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# POWER OR TRANSLATIONAL SCREWS

INTRODUCTION

Power or Translational screws are used to convert rotary motion into translatory motion. Power or Translational screw is a mechanical device used for converting rotary motion into linear motion and transmitting power Applications of Power Screw To obtain accurate motion in machining operations -For example, in the case of the lead screw of lathe, the rotary motion is available but the tool has to be advanced in the direction of the cut against the cutting resistance of the material. To raise load - In case of screw jack, a small force applied in the horizontal plane is used to raise or lower a large load. To clamp a work piece- Power screws are also used in vices, testing machines, presses To load a specimen- Universal testing machine

In most of the power screws, the nut has axial motion against the resisting axial force while the screw rotates in its bearings.i.e lead screw In some screws, the screw rotates and moves axially against the resisting force while the nut is stationary i.e. screw jack

INTRODUCTION

Advantages of Power screws Power screw has large load carrying capacity Compact in construction Manufacturing of power screw is easy ² no SPM are required Power screw has large Mechanical Advantage Power screw provides precise control and highly accurate linear motion Provides smooth and noiseless service without any maintenance Power screws can designed with self locking property

INTRODUCTION

Disadvantages of Power screws Power screw has poor efficiency about 40% High friction between threads causes wear of screw or nut

It is difficult to cut with taps and dies.TYPES OF SCREW THREADS USED FOR TRANSLATIONAL SCREWS Three types of screw threads are mostly used for translational screws: 1. A square thread. . is adapted for the transmission of power in either direction This thread results in maximum efficiency and minimum radial or bursting pressure on the nut. It is usually cut on a lathe with a single point tool and it can not be easily compensated for wear. as shown. Square thread. The square threads are employed in screw jacks. presses and clamping devices.

TYPES OF SCREW THREADS 2. It is used where a split nut is required and where provision is made to take up wear as in the lead screw of a lathe. as shown. but increases its area in shear. Acme and trapezoidal thread. . An acme or trapezoidal thread. Wear may be taken up by means of an adjustable split nut. An acme thread may be cut by means of dies and hence it is more easily manufactured than square thread. is a modification of square thread. 30 The slight slope given to its sides lowers the efficiency slightly than square thread and it also introduces some bursting pressure on the nut.

Buttress thread.TYPES OF SCREW THREADS 3. It is employed as the thread for light jack screws and vices . This thread combines the higher efficiency of square thread and the ease of cutting and the adaptability to a split nut of acme thread. as shown is used when large forces act along the screw axis in one direction only. A buttress thread. It is stronger than other threads because of greater thickness at the base of the thread. The buttress thread has limited use for power transmission.

MULTIPLE THREADED SCREWS The power screws with multiple threads such as double. are employed when it is desired to secure a higher travelling speed. . triple etc. It also referred as multiple start screws Such type of threads are usually found in high speed actuators.

MULTIPLE THREADED SCREWS Advantages of multiple threaded screws o It provides large axial motion per revolution of screw. o Efficiency of multiple threaded screws is more than single threaded screws due to increase in helix angle Disadvantages of multiple threaded screws o The Mechanical advantage obtained with multiple threaded screws is lower than that of single threaded screw o Self locking property is lost in multiple threaded screws .

the lead is twice of the pitch. It is denoted by the letter 'l'. that the nut will advance in one revolution of the screw . measured parallel to the axis of the screw. from a point on one thread to the corresponding point on the adjacent thread. (ii) Lead: The lead is defined as the distance. for a double-threaded screw. measured parallel to the axis of the screw.TERMINOLOGY OF POWER SCREW (i) Pitch: The pitch is defined as the distance. and so on. It is denoted by the letter 'p¶ . the lead is same as the pitch. . For a single-threaded screw.

It is denoted by the letter 'd'. It also called minor diameter. It is denoted by letters 'dc'. .TERMINOLOGY OF POWER SCREW (iii) Nominal diameter: Nominal diameter is the largest diameter of the screw. It is also called major diameter. (iv) Core diameter: Core diameter is smallest diameter of the screw thread.

TERMINOLOGY OF POWER SCREW (v)Helix angle: The helix angle is defined as the angle made by the helix of the thread with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the screw . It is also called lead angle. Helix angle is denoted by . . Helix angle is related to the lead and the mean diameter of the screw.

d c ! d « p p » ! (d P) 2¼ ¬ 2 ½ dm mean dia.5 p ) 2 2 .TERMINOLOGY OF POWER SCREW From fig. Can be given by 1 1 d m ! ?d d c A ! ?d (d P )A ! (d .

the relationship between helix angle . it will form an inclined plane as shown in fig.mean diameter and lead can be expressed in the form. This paper around a rod with diameter dm.TERMINOLOGY OF POWER SCREW If one complete turn of a screw thread be imagined to be unwound. tan E ! l / T d m where is the helix angle of the thread . The hypotenuse of the triangle become the thread around the rod. This can be imagined by cutting paper in the form of the right-angle triangle with base equal to dm and height equal to l. from the body of the screw and developed. Considering this right-angle triangle.

W = Load to be lifted. where is the friction angle .TORQUE REQUIRED TO RAISE LOAD BY SQUARE THREADED SCREWS Let p = Pitch of the screw. P = Effort applied at the circumference of the screw to lift the load. and = Coefficient of friction. dm = Mean diameter of the screw. between the screw and nut = tan . = Helix angle.

therefore the force of friction (F = . the force applied on the circumference of a screw jack may be considered to be horizontal as shown in figure b Since the load is being lifted.RN ) will act downwards . on which a screw jack works is similar to that of an inclined plane. therefore.Since the principle.

RN ..Resolving the forces along the plane: Pcos = Wsin + F = Wsin + . we have: Pcos = Wsin + (Psi + Wcos ) = Wsin + Psin + Wcos or Pcos ² Psin = Wsin + Wcos or P(cos ² sin ) = W(sin + cos ) .(i) and resolving the forces perpendicular to the plane: RN = Psin + Wcos .(ii) Substituting this value of RN in equation (i)....

we have: Torque required to raise the load is given by pd m Wd m Mt ! Mt ! tan(J E ) 2 2 .Substituting the value of equation. we get: = tan in the above Multiplying the numerator and denominator by cos .

(ii) Substituting this value of RN in equation (i)..TORQUE REQUIRED TO LOWER LOAD BY SQUARE THREADED SCREWS When the load is being lowered.. we have. .RN) will act upwards. the force of friction (F = .(i) and resolving the forces perpendicular to the plane: RN = Wcos ² Psin . All the forces acting on the body are shown Resolving the forces along the plane: Pcos = F ² Wsin = RN ² Wsin .

Pcos = (Wcos ² Psin ) ² Wsin = Wcos ² Psin ² Wsin or Pcos + Psin = Wcos ² Wsin P(cos + sin ) = W( cos ² sin ) Substituting the value of we have: = tan in the above equation. .

Multiplying the numerator and denominator by cos : Torque required to lower the load is given by Wd m Mt ! tan(J E ) 2 .

J E the torque required to lower the load is negative.OVERHAULING OF SCREW Torque required to lower the load is given by Wd m Mt ! tan(J E ) 2 it can be seen that when. The load itself will begin to turn the screw and descend down. It indicates a condition that no force is required to lower the load. unless a restraining torque is applied. . This condition is called 'overhauling' of screw.

the load will not turn the screw and will not descend on its own unless effort P is applied. The screw is said to be 'self-locking' . tan J "! tan E Q " l / T dm . Under this condition.SELF LOCKING SCREW When J "! E A positive torque is required to lower the load.

lead is twice of the pitch and for triple threaded screw. Excessive lubrication may cause the load to descend on its own. tan J "! tan E Q " l / T dm Self-locking of screw is not possible when the coefficient of friction is low. The lead increases with number of starts. For double-start thread. The coefficient of friction between the surfaces of the screw and the nut is reduced by lubrication . single threaded screw is better than multiple threaded screw from self locking considerations. .SELF LOCKING SCREW A screw be self-locking if the coefficient of friction is equal to or greater than the tangent of the helix angle. three times of pitch. Self-locking property of the screw is lost when the lead is large. Therefore.

EFFICIENCY OF SQUARE THREADED SCREW Refer to force diagram for lifting the load . L! wl PT d m W L ! tan E P tan E L! tan(J E ) . The output consists of raising the load Work output = force x distance travelled in the direction of force = Wxl The input consists of rotating the screw by means of an effort P. Suppose load W moves from the lower end to the upper end of the inclined plane. Work input = force x distance travelled in the direction of force = P X T dm The efficiency L of the screw is given by.

EFFICIENCY OF SELF LOCKING SCREW The efficiency L of the screw is given by. L! tan E tan(J E ) For self locking screw J "! E Substituting the limiting value in above equation Efficiency of self locking screw is less than 50% .

while the collar which is integral with the screw rotates. there is collar friction in addition to the friction at the thread surface. . Therefore. to Do. there is relative motion between the cup & the collar at the annular interface from diameter Di. This relative motion results in friction called collar friction. The cup remains stationary under the action of load W. when the load raised or lowered.TORQUE REQUIRED TO OVERCOME COLLAR FRICTION In many applications of the power screw. The torque required to overcome this collar friction torque (Mt)c can be determined by using uniform pressure theory or uniform wear theory.

According to the uniform pressure theory .

M t c 3 QcW Do Di3 ! 3 Do2 Di2 According to the uniform wear theory. .

M t c QcW ! .

Di=inner diameter of the collar (mm). . Do=outer diameter of the collar (mm).Do Di 4 Qc =coefficient of friction at the collar.

t c Uniform pressure theory is applicable when the collar surface is new.M =collar friction torque (N-mm). Uniform wear theory is applicable to the collar surface after the initial wear. .

If an effort P is applied at the end of a lever of arm length l.e. then the total torque required to overcome friction must be equal to the torque applied at the end of lever.e.Total torque required to overcome friction (i. . to rotate the screw): =External torque required to raise the load (N-mm). i. Mt = Torque required to overcome friction at the thread surface (Mt )c = collar friction torque (N-mm).

OVERALL EFFICIENCY OF SQUARE THREADED SCREWS Efficiency is defined as ratio of Work output to work input Work output= W x l Work input = x 2 o = = .

STRESSES IN SCREW AND NUT The body of screw subjected to an axial force W and torsional moment (Mt)t as shown in fig. The compressive stress is given by The torsional shear stress is given by The principal shear stress is given by ¨ Wc ¸ 2 X ! © ¹ X ª 2 º 2 .

the thread of the nut will tend to shear off at the nominal diameter. The shear area of one T dt thread is . The screw will tend to shear off the threads at the core diameter under the action of the load W. Under the action of load W. The shear area of one thread is given by The transverse shear stresses in the nut are determined in a similar way.STRESSES IN SCREW AND NUT The threads of the screw which are engaged with the nut are subjected to transverse shear stresses.

STRESSES IN SCREW AND NUT The bearing pressure between the contacting surfaces of the screw & the nut is an important consideration in design. The bearing area between the screw & the nut T for one thread is 4 .

d d W Sb ! T 2 d dc2 z .

4 2 2 c Where z=no of threads in engagement with nut .

. When the compressive stress reaches the elastic limit of the material. .the component may fail under lateral buckling. the compression of the member increases. However. it shortens according to Hooke 's law. as shown in Fig. As the load is gradually increased. the failure occurs in the form of bulging. The load at which the buckling starts is called critical load which is denoted by Pcr.BUCKLING OF COLUMNS When a short member is subjected to axial compressive force. when the length of the component is large compared with the cross-sectional dimensions.

The failure due to buckling is sudden & without prior warning. An important parameter affecting the critical load is slenderness ratio.BUCKLING OF COLUMNS when the axial load on the column reaches Pcr there is sudden buckling & a relatively large lateral defection occurs. . At this point there is sudden lateral deflection which results in collapse of column. In case of buckling there is no gradual lateral deflection till the load reaches the critical load.

The failure due to buckling is sudden & without prior warning. At this point there is sudden lateral deflection which results in collapse of column. Slenderness ratio= Where l=length of column & k=radius of gyration . In case of buckling there is no gradual lateral deflection till the load reaches the critical load.BUCKLING OF COLUMNS when the axial load on the column reaches Pcr there is sudden buckling & a relatively large lateral defection occurs. An important parameter affecting the critical load is slenderness ratio.

BUCKLING OF COLUMNS when the axial load on the column reaches Pcr there is sudden buckling & a relatively large lateral defection occurs. An important parameter affecting the critical load is slenderness ratio. At this point there is sudden lateral deflection which results in collapse of column. In case of buckling there is no gradual lateral deflection till the load reaches the critical load. The failure due to buckling is sudden & without prior warning. Slenderness ratio= Where l=length of column & k=radius of gyration .

with slenderness ration more than 30 are designed on the basis of critical load. There are two methods for calculating critical load-Eulers equation & Jonshons equation Column .BUCKLING OF COLUMNS where I=moment of inertia of c/s in mm4 A=area of c/s in mm2 When slenderness ration is less than 30 there is no effect of buckling & such components are designed on the basis of compressive stresses.

BUCKLING OF COLUMNS According to Euler Pcr ! nT 2 EA ¨l¸ © ¹ ªkº 2 n=end fixity coefficient E=Modulus of Elasticity A=area of c/s End conditions n Both ends hinged Both ends fixed One end fixed & other end hinged One end fixed & other end free 1 4 2 0.25 .

The boundary between short & long column is The ratio obtained by above equation is called critical slenderness ratio .BUCKLING OF COLUMNS According to Johnsons equation « S yt ¨ l ¸ 2 » Pcr ! S yt A ¬1 © ¹ ¼ 4nT 2 E ª k º ¼ ¬ ½ =yield strength of the material Euler's equation suitable for long columns & Jonson's equation used for short columns.

BUCKLING OF COLUMNS When the actual slenderness ratio is less than critical slenderness ratio . screw to be treated as long column & Euler's equation is used .screw to be treated as short column & Johnson·s equation is used When the actual slenderness ratio is grater than critical slenderness ratio.

1 = 0. = tan = 0. Given: d = 100mm. W = 18kN = 18 × 103N . D2 = 250mm or R2 = 125mm. l = 400mm.20.15.15 and that for collar bearing is 0.20 Solution: Force required at the end of lever Let P = Force required at the end of lever .EXAMPLE A vertical two start square threaded screw of a 100mm mean diameter and 20mm pitch supports a vertical load of 18kN. D1 = 100mm or R1 = 50mm. The coefficient of friction for the vertical screw and nut is 0. Find the force required at the end of a lever which is 400mm long in order to lift and lower the load. p = 20mm. The axial thrust on the screw is taken by a collar bearing of 250mm outside diameter and 100mm inside diameter.

EXAMPLE Since the screw is a two start square threaded screw. therefore lead of the screw = 2p = 2 × 20 = 40mm 1. For raising the load We know that tangential force required at the circumference of the screw: And mean radius of collar: .

EXAMPLE Total torque required at the end of lever: The torque required at the end of lever (T): 569150 = P1 × l = P1 × 400 or P1 = 569150/400 = 1423N 2. For lowering the load The tangential force required at the circumference of the screw: .

3N .EXAMPLE Torque required at the end of the lever: The torque required at the end of lever (T): 335315 = P1 × l = P1 × 400 or P1 = 335315/400 = 838.