Sustainable Eco-Tourism development in Ghana: A case study of Lake Bosumtwi




ECO-TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION Eco-tourism offers a tremendous opportunity to provide a less consumptive source of income from natural resources, improved local standards of living, foster cultural exchange and understanding and promote bio-diversity conservation. This view is upheld by IUCN (1996) which stated that ecotourism: " environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features - both past and present) that promotes conservation, has low negative visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socioeconomic involvement of local populations."

Gunn (1994) sees tourism as encompassing all travel with the exception of commuting." McIntosh and Goeldner (1986) say that "tourism can be defined as the science, art, and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them, and graciously catering to their needs and wants. Tourism according to Mieczkowski (1995) since the Second World War has grown at an unprecedented pace faster than most other economic sectors and has developed into arguably the world‟s largest industry. Its contribution to the economies of nations is in the areas of providing employment and earning foreign exchange, which for Ghana ranks only behind cocoa exports revenue.

Ecotourism has been marketed as a form of nature-based tourism, but it has also been studied as a sustainable development tool by NGOs, development experts and academics since 1990. The term ecotourism, therefore, refers on one hand to a concept based on a set of principles, and on the other hand to a specific market segment. The International Ecotourism Society in 1991 produced one of the earliest definitions: "ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well being of local people."

Thus it is a development strategy, which can help in the attainment of local development, however the activities of man is impeding the growth of eco-tourism and its obvious


benefits to the local economy and the nation as a whole.In June 1992, with much pomp, leaders of 178 nations gathered in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil for the Earth Summit, with the goal of mobilising, coordinating and financing international action on an ambitious agenda to help preserve and protect the global environment. At the earth summit several treaties and conventions were signed by nations promoting sustainable development.

However the so-called road from Rio has turned out to be a lost highway. This is manifested in the situation where massive areas of woodland and forest are falling to the chain saw, while countries are haggling over terms of treaties. Further, agreement and conventions forged are not being fully implemented (Time Magazine, Special Edition Nov.1997). Though Ghana is a signatory to conventions and treaties on protecting biodiversity, endangered species, tropical forests, wetlands, and the ozone layer, deforestation, overgrazing, and periodic drought have led to desertification and soil erosion. Ghana‟s wildlife populations, depleted by habitat loss, are further threatened by poaching.

In the late 19th century, in the then Gold Coast, hardwood forests covered the southern half of the country. Considerable portions of these once-extensive forests have been destroyed, and today about 39.7 percent (estimated in 1995) of the country is forested. Not all of these forests are commercially viable, however about 1.3 percent (1990-1996) of the remaining forest is lost every year (Encarta 2003). According to Inkoom (1999)

it is widely acknowledged that Ghana is losing its forests resources rapidly due to unsustainable exploitation and poor farming practices.

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT In the light of these developments, Ghana has earmarked the tourism sector, which largely depends on the environment and culture and to some extent history, to play a leading role in the drive to develop, based on increased investment and growth. This view was echoed by the sector Minister, when he indicated that the government has started the implementation of strategies to make the tourism sector, the leading employer and

This is to be done in a situation of continuous plunder of the natural resource base of the country. eco-tourism should meet all the requirement of sustainable development.) However the focus of the nation has been lob-sided. bio diversity and biological resources and promotes improved land use patterns and environmental consciousness due to its heavy reliance on the afore-mentioned natural processes and resources and its inherent advantages of ensuring the development of the local economy. Turner (1988) conceptualizes sustainable development within a framework of an acceptable economic growth and socio economic development without depleting the national capital stock or the natural environmental asset stock. Monday May 20. The Lake Bosumtwi basin. Eco-tourism should necessarily be conducted in a sustainable manner in order to attain its much talked about benefits. as emphasis has most often been placed on historical or heritage. a factor that might hinder the performance of the sub-sector. by increasing tourists arrivals to one million by the year 2007 (Daily Graphic.4 economic sector and the second leading foreign exchange earner. has been a tourism attraction for a long time with very little research being conducted on its sustenance and for how long it can be relied on to attract tourists. with little emphasis on ecological tourism. Similarly. Hence. Also Allen (1980) views it as “development that is likely to achieve lasting satisfaction of human life. the United Nations Environmental Programme and the Worldwide Fund . cultural and conference tourism. The eco-tourism sub-sector mainly relies on the preservation of natural phenomena and resources to attract tourist into the country to generate the required foreign exchange and play the role it has been allotted in national development. Hence. though it helps preserve ecological processes. Inability to conduct research on the sustainability of the attraction may result in overstepping the capacity of the attraction which results in eco-tourism destroying the environment and hence eco-tourism. any attraction that has been earmarked for development in the drive to promote tourism needs to be assessed for its viability and sustainability over time.

1991) 1. iv. its sustainability would in a way determine the overall sustainability of the tourism sector. There are twenty-two settlements along the banks of the lake. of similar characteristics. interviewing nine . the objectives of this study are outlined as follows: i.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study was carried out through an initial desk study on available literature and subsequent field visits to the lake area and interactions with inhabitants of the nearby settlements. Questionnaires were also administered to a sample population to gather information on living conditions around the lake. Eighteen people were then interviewed in each of the five settlements.”(ICUN/UNEP/WWF. To assess the general sustainability of the site based on the prevailing socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the lake basin.5 for Nature define sustainable development as “improving the quality of life while living in the carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems. To assess the environmental impact of eco-tourism development in the lake area. To assess the cultural impact of eco-tourism in the communities. To assess the socio-economic impact of eco-tourism on the people in the lake area.2 OBJECTIVE The main purpose of this special study was to assess the sustainability of the Lake Bosumtwi as an ecological tourism destination in terms of social. ii.3 SCOPE The study is limited to the communities in the Lake Bosumtwi basin and the development of the lake into an ecological tourism destination and its subsequent impact on the sociocultural and economic lives of the people. 1. Being one of the few ecological tourism sites in the country. environmental and economic sustainability. 1. Thus. which is taking centre stage in generating revenue for the country. which constitutes the three principles of sustainable development. At this stage quota sampling was adopted. iii. Further semi-structured questionnaires were administered in stakeholder institutions. The sample population of ninety was taken from five of the settlements selected at random.

objectives and research methodology among others.6 males and nine females in each of the settlements. Data collected through primary and secondary sources is presented and analysed in chapter three. problem statement.5 n 88 Where n is the sample size “N” is the sampling frame or total population “e” is the maximum allowable error.05) 2 4. which is presented below: n N 1 N ( e) 2 h n 23615 1 23615(0. Hence its application to the entire population may not be accurate. time as well as collect data that reflects the situation in all the settlements. 1. based on the confidence level chosen “h” is the average household size The advantage of combining the various sampling methods was to reduce cost. 1. Chapter one involves a general introduction of the work. with summary and conclusion taking up chapter five. the study was restricted to a sample chosen from the entire population. Chapter two is primarily concerned with review of available literature on Lake Bosumtwi.7 ORGANISATION OF THE REPORT The report was prepared and categorized into five chapters. . The sample size was obtained by using a formula deduced by Achinah (2001). Findings and recommendations are embodied in chapter four.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY Due to constraints with respect to cost and time.

art. and business of attracting and transporting visitors. 2. business suppliers.1 What is tourism? Taken literally. The Cambridge International Dictionary (1995) defines tourism as “the business of providing services such as transport." McIntosh and Goeldner (1986) say that "tourism can be defined as the science. pp. places to stay or entertainment." He sees it as a dichotomy of the have and the have nots with lesser developed countries serving the pleasures of the more developed countries. host governments. tourism is defined as “the organization and operation of (especially) foreign holidays especially as a commercial enterprise” (Oxford Reference Dictionary. for people who are on holiday. Taylor (1988). 4). and graciously catering to their needs and wants. 37-52) views tourism as a "form of imperialism.7 CHAPTER TWO ECO-TOURISM: CONCEPT AND ISSUES 2. and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors (p." They also introduce the notion that tourism is interactive in that they believe that "tourism may be defined as the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists.0 LITERATURE REVIEW This part of the study deals with the amount of research work that has been carried out on the field of study and the institutions that have been involved in the promotion of ideas in the eco-tourism sub-sector. Contrary to the opinions expressed above. Nash (1989. For the purpose of this study tourism was considered to be attracting visitors and catering for their needs and promoting interaction between the host communities and the visitors for mutual benefit. D'Amore (1987).” Gunn (1994) believes that tourism "encompasses all travel with the exception of commuting. and Dann (1988) say that tourism is not only an interactive process but also a vehicle for world peace. . accommodating them. 1995).

and to be fully informed. . effective and active participation of all stakeholders. alternative. and Promotes processes for Indigenous Peoples and local communities to control and maintain their resources. It seems to be a catch-all word that has different meaning to different persons. ethical. and territories. some characteristics come to the fore as salient ones.8 2.2 What is eco-tourism? Though eco-tourism lacks one clear definition. which follows clear processes that: Ensures prior informed participation of all stakeholders. to others it is synonymous with nature tourism. To some it means ecologically-sound tourism. responsible. Eco-tourism is nature travel that advances conservation and sustainable development efforts. Ensures equal. lands. when groups of Indigenous Peoples Organizations. Though there are various definitions of what is meant by eco-tourism. Acknowledges indigenous peoples communities' rights to say "no" to tourism development . 2. In addition."eco-tourism" is a relatively new idea that has dramatically captured the attention of many people from a variety of backgrounds. NGOs and other members of Civil Society provided a proposal on guidelines for ecotourism and decided that eco-tourism is sustainable tourism. green. effective and active participants in the development of tourism activities within the communities. as part of the side events on the 8th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD 8). In addition. Despite the continued debate about exactly what eco-tourism entails.3 Sustainable Tourism or Eco-Tourism According to Koeman (1995). the World Conservation Union (1996) defined eco-tourism as "…visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas …has low negative visitor impact and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations". it has been classified by the International Eco-tourism Society (1991) as: "… responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people". it seems that most agree that Eco-tourism must be a force for sustaining natural resources. appropriate. These are were in May 2000. environmentally friendly or sustainable tourism.

environmental and social goals within an ethical framework of values and principles” means proper consideration of host peoples. cultures.providing for the needs of current societies without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. communities. but sustainable tourism development means more than protecting the natural environment . and inter. and that does not exploit and degrade the environment in which they live and from which they must earn a living after the last tourist has flown back home. ensures that financial benefits flow to host communities and places a special emphasis on financial contribution to conservation efforts.9 Eco-tourism is distinguished from other forms of educational or nature based tourism by a high degree of environmental and ecological education. Eco-tourism practice minimises the environmental and cultural impacts of visitors. but is not automatically a form of sustainable tourism. and social and economic systems. long-term time scale. well as intra-generational equity . coupled with the education provided. without causing a loss of traditional employment systems. To achieve sustainable ecotourism involves balancing economic. Koeman (1995). "Sustainable tourism" is often equated with nature or eco-tourism. Thus tourism is brought within the debate on sustainable development in general. Sustainable development (and therefore sustainable tourism) takes into account three central points: the necessary interactions between the environment and economic activity. lifestyles. acculturation or social disruption. To sum up.4 Tourism in Ghana . states that “it is important to note that eco tourism can be. It is tourism that enhances the material life of local communities. Eco-tourism contains a significant portion of human wilderness interaction that. It is tourism that truly benefits those who are on the receiving end. tend to transform tourists into strong advocates for environmental protection.

the Aburi Botanical Gardens in the Eastern Region. In the northern region tourists can visit the Larabanga Mosque. There are four unique attractions in the country. conference and ecological tourism. Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary and the Manhyia Palace can be found in the Ashanti Region. which draw a large number of tourists annually. Historical tourism is one area that Ghana has been noted for worldwide. the Homecoming Summit all falling under conference tourism. historical. The craft villages of Anhwia and Bonwire. Tourists to Ghana are now welcomed by an array of attractions including the Independence Arch. the Pan-African Arts Festival which is held biennially helps some people in the Americas trace their roots and constitutes heritage tourism. These forts are widely visited by the African-American who find the experience traumatic. suspended about a hundred feet above the forest . where „kente‟ is woven and the Pankronu pottery village are also located in the Ashanti Region. Ghana has become a destination for almost all forms of tourism. Tourism in Ghana can be traced to the first visit of Don Diego d‟Azambuja when he set his foot on the shores of Elmina. located in four different regions. ruins of the Nalerigu Defence Wall and the Salaga Slave Market. Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum. which were once major transhipment points for tens of thousands of slaves on their way to the New World. the Kakum National Park. These include the Elmina and Cape Coast Castles in the Central Region. with its canopy walkway.10 Tourism is one of the country‟s expanding service activities. as is evidenced in the holding of the African-African-American Summit. being home to twenty-nine of the thirty-two castles and forts the Europeans used in the obnoxious slave trade. the European Forts and Castles along the coast. both local and foreign. the Bomfobiri Wildlife Sanctuary with its waterfall. These are. then known as Edina in search of spices and other exotic things not found in his own country Portugal. The most important tourist destinations are the colonial fortresses at Cape Coast and Elmina. Also. Bobiri Butterfly Sanctuary. Since then tourism has grown to assume great dimensions to encompass heritage or cultural.

marked a serious start to tourism development in Ghana. The government established a Ministry of Tourism in 1993. incentives and guarantees to foreign investors.870 square miles and home to ninety-three mammals including lions. which is one of the seven meteor impact lakes in the world. to underscore its commitment to tourism development. warthogs and hippopotamuses. (1985) PNDCL 116. has prepared a 15-Year Tourism Development Plan for the period 1996 to 2010. Frazer-eagle owls. The code offered concessions. It is home to some endangered bird and animal species including Diana monkeys. tourists can visit Nzulezu. now Ministry of Tourism and Modernisation of the Capital. the government adopted the National Tourism Policy.11 floor. and with assistance from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Tourism Organisation (WTO). The goals of this plan are outlined as follows:- . Bosumtwi located in a crater amidst lush green hills. with the objectives of developing tourism to become a major contributor to the economy. through job creation and foreign exchange generation and to make tourism the bedrock of development and enhance Ghana environment and heritage. a town built completely on stilts above water in a marshy area. financiers. which is one of the three canopy walkways in the world. baboons. nine species of amphibians and thirty-three species of reptiles is found in the Northern Region. Ghanaian institutions and business entrepreneurs who wanted to invest in Tourism in Ghana. the African grey and Senegal parrots. In 1987. hartebeests. elephants. The Mole Game Reserve established in 1971 and covering 1. In the Ashanti Region is the country‟s only natural lake. Since the late 1980s the tourism sector has received considerable attention in the economic development strategy of Ghana. bongos and the red river hog. while both public and private investment activity in various tourism sub-sectors have expanded. The numbers of tourist arrivals. buffaloes. as well as expenditure by tourists have steadily increased. The adoption of the Ghana Industrial Code. elephants. In the Western Region. Mona monkeys.

Develop an integrated tourism product and a positive image of Ghana as a destination. 6. conference and recreational tourism. the natural environment and cultural traditions. Reviewing the organisational structure of tourism administration especially the Ghana Tourist Board 3. 3. Recognizing the possible negative impacts of intensive tourism development on the environment.12 1. 5. To be able to attain the above goals. ecological. With the implementation of these strategies. b. PANAFEST. some strategies were drawn up. Developing the basic infrastructure of tourism Reviewing visa requirement for tourists 4. Promote leisure. Upgrading the standard of existing receptive facilities. d.a biennial arts festival and the African-African American Summit. adventure. the sector is expected to grow and play a leading role in the growth of the economy. Enhancing selected tourism attractions based on heritage. c. and for ease of implementation. 4. To lay the foundation for the qualitative takeoff of the tourism industry. which ultimately leads to the goals. 2. 5. travel as a major form of recreation among Ghana‟s populace. Principal among the strategies are the following: 1. culture and applying measures to conserve historic sires. Enhancing delivery capacities of the public and private sector tourism institutions. Enhance visitor satisfaction and increase Ghana‟s share of the tourism market. The decision to promote the tourism sector to play a leading role in the development of the country has been backed by action in various forms like fairs and conferences such as the Pan-African Fair for Arts and Music (PAFAM). Reviewing and updating of tourism policies to reflect ongoing trends and the growing importance of tourism to the economy 2. The performance of the tourism sector over the years is presented in Table1 . Promote tourism as an option for rural development and national integration. Maximize the contribution of tourism to the economy in terms of foreign exchange and job creation. ethno. Enhancing the tourism product througha.

34 72. Hence in an effort to save the natural environment.70 166.20 248.90 205.5% RECEIPTS (US $m) 55.3 million in 1988 to about $386. ranking behind mineral and cocoa exports.3% Spanning the period of 1985 to 1989.13 TABLE 1: PERFORMANCE OF THE TOURISM SECTOR (1988-1998) YEAR 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Annual Average Growth Rate Source: Ghana Tourist Board.000 in 1988 to about 399. though it helps preserve ecological processes.780 172. 1999). bio diversity and biological resources and promotes improved land use patterns and environmental consciousness due to its heavy reliance on the afore-mentioned natural processes and resources. the 15-year Tourism Development Plan has identified several national parks in each of the country's ten regions. These will be developed to form the basis for the country‟s eco-tourism product component of the tourism industry.62 227.83 117.680 271.09 80.860 325. at an annual average growth rate of about 20 percent.000 in 2000. as emphasis has most often been placed on historical and cultural tourism.3 percent from about $55. However the focus of the nation has been lob-sided. ARRIVALS 113. This makes Tourism the third largest earner of foreign exchange currently. international tourism receipts grew at an average annual rate of 41.60 233.80 265.0 million in 2000.316 256.162 145. 1999.784 125.464 213. Ghana moved up from the seventeenth position to eighth in 1998 among the top 20 leading tourism revenue earners in Africa (WTO.310 286.59 284. with little emphasis on ecological tourism.000 304. With respect to tourist's expenditure. Table 1 shows that international tourist arrivals in Ghana has increased steadily from nearly 114.438 347.952 20.96 41. .

Nairobi. The summit. provides expertise to member countries. attracting with more than 100 national leaders. Brazil. It was the third international environmental conference hosted by the UN. Rio de Janeiro and Kyoto The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) encourages and coordinates sound environmental practices throughout the world. such as the idea that one country‟s actions should not cause environmental damage to another. headquartered in Nairobi. in which large developing countries promised to develop their industries with an eye toward protecting the environment. It grapples with ways to approach environmental problems on an international level. in 1982. It adopted general environmental principles. was the largest such conference ever held. The 1992 Earth Summit was larger and more ambitious than its predecessors. the environment and eco-tourism Many interested organizations have pushed forward the idea of sustainable development. the variety of different living organisms in a particular habitat or geographic location. Under the treaty. develops environmental standards. which played a leading role in the convening of leaders of nations for deliberation on environmental issues at Stockholm. It also raised awareness about the international aspects of environmental damage. of primary importance is the United Nations. The first UN environment conference took place in Stockholm. also known as the Earth Summit. in 1972. Its major theme was sustainable economic development. The meeting produced an overall plan. A second conference was held in Nairobi. called Agenda 21. nations agreed to preserve important habitats for .5 World bodies. Another treaty adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit deals with the issue of biodiversity—that is. UNEP‟s work is guided by principles adopted at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. Sweden. monitors environmental conditions worldwide. meaning development that does not use up or destroy so many of the world‟s natural resources that it cannot be sustained over time. which took place in Rio de Janeiro. Thus in 1972 the United Nations established United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). and recommends alternative energy sources.14 2. Kenya.

and educational facilities. another rest house was built at Kokwado. but difficulty in accessing the lake from the Rest House hampered the development o the tourism industry. NRC and PP governments. however the interest of the people did not support the programme. by the CPP. 2. This is because.7 History of Tourism at Lake Bosumtwi Ofosu (2002) indicates that tourism at the lake began as far back as 1919. A small proportion of the people engage in subsistence farming as a secondary activity along the banks of the lake (Ofosu 2002) 2. as majority of inhabitants are fishermen and the women mostly engage in fish-mongering. an agency of the United Nations aided the Ministry of Tourism to draw up the 15-Year National Tourism Development Plan. It is in this vein that the UNDP. when the first Rest House was built on a hilltop at Esaase in the Amansie East District of Ashanti. . In 1927. connecting almost twenty-two settlements in the Lake Bosumtwi Basin. The benefits derived from the tourism industry by the lake area has mostly been in terms of monetary rewards for services provided for tourists and the increase in infrastructural facilities to support the communities in general and tourists in particular. the people of the basin rely on the lake for their livelihood. opening up the area to the rest of the country and tourists in particular. improved road network. hence it was shortlived. This has taken the form of improved telecommunication facilities.15 animals and plants.6 The role of the Lake in the local economy The role of the lake in the development of its basin cannot be overemphasized. until feeder roads were constructed to link the settlements along the banks. Wealthier countries also agreed to pay for the right to extract commercially profitable substances from rare species in protected areas of developing countries. with the aim of conserving the environment as well as preserving tourism sites.

1 Location and size Lake Bosumtwi is located in the Bosumtwi-Atwima-Kwanwoma District of the Ashanti Region. 3. which threw out some rocks from the crater. Pepekese intrusions. micro granites and grandiosities. Rock samples collected alongside the banks of the lake and analysed by John Saul and Elliot (1965) revealed that they are similar to the Ivory Coast Tektites. The Lake covers an area of approximately sixty-four square kilometers. Rocks found in the area are mainly sedimentary and metamorphic with some granite intrusions. There are twenty four communities located around the thirty kilometer rim of the crater. which were discovered in 1960 and are believed to meteoric impact rocks. detailed work on the Bosumtwi crater by Jones (1981. which are located in two districts. According to Ofosu (2002).16 CHAPTER THREE DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 3.2 Hydrogeology of the Lake Bosumtwi area Lake Bosumtwi was formed by a meteoric impact.0 Introduction This part of the report is concerned with the presentation of data collected concerning the lake as an eco-tourism destination and its people. with a diameter of ten and a half kilometers and a recorded depth of sixty-eight in certain areas of the lake. The profile of the crater shows a crater with an upraised centre. thirty-seven kilometers south-east of Kumasi at an altitude of one hundred and thirty metres above sea level. and is shown in Figure 1 . Amansie East and Bosumtwi-Atwima-Kwanwoma Districts. 3. the main rocks that were involved in the production of the Bosumtwi impact glasses as well as Tektites were Phylites. greywacke. 1985) has concluded from his chemical data.

However. Abrewa at Apew and Abo at Abono. the existence of fractures and faults) is not yet known. The Lake is located in the Lower Birimian series. with a point in the Upper Birimian series in the Obuom Ranges as shown in Figure 2 Figure 2: GENERAL GEOLOGY OF BOSUMTWI CRATER . Drainage in the lake area is mainly underground and is presumed dwindling and evaporation takes place daily. resulting in high salinity and thus helps sustain the life of fish in the lake. the nature of the structure beneath the crater and its surrounding area (that is. Two rivers flow directly into the Lake.17 Figure 1: CONCEPTUAL CROSS-SECTION OF THE CRATER Credit: Jones et al (1981) The structure conceptualized was confirmed by a geophysical survey carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland in 1997.

The communities in the lake basin are Abono. and attributed it to the gas produced during and after the decomposition of plant materials that are dumped by rain water in the lake. Abaase. Amakom. but warned of serious effects of exploration on plant and animal life in the lake. Antaase. under the lake. There are unit committees in each of the communities responsible for helping in decision making and development. It also explained the variation in the fishing season. USA revealed a mass deposit of gas in economic quantities. Nkowi and Assisiriwa under Nana Yaw Barima. Cohen (1963) and Schnetzer et al (1966) are of the view that the age of the Bosumtwi crate has been established to be well over a million years based on Potassium-Argon and Rubidium-Strontium dating of impact meltrocks at Ivory Coast and Bosumtwi.18 3. . To confirm Lake Bosumtwi‟s meteoric origin.2 Scientific explanatory research at Lake Bosumtwi Barnes (1961). 3. There is however a controversy of the caretakership of Nkowi between the Yaasehene and Nana Yaw Barimah. Pipie I (Mim). under Akokofohene. research by Dr. They are all under a paramount chief of the area. aeromagnetic survey were carried out at a mean flight height of 200m above sea level by Jones et al (1981). Further. Anomanako and Obo under Kokofuhene (Okogyeasuo Offe Kwasi). Duase. New and Old Brodekwano are under Kuntanasehene. Dompa under Ahurienhene.Kwanwoma District Assembly. Livingstone (1976) was able to unearth the reasons for the extermination of thousands of fish in the months of July and August. D. Adwafo under Yaasehene. Apew. Adjaman under Abosohene. Abrodwum.3 Traditional and Political Administration Each of the twenty-four communities has a chief. Wawase and Esaase under Asamanhene (the real caretaker of the lake). There are three assembly persons representing the communities at the Bosumtwi Atwima.A Livingstone from the University Of Durham. Pipie II. as fish move to the shallow parts of the lake for oxygen in these months. geophysical measurements involving gravity. This issue is yet to be resolved. resulting in bumper catches. Ankaase. Detieso.

and fines are usually imposed on the convicted . taking up approximately 84 percent of the population and the Fantis. This is because no meaningful development can occur in the midst of civil strive and unrest. being predominantly Ashantis. the practice is waning.4 Social and Cultural life in the Lake Bosumtwi Basin The social and cultural life of the people around the lake is much in line with the Ashantis. Others present mashed plantain with groundnuts. Puberty rites used to be widely practiced in the Bosumtwi Basin.19 It will be of immense benefit t the lake area in general and to eco-tourism development in particular that peace prevails in the communities to enhance the attractiveness of the lake. Some slaughter sheep. it will be easier mobilizing the people to help in the conservation of the lake. cats and goats to their gods. Belief in superstition used to be very strong in the area. however with the passage of time. 3. Funerals. dogs. marriages and out-dooring of newly. The caretaker chiefs known locally as adikro in the communities. under a stable political or traditional head. Also. The fetish stone at Abrodwum served as a libation point when bad omen occurred and also during festivals. rituals are performed in the form of pouring of libations and the lake recedes. The caretaker chiefs have their own traditional courts of arbitration which tried offenders in minor cases like stealing and assault. but with the advent of Christianity is gradually being dropped. and were a prerequisite for marriage. It is said that when the lake draws nearer to the stone. from Senya Breku in the Efutu-Senya Breku District of the Central Region accounting for the remainder. are allowed by the paramount chiefs to ride in palanquins during festival celebrations Fetish groves are also outdoored at every Akwasidae and purification rites are performed according to the choice of the fetish priests.born babies are the same as that practiced by Ashantis elsewhere festivals are observed in all the villages with the Akwasidae as the main one.

and engage in activities that are contrary to the norms of the people. Thus. after the tourists have left. The populace is a youthful and growing one. Those who are dissatisfied with the ruling of the minor courts can appeal to the court of the paramount chiefs (Amanhene) for redress. This is contrary to the definition presented by Allen (1993). with a large proportion falling into the age grouping 0-14years. then thinning out as it approaches the senile age group.4. It must be noted that most of the foreign tourists who visit the lake are students and conservationist and thus acknowledge the need to as much as possible leave the culture of the local people untouched and hence authentic. a community in disarray due to their influence on the youth and subsequent clash of culture between the older generation‟s lifestyle and the youth‟s adulterated culture. However the local tourists. This is a situation may result in rebellious youth and increase vice in the communities. which emphasizes that eco-tourism practice minimises the environmental and cultural impacts of visitors. thus it becomes necessary to ensure that the activities of tourists do not in any way pose a threat to the preservation of local culture or does not in any way attempt to adulterate it. Chiefs as usual speak only through linguists (Akyeame). and for that matter Ghanaian tourist to the lake are causing discomfort to the people as the youth are being exposed to indecent lifestyles portrayed by these local tourists who should have known better. they would have left behind. with . This is not the case of the Lake Bosumtwi.1 Population Characteristics The population structure of the lake are is typical of most Ghanaian communities. However one of the tenets of eco-tourism is preservation of local traditions and culture. 3. as tourists are not in any way controlled and stray where they are not wanted. A case in point is the display of nudity in public and an abhorrent activity of having sex in the lake in the full view of other tourists and the local people. The tourism industry necessarily brings together people of diverse cultures to interact.20 offenders.

This is because income earned will most likely be used to cater for the large number of dependants.2 7. TABLE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE POPULATION Age Cohorts Male 0-4 33 5-9 33 10-14 28 15-19 22 20-24 20 25-29 15 30-34 12 35-39 11 40-44 11 45-49 9 50-54 6 55-59 4 60-64 3 65-69 5 70+ 8 TOTAL 220 Source: Field Survey. The age-sex distribution of the population is presented in Table 2.7% 49.3 9. . accounting for fifty-one percent of the population. which shows a worse situation than that of Ashanti Region and the nation.8 2.2 3. This probably explains the low level of economic activities in the area. 2003 and 2000 Population and Housing Census Interim Report The implication of having a higher age dependency ratio is that there is a greater likelihood of having less disposable income to save and thus invest. This is presented in Table 3 TABLE 3: AGE-DEPENDENCY RATIO National Ashanti Region Lake Basin Independent 53.9% 47. savings in the communities of the Lake Bosumtwi basin is expected to be low and subsequently capital formation for investment is also going to be low.22% Dependency Ratio 1:0.1% 52.91 1:0.21 majority being females. the dependency ratio was estimated.3% 50.8 6.97 Source: Field Survey. 2003 Female 38 34 27 21 17 20 15 12 8 8 6 4 4 3 12 229 Total 71 67 55 43 37 35 27 23 19 17 12 8 7 8 20 449 Percentage (%) 15.8 14.88 1:0.78% Dependent 46.6 1.6 8.7 1.1 4.9 12.8 1.5 100 Deducing from Table2.7 4. Hence.0 5.

carpentry.5 Economic Activities 3. It must be noted that all employed males were engaged in these two occupations and the women folk are also engaged in fish mongering and farming.1 people per household. however it was realized that the modal household size is four. based on household sizes is presented in Table 4.1 people per household 3. indicating an average household size of 5. the employment rate for the lake basin stands at ninety-two percent with the remaining eight percent unemployed being students and people under apprenticeship. Due to the nature of inputs used in their economic activities. it is very easy for people to get into the occupations. .22 The survey covered eighty-eight households and encompassed 449 people. From the survey conducted. The distribution of the population.1 Occupational characteristics People living around the lake are predominantly fishermen and carry out subsistent farming as a secondary occupation. tailoring and distillation of local gin are now developing in some of the communities. TABLE 4: HOUSEHOLD SIZES Household Size ( x ) Respondents ( f ) ( fx ) 1 8 8 2 4 8 3 9 27 4 26 104 5 9 45 6 8 48 7 10 70 8 8 64 9 0 0 10 0 0 11 0 0 12 6 72 TOTAL ∑f =88 ∑fx=449 Source: Field Survey.5. 2003 Average House hold size =∑fx/∑f 449/88 = 5. Micro and small scale businesses like basket weaving.

leading to a situation where even fingerlets (young fishes) are not spared by the fishing net. Then bamboo was used with both ends open to allow fish into it . The distribution of incomes among the households in the lake area is presented in the Table 5. forming a fence with it in the lake and setting the net in it. should this happen.5 percent. The popular variety of fish found in the lake include Tilapia discolour. Tilapia busmana.000 drawn from earnings from farming and fishing. fishing in the lake started with a crude method of fishing. two levels were identified in the area. known locally as „Apatefufuo‟. poverty line described as those earning below two-third of the average household income constitute 32. „Komfo‟. as a result of the decreased attractiveness and uniqueness. The irresponsible behaviour of some fishermen in deciding to do away with the required net specification might in the long run deplete the fish stock in the lake and greatly offset the ecological balance in the area. using raffia cane to make the net used for fishing. Based on the World Bank‟s classification of poverty. Satheroden mutifaciatus.Breku in the Ewutu-Efutu-Senya District in the Central region migrated to the area and introduced the wire netting and cast netting. 3. the palm fronds decay and produce food in the form of greenish algae for the fish which are trapped when they approach the fronds. a practice which is partly responsible for the depletion of the fish stock in the lake. The fishermen use palm fronds as bait.23 The main occupation. which was then trapped these methods are said to have persisted until 1927 when some fishermen from Senya. „Papari‟. Attempts to introduce net specifications have not been fruitful. After some days. Hemichromis faciatus and Barbus.1 percent of the population. Economically. it might lead to increased poverty level and general deprivation.5. . Eco-tourism will come to an end. and „Nkwa‟ respectively.2 Income Levels Average household income in the Lake area is ¢260. and hardcore poverty level described as those earning below one-third of the average household income constitute 11. known locally as Kaabre. These raffia cane nets did not last long and had to be replaced very often.

000 ¢150.505. Foreign visitors to the area are mostly students and people interested in the scientific nature of the attraction and usually lodge at the Hotel. thus gains very little from the attraction.000 ¢450.262.¢100.1 Water and Sanitation There are seven boreholes and five hand-dug well functioning in the twenty-four communities along the lake crater.955.000 ≈¢26. 3.500 25 ¢301. The economic activities carried out in the lake area are all seasonal in nature and thus earnings fluctuate with the seasons.6.000 .000 ¢350. Visitors to the lake area mostly carry their own food and water and do not depend on the communities for the supply of their needs.339. which is inadequate.000-¢600.515.000-¢400.000 ∑fx=¢20. with the fishing season breaking into it.100 The communities provide little service to tourists. 2003 ∑f=78 Average Household Income =∑fx/∑f =¢20. This group of people conduct research and spend very little on other things and to a large extent have little impact on the local economy.000-¢500.000 ¢250.000-¢200.000/78 fx 0 ¢4. it rises and falls with the seasons. This is mostly earned by the craftsmen engaged in basket weaving in the lake area.000 ¢6.101.000 ¢50. Hence majority of the people depend on rain water and the lake and the streams flowing onto it .000 ¢4.000-¢300.6 Infrastructural Facilities 3. where they are provided for. The effect being that the standard of living in the area is not stable.500 ¢3.000 ¢550.500 2 Source: Field Study.24 TABLE 5: INCOME DISTRIBUTION Income / Month(¢ ) Midpoint ( x ) Response (f ) ¢1.339.500 ¢1.500 10 ¢401. and the boat operators. The fishing season last between July and September.500 0 ¢101.500 30 ¢201.500 11 ¢501. whiles the farming season also lasts between April and October. who transport tourist on the lake for sight seeing. Most of the local tourists to the area visit on public holidays in large groups and usually bring along all they need and stay only for a day.

Of the sample population covered. and illiteracy rate is estimated in the twenty-four communities is 60 percent.5 percent have attained formal education up to the primary level. 22. cholera and also malaria.6 percent up to secondary level and 2.6. 67. Due to the apparent lack of adequate potable water sources and the consequent use of water from the lake and the streams. 3.2 Health There are three clinics and a dressing station in the lake area.1 percent of the population have no formal education whatsoever.3 Education There are nine nursery schools. indiscriminate defecation on the slopes of the crater results in faeces being washed into the water sources by runoff water from rainfall. . a situation which has led to poor sanitation and increasing prevalence of dysentery. Educational attainment of respondents and members of their households is presented below in Table 6. 3. In settlements with no schools. The Catholic Hospital also provides mobile health service to the communities and helped train traditional birth attendants to assist pregnant women in the course of delivery. mainly due to dropping out of school along the line.9 up to tertiary level. nine primary schools and five junior secondary schools located within the twenty four communities. the Hospital is providing maternal health service to the communities. almost all medical cases are reported to the Catholic Hospital in Pramso. Hence majority of the people defecate indiscriminately along the slopes and into the streams leading into the lake. However.6. Currently. indicating that not all the people who had formal education can read and write in English or any of the Ghanaian languages. 7. which due to the high soil water content are unreliable as they cave in regularly and have to be relocated frequently. The leading diseases reported by respondents are sanitation-related like diarrhoea and cholera. covering an average distance of about two kilometers.25 The twenty four communities have three KVIPS and nineteen pit latrines. pupils walk to the nearest community with a school to attend school. diarrhoea.

There are nine Primary Schools with a threshold population of 2000. In terms of basic education. .57% Tertiary 8 5 13 2. who need three more Primary Schools. and quality. 2003. the district capital. thus making potable water inadequate in terms of supply in the communities. hampering the acquisition of higher education and skills. in terms of quantity.S. hampering health care delivery by the Mobile Health Team (MHT) from the Catholic Hospital in Pramso. Water. This situation creates a negative image of the lake area and may scare off tourists.48% Source: Field Survey.S Male 153 Female 150 Total 303 Percentage 67.90% Never 41 58 99 22. The ring road is not surfaced and not motorable in the rainy season. though present in a large quantity.000. Secondary 18 16 34 7. though not potable. This forces the people to use water from the lake and its tributaries. indicating a backlog of over 5000 people. and thus has a backlog of over 15000 people who need at least six more junior secondary schools. There is no second cycle institution in the lake area. All the other twenty-three communities are connected together by a ring road in a deplorable situation. the three schools are meant to cater for 7500 people. There are three junior secondary schools in the twenty-four communities. with only Abono being connected by a road in good condition to Kuntanase. With a threshold population of 2500. indicating they are meant to provide for a population of 18. increasing the incidence of water and sanitation related diseases like cholera and diarrhoea.05% Total 220 229 449 100% The tourism industry has not opened the area fully.26 TABLE 6: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Sex Middle/ J. However visits by the MHT are frequent when the roads become motorable. which are prerequisites in development. the existing facilities are inadequate.

In the olden days. hailing from Asaman near Kokofu in the present day Amansie-East District in the Ashanti Region went on a hunting expedition and discovered the lake. He then chased the antelope until it jumped into a pond. The Asamanhene was the sole custodian of the lake and as such supervised the pacification and purification process after consultation with the chief of Abrodwum. which turned out to be the lake. They lived peacefully together until a misunderstanding ensued between them. a hunter called Akora Bompe. it was an abomination to throw any metallic object into the lake and offenders were severely sanctioned.7.27 3. Kuntanase. The Ashanti forces comprising of people from Akokofe.2 Perceptions. . and were said to continue bleeding even after their period should have ended until libation was poured to appease the gods. He however met another farmer called Ntookooko.1 Origin of the Lake Oral history has it that on one brisk afternoon of Akwasidae. which did not die. It is said that he shot an antelope. including being prevented from fishing in the lake for some time and pacification of the gods with Schnapps (an alcoholic drink) and sheep. Ahurien. Kokofu. Taboos of the Lake Lake Bosumtwi is said to be associated with an antelope spirit and animals especially cows were slaughtered to please or pacify the gods to have an ample catch every year. a sacred Sunday.7. and refusal to do so spelt doom for fishermen. 3. Aboso and Asaman eventually emerged victorious and the chiefs who led the people in the war asked their subjects to settle along the crater to forestall any comeback attempt by the Akims. Metal hooks and wire netting were not used in fishing due to this belief. which escalated into a large scale war between the Ashantis and the Akims for approximately two weeks. who claimed to have discovered the lake and was staying at Kwaakyeman in the south-eastern part of the lake.7 General History and Perceptions 3. Women in their menstrual period were forbidden to bathe in the lake.

thus prevailing ones in the lake basin have to be left intact until the people grow out of them voluntarily. if they realize its uselessness. „Taakwaku‟ and the Abrodwum stone. that have more room for cargo. after which the children are sent to the groves for purification and sheep presented to the grove or shrine. in this case fish. headed by Dr. Some of these fetish groves and shrines are „Osere Ka‟. which exposes the lake to direct sunlight and speeds up evaporation. especially with regards to provision of children. „Kyerapete‟. reducing the fish population and destroying the reeds locally known as „enere‟ .28 The fetish groves or shrines in the area are said to help some of the people by solving their problems. A pillar erected by the Gold Coast Survey Department on the outskirts of Old Abrodwum. 3. where the fish lay their eggs. This is probably a result of farming along the slopes of the crater. The ancient belief of the gods abhorring any kind of vessels on the lake apart from the „padua‟ might have saved the lake‟s fish stock from being depleted through the use of boats and fishing trawlers. can now be seen.8 Environmental Degradation An intensified farming activity by the residents in the surrounding communities around the lake has reduced the tree cover around the lake. Research work carried out by geologists fro Copenhagen University in Denmark. „Gyaabour’. the fish caught in the lake is also reducing considerably and attributed the phenomenon to the silting of the lake. The depletion of the fish stock may end the useful life of the lake as a source of livelihood and an eco-tourism destination. Naana indicates the lake has receded considerably and is believed to have been up to the rest house at Kokwado. confirming the recession of the water in the lake According to local fishermen. The silt is said to cover the reeds and stumps. Some superstitious beliefs are hinged on some observations and help preserve culture. which loosens the topsoil. which are washed down into the lake during rainfall. which was submerged some time ago.

as it emits a pungent and poisonous odour and causes intense itching on the body of swimmers. This is manifested in the reduction in tee cover in the lake area and subsequent recession of the water level as proved by the emergence of the Gold Coast Survey Department Pillar. Through the efforts of Friends of the Earth. thus the fishing season lasts between July and August. is in danger of being destroyed through the activities of the people.29 Livingstone (1976) unearthed the reason for the extermination of thousands of fish. when the distribution of oxygen in the lake becomes even. the lake is said to be eutrophic. coupled with the increasing sippage of household chemicals. This phenomenon is still occurring during the months of July and August. all the communities have local units comprising of Sixteen members of each community. which he attributed to the toxic gases produced from the decomposition of organic matter (usually leaves and twigs) washed into the lake. From earlier scientific research. the fish move to deeper parts of the lake. upon which eco-tourism is being developed. . being one of the tourist attractions in the country. 3. a situation which can adversely affect the lake. In the subsequent months. and the resurgence of these dangerous aquatic weeds such as Eschoraticia crasippes (Water Hyacinth) may hamper the development of eco-tourism in the lake are. This is because. mostly in the physical preservation of the lake. haven supported bluegreen algae growth between 3000 and 9000 years ago. where they are easily caught in large numbers during this period. Also indiscriminate defecation along the banks and slopes of the crater. that are undertaking periodic tree planting exercises along the banks. The communities are to a limited extent involved in the management of the lake. which had earlier been submerged along with Old Abrodwum. The natural environment.9 Management The Ghana Tourist Board manages activities at the lake. soaps and untreated sewage into the lake can increase the organic load of the lake. diffusion of oxygen in the lake causes the fish to stay in the shallow parts of the lake. ushering in the lean season for fishermen.

coupled with the absence of a local secretariat to bring the institution closer to the attraction. to guide mostly tourists who want a dip without the threat of crocodiles and to rescue those in distress. These activities include washing with soap in the lake and indecent public nudity. The low level of involvement of the local community in the management of the site is resulting in a situation where the people feel isolated from the projects being implemented by the Ghana Tourist Board and the BAKD. as the people clear the land for cultivation of food crops. In managing the tourist site. the locals are only informed of decisions taken through their assembly persons and unit committees. the Ghana Tourist Board encounters several problems. Out of the eighty-eight people interviewed.30 Some of the members of the communities also act as life guards at the lake. This activity is an unpaid service. Also the GTB is finding it difficult to stop the deforestation process around the crater. only ten reported of haven heard of the plans of the Ghana Tourist Board to turn the lake area into a Natural and Science Museum and an Eco-tourism Park. . This includes the apparent inadequacy of transport facilities to constantly monitor the site. though they are isolated issues. most of which is beyond their capacity to overcome or address. and as such finds it difficult to control their activities. and thus voluntary. especially Ghanaians. some of which are contrary to the lifestyle or culture of the indigenous people. In terms of decision making about the lake. There have been reports of pilferage and muggings of tourists in the lake area. with its office currently located in Kumasi. This is a result of the general apparent neglect of the lake area in terms of the provision of basic infrastructure. The Ghana Tourist Board has very little control over the activities of tourist who visit the lake. Also the people see the utilisation of the lake to generate revenue for the District as depriving them of the chance to benefit from the lake apart from fishing and apparently do not feel the spread effects of developments in the district.

31 3.10 Emerging Issues The Ghana Tourist Board (GTB) in conjunction with the Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics of the University of Frankfurt. As part the project. the Survey Department and the Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) is in the process of establishing a Natural and Science Museum and Eco-tourism Park. a secretariat is to be set up to administer the Natural and Science Museum and Eco-tourism Park. Geodetic and Geological Engineering Departments of the KNUST. has placed an embargo on any mining activity within a thirty kilometre radius of the lake and in March 2000 rejected proposals of a Canadian mining company to start mining activities in the area. and Barringer Crater Museum in Arizona. the traditional authorities in the area have decided to leave a two-kilometre radius around the lake as an exclusive tourism zone . It is also charged with the responsibility of conducting land surveys to provide data for reference maps. USA. One of the components off the project is the establishment of a lake resort and village tourism facilities to promote nature-based recreational and cultural tourism at Abono. The Ghana Tourist Board. Departments of Physics. Reis and Steinheim in Germany. in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency. and the establishment of an institutional structure to coordinate and manage scientific research as well as socio-economic and physical development process of Lake Bosumtwi and its immediate environs. The secretariat is to be responsible for the preparation and dissemination of detailed scientific information profile to attract the attention of the world scientific community and international donor agencies for further research as a development guide. To complement. There are only three such museums in the world. playing a leading role in the conservation of the eco-system.

1 CONCLUSION What is done to the environment in the lake basin depends in general on the functioning of the society itself and its perceptions and evaluation of its environment. economic and social life of the host communities and the country as a whole.can be exploited without further destroying the fragile eco-system To assess the sustainability of these niches.32 CHAPTER FOUR SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 4. it is imperative upon these developing countries to ascertain the extent to which these niches-eco-tourism. thus it is only when host communities realise the benefits of eco-tourism first to themselves. developing countries are turning to the development of eco-tourism as a tool to develop their local economies as well as to protect their reduced natural environment. one has to assess the effect of developing them on the environment. it was realised that the sustainability of developing Lake Bosumtwi into an eco-tourism destination is hinged on active participation of all stakeholders including host communities and improved social and economic infrastructure. This was done through a socio-economic survey of households in the lake area.0 SUMMARY Faced with the threat of dwindling natural resource base. 4. then to the environment that they willingly participate in the development and sustenance of the site. interview of key opinion leaders and stakeholder institutions and a desk study of available literature on the environment and emerging issues concerning the lake After analysis of data collected. . Hence.

Incomes in the Lake Bosumtwi Basin fluctuates with the seasons III. IV. The area is neglected in the provision of basic facilities in the district 5. The site is being remotely managed by the Ghana Tourist Board . The water level in the lake is receding. as against the youth who have bee tremendously affected their culture. All employed people in the area have secondary occupations. The environmental practices of majority of the people do not enhance the conservation of the lake. environmental and Managerial and are presented below: 5. The people are only being passively involved in the management of the tourist site. Fish stock in the lake is being depleted due to over-fishing 5. III. The older generation still uphold traditional values.33 CHAPTER FIVE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. II. The people are not benefiting directly from the attraction. IV. II. II. being farming and fishing.1 FINDINGS This part of the report is concerned with findings and recommendations and conclusion drawn from the study. 5. Quality and standard of living fluctuates with the farming and fishing seasons.4 Managerial I.2 Economic I. The major findings drawn from the study are categorised into social.1. The occupations are seasonal in nature.1.3 Environmental I. II.1 Social I.1. III. The people are becoming unfriendly to tourists as a result of the activities of some of the earlier tourists.1. economic.

2 RECOMMENDATIONS To help rectify the problems that have to be seen to be impediments to the growth of sustainable eco-tourism. The community should be actively involved in decision making concerning the lake basin and its development into a Natural and Science Museum and EcoTourism Park . Potable water should be made available to the people. II. Promulgation of a bye-law specifying the type and standard of fishing nets to be used in the lake II. Tourists to the lake should be provided with information on the lake and the culture of its people. Protection of some mammal and bird species in the immediate environs of the lake after some research is carried out to ascertain the status of these animals. which are outlined below: 5.34 5.2 Long-term recommendations I. Improve the surface of the roads connecting the communities of the lake area. IV. 5. IV. Intensify reforestation of the slopes of the crater. Two KVIPs should be built in each community to improve sanitation III. III. by the drilling of at least ten more boreholes.2. long and short term recommendations were made. VI.1 Short-term recommendations I. V. Establishment of a local office for the Ghana Tourism Board to serve as Information Centre. A secondary/ vocational /technical school should be established in the area to help dissipate technology and employable skills in the area.2.

and the classical disputation. Tourism. University of Ghana. peace. 2. Annalisa. Tourism: The world's peace industry. (1993). School of Geography. (1994). Business Quarterly. 'South Australian market review'. Montreal: D'Amore and Associates. Glard.S. Sydney. In L. 6. No. Institute of Statistical. Caring for the Earth: A strategy for sustainable Living. (1995): Edited by Procter. Clare A. Louis J. 10. Kensington. 25-33).. in Down to Earth Planning for an Out-Of-The-Ordinary Industry. (1988).). Switzerland. Accra. Dann. 7. Jafari (Eds. (1975) The Impact of Tourism on Social Life in Ghana: Accra. (Sept-Dec 2001). Management of Non-Reserve Forests in Ghana: A Case study of Mpohor Wassa East District.C. Thredbo Valley. (1989). pp. Ghana Tourist Board (1999) Tourism Statistical Fact Sheet on Ghana. Inkoom. Addo. 12.B (1999).. concepts. D. Cambridge University Press 5. Koeman. Ltd. Research Department 8. Allen. 4. D'Amore and J. Recreation versus Conservation: The Resource Management Dilemma. Gunn. Adelaide. ICUN/UNEP/WWF (1991). Tourism: A vital force for peace (pp.: Taylor & Francis. Social and Economic Research. N . Ghana: Ghana Tourist Board. Tourism planning: Basics. August 19-20. Awake! (May 6 2001 Issue. 1987).O. . Kosciusko National Park. Honours Thesis. Pennsylvania. 3. Daniel K. Dortmund. Ghana Tourist Board. Planning and Business Development Unit Quarterly Report 9. Washington. SPRING RESEARCH SERIES. et al.). K. Cambridge International Dictionary. University of New South Wales. ICUN/UNEP/WWF 11. 78-81. No 9 © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society.pp14-17) Vol. cases (3rd ed. Graham M. (winter. D'Amore. 82. Paper presented at the South Australian Ecotourism Forum.35 REFERENCES 1.24. Paul.

. Ghana in Brief Websites 27. (Ed. Mieczkowski. McIntosh. (1996)2nd Edition. Jafari (Eds. Tourism principles. Lowry. (1994). WTO (1999) Tourism Marketing Trends: Africa 1989-1998. Tourism: A vital force for peace (pp. (1996) Vision 2020 (The first Step) 21. The Oxford English Reference Dictionary. Gordon. 2829) 14.unep.52. 15. philosophies. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Turner. and Charles R. tourism-web@unep. (1995): Edited by Pearsall. practices. Valene L. pp. Republic of Ghana. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. University Press of America. Yirenkyi. (1996) National Tourism Development Plan (1996-2010) 20. Oxford University Press. R. Ltd. 28. 26. New England Journal of Travel and Tourism. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2003 16. . 23. (1988). Godwin. 17. Madrid: WTO Commission for Africa. Z (1995) Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation. Montreal: D'Amore and Associates. Time Magazine. Belhaven 25. Republic of Ghana.. What is travel and tourism and is there a difference between them: A continuing discussion.( 5. Special Edition. Microsoft Corporation© 1993-2001. Nash.( November 1997) 24. 22. Dennison. www. In L. L L. London. D'Amore and J. Tourism as a form of imperialism. London. In Smith.) Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism. Patrick Elliot (2002) Lake Bosumtwi. 37. 58-60). 18.36 13. Taylor. Sustainable Environmental Management. Inc.). J and Trumble. Understanding through tourism. (1989). Robert W. A Legacy of Ashanti 19. Goeldner (1986).K (1998).

37 APPENDIX 1 NRC BAKD CPP GTB IUCN KNUST KVIP NGO PAFAM PANAFEST PNDCL PP UN UNEP UNESCO USA WTO WWF National Redemption Council Bosumtwi-Atwima-Kwanwoma District Convention People‟s Party Ghana Tourist Board World Conservation Union Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Kumasi Ventilated and Improved Pit Non-Governmental Organisation Pan-African Fair for Arts and Music Pan-African Arts Festival Provisional National Defence Council Law Progress Party United Nations United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation United states of America World Tourism Organisation Worldwide Fund for Nature .

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