LEARNING, MEMORY, AND MENTAL PROCESSES

LEARNING
‡A relatively permanent change in immediate or potential behavior or process that results from past experiences or practice.

FIVE PROCESSES OF LEARNING

The simplest kind of learning, accounts for learning to ignore a stimulus that has become familiar and has no serious consequences.

FIVE PROCESSES OF LEARNING

A process in which a mental stimulus is paired with a stimulus that triggers a reflexive response until the neutral stimulus alone elicited a similar response.

‡ UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS(UCS) response without conditioning

the stimulus elicits the

‡ UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UCR) the automatic, unlearned reaction to the stimulus ‡ CONDITIONED STIMULUS(CS) refers to the previously mental stimulus, after paired with the unconditioned stimulus ‡ CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR) the response it elicits from the conditioned stimulus

‡

ACQUISITION a neural stimulus and a UCS are paired. The neural stimulus becomes a CS, eliciting CR.

‡ STIMULUS GENERALIZATION a CR is elicited not only by the CS but also by the stimulus similar to the CS ‡ STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION generalization is limited such that some stimuli similar to the CS do not elicit it the CR. ‡ EXTINCTION - the CS is presented alone with the UCS. Gradually, the CS no longer elicits the CR.

FIVE PROCESSES OF LEARNING

OPERANT is a response that operates in the environment. A reinforcer increases the probability that an operant behavior will occur again.

2 MAIN TYPES OF REINFORCERS
‡ POSITIVE REINFORCERS are stimuli that strengthen a response if they are presented after the response has occurred. ‡ B. NEGATIVE REINFORCERS are unpleasant stimuli such as pain, frustration or boredom that strengthen a response if they are removed after the response has occurred. 2 EXAMPLES OF NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: ESCAPE LEARNING AND AVOIDANCE LEARNING

SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
‡ FIXED-RATIO (FR) SCHEDULE mixed number of responses provides reinforcement following a

‡ VARIABLE-RATIO (VR) SCHEDULE gives reinforcement only after making a certain number of responses but that number varies unpredictably ‡ FIXED-INTERVAL (FI) SCHEDULE gives reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward, regardless of how many responses have been made during the interval. ‡ VARIABLE-INTERVAL (VI) SCHEDULE provides reinforcement for the first response after some period of time, but the amount of time varies.

FIVE PROCESSES OF LEARNING

Learning from the experiences of others. VICARIOUS CONDITIONING it is a process of learning by seeing or hearing about the consequences of other people s action. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING it is a process of learning by watching what others are doing.

4 REQUIREMENTS TO DETERMINE WHETHER OBSERVASATIONAL LEARNING HAS OCCURRED: 1. ATTENTION 2. RETENTION 3. ABILITY TO REPRODUCE THE BEHAVIOR 4. MOTIVATION

FIVE PROCESSES OF LEARNING

learning results from thinking and other mental processes According to Edward Tolman, all organisms, including the animals, are capable of thinking and this capacity must be considered in any explanation of learning. ‡ Insights are formed suddenly and transferred immediately to other similar problems.

2 PHASES OF INSIGHT LEARNING:
1.INITIAL PHASE involves problem-solving to derive a solution 2. SECOND PHASE the solution is stored in memory and retrieved whenever a similar problem situation exists.

Is the ability to store information so that it can be used at a later time. HUMAN MEMORY can store information from any of our senses. More so, it has the extraordinary capacity to mix, intermingle, and combine information in a way that no artificial memory system can approach.

BASIC TYPES OF MEMORY
1. EPISODIC MEMORY any memory of specific event that happened while you were present. 2. SEMANTIC MEMORY contains generalized knowledge of a specific event. 3. PROCEDURAL MEMORY is also called skill memory because it involves how to do things.

INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL OF MEMORY
1. ENCODING refers to putting of information into memory. 2. STORING refers to how a system maintains or remembers information. 3. RETRIEVING means getting the stored information out of memory. 4. FORGETTING refers to the inability to recall a particular piece of information accurately.

3 MAIN CAUSES OF FORGETTING:
A. RETRIEVAL FAILURE suggests that forgetting is due to the inability to recall the information. B. DECAY THEORY suggests that if people do not use information stored in long-term memory, it gradually fades until it is lost. C. INTERFERENCE THEORY holds that forgetting information in long-term memory is due to the influences of other learning. Interference can be retroactive or proactive.

3 STAGES OF MEMORY
1. SENSORY MEMORY - the 1st stage of processing wherein the information from the senses is held in the sensory register for a fraction of a second. 2. SHORT-TERM MEMORY the 2nd stage of processing. If the information in sensory memory is perceived, then it can enter this stage but the information will disappear in twenty seconds if not put in use. 3. LONG-TERM MEMORY if the information in short-term memory is further processed where it may stay indefinitely.

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE ONE S MEMORY
1. METAMEMORY refers to the knowledge about how one s own memory works A. Includes the understanding of one s abilities and limitations. B. Involves knowledge about different types of tasks. C. Involves knowledge of what types of strategies are most effective in remembering new information.

2. MNEMONICS are strategies for placing information in an organized context in order to remember it. SOME DEVICES OF MNEMONICS A. RHYME, ACRONYMS, ACROSTICS, and PEGWORDS B. THE LOCI METHOD C.THE KEYWORD METHOD D. ORGANIZATION E. PQRST (PREVIEW, QUESTION, READ, SELF RECITATION, and TEST) METHOD F. PREVIEW

refers to thinking A. Use of symbolic processes by the brain. B. Ideation, the sequence of producing ideas concerned with the solving of specific problems or incongruities in models of reality. C. The deliberate exploration of experience. D. Purposeful manipulation of words and images. E. Thinking is a process by which a new mental representation is formed through transformation of information by complex interaction of the mental attributes of judging, abstracting, reasoning, imagining, and problem solving.

Thinking about our thoughts and feelings, about our situations, goals, and our capacities is a mental process called metacognition. Metacognition involves: reflection thinking about our experiences and projection thinking about our future

MAJOR MENTAL PROCESSES  CONCEPT FORMATION refers to the discernment of properties common to a class of objects or ideas

Principles of Concept Formation
A. Association B. Critical thinking defined as principled thinking . It involves the correct assessing of statements using analysis and logic. Aspects of Critical Thinking: 1. Grasping the meaning of a statement 2. Judging whether there is ambiguity in a line of reasoning 3. Judging whether certain statements contradict each other 4. Judging whether a conclusion follows necessarily 5. Judging whether a statement is specific enough 6. Judging whether a statement is actually the application of a certain principle 7. Judging whether an observation statement is reliable 8. Judging whether an inductive conclusion is warranted 9. Judging whether something is an assumption 10. Judging whether a definition is adequate 11. Judging whether a statement by an alleged authority is acceptable

C. Analysis defined as a breakdown of the material into its constituent parts and the detection of the relationships of its parts of the way they are compared and contrasted. Relationships: 1.Semantic relationships - involve similarities or differences in meaning. 2. Symbolic relationships - are those that are compatible purely in terms of the symbols. 3.Phonetic relationships - are pairs of words that sound alike like homonyms, rhymes. 4. Classic relationship involves pairs that belong to the same classification. 5. Functional relationship can be seen if one item changes into the other, acts or performs on the other, or is used for the other. 6. Quantitative relationships are expressed as similarities or differences as to quantity, degree or number. 7. Pattern relationships are those that possess similar figural attributes

D. Logic or Logical Reasoning - Aristotle introduced a system of reasoning a process of validating arguments called syllogism. Syllogism has 3 parts: a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion 

PROBLEM

SOLVING - is the cognitive process through which information/concepts are used to reach a goal that is sometimes blocked by some kind of obstacle.

Common Problem-Solving Strategies
1. Trial and error strategy 2. Using insight 3. Listening to one s gut feel or intuition 4. Using algorithms 5. Using heuristics Heuristics are general principles that allow a person to solve a problem by doing what is important or possible at the moment. I identify the problem D define and represent the problem E explore possible strategies A act on the chosen strategies L look back and evaluate the effect of your activities

Making Decisions a process that requires the collection of information from which careful analysis becomes the basis of the decision. Creative thinking *According to Torrance, creativity is a process of becoming sensitive to problems, deficiencies, gaps in knowledge, missing elements, disharmonies, searching for solutions, making guesses, or formulating a hypothesis about the deficiencies, testing and retesting this hypothesis possibly modifying and retesting them and finally communicating the result. 1. Saturation 2. Deliberation 3. Incubation 4. Illumination

METACOGNITION is thinking about one s thinking Reflective thought a kind of talking to oneself. Executive control able to make plans for himself/ Projective thinking form of thinking that encourages individuals to think for the future.

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