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2600 Legarda Street, Sampaloc, Manila
SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT
Module On 12 Steps of Baking
Because this dough has no pre . the baker should take stock of the ingredients. An understanding of the factors involved in each of these steps is critical for quality bread production. properly scaled ingredients are crucial for creating consistency in quality and controlling cost. This method is used for quantity production of white pan bread. We refer to this method as ³ everybody in the pool.making process. the dough is ready to be mixed. and the room so that these temperatures may be calculated into the final temperature of the dough. As part of the mise en place. mixing time. For lean doughs. As with all aspects of baking and pastry. and mixing speed. while enriched doughs are slightly higher. Before mixing the dough. rolls. This step should conclude with all ingredients accurately measured and lined up in order of use. the methods are as follows: x Straight Dough Method : All ingredients are placed into a bowl and then mixed at one time. but in general it is between 24 ° and 28 ° F ( . determine the desired dough temperature. Use the following formula to calculate the temperature of the water needed to achieve the ideal dough temperature: Flour Temperature + Room Temperature + Friction Factor = X X ± Desired Dough Temperature = Water Temperature.ferment. as well as all tools and equipment ready for the second step in the bread . and other bread products.checked before proceeding to the mixing process. uniform dough. The friction factor is the amount of heat generated when the dough is mixed.5 ° and . It depends on the type of mixer used. It is also important that all equipment.The 12 Steps of Baking The art of bread baking relies on 12 fundamental steps.2 ° C). especially the scale. It is important in determining the desired dough temperature. is working properly and that the weights of the ingredients are double . and the gluten is developed. Step 1: Scaling/Mise en Place All ingredients are accurately measured. many bakers . equipment. ´ Bakers also refer to this as a ³ direct ´ method because it has not undergone any previous mixing of fermentation. the yeast and other ingredients are evenly distributed through the dough. Step 2: Mixing Ingredients are combined into a smooth. The mixing method used affects the final outcome of the dough. the ideal temperature is typically 75°F to 80°F (24°C to 27°C). noting temperatures of ingredients. Once the water temperature has been adjusted so that the desired dough temperature is achieved.
texture. Temperature can be controlled by retarding (cooling) the dough in a retarder or refrigerator. The most common pre ± ferments are biga. and poolish (see entries in Terminology for detailed descriptions). x Modified Straight Dough : A variation on the straight dough method. An over-fermented or under-fermented dough will result in a product with poor volume. Fermentation is the process by which the yeast acts on the sugar and starches and produces carbon dioxide and alcohol. In artisan bread baking. Sponge Method : This method uses a pre . the warmer the dough. typically used for rich sweet doughs to ensure distribution of fat and sugar. and flavor. In this method. which adds flavor. sugar. The key to proper fermentation is controlling time and temperature. Also. the liquid is added and then the fl our and yeast are added. the amount of dough in the bowl. The amount of time that a dough ferments is determined by the type and quantity of yeast used and the percentage of sugar that is present in the dough. An over-mixed dough will result in lack of color. the type of fl our used. x The development of gluten during this stage is what gives the dough its elasticity and extensibility and affects the texture and volume of the final product.feel that it lacks the quality flavor and texture that can be achieved with other mixing methods. and flavor of the result. lean yeast doughs have a longer fermentation time because there has been no fat or sugar added and the yeast must feed off of the natural sugar and starch in the fl our. texture. After the eggs are incorporated. which allows the bread to develop fuller flavor and increases the gluten elasticity so that it stretches further and holds more gas. It enables the fl our to become completely hydrated and increases the volume and extensibility of the dough. the fat. It is primarily used in the production of artisan breads. pâte ferment é e. This slows the process of fermentation. hydration (the % of water in the dough in relation to the % of fl our in the dough). The mixing time and speed are determined by the type of mixer used. and volume to the bread. Step 3: Bulk or Primary Fermentation The dough is allowed to ferment. the quicker it will ferment. there is an additional step called autolyse. and flavorings are blended and then the eggs added slowly.fermented dough or sponge. The pre . salt. color. An under-mixed dough will result in poor volume and texture. milk solids. This method is also known as the ³indirect´ dough method because of the addition of a previously fermented dough. It is commonly used in commercial bread products.ferment is made in advance and added to the final dough during the mixing process. This involves mixing a percentage of the fl our and water first and allowing it to rest for approximately 20 minutes. In general. Most bakers feel that the fermentation of the dough is the most important step in bread making because it affects the volume. and the presence of other ingredients. . flavor. texture. which may or may not be used in the initial mixing of the dough. and texture.
if a 1 ± pound (500 g) loaf of bread is desired.Step 4: Punching. which should be made up with extra dough to achieve the desired final weight. or Folding The dough is equalized. For example.fermented flour are already strong. This organizes the dough into consistent pieces and makes the final shaping easier and more efficient. Punching rather than folding the dough works well with stiff doughs and doughs with a short bulk fermentation time. doughs made with weak fl our and/or a high hydration benefit from folding. Degassing. Step 7: Benching or Bench Rest The shaped dough rests. round balls. and too many folds may adversely affect their extensibility and result in poor volume. they are gently covered with plastic or a vinyl zipper . Although it will vary according to the moisture content of the dough. Step 6: Pre-shaping or Rounding The portioned dough is loosely shaped into smooth. redistribute the yeast for continued growth. it increases the dough strength. This may be accomplished by gently punching the dough or by performing a series of folds. it necessary to allow for weight loss during baking owing to evaporation of moisture. and equalize the temperature. an additional 1. It also stretches the gluten on the outside of the dough and forms a skin that helps it retain the gases produced by the yeast. This may be done by hand with a scale and a metal dough cutter or by a dough ± dividing machine. making the final shaping of the dough easier. Either way. . It is important to note that doughs made with a high percentage of pre . Either way. The benching or resting lasts approximately 10 to 20 minutes and relaxes the gluten. in addition to expelling the carbon dioxide and redistributing the yeast. When scaling the dough.5 ounces (50 g) of dough should be added to the scaled portion. it is important that the dough is cut cleanly and quickly so it does not oxidize and form an undesirable skin. in general the weight loss is approximately 10 percent of the weight of the dough. If the loaves were rounded on a workbench (hence the name).top bag if they are on a rack. the covering prevents the loaves from forming a crust on the surface. It is important to note that the dough is still fermenting during this stage. The purpose of this step is to degas the dough. On the other hand. Some bakers believe that folding rather than punching the dough produces a higher quality bread. Step 5: Dividing or Scaling The dough is divided or scaled into the desired portion weights.
Lean yeast doughs are baked with steam injected into the oven for the first part of the baking period. which results in a shiny crust. During shaping. It is also important to consider the size of the mold so that the proper amount of dough is used. At the end of the baking process. Depending on the desired finish. Step 9: Proofing or Final Fermentation The dough has one final fermentation. Step 10: Baking The dough is baked. An under-proofed dough will have poor volume and a dense texture. it breaks down the starches into dextrins and other simple sugars. appearance. or rolled oats or bran. When the moisture of the steam reacts with the starches on the surface of the dough. This should be done before the next step. when the steam is withdrawn. This not only enhances the appearance of the bread but also allows the bread to expand without bursting. The moisture from the steam gelatinizes the starches on the surface of the loaf and causes them to swell and become glossy. all of the gas bubbles should be expelled or air bubbles will form on the surface of the dough during baking. they are covered and put in a warm spot or put in a temperature/humidity-controlled proof box to prevent the surface of the dough from drying out. Applying a liquid such as an egg wash. or water will add color and shine to the finished loaf as well as act as a sort of glue for toppings such as nuts. After the loaves are shaped and panned. The dough should never be taken to 100 percent rise because the bread may collapse under the lack of structure and produce a final product of poor quality. seeds. It is important to make sure that the temperature of the oven and baking time are accurate in order to achieve a . Hearth breads that will be baked directly on the oven deck are placed in bannetons or between the folds of baker¶s linen. volume.Step 8: Makeup and Panning The dough is formed into its final shape and placed in the pan or mold that it will be baked in. and the final shaping is crucial to the appearance of the finished product. There is a wide variety of shapes to choose from. The remainder of the rise will occur in the oven during Step 10 by a process called ovenspring. otherwise the dough is at risk of deflating. This is an important step that affects the texture. At this point the proofed breads are very fragile and should be carefully loaded into the ovens so they do not deflate. the dough is often scored (slashed) with a lame or sharp knife prior to baking. and flavor of the final product. milk. this keeps the crust soft and prevents it from forming too quickly so that the bread can expand rapidly and evenly. It also contributes shine and color to the crust. Most bakers agree that the optimum rise for this stage is 80 to 85 percent of the dough ¶ s overall volume. An over-proofed dough will result in a coarse texture and loss of flavor. The dough should be placed in a temperature and humidity controlled environment to allow the bread to rise to the desired volume before baking. The seam of the dough should also be on the bottom to avoid the bread ¶ s splitting open during baking. the sugar caramelizes and yields a rich-colored crust.
quality product. Further crust color and flavor develop with caramelization that occurs between temperatures of 300 ° and 400 ° F (149 ° and 204 ° C). and sugars and continues until the surface temperature reaches 350 ° F (175 ° C). Coagulation of proteins and gelatinization of starches : This contributes to the formation of the crumb and sets the structure of the product. When the bread reaches a maximum internal temperature of 210 ° F (99 ° C) the bread should be properly baked. if appropriate. It occurs in baked goods in the presence of heat. The bread should be thoroughly cooled before storing in a cool. The yeast remains active in this final fermentation process until it is killed at a temperature of about 145°F (63 C). it should be packaged in moisture²proof bags. If the bread is to be sold that day. If longer storage is required. Other signs that mark the completion of the baking process are a golden brown crust and a hollow sound emitted when the baked loaf is thumped. it may be left on racks for the fresh bread to be purchased. which will increase its shelf life. Step 12: Storage The bread is packaged for storage. Formation and browning of the crust : This begins when the surface of the dough reaches 212 ° F (100 ° C) owing to a process known as Maillard reaction. It is a complex chemical change that significantly contributes to the rich color and flavor of the bread. Baked breads will stale most quickly at temperatures between 32°F and 50°F (0°C and 10°C) and therefore should never be placed in the refrigerator. moisture. This begins at approximately 140°F (60°C) and continues until the temperature reaches between 180°F and 194°F (82°C and 90°C). The baking process is now complete and the bread is ready to be cooled and stored. . it may be wrapped tightly after cooling and stored in the freezer. The cooling process enables the excess moisture to evaporate and enhances the flavor and aroma of the bread. In order to delay staling and maintain the quality of the bread. proteins. rapid expansion of loaf volume that is caused when the trapped gasses in the dough expand as a result of the high heat of the oven. x x Step 11: Cooling The loaves are cooled on racks that allow the air to circulate around them and prevent the crusts from becoming soggy. dry place. The bread should be cooled at least two hours to allow the crumb structure to stabilize and develop full flavor. Many changes occur during the baking process and the most important ones are: x Ovenspring : The initial. or moisture will collect inside the packaging and reduce the quality of the bread.
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