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HW8
Due: 11:00pm on Thursday, April 15, 2010
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Charged Aluminum Spheres
Description: Find the number of electrons in an aluminum sphere. Calculate the number of electrons that must be removed from one sphere and added to another to create a given attractive force, and find the fraction of electrons per sphere this number represents. Two small aluminum spheres, each of mass 0.0250 kilograms, are separated by 80.0 centimeters. Part A How many electrons does each sphere contain? (The atomic mass of aluminum is 26.982 grams per mole, and its atomic number is 13.) Hint A.1 In one mole ( The definition of mole and atomic number ) of any material, there are approximately atoms present. The number of atoms per mole is called Avogadro's number. The atomic number of an element is the number of

protons (and therefore also the number of electrons) in an atom of that element. Hint A.2 How many electrons per mole of aluminum?

How many electrons are there in a mole of aluminum? Express your answer numerically. ANSWER:

Hint A.3

How many electrons per kilogram of aluminum?

How many electrons are in a kilogram of aluminum? Express your answer numerically. ANSWER:

Express your answer numerically. ANSWER:

Part B How many electrons would have to be removed from one sphere and added to the other to cause an attractive force between the spheres of magnitude may be treated as point charges. Hint B.1 How to approach the problem (roughly one ton)? Assume that the spheres

Use Coulomb's law to find the charge needed to produce the given force. Then use the charge of an electron to determine the number of electrons necessary to produce the calculated charge. Hint B.2 Find the relationship between the charges of the spheres . What would be the charge on the other sphere, , after these extra electrons are added to it?

Assume that after some electrons have been removed from it, the first sphere ends up with a net charge of Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = and any necessary constants.

Express your answer numerically. ANSWER:

Part C What fraction of all the electrons in one of the spheres does this represent? Express your answer numerically. ANSWER:

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Coulomb's law describes the force that two charged particles exert on each other (by Newton's third law. . electric charges (both positive and negative). One charge acts at an angle of pi/4 radians relative to the given coordinate axes. ANSWER: = Part D Now add a fourth charged particle. and . The force vector will be parallel or antiparallel to the direction of . particle 3.. negatively charged. For what Express your answer in terms of any or all of the following variables: . and thus trigonometry is required to solve the problem.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session. Learning Goal: To understand how to calculate forces between charged particles. one of charge at . the force is attractive if the charges are of opposite sign and repulsive if the charges are of the same sign. What is the net force on particle 0 2 of 9 4/19/2010 9:31 AM . those two forces must be equal and opposite). between them: exerted by particle 2 (with charge ) where and is the unit vector pointing from particle 2 to particle 1. . The force on particle 1 (with charge ) is proportional to the charge of each particle and inversely proportional to the square of the distance . particle.. Part A Consider two positively charged particles. What is the ANSWER: = Part C Particle 0 experiences a repulsion from particle 1 and an attraction toward particle 2. What is the net force (particle 0) fixed at the origin. and subsequently multiple. . . from particle 1 and particle 2? Express your answer (a vector) using any or all of . resulting in no net force. .com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=. particularly the dependence on the sign of the charges and the distance between them. fixed in the yz-plane at . Express your answer (a vector) using any or all of . parallel if the product and antiparallel if . whose charge is new net force on particle 0. the repulsion and attraction should balance each other. . Particle 2 fixed on the y-axis at position . Coulomb's Law Tutorial Description: Use Coulomb's law to compute the (vector) force between two. . (particle 2). .masteringphysics. and another of charge (particle 1) fixed on the y-axis on particle 0 due to particle 1? . with positive charge due solely to this charge? . For certain values of ratio is there no net force on particle 0? . . . and . ANSWER: = Part B Now add a third. . . . and .

0nC charge in the middle of the figure due to the four other charges? Give your answer in component form.2 Vector components to . Now break up the force vector into its y and z components.44 Description: (a) What is the force F_vec on the 1. = Electric Fields and Forces 3 of 9 4/19/2010 9:31 AM .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session.1. Hint D. ANSWER: .1 Distance to particle 3 Use the Pythagorean theorem to find the straight line distance between the origin and Express your answer using .masteringphysics. Because is symmetrically located between the y-axis and the z-axis. . and the y-axis is The force vector points from radians. ANSWER: . Express your answer (a vector) using . the angle between .. You have already calculated the magnitude of the vector above. Part A What is the force Assume that on the 1. . Include only the force caused by particle 3.. -axis is directed horizontally to the right. . . ANSWER: . and . the unit vector pointing from particle 3 to particle 0. .com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=. = Problem 26.1 Find the magnitude of force from particle 3 ? What is the magnitude of the force on particle 0 from particle 3. = Hint D.0 charge in the middle of the figure due to the four other charges? Give your answer in component form. and -axis is directed vertically upward. fixed at Hint D. . .

The electric field vector has the same direction as the force vector on a positive charge and the opposite direction to that of the force vector on a negative charge. The electric field points away from positive charges and toward negative charges. In other words. Learning Goal: To understand Coulomb's law. This mechanism is the electric field. ANSWER: the distance between the positive charge and the electron the charge on the electron the mass of the electron the charge of the positive charge the mass of the positive charge the radius of the positive charge the radius of the electron The electrostatic force cannot exist unless two charges are present. Note that if a charge is placed in an electric field created by . opposite charges attract and like charges repel. In other words. and the connection between the electric field and the electric force.53 from the charge? Enter your answer numerically in newtons per coulomb.. The direction of the force is along the line connecting the two charges. Coulomb's law gives the electrostatic force between the charges: . on the other hand. An electric field can be created by a single charge or a distribution of charges. Part A There is a single electron at a distance from the point charge. ANSWER: the distance between the positive charge and the electron the charge on the electron the mass of the electron the charge of the positive charge the mass of the positive charge the radius of the positive charge the radius of the electron According to Coulomb's law.62×10−6 . the force between two particles depends on the charge on each of them and the distance between them. On which of the following quantities does the force on the electron depend? Check all that apply. Part B For the same situation as in Part A. there must be an intermediate mechanism to cause the force.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session. If the charges have the same sign. The electric field at any location is equal to the force per unit charge experienced by a charge placed at that location. The electric field a distance from a point charge has magnitude . The magnitude of the force between two charges and depends on the product of the charges and the square of the distance where . on which of the following quantities does the electric field at the electron's position depend? Check all that apply. Part C If the total positive charge is = 1. Description: Electric forces and electric fields. will not significantly affect the electric field if it is small compared to . If the charges have opposite signs.masteringphysics. the electric field at that point is .com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=. acting between two charges. Because the charges are not in contact with each other. A distribution of charges creates an electric field that can be found by taking the vector sum of the fields created by individual point charges.. The electric field. the force will be repulsive. 4 of 9 4/19/2010 9:31 AM . the force will be attractive. can be created by only one charge. a distance = 1. if a charge experiences a force . Imagine an isolated positive point charge with a charge (many times larger than the charge on a single electron). electric fields. The value of the electric field depends only on the charge producing the electric field and the distance from that charge. what is the magntidue of the electric field caused by this charge at point P.

65 Description: A q charge is located at position (x. Recall that the charge on an electron has magnitude Hint E. ANSWER: .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session. Enter your answer numerically in newtons. (a) At what x. = 5 of 9 4/19/2010 9:31 AM . A 20. Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=. What strategy can you use to calculate the force between the positive charge and the electron? ANSWER: Use Coulomb's law. Do either of the above..0 (cm))..0 (cm). 2. Express your answers using two significant figures.500 jmath_unit N/C? (c) At what x.000 imath_unit N/C? (b) At what x. ANSWER: C Problem 26. ANSWER: = Part F What is the direction of the force on an electron placed at point P? Enter the letter of the vector that represents the direction of . ANSWER: = Part D What is the direction of the electric field at point P? Enter the letter of the vector that represents the direction of . y position is the electric field -225. Do neither of the above.masteringphysics. Multiply the electric field due to the positive charge by the charge on the electron.000 imath_unit+80. y position is the electric field 161. y . y)=(1.0 Part A At what position is the electric field ? charge is located at position .. ANSWER: G Part E Now find the magnitude of the force on an electron placed at point P..1 Determine how to approach the problem .

centered at the origin. ANSWER: = Charged Ring Description: Find the electric field from a uniformly charged ring (qualitative and quantitative parts) at points along its axis. Consider a uniformly charged ring in the xy plane.68 Description: An electric field E_vec = E imath_unit (N/C) causes the point charge in the figure to hang at an angle. ANSWER: . The ring has radius and positive charge distributed evenly along its circumference. Since the ball has no acceleration. = Problem 26. (a) What is theta ? An electric field causes the point charge in the figure to hang at an angle. ANSWER: . Part B At what position is the electric field ? Express your answers using two significant figures.. Then use this to find the frequency of small oscillations of a oppositely charged object placed on the axis.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session. Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma. = Part C At what position is the electric field ? Express your answers using two significant figures. and the tension in the string. Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma. Part A What is Hint A. 6 of 9 4/19/2010 9:31 AM . Express your answer using two significant figures. electric force..com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=.masteringphysics.1 Force diagram The only forces acting on the ball are gravity. the tension in the string must exactly cancel the net force from the other two forces.

and . Then. 7 of 9 4/19/2010 9:31 AM . you should use Coulomb's law to find the contribution over the ring to find the value of charge shown in the figure. to the electric field at the point from a piece of charge on the ring at a distance away. Consider an infinitesimal piece of the ring with charge . You may also use some or all of the variables . the electric field say at due to is . all we care about is the z component of each such contribution. Therefore. to find the electric field (the Coulomb force per unit charge) due to a point charge. because the horizontal component of each contribution of magnitude similar contribution of magnitude charge on an infinitesimally small portion of the ring Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = . where . Use Coulomb's law to write the magnitude of the infinitesimal at a point on the positive z axis due to the Use in your answer. away from the ring. you can integrate . What is this value? Does a similar argument hold for the z component of the field? ANSWER: parallel to the x axis parallel to the y axis parallel to the z axis in a circle parallel to the xy plane Part B What is the magnitude of the electric field along the positive z axis? Hint B. one that has a z component as well as a component in the xy plane. Your friend wouldn't be able to tell them apart. because the ring that is rotated looks just like the one that isn't. and . You can always use Coulomb's law. In the situation below. the infinitesimally small contribution to the electric field. As a result of the rotation. they have the component of the electric field in the xy plane pointing in different directions! This apparent contradiction can be resolved if this component of the field has a particular value.. Now you ask a friend to look at both rings. In what direction is the net field? What if you did this for every pair of points on opposite sides of the ring? Approach 2 Consider a general electric field at a point on the z axis. Now imagine that you make a copy of the ring and rotate this copy about its axis. What is the component in the z direction? By symmetry. ANSWER: = Hint B. Given the force. the component of the electric field in the xy plane will rotate also.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=. Part A What is the direction of the electric field at any point on the z axis? Hint A. the coordinate of the point on the z axis. However.e. the radius of the ring. . ..2 Simplifying with symmetry is exactly canceled by the horizontal component of a of the electric field caused by the from the other side of the ring.1 Formula for the electric field .1 How to approach the problem Approach 1 In what direction is the field due to a point on the ring? Add to this the field from a point on the opposite side of the ring..MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session. i. the net field must point along the z axis.masteringphysics.

and the field points in the positive z direction. . Hint D. . the vertical component of the field due to the infinitesimal charge . and in simple harmonic motion. where . which also points toward the origin.1 The formula for the force . 8 of 9 4/19/2010 9:31 AM . If the charge is positive. assume that Hint D. .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session. change to a spatial variable. Use that expression in the equation above to find an expression for the z component of the force on the ball at the point . If the charge is negative. the electric field should point outward. the negative sign from the charge causes the electric field to point in the negative z direction.1 . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = . Hint B. is much greater than the magnitude of is approximately . For points on the negative z axis. What will be the angular frequency of these oscillations? Use the approximation to simplify your Simple harmonic motion Recall the nature of simple harmonic motion of an object attached to a spring. the electric field should point toward the origin. . the negative sign from the z coordinate and the negative sign from the charge cancel. Therfore. in Part B. leading to oscillation at a frequency of (here. For points on the positive z axis. The total field is If you combine your results from the first two hints. which is outward from the origin.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=. ).. Write ? Use the approximation . ANSWER: = Notice that this expression is valid for both positive and negative charges as well as for points located on the positive and negative z axis. independent of the size of the ring: The field due to the ring is almost the same as that due to a point Part D The ball will oscillate along the z axis between calculation. it is good to see that if charge Part C Imagine a small metal ball of mass the ball's subsequent trajectory? ANSWER: repelled from the origin attracted toward the origin and coming to rest oscillating along the z axis between and circling around the z axis at and negative charge . The solution to this differential equation is a sinusoidal function of time with angular frequency .3 Integrating around the ring . the field points in the positive z direction. As a check. you will have an expression for If you are not comfortable integrating over the ring. For points on the negative z axis. what will be at the origin. Don't forget to use the Compare this to the generic force equation for an oscillator to find the oscillation frequency. Since the total charge is distributed evenly about the ring. You have already found approximation given.2.masteringphysics. which points toward the origin. .2 What is Find the force on the charge . Use in your answer. and . the algebraic expression is valid for any signs of the parameters. the prime on the symbol representing the spring constant is to distinguish it from an analogous equation for the ball near the charged ring in order to find the Hint D. which is also outward from the origin. The ball is released from rest at the point and constrained to move along the z axis. Newton's second law for the system states that .. convince yourself that . For points on the positive z axis. the field points in the negative z direction. the z component of the force on the ball on the ball at the point A formula for the force on a charge in an electric field on a charge in an electric field is term. with no damping. If . that is. Therefore. in particular. even though we obtained the above result for postive and .

Express your answer in terms of given charges. (a) Find an expression for the electric field strength on the axis of the rod at distance r from the center.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session. (b) Verify that your expression has the expected behavior if r gg L. You received 0 out of a possible total of 80 points. ANSWER: = Problem 27.42 Description: The figure shows a thin rod of length L with total charge Q.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=.. Part B Verify that your expression has the expected behavior if Express your answer in terms of variables ANSWER: = .masteringphysics. Part A Find an expression for the electric field strength on the axis of the rod at distance ANSWER: from the center..0 . Express your answer using two significant figures.0 and =3. . dimensions. Part C Evaluate at =3. 9 of 9 4/19/2010 9:31 AM . and constants.0 if =5.. The figure shows a thin rod of length with total charge . ANSWER: = Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. . and constants .. (c).

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