PUBLIC COMMUNICATION

INTRODUCTION  At the end of the chapter, learners should be able identify the concept of public communication and the strategies of effective public speaking.  Even with sophistication of communication technology today, public speaking is still one of the most important channels to convey our message to the audience. We speak in public to inform, to entertain, to influence, the audience in order to achieve our goals. It is, therefore, important for us to understand and be able to prepare the good speech. Ask yourself this question. If you assigned to prepare a speech and at the end of your speech you should achieve your goals, what are the steps you will take to produce an effective speech. Let us look at how we can do it.  GENERAL OUTLINE IN PREPARING AN EFFECTIVE SPEAKING  Usually, we prepared a speech with a general outline, which comprises of 5 main parts: (i) Introduction  (ii) Thesis sentence  (iii) Body of the speech  (iv) Conclusion  (v) References and sources   This outline is basis for any effective speeches. A speech without proper outline and preparation sometimes termed as an impromptu speech, where it is difficult and can be very risky at times.  THE FIRST GENERAL OUTLINE: INTRODUCTION   Every speech begins with an introduction that takes about 10% of the time taken for the whole speech. The introduction can be a brief story, an interesting example or statistic, a quotation, an illustration or startling remarks or perhaps just a simple rhetoric question. An example is, “What will happen if water does not exist anymore on earth?”.   The introduction serves an as audience puller or a method to capture the attention of the audience who are not really focused on the speaker at the beginning of the speech.  THE SECOND GENERAL OUTLINE: THESIS SENTENCE   Thesis sentence of thesis statement represent the main idea of the entire speech. It expresses the central purpose of the speech. To catch the audience’s attention, a preview or the thesis sentence should always be mentioned after the introduction

 Do use and develop an introduction. your ability to express the ideas and get others to join you is an important. Among the key points to consider in preparing a speech are: use an effective introduction. to illustrate the damaging impact of drug to our lives we may use illustration such as pictures depicting drug addicts scavenging the garbage. It should be simple and straight to the point. One way to enrich a speech presentation is use to a verity of supporting materials. explains. Plagiarism means using someone else ideals and words without giving that person credit. It is a way to tell the audience that the speaker. For example.  Don’t apologize for not being prepared for the speech. For example. MEMORIZED SPEECH  Pausing too long to recall the words or text.  THE FIFTH GENERAL OUTLINE: REFERENCES AND SOURCES  A list of references of sources is needed for the speech outline as a way to credit the sources of materials we obtain and to avoid the charge of plagiarism.  Do decide on your conclusion. Sometimes.  In preparing to deliver a speech. Example and illustration in the body of speech is useful when we wish to make an abstract concept and concrete idea.  Don’t reach negatively either verbally or non.  Rushing through the speech so as not to use the words memorized.verbally. Here are some examples of thesis sentence:   THE THIRD GENERAL OUTLINE: BODY OF SPEECH  Body of speech consist of 85% of the time use for the whole speech. Conclusion must be brief and take about half as long as the introduction. and create an effective conclusion. but creating and effective presentation takes planning and practice. use supporting materials to flesh out main points. The body clarifies.  Presenting a speech  IMPROMPTU SPEECH  Do quickly jot down two or three ideas and supporting details about topics. is about to end the speech. While good text and ideas are important. which is a short review of the body of the speech. It is an illegal as well as an unethical practice. conclusion can be in the form or rhetoric question or statement. the thesis sentence and the introduction.is made. .  THE FOURTH GENERAL OUTLINE: CONCLUSION  The fourth part of the outline of speech is the conclusion. extends. defends and support the thesis sentence with the help of supporting the materials or references. you owe your audience and yourself good presentation. we may ask the audience to think together weather we are going to continue living in this polluted environment or we can forward it as a form of statement that reflects expectation or hope. organize your presentation clearly and simply.

GENERAL GUIDELINES      Use simple and accurate language. perhaps with a friend or in front of a mirror. Furthermore. Adopt natural or conversational approach to the speech. he or she is not bound by or committed to its exact wording. EXTEMPORANEOUS SPEECH  The word extemporaneous in this context means 'carefully prepared but delivered without notes or text'. TYPES AND PURPOSES OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING INTRODUCTION:  Public speaking is a vast field in the area of communication .  There is no danger of forgetting or saying the wrong thing because everything is thought out first. the conveying of information to others (and ourselves) is crucial in our daily lives. Use effective introductions and conclusions. Forgetting an important sentence and the rest of the speech. In the previous section we looked at the general principles of public speaking by giving emphasis on the issues of speech preparation Public speaking can be divided into three categories:  Informative speech  Persuasive speech  Argumentative speech Informative speech is a very significant to us as learners especially in the era of information technology. READ SPEECH  This speech method can also be called speaking from the manuscript.  A wrong approach will result in message not getting across since there are advantages and disadvantages associated in each method. CONCLUSION  There are various ways to deliver a speech effectively depending on the situations and our ability to identify appropriate methods of presenting the speech.  The whole speech is written out and then read aloud to the audience.  Losing the benefits of face to face contact. with the development of knowledge economy and the revolution of Information and Communication Technology. Prepare your speech and rehearse.  MEANING: Although the speaker has prepared the speech thoroughly.  Informative speech .  Finding it difficult to provide feedbacks for the ongoing enquiry from the audience. Attend to feedback signals from the audience.

They are:  speech of description  speech of definition and  speech of demonstration (Devito. define and tell how to use something or how something works. Furthermore.  Examples of statements in informative speech are: In public speaking. the different ways in which we present new information or engage in new ways of looking at “old” information can be viewed in terms of the following types of informative speech. with the development of knowledge economy and the revolution of Information and Communication Technology. the day.  Informative speaking is a form of speech with the motive of giving information to the audience. but it is also possible have an entire speech that deals with describing events. we attempt to explain event. Of course. Persuasive speech  Argumentative speech Informative speech is a very significant to us as learners especially in the era of information technology.  For example. objects and/or processes. or the working of the human body . object or process in the best possible manner.to-day activities of a student. we state the meaning or the importance concept or term. the conveying of information to others (and ourselves) is crucial in our daily lives.the structure of a building. Informative speeches mainly describe.  We can do all this by a variety of describing strategies and the use of appropriate are most speeches. the map of a university campus. especially When we want to explain new or difficult concept And ideas. definitions may be found In any kind speech. we may want to speak about the parts of a personal computer . persons. person.page 361) SPEECH OF DESCRIPTION  When we speak to describe.2002. SPEECH OF DEFINATION When we define something. but the speech of definition (or definition speech) is an entire speech that .

or theory. the act of informing through speech can be achieved in several ways: -speaking to define -speaking to describe -speaking to demonstrate  Although they can function as a standalone speech.  Examples of demonstration speeches concerning process and procedures will include how to drive a car.  Example: Of defining concepts in this. then you will probably need to highlight similarities and/or differences between this term and other closely associated or competing term or set of concept. how to lose weight. when speaking to define something. we usually explain how certain procedure is being carried out or how something works (since to demonstrate mean ‘to show’). and so on. how to build an extension to the kitchen.  Examples of speeches concerning how something operates will cover topics such as how to the Internet works. This kind of speech mostly used in university lecture as the lecturer explains concepts and theories to students to make them understand better the subject matter  In a definitional speech. how to cook fish. you as the speaker will have to first state the meaning of the term or concept in question. As mentioned earlier . it is normal to find . how a blood pressure gauge operates and how to operate computer. SPEECH OF DEMONSTRATION  Speech of demonstration is used to demonstrate a process or procedure. It is possible. manner is when you talk about ‘modernism’ versus ‘postmodernism’.focuses on explaining the meaning and significance of a new or unfamiliar concept. or how something operates. of course.  Example: you might define the meaning of the message model of communication in on order to identify the similarities and differences between them. When demonstrating something. to give a speech that is solely concerned with showing how a certain set of process and procedures is being carried out. how a thunderstorm develops.  In conclusion we can say that the overall function of informative speech is to communicate information.

 Introduction: As there are different categories in public speaking. .  There are also certain strategies that you can employ to deliver an informative speech effectively. In his speech he gave a lot of information on the dangers of smoking and how it affects the health of an individual. However.  The first principle also called ‘the information load principle’. In this topic. Soo was saying and were confused.elements of each in many of the speeches that we make (and listen to) in our day-to day lives. was invited to give a speech on the dangers of smoking in a function organized by the Health Ministry. we will look at the principles and strategies of presenting effective informative speech generally and also according to types of speech in this category.  There are also certain strategies that you can employ to deliver an informative speech effectively.  You should speak at an appropriate level of complexity. Strategies are tactical actions that may or may not be used to accomplish a task. You need to limit the amount of information that can be efficiently processed by the audience. Principles and Strategies Principles are rules of necessary conditions that need to presented for something to occur. Moreover too much information will confuse the audience especially if the information is technical.  Four general principles  . Soo.  Mr. a doctor by profession. GENERAL PRINCIPLES & STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVENESS  Learning objective: Identify ways of improving the effectiveness of informative speeches.  There are certain principles and guidelines to ensure effective presentation of your informative speech no matter what type of speech it is.  There are certain principles and guidelines to ensure effective presentation of your informative speech no matter what type of speech it is. many participants who attended the function complained that they were not able to follow what Mr. there are also specific ways in improving the effectiveness in the presentation of each category of speech.Soo presented the information in the speech was complicated and confused the audience. The audience will not be able to absorb and process too much information at one time. This might be because the way Mr.

the way you present your speech should be at the level of your audience. the way you address a group of students is different from the way you address a panel of professors. when you speak of a term or concept. which is abstract. when you speak about freedom of expression you should also tell your audience that writing to the press to lodge a complaint or expressing your dissatisfaction on certain issues is a form of freedom of expression. you should have done prior audience analysis on the expectations of the audience when you present your speech   You as a speaker should keep a balance between abstract and concrete ideas. you should give real examples so that audience will understand on what you are saying.   .  The fourth principle means. For example.  You as a speaker should highlight information that meets the audience’s needs  Example for the third principle is when you give a talk on the dangers of smoking for students. For example. The second principle means.

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