f~ilnn il!lil~lIQmD'ti(' to .mO!I!Ull:ol Ill:looe. ,~S s'hmvl1Il ~n Fig. 5.1, ~s m !!ti:g:n i fiIC3i1l1~. r~:I1I:t!iia:liI:1 !Of 3. Pll1ct~(.~~1 ffi)fl.Xe-S:S. c~n((\l1llllelr.. In O(-d~1i' H]'!liUm::;3IJ[~ ,3 Ibu:utl:pless s\:\,[reilm'c:r :from H!ul~.om3Iffic ,mooill 110 m:.wnu;d n:lode. 'I'ite currenl :mfJIniipu~a~l~ '\/,an,3ble WIUJS[ ~ pe_rJml~neJl!llll:y wriUeu in 1l1ll1:01lUlm:ic moo:e fin to, [Ille m:mu,:lI, WI'U:ill. The 'wl'lD,'\! or (ha' Pflir.amG~~r fCiI'lhll' 'm,:JIJi!.ud :m~ni;pU:~iNIl1id wriiflibIDc ~~ 1!JU,i!f! ~~ pUI)'g' ;i~,p!u ft~~d lin 'r:w;~IUI3i1 m'tl~~' ~nd " :PD~ @~I~pYI, fi~ld i n Q.1!nom~~~c :mod!t" 'Corm-, trolll~f:.:iflu~rn~lm :rllnCliol~~ I[St!C~!1 ,aN. mrtmll!!u'!lJfa1Um(],nl'rlt~:t= :sw jt';hn\Je:rJlli~, the' 'fu!Ilc!Jnn b'hx'k,s. (f,B) read ,1;:111' Mille 'tl~e same :pnmll!1~ete.1T d'epcndi 1l1i!E on 'I'htepmli eular o~rai.i n:g ~~l];le. 'fh~'~c: p'llrametc's 1n11."l;!, br: WifruUc nl ilJy nU:iI!IIus of Ih11Q 'a~,MI~ewil::Un1ptlrl sen Il'i\!~cred Ib,)~ ,evcn~s. ilniud cti~C'nylsc :n:md baek iCIInd ifi:WII.lIU~ild :if Ili:eces/silty.

~o'l:e~ Nel.lhlll: ~Jlte user :progm___fl'Tl I'lllUr t1~@ 1[I!io!i; r ,m~arrt]~e~ sKould li".<1: Ii' 'qlencRII~1 '~'THe p~UI1l:mael e-rn !i~r:~, 0:' 1Uiti~C' '1!lil t1inu!l1 I m.!.ni'plnl~lmcdi \'gdatm,1c 0r th!;; lopem'I!I:I1,g: :nrl~ .1/: l~tl]l1'.

~m~tk; adjt.!stml1t

'~OOI 001 OOI-L' __ ~~-Y~_"

,40- 20=

''I11me [8:1

101 .... -~' ........ ~ ........ ""'T"'~""ir"' ........ .,.... ........ T"' ........ ~~.

d 20,

:r~,~IR ,5.3

:ffi.:!:!~!ma;"diC,;01[ bU.ftlI11e.~s :.»WiJilc]IOVfl hl1m .bllJllD:m.tie to m:lmuiJil. Th~ ~~,]!!!!HlI~ :of tim: eon,~r(iner 'U\II,l!!t i:s :fI'hD\VI1 mill :aulum !.Itic· moo~ 'Widll ~ C-OfI!ltalln C~'1"Oll s;J!ilruall It ju,nrp' does !.'1m:

OC'aJf attlllli' lim>e: IQ~' swi~cbi'[lg: f:!vcr to mm· '1m I :rnude;. I~he: ci!:jnl~):l~er !I;.....-m !lOW I~ Ifn;'lf!O:b\'~I:lI ~dju:.I~d €mm ihli1: iast 'i!u~glJ!u~ic Val,U1!;

5.'2.3 Ml.uumL' A_liIltOllJl0'U:e SiWllcbo,vel' Ilot numples._~

In ~~e case nV le,mpell:atl!lreap:plkatiott.~,. there are aruoo c.onlroU~r~ €:Illr Vi,f.hi,ch. 9. bl!unpi:t:.si!l 'S;wlliC!l(]i\1'e:r fro:m.m;anUi(ill ~o a'ia'liOmatic is Ili!J)l mqu]md mt is '~"'~n l!Inde!iilli'.wl~. nl,$ moo:e is btss '~O:!fl!jpl.ex, fDI:' the contwoJWe,r ~dl1ce the comtro~l:h:_;r 3~lgoriJluri m'ieed OB~I,y be swi:lcllOO 0:1 duri!'ig lnOH'lllaJ mod~:m.dl. w:l1,~11 :swwrdi,jn.g 'bacJ'::I![I .all!unmi.Jdc :llM'Jdt!~j sill'R~pl,y emu i:m,u:es ,11m, the '(KDsiI iOIll iU' wlll'ich 'i~, was 'i:ru~mJPled wllelTh sw:itc~~i D,g IW m~n~l;)] Illude. "Orw.e'll\~[! s~oP:Pi I~ of the ~!Jil-' tro~~er is ce'flili!inl:y :f,iU[ ~(llftwarel·ib;~i'loo hypa-ssi.n.g !!!'If it hut :i~ :swi:!L"'h~n.s. 'm, m:m!!l HWll'liOde w:il'h ~JIlJ ilP'pUc~n.h,'~ cilieui~, '(''ie'~poi rill: ~ ilcUI.al ''i;'1l'hJ.e:). Byplli;;;'$~m:8 'tltf ~he ool1tmW~e ''I;,'Iiraul danclrnl tha'l: tbe I ¢o!!fmPOI]i~!D~ remaim::istat~(!I:Ilmry. nnd th.u:1 aililOllI.gh tile: p' cOllmlfpont'llllil changes (i.\Jl = If. . e) w~n !i.wi'l:chrnng (}'V{'if :ftm:nu ~nan!1n:l~1Il ;!]uto.li1lmi£~ 3!n 0pll.DiIlal 'J oomponent (the oM I compo;nent) I'l«m~tles aC1li.ve at InIle :fin'm~ ti:nle (~ee: flg ... :t4), S:uth-an acH~I~ ul-iuaUy rcJm~ts In pr-ob:1C:JliIJs, .f1l:1d ~s 101: reoommcil1dablc.

Martrpllda1eCII ~oo\lamlab'!'Q I[%:~'

80- Ma!'n~aI .1~j!l.!stmElrml

60 = -=-:::_" \

·4,0 .

101 ~_ ........ _..."...---!.....,..._....,..._ ........ _..,...._ ..... II

An 60

o .20

O~~rtilllum~

:.·~!PlRl ;!I.4

EJ:,::l!J[II_~ll~Qr sW:~I~hiIilB IJ~ f:nulIi! mill!m~11 (iI) ~u1omiIJ.:ic- WJili,chj~ IDo.t b~Ullp:I~,;;. The ~Spet-l~: 0(:' th.e: ~'lilrol.ll]:r o1!l~pum iii s:hQ"'m following an~ ill1mu,.d. ,i:l.djii:list~ilienJt ta, ~he lI11lIiIIJI1I ipullnted '!,!3rfu~lc in IIII'L<1J1llallrlllodc:, 3n~ :Sii.l~.ue i!'ii~ ;!:lwi,tclii.n, (!Iver ~i) ,aijIOfmJ:l~,c' 1P.liKJod~ w.i11l1 D ,oon:;tan[ mGr sigmaml>eing ,~DU', A.jUiIt:l(p, oocU!l'S .mil till!! point of :!l;wit~]li'IilS: !.1I,\;'tr (PO jIUlIlf.lip); the '~llllrol]~1l'

ju nI,S: 'liD' Ihe ~u.tnUlit)mllili:c 'milinipu]ntoo \ruriubl:c

,:5.::'1',,4 A.t'fllntt"~'I'~ m ~ ~ ~: ,"~ ... ~ V1 c, • '-0" " "I' '.'., _...ro_ __ _llh _ ~~~IJ ,Xi' pr. __ U .. 'UU~ g Wli !l-!!; Ito _ er 111,01" , . ll!fI;lP ,es!i

1~I,iti o;pcr,atiog mflocl!c rus ,11,0[ me1.mi I1i.Sfi.:tIi iln :Uisoci::U101n '\'Vi l:h~'iI1')nl~;ld" l:nnll:l!i!l~ pnlCCs.,'j illlt~ Ii"'" "'erurncn~ by the G;pe:ral'~llg penonmiC'I,i1roid:is 'lbcreforo rim, ~mplemeill~edJ w~'lb ;[lny t~f th!Z :kll own 1f\.f(:tt~~.5s. CO!U_(O~I:CB, 111l1e IClperntln,g mode ?i.'Oul.,dl n~:tl!~ :I.h.!lt w~le!ll! ,~wi,'I.ch~n:g, the cemroUeif tOI iI1lulJnual the cm:l:put wou:h:ll wrnmedi ~t&.ly dril~c: to the i.:a:S1 m!lllil~l3lll11~P,ipllli:at~d vl!l!rinhllic: set, ~lIHj tt~~oot(1ru ;resl!!!ll~ bl ~Il um;h;.\''li~!;;1l:)le c:huli1,ge illl -mil:l1 i,pllIllnted '''''m:iall::de fo.r the :pmce.'l~" Comrol'lcrs \!/~~ich do :11U)[ ha,ile'i:mi'lt'imru bUiD"ilpICS$!lrnnOmiu~ctf:iUUlllilil_ Sw j~t'h(fVer must guUtl.llllll!.C ~h i.s lhroujt:!h, prrogr'Jmmi n,~ On ~:Ii;e ~5c;f i:n~e:d:m::e erl Iii ~~~ 'u1sc;f prQ,~raiJfu.

5.l5 AutMnatidSaft!'1!y :~lftntl,ptU11I:led; Va:ri:able S'wUichovC'f

S.wlmchi.I,Sl, O\;ior fm~n t!rl!ll~tuutic iUOOC to ibc stJ!f~t,y mttll.,"IDIi'Jll!illated vru:jab~s :i~Sl'd.'lit.iGUll :I~i,e m!'lf)i(m~e dt'l5CIi~ iln d'l!~I~£l. sectlen, l1pc:n tillte '(:I(;Cu~nce: 11l1!'.a s:t'~e~'''OO~CV'lJ!l1IJl,l]v,eIM (c~g" vi,ohl~:iooIJ of uPI~ temperature UililliU. n~~"OnI,mll'el; outp IU :1:;; db:e:c~.ly fOlit~1 to a :m:fely posh I~,i(,)lili. The t'litHpm must CI1fllll~~ w,i~1 a j'!.IIlmp W, ~hc; desired wl:lII e. Hawe'\!'eil1:, in 'r!:m~,1rl!li~( to tJ~e: :lll~nllill miilill,i:pl!lmilrni.9.11 ''''1jriulbl~ the sufe;ty II~I rin~pul3!l~d v.u:rnalbl'~;is II~JI ,I:iiually apmccss \1,~Jue; 'l!!.1'hiICh can be '~~UU!lged try thl2: t!~>cr but 'is ~(J~!;r:llmc~c:r wh~drn iJ1'l set Qm,D~ 'Or a 'ii'JlIl!:uI d".cli(iru.'d by ~~e 1,.~l1fU'iln~ ;)iyNI~m, f i IWI~ni!lllc.~lc:Uiilil~~d;"·,~rnue),,

,S'.2.6 8PC QIt :DDC/SiI'ite1i M~tl!it,'liibl't.ed! Va.'F,ililble Sw~I'eho¥ef

W;~,en ~W'i'l.ch~[Jg 1(!'!!-'t!:Ii ~ro;11Ifl1 ilu:li~nmlnt UI(l'de. (S:I?C mode or 'ODe m~!!dIe) ~u ~J~e safe~y ~tpolU!t! (1)1_y the. ~~lP'Ohn Lic~:i'!{e en the !Jljntm~k~r is c·~a\l'jn~crl. [fiB.::: e:ffcct on the ,comm::dl.od sys~c;ln is II'h~ S:lIITI,'i:; :Ili~,w·mdd.re!ill!l.h ~:rom a uarrnal clutn,ge in setp(liliin~, I:'rolill, the 'Ul~r i Iru~cdilCtt, TI~o~ who wi _:![;gl to 3v,~ii:d focqutDt.ld_ullJn~es lin tt.~muul:pl.!tl.!~~d ,,-wuJbl(llc~!1 lillie. the r~AMIP ifi.:UU;illou I'SCC :Scct~~Ii.1!:n 16) ~1II1hii:: SClll~im~, In~mch.

An ChaJIIg_;es ilO O\p·emtwng mode :and sw:i~(]il.ing f,,~du!!le's w:lti,dl :imAuc nee ~:l1c actual viIllilu C UMr~il11ly R:flU~~ ill} Ulul5U:adi m;:i:.. 1m :ali CG IWpellli!;!lI't"d ~y~tem. :In pa~nl'la'lrlC 'Ibe ~l~rt j,IlII,1J of .tl p')i1Jl:1 ~:o~m@\'Ii,~!lflg a :n'ldaft (]Iiii' t~C!):ldllre,.'~ul'l't of Ihe PLC' (;!"."~.,, rono\v~mllg ~1IJ :(X1Wri,;l!i' f::Jli 1'~tN)" 8'S wlJ!l'l a~ {JI~ra(i~(~(lfnil.ll SW:iU;ibi 1iII,Q off ;lll:cll en of 'Lb~c; :p11~iiU~ ~U~( :iu ~lliu~ I'lKI!I;;:eS;!; oon~l:';cJml!eill" h a'iii;n\~ to reach l1he. ~e'I:pnint ng;lill!J a~ fu:;i: ~!' ()oI,),'>!l.iblle; ~n~d 'wiJl:!tJut h.!!!",gJe ,!!,:wef;~tl0nl[l;" there ~r-t', vnrinlJlls .strul)~2:~:C:.~ 110 iu::hi'i;!!il'Jtl such u 'l"espolJIs.~ ~ln" it s-oflwlIJe pn!l~t"-S.~ Citlniroillelf:. each ot· wll iob has '~I_X.,~ilnc a'lllv,am:..e., and cl i IIdwlllugeJ';., W,I~i eh {~f ~~lc r<lUowj D,g 1~{!lSs;i~,i I.ill les lis the besJ! depemldl'> eJcmuflil,'\Icly CUll '!1)1: lyp~; (1j,f pl'{)Oe" 5 if]Jnd '~h~ rt'lllu lrements of the plant 0IlCIi'll~n:I"., The p;h:ull~i n~

.' ., " .. ",~ .. '"C". ',-, ,i.'> ' .-, ",'- "'.- ',t' ~I" ,',~ '. ,I, •• ~! .=, ('1- -',,~ "~ - • - j, '. 'j" Jii.o'-" -k -AI ~'-:"Jllc" -' -,-

or OOlfllllllli1l1SMOfl!I,nl; ~Ill:l!~noor .mUSyeclul'\ \V _leil.!lllc!, 1~ su.~plln~, ~S ~O' I~ reaCnCI;lI ,raplY~., .POSIU-

bl:y with stdg_itt. ,il1Ver - :n~}()I:S;" or mlhr.::11f ca~~iou;sl:y"

S:~3'.~1 Starting of C'oI:lIt!wJI ~~90P not 'Bump~es.s

Start~n~ ofa cemrol moo:p WlhIch is i'i.(l;l billl:np:~e:ss does n()'~ ~(I'lJ:i;re ilJlIY froSrd!llIlrni noS or FJ:tnct.cJ'J~tioH ,o,\'Cr.h~a.cru d.uri:ng t~.e :planlJ:i~g phZi e (FIIg. ,5.,5). If (i:u~ :PU:J I[~rurn" (CH~P),. ~hc

FilgUN 51.S

EiI{~nl'J)~c' of' II ~'QlJ't!ro'ller nr ping( ~~rut \",hla;:n,i!!l II'I.{!II 'Im.JfI,I'lII!Cs:'!>, riO],· IclWif:l"g a POW.f;;~ :rtli,h'!U'~

'l:ilan~puln:~lld, 'Ii",MiinibLe WSS~l -w,~tho:ut m~y ,a,pccial mcasu110S ... to ~'(J" ill (iw case 'o,f dru~i~ml 01.1(- 1PlJ1~ ,iimilo "dcli;ine:rg,l:z:.;iI" In the case of ,Dnalog modeles, The' aC~llu'tl \i',a:iue ,of the: settled. :SYilii"' it:em ~tridc:5i town_rd'$ a q~i,($oenlt ¥nrnue'. Uponretum 0'1, the :pu\Wer~ UIIiil c-'tlnt(iIJ~~0lirL~o~)Iti1:es :l!i:

Lor_rgc enl)f sigmal whenJ c,~)I1Wed! :f(ulhefim1: lillia end reacts ::;:Icl1::ordil1(giy. Th~' :m;;l!lwpulaled variabo:le Cal, sm:lden~y jlLln1Jl to tbe ~m~:dmillnl.limi.'~. The adV"iu~tDg,e.o€ this procecd!are i,~ tbm ~~ge !QualmU,., reaces '~)i;tIlCn:U:J.y nip~dl:li" and 'can 'compe:n'!uue tlli,~, fault ~:O '3, l!!Jre:iiI'l'~Ji or lesser ~xte'mit CleiJle,fi!d~f:lgO:Fi [he :Se'lting:.;:;; cf ~lhf! Q@Ii'I~!ml par'J.me~e1"S. :11 :sutffiC'.ieIU "'~'Ilergf' is slill Ilru~m In 1he$,)'::n~riIl wilin.en :~whch~ ng {In ,3ga:illfl; an >iJV~r:shOOl il.':~noo ex;pecl~d for Sm.:lll a ~'atru~t.

,5;3.2 S:'~8J'ting ~r Cmntrol ,Loo;pBumll1ess

$trurt~n~: ,of a ¢;llnrI!"I)~loop w:bk:h is m~nlp']e'S:!l' l1i~q'tl,i:res,prosr,3mm,i:l1~ or pO'ljU'l1ulu~,rnzm;i{m ,oi\i~Fhe:ad d~ri:lii,g 'U:m pmallti1lin,g phase" .~:f flu!- Ptc fans {OfF}, th~ nl3:ul,i'poi~uoo~~lril~ble; i's set ..... 'wiJhI(]lU~ allY spec.i8lrn ~['lf'a'I;&~res - to llG!!m" ~ aetunl \I',alue: {If the ~I.IIlt!:d :l'.!ysl:l'l[ff[iIM1ii']d~8 towud~ a q,'u,ie~m Y.!1iII!!le:, rhc-!Ire are ''',!!3nm.lS [pO:isi.billlruti.rs.'Il fur ,riI'!{oid!i,I~~ ;an evershoot;

A UTO,MANll.AL-ilUTO :\'wJtch()~¥,r

The, ,cIJntroUcl' is set 'liO m~l'lu:tll :nmd[l ~n the; n.';;I!(W1t, O'B 0]0 rn (lO)1 (f;jg. 5J,,). This f(le-~l)c-c"i [he 'o'lt! man~p'UJh~I,ed. varia:M:e ('tbe: ~;ID!nwpu]Ol;led v,ari.ab:le. prier tothe po·wel·~'aUure) w~el1 tho "CI~,. llilJ~~eri:..i, culled flu: du~ ~r:sl time. HlUiJ;'I;l"jJI~g tile: 'Ili~~1: '~:lfit:lie Uri :D'~\tlual, ~~odlts:, l~IlQ oOl.1t~jlO,]ju is then ,amQlm:ar.i:cs:lly reset m 3~n@~11Iltic mode a.l!3Ji,n" .A~thoug'b the' rna:lJ,e' erroi signal :itl;fCi:.;ug'· Ili:i~d" :tl! P SI!I3I' ch:!!linf}Je: does nC]{ h.!kc. place. The CUIIi[I'OUtt 11u~n 'tl(1er.l'I~~, ~'!l)em], t! ~Uit1~11:g

100 -

eQ - ~~~~ ,00 .~

'\. ·lManj~uJIi.!!OO:d

YIDl!lll:ila'

(I -f-_-r-_-.-_..,__.--J_ .......... 1l .; 1 .... j;1ii.~ Ir~]

A,twai valUe,

fiilolun5..fi,

lIEX:iU~l,p]~ {l!~ 1!I1b~Im.p!~fl:S: rliiS!:ut 'of 11tli1l 'i;{;ijjtroU~r oi.lj:p~I,I!JI1II, fQlllu\'\i'i:tJlg a [p(.'i'\l;i(:r f3i~un:: by iI1II~am: of AUm·MA.NUJ\,Ik.AUTO ~:->Wil[~ho'!tli!,~ '~'!,lifil1g ~~I~ning

with dfls mooiipulaled ;Yarin:ble;"llete is ~~S!ii dan\B'C(' fIr 3!1D1 '1J'!{ler.sli1tOOl: w1~'ilJ "[h~~ Pl;f!iCOOllOO:, bull ;[lj :ll11!orr.Vi::r tr[lns.ien~, r-es)lOnse muM: 'be expected,

s..,anilj'g ~f$J;'~8' d ,runfll/l4'nc,ri:Oll

'nll:!!i Iculuroller- s~~poh~i Is set i Inl 'i:t~ '~t!lrt OD, (OD l (Kn (,(} the 'vn'lue of ~be OOI,l~fO]~ed ,Imeiblc' {~c;ifPOint=Dc;u~3] v,alue}" .Dod '!he HAM P funcli,@1li ws acu,wtcd. (P~S,' 5:, 7)",More iI'l~O:r;mn.tijiMl, on thi!~ ,~gtroJ. flulttiom coo 'be: fOl.!lud in ~di:Of;i 6. Wll~n 'the ,cfinoooll,c:t ~s ,tu~hidr{Jr' tbcir,s-~ nme:, th~ old se~ipO,iln!t (,setpoil1ll ,nior to, rhe power failJlufie) {lit !it~OO a II_W.w 'l!3lue: IS de:lined. T.hcrl!cfore ~il'~rror :si~J[J:ll~ Is nm diltlecmd w!llenth~' p1~un is, oostDnl!d since W Illm~ Stftn8 with

'!'I~D "" .. .....,,_(<;i, ·'~"IJu .. jl """"1' ... ,, '-11---\" '1,,"1"''''~NI~''''il-'''d' "~o:-i .. ii.o~." "'''!i!'i''[I--l-'''''', ,[-'L, .. , , ... ~ .. i, 1'It:\";,i'~"''''' ...... :1..'" ",iid· 'iI- "' ... , .. ,j,n.., '~I~ "-"UI_I"I.~ In.,,,JI!i.p, 'u:.Iilii. Y~lw¥. I I!I~ I ~.:gM:IUlit'",~_~I!I.'L~ '~AI!UJIt,I\~ H~U_J _ ~~ _111~ ~!!I\11Yl r"!'!!'~!!,j'~Y,,"-, !!JIW II~ !V',I_ -l)~~r:

ti]l.'lJl~dV5'__ri;~b!@'fJrl(Jt' ~g the :pm\feir faj,[lu,ootilJttid It P' 8~GP 'clhaJig,6; tl~6'r~rb:re doos 1101, 1!l~lj' p~~ct., As the :~Ip-oint rises the oontl:a~leli tb(l;11! aJ!oo o@n~iml'us to ope~mte ·'lc;!11!Uy"'. TIlcre Is ~b:{li less d8QGI'n of ,an (r""u;rsh,OOI: wi:th 'I'hi~ p,~d~I,D'e, bl,lLl[ ,II, sl'~1l' (:tl!tymptCllmC') 1Ji~:S;tmlllst':' ,of the COl'lmm:l~ed sysll~m musll!;;e ~xp.~~c'tt

4.0 Milli1l~tQd

~ ~~~

'Ti- - 11'-)

(I --1-_.....-_ ....... _"1fi"i--....!I"-""~~ I_.!ff'!e ..... _- '~8L

Flllll~ ,5~1

,Il" iun]'l'l'e: of iii, ~mplesf,! ~tru1: Oif Ih co:_niJmil~r or. F,lhmt mol]mvirUl: a ~'er :F3llu!"e wili]} ,~pp'li,tati()n of oil! ~lvoin~ ml'Jif;,i

Sjt1".ti~,IH: W,it/'l re:relfiug of ~h-e I (;,(UJ,Jl,,,n'l1't

C~nainJ ,rod'uct~ (e'",S~, S~!Nn{ja~d prD Coo~ro:J) have ttheUi ownl SIru'UI, s;will:eil. (e.,g.: iFB4J. '''CONiT~C'' of n~ p3.1l,Plelerf C:OM~'.F)" Usin~, l~b1.. the ~r:!t~J11~11 I 'oom.(mIrle~t ~s ~~. l.oa de~al:lrn~ va'l,ue w\h,cn ~k CPU ls 's!~aned~ and! Hili,s maJ' lead. ~u :3, sw~t(!OOve.r w:i1i,dll Is :rlollu~mp"" 1~~ (8ce Rig. 3;:'5).

C'orl1n)'llcd S}''St(;ms, siwcll as 'plitissum. I!cvel or::Dow tlKClally belong) _, if ~)' e not: ba'Wo a lUTGt deud I~jme- _, ~o the ,easily im3~c-:red Si"SlI01i11S '~Ilce Iley haw a UJIileo end ,5,]fmmrz~rieal, rGSJI(ln~" O(loilij'Cl,:lled :~)''Srilll:llils for lutl1l(~fiu,ure are n~u~h mo:re driflkul~~o' master '!jJroc:oe' heatI-ng ~!u'lc-ooU!1S, ~~ [p1;f:J;cc: 3 C'f;;'OroitlC: kl di-fr~f{~'t "iff,eref!Jti~rueq,~tati@:n, :s.J~tcms, MoSterill1(g ,@:f such f.1(1(m·(flYlfmlmem,es 'g,sJ~glirn,earPJD colnrolJ'.ern, hi c~l1ui'rnl~Y nm~eai)':" P;8iIl~iCtrl~fiy ~e l:1estartin:g ,0:(9, Ciun1,mJle:r;, wllctheir :roru[owing II: pawer fafu~UR: 0:1' ,fi.I~, ,operalilDlUl'1 s'lnn ... tJo!l;vn, f:\C'."-rj--!:, il mr,:ik"r-:-.f "" --C'}'k,;;,I,"C,,,!I v.~~·h :---~~ '!inc·-v PID ir'iifO,i'!C~!l: ",,:,~ri'<';'l1e- ~o 'ckJ1H,'J,I'C ~Ii- ..

• _ q1i.l_re. ...... _J;Jih.!1i<. L. g~_ vo:uL ti_ h.L ~__ _. _ a_ I" ' .... _._ _ .... 0\]] _n.' f8 _ _ iL!Ill"'" _ _~~" ....

des:lfed ,c:ontr-i}~ re!:!u]I~:S.

,5i'o'4~'l StmllgJn .. :f-orwam C'on'lnl ,or' OJ Loo,p'

AI l~!'l!mb~:~ (D,I thf;:lnlI!al, ~l~Sses; IUtlllllSt !lJlll)~ b::ili\~e 'Io'ery sU.mII m,f,li!1ihoots ,(e.g. rubiber presses) to prev~ru Ih~ mntt.tD'iisl i I1J th~: mm:hi lilifol from Illumi;nG~ 1ihe mathwne :s~olil:I'd nl:\'efllill~l,e~s, nt,3~~1 ruts ~t~t~l'lg, '1.!i!lupemtul1e as: f3iS~ :as possil!lole ~m ()Ii~ef 11.0 1iI.}]r:dOOl:i7Je ene'll)' COSI'·, ,~nd ,SII'llhfIDdstill ~:ime'-l'i', Silfu:'e tht CjOnllOO~ ~rnmetf.l'fs 'of the;.'i~' rn[1c~li'lI!~s ,i!re, one:"I\~ry difflcliIU ~~ del~rnl~ine all,d usual Iynl!io! d!cpcl1t11 or~ the: wcrldng ]KI[ru~ Y,w1JOUS ,compr-om~~ 'CXiIS't ~11 such C[ise~ wlruk:h 1,3rg\fliy' ~~115:fy the"e O(l:~I!JrndjidoQ' :reqlii~reme:iThts:

S:.c.ttfCI,iVJ7 q/rliJ/erem r:-O'llrm1 pammdf1r iSf11~

I' 'e,rd': c'- t·.." ~ • ., ... : '1liI;, tlc~: --:rih" -I.'il l .... ,--,-i!dlill' ~hc ·'ii:i'!i~-re!i:il:iIm"lCaD1'lrol-;:_,riIme~:e.r.li (':~,e~eiii' i!liU

,~1I'iI (;I er -V i,h~.u _p _ L ~~!!;!; )11! - i!!,o;,P_ - -J'" --- - -t:oe _.- - -- .. ' - IP .. -- - - . p -. - --

~ )., M? used ~ si1q],:yn im Fig. :i,8.P.m:~melte:r :Sf;'I: :2 ls ~e~, slJ~'h tlr!a~, ~o o:versbOOI;!!, OQCUf. Fgl,~ :low:illUlg IlIJ d&1:l1lWd. ti.m~ (pos:lii:lJruy ,~djUSI:9b:II::')!. II~le operutrumg pamm(ue;1' iiiCI: (pilTiIm,eu~.1" :sel: 2) is seJec~ed.

,se~llIJ1'""t [%];

. . ,De~alIv:arl4e [%,)

,A~al ~~UQi

I

40 - ,:20

I) ~=~......_~~~~ ....................... ~....._~.

. 1Fc!lmtnelOf :8e'1.2

F.~G,t!!r~ 5.8

iExJlmplc ,OIf.m. :p-:limmi.l'tc:r ~r.J:IliImI. fwslru1 Hu~l~ ,o:r,~ i.i1Jlllr:cilled ~,)'i>ll~DU for' 1~~lll)1,l!, ... ;d1i!L~

A :PD Cl~:UU:t'Orn~:a:r l(wi~lljj;cun '~ >C(jim;pon;e~ll) :i~ru: bce~sihowjl, to' be:p3Hffic~.Im'I.::i ~1l~IA'bl.e", De s,wil£h.ilog Ol'U b~l;ween 'too p3mure~crn se~~ ~!h,Q'LWhl be c.ur.ied 'QU~: Wiil a ibum;~les;s ma:l1neif 'lJis:i;nD"g fIj s~~p 'CQ(W.'IroU~r' (mod~ swrutdn,ove·r:o!U!I.clluatic,.,m_anual"a1iJ.lOlnIlIWC) •

. : 'mite: h. ls m~1l1muili1en{h'lbll2 'wh~,n, s~:YUdd:ll.; GI!i'it:1f oontm~ ,p~lli:01l1l(l!el'E, tm'lwec 111 p.ffiirnlll1e~ lief sets !, JJnd..: to !l~ore diij~1fc;:reI];!il:1l5i ~, Iim~1I as IPOssib~.1l: for Kr• ~'Cla "1ltJW:iS'i,'!t,'1!'~' clila:nge ~n /(., re:;;IIJ,!'Iln:,a" in 0, f :!i;h~lP ~b~uflGCi 'w:iih nlC1['!~ ]1'ID' p-~I1:€.~!i ~~UI~If~]U~~. On, 'U!I1e iflJhe':J1' hamdl, ~I m!ls8ili',e liii~im5e i n I~~ t: ~ ,c:g[IUIIJpnnl: I'n dotS 11il1 ooslll1 iio it :<;'Iep' cl1iml~.

St.(J;ning ,il~ IJitlFliltJi mfJlfJ'e

A FunDJer' ,pcssibi1iity for 'Ilit~ oontrlo~,~~d sUlrrullmg ,o~ II :plaD1~ i 1ftllrtwng, o~ [h~ cO:JIII~mil'ler- i n Inrmjl~" yo'! H,t'Qde: ,Hhe !!g'!mli!,:!l~1 rngi:p1l!'l:mr;:dmri~'bI'c eomes from (:i:ontro~ .:loy;!l'~e!U ~oglc) wi~1JiI !'lll!.!'b~!:. qucru s!W.i~:ChovelT ~om.1tD,mtk~ moo:e .. H.owever;,i'l is ,known tbmt ltis VCI:")I dwmeuffit, ~O' 'QP~:im;jz(: ,P.l.DproC~IiS oO:luroiI1il:r.i L'lsi:la(gLhws :Metluld .. The ~. oompoil'l~f.u y,;'.cu:ld ~iflW ~O' be: oif!l.e:I: '~:o ,D, ~G'r[ain vuliill.(i w:b~!i ttruludl'(l!:ri~lg" Md dlls v.!i!b;JI~' also dJill~mdl5, OIlII tbti: ~·I~IlI~.~y C@[JICIJII" {),f d:u]: CDJ!I .... 'trolled ~y5rngm" H:Qwev~r~ 'Ilruis ws lllot~~_:aru~ykmQW:1l t!Jtld ~s :1w'(I[;rooprodwci,bille on 'Ih~ pihrunlL OI;lW' ~X.Il_'ijc'n!ci.l: slmv:s 'tha~. il is i'",3dl1'jSDb:,I~ Uil use :thIs moo'!!.

51.4.2 CQQi~,"d wUlil '~dbQ~'~, Qr ~ lAop

The cOIUDlo:I]l]d snmilng Of:3, machi 11Iil: '(Dr p~Coss from .s'l;~lnd&[i III is 'I'I~~ , ,i mpll~s[ and mest eW.~Ili.ve :11IWwod iiI ~~e ease or: 'Opl]:r:UlU~ln CIJiI!IwJ prnme'll'lJS wi~h !the s~WJ:drnnl P~II)i ~S:S, eonilnjller!l~ pl1lv:ided UH: G'o!l1[wf.dll!:lf ls ~I};~U)" ~wind~ed d,u:r:iilill the sland~l}(ill~ IP'hase !to]?Clmmiirng mode: OPfl,

-~'!tiile; mn nli'" !laI:HId tum fl!1~:'H'; "r ~[1, nUIJ:hi ne or ~~.'.:; (~ ,~J !Io'l::,11i j II Un! llf Imwi!f' !!Ull1'r1)" ,~~.c.),r'{l. PID 11rnc_.:'!:.~ I:tmlnlll,~!il:r !bLhullld :~Iw.a,)'~ l~' t:1 I~l O~ nf." 3L III! I'd t,~ MANUAL mM . " The t C;:C1I!1'lponul~l i~, the a!Ii 1l!mjdl~d ina den ned mnlmur llIuJ (h}c,.;;: n'()l re:u:h 'i nl~tm~ ~J1LJml ionl,

5 S" S fl- t' M-'(I

_ L ,··iLC.Y ',,: )~L es

('jCljj1~m:1 Pf;lOCe5 °i!.':S ax.! !!:rn:, e:!iiJ~c:i:lliU:Y in pmce~$, i!.'::lilghn:~eriiIIIg l8ippmh::il:tiO"~'i wh]ch~UI~~, !l~!i nlJl. Evenl w:f m CPU fDlUS, ,~ olDntforu~ieli' mIUiS~, be ;t'ilJ,Je t'll oOlldnue ~t:s: [mlk. poui.!:III.)I :IliI1.so 'l;\!'i~ffiI :rudiucoo :fumction8Ji~y, v.mrriolil.1ii,i'limfery :!itmlii:lg[~, tl~,i:s~ fo.r O'c;:hiC\'jrn,,G; this, bUll mwy ,l\lsl;I' rgql!lruN :Imi,gh ~IWeS,nifa;ent!Ji. OI1C ,@~ 'Lll:estnll!lee:ies: j" 't'@'pli,@!I,l'j,de. a :suool1lhw~ue:: (hMd~re) ot'nM~:lrnc'r ;,w, buCkup.

SoB.l S(JC :bockillip

As ~lru3Cl'y d'~~crib~d wn SG~'ijOl~ ;1:.1, '. SPC' moo!! is ;CIf1 opulml'i R\Ji nmde lim wlhikdl a mtl1o,in~ ~s t- .. c-.~ -.mJ r' . " -e 1-, -II dol' S PC i\'o,,- -I\:!Iij-'- --- 00 ~ m- - , :Ii th ~'- Iii'-'-' _L·-c"" ~d~~Ol\Cio'll' , 7' ~ '1- ':!:'-I

.mnS)i;.,. __ . _Q d t':t'l!U·!O.J;;;_. 1"",,1 ._-.p !Il_c_1:, ._J,~m'!I., ,.I.a. !)! !l'_,~!1mp(l\Eli~_ !>;)DlI!lwy, ,,~.g. a, 1IJ~.l,""

'COmlilml, ~tn:II::"U,'ft) '1mn t,;~efS '~l'CY'CUc~ny u~~LiC.:d sctpoi nt lit) a SfWl:bomrun:l1e (l~ar-dw,ilR) ~ornml·· ~~.,.1",he:' u~rdlhHlte ~tli!l!~,:I~~c'r t'ip~~,I~ iJ~1 ,!j,tI'lofilatrue mmlc. ~f il~'~ hest CfiiUf\:O!1 :r'illlih" the 5PC backup ,cClnl.'rt)ller 'crml:irUJc .... ~D cOlllilrol usl ng 1lilL~IWltselpc~nt, uuns:femdJ. H 'I'he 1:mc'kup' eontm~IDe!C' is able 'lm C~f OIU ~;ii'l;f['-of-~~f~ fr.Ul~:ito:ri'n.g of the su~iri~po!!cd oi)nl'f;\~rn. a ~u:fi'.:ly ~g,~.poifll'i, can nJJSQ ~ ~w:itchod [10' at:~iv~ :~bOluld! ~.b;e ocntm~l foi I.

The PM 35~'mlld. .FMl~5~, :[!re ~p:cially equii'lped :~or ,s,fC blc~~,1} ~UI nct~mll~ ~n l}rn~r '10 be ahl'c !I,O 11J'I'CCliIilJC ~afCl~,y·n::levaIu. tCmghH~g:rjng ,PflOOCtls?s ,lmdl in ~rn'i,e (.iOlilJt~~t ·Df PCS..,. ll~e .PM 455 i,s 1[lot 5~Jf\porl~d h,y PCS1. Simce thc~c InUTI{JdI~['~!i ~~, f!l,1t h!'w~ their ()W1!!11 h~JI~t !~cil~lru~i'es (w i~,l~ 'U'Iil!: ~;liL~~ptio~ 'o:f till! cClmm!Jl~'ilCa~ionl Eu![Ic~;io~), a :po&iirub:,~]~~, '\MM!, s(;ldlci:II.lh' pm\ijdGd ,F@1i' ~Jltie e '[1;tOOtD~r::s Ito p,:rrni.'1 :1~;~Jl Qpcrntiorll via Pm:lflb~IS.,

!,,5~2 DDC Dnck~ip

Dill 1i1.ll!;l, uomml o~;mtiol1l., '[bill: DiOC Iruu::lu,iiP' cOXltar'o~rulliil" is :10. a type: 'Of m:Mual 'G~llIIli'lll&\ :1Ilal'C., The !JeL!;JIru wl'~IC !iA.1'h~~bi", !re~d ~Q, is tf,m1:11iln~ttcdl v~n I~C ,e()!n!nl;l!l:ie~tiDn el~M'!lcru tl~1 iU.tD~ Sl.!i~:r.· i mllOgd cilntmrn WIl Ilk host automation, ~tm=ml wllh::b returns n 'W1u1:lJIJi:PIl~:l!ied 'i'm:rinb~e: 'IQ 'be: outpUll fCil' t~!Ii:s COIliIT-ollel" vla ~~e!l1!llme c'h3m:net Soo,R;g, ,5;.9. New 'seLpcrullllts ,llIIld :poStllrub:l:Yiilrum eCHlllml :pm;;nnel;eI:S, ate tl1lml:siel:'Teti,cyc'l icniii, fiillm ~Wle !coiIUml. 5y~I!eIi1~ :ill1 (}r~cr '~Il· be nble 'ID

S.5~3 ,Sa'e1y' Sctpoint

As, '!ljm~y HlG:H1 in!t~d. ~ht;!l:l!!fttY:li'l;'lpo~nl i i'l. D:~ i!lllJi~~mi,]lj(;:r:r:liode: {i,~plicuM:ilc if (hero :i:5, ,n fo:i]ure ~n cG:llllm:glltcgrth::m with ~lli!e rn-.ns~ ~'~poi,nt OOIJ~e, lJUJ mi~ case, the 'l;oD'tTQUeJ' docs not oo!1~ffilli rux:mdilllg totbJJ ~11.tS[. iilCIPO~llt 're,oc,iwd brut ;flccording to a safiM.y sctpoin,t cspeCi~~m)fpmU'm_,e·, tc~izoofo:r. !S'1JJcll ,~, case,

,5~S'.A SUfety ~tanipulatod Varblble

As DLrerld.~' ,m~mio\!lod :in. S~timlI5.2.S,. d'l,e mj[~t~' nwmpuJuted VDtriobl~ ~s !.IJ ma*,u~lllitl~ of UID 'CO:DlroU~r ,~pplic~Me an ~,oocmr.mnc~ of a, sDiFely.·reJev;2uu ,eV€!Ilt In thlS ease, me con~mllW' is fl1li·c~d to a s,pec:iaUy Se!l; ~J~ty 'tllI!i)JL~pl!)kn:cd Vi,tri~bllc.

P,rooe,ss, !;:'Ol]ltUUem'.s can be, bWi~c~Uy dli\if:idGd. 'i'IUO' ~i:Y,~ . ,igrruificmi:[ ooll'ip'omlcnts ~~, SIruD\!!~n it" Flg', 6d~

G~U1!l1'ra~~'

II - ~r' Glg!l\BJ

,MGalW;s.lutIi ~ra~ I

.F.lgllltl: 6.l

'[halli: .. liCprtSeJi~Gn, 1ihMl.'s inhJi!: :iD,i;I"~ :lloignimiCofinl. ,~o:lltliPOtlctlil ,011 DSIJmdiiil~dl '~ ~Qritmini!!r otfid.l:ht!!I100sic:' ~f!~fiQn~tIOI1i!

N;IlJ~e,: NUl. fill nr !'Ill! illlWiivj~uuill ~lWnclio~, tl~G'ri1n1l ~low .:,DR iilnl~l]elT1li!n~oo in III '

S 1M ATIC oonlmru pmflhlc·~;,>,., -Ill ~1iI ieul Hli.ll'lt Pff(D~ c n~'RJl,I:IG no a:~ Il~1l: sr ~ ATIC S7 -~(K~ IIDIi It! P1LCs anrl lOaOf. hR!!I'le n. Ii Illlii 100 SOOpi! or rlU netlons,

Most COIU'OJ1~. ifilieSpe'Cliw. ol~ \w.bclu;;"lltey :am ~Qttware' Or 11:i:!n-d!w~ ooul:ro~~rn. are n~!1J:da)ls co~m,ecm:ed 11'0 ffilOS~ liW ~UI}~iOM, ~n SCADA s,sl:enls (c:,g:, OP' orW.i!r!iCCJ or' cornroW fl)':!ii·' ~~nm!l: <e.g. p.eS1)I, These :s:;ys~~m:s U~;UjD~]!f ~m'l'wde ta~~m~ti:es mlt om])' rClf v,isllaliz3mwoiOJ of ~WU.1 OOf:lIl1D~rue:rn ~~, ,nloo foJ' ~~~iJcnlJy blI1J1!1~mc'jftg II~ef:n ~i~ ,o1a1er' woros~ ~o opc;rJilie Ilhrem. ,rus~~ID1m~nt of ~ih~' s~tpO:ifU i,~, ,0 speci'oW fg~~O:f.mlf!l (o;mplete :~mtcm~Uon Sg~ut~o'n's" setPC~f!~S Inm only Inl,~~ ~ IIi);)ed v,~ruue {Ihlen!] ~l,po.lmd (0iDl.'11rQl) lOO!t, ,3fe freq;UJ.en~1y abo dCil1~e~ ~y host progr~ms '[e.G:. €O'UOW.iUJP C:01ruro'h:; whill a$:ii\~nm.,;ni <(Ii s('l]xdm from reeipe dw!a m[J!n~lIeJn;ent ii,)I~I~~m~s" Oc:lJliCEl.p&'Cil"t!' 'V4JSIMATIC'B~liCh 'V6 Oi 'f;lI.z~y 0iPli~ll!tb~umffiO:I!I!s).

fi • .l. ~ :lnl:cmal.Assilgnmeml ,~r S'e~:J,J'Qii!ilt

'w:i~m~ illU:erniIJI :WllSj~mLnu 'llf'l1D~ ~~po~m" lIlIll nctWw gi!;~po~m i:s ru;siglru~d.o :H);!~d V,thle ~mm. 6.e iiIj,Si:'ri n\'I.et1"U.'C~ '(e.g. :PCS,1 fiicep~~tc)'" Th~ ,~'(jntooU'l!:r ,(i,em~c:s ~n ~:is iD~CId~ as a. pure fiJled M!t[poi:nt oDnrnlD~~erw:bGS\C 5C'llptIi nt :i5 ~}!c:lush\'l:;ly defi med Frc!rID11 the iin[:lu'~ J;uulcrn of the userill1'lcr" rllDe~ ,1\, $e~j;oi.liIIl while'll lis 'pos:swbly ~ssilsnc:d 'by tlllepffiB~. ([cHow-upl s~~rol~'O remgj~:ll !l!t1ltC:Q(~:srud~r:OO.

f1.1.'2 Exblml1~ .Assigmrme:nl ilI·f Scf..po:Enl

W:i~~. e:ll:t.ema] OlIi$$mlgnl!n~l]t fa! the ~e~poiDl! tile ril,Ci[jV.C: SC(~h1Jl IS :[1Lssigned fromJI:ivilufOcr I}lJl1O<o g,m!:Y:I I(~.g:. fiJIr-ZY)', 1111': o@lltm~h.'~cll'ifipera·les :Ilnl ~!ti:!i! mode as a sl'a'lilC oOitluoller wl1,(Jtie :se:I:poillt j!:i~~r;d~sJvi;:'ly d~fjn~d frot1J l~.e user 'f:f~un 'D:f tfle :PtC' 0:1' A.S:. A ~~:poi nt wlMcb is possib~y pl'e'" s ~nlt fl){!mil1,e I.!.~I' i:nted'ilciI:: (fnl!ted selpoiiuu)rema:ims uIKloliUij:derod. ·Pro.Bl'.I1H.1.-<c()i1!lmll.~d. sw~(cbim~ over fn)(ml.lNTf1.RNA.L~i) ~X1ERN.;\IL.i' . ~sib~~ for lile SIMATIC Ofl:rltm'l;l:l!h.nll whi;cll haNe [",0 ~[lm~~1[ in~nu2'l,

6.1..3, Sci:llMi·n,·t: Ram:p'

·ii~. erder to .pn.w:c!',i( :suddQI1I ,r,;:ib:a.ngil:';s ·w;hh.:b :refi'lllh In the: c{jl1~n)lln!Jp' ~om i:nl uil:ls~Cllad.y, various ccmtroUe,~~ Oilier' !I~H~ :llO~l'j~b;illi~.y ·cif.a ~e[pDit:ufnmp (SrCefJi8 .. 6.2,'". Thls rn!~;p ~l!Hlctii~:D'i ilFC,'vems ·a f~_st 01 sudden dtmragc im ~!b.e jn.plJjt'l!.rl~U~ (!icl:poimO. The c'halDlc inJ rspocd can oftCiIII, be d!eiued by l~.elWse;r :~~prul~nt:ely :for ciluwgcoS 111 'Ihe prlS~(W"'C rjlrect~o:ni ([J.PRLM~) o:nd iffil ~be ['I~,,, ~tifwe ,d~re'-'1iOJ) (.ONRLM).,·iltc :rnmp' fu~n;~:iorID therefore repre8e;nts a. ~llmW !lg. function f~!:" tb~' ~b.a'lID.g~ IIllJ 8LJCGd in a ptu11cRla!i' dlrecti.oo .. TOO. chil1lg~ :ins:peed ~!!; de;fil,ed hID tie \1arioo..~ Sf MAlle prOOllf~~ e~lhe:v .~boomu~e]y [,9&ls.l or StDiWid:;)Jrdi~~dll8J :rof~~dlo @i U)l% ~~_wg.e,

r ---' ....... ~ ... 1'-- .....

- _ . ,/! .

Deffililed ." :

ise~p(t~nt lift)

201 '''-+-~~+=====y'==~~~ ........ ~---...,....-+

() I A~,,,t ." ·1- I· ·i"i: ....

• _ •. i;....,,;;,pmn· ~.;~m!~~lng

Bitch lpr(~~ omuro:lIB'! offers, ~llile I:aciliim(y :torr irum](~£!g, ~ .s.etpohn ~(1! i~rarnC'h!riz'lble ¥,~lluec~ ill .ordcr tQlh~i~ ~Incornro( In:puts ·of (lllC cpuatar {~r C<lmma:md ·vm1a1blc.

6.1 EleneJlb;ry FunCtiOM ef UlJe A.ctuo1 'Valu~ Branch

6.2 • .1 .f11.ter

If!renrere~.c'I!Js en ~.~ ;~U;U];[I1 v.aWue {e.g, sliI!pew_mposed :I111Gh fmq.~encie5 :ift 1tI;re ·~~e:r supply,. wm~cmll'ss:ibl:~ gfil)llUd. :pote1aiiU,a~ et~\~li:oll. rum::l:m:Uoll. of gUtehes en l~ s~gm~l U_mc •.. md O*!.ll" pl,l)'si.cal. ~r.J~e,r.felenOe!l o:n ~l1eactmal. valu:e) Call. 'be oDm~llsal!ed L1si~ :&(;Ifi~:filler' fiu'l~" limu;:,. !.lli al 1~~;'St stl:~:Il:wn~d. A nu~n~~r of m~m t'llre :8I!ro.i];E!lbl~.llle :srum,lest. rundill1ilo.nfm ... i!Uenll:lI'psed jij.l~f-~· .i:fi the: II ~t or«r ~~!Ia_:y ~!I~l1liJj!IU. (P'FI ~ll.tll~ItU) is!l:lw'1~in F:ig. 6,.3, A ls:~: nmer

Acfual '~Iue'l%]

~OO 1'-1-r-"1f~~r-:::::~=~;:;:::::;;:;;;;;;;;;;:;-""" ,eo

t50 40 20' '_

o,~~~~~~----~----~~----~--_.

o

FlI.l~ft fi.3

l:s! (ird~!' ~h~ d~1 J.Y' ~~:~!t~'r1'! fPT II 'r3Jeml!::lIt)

d~llli.y elf2llflltlill'l ~~ a ilral~s'l~i:s~1on !!1f:1:I1!iil nl wl~o$e l1unnJI<mi,(:; :s[elP·r:Q~ced I1'f!S'pwlse strri'Ye-s hlwa'rW: illi :l!ltki::Rl.y .. ~t~!t~ om~.dilli()llI. hI. (.~tJlltra."It tG< ~li,gJn:,...o:rd.er ool3iy dellilt'::ms"iii, d@e.iIi, nol: l:i.'lve a ttlm'inlg poi,gll. 'The dC~iJ.y t~IinC ~~ speci tied !by lihe :P~~IIBh}~r:ir PV ~TMLAa"

~h.ei IIIJput \t;t\ri;!lh~l;:-ti ·~s:e~p;t:Jinlf' ::JimJ ·'Ai.':ill!L.!)~ v::~lu,e" fOIT genL!lflni'lll,g 1lili1,G !llimf rSl@ n;a~ :r;IU.l1i!i~[~felT ll(l13 COIl1ITIOn., Siwndw:dli1led 'WII.l:e,M be IrecnltP~Hrned ,3comd!illg1,.. 'nl,ey I1Ulst llrtem:f@fie Ml,1e [he same ~,yslc~l: dim~I1~'ii(~Ii1J {e"~:" Fn.'"Clf,J~ (U'hml~~m:IJIl.Ire iill [I''''en ,~m(1, IlmU:: 'mmlC mnge of 'milUe5", In rm:ler' 11:0 ,lIcl~i.eve this. the ac[uul·\lj!,;J]ue bmllch Omd Qifre~l ~d's.o 'I be sc~i,mt {IIi diisttlfoo ooo~~ 'Vfihl~ 'braoc'b) tl~s,Oi ~unld;llird:i2'JlJtiCYJalfllnC[ion" p.fovidud [hi s, ~s not ru'l'C'-fld),' illclurd~d in. (hU ~uID!lfog,"'~)ue ,acqiJj~sitjQ,B fU!lCilio:", TIle' ~[~d.ardiiz;;'lti!)n Itlo:s;ical~y :fumcli.oflS ~silllig ,a S[!lim· .lln"nII - ,'rh"'" . fc'!J '1'·'-" - II'::-u ,-'in-.

UilUI_ m~L-.:::m;Ulli eJ!E3Ji _ ~pl[_ _ rt

16..1.3 Lmt-ari~'tiall

'The; li~ari~timn :riJll1~th,ltl i~ used ~o co~,ve.n non·Umlmu pfu,)1sicai :oo~3rnicu1Shi~ irn1'oa :1:iJneqr te~lll:ions:hJi:p. EJl!lI~liP,les O'f' ntm.rnilnear re;lalions~i:ps are:

.. ' M;enSUiru.fil-iliU o~ 'fIuw'ml~ ,uif':ll liqu:id IIlI.S:liI1g the tpunlli[l' ::lj~"Gd .. M~Il!i'l!llmn~iII1~. l(Df ~,empertl!tDrewl!u!e IU s:irng :tW il'ie.,i'i~!i:LlmiL':~ 'IIW!I!I:e

.. :Me'llsfUJ[r1!melll.lltlf cirt:u:kll1f ~n~~i~. ,g!uIid~ "VlJ1i~ Ipm~iilitll'il l!t~~lIfig II li,f1~ar ~nst'il!:.

Sut.ill illl1ea!)tu:ed vuillues mnJst 'be ~~!]oori1Jcd :i~l, ord~r ffiO prot;"es's th(m~, 11ds mc~ tmJ3It eacih

"~"~"'d "1""''''~~' b", ' ......... """-11- ""t' A I' nr _ ... t, l'iiflIil· ... ~""" .. nd ~1 ... ..Ii·I."';d- " .... ~II'\I ".d·n:I1i., .. A~ ... ~;iliTllli'II"'''' OCI"""I"'k'I-j'[-:'IJ'

f)I,U~'!i:!!!~ IIHI11J'i.!Ii~ ~ Il!lIlI'¥~~!ll~" !III; y,_UJ !"¥II_n"Ir __ "'i!!r~lJ I~ _ ~~!II.,Yl ,'II',!!. _J'iIl'!iI!!J~~,.r' ,iJ .... _~~lrl!i-~l~ ,~ill~~ <ijIII;Ii~IIJ!!!!·r,~,~i.."'Iill v' ..... .-'iIiII.."..~i}!t .. ~ -. r!

fOF .I,im!arizalioll ~s 'lhl~Il'r po'lygon~basedin,ilel\PO~l~ion. InfPtlm va~ues, fjnlerpolutioD (mlm1ts) are dC'reml:}f.:d m 'V(1lJriOIlS wo:rkin,~polmts" tlJl1j(l, the Mill pl~)'sic.rd mS'lWllS ~S5irJo~d ~n Ulelill" t\~~. lil1~:enncdJa'l()vaI;l!Ies aRl' ~in~iKI:y :inle.!:pcja~~. Unear [pOlr,go:n,·bu5e:~ :ilrnlltrpola1:ioH rus i1Jberefcwc:: a 'table (If l'llerulUR1d c~l~ w~th ~\lJO OO~Um1lll, "Ilte .mol'i: ~mrelpcIL~rthln poinl~ pres~fn in the 1rib~c:~ iSlh-erTn,{lrt'I rn:::CUimte: the dl1l.:r:min~u~C:ri1 'Qf ~!h;e :m::~1CIillIIJty m~a$U[t'!dlwh,!tl'", Secti on 9 "'Corn .. :ml;!!ls[IJah!lg·' ~sl:mws h.£I''i!!' suC\l~ n ~able hllldIUer.lllli:ood ~n l'I'i!JCt~ie:e.

Mamip~laled 'lmMbJe

lDi5bJmance,

'vaMll'kl ~~~' C ~~~~~~~~~~~~I

:n.IlUN fi.ti S~flndm:d PI or P~D' t'l~[mrul~r i5tru~t!lro'

de!'!,I[fil.lble for a~~ p~:S~'II,. Of c():n~f"adilCt5 the r-equ:i!!'emeru :FhT OOIltro~~iJ' !pa!i"'MFI.e~ers w~l,ich um g~n:tle enthe ,3'c'IIJJDtDr.:,

iA.'3 PI, ,or P~D AlgnrnluR witb D COm:pGmulD!t, in the l?{'ulbnck :Ormu:h

'The dRI«I]mr-d strm:lIl~ has been 81.ig'I~Uy cbanged in I:I~:. 6,.,7. ,,~, lenrtJf aI9~B;a~ i s ~ti~l! l1lulti~'I ied b,Y the; ~GJ1Kfal:ioli1JllI ,guilin (,I' ODmp(lnent)., but Ithe: 'lEselll ]S onm,' used as tin h~puu f:or ~ :i!l.[n.cgratm:, ',Fhe hlpU~, 'V'..lIuc Cflhe: diff'l!wn!lator :is deriwd. from Ihc~ ac~ual, wine; :111, this ''Il'I!~r~~@Ir!. In ~li1is ease, t:tn.~ ~tual '\luLalie is llegaliCd~ mn:lt:i~U!!d by ~:I1c~'mpon:hJ;n'iiI~ ~rufll! u'md ~b'i~ ~~gJl1~~ ls lused, ~s IlIi~c In!plu vM,inb~t OIl Ute dwn:~~m[i"'~nr., ''file dilislmm.ne~ ~WiW.]~ ~s .1,DlllIJ'pl,i~d b, ,iI ",O\H;lilfIJfH: and ~efi ~ddtd ~Q the(m~fIU ~ilgf;ial,

11J,c d,esigl~ntWom "'D, C{llrl1ponent. ima, 'll~ :r~ba.ck, b:1Ura.~h" m~W1~ thatl dlC dlilicrel'i~lllllnr' i 5 OOIil'· PCC1ied to ~lllC 3C!1:!JJr!~ ¥aWu~ Ohev;)!,Ui~ ~~d looel :~m the 'p:roo~iS1}, W~lb tl1jSi}~~:Q'fJlihm stm~'"" tuee, !':tI.c!h: ~hang'C iI~~~1;pai,ru does :Iit'l1[ ~~a',ye IJi di:roc~, I~!tffe:ct en itllie D' cOJiIlI(lmnenl" 'The oontro~f:!2:r ,(Joo.,s not :rcacl. as£,X~.ro,I1UIie~y '(.0:1, cha:mge ill.serpoitu asin ~1u!·IP.rev:1M.1iS '&1:nJelI!fOO h~ Fig. fi~,6., n~ II oom[KD'Iil~nlOllly '5:1i1l1ilil:$, ~:o react W lhmili1lipl~Rlen~;d ~h.u!II\gl\\l liFt :!'I61poim tllimugh the reactlon via, '[he: Pl'oce;ss.

~'

MaolpYIi!1;\Ied variable

DlsWrl:Janoo ''!!'ari,,_bJ'Q

D~~en1 .................... ~II\ .............. ~ ~

~~"'""

'1M

In f~G.,(j..81' the D o(l\mpo:melJ~ i~ 'cWil1ple:~c:ly oocoup~ed froRl,llJie wl:Ule~ O\f~~eeni[nf' si gn lit ''tbe D {lOllll;ponent is oIlJyinflil.lf:IUiOO b)1 JlleO,l]jfle~ted dj!u.Ufbancce:wria:b.Le~, As iifi '!he lWO pre.vhms S~~jI)!OO$. (.he' ,e~ signaJ is :mll~tip~ted. Iby the; p~f;iliojUi~ ,~tn (Pi >QomlPOf:lmt)~ ,iJilfldl Ithe [esul~ is 'only ulsedai ,ilJ~1 :inplu for ~lI1e ilnu~grat,o:r. '!be ~MlPU~: 'vuJue ]lOrr' the difrelelil~,i;tto(' 'i,~ diell~'I.~ from. an,), Mah.1g i'llpm 'whle < distlu!ban,,,"le wrl;l;lbte), TIl'i!li p:mc.ess, !l'dl,l!I:e is lIlegau~d., :mu~ui[J:l:i~ b,," Ih~ p:oopoJl~(!Ina~gflilil,. mu.jJtllt:l'resul'l, lwSed us t~e inpu~ "'finable f~r,' tile di.~~I~·' U ntoo. TI1~s SiI!tlCt!JIre is aJ:so l'de~'OOd, iG ;a.~ dlsu .. woorilce 'V,anable f~edfo~rd at [lite' cootrol'le:r

;;nll\U;' n-c··l'"iil!l, ...... '''''.,'''' ~- .. I'l .. s..,..., .. ' .... ,,, ••.• ' ~.Ifi,~ ... rr..." ~1'·I'w""IM.,.j';'I' .. i."",,;1 ~1''''~CIO II:,..~ 'liDO .... AIlI ........... ;~~~ L"'" IliI.·~ ""AM

I r'" l!, . <. ,jJ!lIL _llrl.Ji1I-,.~"'" '!I!l:l.iIl .1.I].D,b .... 3' ,1<II~u • .,..'~J ui~ U;u I~ U .lll~ Jl~!lrill •• Ul-'1ir.U 1~!Il'u,ilJ!l;,r., I~~ __ ~I "-"lUI _' _~I;~iIi";;.U . ,,_~ ;.il',;. "--111.-:..1111,1-

tmne:rr:. ''fhi!:~ dil~l'ulrbiim;:e'!.IUnable: ~~,~n onlly tre,m::~s for a 1:111111 ifled ~'i:111e on [he .~onlrdllll!!r ;fUlU~~I;lla ,cmng~. C'O:I~bl.nD!tlilll!s, of ttrle oonu'tlrn~er :s~nu::Un.res de.'iclliixd ~oo,~e are po~~b'!e,

fheP lI~8!',1,rlt'Jrll: U!UJ~ !'jurWilk.itic f~'tlcklr'!l0~ lolW(Jr:ki~I'g r:«)J;u

.At :6rnt ,~~I1J.iJ!lce, ~ihJem appears t", h a co:ntmdi:d~~R ~n F~g:. 6,'9'" ,A, P oonlro~bu' whtc~ ,cO:IIDm.mn· .~ :1, ,co:mpob~nl'~' lhtt tbi;5l is (jOf,MC~,~ I Q@'mP'One~l~ 'We're: :provious!l.), freq;u.u~IU~); used as Ulna,"' los,'-v,nlue ~5~Dlil~:S (wittl di~NU:e oon6.~llru:uin11J,.'Il"g, in :pO~fIGii pJ:.m,l:!i.)j, ~JU' ~ti5, exn(lt~~ llti~ 'fIiUlt; .. t~{lJil wJ:liiCh ~s bamdled 'by [he j~'a~ml)Qr'inlkshowh ,"ltuCml['e. Th~ PUIEe P ·oon[m!~~r j,s fre-., Iq~1lJem~y mu:rt jUSif lilm:III'iplic.alJlllll of' ~~le emJf' :fi~.sn,a~ b,')i' the p~por1iolla1, g,1i'ilfl. as sos,pecmed, SUlCh a 'strucllUlm wOIl~d, m~u tliun" ju tItLe :Ste,ooy",st.[~l:a;'~l'l1Iitt~tb:nll (FoR ,::;::0,,0)., t~c OOIlU'iC:"~ ,ootpn (nbilO

L--_- , ~~~===,

L_ ~l amponem,

=~t=

.... =-=-- ~'-~

'.' IManlPu'~!

'I W~'e

i, __ ,, __ .. ,_ .... __ ~ .. ,,_J· .

9.5

OCoCU~U]il)]U()' oofll;md 'I)DI 3;S ~Itj,e OOltl~;UjO:l1t31iIJi) W01I,ldl ,ruSOI mJarve the IfmUil (i,0. H"OW{:'~rr:, tbis is hard], e:'H~jr usable in ,practice.~t linust be: possi.hle lur' ::If' conmmUe:rto deL:emlrune ~ 'wod:in,g pobrul m dIe OI!!![PLU .if tbe ,nxI:UICt of the: ~n-,o:r ~dpa~ ~Dd Il'he 'prop'!urjO~1lI1 gaim reS":l!11lts ~ :1], 'vnlll,e o~ ":>'eIiO~ fr-oceis jzIcnUi).ru~e,rs p:mv~dc .severaill :pos:.s]b:iUtruc;~ ror a.chi.'eving, Ih~s;.

One or dHil ,~ piJlisibi! hies i 5: ~Ul!J.alIitic lJ:add n~, of thelil!ur,kin~ pIJ.ilu In m.D1Il1lal .modlt:~ ] L is iIIII~tlmed thrnll, me \:li\ol1'ldn.s pohllt .i s aoces~d us~ng: Ilhl! mamu.a£ ,lnUl'i,u!I[lICdl~a'Dlel. :Cind. O:110~ {hi s hu OO~;Ii, d1etcrmillled. :~ M:vit~ih :mdc ~D auto.~ti:~ mooe., N ~buwn in .Fig. 6.9, the 11i!!!i!t nlOfl'~Jl~ :Ml!lnrup·'Il!.I~~0d vBti~b~e: S!u is .~.ved. :ilnli the: .af:u!Jo,g~'\f!1lI.u~ ,"to~ I(,i:nire,gr~tcr). mid i,s reta1~cd ii.kif: il cons 1~l:lt offset 'lmt~~ ctutlJl!l;ed n:;ni,n by r~I1'lu;eli' ,r1~juslmewn of the M;nnual man i'pUJhuc.'d vllri,DiO:h~ in n1:liftlmal moclht. "nus mesns lluu. II11e ~mmeln!'loris, I,{)"( cham,l~d 'i n .a,tUo .. , lirm:u(;:m,odo',

A w;n~etr trea:lment p]001 eon lbe u:u::nJLioned ~s tLliI ,1].Ifl\plIcadom. l!Xum.p~e :fOil' p' l~a:rnt!I'JlIers. wheN tbe level, in ,'1 ~~dim~nl:fiti:i;it'l tankis ll!) b~ CUl"itoorut'ed. by aprocr!S:!l, oontm~le-w.. It nmst bi:[XlSs~b~c: In ~;,Il!U!ge the ~!g~~ ~simg ;n ~!Jn!!lQ~piU.I;I1II~~d ,_j;l1IibID!'! adjuSi~~r (hiclu~rllow~f'~!, Th~s! prol:dii:'1n CQn be sallied ,cldRjmel,y s;hl1lPly 'lI!s;i:nIG sueha 1:11 rol1lltroU~r w~~h RlIi[OmaUc: tmei1!dmlg of ~:h!2i worru mg ~po~nL

.' m1:i!;; "nUl: l!~!'!iC: {I'f lilt [I ~ r:::oITI'[wllef'iii wiftin,(lut 1lrn,;:ltifll:1! of 'nII]C wmtinil ,oi f:il ~,' i II ;[lIh!!I'i:J:!!5 !"Cs.llIlllt 11111 :fd ~rneEltl)Hatl~1i! dmfiur,j'on. The: usc' I]f I~(ID)) cO:l!l,I!L't)I~l!r.!i w~~b rumcki n~ 'rJ,f tl1l2 'i~'CI1i'w.:i ng ,oi nl wU 11l1;s1} re~u I~ .111'1 ;j] Slf'm:ly .. ~mte ,i!lIevi iJtrnCl!:n rr ~le CO,!'a lmller i.s1l10E pre~n~ :tI:l the ~I wotloi.il1ilS po~n~.

Fig~ '{)". :11[1, s.'hows ,~. fUirliu:::r' ,pos..~i.brurn~ty or ill !p' ,colrutmller' ,!l;,mruc.u.wre. ~'I, is, Ilissume:d hem 'Lho! l~ wo:rtil,G; ,ointi;s :knDwm and need ~ot: be c:hm.gedooymom. lit; esnbe Icon.nected iJI dlC'rOm1l of a, Ol'.ll:1'5Im1~, "'WP'" or 3ip.p~~ed ,Ill t1n~: distwr'lnwee vru1a'bI,G i:m;put..

P oomp.o:I'I8f1!t

I .

~e:lpollrnt - -_. --I C .....___ ---"

'6'05.1 Umitlog of MDnipulD~aJ '\ilarJa'blc

Ei1(:1ru '~S5, ~1](j!uroH~rjjiff~F.I ~Wic f~ci lil~:y ~br ~.~p~iItS; U~e' m8JiipUiIDt~:dJ 'WJri'{}ble wi'ilruilfli fj)'rumT:u;:~er.~I.e Umhs\, DHr~Ati~mr:tio]1:S ,aR; 1I..t_!!.d Ito d:ete:!lJlul!l.e th~ R'SPQ~e o.r~ cClQ~mllruef

95

~u 'the llmlter 10 ,i.1CltUDlliml the poiml ~n dine at 'w~!tch th~s :1 i mil OOCil,U'S" CIne possibiilUy for

]• ._. . III 'h I A 'k.... ,"I 'Il.,."~ "I"b' . .~ .. rli _. .!i 'I _ II!ni,Uti,B, I, ~s:.'i' l'Oiln'lO~ t.r nas a 'tC'3u)l' uceil~ueo£.Cinueu. rr lsi'!i, ~n.~ , IftCli,011"IJe-pent etll[

iJl~ocikilIDG of the I ()Ol1)jI)()!)~;nt :01(, lbe limi,t .... ~1 so mf-e:m'ld to ~s aIilil·ireset"'w~[ul~u,p .... , aOO ~MS to prevent ~ruegf,11 saroufI'!ion. In :addilioVl nll b:locldilg ,0:[' the I ooolpo:nem~'t t1.1.e ,g.enel':uion of the '~1.Iim (OCr th~ p~ J!,I) and Z 'Gtl!:m;po:oon1s is ;re$Iiri,(;~!!d to these-II mils" In ~~ :n;MA1I1C~Gnti~!lIology" th~ l~glW~S am· g~yaUy ~Ji~if(~dtD' as LMNtJiLM: and.LMlN ... LLM,

6.5~2, Elemlfufurry FUnctions ~ Bhmli'Y Slgl1al GeDCf-aiU'Olft,

''The ifunc!tiID'I1S for binDJzy ii,~J~al gemeratJ;on (~y]se"widil'h nuw!u.'l.ati,'Dn.) are imph-:JiIllCntcd in ~epmmJje fU'n~~.iGn b~oc1r.s i'e.:g:; PU,t..c) 00 EN' :IFB~3)1~!TId hb'!':~ al~ady been ~licrirbed :h~ d~,,~11 h:l Se~tl@1l :1", Dle r~~ is worth ~tlelllthnd~lg~ ~hnt ~b,e 001f1.U'rnUC;r.; fur i:nli~graUn:g: aetuamrs ~n. dJ,e S[MATI.C'W'(lrL~ nift\'C their' own oO:rlmlllcf ,alg,QriitfI'lUJ (c,,;. CONT ... $ :fB4:J) .. Sb:ulCns h&'i,i!ll.<;j 'O,Wrn1. 'pH!~e:nJl ({Df' th~s P10 oonl1mlo~ruc!i. wh[dl, 'Dpern:l~ witJtiul]lt ,run UW'.nI OOI1lJIDm£fu. As a !lill,bs~:i .. 'u~e" 'tile .IJ]g()I:i~tlm uses, Ute ,i'C!Jl1l'(lOI1CTlli m~lnmi.cq'ny fiIlte.d in ~hc :[1C1t)'~"ltor. Dis 'P!'oQ~lhue p1lyid.e8 mWi:lwge!!li,. c,._g •. ~~l,C I ,ooln,ponC~nit oorrespond.s lu IheaC:l'I.IiM w'Or.k~n8:po<j~!t.DiSw~tI as d~sw:I.'l!'Wii~a.g,es!. e""g~ ill ~~ltDn di:Sipl~~ii, not pos1i~b:le ~f ~. pilslltion ~etdbad,k is mL~ing~

6~3 Limiting 0:1" MMuml M:aJli~,pu!fBWVgriable

Ea.e~, pmce&ioon[KI'I~N o:lif'CfSlbci .€~dilllty' f.or ru~J:11iti1l1g: thfl:mBUm :mn~pul:li~, wr.iiilibloC ~D plmlimctc;riz.u'b~c: iiI!:rults ((in~y Wim][hng. tlfthc man~pulaltd \~,riu:bl;e ;~t. thc' ootput: fot'tbe prod .. uC!:S PID CcuruiroJand 'IU Tel11pe~rolMe L...ontrol), TbJg ~m~ mooJmc~ m.Fu~ts 'b" me. G~r~ i1~m Of ~x:oornil'l mdjus1Jer; Limi!tI9'g of till Ill' manlpummd ~DJri ilJb;:h~ of 'lh~' ,coot.mUrtli' mJ~pl!u Ls, aJ'W3.]1S :su~ri l.wrjlOsed on thIs. Tihis, is tEI,e, case w.i~b ~~ pf'll)(luc'l'S fiD' CooliWl., fIll) T-cm(per'Sillfe C{mtmtt S:IDlfld:ard PID O)lltro~ and Modular Crm~m:I~ as wdru as w~Lh the pm ~,CNTRL Ogtl~~,:diei,r {If PCS1,

.• Cnn'trol. Struemres

10 [he 1Pru''!,I''ioln!s, !Je.~~_ioms" I(mill,. ~I]te'nl:llll[ O(D~UM~WC\r fUllctions were ,[I_c_cm-nlbc-d. If sevew eemrol:~e:rs 'ilW ~m)d:h!~dtl~! ,cootoolle~[:j wUh ~f:ldiv~dyaJ QO~nruW fU[imJ~n~ m~ l!ii~:ew@n[1e~~~d. O!~;e ref~rs to o@ntroill SlI1!ClllOOS. COI)([i@~ :struC[Ul"le:s :are ~I:]el'dnre pl!Oduwd tD'.ll" mltiniee:lUem:lll, c(l!nmJ,ec~jj(ll, of iw.di'll:idu.aill preeess conuoil:ler5 ~flI;d ~helr ,acoGunp:I!f'Vyilni,g :fll[iClioneileme:in:l;il,lIUiS~, like the b'A!l~C liircuills d~IIi.ll!i!!d fOlD" l(DpC'liIl-loop, C()\Iil~m] technoilo<g}' l~stmr .. delta s~altillg c~lrcuj~. Dalhl:m!nd¢;f (!:i:r~ CIJIi9.t, ellt.~.,). rnlliaere are also wrious 'b3si:CSlrun:u:::l~lI!I:reS fo,r c:~osed.~~oop control Ileil::hII1lii!l~~O~tf wffil:ich '!%fiU roo cl)n~iden:d ~n ~~I!1ib~r' det!IU be luwg,!limlgliJowchild$,

-

Nlb~ III I ~11~ni~ 81 rucrures d!:~ri,l')CtW b~I'OW c.i.'lin he i 11m pieme~ilcd usi ng 3JM AT Ie t1Dmr,[I~ pro(]Ue'I.,>. 11, j~ tdc:ri ~iv~whlJ~~lC'r I hI;\! 'ru-.il.p~.c[~\,';' 'COlli troller lnpu ~5 ro:f" SlnlCltlr~ n~ rind/oil" lhll: required o:pem6n:g modes exist on lhe!;;;o:~spo]1dil1l\g QonU'I!}~~,t::[·.

:In pmfl'~l;:iIIlar., IliLe Pi{D, comtr"Oll~f,':" of ~be S]M,~: Ie S,'hlOO m'i~l'il PLe·. and looO'! h:.t~ e :B. ]i I nwteti, scu[i'e of ~'III'IIJCI un 11;:1i,.

D:isuwrban.c:e variabl.e ~~edfQNilard (,z feedl[u:rw.~d) is Iij.sed wh~re !.nlue]]~~'i from the proesss ean be me-{I_!!lDmood oo~, '(ll.llt 1m f1~.eru;:oo (FiJ~ •. 7.1), Ther-e g;m bu.;s~c~Lly ~,WQ di"~~~;I: I:tl!.HiliD;ods €a[' 'CUS;(;llli~barlre wI.ja'b[s: feed:filrvrJim. On UlJ0 one ,IUlmtdl,l~e feedf@mmnl, CilIil, be3!1i the oCoillltroJI.er

rnilll'i'iJliilnd ,on ti.", other l,ilj' ~i!..,. .-_"""."1,""""1111,,,,,.. o'''lnl'li'' '1iF:i.""s"' ~!i!;,1"" t '!iI'~" ... iIi' ...... "'.:IIil''''' .... ,~...,lI A'·I'R'", .. ].,", ",I..",

__ -It-· - "!! !-- - . ..:....., _"_ - .1l1i. v II; !!,j~~"""" 'I!!!:U!l !!!1Ii!IJ uW~I!;;I~ ._ u -. 1~'I;:I!!I;:Il !Ij 1I!~1;1" I~J r- J~ iT t'-'!Iid'~1 Ili.!IbIl JIIIii!~WUIJ ~N·,mJ!U !lUll IJ;Il~1I1 l l~lI, U,I'Ii.r.

S'tIilllCtUfif! .off ~il1.e O[lnU,ern :~d~,(lrnith!!1'_.

i 'c_''' " "'- " "-,~, " '"

! CPU I

r ' ....... ~_~ ............ ""'Il

[

~

~

! I

.............. ----i-! • ._----II Cor!'liiO~e.d .... - ""11"- -. liMa nTpUl2ited~Y3t9m

! ! vi/liable

AduL)~ 'I,I,OrU('i

"~~gum "'.:~

'PIOW'C\hM, of a disturb;!:_oec !;I'ariDbl!l.: [eedfor\\'ard, Structure !l,w;~ll.:I'U!S Of! ~he !l:i01ll1lmll~r :!Ire !IiIIs~d to seleet whcth~r the ~~ooba.ckis :U 'lh'C coanr'oUer il!l,:pu~ M ,ot1il~iJJt

IIO~lyrba!lQ1!ly,a~at!I'a ~nGfOrw,aRl

IF811i!11,

Ma:st:et ~filti101rer

IitliltiMee ·om dl,Wtbanoo v;a~;atple Bzts.!

AW.i.a] 'l!I,altu!!1

C'fmIlQ~lod SfSl~, 13($)

--------""---, "!-_._!'!_ . .....-:

eli' 'The (n:!liU'lffutilllce'wn,~b~ie 1r,~ii"t!llr:i').m'"~,:,1!1 :lit diu!: Cl[r- [1:\ ~ nl[~ .. i filfil'l~ ·s 1'~Cij~ ,,~, • iii, ,oil 'b-' ---'-:"'1" .. -- .C"_'i-;:

__ --- _ _ .. _- _ --- _ -- _ -- -- _ _ __I, . _ fL gw_i'il~ ,I" --- I" U!!i,;,~e:I!I!IYI !!II~Y . 'Y Ilnu~'Ii!!,",IIiI{;_ng

or the: setPO~Iii~, ,om' ~CUlm, ~~:llIe depelldent ~n 'Il~ d~Si~tlm~_n~e \i,.iaJDle,

,~ The di,stu:rbimrucevar,im'b~le feedfcuw:l'Ilr-d, art the cO,nItr-oller olJItpum, is ei:lhcr d~tclimi mcd by dli.rect, Ilddi,'u'Yc: :illllnUlCr:lI:ifl,~ 'D~ 'tile 'lllUJ~i:ln~rullro:oo \rarj:tlb~c' or tr.:il:l:!ked, previously vilIJJ a lii.lIe!:'"" entrulll:or.

Tilt! e:rFcct or thc (lis[(lrtumce'wrk~bm~ en Lh~pI:lKe:.ijg C:U!I ba l~sLim3~fld :til, :I, ITIlnMI;er :fllllu;:tiom G,i s) ~c~ord irl\g ~:o f'~g. 1.2 :i:f'thc ,Cfltl1:lroller lis d:il, [@, maJU3i[jimooe s~, th3~, i!O~~nB~ in Ilil~ ,"CI'Ij:Ul~ 'l/,alllle no, ~O\Ulprd~:pend (lInl challl,~~~, ill the uiI:llllipl11med vmable blll~ oldJil' OITh (~,~f:lC,C'-.\i, Wfil ~~te nm~i!3Sl.IJmMe dli,8mlllrbtlnc:c vru;i3brn~ l;. Pml:ll thiis ImOV.~I~~Il', :~t. :is !\Xl' s:ibla to d;~riil;'1.'i :Dnid~ll'I di: .'" [i1JJmaJlOi3 l1\ma'llle c@mplllli~tion Cr.r), 'from ~~Il Ireq;ulroma'n,l: ~hll: Uile ~recm,

G:,Jd' .!'.: ~ C(o$' a. G($~ • ~ ;; (G~(¥Ji ,,,,". C(J'J • G(.s'H • ,~~; ~l

or '[he:i:~ruill-lrr~rof.li!'le :Foil" fm~ MJPOnlliie: .of z. s:hC!:lfldl 'he ~~IU;BJlliO wro. The dhm.!lI1blmoCoe wri:l!!'b~e Wed forward shmJ~d. therefore appr{Udm31e ~_i1iB H~lufll'.r ~lalm:~:iCi",

as w-en as pO'.ssi.b~G., In ,ad.dji.'ti.'Iln to, :kmow.ledg,e; ·Qf the dis~tl:miflilce 'miab~e~ Irnnsf'cr fuction., dl.e m\r.i2r:sion Q. .:I,(S jl of tbe p~GSS dYIl3JlUi,~s-h: :also reqll~red .. E\'e:m 'if th~s is i11.0[ 'pcriiCc~y pos,,,, sib~Q'. tMStqlW~do:n, W'!~/Cl1~e~~~~;~miVld~ ,ilfrlD;PPro",ch,lrilrn'.dJf,~flin~ ,of~he dis~u:Wfince vdriabl.e f..:ecUilM3ftl",

1!t(l$j,lpie

T1h:c ~!lJ~rnl.}wrul1!g: 11:rn11li~\fbJ" 'fUII!I!cli'D!1S ,W1C: de~!:;,:m1~ned l!lI$,i]I,,g th~' PCS1 PIO ... Th!U':l~; 1JJ 2nd erder n'uxl.el with ~, :s~i~ of ,5 ,and. ,0 time cG\m$~~fH of :I 00 ,~ ~O[ 'the ilCU~IIlI'~O:I1.u:olled ~"st~ml

and ,~ ,3':r~ o.rdler model wi.~ma, a ~~in of 2 and a ~'imt COL'lSUlom ,of :l(H]s ~m' 1:h€ effc!Z[ of UlI€ d:i!i:li:ii~ban.cC], V3itiab:le.

J' J' ,~ J:

G(s.) - ' .. ' .]

(200."\:' iI- ~)'

1l1'j:.l ,reSUIU~, iin ~c f()II,{lw i'l],g ide~l diJ5tuma'Doc: "illruaJb'le foodfolffla..rd: ftCCnnl'i:!l,g '1£] 'I1iLt! Ilb!J!.'¢ equation

C(s) = _ 1; • fUIJ{t~, ... II

, ' , C2,on,~ -if' J ~J s:

ru.e. '[he ;'fU'I1C(i:GJli1'~ in filS. 1.1 ;i~ :3, nlJiU!ltiIP~t~~a:lioll !by a t.'\!Jns~:aIlE, faC'f!(1f:'.

,D:yn am:i;:; C(lm~llsat~@J[J, w:b]C~1 aW1.00[ ~Qm.pru~~el,y elimhn I.li'e-s the. h:uteriim'i'C~cc, L'"'IIIC~l w:ith ,cj~3nGes 10 ~l1ecQntro~ loop ~s poss'i,ble, ~ilu!rotlgJl Illpprox~ma'ti,om of D( s) by mt,ans of a,PTl ,c:lom~~t

~nd ,~ ] 'Sit Ofith:r J!.llliI5.11ij ~mcc ~mnd~:r~MIIl'Ct~(\Ili1, Wmll re~Ql\'Cll J

G(s) ~ " , .. '

200.i + 1

'Il~~ diin1~,ren[b,uJ:r -( w~th dGI~~f) ~~re3dy ufelmii 11.0 fulioveas I!!!l (ii\a;mple :re!lujJJl~ aslhe, d~sl:u_['" banee v~_rjab~e fttiedfo:rwaf:'~;

7~1 :t"eedfofw,Drd. Cont:r"01

Fc,,'ilf:Orw,aro eolUro~ ('0['9.1001 ,,~ool:nro~) if; ~illU[~M' liJ line zf~.ed:fo;uwdir.d, ~t the OO[lOOU~1l' 0'111'· ~'~i wn:d a.'iSiigns ~lTI:emJ~'f'ljpY~iUW 1o,,'mi~bDe: ~,vii~ue tmll$[e:md from the b.08( PLC. A kmlw'O worlktu;. pohu: cam 'be dle:ffuned ~I'I, rnhis nmlJiDl!cl, mnd ~h.c: ,(I)'TIL"Uu~c:al.ly set. COil troller In~d ~"(!IIdy'" ool1lpe:nsate :my fC,!i~dtilimlg (Hrrel);;'illcc;s.,

Iff)

I!. .

iF.$-.··. FF.IC ..... ~ ..•

~I" .:;]Ii:;!'

I':'" . -'.'

I@.-._.

I .> pr=>. I " n.

I . _

I. ···.·.'2;'J~ ..•....

-}V .. L~i .

A maf"~F eomrol ler (Ate' 230) is lJ~l~;)~1, ~~~~.Iiilbme in erder ~o ccrnuroil. m~ t011:!JI. 'quw:t1ti.ry ~n. R,S .• '7"5,, .andi ,dave ,cllllltroUers. r(FF1C 23 ~ ,und. .fflC· 23,2. ~Q CO rum I. ,slu:b irnJtW~\li(ffiliIJd ipanlcll ,qY~I1Iti,l'l O·R. 231 aad FR 212). n~ ~C{IJ@jJ '\Iru.g~ o~ ~e ~:o!m qt!!~mllli~y (FR. :230) rus m:p.prni:ed. to the: ~moord i m!Dt!:!' :I'lu.itl c:ontm;ne r. slJjbj!!Cl~d there ~Il 91n. adju~wb~e: lra·tio faclior, :!IIDd th!l: intS.u'I~, of the; ~u~~, 'C:.9J 1(: urn it1 iorrn 3pp~~ed 3 .. , :i C'lpoi.rU tothe.se Ctlnlf-oUers.

The slmeture c.f the enseade OOt1~ro~ 'bo.sicnUy consists of two (ca:scifLdlld)'i:.'IJ;llIitmller:s een .. ncc[led. iml, series. A. 1,1M~~r 'COIilJI'rolliGli' oonnects, ~tS O!.l;~Pl.Wt '\faJ u:e(milj]lp'U1,I!:ll~~d Win ilb1e) as ;9, S~[~ p)i:lU 'In a ~eri(is,EroJilliiG(,':tGd shl'!;,'!l'll I!l;:olumlle:r. Thls ~s :shown, i!l!D. ,Pig. '7 .11). U:~dlllS: l~.h.l ,con,tml,

I Mosler ml'l1m'1~r I ,~~~ ........

. - - - . -_ . I

I TIC ,-, I

~-------------------~

Mola'! control gC Yar1al:i<1o'

Seoond!l:l ry OOflltoiled mri!:]b'lo

M.n!"l[,piJimU!d

IF'i!'IrUD~ IP'Il!Iti!1li v,!lnl!!'bl:o

I~~~~~~~ oo!il!!reU'OO !'=-..!!- ..... ,~nwJrM 1--------....iI

sy&IDm 2 ~, .liam 1

IF,lglnl~'7,.'''

iProo'CSS, nowC'lulifI. (!if ,ii, cns.oacJc GllMlml for I/I:.n'~u.!i~ ,il;iiid :n~w

struc~iIJ!fe.m_'idJ (Ompensaliilf:i of ~~wailli ~onwo:ncd wJi,!']b[c is '(uJ~!i:ib,lcroU,owillg: Ii ~hllrIDG~' :in ~.e £ecron~Ol} >ooAtroll~d , .. ran9.bl"~,,

fi,g., '7" 7 :\!'h;uw,~, tb~ IPlO'lO'~~s filDW!;;lli"!i!l!Irt or i:!i eascade eDnbio~" Thil: '[II!.d~t~",e of ~lIIIii:s ICwl;t:!I,:d~. ~s liD CO\II'lro'l ~he '~e[fJ~p!mu.n!e oiF a ~antk.A contmlh~d ~:tlW ,@f stl!rnfl~ to ~mJ.c !leUI: e)!iCI}~rlIgclU rus r~ql!l.i:n;d fQ:r :!~i;&l., 'The 1~1lT:!~'~lU're ,con'lrQll~r rfRC34S) is, me m~I)~r '~O:ni!rOller in '!h~s e.'ri~rn" pile~,9mcffi ~.e :rlow cornmU!(!Ii,fFRC,4S6), ws ~e.:la'!Il:,cOlurolJcr; Th;e mlm:ipLWlflted vmrmle of~G mU!ls~~r QootroU~r ~s tJii~ s~tp!)m,1: ftur ruh~ suOOntin,aH~ ,§'llIi!ili\~: ,~o,n[l1WlIc-t~

,rllUll~,ilUI~: 'C'a;,!.;(:,fl . Ill': ~(Jmro~~'ii£~ ~lJIit~Jbh~ lOr' 'Pn.,,'c:~ij:CDl IIB~G ~K ilillo.~ ~h an ju'!l![ 3, :,i mpllil! C'fU1S, eouneetlen of 1,1".\0(1 mdh'g,~hJaJ oonIlmJl~eE. ThG' m~1 istnlke I::;; O:rt(,:111 lI!IIulde 01 Fm;~etn ns '1.h:Ii!l' '1111JJ~!IJ{IJ[ ~J\'Ii i ~h~iIlI~ ::.md mode inllll!.! enees, :PUIi'!J ~ri,~ - €OTl'li1CiI::I.UIIlD" o'~- conUtl IIii!' 1110 ru su I~

in "'U~lUIII'~ilii, dim~uldc-~ h~ pr'dCU'~iI:'. '11

Fort:, -lJllf/,ICt/'OJ'l,;1f l'al' 'I1IJeMti/J'8' ~JI(J{f~'$ l,VU/~ (;(J_~rC'~/.iJ'e ront'l'lll,ler

If. as s'hawn hru :f,ig. l.8" fte ,slave oontl\o~llelf Is swit'c~ed rro,1D mlll~OnlD!ljc :mod-e ~t1i muu1al

..... 1· .. .;11 ... " .... :"':,~I'iii'ii,~""'''''_- ,;"nl ~j'N'I,"I'!I1-,~', .:n,. _, ""'''[~\;;;''" , ... '-""-m'i· IJ"' .. ,!""",·,i"ii'~,· ",,1"0-::, 'Ik..". ',1:','.,." ..... ,._-1' '[~i"".' ""'.' i'i:i'ii:'I!I'ii>~ --, .. 4',;; (b"'[-',',-Cfi~I-"

l~l~~~'" lU.!, _~!~ ... !-!!_i,:ll!I ~~ii'''''- __ !!o' !:l!!! ~!.O~ lie'; .. '"'._~! __ ""'! U~~'~ ""'_!ll-_ !X; J!y~'",,~\!Ii _"'" ~!.!_~ __ ~! 1[!Il~", }Jl!!Jc !l'bill!

vioeW:l":Sal' and mmcimd IlO me se ~point Cif ~~.c sl.~.ve 1:i()~tooUer. If '!hi:!!, :is IilOl <:ilfriedl otll,the: ~m~OOIt ,coliilrol:ler :l!I1J[Cm:a!l:ito.i:l, OQnrm~s II~OIll~ Qf du'C ~'mtill POSi:li.ol1s to' :!.l f~$~,er Of ~!iO,"I'I;':~f 1!1'!_K:t~lDU", U 'Ih~! s]m\-<e 'CUllllmU~r is :se:t [01 ;3.u~,IlIil1!3IiIr;::' r:tuxl,e 31gD1ll.) Mler 3. ~n.:ajin time, it wm [~e: ,0. ~onilfer periOOI ur:liLH t!h,e '~i)l~t~m.l;u'li$: sealed throuS;b ~Ijte r:e:at;':['ffi@1l @f U1'e' ,cun:lmllcd systcillill1. 'The

IM(lOUDJ ,mooD

S 10.'11 III OOlillrOitliU

IrJd anum mod e tit~$~~' ~'JQI~~r'

omi iisi:,oQ of' slJcllil a ~OI:"Ced fillIla,c:lio~, eM, Ksui[ illil, :sffigmdflli::~llIit oscmamio:ns ,e;\II~iIiI, tII:pto ilf:iCIVMillil,H!: asci Ilati,l@ns. :~Willlln}~ c~se !Il:f iim::mas:i ~ !al&d~rn3do.i'iiIS. me: runp!~tude ,g:t'aditij:jJUY rnf;i~re-aoos nnd Crulll

''''-''''Il!'-I~' 'I'I~ .... !iO .. ·,"LI'1 """'''''0 b"~w""'"'' '_['!'-", 'I'~''''' • .... j.'-'-mc - "'''' .-.:[ il'i..,., 'm ..... e.'.n""'1'1 IP<iI,nlllll'" "..; '" n .. .,.jj~"'''''1 ~.J:..,

til ~. Iii. I J! ""-P,i:!!~, .;Idj),_ lUI -!i.;~,,_._ ~~I~j _l''!!i .. dt'l1~ ~Iy ~ __ ._I!!'it!:!!! ~'._. l!Fj~~ ,!!,n!i'~~ .1:1=, ,I! ~_.l~'Iii!"-" I, ;Ullt~ IJ~i:!I..Il !ldHi .. ~ W;-IIJ,I'

:l!ppUes to, ,G:OJruLmUers '!vifhi I com,poXlc:[DJt. The ,~amc aJPp~~1l5 ~l), &SJ~Qty moo~ l(m,'lpUl, I@f' weLY mJm~ll'1ifl;~~!ad 'i,i\oo;am'le ODi 11!n;e: ,$'1:!!!I1Ie l-"Q!]troU:'~f.Fg!J e~~p'le" ttl]:;; fo:reed iDlI!ll~C~io;m, is i.mp]e--, !rrul~nt~d with UUl StllNidianJI :pm eontm~ by me'BJPsof the: ,tClmDectElh~e: p\t!imm~<t~rs iQC,ASand, C'AS: ... ON.ln tldJdUi@n. the ;se:lpoio[lo:f the :(!J.1:.lIVe' (owUmiJ~elf :is ~UJmed 10' Ihe il'lpu~, CAS or~:h.~' 'Inu~l~r o(l[J~m::d~e]',

.fJiW:C,fiQ,rl,._tlt!f1e.rlde~:t bJacki:rJ,gftlr1C,i,o/~' ~~i,h ctl.f-c:ade ,(;YJn.rm,l,icr

.A flJlinc'UnQ !.'If lie ICDSt_i: cOlJll1'cdler 'whi~lki~, ,0:100 ind~~~llsab:h,~ :i~ d~~ctiornr-d~pelU;d'emil: b~:ock:ilnl,!:g olf mBI cOlma'p!J"ci!1~ 'g~l the m11ln:stC'f II;!QllIlrol,ler w'i,en the .sil_ave Ci@I'I[(\(lM:er has mached, tim com.sp6I(.IJIlII,g mruJj'1;I11~ted \I.ari;ab1e ]ijimj~ .. Omffiss]O':]l o<[.s.u:eh :ii fIU[~fmc:n Illso,re.~uLt~, in sigt1lilfilcai1:i lo~wrn~am:iQJiS :i:I1, pr3cUrtl W~~!1 t~e~:IM':e (CiDurol:lcr :le3,V,~ it!l, limii:l :a:(l,tttau" Ma:au.ysofil;" ~aR, ,cQl'lltr-oi:l1, do IIilcr~ ~,Mre diuc[~om~dependerrut bh:x:iki:n.g il;POiS, sbn;ce: m.e fru:n,cti@liI, iC:ftfilllbe ,s:i~ :p~I,Y 'i'mp~~:D'n~n~~d a:l. dl~ 3ppl,icrutiolll :1e¥~:1 IW$,j,[t.G, II~C ~iooidilll,'ireijit :sho'WriillU v:igf• 1'.9.

bID ~i!!j 'CMe ~,c t'w, ma_mjp1tlat~d. "uililb.11l Umi:ts,@f U10e mM~Gr C@Il,h~]~if IlJii'e e'ac~ a:pprn~cd to irull .Wlru(p.,g''''ltaillt-~ :!iwhth (AVrS)o and rece:iw ~!liIDe!'r swU:chover o~!'nrnTU!'!1Jcirrorn the tWOI bimru:'Y D11111l:i,pwhl.l:.edj 'vru1mbl~IilI:IIr:n~t' JIEl:nmJs ~Q.JiL !:Lnid Q ... .LL), oifth~: slal'c OOl]iJlo~~:~t, Uthe,slave con,.. tmU!€:1f has :fil:C)[ RIlL-cl1e'!l!l 'Ollie 10'[ ~~!li m;ll11l1i:pul!a~.cd ~ari QlJi.lc rnilllruts;, IOO:Ih AiY'Ss ilIR :1:0 tbe b~i:c ;~c't .. , li.fl,~. :~~d Illli~,e CO]lJj~ilflil wl:i1t:s IfLMNLHLM and' ,LMN~lL,M) ~re' 3\p,Pu'ed ~!) ~(: m~~er eonlml,b~r: O~ceo:l'ile or the 1TIUf!:i!PlmIlJU(.-d vgrh]"I~ 'lh'l1a~i~8 of tbe slave oontr.-o!,I:eli' kEis beellrencl.O!Bd (e.g.': 'Oe-HL. H[Jpper ml;uLiJI~J~!9tW1 '\1\"dritlJbh.~ limit renc'hed)I'" i' the; Ic~pn:lldj:n\l AVS ~,wioohr:s, (l!1Y!~iI':.g!lr1d1 'I'ia~ CUI11eJII, ,~n~pul:iWl,e.d 'iI',ar.i a~,]~ of ~lhe rna81)!l1! COrn1:!ml'ler :is ,coJiunec~ed 11m tb~: :flIliQ!log nnm iplml!lImedYillJr:iab~e: !Irnlmi~. wnpu.ll, :!HI [" ThelrulSlleli cm:nmiUc:r lc:ann0:1,1fJ~11IJ h'}Clilease :i~'5 mllil1i~"" U~Il1I00 v,j)ijrl~.Iib]e: lUl,}, fiJrtlnliilr" 'blll:l: ,cam redll:l~ lt a'l. ~I~y [lime shoo'ld rhjs IOOco:me fieC~S1iliim1l throUgffiti oolJ[J~isom (Df th~ ~~PJh~t o!'ld actl!luJ '~ra:lyc. 11TL'e mas~~f !:Qn;tmHer !.iom oper.a~e ~gaJ:n !'ti{lftTIoJly !Q!1I;!'C the,lnru:tip'~I,~ted vwiab~)~ l;illmdt or 'lhe ~I:uve ,c,olWtroU~r' Ilas KiCn 1~t:1:. If the ~,ow,cw .Jmiipulamd\(,ariublc limW[ of the: s~a\!\~ CICIlnro~lt~1f W~ :~:c:b!~d" lh~, IJ'1:liu:r AV.S: Is !ji,wUched,. Q:f!d Ite mas~r cOll'tooll!cr b~ l.i:ai:l:ed 10 ~'h,e 'n;~~liive di:rection.,

Correct IC;:OII,n~UOf:ll ·oif ~lhe m~(I!l'1' ::liml :fj:'I!ave. cfif:itf:1olIDen 1!1)~.a C~~ w,iifih .alJ :rilre~ f{l~l.cti!!l.JnS ~br UH:i \y,mDu:t> modes is re:lml;i"!,rlllly oomp:!e:>: :Fo:J!' th~ usc;r;, !:lind Dln~iIIl il'C:!lUUS in iftliL1llts. Thlllm:fore cCil13Ji Dpli1eCDlumo:nlj IU!!\I'e affiready 'b~tl~ m~ ",ii~l1tin, il~lu,~ rbnClI:iom bm~:k CTRL .. JiID o~ .s!~MA:TfC PCS" 80' duu, SIlCItaI Iii CD~j].d!e C(lill!trol is easier '1.0 d~sill!1!. S:~ci.[l~1 fOrcGd, !1fJtemJ1!!DIfC$

:r'" "",;;:"'="~:"~::~~:"~:~':'~~B~"~::~ ... ~~"~~ ... "~~ ... :~~:"~:_~~ .. :~4 ~,i

.....-----.....:&..~- ......... --~- , i

~ II 'I I I ! i I I ,! i

Ir'" - -,----,- _ --.~ I:

l 'I - i ~~N~~~~ .. J !

! ,- II..IM _ - ...i , .. ,I

l - . ' I' I I QJ.PiNLL !

~ I l I 'J . - C 'IL,~ I

lMa.91m' ecnool.nf T C 11'1! I S !O'\!'~ Qtll1it:m~lu TIC aMi

N~ i!!J-'!'!'"~!"!''!'!!!!'~!!!'!''~!!!F'~~!''''!tf!!!''!''''1! _!!!!!I"!!'I !!!'!"_."!!!!! !!!!!'~~"!!!!!!'!!!!!!!'!!'!!II!!!!!!'!!!!II! !!!!!!n~;!II!!! !!II! 'I!!!' "

fil;~"' ",,'

IfIlCl;wcih,ru1 ,otf dlin>.e;ti,crn.·

~epe;i!I~ell~ IJiilni:'II,lmc~: wri'abh::;, nm:utirn\S of ~ m~· lu !O'(!in«ol]~ i:!J~pl~m~n~~d III: ,tllP,pmil::M]~ I~ v ~I

1114,

_ ..
~~:It - ~ . .,. !!II
-, ~~
L~ _-
~, .~ -- .. , __ .
1.Il., _". =--= ~, I oliII !.-. ~1B
I l-<{i ..., b! I - ,
..!': -- oil -
..... I •
.... - IJo. L ..... 1-
.... , ,. L •
I .... ~ IT: ,... ....
11111 • '" WI
I.~.
j,,,, -." ... .. .......
"
t!:J . ~l .. i;"iw:,
I."'" .,.~ I'
l1li"" .- ur
'.L ....
:: ~,_ or' .. ~ ~~
• Ix::
rn ~I
~ .11
>-l ~,g ..... ..........
-'II-, u.~ ....
l, ~
'"'" '"' A;
,-
~ ..
iLk*'" Iii'" :.J![
.~~I !I'l~M r
I
~. ·L~
~J
~~' .. - .-

.... ... !~ ~,
IL;'" •
"''''1 LJ.-JI, "'_':" :I:. ~
1111 .... I
... ...... ......, ...".
.. , ...... a-.~ ,. -
... ,
....._ ]

:H~re,quiJied; ,aUl tl'l12: I1UjS~lil:ir ~iruurn\lh~'I"~ ,~IS de:.sClri~d ~bniVrill. if rliMn;e; :fii!ht1~e: CO.I1:I'rQller' ~:j; 100 ru@fII:Qer. prepmlt m :1'C1l1f!'1;,[O de:Hnli:riol'ls !of the: milS;~f!:rr cOl'llr1()~II!eIf;, Le., e:ulclll,y tlile;flI wlhen rntu,: 5.1 ave con .. troW~~el! i,<;, nrlilionSJ.!:f lin "'Cil5;c!lde" mooe (:;;:;: iiullt'o:m'aUc mode wi~'h, 'ex~~imal, ~~poi'lllil,). lbul ~!iO

~! lnm :1~lrn<omClt,~e mode 'wi:rh lfK!ally o~mtud'i i:DlfLemal selPOiim1~, lor ill ito] tir3'£'].:jnl m'fldt IDr

'. ,~1lJ oil'l~i~niru:ltio:n mode" .i .e, COOMl:,I'h: .. d b1y alJll illU[!mal (00;[£01 ,opt:ilr[1mt~'IlD o~ the ,l::o[I:I1OU(;r

:pamm.CI)iU"S (~: :S~~Uan P[[) .. Thll!1cr)"

Th~'mm:I:er· 'COl'liOOUelf· rn!lldic3~~:5 ~m;s StIl~~ rull ru [ 'CM~t; by ~~mmg its, Ol!.ilpUII. b~l QCAg...;~U,. t 'I,'~. . ".~I- , _ 'I"~' • I: i'·' ,- -,:' ci\~,A \1 l' - pi "Ie, -ft- 'fj ii~ -c ,illS; , ... ", ~ IlII c---r ed I 'bum ~L." 111IlEli~'lel:' !(:!o- '" 'I. mSCHut:: L'iIUU ~ I .. _ •. IUein1l!!p~~I~.,fI :!'!U uese Cil'.!!~ .. In ._~:l, IJ!,; ,g _~,we ' L._.]JIi1; ... _~'. _'.' c. III

tful~Clr runll1:i:ng ''''0, 1:10 !lvDi'I'~ doos mu, ~n!llJgm~ its, I CO!lt1pomCll1it !1l!rl;tli tham :I~ ,can be: ~tivtlil,ed ng,:ai,n bY·m:pl~~ ns :lWOl1I ~I:lII~g,~ ~.~~de' W~ cmi]~d ,iI~j n, ni~ b! ~cit1:ievod in Uuu the :rW!~~'I:eF o{l!!!tmU~r :1 -, IJUlti:e ~Ill' tr,t'i(::k IllItI:e ,e1l..l,f'llirCin:[I:y e!!Ji~Cli:!ile el~p!linl 'D~r 'Lhe' :sl:a,w: .oiDfI,trollcr. :i .1:'. the IIi[llDn~"..h~jt~d,

''oI:",rl'''':-b!I .. , "''''~j!'l:'''l~''' b o. "'''''.,..,.'''~~,Jl :Il11!""~'" ;'111' 'i,I~ .. , 'f;.'.~nl""" 'liS :S"~' ~ .... the ~·ornf!\ .. lii~..iI1 , ..... ,1,1 ... , a~' ill- ... """!b, .. ",, ... "",~I, _HI· ~jL ~v''!i.6!·Ii.!!!~II:l'!'!I.IIl 11Ift.J.1!.IJ\P '!iiFUIIjI,n'!iil'!iioI~~ !~=!1.:.1!!I]IJ ~ 1 UIIiIi!' J'lrlj!lli~iIP!j Ii! ~~!!I; ~j-V U' '!P. ~,I~~'!rIW~ '!I'I!:;!Jl~1tlIi! ._,!I; ~ ~ Y~ih!l'!~ '¥!l!.!!!U

of 1t.e:oonn~cthn:1,

In ,~dd i~'iO'fii 'liD I!Ms, (he til! rec[~oil1lf·d~pemdifinl bill~Mng of the 'I'lllDs'ler' ~@:Jil~m~kr showlil i.nR,S. '7.9 siboin,l(J a~:s.ID 00 tCDID'i:5i:de;rod i 01 PCSi2is Soon iru!i, Ihe !ila;~c con~ro.]1c;r I111!S, f.C:fl(.;iled B 1m,~nffiP"' u:Ia:I.~ ll'uJriQ,ble WiIl1i11~(,. AIIlI, iClrmllllr,1IIe lof till]: ~~n1pile:llC.l ICill'C'l.l.i t for imI !casc[ldc: ~o[J~lI"(l'l ~s s:h~rll in F1g:, ", ~ n

'7.5 Spl'it ,Range Coo;trol.

U:fi~mg spllt nu,~ oomb]S. l1't!Jmltoo.U~r em! fJpitm'Le 811~ml ~l~ll!U.HJtm·ll, wj~h djff~mnt :physic,~ ,erf~ :ga:!d. differ-cnl ,~airisin :p~raJ]~1 ow. ,seqlle~!ti;~lln;~ei, [)~¥i:s~(};n otfthe' Wl1mi'puWI1!t.e[iWl,fi .. !lbl!~ i!1I!nJ,CI!: !Of th~ COg;ltmil~(.i:r 'from ttUii II.op to 'lh~ looumnliftlldil: :oon,S;,C: iB;imp~emlJ!r:I~~d IlJIS:bD\S QiIl.e OJ IPllCKl'e ~,;Ul~ ~glf;: :f!l!:u:!tioIlllS., nlese rlllil],e[~tm~~, ,are: :i:fnegr:4TII~ed in, so:~.e i[}~ tilte SI'ART ,I,:-OliIitml,,, lern, lYl!l'i: nm;:rn,{lt ~n~eg:n!l!l:ed :intlle cruse ,or theml],'WD1'e clOIliml,:!ii" S:~mce ~m.'i:s .ful[Jcli.on :rmll,UllS~: CiOpe \,jli:th \i'Cf:)i (lwrrerelU requh;i::merlil:S :iilil, ~~e V4:r:iolll ,Sle!Ol1D.rs" rnll1e ,!]ofl:'W:I:l"e cmnfcill ; oller II :3S a: -C'p~ artU:~ ftl'l1t:li:an 'WhDse + nf1!'~, is sl mpmy c~nncciledj ~o 'Il~~' loo@niJpu111'!OO wri;gb~~ gf :lIte ,oolurollcli. ·~OJ!llf· 11.l~ sp,U~ mn~e :fuudi,{'ifiilS ,a;re ffim"Ic:nlelUl,~e:d il!1 R~., ",I ~'! 1b1ll'1. slf':.lNelllm fliJ-rI!C~~(lml ![if th:is 1"Ype een ~ (!(lnmClCted ~n pamlle!,

~--'-' - - ,_ --'--' - _',_-

~~~~

'I!CS 451

L CM!rolhull ' I

~~ II.J'Btom

'ffi- .~. "J'I" '.11..-' -, ".'" -.~ -,--- "'-' 11'1. ''I>-:-·i'-. C'I"re- -1" 'r' e , - "--I-t-d 'I~,: . ,- ":e','C"-,"C '1-.---,- C c cl·--,-I:IIi·-

.~!f!. ~·ru,S.I,'-",. me ~C!1llli~~d_llJ-re ~!l .-!lI!~ ._m er o .. _w;;I{). ~sregu_3JI::-,- u~~ ,~ LIT!pc.:m Jl!.re OO!ld:~wg;~!i'

TRC4,5'!.1. 'The '~C'I:I}n~nt, ~s ~e'l'if;u:d 'by meallS ifJ~ :i1. ~imJe 'SC~IID~du'lerKS:457,. The 'leAlpi:lllJil:IlIr.-e jpI~. 1'i'le-ooqu;iil'eS'iicl~lVi~' hl!~uifli: :ilf:ld. ,acthr'g c;oo'mi,ng.'l;f II'h~!!i,)'~~ellii!l'. A h~~I:i nm nme(H~ m, ("Ii- rn 201llC) ~nd ,[I, ,[ooUnl!] mGdi:t:am (+,ti,~C) 11m w~lDi.I.~b~" 1'"01 this, The: ct)IUtol.l~r mU~1 :[lifiW ,dividie ilts oo!u~n,1 'r~ngc 0 •• , i 00,% int@' t\!o'Q '='C1P!1!~t!.':: a'Otua:tors w~!iieh ilc:t in 'op~~tg cI i~t~ons and. UN :p[\:~n..-id~d

·,-"'1,,",.1' m'",_ -,I' .iII- ·c en!: "" iI'IP.$"",~I'!i'''C ....... -..,,,1 'lfIll,'-n" ,~ j, ....... F:Io' "'r,,,,", l-1i.""","",, '.., p'" ~I'~ .. 'I~ n.·"li" the

w~U;! !I;I!.I tli' ... ~l...:'R~ uymm_~ ~l", ~~ ... n. ....... ~l~~~n",,,'''' :ti,h.!!Id vL- !iI'. ;;;I' ,~~!!>!'!i! ii": .... ,....: .. 1la_:_'~o1i-;;:i'h"",'~h~le< ~~ <JI' ,," I,I'_~ ~_.~

~u'-u;;t!,llre ,00(1. the ~ttiln:ss fOw U~i:Si tnskln ~ore d.el;gl~rn"

-

Scoondll} '\"J1hr1,Elbrne ClDf:lmrdsml'-e, ~,]lOCfldures witiruich ~:ijemeiL"*l.ncd variables froml ~,s!Jibsec~iiorru (ilf~ !li::o!1lJI:roII~d '-,ys~m, ~Q ilmpliI!;l'l;l\;1! tb~ 'il;)lJliJ:tml,m;tio!l" 'ORr.!: l;ypfJ: (If !l.G!i:!J:D1dmzy 'wn:aib'l!.1l 'cQllItrol! Il~, ,13,1;OO'1ld),' keD mfil'm!d ~o - II'hie' ,c2:Scade: contrc~11.. F~I'i!:m~r :I,ypes o~ ci.rctdtllro possi,b~~ yibl>eh oro :IRel~y·co(fJ1:fl:BliL11!'illI 'by 'U:l:12 nse:r., Onl,,!;' i[lrii~~ ftlrtile:r >eMm:rrupl!t!: ~!!; m:e:n(i!of:u:tIi :mit ~hi:<i!' po!iilil!t ~ til)l iIi,ow (I1IJe con ulpproxi,rnote it ,a;:ascilde tontrtlll~e~ rusrnng a PI cont~ol,~er. see RI. 1'. ~J.

A stlbel::tion IDf':3. ccrl1!ilMl.led sy~~em(,'i"'J~[IIecd:(I!iI 2. :jiUl Fig; 7., !13) C~nl lbe ,a;ppmlti,momcdusi'Qg IIll!lodlIDl:ar flll!IIf.itiDXI le:h~nili~m~s 1('e,~:,1iJ ~rueIIIlI,GIl[S. U,In;dPl' ~ ell'll1lenls,) h~ orner toup;pl!y fUtu~~s aet~!ilg~n II:h~ flrst sy~ecljon f3.~lif.:~ ~{I the' ;(:{D{!1tro'ller; nl~ co!Umil~eli Cil!1l be :S~I mnm s,e!ol~relly

. I . "

IIJ:!SHilg !!ii!ln!t~ la C~f;lCI,U~.

" .. " Alternating 01" Overrmd,e; COllltro.l,

In cont'fMt UJ 'tile: ,s:plit mn,g'c 'CO[l'troJ = w[h,ere one: ':ontr-..o~~~'cr IOpeil'lltes ~.'l.remill :ilc:LiUUltOB -lltJe IOf~illmde: ,cO:Il~iml, ,con $,1515. of h"l0 'Or:' :rna-ro Cimllro~rue:us 0:0' comlfiWl:1 'l1Il'1iits w~i,ch ollruy opeirll'i:G qn,e ,aclu!JJto:r. A :~el~~m,ion n;Jnh Of :scl~~i(l(n, cuntroU~m' d~~,n~, 'Whid~ ,of tbe invt}I"'~ ot'ln~m~rnmis penniuiCd. 110 ,control, the: ,a.cUI!l1tQl': n~ t~rm "'mre;mdc ICOi~l'Irol"! sl:undd 'be' 'more ~:rJjcU)l cllJ,letJI ,';i;icloctiom controll stn,\ctuR~". fi'l'5~lly 'lheR~ ,ilR! ,di:lTclC:n;t~p;,si ,of O\!emdc: 'CODtrOru~ am~ S'eil:'" ondlrny ::It, least, ~wo 'il:onJtroUers He ~1l:vol.'!,ledil1 eae~ Il\~m~c: ICo:n.uot :~amp~C!, of GvemiCffia: c@nm:a~s c;,lJnoo':

,,.. M:ill1 i:mU!m ~e'l~trui}J!l1 '" M~ltilmum :~!,~e:liclI'!l

.' 'Prl,),~mm~~orn!lfOlle.d :l!wi'l.Chil~1i' (e..g,. fed lowilnl,~ chooge In fJeCi:pe) .' R,e~il,Y ,co.muuo:iL

Oven-'idle o(i¥t~ro;1 :~rre 'l!Is~d ln proc~~~_s, W~~OO cQlmpl~~e~ly d'ilr~velil1l: ~'y~l,egm~:pon~s OOC~Jr :IlliS ,ii, ,re S III] II, ,of IP'I~Q[ or l!)peru'l~i:n~ :fdat:e;.;;;" iliUm ~~lerelftu1E: Clomp,Ji.!I.e~y di!lT:ef~f:U dJemuf[l;cils 'flif.l, l:llC: (!m:l~ronr:r. "h~'re ~oo dilJ~per:l~, s~ruCI:lWP!.~ :~iJr override 'COIllI,ml:<i w~:ith are:, ~iJ~~JJ rnes ~d~o :referred Ilu iIliiS, ,n:ltefiJuruti nm COJil~jm:l:\l aD' I'i mill.i ng. cC\liI!lrol~.

~llli1n,'.l4

~!iS, :flOMhairI' t)jl' an O~'emidc: l!.lo:nlro~1

All :m::l.l'$ilrnwl'lJli~' eM act on tw,~} Or I:ilCKre oomrol.it';rs:, and each C(iliIll'w.I1e'r.oJii • ~llUUOT ::l~:"~:-d i :',-~-'-~s'll- -11 ~'111 Fic-, 'CI.l··4"-'Fo,,d:i'We:rellt,o,ch.:191 ",jial~~~ cae" ,~'~J .~n ~'-'~-a~~~

__ OJ S~GOO - -.0 II or !1" SJ JJW __ ~~_, ~ -is. L _ _ w __~" ~_ _ . _._ _ __ .~ _ s U DC. 10 __ ~ _ par. _

oOlln rollers, '~idl, an, OC(U3iIJO[' w.hi:ch :leu; O'nlm,~ ~wo S),S'Il'lD1.!l; '\'~ia :Ael,Gctlioo Ilog]c. IDec,is~l\'e fOf 'Ilre: (l:vtJrjdeILtOlnl!iti1 is, t~fl:l (in~y one ,~(lulroJle~'a~ssec~, a :':!i'~u~m ~r..,aoy one litne: ood t~~1 'I:he; other i;;i[lf~U'fUl'lef' waills f01' be:ililS used, ,In '11rt(:', ex,3mIP'1e. Billown im FjS'. ',.I,~,. illIi1e :Dm~~m;ip~JI:rulled,

.... rl .. ~]- .... " ,,,"",1'1' '1~1'''' ''''~''''''', ..... I·.ii;O: .... ,~] .. , .... '"MI'I'oi"".I' 'I' II .. ,,,,.~ 'T~"n,iI'""!,1Z I-I "Ii ....... , ",\ .. II"''''I·ir>~~ 1.,.'l'! .. "~ , ... , ........ rl .11 ........ "'1' ..... ~ ''r'iiII 1IIi_lI'~."'-17I' Ii,,~~. _ II,\,I! "~1'l'U ~IHI ,IJ~_II"_~'J. ~ Ii.!i~ 111.n..!I..::",d! I III Kill\) L' ft,b.JI . ..L, iIoY:~ ~W{~"'-;-"".!'I;}U U!,~1f liiiI.IIll VI "~.J. ._~ !l;"lIU!JI_I, _.'''''1''.1.

U.c. ·S· ·111 If ... '1"_ ;M· 1-1"":'1' """:I~I~',",H'~ "'i"'~ ~i,,~~·:1 .~n' ,Ii'" ~Ii.,' ... ,"'-"'I'~n"1'" The '1'0. I~~''''; At-';:'IA"~'IiiI(h:;"ili.1 ""I' 'Ik.", . I '!'_ ~'I.i!I.D. I ., J I;'~ r...~ ~.'!Iif1IL!lI".iI'1\I" !rJU!r!I!a! .!t-.!I~-ii!~ !!i.l'~1i liu' fIl~II.!!Ii!I U~-~!L t)",,,,,_ !II Iii I !!.i!' I • -,~~1!iI U-~, Y~.I.! '.'" ~~~ U . "I ~

two !!1,3Il1iJfts ~s to be l'l~tl. tlll~(]J !1'3:!!~C5, (In Illlite ::\;!!!:lccterl !!!':u.1ue to tbe ,;u~tMWi"

W'tlri'l'l!: &1- -::ll!lr~ ike!O,·t~-d~-" mnt-[I'~r'~IID~t not Iri.." ]~fiiiO :'~'s: .: C'l-;-,'-"-~Cil.li--:~:!l. ot"'---:-\!l:'"

l __ U~'" _ iID!l!C~ __ "e~ IUL s.3..I!I __ !!.JIy m_J~_. m. ~~. 00_ II!,I'I;; _1:_., L l!l!i O\.lif! Lreso_r-c-e,,~,_._l!efWL'"

~m.ero 'W~rn~ lim jL~mps In: the Iltltliai;pl1~_amm 'v3riab:l;~ ~aod illr;efd(n;~ tlls:mb.~Uy In ~b oontrol 8"S-' ~eni) 3J1: the 'tlinm o:f sWlitC'llliin,~ everbeeeuse of the poo5lb11ity of im!'~egmL ~lura~i(}n, One way ~D :B:\'1)id :i rn;lie,gml Sl~lm':3tiQiIiI of the ·'s.tiioolJy~· Oliiilll~mUiM:' ~s m ii,witch ,ove,!; ruo lManual mod~: "I\',h'lru omm~;pondU:iS ~iI1lekilJ,g: of the ~ti:m_m'l,lli~3il00 Wirnalll~e aoc!Jml!tig ~o ~lliie cUil'rel~[rn" llcLlve t'IDIUIf{l~ler, Thi [ol;COII,1 rol ~m,\!'s~, ~Jtfu~r 'be C",Hl:'fj~d !\'lot ;u~te.J'I!I:i'liI:G~,1(cro~"'wliie' 'liUlJruOOIj;~;ioDJ of meillli~a:1 :ntl~ulipliJlarl:ed \!',al~ ab]!!i :in:I)l!IIl~). ~r tbe two, Otl1il'tlrr)l.I~rs :3hC>IIUlilC~,)' j,li1ifhu::w::e fire :I~U'J.'ll&~l~P: !rrUi I~~t:iiptll~~ed. ~ruriI3t}le lh~ii~iilfig (l.~\fl ~S ~rnMnin F~g. 7.'115.

lillJ fouU..;f:mc ol.m~io:m Ilf~ihei c-x:IlIimplc,slfl,O\WIl ~ll Fig,i. U;, Irh~: Huruiling SietfilOiililll ls ['oweI)' Ibn 'lI)C a.ctmiil \j,aJluc at '!hoe end of &IJib~ys~ecm t 1'1i!le I i:DlI!iti:f'l8 CGllltron~r! w.11<ich is EIlIOS[ ,app;rn,p.r,i.,ijteJy 'ltrJ:s:iglmKi 31j It :PUml:' n OOIltroll~t; ;il~16mpb,~Ql GI,QSG aind :is liiml~d iiiDll U~e: pl:iOO~.ss ~Olh~ l1~a!l1iIPUlla~ed '~arii:iblle, of Ule maf.lil:er' (jo:mrum:Ue:r red ~t~d b~"11 '%,' 1n tum. Ilni,fj vah:u~ ~s truns~~ITOO as i~l~Je li(lWCii' mIfiiimulmll~ili:ti~.~ollh~ iltilMlt~f ,oo-ntocillm; ni~1 ~m~]' i,~, not wli!'lihjViOO~ 1b1i' mifll, 1lW!d ca;Q c~1V!u'QII~~ ~.Y~teI11 ~!~ bcllh d~[\~I.;·tio!ls all< r:g.ql!lW~!.l. H' n~ pow~r ~a:l'iI'ly U~~P1lf!iil!.l ~f:! slu;bs}'5I~em 'I :far ill HII1iI'i~~d ti me. 'thi: ,iI_C I!Ulil~ 'V'dlue will drop at ~lhc cnd, f~f' s:Jll"bsJl1ltc'ml '~" 'The errol' s~igmd OiR 'llw' rn~rn~~~og OOfUroWru~~ beoom~~pofiiti,¥e., MId iI.!Ite, 'C(W~lro] IeI' 'Yl'illl ~Il~n increnoo thel ~(!~"er mQjn'ipllhH~-d vadrtble IlrumU: of the mostiQF contm)!jh;:~r llI'nlll the ctlnrent mrun;iporna~ed vrui·, atlle is reached, 3nd, bey-undo

Al:i a 1'CS~lt, ~h~ rn~mruUf!~ O[ililtro~~er dlisrll:lru.~o;; the: master c,on'l1"Ol.lel'; arid ~sMr"v d~islv~l'lr~

~ t"'. iIf

jn~oh~~d, in I~WlePQiSill'Qn 'of the contm~[~~ 'Qmplln. In tll~S dJi~p]llot:d :Sta~~ [lite malitip'liWlilIt~d ¥anah&~ o:f the maste.r t:OD[m~I,e~' i:-;, ilitmc,ed i!n ;ill1crease fblither, :am:] ~tI.lOire ,el'l'ell'!Yi:~, ~nsel:l!ed iil!1mtli t~le 8)!s:telln~ wldt.'!i'tiIJ llHll'UmUy also ill~~:ute::Il~s !lubs.Y~teil1n 2., Thhi, [furo~d :imICfeflS£ iin the m)fJ;l~ilptl~e,1ed '!;"'Jifjab~a:: of' lk m~'![c:r (;"untruilln resuU-s: in ,a further jn(,J'eH~ In tmre 100\'I~r' (i.tn~1 ,of the lilnitil~g

~II T-" I - "ill~~ . • • il i'., • 1 j,.~"" '" ]1

comV(iJeT, 'h~IS mllUJ[t. b~II~IOJ_~fig: up, oofitmyC1!, iUIIIU~ me 'cnOr' sigma Oil tile ~Ilm~t~ng, con~ro' . _,Cr

is .no ruo:nStCr' :POS;il'liv,e. Wben ~l1epoweli' (supp~y returns 'GJ1 ~n:d:~sy.slem 1" rn~c aCi!u!j] wlw:: j f!iC~C'~$e·s a1 ~h_e end of sljibs.ysu~:m I., ,311~ 'Ih~ m,(J!i' ' iligtl~~ of ~h~ UmiJi QG ,~oo1roll~r OOcom:es 'lW,Ja~!i"'~'., ]]. ~~wreffl(ie' :1),,~lJCC:$, i:ts uillmp!.l!latedJ 'v.taJh!l!CJ and affioo the nnimmn ~~ue ~'mwl of tile: !1:UI$~er ,c.cmlroUcr, In ~um! thls redaces ,ts: mani:I'L'llatcd "II':t'liri ilb!e {whh:h is 'I1Qt ~!ct acU'l,il'c) beC,311:5!~ i('if ~11e. s[liong])' n~;:a:[j\\'e: 1~]l\l]Ii" Sim,~llal.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful