thinking w-ith



.. '"

Designed by Peter Bilak, 20m, who was asked to create a "de-Prostestantized Univers"


Designed by fotm Bmlr:erkville, 1757


I ~1

Designed 11 y Giambattista Bod-ani, 1790s



Designed by Carol nuombly, 1990, based on pages printed by Wiliiam-Caslon, 1734-70


Designed by Bru« Rog"', [9[2-[4.

The italic, by f"drric Uilrd" is based on the fifteemh-ccnrury hand of LIIJa"i," drgli A rrig!,;.


Designed by Morl"is Fuller Benton, 1900


Named for the CLarendon Press, Oxford, who commissioned it in 1845


Designed byJollalhalllioejleT; I!)!J2, inspired by lhe types o fJl'a n{o is Ambroise Dido I, 1781


Designed by Zuzarl{J.Licko. 1996, a revival of the types of Bodoni


Designed by Adrian Frutiger, 1976


Designed by Morris Fuller Benton, 1904


Designed by Paul Renner, 1927, who sOlight an "honest expression 01 technical processes."


Designed by Matthew Carter, 1996, for display on screen


Designed by Eric Gill, J 928.

It has been described as Britain '5 Helvetica.


Designed by Robert Slimbacb, 1989, based on pages primed by Claude Garamond in (he sixrcenrh century


Designed by Tobi~s Frere-Jones, 2000, inspired by lettering found at,. _ .

Port Authority Bus Terminal, New·York City



Designed by Max Miedinger, 1957


Designed by Jonatban Hoefler, c. I995


Designed by Tobias Frere-Jones, 1993, inspired. by u.s. highway signs


Designed by Robert SlimbMIJ, 1995


Designed by Erik Spiekermann, 1991


Designed by ,(iIC{QnQ Urko, 1996. ;nspired by p'ges printed by John Bmkuwllc


Designed by Chrislian Schwilrh. I-Iouse Industries. 2002, based on leltering created by the o'ch;ted Richard Neu\_ra in the 19<105 and 1950,


Designed by Tobias Frere-Jones, 1993, based on 1929 types by the Dutch typographer Sjoerd Henrtk de Roos.

Frere-Jones describes Nobel as "Futura cooked in a dirty pan."


Designed by Morris Fuller Benton, 1908


Designed by Fred Srneijers, 1992


Designed by Jail Tscbichold, 1966, inspired by the sixteenth-century types of Claude Garamonti


Designed by Martin Majoor, 199I


Designed by Lucas de Groot, 1994


Designed by Jackson Burke, 1948-60, inspired by nineteenth-century grotesques


Designed by Adrian Frutiger, 1957


Deslqned by Matthew Carter, 1996, for display on screen


Designed by Justus Erich Walbaum, 1.800


~ronking with






Published by

Princeton Arch iteclu ral Press 37 East Seven th Street

New York, New York iocoj


Mark Lamster, Princeton Architectural Press

For a free catalog of books, cal.l1.1)00.722.6657. Visit our web site at www.papress.corn.

PR001'RliADER Elizabeth [ohnson

©Z004 Princeton Architectural Press All rights reserved

Printed in China

0706 os 54 3 2 First edition


Jennifer Tobias and Ellen Lupton


Eric Kames and Elke Gasselseder

No port of this book may be used 01' reproduced in <Illy mariner without written permission from the publisher, except in the c~ntext of reviews,



Scala, designed. by Martin Majoor Thesis, designed by Lucas de Groot

Ever), reasonable attempt has been made to identify owners of copyright. Errors or omissions will be corrected in subsequent editions.

Library of Congress Cataloging·in.Publlcation Data


Nettie Aliian, Nicola Bednarek, Janet Behning, Megan Carey, Penny (Yuen Pik) Om, Russell Fernandez, Jan Haux, Clare Jacobson, Nancy Eklund Later, Linda lee, Katharine M~'CTS, J,me Sheinman,

Lupton, Ellen.

Thinking with type: a critical guide for designers, writers, editors! & students !

Ellell lupton. - 1St ed,

p. r m. - (Design bliJfs) Includes bibliographical rJferencc5. 1 SBN [·5G891)·441)·0 (alk. Jpaper)

:,::::~~:~rf;'~~fPh'~Tl:NEO DE MANILA UBRARIES

686.z'2-dc22 1-\ I ~ .

Scott Tennent, jennifer Thompson, Joe Weslon, and Deb Wood of Princeton Architectural Press -Kevill C. Lipp"rl. p"bli,lit"r,


34 Anatomy I38 Golden ,Section
36 Size 140 Single-Column Grid
42 Classification I42 Multi-Column Grid
44 FamUies 152 Modular Gri,d
46 Big Families 156 Grid Exercise
48 Designing Typefaces 159 Data Tables
52 Logotypes 160 Data Table Exercise
55 Screen Fonts
56 Bitmap Fonts 163 APPENDIX
58 Letter Exercise
164 Dashes, Spaces,
61 TEXT '," and Punctuation
166 Editing
80 Kerning I68 Editing Hard Copy
8r Tracking r6'9 Editing SoJl Copy
82, Line Spacing 170 Proofi'eading
84 Alignment 172 Free AdllicB
90 Vertical Alignment 174 Bibliography
94 Hit:rarchy 176 index
98 Web Hierarchy
100 Web Accessibility
102 Paragraph Exercise
104 Word Exercise
ra6 Text Exercise ¥u~~J:~~

r,..¥,,~ :rIJiiJ .. ~

1<000"5 ]?C!WDEfi WHrrENS Aliii' 8EAIITIFIEa TIlE TEn .. , !>WEOTt!>!


HOOD'S 5A ItSAP .• \RrUA Advertisement lithograph, r884

A wor/'llll1's /rcalrhF/ace br.rl'st~ r/u'O!lgh. a sheet a/text. her brigllt complexion proving tl," product's ~ffictlcy better thall al'}' wJiHel1 dtl inl. BD I h text ami image k,IV' b ,en aI''' w" by hp f1 d, r,p rod" ced

via color lith.ography. Printed herB at (lel[".! size. .


TEllO ORGANIZATION OF LETTERS on a blank page-or screen-is the designer's most basic challenge. What kind of font to use? How big? How . should those letters, words, and paragraphs be aligned, spaced, ordered, shaped, and otherwise manipulated?

Anyone who regularly and enthusiastically commits acts of visual communication will find something to use and enjoy in this book, which offers practical information within a context of design history and theory. Some readers will be chiefly interested in the sections that present basic typographic principles in concise, non-dogmatic layouts. Others will spend more time with the critical essays, which look at the cultural frameworks of typography.

I decided to create this book because there was no adequate text to accompany my own courses in typography, which I have been teaching at Maryland Institute College of Art in Baltimore since r997. Some books on typography focus on the classical page; others are vast and encyclopedic, overflowing with facts and details. Some rely too heavily on illustrations of their authors' own work, providing narrow views of a diverse practice, while others are chatty and dumbed-down, presented in a condescending tone.

. I sought'a book that is serene and intelligible, a volume where

design and text gently collaborate to enhance understanding, I sought a work that is small and compact, economical yet well constructed-a handbook designed for the hands. I sought a book, that reflects the diversity of typographic life, past and present, exposing my students to history, theory, and ideas. Finally, [ sought a book that would be relevant across the media

of visual communication, from the printed page to the glowing screen.

I had no alternative but to write the book myself.

Th.inking with Type is assembled in three sections: LETTER, TEXT, and GRID, building from the basic atom of the letterforrn to theorganizaticn of words into coherent bodies and flexible systems. Each section opens with a narrative essay about the cultural and theoretical issues that fuel typographic design across a range of media. The demonstration pages that follow each essay show not just how typography is structured, but why, asserting the functional and cultural basis for design habits and conventions.

I r


The first section, LETTER, reveals how early typefaces referred to the body, emulating the work of the hand. The abstractions of neoclassicism bred the strange progellY of nineteenth-century commercial typography.

In the twentieth century, avant-garde artists and designers explored the alpha bet as a theoretical system. After digital font design became a cottage industry and a mode of underground publishing in the I980$, typography became a narrative form that revived its connections with the body.

The second section, TEXT, considers the massing ofletters into larger bodies. Designers approach text as a continuous field whose grain, color, density, and silhouette can be endlessly adjusted. Technology has shaped the design of typographic space, from the concrete physicality of metal type to the fiexibiliry=-and constraints-offered by digital media. Text has evolved from a closed, stable body to a fluid and open ecology.

The third section, GRID, looks at spatial organization. Grids underlie every typographic system. In the early twentieth century, Dada and Futurist artists attacked tlle rectilinear constraints of metal type and exposed the mechanical grid of letterpress. Swiss designers in the 19405 and I950S created design's first total methodology by rationalizing the grid. Their work, which introduced programmatic thinking to a field governed by taste and convention, remains profoundly relevant to the systematic thinking required when designing for multimedia.

Throughout the book. examples of design practice demonstrate the elasticity of the rypographic system, whose rules can all be broken. Finally, the APPENDIX contains bandy lists, helpful hints, dire warnings. and resources for further study.

This book is a blout thinking with typography-in the end, the emphasis falls on with. Typography is a tool for doing things with: shaping content, giving languagJ a physical body, enabling the social Row of messages. Typography + an ongoing tradition that connects you wittt other designers, past and future. Type is with you everywhere you go-e-the street, the mall, the Web, your/apartment. This book aims to speak to, and with, all the readers and writ rs, designers and producers, teachers and students, whose work engages th ordered yet unpredictable life of the visible word.


AS A DESIGN I!R, WRITE R, AND VISUAL TH 1 NKER, I am indebted to my teachers at the Cooper Union, where r studied art and design From I98! to J985. Back then, the design world was rather neatly divided between a Swissinflected modernism and an idea-based approach rooted in American advertising and illustration. My teachers, including George Sadek William Bevington, and James Craig, staked out an odd place between those worlds, allowing the modernist fascination with abstract systems to collide with

the strange, the poetic, and the popular.

The title of this book, Thinking Wl:th. Type, is an homage to James Crai g' s p ri mer Designing with. Type, the utilitarian classic tha t wa s our text book at Cooper. Ifthat book was a handyman'S guide to basic typography, this one is a naturalist's field guide. approaching its subject as an organic system that is more evolutionary than mechanical. \Vbat I really learned Fl'Om my teachers was how to think with type: how to use visualand verbal language to develop and deliver ideas. As a student, discovering typography was finding the bridge connecting written language to visual ali.

To write my own book for the twenty-first century I have had to educate myself all over again. In 2003 [ en rolled in the Doctorate in Communications Design program at the University of Baltimore. There r have worked with Stuart Moulthrop and Nancy Kaplan, world-class scholars, critics, and designers of networked media and digital interfaces, Their influence is seen throughout this book.

My colleagues at Maryland Institute College of Art have built

a distinctive design culture at the school: special thanks go to Ray Allen, Fred Lazarus, Elizabeth Nead, Bernard Can ni fIe, Jennifer Cole Phillips, Rachel Schreiber, and all my students, past and future.

My editor, Mark Lamster, has kept this project alive and conscious across its seemingly endless development. I also thank Eric Karnes and BIke Gasselseder, Kevin Lippert at Princeton Architectural Press, Timothy Lin n at Asia Pacific Offset, William Noel at the Walters Art Museum, Paul Warwick Thompson and Barbara Bloem ink at the Cooper- Hewitt, National Design Museum, and <Ill the designers who shared their work with me.

I learn something every day from my children, Jay and Ruby,

and from my parents, my twin, and the amazing Miller family, My friendsJennifer Tobias, Edward Bottone, Claudia Matzko, Darsie Alexander,

and Joy Hayes-sustain my life. My husband. Abbott Miller. is the greatest designer I know, and J am proud to include him in this volume.

M,\ RTrN M AJGa R began d.signiJ1g the typeface Seri« with this J1apkin sketch iliad" OIl a Irnill )rOHI Berlin 10 IV""mv ill ':196, TII~ typeJar;c W~'S rdea,~d hy POlllSlwp Inl"nnlliana/"It zoco. ,lylosl contemporary rr,!,cfnces 1lilill1QI,eiy take a digital form, bllt n'IC"'}' are rooted ill calligraphic traditioll ,nld origi"ale ill IWlldl~ri/t.w shld res eM d pm IDly pes.


Upper Case.

Lower Casco

A P,\lR 01' C,'51'S.

California Job Casco

FlG. 2.-Showing Lay of Cases.

UrfER 112


rv P.E . .s 1),·\Cr.S. ,\ N 11 LE/\DS Diagram from book, 1917 Author: Frank S. Hem)'

in alrmiiliww/ printing si1op, griddeu ases hold Jonts aJtr'Pe [mel spadl1g material. Car,ilai I,m",-s are slor~d iJi a drawer abD~e the IIliIiItSCI,i/, ietters. Hence the t~rm·s "uppel"CC.fse'· a/ltl "Iowanr.'f." arc derived For!'! the IJi1piw/. 'pm" of/Ii. prinl sllOP'

mm.-.pullJ bWt.Jfili8 nilisillieD tantiibonii noItma·m lbnnfolDlJ nollraniit. It iJalritimJ PlllinfUUfii marlbl.JftI muauuhm

f4!i iamh·1i of speech into a small set of marks. making it well-suited to mechanization. bi,e·inguO' Gutenberg's famous Bible took the handmade manuscript as its model. intrtfaltfq;l Emulating the dense, dark handwriting known as "blackletter," he

rwht-n Hm. ~,.il

"~""""'" reproduced its erratic texture by creating variations of each letter as well

Dlllumulb as numerous ligatures (characters that combine two or more letters into tgt1lUa·irtu a single form).


unnn BUpn: uum m" It arlmnm·l ofirioa·rund"atp ualhtUtro qut in Il nnw 11ftgria mmqaruulua If, ml it u~rm.llu.ntfitDtlJtiuaa.lOuibul


JOHANNES GU'J'1::NBERG Printed text,



THIS IS NOT A BOOK ABOUT FONTS. It is a book about how to lise them. Typefaces are an essential resource employed by graphic designers. just as olass. stone, steel, and countless other materials ate employed by architects. Graphic designers sometimes create their own fonts and custom lettering. More commonly, however, they tap the vast library of existing typefaces, choosing and combining them in response to a particular audience or situation. To do this with wit and wisdom requires knowledge of howand why=-letterforms have evolved.

Words Originated as gestures of the body. The first typefaces were directly modeled on the forms of call igraphy, Typefaces, however, are not bodily gestures-they are manufactured images designed for infinite repetition. The history of typography reflects a continual tension between the hand and the machine, the organic and the geometric, the human body and the abstract system. These tensions, which marked the birth of printed letters over five hundred year ago, continue to energize typography today.

Movable type, invented by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany in the early fifteenth century. revolutionized writing j n the West. Whereas scribes had previously manufactured books and documents by hand, printing with , type allowed for mass production: large quantities of letters could be cast

from a mold and assembled into "forms." After the pages were proofed, corrected, and printed. the letters were put away in gridded cases for reuse.

Movable type had been employed earlier in China. but it had

proven less useful there. Whereas the Chinese writing system contains tens of thousands of distinct characters, the Latin alphabet translates the sounds

Tills chapter extends and revises .. l.aws of Ihc Letter." Etlell Lupton and J. Abbott Miller, De.</g" IFn'lillg Rcscorcu: 1\/riliul: 011 CmplJic Desigll WEW York: I{;",k, [996; Loudon: Phaidnn, 1999). 53-GI.


LHTEl! 1]4

NJCOLAS J ENSO" learned 10 priHt in ,\,jainz, the German hirthplr,ce oJt)'lJOgraphy, bejore establishing his OW"

Lorern ipsum dolor si Lorem ipsum dolor sit consectetuer adipiseing cl consecretuer adipiscinj Integer pharetra, nisl t Integer pharetra, nisl 11 luctus ullamcorper, au luetus ullamcorper, aUl tartar egestas ante, vel tortor egcstas ante, vel f pede urna ae neque. lv pede urna ae neque. M

ae D1i eu pun1S tincidt ae mi eu PUfUS tincidu

vanum laboraverunt Lorem ipsum dolor ~ si Dominus custodie: consectetuer adipisci istra vigilavit qui COS1 Integer pharetra, nis

n u rr is designed num est vobis ante It ullamcorper, augue t by the Dutch tllpogmph~". , rgere postquam sede ante vel pharetra pee

teacher, alld thmnst "

Genii Noordzi]. Tids .i manducatis panem neque. Mauris ac mi

digital/f' cOll5tnu:ted JMt,

designed il! the '9905, m dederit dilectis sui tincidunt faucibus. P

C~l ptures the d yM am ie,

titree.di",ensimw/gmliily ,AILMI IVXTA LXX dignissim lectus. Nun

of fijicell tlt·e en I WI' rom all

typeJaces I.lS I~dl as Iileir gDtltic(raliter thai' /1J.I""misl) origil15, SCAL.~ was il1t;roduced ill 1991 by t!J~

. As N~ordz:~' explarns, JonsOIl "adar(ed the Germal1 I~H~r.1 D~tcl) t}'pograpi1er Ma rtin Majoor. AIJIlOug/1 10 HrlIH:mJ~sIIlOi1 (,QPII"""har rounder, somelvilat hghter), and Ihus t/H, tlrDroughly col'\(~mporory typ"Jacf ha, crl'Oled roman t}1)e." gWI11Eilic ,erift (l~d rational, almost 11IOd,,!a,r forms, il r~jI~cts the calligmpllic origins o[ type, as sem ill Ie.lters such as a.

printing prtss ht VeNice.

His I elle rs 11" ve 51 rOllg v,;rJiwi siems, ,meitlie Irmljilion from Ihick ro t Iii n rej/eels th e pali I oj a vrond·nihbed pen.

CEI'TA Ul1., d,;,igl1ed from 1912 10 114 br' Bruce Rogers, is a rl:Vi~al of jwsol"S Iype tlrat flllphasius its ribbotrlih s.trokc,

'I ell . . Y~&·iiI~.V &""IIP"'QJ,"~ U"lgDi

I os a.l'P atut m.ann the iiii wekis and how 1

mit dtaNr feater mat Iotd, yet thcchircbcmal racnz appellantur qu: that IS towetc,o£ ~thc

.. . Era and of that he cometh tc

,MIDnt trurn 8Cma1 in thofflcc of the cbire1

atrueles marrum fraa tyngcs' that ben in this 'O'fQbrini ex duabus ed eae partie, Be that othe ta funcin antiquis au C4U8eo~thecomyngeof

ben of 10V£ ancf "IAdnl1!:!

GOLDEN "rYIlI:: was crcMea by tl1~ Ellglisll design '".JonFier lVi'lliam Manis in 1890. H, S"lrg/r,t 10 r"'np(ar~ Ih~ dark Dnd sDI~nll1 demity of jellsoll's pagr:s,

ADO~E 101SOl< ,"'05 df,igneJi ill 1995 by Rober! S Ii mba,I" I ulto

rCC'D ~1 ctd lies

i1i,loriwi type. [aces Jor digilal lise. Adobe Jenson is less IIW I1l1ered

a ltd d"ora fiue than CeHtar,lr,

!.ETTER I [5

s ed ne forte tue mrea Hie timor eJf ipfir III on rld co l euitrr .noJl vs ~1Um oblito pul~ I We pnyldcidu i,UCH; Non pottlit ucir 1m $ fd mpidfU folfis dtti rhefJali; antiquam I Ilk qt~irquid ere (e~ Tfaicit & fori title)' I We forltUl[.e Utnidn ~M dedit drl!UI~ Q..!!:drum m+lla tu« fi Grdti2~J& tell~ n Q.!!dffmi,r it longtC rei CdTd btmen lachry


Ramal[ (lnd itnliG Iyp" desig"ed for Ald~l' Malwliw;, c. 1500. Th'1' (lro conceived as 1100 separate f)l'ifacel.


Roma n a "d ilal i r: (yp es fOl'the Impl'imeric Roy(l/e, Pari" 1642. coordiHaled into a iarE" type family.


In fifteenth-century Italy. humanist writers and scholars rejected gothic scripts in favor of the lettera antico, a classical mode of handwriting with wider, more open farms. The preference for leuera antira was part of

the Renaissance (rebirth) of classical art and literature. Nicolas Jenson,

a Frenchman who had learned to print in Germany, established an influential printing firm in Venice around 1469. His typefaces merged the gothic traditions he had known in France and Germany with the Italian taste for rounder, lighter forms. They are considered among the first-and finest-roman typefaces.

Many fonts we use today, including Garamond, Bembo, Palatine, and Jenson, are named for printers who worked in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. These typefaces are generally known as "humanist." Contemporary revivals of his to tical fonts are designed to conform with modern technologies and current demands for sharpness and uniformity, Each revival responds to-or reacts against-the production methods, printing styles, and artistic habits of its OW11 time. Some revivals are based on metal types, punches, or drawings that still exist; most rely solely on printed specimens.

Italic letters, also introduced in fifteenth-century Italy (as their name suggests), were modeled on a more casual style of handwriting. While the upright humanist scripts appeared in prestigious, expensively produced books, the cursive form was used by the cheaper writing shops, where it could be written more rapidly than the carefully formed leuera antica. Aldus Manutius was a Venetian printer, publisher, and scholar who used italic typefaces in his internationallv distributed series of small, inexpensive books. The cursive form sa\'~d money because it saved space. Aldus Manutius's books often paired cursive letters with roman capitals; the two styles still were considered fundamentally distinct.

In the sixteenth century, printers began integrating roman and

j talic forms into type families with matching weights and x-heights (the height of the main body of the lowerface letter). Today, the italic style in most fonts is not simply a slanted version of the roman; it incorporates the curves, angles, and narrower proportions associated with cursive forms.

I[comme i'ay des-ia rernarque • S. Augu- • -t'g.lil,jJ. 011 the romp]".': origins

,. ,NI1/TflF.rN_/f.r.

[lin dernandeaux Donarilbes en vne fem- 7· ~dl ';- of roll 1,1 u type .. see Cerrit

go~cum egl ..

blable occurrence: 0mYI! done? lors otle rut", obliul- Nccnlzij. L~II"ddler

I ~ 1. fcimur quern- (V::IIICOUVCt': Hartley Jild

r10llJ iifjms .ollbJio1JJ nom comment naYJ alJOI1S .d~odumlt>-

11J ; .qLlIfo],c.tIlJI,lU .\f;:.lr·ks. aoco].

'(1ccollf1.lImi de 1Y1r1lf 2/, e ICrittlre du urandD,'c" An, rcIi p ,ura

'1" r-· ')11 o· rl' Del alirer no,

GF.OJ'I<OY TORY {IJ-gllfli Iii a/ [mas 511011111 rcjl.:ct the ideal 11,1111011 bod}: REgardillg the letler A, hi' lurote: "the cross-stroke GOvu'; the mail's orgaJl of g"",-atio",. 10 ,igJ1lf~ tliat. Mildcsty ,,"d ChastiI}' eire r,;q(I ira). bifore all else, in those who ser.k a"g!Jailtlarr,~ with weJI-silap",j l<!Hcrs."



DOUBLJ Q!!oufque t Iina, patient nos etiam ru quem ad fin! ABCDEF

W [LUAM CAS LO-r-.- created tyP"J',c<s in eiglllcmlfl.ceI1t.!H"r' Englalld wil/I crisp, uplight ciu:rrao:iers that a/'1'""I; (!S. [Iober!

Brirr'g!lIIrs/ lias wrilten. "more Illod~//ed aJ'ld less wliltelt alan Rmai.I.<aIlGe forms."

r.HH" 1]6


SlMOKNEAU df!Sigl1ed ItTOdd leltelfv rill, Jar the pn'lllil1g press of Lot,is XlV. [",lmetcd b)1 a royal GQlllmitlee, Simolmenu designed M~ leuers OI'J a finely fII"sli.d grid. A mya/ typeJace (rolllain du roij WIUS fir", creal,d by Philippe Grcm~i~{m, lmsra ,m Simonnnw's engravil1gs.


ro u N ilASKI:RVILL.c


was a printer working ill England i" tho 1750S and 1760s. He aimed to SI"1,aS.1 Casloll [,)' creating s!Ja'pl~1 d"tl1iicd letters with IHDre "i"i,1 e<mtmsl. between lliick. and thin deJnwls. Whuws

Am indebted to you for two Letters dated from Corcyra._

CasJDH'S Idl"~ wore widely used il' 11i5 0""1 lillie, Baskavi//e's IVork was d"J1OI.mcd by mimI' of Ilis wnl'mpDrtilri~s as llmatwr al1d ,;xtnlw'sL


GIAMlIAlTfSH BODONJ created letters at the close oJI/le "iglltewll. centm}' 111M ex/Jibit {lbn'pl. IIlw'lodwjal,d contmst /'clweelt lhick altd lliil'l and razor-thin serifs 1/", t arc W1Sllpp()rLed by GH1lled "bmckers." Sim iJar !Y/leJac~s were designed ill II", sameperiod by Fmm;oisAmbroise Dido: (1784)

i,l1 Fmne" lind just lIS Erich \Val/mum (1800)

in German}:




The ,amain du roi 1 designed not by a ""a",a,he< but by a government committee I

consisting of two priests, an accountant, and an engineer. Robert Bringhurst, 1992






u/~c~~~ LA~9J 6~ J/iv?2

GEO~GE H1C~HAM, J743. Sm!1{Jle, of "RQII'\QJ1 Print" QIl" "Italian Ha 1111."

This accusation was reported to Baskerville in a letter from his admirer Benjamin .

FI\I nkh 11, For tilt ful I letter, sec F, E. Pardoe, Jolll< Ba.<hrvii!"

oj Birmiligltlllll: LeIf"I"-FoIlIJder cmd Prinla (London: Frederick MillieI' Limited. 1975), 68,

See J lso I(obert Bringhurst,

Til, 1,1",,""1, vI T)'pOfP'a/llliG Styl, [Vartcouver: H "riley J nd Marks, 1992, 1997)'


Renaissance artists sought standards of proportion in the idealized human body. The French designer and typographer Ceofroy Tory published a series of diagrams in I529 that linked the anatomy ofletters to the anatomy of man. A new approach-distanced From the body-would unfold in the age of scientific and pJlilosophical EnJighlenmen t.

A committee appointed by Louis XJ V in France ill 1693 set out to construct roman letters against a finel), meshed grid. Whereas Geofroy IOIy's diagrams were produced as woodcuts, the gridded depictions of the rofnain du wi (king's alphabet) were engraved, made by incising a copper plate with a tool called a graver. The lead typefaces derived from these large-scale diagrams reflect the linear character of engraving as well as the scientific attitude of the king's committee.

Engraved letters-whose fluid lines are unconstrained by letterpress's mechanical grid-offered an apt medium for lorrnal lettering. Engraved reproductions of penmanship disseminated the work of the great eighteenth-century writing masters. Books such as George Bickham's

The Uni~ersal Pen-man (I743) featured roman letters-a-each engraved as a unique character-as well as lavishly curved scripts.

Eighteenth-century typography was influenced by new styles of handwriting and their engraved reproductions. Printers like William Caslon in the 1720S and [ohn Baskerville in the I7505 abandoned the rigid nib of humanism for the flexible steel pen and the pointed quill, .instruments that rendered a fluid, swelling path. Baskerville, h imself a rnaster calligrapher, would have admired the thinly sculpted lines that appeared in the engraved writing books. He created typefaces of such sharpness and contrast that contemporaries accused him of "blinding all the Readers in the Nation; for the strokes of your letters, being too thin and narrow, hurt the Eye," To heighten the startling precision of 11 is pages, Baskerville made his own inks and hot-pressed his pages after printing.

The severe vocabulary of Baskerville was carried to an extreme by Giambattista Bodoni in Italy and Firmin Didot in France at the turn of the nineteenth century, Their typefaces-c which have.a wholly vertical axis, extreme contrast between thick and thin, and crisp, waferlike senfs=were the gateway to a new vision of typography unhinged from calligraphy,




T ITYRE, tu patulee recubans fub tegmine fagi Silveflrem tenui Mufam meditaris avena:

Nos patriae fines, et dulcia linquimus arva;

Nos patriam fugimus: tu, Tityre, Ientus in umbra 5 Fonnofam refonare doces AmarylIida filvas.

T. 0 Meliboee, Deus nobis hrec otia fecit:

Namque erit ilIe mihi femper Deus: illius aram Seepe tener noflris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus. IlIe me as errare boves, ut cernis, et ipfum

10 Ludere, quce vellem, calamo permilit agrefli.

M. Non equidem invideo;miror magis: undique totis Ufque adeo turbatur agris. en ipfe capellas

Protenus reger ago: hanc etiam vix, Tityre, ducor

Hie inter denfas corylos modo namque gemellos,

15 Spem gregis, ah! Iilice in nuda connixa reliquit.

Ssepe malum hoc nobis, fi mens non Ieeva fuitTet. De ccelo taCl:as memini praidicere quercus:

Seepe finiftra cava prsedixit ab ilice cornix,

Sed tamen, ille Deus qui fit, da, Tityre, nobis.

20 T. Urbern, quam dicunt Romam, Meliboee, putavi Stultus ego huie noflree fimilem, quo [cepe folemus Pallores ovium teneros depellere foetus.

Sic canibus catulos fimiles, fie matribus hcedos

A Noram;

ECLOGA I. cui nomen TITrRUS.


I'IRG I" (lEtliT) Book page, 1757

P rimed by ) ohn B a skervill c T/!~ Iypifaces cr~tlIed. by Jail P1 Baskerville ill the .ight,"nth c&llttlry Lvere remarkable<v,1< lho,kililf-iJ~ tileir day Jor Ih~ir 1fwrp, Mprighl [orlles ann slark <"OnlTasl b~twe, M II r i r;k I1llalllil1 d~m~~js. lit addilion 1011 roman Il'xt face, lid.' page Llli!i:zes italic capitals, Img~!rale capilals Igcliero!J~ly ietterspClCca), ~maJ! capitals (!calcd )0 coordinolll with lowercase lexl), aHa 1l0J1-li"i"g or old-slyle n!lmu~1s (design,d Illilll a.sceJ1~ers, des~end",,,, and ~ sm~1I body Ileighlia work l¥ith I r1Lller,a se r h araclm).

RACINE (R1GRT) Book page. TSor

Printed by Elirmin Didol

Tilc typifaces ell! by I/Ie Diao; Jamii)' ill Fra~,", luero "Vat JP1or~ abmm;! ulla 5tJ1m Ihan thole of BaS~~lvUle, wilh ,labUk lI~brackctcd 5~rift al~d a -'I·wk wlltrast,(rom t"i~k to t/lilL

Mn. elllllJ1.I}J,ccl1twl' prilltefsi alld typographers called Ihes"

8.IIttUh.lg. IylJejiwls "II1Odtmr"

Both ptlges are r"prodflc"d

from Wi'.'iam Darla omJltI

III Quest of the Perfect Boo c (N'tw York: Lillk Brol@ a 111 CompllfLy, u:J26); margill!' re nal accumte.











ILS sont sortis, Olympe? Ab! mortelles doulcurs! Qu'un moment de repos' me va couter de pleurs l Mes yeux depuis six mois etoient ouverts aux larmes, Et le sommeil les ferme en de telles alarmes!

Puisse plutot la mort les fermer pour jamais,

Et m'ernpecher de voir le plus noir des forfaitsl

Mais en sont-ils aux mains?


.4.t]O o'Clock in the Morning:


ORDAG Sail~\T ~A~~WI

, WClS gi"m 10 tile illflrl(~d,

mg the reml hyper-bold type style

k f th g h introrilll",d in the tel r ly '0 e ~C niltc/ewtl, C6Iltur)': TII<'"fac;es ~xaggmlled !i1~ poiarizuliol'l

(J. Soulb oJlellers i"to Ilrir:k and (!Jilt C<lmpQl1ents se,;)l il'l Ih~ formal t}'pogmpl~y a/Bodo"I and Dido!.

"Co I' r-r I AN, or slab, typefaces transformed tilt 5"'"if/rol'l'I a

rffi ned del ail ro a loa d -owri IIg shro. As an independent ard1ilectuml cOmrall"M, lile s(ab serif asserts ils awn weight and ·mass. Inlroduced in 180G, ri}i5 sl},[. WIlS qllickil' dWOlll1wt by purists as "a typographical


fXTR,,\ CO" of N S En typcfi'c", M~ riesign"d /0 fit III narrow spaces. "',/leI eenth-C<l1tLI r)" ad'wliselrr~nls Oft"', c;onlhilteci fonts of vaJying slyle and proporlion Dll a siJ1gl~ fJage. T/res;: bOlrrbmtic miX/tires w"r~ I}piwlly aligl1ed, hDW~"er, in sIalic. cmlereri coHlposilions.

GOT Hie is" ffitletc61tlh·contlll), lain )O,·I"ller., with no suifi. SerGi> I YP0aces wllirl comma",j aHelltiotl with tlreir mmsIv" ji"MliJJily. AII/,oIJgi, lans-,"rif fmlts often served in the

twcliIIel/" '"J1 wry to con vry

n~U lrality, flamllorw.tly decoralod gotlJics were once

My person was hideous, my stature gigantic. What did this mean? Who was I? What was I? .. Accursed creator! Why did you create a monster so hideous that even you turned away from me in disgust? Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, 1831



Although Bodoni and Didot fueled their designs with the calligraphic practices of their time, they created forms that collided with typographic tradition and unleashed a strange Dew world, where the structural attributes of the lette r=-serif and stem, thick a nd thi 11 strokes, vertical and horizontal stress=-woul d be subj ect to bizarre experimen Is. r n search of a beauty both rational and sublime, Bodoni and Didot had created a monster: an abstract and dehumanized approach to the design of letters,

With the lise of industrialization and mass consumption in the nineteenth century came the explosion of advertising, a new form of communication demanding new kinds of typography. Big, bold faces were designed by distorting the anatomical elements of classical letters. Fonts of astonishing height. width, and depth appeared-expanded, contracted, shadowed, inlined, fattened, faceted, and llcriated. Serifs abandoned their role as finishing details to become independent a rchi rectural structures, and the vertical stress of traditional letters migrated in new directions.


T1ip~ /iillorian Rob Ro~ Kelly (19,6-20°4) sl"died Uu; l11ecliaPlized design slrategies tlia t Sf ["vcd to gene m Ie" 'p"claCiliar

~ari, ty of d ispl a y I elIas ill Jhe lIirleleelllh cenrury.

Thi, diagram shaWl flOW Ike basic: square s~riJ Jorm-cailed Egyplian or' slab-was ,,,I, pinched, pulled, and cnr!e,llo spawil /11:1" 5ped~.s oj onlamwl. Senft were !rallS{onned Jrom cnlJigrnpliic end"

,I reke! il1l~ in del'clltie,; I g1!ometric elemenls 11,m co(!ld be fredy adjusre,l.




Lead, the material for casting metal type, is too soft to hold its shape at large sizes under the pressure of the printing press. In contrast, type cut from wood could be printed at gigantic scales. The introduction of the combined pantograph and router in 1834 revolutionized wood-type manufacture,

The pantograph is a tracing device that, when linked to a router for carving, allows a parent drawing to spawn variants, with different proportions, weights, and decorative excresences.

This mechanized design approach treated the alphabet as a flexible system divorced from the calligraphic tradition. The search for archetypal, perfectly proportioned letterforrns gave way to a view of typography as an elastic system of Formal features (weight, stress, stem, crossbars, serifs, angles, curves, ascenders, descenders). The relaticnshi ps among letters in a Font became more important than the identity of individual characters,

For extensive analysis and examples of decorated types, see Rub Roy Kelly. American \.Vouu Type: ,828-1900. IIrDlc,; 0" the Evolulion oj Deroralfd ~~d Large. Lellers (New York: Da Capo Press. '9G9). See also Ruari Mcl.ean, "An Examination

of Egyptial1s,"' Text.1 "" Typ"' Criiuo! Wn"rillg,< 1)/1 7l'IJogral'ily. ed. Steven Heller and Philip B. Meggs (New York: Allworth PrI'SS, 200'),70-76.

L"ETtEI{ J 22

DU R't' E_..\'S I M PORTED CURNSTAI(CII (toFT) Lithographic trade card, T878 TlI~ rist: oIarilterlislng ill II"l!! Ilil'lei"""II'1 1-",.1",1' lrinwlnlcr/ derna",i.JcH' lalg"-scal~ leuer: tho; could command "!I~lIrioJl. in lIru'll' space, Here, n ifran " ~ftQIVIl posr.illii a bill irl flogt-at.t disregurd for Iho I,ow, wi Ilk II police officer npprooc/resfror1J IWllli I dill" wnw I',

FULL 1.10o" ('liGHT) Letterpress poster, r875

"\ daze" d iljere II I, fo II Is a re ,j;~d in this pmlcr JOI' a sl"Cll1lsi1ip

,;nl ise. A size n lid slyle of l)'I1ifo •• ltas bEe" dlDSCil for cadi lille 10 !!Iaximiz,) lI,e sml~ a/lrw Ierrers in the space a/lou.d. AllitOI'l,it Ih, tYfJefnws """ <'OXalic, II" [enleral/of'mll is 05510/(,; ami mnVelllioll"J IJI II IOll,uslollC.



S-T:'· MIO,HAEL-='-S

. ~-



Prof. V.Yeager.; Leader, "Will giv-e, a

G:a: ,'A, :at :D



On the-Steamer


G. B. 01: -J. H. Utter, Ste&m Printers, Westerly, R. 1_



'[1-] EO V"N DOcSBU Rc,fOllltoCI· ami chifJ'pranlOter oflht' Dille/' De Slijl 1"0,'611,.,,1, dcsigfred Ihis alph<lhel wilh pnl'"nlliwlllr derrtetilS ill '919. Applied 1,m: 10 Ille imeriwild of II Ie Union of R,,,'olulionIlrY Sod~Iisls, II,e Itmrd-draWll dwra,16rs vary in widlh, allowing lilem ro jill 0111 II," of'emll ,·r:clallgl~. Th« De Stijl movmlml wiled Ior Iilf rod/leliol1 af rmil1tillg, anl,itect"r~, objects. alld Imel's io "Iemenlal. unils,

. ,




vi LM os Ill)SZ .. ' R desiglled Ihi.\ IDgo for 111~ I1wgazi"'i! De Stijl ill '9'7. \Fllcr"~l

\'on Doc~I"'rg's characlers arc unbroken, Hlm'i'ir's I,.nm WlrSist of ri~-el·like modules.

abcdefGhi iKlmn~pqr stuvwxyz a· dd

H Elt:B" Rl' B,\\' oR crealcd Ihi,I Iypt:filce 06,igl', wll~d (",ivel'sal, «I the E/rllll,tlIlS ill 1925. Consisting only oflowu':05e letlas. il is buill. Fa", slraig/11 I il1 es m "I r.i rei cs.



P,\I,IL RENNEt< dt:Sjgn"dFut~lm ill Gm11tlfl)' in 1927- AII/wugh

iJ js slrol1gl~ geoilletrir;, with peri"crl), rmmd 0.\. FuWFa is II rm1r.Iir:at, ",btl}' dfSigrlCd typef(lce tha; rCImoill5 widdy /tsed !odar~

LEttER I 25

F.DWA11D IOH)lSTON bmed 1111.' 1906 diagf<llil oJ"m~"I.ial" enamelus 011 (llldWI Romall itlScriplioll5. Wllile deridillg commercial display lettering, joimstoll accepted tl<, embeliishmMI of medieval. i~5)lirrrJ fonlll.

On Futura, sec Ch ristopher Burke, Palll R'"l1fJ~ The j\ r! o!T)'pograpllV (New York., Princeton Archltectura] Press, 1998). Oil the experimental typefaces of the 1920S and 19305. see Robi II Kinross. UI~'u;tijird 11<xI5: l'er"I'ectives 0/1 TYPQgrapiJ}' (London:

Hyphen Press, 2002),21)-45.


Some designers viewed the distortion of the alpha bet as gross and immoral, tied to a destructive and inhumane industrial system. Writing in 1906, Edward Johnston revived the search for an essential, standard

alp habe t and warned a ga ins t th e "dangers" of exagge ra ti 0 11. Job ns ton, inspired by the nineteenth-century Arts and Crafts movement, looked back to the Renaissance and Middle Ages for pUI:e, uncorrupted letterforms.

Although reformers like Johnston remained romantically attached to history, they redefined the designer as an intellectual distanced from

the commercial mainstream. The modern design reformer was a critic of society, striving to create objects and images that would challenge and revise dominant habits and practices.

The avant-garde artists of the early twentieth century rejected historical forms but adopted the model of the critical outsider. Members of the De Stijl group in the Netherlands reduced the alphabet to perpendicular elements. At the Bauhaus, Herbert Bayer and Josef Albers constructed alphabets from basic geometric forms-the circle, square, and triangle-s-which they viewed as elements of a universal language of vision.

Such experiments approached the alphabet as a system of abstract relationships. Like the popular printers of the nineteenth century, avantgarde designers abandoned the guest for an essential, perfectly shaped alphabet, but they offered austere, theoretical alternatives in place of the solicitous novel ty 0 f mainstream ad verti s in g.

Assembled, like machines, from modular components, these experimental designs emulated factory production. Yet most were produced by hand rather than as mechanical typefaces (although many are now available digitally). Futura, d;signed by Paul Renner in

1927, embodied the obsessions of the avant garde in a multipurpose, commercially available typeface. Although Renner rejected the active movement of calligraphy in favor of forms that are "calming" and abstract, he tempered the geometry of Futura with subtle variations in stroke, curve, and proportion. Renner designed Futura in numerous weights, viewing

his font as a painterly tool for constructing a page in shades of gray.

The calming, abstract forms of those new typefaces that dispense with handwritten movement offer the typographer new shapes of tonal value that are very purely attuned. These types can be used in light, semi-bold, or in saturated black forms. Paul Renner, 1931


WI M (RO lJ '" u L prJ/)iisireci his di~s.igl1s for a Irrrew alp/ra"el, " wlISiSliJrg Qr "0 diagOJ"'/s or WfV6', ill '967. The FO!Hld,1' (Lam/Oil) il'fiITIl devdopillg ""d rr:l~ll,ling rligitlll t'ditiQm (ifCmJlrvd's J~I'"jam in '997-

See \Vim Crouwel,

Ncrv Alplmi)et [Amsterdam:

Wim Crouwel/Tota) ' Design, l')67): and Wirn Crouwel, Keer; 111'00" and David Ql'<JY, \Vim Cm!lIo'ti:

AlplwlJel.1 (Amsterdam: illS Pllbli511ers, 20031_


WIM CBQ[}W~L /,,",wled

rids 'sc<",",d" v",~iOlt oj a GaranwHd a in <'Mll.rasl

wiJh his own ,,,," alplwhel, 1.1105& forms nccep! Ilrf. gridded slJllclure oJlhe ,creen,

ZlI7.ANA LleKO maled warse-wolillioll JOJ'Jls Jor desklop !CrilW5 nlld Jill II I", ill 1985. TheseJoll151lave ,j'1C< bem inlegral,;d uuo Emigre', oxt<:lLs;ve Lo·Res JOM jhmi!y, desiglled Jar print r,I]Ja digilal III.din.

Sec 1111d), VanderLa ris

J!1d ZU,Z311,J Lido, E,"ign:; Graphic D,'sign ill)o li,e Digilal Realnl (New York:

Van Nostrand Rei nhold, L9931·


Respondi ng in I967 to the rise of electronic communication, the Dutch designer \Vim Crouwel published designs for a "new alphabet" constructed hom straight lines. Rejecting centuries of tyro graphic convention, he designed his letters for optimal display on a video screen (CRT),

where curves and angles are rendered with horizontal scan lines. 1 n a brochure promoting his new alphabet, subtitled "An introduction

for a Programmed Typography." he proposed a design methodology ill which decisions are rule-based and systematic.

JbcdE~qhLitLQnopqr t-uLJ!:JI4;:J 4

In the mid-I980s, personal computers and low-resolution printers put the tools of typography in the hands of a broader public. In 1985 Zuzana Licko began designing typefaces that exploited the rough grain of early desktop systems. While other digital fonts imposed the coarse grid of screen displays and dot-matrix printers onto traditional typographic forms. Licko embraced tile language of digital equipment. She and her husband, Rudy vanderl.ans, cofounders of Emigre Fonts and El1'figre magazine, called themselves the "new primitives," pioneers of a technological dawn.


Oakland fm~eror

By the early 1990S, with the introduction of high-resolution laser printers and outline fan t technologies such as PostScript, lyre designers were less constrained by low-resolution au rputs. The rise of the Internet as well as cell phones, hand-held video gaInes, and PDAs, have insured the continued relevance of pixel-based fonts as more and more inforrna lion is designed for publication directly on screen.

Living with computers gives funny ideas, Wim Crouwel, 1967


Linda Ferguson .


D: SteveHandschu

:l JamesHay ~

f- Matthew HollandSCUlLPTURJ a. Ga ry Laatsch

~""Brian Liljeblad

::l Dora Natella

CJ Matthew Schellenberg '-UJ Richard String

i Michell.Thomas


r RobertWilhelm

Wpening Recep tion: Fr ida y Jun e 8 ,5:3G-rS:30 pm



-< .....



etro it Foe y s Galler~313)96 2 .90 2 5 743 Beaubie 1\, Th ird Floor


WEDNESDAY·SATURDAY Hou rs: Noon t06 p nr-

F. D J'E LL..- I'wd!Jcec! (> body of"xp~Ii"'wJal trl'Dgrapl,y I h QI .\1..-0 "81), i 1 ifill" /teed f;ypejar;e design ill the '990s. His posters for 111" Detroit Pows Galia),Jeatlirc

dn muged ami deJective [arms, dmllJll br hema or cuued fro",lili,·d-gorieratiOlI piroloWr,i"S or from sh,'ets

of lransfi;r 1.f'ltail1g. Colhliol' oIllre COOP"" H~wi~l, Nariorra! Oesill'> A1HS.r.:WII .

LEIT, R I 29


In the early 199os, as digital design tools began supporting the seamless reproduction and integration of media, many designers grew dissatisfied with clean, unsullied surfaces. seeking instead to plunge the letter into the harsh and caustic world of physical processes. letters, which for centuries had sought perfection in ever more exact technologies, became scratched, bent, bruised, and polluted.

Template Gothic: flawed technology

Barry Deck's typeface Template Gothic, designed in 1990, is based on letters drawn with a plastic stencil. The typeface thus refers to a process that is at once mechanical and manual. Deck designed Template Cothic while he was a student of Ed Pella, whose experimental posters inspired a generation of digital typographers. After Template Gothic was released commercially

by Emigre Fonts, its use spread worldwide, making it an emblem of "digital typography" for the 1990s.

Dead History: feeding on the past

P. Scott Makela's typeface Dead History, also designed in 1990, is a pastiche of two exis ti ng typefa ces: the traditi a na I serif fan t Cente nnial and th e Pop classic VAG Rounded. By manipulating the vectors of readymade fonts, Makela adopted the sa mpling strategy employed in contemporary art and music. He also referred to the importance of history and precedent, which play a role in nearly ever), typographic innovation.


The Dutch typographers Erik von Blokland and Just van Rossum have combined the roles of designer and programmer, creating typefaces that embrace chance, change, and uncertainty. Their J990 typeface Beowulf was the first in a series of typefaces with randomized outlines and programmed behaviors.

The industrial methods of producing typography meant that all letters had to be identical .... Typography is now produced with sophisticated equipment that doesn't impose such rules. The only limitations are in OUI expectations. Erik van Blokland and Just van Rossum, 2000

LETTer' 30


Although the 19905 are best remembered for images of decay, typeface designers continued to build a repertoire of general purpose fonts designed to comfortably accommodate broad bodies of text. Rather than narrate the story oftheir own birth, SLlCh workhorse fonts provide graphic designers with flexible palettes of letterforrns coordinated within larger families.

Mrs Eaves: working woman

Zuzana Licko, fearless pioneer of the digital dav v '1, produced historical revivals during the 1990S alongside her experimenta I display faces. Her 1996 typeface Mrs Eaves, inspired b),' the eighteenth-century types orr oh n Ba ske rville (and n arned after h ism istres s an d 11 ousekee per Sarah Eaves), became one of the most popular typefaces of its time.

Quadraat: all-purpose Baroque

Designed in the Netherlands, typefaces such as Martin Majcor's Scala (used for the text of this book) and Fred Smeijers's Quadraat offer crisp interpretations of typographic tradition. These typefaces look back to sixteenth-century printing from a contem porar}' point of view, as seen in their decisively geometric serifs. Introduced in I992, the Quadraat family

, has expanded to i nclude sa ns-serif forms in numerous weights and styles.

Gotham:. blue-collar curves

In 2000 Tobias Frere-lones introduced Gotham, derived from letters found at the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City. Gotham expresses a no-nonsense, utilitarian attitude that persists today alongside the aesthetics of grunge, neofuturism, pop-culture pa rodies, and straight historical revivals that are all pa.rt of contemporary typography,

When choosing a font, graphic designers consider the history

of typefaces and their current connotations as well as their formal qualities. The goal is to find an appropriate match between a style of letters and the specific social situation and body of content that define the project at hand. There is no playbook that assigns a fixed meaning or function to every typeface; each designer must confront the library of possibilities in light of a project's unique circumstances.






Arnhem is a reliable type family Initially designed for the Nederlandse Stnarscnurant, the duily newspaper of the Dutch state. It has a roman, an iral ie and match ing small caps, I in! Ilg figures, non-Ii n !ng figures and x-hetght lining figures in four weights. As well as that it has tWO weights of '(line' ti tl il1g varian ts i 11 roman and Italic. A rnhcm is available ill TrueType and PostSclipt formats, for both PC and Mac platforms. Open'Iype is due in February 2004.

au RTY r r.co M Web site, 2004

Designers and publishers: Fred Smellers am] Rudy Geeraerts This Flml,-vnsed W"b ,j~e Jor n (/,'gitai typt'JQwlldry allows UIUS

10 te~t jim Is Of! tire j!}', Tile designors larmchCli th~ir' owr1 "laud" a_jler ,rea/ing/orrls such ns QuadmCl[

for FontS/lOp Jntm1[,r101wi.

Oi'pln )'cri here is the t')'IJcface An1i1.;m,

1,FTHR I 32

2, a fonl lhat has projective memory that remind, you t","I<II,

20, a font thai might sense you, level of agltatlen, f,or, or'llrm- 21. a font prone to SUdden outbursts and l.nIr!r 22. ~ font that exceeds the IYPOB"pllicl"'" 23, a font whose parents are Father 11 me and the Moth" oj In~'" 24, an ambient Icnt, a Iont wllh,;tpilli

4. a font with on

6 .• lont without temporal inlloction, wrtho~t the imprint or 7, an "political lont, a font Ihal 8 .• font unaffected by the force of gr avlty and the waight of hUnt" 9. a fonl wllhoHtlamily. "llh"l 10. a Marsh.1I Mel "h." font that stubbornly persists r~ Id~lng ra",w,llt. 11 .• fonl that takes advantage of all that prorrused

12. a lont that does sorneth i ng other thnn sit on its ass in a olillol 13, a font with the t.pacil~ 10 breed with,l;~ 14 .• recombinant lonl- every lettertonn the unruly child of a predlctabla bul r rl'm


18 .• lont that r es ponds and reacts 10 the meaning il oarri"'Qd"",fo


i",,~e ront, a I ip-'1IlchiHg font, a font without' voice 01 lts own

10Ft thalli.lens wl1ile it speaks

ronl th'[ togglo' effortlessly between languages

metropolitan font lot uptown. the gll<'lIo, .d,nd su burble alike

tont th,t 5i","ltanoeu5Iy translates

lonl Ih,\ ,Ings lhe plolnti,o son~. cl Innely whales

pJi!fnl5<ua~s lent, a font that tucks Ionts, a font-lucking-font

Ion I th,l.m.rg~s, unfolds, performs, evolves, and passes away

ieneratl,. font that renders ltselt according to boha,ioral tendencies

(ont th,t I, something ether than a recording ton! lhat is dillerenl every lime you "pIa;" it

LIFE H\,LE Book,2000

Designer and author: Bruce Mau publisher: Pha idon

Photograph: Dan Meyers

In II,;, PO$t.,'I1GII.llrial mnnifGs!o, grapl,;,; designu Bmcc Mall i"''''gilles a typiface l.hM ml1,".1 alive with siml/lalal il/I':/lig,"ce.





, I




SOIIIO dOJ1lt"JILI lIlay "",fend slighlly above I/Ie wp ll<igliJ.

x- l-IE I r. H1' is III~ !lrig/II of lire main bad), of Jile lowercase lelia for liT" bdglll oj a JOlliercelIe x},

I ".'xcluding lls (l$cimders UHf) dcs,eMders.

}VII'QuglikidsICClnl 10 Ivtile !I~i"g mica p"pl'r 1/1111 diviclrs lel/or5 oxn,llf' il1lwif. mast ~yp'I~(;es tlre nor de,igllerill1lll wa)', The .<·height Hl1Wlil' ()<;wpies slighlly more I.han half oJ the wp heigill. The bigger

Ii" x·llcight il il< rdaliorr 10 Ihe cap heighl, Ihe bigger ille letl"'~ lVili loo!;. II? aJi"ld ofln1, Ille gr",tI.,;s~ de'Isil.y O[Gllrs velwew rile baseli,," alldlhe lOp oJllie x·llt:ighl, I


c\r HEIGH'}'

is tile tlisttmc« .r-oJl'l tlw bale/in" 1.0 Ille Wp of capitallme.:

The CO p /1 oigll I of a I FPcJa re ddwlI'l1';, iI., pOil11 size,

1']'lE UAS[UNI ,'s lVl.ere ailihe 1"llel> ,il. Till's is llie 1110,1 slable !lxis alollg- a Ii,," oj tex), m,d il is 1I en. cia! edge Jor (I/igrril1g ("xl lvitli image, Dr lvitl~ 01111:1' lex/.

T"" WrllUS al till! botlom of 1.:11';1'5 sllel, ns 0 or c ita "& 5Ifgl,I1)' bfiolllllw iJase/ille, COIlIf"aI alld sellTicolons also cross lite baseline, If a 11'ptfnre wac 1101 p(J,iliol1ed tlli,l way,

il !VOIr/rl nrlpwr 10 teela p,,·,'ariO[<sIy. locking 0 sell'" ofl'i'I'"imi gTOlllldillg,


Hey Iook' TWI) hlockLDJlext. _

1_ . '"" OftB" e,ligned u /" "g

.ILLey supers ized ...... shored Imsdil1e,

H",." 14/18 Scala .myx-height. __ (J.4!pLlyp.~lLilrL18_pts___ of Ii"e spacing) is puiml

willi 7/9 Soak


'2 POI,,!> "jual J pim


(7' points] ~qll"ll ineil


60-POll<" SCAL"

A t FP'Iar;e IS JJr amI red ji"Q/1I Iile 10/1 oftl,,: wpirnlletta to ~hc I,ollam oj al. (Divest rlc5cei I der, I'IIJ5 a SfYwll L,<jJ,r'paco.

/'1 melal type, the pDi~ t size is ti,e iLt:igltt of the type Sli.lg,



Th» set width is th~ iJOriy oJtj,~ Ieller plus the space qesi<k it.



Ti,e JeII",s III lite COl1 dmStld ""rsioll of rho rYIJ"fit,"e 1,,,ve n IW rTO!C'U sel, wid/I!.




HO!{IZONT/\L &. VEHT1CAL SCAt.JNG The proportiollS oJtlie 'etlus have iJem digitally distorted in order 10 creale Wider or' flmTOwer I~tt",l,

UnET< IdeTI1onstratiollL3 6

1-1 E [G HT Attempts to standardize the measurement of type began in the eighteenth century, The point .system, used to measure the height of a letter as

well as the distance between lines (leading), is the standard used today. One point equals r/72 inch

or -35 millimeters. Twelve points equal one piw, the unit commonly used to measure column widths.

Typography' also can be measured in inches, millimeters, or pixels. Most software applications let the designer choose a preferred unit of measure; picas and points are a standard default.


8 picas ~ 8p

8 points ~ p8, 1\ pis

8 picas, 4 points = 8P4

8'poinl Helvetica with 9 points of line spacing ~ 8/9 Helvetica

W] DTJ-I A letter also has a horizontal measure, called its sel width. The set width is the body of the letter plus a sliver of space that protects it from other letters. The width of a letter is intrinsic to the proportion of the typeface. Some typefaces have a narrow set width, and some have a wide one,

You can change the set width of a typeface by fiddling with its horizontal or vertical scale.

This distorts the proportion of the letters, forcing heavy elements to become thin, and thin elements to become thick Instead of torturing a letlerform, choose a typeface with the proportions you need, such as condensed, compressed, or extended.

L~1TER 37

Do I look fat in this paragraph?

rlm~ letters ar~ all 111" snme poinl,izc, 1m/ Illey I,n,',: diJI,rcl1l x.h~ighl!, lill" weighls, a lid pmporti'olLI,

\\'hell two typefaces are set in the same point size. one often looks bigger than the other. Differences

, in x-helght, line weight, and character width affect the letters' apparent scale.


32.- [1''[" uo DON 1

}."["T MR~ !rAVeS

Mrs ~aL'es, riesigll,,1I,y ZuzDnn Licko iPi 1996. rejecis lire Illienlieli'·1 PllfH '1' appet ito fvr slIpcrsiud x-hdgllIS. T11dillli. illspired by Ille "igltlecrrll,-cw/w}' desltrlll "fJDh11 Bu,krlvill,', is ria, I red nfl,,· S(!(a/i En I'CS, ijmhruilie·s mistress, hOlls"keelw; olld rolia/Jomlor.

Jrl<' wl,!,le lil'ai logel/Jor fur \'i.~I,'cl' rcor, b~ror,; IIrnrryirrg ill J76.1.

Every typeface wants to know, "Do I look fat in this paragraph?" It's all a mailer of context. A lont could look perfectly sleek on screen, yet appear bulky and out of shape in print. Some typefaces are drawn with heavier lines than others, or they have taller x-heights. Helvetica isn't fat. She has big bones.


Every typeface wants to know,

"Do I look fat in this paragraph?"

It's all a matter of context. A font could look perfectly sleek on screen, yet appear bulky and

out of shape in print.

/Jigger .\;·,'ldgl,(S, unrodvccd In the l,uel1tidlr ce"t'<r"r~ m{lke jillrtslooi; larger uy J'lJa.~i",izi"g Ihe sreu withi" II,,· m'anll poin. si::~.

Eve,"), lypeface wn nls to know, "Do I look rOl in this P;:I[·"g,'aph.'?'· I,', "II" mat te r of corucxt , A font could look perrectly sleek on screen, yet "ppe",' bulk)' and out ofshape in print. Some typefaces arc drawu with [muvie r Hn es than orh c rs OJ' h,,~e taller ,-height,. Mrs Eave, has" low waist and a small body.

9/-12 MRS F.AV HS"f

Every typeface wants to know: "Do T look Fat in this paragraph?" It's all a matter of context. A font could look perfectly sleek on screen, yet appear bulky and out of shape in print. Mrs. Eaves has a low wa i st ~ nd a sm a] l body.


The drfuulll'ype size In r1WIIY "ifi.1V'1r~ applications is 12 pis. Alilioug/' Illis g"Jleraliy ,,'cules rt,udable type orr s.'·~m displ"ys, 'J2'pl text. IYfl~ rtsJ"'Uy IDDks big [wa IlDrs",), mo Ii ptinled peg",

(12 pIS is" good siu for cl,i!dl"erl·s uooks,) Sizes helween 9 WLd JT pis Me COI1l'"011 for primed text. This C(1I,tio" is 7,) pis.

1 \




ZEITSCHI~ll''I' I"DH FrlM (l\fl,GAZI NI" 1'01< F'[lf.,·l)

MOgOli ne, r~ 98-~oo3 Designer: Gerwi 11 Schrn idt

This ,r,ago2,n, i,I crf'UI,d b)' nnd forfilll'J al'rector.s. TI1C COlrtrast ""I,","" II .. big ifP' "fill lite 5,,,aii pagt;;,s cr~at·f.5 drnmll nnd 'Surprise,







JASIl!Ht ..\10nRISON:

I~V[iRYTHrNG BUTTH,E \"'I'LLS Book. 2002

~ook designers: 1"'r"T 1 v 10Tl;''''-'. L"T~ M ullcr, Molild" 1'1<*1

1'" blis he-r: Lor, ~llillet Cappellini siure windows designed hy jasper Morrison PilotOgT"pl" Dan Meyers T}I}wgrt'1Jhp is rwlizt'd at (.1J'l 'Irbatl 5'(;J11~ il') JrlJ'~ stonif1·oI1J ~re:l1lf;fl by the il1dwiJriai designu J(1,~pi:r J\ .. rOrriSDtL The l:."(i5lil'Jg nrduieaure rl~tfrmiHt5 the size and pCJdHg Df lh~ men 11 mr.:t11al Iellm.


TY-P E ClASS] FICA Tl 0 N A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century. when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. ll·unsitionrll and modem typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque. and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Historians and critics of typography have since proposed more finely grained schemes that attempt to better capture the diversity ofletterforms. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create newtypefaces based on historic characteristics.

:Aa IAa Aa




[":JUMANJ's'l OR OLD STYLE Tile rOllr"" tj'p~jili;"S oJlhe }lflccrrtlr ami sixl~C!f1/1 centuries ~IJJldal"d. elmsical cnIJigrap"I·. Sabml IV05 rbigrtt"rll!r

Jm' JkhidloJd 1/1 '966, JJfl5d all Ille si"JI"·'ltll-Cell~IIll'

I f'wjaces of eh" I de Crt! ru II Dl1ri.




J I u [~l' A N I S T 51\ ~ So S I.! I{ .I F

Sp "He I-if I r"pcfi'c~s h~mm~ WJJlll1011 in ttu: twentieth. ,"n/llf}"- Gill SMIS, df~iglled by Eric Gill in 1928. JI05 Irrmwlfisl thnracieristits. Nole lire s",[(il, lillirlg coUliler ill II,e leiter J, ""'/ j!J~ ralligmrllic varinlior" ill lin« weigilt.


Ti,es" l}'p~Jim:s IlOve shcrpcr serifs alia n I'l"HJrr.: vr.;tt.jca~ axis 11'10/1 IrrfFfrrrllislidlcrs. \~'hm the jiJrrl.1 Df.lolll1 BMhrvii/'l L['fre il1l.-o[/II"«1 ill 1/1,· fllid-eigillalflll celllll!")!. II,err suarp [orms "ml Iligll wnlrast wao c;omi.daed slLockillg.

TH,.\NSIT[ONAL SANS SnUTr. rteiveiu», rh;,ign~d II), Max J"lIlit·dinger in .1957, is IIIl" oj

tlw world's 17I0SI ",idely IIsed l),p'10CI;.I. lis Iwifmm, !.i,prigJ,! charaaer lI1uk<s il silililar 10 Imll5ifiolluJ serifJellas. Tires" jimls {ire "I,m nji; • .,.,:d 10 (IS '''anollymOLjS sans 5i:.TiJ. 'I


Ti,e IYJl'ICIt"' r/esiglfcd bl' GinlllbotlislCl Bodolli ill Ihe lau: cigllt~fIllJ. curd earl~' Ililldem/iJ w'llllI"i", "r" Im/i'-Qlly nb.\lmcl. Nolt·IIr,·lltifl, slmiglll serifi; L"i'rJicLl/ axis: CHrri slwrp nm{ms~ fr"om Illirk 10 Illill 511·u~,·'.



IGYPTlt\ N OR S LI\U S E! IU r ,\'11))11"[·0"5 bold mrd uaol"rt I iv" l}-/lojilt;cs w"r,· ilf/rodllcrri ill Ii,~ IIint"it:t:IlI/: ,":lI/III)'JOI· lise ill wivcrtisillg. EgFJJ) inJi Ionls Jim'" Ile(,")" sia/lllh s<riJs_

r;:I!O~lE:r'J{lC ~ANS Sl~'IUr- 5011 He suns-sen] I r'IJF~· Cite jill ill around geollleirir [orms.

./" Flftll/"a, d,'-'ig,,~d V)I Paid RI'''''':/" in '927. the 0; a r ~ Wlji;,:t cin;Jes. m.d lI,e Jleaks afl/If! A alld 1',,1 arc slImp In"nHgles.




14-11T H/\SKEllVILl.c




Gill Sans



TILis is not a book about foms. It is a book about bow to use rhem. Typefaces are esscnria 1 resources for rile graphic designer, i ust as glass, stone, steel, and other materials arc employed b)' the architect. 9/12 SABON

This is not a book about fonts. II is a book about huw to use them. Typefaces are essential resources for the graphic designer, just as glass, Slone, steel, and other materials arc employed by the architect. 9/12 1l."~I<ERV1LLE

This is not s huok about Iorus. h is a book uhout how lu 1I se I hem. '(y pefaces are esscul ia I reSOIlI'f:P,S r or I. he graphic designer. just as gl~ss, slune, steel, anrl other materials are eruployed by Ihp, architect.

':)'5/[3 BonON r IIOOJ{

This is not a book about fonts. It is a book about how to use them. 'JYpefo.ces are essential resources for the graphic designer, just as glass, stone, steel, and other materials 01'e employed by the architect. 8112 CLAIUNlJON LIGHT

This. is not a book about fonts, It is it book about how

[0' use them. Typefaces are essential resources for the graphic designer. just JS glass, stone, steel, and other

materials are employed by the architect.


9/12 c t i.i SANS REGULAR

This is not a book about fonts. It is a book about how to use them. Typefaces are essential resources for the graphic desiqner, just as glass, stone, steel, and other materials are employed by the architect.

8/12 n r tvurrc» l!EGUL.'"

This is not a book about Fonts. It is 0 book about how to use Ihem. Typefaces are essential resources for the graphic designer, just as glass, stone, steel, and other materials ore employed by the architect.

8.5/12 FUTU~A uoo x


Selecting typ~ with wit und wisdom

req LI i res knowledge of how and why Jerrerforms cvol ved:


Selecting lyl''' with wit and wisdom re'luire, knowledge of how and why lettcrforms evolved.


~[-IIe-"'~lLllt 1},I~c with wil iI_fIJ w i:;~ 10m "''I"iI1:5 knowledge "," hul\' "",I why lcncrlorms ~,,:~,!)I""P41,


Seh:~c:1._lng- tYPC"1 wf th '."",i1. nno wtsdom requj res knowledge or how and w"hY leUp.rFof'lns evolved.


Selec[ing [ype with wir. and Wisdom

re q ui res know ledge of how and why lcttcrforrns evolved.


Salecllng type with wit and wisdom requires knowledge ot how and welY letterform'i evolved.

Selecti og Iype with wil and wisdom requires knowledge of how ond why lettarlorms evolved.



T~\"'~: Jum' (1g_g'-e5Jirm. QUI1SnON: J'I1In- t'1J;.8f'f!Jrif)/l.

RE~IOVH no/l"'" the "Olllpa,,), ,{",Ix,:r, WALl{ wrru n: to

(1 fin"nlt.'~IJ' plm!!. AI.ONI:: Yd. ~t!rt'J~'. LEAV~ rr: lOuler rt ,~r<'" wid< Jk.)'. <-"/"'Jed, IIIJ<rrI, Do N01~ l11I1J' it. 0.., NOr. Ii"" with iI, N~VI'H: ill JOIIl' h.lIi~ NOT hi )""11' lifo, JT I~:

IJiral. TT GRO\'(/S~ like a Ihr1d(JIt~ \'1~ MUST: {tlflJI it mUdjl,



\1f E \'(/ I LL

00 FOun THiS "EAR

LinTEl! 144


~'l aga,zi 11E cover, 2002 Designer and editor:

Dave Eggers

This mogazine co,w (iSes fll" Garamond 3 t}'p~(ace Jalilily ill IlariNIS sizes, AllllOugl, 1/," typefm:. i,l d(JS5ic~1 ami CQIISe}Vatt'vc, the obses ilJ~. -,Iigllfl)' d~rang,d ia)'ollt is dislil1<;Jiy COFlkmpQrary,


LE1TER 145


AdDbo Coml/lDfid wr" desigfled by Robert SlimbaGh ill 1988,

The idea of organizing typefaces into matched families dates back to the sixteenth century, when printers began coordinating roman and italic faces. The concept was formalized at the turn of the twentieth century.

The roman font is the core or spine from which a family of typefaces derives.

ADO [H. GARM .. tO N U REG LJ l.A l{

TiL~ em",,,, _{imll, "Iw wllcd "plai"" Or "n;gul",~" i5 1/", slal1dard, flprigla vcr.,ioJL oJ" tyP'ifilf'''' II is Iypiwtly "ol1ceived as Ihe parcn; oj a larger fim.ily.

Italic fontj~ which are based on cursive writing, hauejorms distinct from roman.


Yr." ilalic form i, no; simply" ",",,!Junjwlll' .dafllcd version vJt"e rm""'" il is {I '~t"'ra!e tYfl,jim:. Nato Iilal lile Ieller" lI"s" d!fT~renl s/lnpO i.1l Ih,! /'Om"" I1lld ilil/i,; IJarl"nls aI Ae/obc C,,,wIIOltd,



Small I.'p.1 (cnpitaf'J Hr<- d,:siglll'd 10 i,lIfgmle loil/! n /ille of lex I, L"IIer.:jilfl·slzf mpil"ls worM stau[i 0lI1 "wkwardlf', Srrml! mpilrds are sfigl,tl f' tQfI~r Ij,o 11 II", x·ilcighl ~1'I(JL.v,:rW5" 1,11"1''',

Bold (and semi bold) typefaces are used for emphasis within a hierarchy.


Bold versiarrs o{lrmiiUorrnllcxl)imll wen: adtted ill II" tw"nlit:tll Wllur]! /0 ""'clll,, llcedlor l.mplllllicIor-ms. SallS,smffnmilie.< olim illclj/d~ a iJroad "'''ge (1w~igl'I" (I/,in. bold, black, 'IL),

Bold (and semibold) typefaces each need to include an italic version, too.


TI.,; typ"/ac:e d.:sig"er /,"0, 10 make Iho Ilald ,usions.frel ,<,miial' in contrast 10 lire 1'O",,,n, witlvou: ma):ing II.e ,wemfl./imll loa Ir"HVr" TI.e cO..\lIllers ""I;d 10 slay cieor arrd OP"" nL 5111<'11 sizes.

A full type family bas (WO sets of numerals: lining (123) and non-Lining (123).

Unittg nlllncftlls on:llpr tc.lllfOrln H"i15 of Iwri;:oJltal SrJClCf, S(I 11111/ lI,e IIIIInl>;:r.< Ii,," lip ,"!-1m ILS['(! ill lalwlaler! wltlnTPIs.

J\'OI1·lilJillg ILwllemls, Cr/S" ,,,riled "I~xl" Dr "Qld ,tyll'" mWI"""ls, Iwvt' "51111111 Ilody sizl; pilI.' nsrerrricrs llnd (/e;cr.Jllkr.<. sa llrat IItI'V mix well all (' lille Ivilir /o,mrcMt' it'llt:rs.

A type family CAN BE faked by sJaJ1dng, or inflating, or SHRINKiNG letters.





TYPl! C1!IJIIIE: l'S~LJl)O S~'I\.'LL Ci\I'S.

TlJrSC sl,mllkclL ""rsiollS oJ]u/l·slo;" WI'S Olle 1'"Pry alld slmwri,

P;5FLJDO !]"/I,UCS Tile wick IIlIgnil.ll' forms of II1e5r skew",! icuer: loole forced rmd I,,,,,nluml,

r-s L! U UO BOLl") I'",jd~d (lI'Olllid tl," "dgcs, I/IeSO leiters /~d /,1[[11; nnd ./i.I/.



Desigll"d by LHCrlS Ii. Crool, [uens 1'011 ts, 1994 TI,esis is Oll~ ~r Iile wo")d's laJ'g"II-yp~ Jill/Jili,s.

This is not a book about fonts. It is a book about how to use them. Typefaces


regard to the audience or situation.


are essential resources for the graphic designer, just as glass, stone, steel, and

Til ESIS Sf< RI F ~'"1J1 UM IT,\ i.rc


of-typography reflect~~ continual tension between the hand and machine, the


organic and geometric, the human body and the abstract system. These tensions




Tf-rt:SI5 s r ur r ~fED1UM SMALL CI\PS

their own custom fonts. But most

TI-lESI> SIRtr lILAC[{ llO~'''N

graphic designers will tap the vast


store of already existing typefaces,

"rHES15 5ERrF BOLD ]{O~L\N

choosing and combining each with

TH ESlS SI!RI f r.:F 1\.1] 80 LD JlOll.l,\}J

r+r as I S s ... \ N S MTI DI ~r "" rr .. '\ LJ C

Selecting type with wit and wisdom


requires knowledge of how and why

Tl-l ~.sIS. S.ERIF' i.ic rrr ROMj'\N

letterforms have evolved. The history



energize typography today. Writing

'r rr r s r s SANS nLl\CK no .... ·fAN

in the West was revolutionized early


in the Renaissance, when Johannes

Gutenberg introduced moveable type

TI-l ES [S S_!\ NS Sf: ",r I BO LD t{OJo,.li\X

in Germany. Whereas documents and


books had previously been written by


hand, printing with type mobilized all


of the techniques of mass prod uctlon.

ru nsrs SAX~ EXTRA LlGII'I J{Of',·lAN


Interstate Light

Interstate Light Compressed Interstate Light Condensed Interstate Regular Interstate Regular Compressed Interstate Regular Condensed Interstate Bold

Interstate Bold Compressed Interstate Bold Condensed Interstate Black

Interstate Black Compressed Interstate Black Condensed



Scala Italic SCALA CAPS Scab Bold

Scala Sans

Scala Sans Italic SCALA SANS CAPS Scala Sans Bold Scala Sans Bold

,l,lllrli,c, M'Jjoor's Swla, III,;d lium'glw"lli1is book. began "' " ,"rif typo/'w. Aclajoor Imer (1(1<1"11 " snnss~rir 5uv{n /IIil)' as wdlllS nH omam~1l1a1 'j~lV~f' sel c MajoQr" rliagmJJj avo""

silo"" I,"," )1", ,~rif (mil "'JlS!~rlf JOrl~5 11rH't' n wm mnn spine.






.. J_.·.! .... ~ .. ijbll!nll"ll U •
\If'''"_ ... u1''''III~ '-", i~i
U 't
~I __ ..... _.wa~'" ilL II ... H" I,
U :'J
1J .... "bld.,. __ ... oII II'
U If!
""_' ___ 'I"OIHIIA-l' '!I,'II'"~~ I. UN I V EJ(S urts designed bl' II~e Swiss Iypogrnp/,u Adriall Fn,tig"r ill '957c He rI"igFl~d 21 vcrc1iD>1S ofUJ1i"",;, i"fiV" ",eigi' Is ~fldfi"~ ,vhlliis. Wlr"r~ns 'UnltY t'fpographic families groll' Dt,,,'liJ,,t ns they hero"," pop"I[I'; Ulli,'",~ was cOJ1c<,illed as a la/a/ syslell1 from its illceptioll.

A traditional roman book lace typically has a small family-a "nuclear" group

.., consisting of roman, italic, small

caps, and possibly bold and sernibold (each with an italic variant). Sans-seri f families often come in many more weights and sizes, such as thin, light. black, compressed, and condensed.

In the 1990s, many type designers created families that include both serif and sans-serif versions. Small capitals and non-li fling numerals (a courtesy traditionally reserved for serif fonts) are iucluded in the sans-serif versions of Thesis, Scala, and many other big contemporary families.


M ERCU R,,( BOLD SMALL C,\ [IS Proofzooj

Designer: [onathan Hoefler,

The Hoefler Type Foundry Men'l'!I)' iI designed Jor mod~rll newspaper prodl!C(iol1-jmt, higil"allilne pJil1(ing 011 dlearJ p"pef.

TIle notes rnQ rkr-d on III is proo(, whicll shows saJJJple letters ji-Oln jmt Ol1e va.rimr! oJlhe "ast ,1,1ercllry jnrniJji. COJlIf!1ent OIl ~crythi"g from the wid/II or weight of a. tetra /0 llie size usid siJaI'" of a sen].


LETr£R I 4 9

Per more than five hundred years, typeface production was an industrial process. Most type

was cast hom lead until the rise of photo typesetting in the 19603 and I970s; early digital typefaces

(also created in that period] still required specialized equipment for design and production. It was not until the introduction of desktop computers that typeface desi~n became a widely accessible field.

By the end of the twentieth century, digital "type foundries" had appeared around the globe, often

run by one or two designers.

Producing a complete typeface remains, however, an enormous task. Even a relatively small type family has hundreds of distinct characters, each reg uiri 11 g man y p base's of ref nerne nt, The typeface designer rnu st a I so determine how a Fon t is to be spaced, what software platforms it will use, and how it will function in different sizes, media, and languages.

rAS VEGll"S: CAS'1'AI,):..';\YS

Drawing ami finished type, 200] Art and type dirccrinn: Andy Cruz Typeface design: Ken Barber

Font engineering: Rich Roat House Industries

CnlllltUO)'l" i,from tI series afdigitaI filllts ba,l~d Oil c(IPlJI,·,orcial SIg,« in Las vegas. Ti,e Driginal signs wem creotcd br' iettfTing anist: 111110 work~d by 1"1(111,1 10 rnak~ ellSlom gmpnics and logol. [-[OI'S" ["rlustri"S is a digil.al lypeJoumil}' IhQI r.reales tYIJefaG<s inspirr.d b}'popldQr wlll<1"~ mal design" iS/~ry. Desigll~r Ken Barb"/" make, pencil draIvillgs by hand Gild then digitizes the outlines.


'rHE LOCUST (I.EFT) AND MELT 1I,'NANA (RIGHT) Scrccnprint posters. 2002 Designer; Nolen Strnls

ND t a II ieuer« are typ agraphic. I-I and lelteri IIg rema i m a "ibran t force ilt gmphie d"ig", as sew ilt these pmtus

fa r Ballim ore mas ic "vents. Hand Iellerillg is also rite b~;is of maHY digital typefaces, bllt there is noll,ing qllitc I1S potent as II", recl/thing.



Johannes Hubner



I nlo rrnafi on 5 - un d Funktechnik

Tel 0351-4272181 Fax 0351-42721 91 Funk 0172-3513564

BunaustraBe 21 01109 Dresden

www.johannes-huebner.de mail@johannes-huebner,de

LErnR I 52.

1-:1 un:XE:R

Identity program, ]998 Designer: [ochen Stankowski

This idmtily Jor all el1gi"uringji.rm r,se, the letter H as Q tmdflilark. Th<: 1'.-opOl"liOl1' of tire mark change i" diffm: n t Co ,,/oxt,.



LOGOTYPES use typography or lettering to depict the name of all organization in a memorable way. Whereas some trademarks consist of an abstract symbol or a pictorial icon, a Jogol;ype uses letters to create a distinctive visual image.

Logotypes can be built with existing fonts or with custom-drawn letterforms. Modern logotypes are often designed in different versions for use in different situations. A logotype is part of an overall identity program, which the designer conceives as a "language" th~t lives (and changes) in various circumstances.


TH" NOG lICH I MUSEUM Logotype, loo4

Designers: Abbot! Miller and Jeremy Hoffrna 11 , Pentagram

The sirles DJa s~"are /wue I,"en geFlI!~ cOl"ltol.lred in reJ~rcnc" to tile wm'k of tsamti J\'oglJciti, I1lHlJesake oflhe Nag"r:r,j Mm.um. 1'1," COllcnV< square cOOl·dina/e., w;lh II,e t)'pefi'cc Bel/alice. "sed in the lo~ot).'l'e, wili£/t ,,1.<0 has .IoJlly wIved eIL'mrt;llts.


RACHi::L CO:!-1EY Logotypes, 2003

Designer: Anton Ginzburg T/,,,-," iogotr-pesfor ,,/ashion d,sig"er 1l.I" Iradit.;oNol /,tletfOI1nS ill n COtrlemlJOmrl' I11n""Ol". Wn"t;f!g the d~!;Wlc""s 'lame in Iml!erCa5~ /~tl"'~ soflms ti,ofof"lnalil"J' oJIII" das.,i,: scripl charllCi'!"s, IV/""[o Iii" wpital Imcr M if! '"coMer" jl~'ects tl,e najJle with CUI dc:.f1H~nt of sUr'p"i.'if._


Ii t!





LETnl! 15G

~itrnap fonts arB designed for digital display.

~ i t m a ~ fonts are a e s i ~ n e a for 0 i ~ ita Ilj i S ~II a~l at a s ~ e c i fi c s i l e.

Bitmap fonts are designed for digital display. lntmaj fonts are desig-ned for digital display.

mtmap fonts are oesigned for oigital displa'~ at a specific sileo

Bihnap lunts are desiqned for digital display' at a sllecific size.

LO~ IH~ 1:-'1\.\1 LLT' Dr:;sigl1fd b}l ZU2t:1fW Lidw for Emigre; 191~5

Till"" bilmap jim)" illCOrpoml" Lirko's anli",. Emigre. Emperor; Oakland, and lIlliveJ'sal Jon! ji.1I11iJ',:s.

Bitmap fonts are designed for digital display at. a specific siz e ,

Bitmap fonts are designed for digital display at specific size. Bitmap rO'of"s are designed ror di!liml dlSpla!l at" a specific size.

8'lJU'I' PJ'xI:U,A I.:.IiGUL,Ab:, n,..vuc:', LlOLJJ, /\ND (]OLD IT ....... LlC Dcsign"d U)' el,,,I"r fU,. Tllir'typ~, 200J

Bitmap fonts are designed for digital display at a specific,:, size.

Bitmop fonts nre designed for digital displog ot 0 specific size.

Bitmop fonts ore designed f ar digitol dispJog ot a specific s iz e , Bitmap fonts are designed for digital display at a specific size.

Bitmap fonts are designed for digital display at a specific size. Bitmap fonts al"e designed fol" digitol displag ot 0 specific size_

Bitmop fonts ar e designed f nr digital dispJog ot t;I specific size.

/I. r-r F F F co R Po. R n E De,iglJcd iI)' Woli~r Apa i for /°011 isjar Flo,/ r, 200.;

These ji,"fs m', de'igl1ed sl,,'cijicali)' ro «'01'1: .villlllle MarroJ)lcdia Flml, "wilililcrii11IlLllilor-irrg "I'I'I'"lI.io"-



B rnIAP FONTS are built out of the pixels

[picture elements) that structure a screen display. Whereas a PostScript letter consists of a vectorized outline, J bitmap character contains a fixed number of rectilinear uni ts tha tare either "on" or "off."

Outline fonts are scalable, meaning [hat they can be reproduced in a high-resolution medium

such as print at nearly any size. Outline fonts are often hard to read on screen at small sizes, however, where all characters are translated into pixels. (Antialiasing can make legibility even worse for small text.) Til a bitmap font. the pixels do not melt away as the letters ge [ bigger. Some designers like to exploit this effect, which calls a uentlon to the letters' digital geometry. Pixel fonts are widely used in both print and digital media.


8 pH Corporate

22/05/0:::; 13: 12 01
000000 ffOO9ft BED.l
· .. '<'111 ,'1..1
WF'DGRAFIE 'C"t:'" 71:"
TVF'DGR{:JF I E 32.00
TVF'[IGRI',F IE 37.70
SUE:TOTAL 520.15
8TW LAAG 29.44· 16 pH Corporate

24PH Corporate

32p" Corporate


13Q 520m :1.5

DOH ANTII;tUf.l~:IAAT lrEL:02D-6203980 F A~l: 02Q--639329lr

/I. vi/lllal' [on; is riesigl",llo be "led at " specifio size . such as S pi."cls. bewule its /Jori), is pr.:c',,<ly coH.IIrHcted orl( oJ sc rt'" Il liIt!tS. A bi.lmap Jiml '/lOu/d bo d"plared Orl st:rem ill eveu '!H,I/iples ~r it., root size le"lalgt' 8-px II'/!" 10 ,(j. "-I, .12. [rl.'d .'0 "u).

"'IlI0F I< LEE Recei pl. Z003

Titi5 w,l, )"egilt"" receipt. pri,,'kn will! a bitmap Jim!, is from a design and tyl'ogmpll ~ bDDkstDro in Amslud"m. (Ti," Qrrlhor is stiJI in debl from Ihis tmnsnr.riol1.)

Create a prototype for a bitmap font by designing letters on a grid of squares. Substitute the curves and diagonals of traditionalletterforms with rectilinear elements. Avoid malting detailed "staircases," which are just curves and diagonals in disguise. This ex~rcjse looks back to the 1910,S and I920S, \ .... hen avantgarde designers made experimental typefaces out of simple geometric parts. The project also reflects the structure of digital technologies, from cash register receipts and I.E D signs to on-screen font display, showing how a typeface functions as a system of elements.


fXillllpJ"S o{sWderrf work from Marylaild Imlil.lIle Col/'Be aJArt













Typographic installation in Crand Central Station, New York City, 1995

Designer: Stephen Doyle

Client: The New York State Division of Wornen Sponsors: The New York Stare Division of Women, the Merropolitan Transportation Authority, Revlon.

and Merri II Lynch '




:1 I

socr El'Y Poster, 199 G

Designer: Hayes Henderson Rill/,a thai, ""present q'iJerspa ce as "" ell ''"''"tIl grid, II," designer lras wcd blorcHes oj Qv"rlapping lexi to blli/d 1111 DJl1iIlQL<S, looming bud}"


In typography, "text" is defined as an ongoing sequence of words, distinct from shorter headlines or captions. The main block is often called the "body," comprising the principal mass of content. Also known as "running text," it can flow from one page, column, or box to another. Text can be viewed as a thing-a sound and sturdy object-or a fluid poured into the containers of page or screen. Text can be solid or liquid, body or blood,

As bod}" text has more integrity and wholeness than the elements that surround it, from pictures, captions, and page numbers to banners, buttons, and menus. Designers generally treat a body of text consistently, letting it appear as a coherent substance that is distributed across the spaces of a document. In digital media, long texts are typically broken into chunks that can be accessed by search engines or hypertext links. Contemporary designers and writers produce content for various contexts, from the pages of print to an array of software environments, screen conditions, and digital devices, each posing its own limits and opportunities.

Designers provide ways into-and out of=-the flood of words

by breaking up text into pieces and offering shortcuts and alternate routes through masses of information, From ~ simple indent (signaling the entrance to a new idea) to a highlighted link (announcing a jump to another location), typography helps readers navigate the Dow of content. The user could be searching for a specific piece of data or struggling to quickly process a volume of content in order to extract elements for immediate use. Although many books define the purpose of typography as enhancing the readability of the written word, one of design's most. humane functions is, in actuality, to help readers avoid reading.


English, thirteenth century Walters Ms. W,TD2, fol. 33v Collection of the Wolters Ali Museum, Baltimore

. I11~ monk is climbing lip tlu: sid,: of /'/11: p"g~ 10 r"pl",c~ " picc~ oJ fimlly ),;.'<1 will, II,e COJT~CI"d Ii nr i" Iii" bo /Iv" ltwrgin.

TEn I G5

Marshall MCLUilJIl,

The Grllmbug Ga/l1zl' (Toronto: U [livers ity of Toronto Pres>. 19(2)-

On the future of intellectual property. see lawrence Lessig, .Frr;r; Cuillm: r low Big Media

U~C5 TedILLoiog)' afld the Law 10 toek DOWI) ClliluF'Ll Lwd (()[J!roi Crt'(Jtivit)' (New

YorL Penguin, 2004),


Typography helped seal the literary notion of "the text" as a complete, original work. a stable body of ideas expressed in an essential form. Before the invention of printing. handwritten documents were riddled with errors. Copies were copied [rom copies. each with its own glitches and gaps. Scribes devised inventive ways to insert missing lines into manuscripts in order to salvage and repair these laboriously crafted objects.

Printing with movable type was the first system of mass production. replacing the hand-copied manuscript. As in other forms of mass production, the cost of setting type, insuring its correctness, and running a press drops for each unit. as the size of the print run increases. labor and capital are invested in tooling and preparing the technology, rather than i.n rnaki ng the individual unit. The pri nting system allows editors and authors to correct a work as it passes from handwritten manuscript to typographic galley. "Proofs" are test copies made before final production begins. The proofreader's craft ensures the faithfulness of the printed text to the author's ha ndwritten original.

Yet even the text that bas passed through the castle gates of print is inconstant. Each edition of a book represents one fossil record of a text, a record that changes every time the work is translated, quoted. revised, interpreted, or taught. Since the rise of digital 'tools for writing and publishing, manuscript originals have all but vanished. £lectronlc rEd.~il1jl:g is replacing taE hierogl)'l'Jhics of tfle eEliter. Oil-line texts can be downloaded by users and reformatted, repurposed, and recombined.

Print helped establish the figure of the author as the owner of a text. and copyright laws were wri tten in the early eighteenth century to protect the author's rights to this property. The digital age i.s riven by battles between those who argue, on the one hand, fOI' the fundamental liberty of data and ideas. and those who hope to protect-sometimes indefinitelythe investment made in pu blishing and authoring content.

A classic typographic page emphasizes the completeness and closure of a work, its authority as a finished product. Alternative design strategies in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries r~f1ect the contested nature of authorship by revealing the openness of texts to the How of information and the corrosiveness of history.

Typography tended to alter language from a means of perception and explora tion to a portable commodity. Marshall McLuhan, 1962



Designer: Richart! Eckersley

, A uthor: A vital Rouell

Com pcsitor: M ichael jensen Publisher: University of Nebraska Press

Photograph: Dan Meyers

This book. () philo,mphicaj slutir of writing as a rna/dial ItclmojOg}1 "scs ~'pograplty

10 emphasize th~ rilelorical argumml oJlfte IexL n,is spreaJ.Jor exam"le. is fructurcti by Iwogra)Jhic "rivers," spaces Iltal r;OllJ1ect lIertiwlly III WI.gh ~Iw I'age. Riv,,, vioiale Ille

CIIW, twified lexlMe Ilwl is a SQcreri goa./ withil' trnriilio"al Iypographic ,/esigl),



indcedcuuld 1 aim my:u'gllnlcnt:atsomc.sirlguI01r orotnmhc[:lmo!1g you whose proper name: r might

1,:h~:Slinu]on, furQJJl1l'le ,okllawi"g



kl1Ow~ And then, is muwing a propc.r name tanrammmr

someone!" (MG, 2). Ixrrid:, dcmonstrares for his pilrr thou

general strucru rc of the mark parti cipares in -:'I .'iPCLLh destined in ad-

vance ro addressees (11t;irimltm'ft:S) who arc ncr easily dCfc.rrnirlahk or

who, ;iI$ rJT as ill'.Iy possi t)1 c calculai jon j-~ C01'](COfllCd1 in ;:lIlY CJSi:: corn.

mand " grc.1t reserve of'indcrcrm ina rion, This i nvolvcs a Ia nguiJge or-

eraring as Hysrcm of marks: "Language, however, is only Ihoscsync:m5 uf11liJW that claim this curious tendency as

OnCOUflOl1g lhcirprtll"

my: rhcy JimultIl7u;(1J1sfy incline towards incrc<L.'iing the reserves of

random indetenninarion t.Lf 1~ItU IIlf the (aplldty for codiug and ovtr·

coding or, in other words. for control and self-regulation" (A1q 2.)1

We begin to discern how the simlllr:lncJ[Y of determining, coding,

and even superceding forms .. deep rocpcraucn with !ll..:

in l:!..ngmLbrt: toward aruicoding, or whnr Dcrnda 5C"LS as the:'

serves of random indcrcrminareness, This double-edged

must rcrnrmbcr, such a thing

regiJnMl 0J.5 it. W\.'TC; ncnschizcphrcni . c there be, •• Such corn petition bcrwcen

i.ndin.aco:n ;nN.«:dre, coding, "'"t...

languag,. if randomness and

code disrupts the 'IIcfysysrern:u:iciry of the :I1),stcm while it ,llso, bow-

ever, rcgul:ncs the restless, unstable intcrphy of the :..-y_~tcm.

W1UfC\lct irs sinl,rWarilY in this respcc~ the linguistic

these rt3CCS or marks would merely be, it scc.rns [0 me;

ticular "",mpic of the law of de,rnb;liz:lIio,,'; (MG, "!).

syslcmof just a parTt R1.1Y be

useful ro nore Jy of traces first place] sign ifying ro

d", Dcrri ita understands and marks, where L.1ing.1l.'lgc and in particular rhe broken what rn(Cllsibly Ii", h iddcn

language III terms prirnar~

concerns signs: in tfK::

"'ppmt of behind ir,

~'"' which ~ or rhe disoon-

nccricn be-tween signs and ",1.b'll.5- or signs a UtI refercn rs. Laing i:i

led to assume dlolatwcy of. sillgle, unique, localizable bur timid

presence-s-rather (Quid be securely This all tOO brief tingly reproduce

thilll.Jr.lCC or residual rnark-e-lroru where. it

dctc"~lincd who speaks, and ro whom,

o:olfsion'into u'My Chances, H which may UJ1wil-

the effect and trauma of-a chance encounter;

means [0 engage " dialogue between

miscdbyLti"g >"d,heo"csr.i,ed in

'PJ>=' II", Laing places his be" on

the. question turn by Derrick the- sustained

of -address For it now 'y>fcmaricil)' f.lI'lnd"" suggt'S[ lau-

of the 'Y"em whieh lawofdcsmbil;z3tio",i!9


elways nlrcady [0 Derrida docs not

srracr or much. In that 1 rhrow, corn L across tD

gillS. co be SCl:nU 10 wam mms.&Ui{Jffof I.ightohn ,iud been "ying makcecnracr

and L.ing had I',ut, u,>l. whose d~ili~ritrl the case wirhdirir rnotmcss wa J guagc were

"I"'<-CU.' n!lOb, structurally

"tlli.1J"Od]cr (uIIY"tri<>,bJc

as self or OUler ,d'l'I!O",",roil< the telephone ~ sound w.wcs: .I.i.~' 'em ill Ihougli i, .. be h:tlJ",in,m:d' (fi. II"Al1)rthing!h1: Wlm: on, timt. R",ul)"iI! or l<.r. E,,'l' wij, aed "''<ry'dtttd (om \\':Iy, Th!n "'J), Hemd< ~ The=ltmory "'0<:<1 gard"" r, , Wlcil)' of ~


Design is as much an act of spacing as an act of marking. The typographer's art concerns not only the positive grain of letterforms, but the negative gaps between and around them. In letterpress printing, eve!')! space is constructed by a physical object, a blank piece of metal or wood with no raised image. The faceless slugs of lead and slivers of copper inserted as spaces between words or letters are as physical as the relief characters around them. Thin strips of lead (called "leading") divide the horizontal lines of type; wider blocks of "furniture" hold the margins of the page.

Although we take the breaks between words tor granted, spoken language is perceived as a continuous flow. with no audible gaps. Spacing has become crucial, however, to alphabetic writing. which translates the sounds of speech i nto mul tiple characters. Spaces were introduced after the invention of the Greek alphabet to make words intelligible as distinct units. Tryreadingalineoftextwithouts pa cin gtosee howi mpo rtantith as become.

With the invention of typography, spacing and punctuation ossified from gap and gesture to physical artifact. Punctuation marks. which were used differently from one scribe to another in the manuscript era. became part of the standardized, rule-bound apparatus of the printed page. The communications scholar Walter Ong has shown how printing converted the word into a visual object precisely located in space: "Alphabet letterpress

printing, in which each letter WdS cast on a separate piece of metal. or type, marked a psychological breakthrou gh 0 f the first order.. .. Print situates wo rds in space more rele ntless I)' tha n writing ever did. Wli"tillg moves words from the sound world to the world of visual space, but pri nt locks words i n to

Walter Otl~. Oralil)' n"d position j tl this space." Typography made text into a thing. a material object

LiJemcy: Till TociJlloiogiziPig with known dimensions and fixed locations.

oJ!h~ WorrilLolldoll h I h I h

and New York: Methuen. T e Freno p i osop er [acques Derrida, who devised the theory

1981). sc also )Jcqlles of deconstruction in the I960s, wrote that although the alphabet represents

Dcrrida. OrGrml1~IrIJDlog)', sound. it cannot function without silent marks and spaces. Typography

trans. Gayatr! Chakravorty manipulates the silent dimensions of the alphabet, employing habits and

Spivak [Baltimore: Johns

Hopkins Ulli"ersily Press. techniques-such as spacing and punctuation-that are seen but not heard.

19761, The alphabet. rather than evolve into a transparent code for recording speech. developed its own visual resources. becoming a more powerful technology as it left behind its connections to the spoken word.

That a speech supposedly alive can lend itself to spacing in its

own writing is what relates to its own death. Jacques Derrida, 1976



In his essay "From Work to Text," the French critic Roland Barthes presented two opposing models of writing: the closed, fixed "work" versus the open, unstable "text." In Barthes's view, the work is a tidy, neatly packaged object, proofread and copyrighted, made perfect and complete by the ali of printing. The text, in contrast, is impossible to contain, operating across a dispersed

web of standard plots and received ideas. Barthes pictured the text as "woven entirely with cita lions, references, echoes, cultural languages (what language is not?). antecedent and contemporary, which cut across and through in a vast stereophony .... The metaphor ofthe Text is that of the network."

Writing in the 19605 and 19705, Barthes anticipated the Internet as a Roland B"~Le" "FrlHn \Vorl< to Text," ["'"wi

decentralized web. of connections.

Barthes was describing literature, yet his ideas resonate for typography, the visual manifestation of language, The singular "body" of

the traditional text page has long been supported by the navigational features of the book, from page numbers and headings that mark a reader's location to such tools as the index, appendix. abstract. footnote, and table of contents. These devices were able to emerge because the typographic book is a fixed sequence of pages, a bod>' lodged in a grid of known coordinates.

All such devices are attacks 011 linearity, providing means of entrance and escape from the one-way stream of discourse. Whereas talking flows in a single direction, writing occupies space as well as time. Tapping that spatial dimension-and thus liberating readers from the bonds of iinearity-e-is among typography'S most urgent tasks.

Although digital media are commonly celebrated for their potential as nonlinear potential communication, linearity nonetheless thrives in the electronic realm, from the "CNN crawl" 111at marches along the bottom of the television screen to the ticker-style LED signs that loop throngh the urban environment Film titles-s-the celebrated convergence of typography and cinema-serve to distract the audience from the inescapable tedium

of a contractually decreed, top-down disclosure of ownership and authorship.

Linearity dominates many of the commercial software applications that have claimed to revolutionize everyday writing and communication. Word processing programs, for example, treat documents as a linear stream .. (In contrast, page layout programs such as Quark XPress and Adobe inDesign allow users to work spatially. breaking up text into columns and

A text .. , is a multi- dimensional space in which a variety of writings, none of them original, blend and clash. Roland Barthes, 1971

M",i .. rre:d. trans. Stephen Heath (New York: Hill .1l1d W31lg. "977), ]55-64.

Database and narrative are natural enemies. Competing for the same territory of human culture, each claims an exclusive right to make meaning of the world. Lev Manovich, 2002

On the linearitv of word processing, sec NJllc), Kaplan, "Bloke', Problem 'HlU Ours:

Some Reflections Ott I he IIllJge and the Word." Rwderly/Wrileriy Texl" 3" [Spring/Summer [996),125- On Powerf'oint. sec Edward IL Tulle, "Tile Cognitive Style of' I'ow~roinl." [Cheshire, COI\[I.; Graphics Pre,s. 200.,).

On lh~ arillel ics of the database, see Lev M:UIIlVi.-J" 7]" Langllage or Nelli Media (Cambridge: MIT r ress, 20>,2).

pages that can be anchored and landmarked.] PowerPoint and other presentation software programs are supposed to illuminate the spoken word by guiding the audience through the linear unfolding of an oral address. Typically, however, PowerPoint enforces the one·way flow of speech rather than alleviating it. While a single sheet of paper could provide a map or summary of an oral presentation, a Power Point show drags out in time across numerous- screens.

Not all digital media favor linear flow over spatial arrangement, however. The database, one of the defining information structures of our time, is an essentially nonlinear fonn. Providing readers and writers with a simultaneous menu of options, a database is a system of elements that can be arranged in countless sequences. Page layouts are built on the fly from freestanding chunks of in formation. assembled in response to user feedback. The Web is pushi ng authors, editors, and designers to work inventively with new modes of "rnicrocontent" (page titles, key words, alt tags) that allow data to be searched, indexed, bookmarked, translated into audio, or otherwise marked for recall.

Databases a re the structure behind electron i c ga mes, rna ga zines, and catalogues, genres that create all information space rather than a linear sequence. Physical stores and libraries are databases of tangible objects found in the built environment, Media critic Lev Manovich has described language itself as a kind of database, an archive of elements From which people assemble the linear utterances of speech. Many design projects call for the emphasis of space over sequence, system over utterance, simultaneous structure over linear narrative. Contemporary design often combines aspects of architecture, typography, film, wayfinding, branding, and other modes

of address. By dramatizing the spatial quality of a project. designers call foster understanding of complex documents or envi ronrnents.

The history of typography is marked by the increasingly scphisticated use of space. In the digital age, where characters are accessed by keystroke and mouse, not gathered from heal'}' drawers of manufactured units, space has become more liquid than concrete, and typography has evolved from a sta ble body of objects to a flexible system of attributes.

rnxr 170

erht -;



if!l,"rl~..'I:lll'!! -,


, -_


r ,lIi ... \'"

~ I 'II ~~ , I II I 1.~ ...








11 I Q,

·1 '


I nteraclive media, 200, Designers: Plumb Design Inc

Tltis digilall,heS1lunls pres",,!, wDrf/~ willli," n II!re.£-dimeI1sional web oj reiatiDnships. T11e cwlml Unn is linked to Hodes repre.,wting rflal word's dijj~ren, senses. The mot" conJlectimls w.cl~ oJrlle.1e mrellil<: 110des COitloi"" Ihe bi@a and closer it appears 011 the scrw,,- ClickiMg Olt a 5aI611.1'" word brings that 1,"1"111 10 Ih. C6111er.

'tEXT 17T

i J


C{WPJi{d~~ -

, .~ S

'-@ •


i unright i

a ~.

Succeeding the Author, the scriptor no longer bears within him passions, humours, feelings, impressions, but rather this immense dictionary from which he draws a writing that can know no halt. Roland Barthes, 1968





iI'Io Ir I c len r,;: e

Nothing pulls you I nto the territory between ~ri asul

!:rCi(:'mq~ qu iLeS11 ([lJit.:Kl~' IIH dL!'.!iign., It i.:!.llle borderline when:, con! rurliu! ions and tensions exia! hetween the qunntifleble und the poetic. IL is 1111' Field IJt.:l"'!~j·JI dttili1't..' and necessity. Designers thrive in those ('ondiliuns, muving Qeh,'t.'t!1"i lund nnri "'ti-

t\. 1\' licall'!l'iljque nl tl'~U1brook cun c!osily move 111 II umuerof'rninute .. between

ter. , .1 M .I. 1 " I M 1\ , I cpt) 0 • I ~

s discuesion nlthe nbject es a vnlidution or being to the preci .. e: urechanicnl proposal

foe ndU(llif"ls the Qhjcl;L 'Ibe discueo-iun I'f1C1Ve::l [rom Hr'int:E,ger In th.' "'!;1ntn~~t; muterini (if lhu week" or [rnru Lyouird to pdntin;s- 1t:;J.lntnlrIHiC3 without mi!i:!iilll:!, 0 bent. The Free flow of idene, lUld the leaps Irnru thu t~=dl!ltCHI I!I 11:18 myrhicul, H.t~1'I1 [rom the JUlcrnpllO mnintninu studin 1)10[. r~Jnll Llt~' 51Jp~,Hlri5 C/.H,II_I:1!llf!elll's s,L!,uITI. 10

D I , II ! t10 o !: 0 i t- i I Y

find hia or her own vnice as a designer. TJIt~ s,mlio is n hothouse tlmt c.:nn'JI~!';, students

Cd [OC111,), ur "":" their "\~'LL v;,i"", or.lhe "'LLcitl u~1rl nc! " 11'I~r:l- L1 1lror:ess l hul is utltmes chaotic, conflicting. and tll·f·H_l1,lfIonJ..llly IlISllln1I~" Watching the process of students ubscrbiug new idees and ill-


fluences, anrl L1U" incredible range or in- rerpretativus of thase ideas illlii design, is


nnannnal experiencc thi::l.l is always antaz- ing, In recent yefifs, fur example, the tie-

pnrtmont Ita_" had the e.~pt~rlt~J1r·eDfw:1lchtultwjlod cedtsmen meternorplrcse into high It,chnaiogists, and ~'-flpl,iL.: designers int(J !;'Inr!.'r'.'.L!Irtl hueaanisu. Yet it. all seems consistent. Tiley are bringing ~I ~er)' pet'. aonal vision In un arua l.inU desperately Deeds it. T!H: messiness of human C,l:pel'i.

Purl B • pi I IJ r a I I I!: l

euce is w.1nlliJlJ;:; up the cnld prC:L.:r:!lilJl1 of technology [{I muke i~ livuhle, and li .... ed in.

Unllke the Bauhaus, Oranbruok never embrecol u singular leaching method orphiloeophv, ether Iharl S.H.,~rll1tm~:iI exhortation 10 1"11ch s~1J~Ie.t"J1 to


find his. or her CHii:I',,"'UY? inthe c':IJfll\,)ftny of other art if!;1.J:; tl.!ld designers w111} were f"1'L-

~ged ill the sante search. Till! cI1r..rl;::'1 <tI Eranbmok eeerna to come from the fBc! of ~ n d I 'II d II u Ie e m m tr n g I t.he-UhJllJah;c!lrcll,althougIIIlDLthemutual conclusion. [I design is about life, ",h)'

shouldn't II. have £I11lb~ complexity, vari- ely, coutrcdictlon. find sublimity or life, Much of the work don. at Oranbrook has been dedicated

If! f'ha1.l_gjng tilt: C,tllWS quc.Jt i:!3 pnlcmicul, calculated to ruffledeelgnere' feathers. ,.lwd

D II .II Q. I • po f,I I r 1 gI g r !;Ii 1,1 •





Katherine McCoy,

P_ Scott Makela, ""U

Mary Lou K rch

Publisher: Rizzoli

Photograph: Dan Meyers Und,r Ilr. dim:1 io" of

Kulilerine and AJidwd McCoy, the gr~duar, program ill

gmplric ami ina(lslrial dosigll

a I C milo rook Aca de fit y oJ Art tVaS' a lendi~lg a~literJor experil1lerJJQ,1 1I.5i8" fro II I Ih~ 19705 Jhro"gh Ihe eUI'/r' 19905, Kitli<,ri lIe M [Cay rlevda p"d

a modd of"lypDgmphl' as riilCf)ur;e." in IV/lich Ille d''';gJ'"' alld reader aclhdy interpret. ~"mllilOr'" I~"I,


Roland Barthes' s model of the text as a n open web of re feren ces, rather tha n a closed and perfect work, asserts the importance of the reader over the writer in creating meaning. The reader "plays" the text as a musician plays an instrument. The author does not control its significance: .. the text itself plays (like a door, like a machi ne will) 'play') and the reader plays twice over, playing the Text as one plays a game, looking for a practice that reproduces 'it" (102). Like an in terpretation of a musical score, reading is a performance of the written word.

Graphic designers embraced the idea of the readerly text in the 1980s and early 199os, using layers of text and interlocking grids to explore Barthes's theory of the "death of the author." I n place of the classical model of typography as a crystal goblet for content, this alternative view assumes that content itself changes with each act of representation. Typography becomes a mode of interpretation.

Redefining typography as "discourse," designer Katherine McCoy imploded the traditional dichotomy between seeing and reading. Pictures can be read (analyzed, decoded. taken apart), and words can be seen (perceived as icons, forms, patterns). Valuing ambiguity and complexity, her approach challenged readers to produce their own meanings while trying also to elevate the status of designers within the process of authorship.

Another model, which undermined the designer's new claim to power, surfaced at the end of the 19905. borrowed not from literary criticism butfrom human-computer interaction (Hel) srudies and the fields or interface and usability design. The dominant subject of our age has become neither reader nor writer but user, a figure conceived as a bundle of needs and impairments-cognitive, physical, emotional. Like a patient or child, the user is a figure to be protected and cared for but also scrutinized and controlled, submitted to research and testing.

How texts are used becomes more important than what they mean.

Someone clicked here to get over there. Someone who bought this also bought that. The interactive environment not only provides users with a degree of control and self-direction but also, more quietly and insidiously, it gathers data about its audiences. Barthes's image of the text as a game to be played still holds, as the user respond to signals from the system. We may play the text, but His also playing us.

Design a human-machine interface in accordance with the abilities and foibles of humankind, and you will help the user not only get the job done, but be a happier, more productive person. lef Raskin, 2000

Graphic designers can use theories of user interaction to revisit some of our basic assumptions about visual communication. Why, for

exa m ple, are readers on the \Ve b les s patient th an reade rs of prj 11 t? It is commonly believed that digital displays are inherently more difficult to read than ink on paper. Yet HCI studies conducted in the late 1980s proved that crisp black text on a white background can be read just as efficiently from a

screen as from a printed page.

The impatience of the digital reader arises from culture, not from the essential character of display technologies. Users of Web sites have different expectations than users of print, They expect to feel "productive," not contemplative. They expect to be in search mode, not processing mode. Users also expect to be disappointed, distracted, and delayed by false leads. The cultural ha bi ts of the screen are drivi ng changes in design for print, while at the same time affirming print's role as a place where extended

I~ reading can still occur.




Another common assumption is that icons are a more universal mode of communication than text. Icons are central to the G VIs (graphical user interfaces) that routinely connect users with computers. Yet text can often provide a more specific and understandable cue than a picture. Icons don't actually simplify the translation of content into multiple languages. because they require explanation in multiple languages. The endless icons of the digital desktop, often rendered with gratuitous detail and depth, function more to en,force brand identity than to support usability. In the twentieth century. modern designers hailed pictures as a "universal" language, yet in the age of code, text has become a more common denorninator than images-searchable, translatable, and capable of being reformatted and restyled for alternative or future media.

Perhaps the most persistent impulse of twentieth-century art and design was to physically integrate form and, content, The Dada and Futurist poets, for example, used typography to create texts whose content was inextricable from the concrete layout of specificletterforrns on a page. In the twenty-first century, form and content are being pulled back apart. Style sheets, for example, compel designers to think globally and systematically instead of focusing on the fixed construction of a particular surface, This ,vay


Web users don't like to read .... They want to keep moving and clicking. Jakob Nielsen, 2000

TeXT 174

011 screen readability,

s~e John D. Gould 01 al.. "Reading from CRT Displays Co n Be as Fast as Reading From I'a per': /-Iwmm FaclDJ~, 29, 5 (19117): 497-5]7·

On Ule restless user, see [akob Nielsen, D,'signirrg \~{t'b UsnIJilily (I ndinna polis:

New Riders. 2000).

011 Ihe failure of interface iCOIlS, see I ef Rask: n,

The r'IW)lUJl~ /r'lelface: New Direc}roH'Sjor Designi'lg Ilrlalleliue Syslcrm (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 2000).

TU, I 75

On trausmcdia design

thi I iking , sec ~ reuda to urel, Ur<>p,'an EJ1tr"fiYel1wr [Cambridge: MIT Press,' 20m).

[efRaskin talks about the scarcity of human attention as well as the tll)'i h of wh i tc space ill Til" Humane lliterface: N,IV Dir'GJioll.1 for D~S"igni!:g lnlcractive SrSJt:flIS, cited on p. 74.

of thinking allows content to be reformatted [or different devices or users, and it also prepares for the afterlife of data as electronic storage media begin their own cycles of decay and obsolescence.

In the twentieth century, modem artists and critics asserted that each medium is specific. They defined film, for example, as a constructive language distinct from theater, and they described painting as a physical

. medium that refers to its own processes. Today, however, the medium is not always the message. Design has become a "transrnedia" enterprise, as authors and producers create worlds of characters. places, situations. and interactions that can appear across a variety of products. A game might live in different versions on a video screen, a desktop computer, a game console, and a cell phone, as well as on t-shirts, lunch boxes, and plastic toys.

The beauty and wonder of "white space" is another modernist

myth that is subject to revision in the age of the user. Modem designers discovered that open space on a page can have as much physical presence as printed areas. White space is not always a mental kindness, however. Edward Tufte. a fierce advocate of visual density, argues for maximizing the amount of data conveyed on a single page or screen. In order to help readers make connections and comparisons as well as to find information quickly, a single surface packed with well-organized information is sometimes better than multiple pages with a lot of blank space. In typography as in urban life, density invites intimate exchange among people and ideas.

In our much-fabled era of information overload, a person can still process only one message at a time. This brute fact of cognition is the secret behind magic tricks: sleights of hand occur while the attention

of the audience is drawn elsewhere. Given the fierce competition for their attention, users have a chance to shape-the information economy b)" choosing what to look at. Designers can help them make satisfying choices.

Typography is an interface to the alphabet. User theory tends to favor normative solutions over innovative ones, pushing design into the background. Readers usually ignore the typographic interface, gliding comfortably along literacy's habitual groove. Sometimes, however, the interface should be allowed to fail. By making itself evident, typography can illuminate the construction and identity of a page, screen, place, or product.

If people weren't good at finding tiny things in long lists, the Wall Street Journal would have gone out of business years ago. Jef Raskin, 2000


TYPOGRAPHY, INVENTED TN THE RENAISSANCE, allowed text to become a fixed and stable form. Like the body ofthe letter, the body of text was transformed by print into an industrial commodity that gradually became more open and flexible.

Critics of electronic media have noted that the rise of networked communication did not lead to the much feared destruction of typography (or even to the death of print). but ra ther to the burgeoning of the alphabetic empire. As Peter Lunenfeld points out, the computer has revived the power and prevalence of writing: "Alphanumeric text has risen from its O,VII ashes, a digital phoenix taking flight on monitors, across networks, and in the realms of vi rtual space." The computer display is more hospitable to text than the screens of film or television because it offers physical proximity, user control, and a scale appropriate to the body.

The book is 110 longer the chief custodian of the written word.

Branding is a powerful variant of literacy that revolves around symbols, icons, and typographic standards, leaving its marks on buildings, packages, album covers, Web sites, store displays, and countless other surfaces and spaces. With the expansion of the Internet, new (and old) conventions for displaying text quickly congealed, adapting metaphors from print and architecture: window, frame, page, banner, menu. Designers working within this stream of multiple media confront text in myriad forms, giving shape to extended bodies but also to headlines, decks, captions, notes, pull quotes, logotypes, navigation bats, alt tags, and other prosthetic clumps of language that announce, support, and even eclipse the main body of text.

The dissolution of writing is most extreme in the realm of the Web, where distracted readers safeguard their time and prize function Over form. This debt-of restlessness is owed not to the essential nature of computer monitors, but to the new behaviors engendered by the Internet, a place of sea rch ing and find in g, scan ni ng and mining. Th e reader, having toppled the author's seat of power during the twentieth century, now ails and lags, replaced by the dominant subject of our own era: the user, a figure whose scant attention is our most coveted commodity. Do not squander it,

Hypertext means the end ofthe death of literature. Stuart Moulthrop, ]991

nXT 76

On cleci ronic wri ting, see Peter Lunenfeid, SHOp ro Cn'd: A Usa's G~tidc 10 Digilill Arl.l, MrdhT, aPia Cull ~tn~S (C1Jll bridge: !vi IT Press. 200]): Jay David 13011(']", Writing Sima:

COJllp"tm, H},palex/, nlld II,,· R['lTIt>r/,'~Ii~H (II PriPii [Mahwah, NI: Lawrence Erlbaum Asscciates. 2001), 0I1d Stunrt Moulthrop, "You Say YOI J Wanl a Revel LL~Dl1! Hypertext and the Low,

of Media." TI,,: NI!J.IJ Medin Reader. ed. Noah Wardrip" Fruin and Nick Monfort

{Ca m bridge: MIT Press, 20031, 691-7°3.

TEXT 177

\11 ~~~ACK

r. t::REJ\lPJE. c,tmUtlmJ~

pnOFIL[S " PS£SEllTltlG " Ille " l0611<

~" uu, us " F.OS

07 :0-1 • S~p lll'lllll"'C:=1' J 8 • 2'083

r~P.w Upd51r;: fit anne r.('Jm'J.n~iI·' !t~,!; nlJ ..... etette I~I'.I

Ann J t~I)I1:IIJII,'r.

POl'ted by 0 l<,urtEia Saksl

16:37· SeptEmb~r 17· ~003

qenereflve ebetrecttone, I nterueuve cmpoatttore 11 esper-hnentel j nterfMC!I ~ trrmspnn-metto. ThanJ;~ Paul,

Posted by "0 Rhett Deahwood

16 :25 . SiI!P lembcf 17 . 2003 COflceptt,r1.uPl nee some ureot Flmr.rpt ert, rrom Mn1:B: greet Gi'lr'I:"OIJt ertlste.

Posted bv '0 Rhett De shwccd

l7:"l7· Sepb!:mb~r 16·288.)

Studl,) ~unlblr ia a desi"grl arJi!!nc.y estebueneo ln 1977. SDlid (~n)phiC d¢~i~n (but need 611tt1-c he! p \'/1 HI ~I te nI'll;·ig,dl'!.ln)

PDsted by 0 Rhett ~.ash~}ood

16:"'" . S!I!pt'ePlbf!'r 15·2003

5'N'f~t ann [o(Iwl::r·llrl~., 'Int:~ 20[1 I S1yll'b'()u!ll is releuncbed, r-edeatqred .. l"eboo1,:.d

f)osb!:d by tD Rh~~ D~,.hwood

H I::AVY Rr\CKr'ACK Web site, 2003

A celebrlltiml ofl'isual d<~ISjfy is '""11 i fI J II is sile II~~ r collecfs am] onnotetes lillks 10 other" sues.

be corpse of the Auatralopitheoua he had Illed lay nude before him, Using two flat tones, he made a cradle to hold his music, he thiok book of mysteries he had found

the weeds: Grant's r1natomy and Dissentor. e knelt down bsstde her, a cellist about to Do we not havo band arfor-m. Hold t1le soalpeJ like a cello how,

organa, dlmeualon ,rq, read, g:rippiI)_g a sharpened clam shell.

__ .¢l1 hen-a quick check against the diagram

.~ ""- -ii' th'e-book-he_p_r~~_~ed th'" ""'!Ill's point

; .. tnto the ape-woman's chest7 he flesh yielded

}. ~a8i1Y' blood oozing out no. Il,OI from a mortal

t unoture but with no nrfssure or urgsncy,

... ~ us though it was okaJ( and he continued his ~OW'8 strolm-thsj6w opening of a requiam-« p:aining OOnfide)lce aa he lengthened the ~noision toward her Mons VSllerjs (flg.rA'), He wiped t~l,{ sweat from his eyes, Since she ~as llloryiimian than a Neanderthal, he had IBxpected .her hide to be at least as thick as

B o~s so was surprised to find how much ike himself an Australopitheous could be.


~ 1/


-;Q _

I _-


1/ a:

, ~

He took a deep breath, then began a seeon ~

long cut, curving' around the other 16reas~i:'f then the navel, duplioating the patter ';f in the book till her torso was dominate '

by a brilliant red 1

... senses, nrfeottone, passion "I-

• !

As It said in Grant's. Square cut a '~uttOnhOl~ro we not, fod wnti lho

near her navel. HOOking a nnge;, through i]'amo (oocI, hill'! with 11'9 he pulled the skin of her torso up \"nd over hel~"me weapon", subject 1,0 face, Just as quick, she was traITl.lfigured before;he enrne diBolLBes?,,,

him: a shimmering anatomica,1 scu)'pture of rop~~

lI\_uooles, pink and red with striatioq:" of yellow fa , A scent of fresh meat wafted up, making hi

l rostrfls twitc , ("

In the book. tranaparens u'~"'l'lays, smoot

as membranes, presented tbe\body as layer~ where everything rhymed, and \urning a lea~, he wished it were that easy, His thumb lef~

a bloody smudge print o~o(ne stanza, ",divide the pleura, bBin\1tI'SfUl u.. ..



~y-~r \ 1/ ..i,.. ... ~'"

iJ,5,PAfENTrt{l, ~~~~ .7b~jl

'TIIAIIS&£.tW: A,tUIiA!. HO"n'" ~JHJ',:AI1H'\f{)RT 1l1!>£IL!I!:

~"I" ........ ~., ..... rt'.

':"H 5 QI!'"

VAS: AN OPER/\ rN FL,\TI,AND Bonk,2002

Designer: Stephen Parrell Author: Steve Tornasula Publisher: Station Hill Press, fn this 1)ljJvgropilJ'r. nove] about. jJosl-ge ~<,Ii(; r;i viiiza Ii 0 11, J exl! {lm./ imagi's align agaillsl a ~"ri~s {ifillillnde" illdsirrg Ihe oHIr.r margins, Ti" boldface /;:/IUS almlg Ih, flu,h edge of Iii" lext body "n,wlllal. Ihe colun", stn,cl"r~, Til" hook is pril1/(.d Ihl'OIIglior.<! if[ llil'ee colors IjI~sh, blood, and black}. Th. body of ItlXl is ,"xplon;'/ ns an opell svston.



Talzes two

sell, LJ\, \l'J'l'11 Kl:RN [Nc;. s u rPRESS ED

Spru;ing "ppC"'~ (lJJ " VeJ'! , wiJi" gnp' rm""uili1.; T mILl II'.

Takes two


Spacing sa",5 lI1or" even. ailimllgil some cluuucier» nearly 1011(;/'.

nearl y touch

SCI\L·\ [TAI.IC, W[TI-I KI..!t-.:NI NC SUrrRR$SF.U i\ gUj) "I'pears !Jetw""" Ill<; I ami y.

nearly touch

sc/"u .. J'T'ALlC, W1TJ-l KERN1Nc.:

1'11<: dWrIlclcri51ie il1lima'ji of italic rt1lrlirIJS kalling_




I 'I


rub my back

t '~



K ERN [NG lfletters in a typeface are spaced too uniformly, they make OJ pattern that doesn't look uniform enough, Gaps occur, for example, around letters whose forms angle outward or frame an open space (ViI, Y, V, T, L). Til metal type, a ketned Jetter extends past the lead slug that supports it, allowing two letters to sit more closely together. In the digital typefaces used today, the space between letters is controlled by a table of kerning pairs, which specify spaces between different letter combinations.



[<ERNING LARGER SIZES Because tbe space between characters expands as the type size increases, designer-s often fine- tune letterspacing when working with large letters . As the word "rub" gets bigger. the gap between u and b grows more obvious,

my back


TOO }..1UC1-f Sf1'ACE Mil1d 1/16 gap,

espr.i"Il!, a/larger SiZt!5.




TllACK1NG Adjusting the overall space between letters, rather than the space between two characters, is called tracking, also known as letterspacing, It

is common practice to letterspace capitals and small capitals. which appear more regal when standing apart, By slightly expanding the tracking across

a body of text, the designer can create a more airy field. Negative tracking is rarely desirable. This device should be used sparingly, to adjust one or more lines of justified type.






love letters love letters

LoweJ'cmc Idk'~ ,'espollt! I~s, jr.,vonlbly 10 ieHer;p"dlrg Ihllil rlv "PI'erw",r: irl),rs, Iwc~ use dlC)' Q "" dcsigm;d !(J Sillo!;Gli1a . il1l,'maldr' all a Ii",;.

~C:ALAt ROMAN /\N D l'[AUC" t.oos r TH ....... CICI NC

love letters love letters

SCI\ ll\, no M.A N AN JJ JTALJ C. NOH ~1Al_ 'l'1{ACKl Nr.


Letters do 101'<' one another, However, due to their anatomical differences, some letters have a ha rd time achieving intimacy. Consider the letter V. [or example, whose seductive valley makes her limb, stretch out above her base. III contrast, L solidly holds his ground yet fl. rbors a certain emptiness above the waist. t\ulolnated kerning tables solve these problems ill I nost situations. but some letters nI,IY require additional guidance at larger sizes. Capital letters, being squ;m" and conservative, prefer 10 keep a little distance [to,llllheir neighbors,


Letters do love one <11101 her. However, due to their anatomical differences, some letters have" hard time achieving intimacy. Consider the letter \" for example,

w hose sed uctive VOl llcy rna kes her limbs stretch out above her base. 111 contrast, 1 who solidi)' bold, his ground yel harbors J certain emptiness above the waist. Automated kern ing tables solve these problems in most situations. hut some Idlers may require personal attention at larger sizes. Capital letters. being

sq uare a nd ccnserva tive, prefer to keep OJ little distance froi n the i r 11 cigh bars.

NORM/\r.. TR ... '\CI<J NG

Letters do love one another. However, due 10 their anatomical differences, some letters have a II" rd lillie

ach levi ng inti rnary, COil.' icier the letter' V, for exa m pie, 'whose seductive valley make'! her limbs stretch out above her base. 111 contrast, L solidly hold" his ground yet harbors a certain emptiness above the waist. Automated kerning tables solve these problems in most situations, but some leiters may require personal attention <It larger sizes. Capital letters, being square and conservative,

pre Fer to keep a little a is ranee from the: r neigh hers.


N~GA,T[VI:i '[,,[{ACKJNCr Make III<, SIW"fif. l1oll/1~IQol. Don't flS~ l1egaJiv.~ trackiJ1g to save spac.:,

TEX'l'1 82

Ancient maps of the world


when the world was flat


inform us, concerning the void


~ ,

~ ,

where America was waiting



to be discovered,


Here Be Dragons. ,,,-,,,,,,",,,,,


o to be a dragon. ""don,, ",,'"

rn a ti 0 n,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,"P


D,\NCE INK: /\N t\.V1D DRTIAM OF TRANSPORM,\TION Magazine page, 1992 Designer: Abbott Miller Publisher: Pats)' Tarr

Tltr exlr.,ne line spacing (!~adillg) allows tlVO s~nmds

oj 1 .• ,,110 interweave,


The distance from the baseline of one line of t)'pe 10 another

is called lil>. spac/Jlg. It is

also calleclle<ldillg, in rc/Crence to the strips of lead used to separate lines of metal trpe. The default setting ill most layout and imaging softwa re is sh~btly grearer tha n the cop hclgh! of the letters. Expanding this distance crea lei a tex t

block with, ligh tcr, more opell color. As line spacing increases further, the lines of type become independent linear elements rather than parts

of an overall texture,

7/7 BCMA 7·pt t),p~ wilit

7 pts IillC spacing

This is wiled "~el .Idid ." Wirelllillcs (Ire sci Oris dosdy legellur, Ii" ascender: "",I d~C<lndm bew,) 10 101"/1. all IInCIJmfort~b/~ <ifJixl.

The d istance from the baseline of one line of type to a uotlier is called IIn< 'pacing. It is

also called leadjng. in reference to tile strips of lead used to separate lines of metal type. The default setting in most layout and imaging software is sl ightly greater than the co p height or the leiters. Expanding this distance creates a text block with a lighter, more open color. A, line spacing increase.' further .. the lines of type become independent linear clements rather than parts

of an overall textu re,

7/8.5 ,CAL,\

Anlo sp"r.jlrg: 7'1'1 IYPlwil/l 8.5 1,ls line spariJli',

II! IIIOSt I'lig~ Ir't'out progrwHs, Ih. dcfarlitlillc SpOI:illg (1"adiJlg) is 120%, or slightly grmler U,1111 lire wI' I,cight.

Th distance [rom the baseline or one line of type Lo another

is called line 'pad'·Ig. It is

also called kading, in reference to rhe strips of lead used 10 s~parclle line" of metal type. The dcfaul t sctti ng inmost layout and imilgillg software is slightly greater than the cap height of the letters. Expanding this distance creates a text block with a lighter, more open color. As line spacing Increases Iurthe r, the line~ of'typc become independent Iiuear dements rather than parts

of all overall texture,

7/9 SCALA 7'1'1 type lIIil"

9 piS liJle spacing

Thi~ ,:olriJJllr is stl ",jlh wid,,,' lille spllLil1g (lfIldiHg) 11t1111 II," slam/"..,I rle/cwlt.


The distance from the baseline of one line of type to another

is called Ii,," spacillg. It is

also called leading, in reference to the stri ps of lead used to separa te line, of metal type. The defaul t setting ill most layout and Lmagulg software

is sljghtly greaLer than the cap height of the letters. Expanding this distance creates a text

lito k with 0 lighter, more open color, As lin" spacing increases further, the lines or type become lndcpendcnt lincar clements rather than parts

or. n overa II texture,

7/10 'CAr,,' 7·pl 1,1" will,

JO pts liJl" spncirrg

As lite liJJe spacirrg iJecOIJJes 1Il0ro ",·lr;;JJI<". IIle block of tex! begiJJs 10 ,.,;ud rrs sepunuc Jion minor 1/>1111" s/wd~ oIgl"<,I"


I 'I



The left and right edges ar"e hoth even.

When it is good: Justified text makes a dean, figural shape on the page. Its efficient use of space ~akes it the norm for newspapers and books of continuous text

FLUSH LEn/RAGGED RIGHT The left cdge is hard, and the righ t edge is soft.

The a rra ngernent of text i nto colu m I1S wi th hard or soft edges is [,II eel o!jg~",wt. Each basic style of alignment brings aesthetic qualities and potential hazards to the design of P"gc or screen. J "stjfi,d text. which has even edge, on both [eFt ami dght. has bee" lhc norm since the invention of printing with movable type, which enabled the creation of page after page or straight-edged columns. [ustified type makes efficient use 0[' space, and it also creates a clean shape on the page. Ugly ga ps ca n occu r, however, whe 1'1 the line length is too short in relation to the slzc of type used. Hyphenation breaks lip long words and helps keep the lines of text lightly packed, Letterspacing con also be used to to adjust a line.

Ini/;'5h /"Jl';/"0llil,d right text, tile left edge is hard and the right edge is soft. Word spaces do not fluctuate, sr there are never big holes inside the lines of text. 111 is format, which was rarely used before the twentieth century, respects the Ilow oflanguage rather than submitting to the law of the box, Despite its advantages however, the 11 ush len format is frought with danger, AlJO\"~ all, the designer must work hard to control the appearance

of the rag along the len edge. A good rag looks pleasantly uneven. with no lines that nre excessively long or short, and with hyphenation kept to an absolute minimum .... rag is considered "had when it looks too even lor 1'00 uneven). or when it begins 10 form regular shapes. [ike wedges, rnocns, or diving beards.

~Vhen it is good: Designers choose to set text flush left when they want to respect the organic flow of language and avoid the uneven spacing that plagues narrow column~s of justified type.

When it is e~il; The flush left column loses its organic appearance when disgraced witb a "bad rag." Shive vigilantly to create the illusion of a random, natural edge without yielding to the sin of hyphenation.

Wht:n it is evil: Ugly gaps can occur as text is forced into lines of even measure, Avoid this by making

sure the line length is long enough in relation to the size of type. As the font gets smaller, more words will fit on each line.

Ugly gaps appear when the designer has made the line length too short. or the author has selected words that are loa

1 Q n g

A bad r'g will rall into weird shapes alOtlg the right edge, instead

of looking random,




An I'gll' 11Ndge-s!wpc spor"l.< lite ragged <dg~.


A coiw1tfr tilal is too r1llrrott· isJlIl1 aJgnps.


fI",fl n'gllt/mgg,d 1".!~ is a valiant of the more familiar flush left setting, It is common wisdom arncng t)'rograrher_' that llush right text is hard to read, because it Forces the reader's eye to Fmd a new po, i lion at ill. start or each line, This could be true, or it could be all urban legend, At Oil}' rate, the flush right setting is rarely employed for long bodie~ of text. Used in smaller blocks, however, flush right text forms effective marginal notes. sidebars, pull quotes. or other passages that comment on a main body or image.

A flush or ragged edge can suggest attraction (or repulsion) between chunks of infcrmation.

FLUSH RIGHT/RAGGED LEfT Th~ right edge is hard, and

the left edge is 50ft.

When it is good: Flush right text can be a welcome departure from the familiar. It makes effecti ve captions, sidebars,

and marginal notes, suggesting affinities among elements on the page.

When it is evil: Flush right text can be an unwelcome departure from the familiar, annoying cautious readers. Bad rags

can threaten flush right text jus t as they afflict flush left, with the added difficulty that punctuation at the ends oflines can weaken the hard right edge,

Lots of punctuation lat the ends of lines) will attack, threaten,

and generally weaken fhe Rush right edge, Watch out far this,


j1 U N CTPATI 0 N t .. \TS r n n EDGE

Th{c; is 1I0r a tnu: crime so JrlllC.!-J as [I situatioH of wlnprol1'lise-.


Iike the facade of a classical building.

Centered type is often employed on

invitations, title pages. certificates. and tomb stones,

The edges of a centered column

Centered lines are often broken to emphasize a key phrase (such as the name of the bride

or the date of her wedding)

or 10 allow a new thought to begin on its own line,

Breaking line, in this mariner is called

brmkirrgJor sen".


(I/1even lines a re centered between the left and right edges.

When it i.s good: Centered text is formal and classical, bearing 11(h associa tions with history and tradition. It invites the designer to break a text for sense and createan organic shape in response to the Aow of coritent.

When it is evil: Centered text is static and conventional. Used without care, it looks stodgy, static, and mournful, like a tombstone.

R~S'I' IN rr,ACE

Dl"(lilr I', IIOJ a r.r;I",', mrrlneir/-ier i, rml<"l"~d Iype. Em/mIce lire Maid jormaiit], oI/iJis srtting wilil ccnnie", IlOwe'"t·/:


HXT I 1\6







·1. " ~ _ I ' ...




~. 1:i !fl . ~::.J: l..;f ;;ii:!~.

El11broldeTy,-woodG\lfving~ and, rnlnulaly detailed cerarnlc: glazes,ate nott"ahnlqu8sWe usually assoctate with contemporaty art and desigrr. Thllse,age·old methods n0I1"1l1ele5 play.apromioent IJ,;rt.i!l,flJework oiselle,al currertt adtsts and deslg@rs)inoludin9,Berend StriK; Wini DelvoY'''''Ilnd Hslte JOllgerius. - f 1 ''''<1, 1 i··...., -, .. i\i-,)\;.'~';>

Berend,S1rjl<ls wDr" resembles.an am'aJgam:of .rn!lde[I1_lIlilg~®ul. hrra, oW orafts,.anci new subject matler.~Foi" oll_~,of;liis,hBSt~no,WJJ pleo€slIUnlill~d;,19g3)~Stdk casted g~pi[)g.femal!!Jrt1ouths..ln·.ilTow. cu] 4way. B -simllar' nUl11peCJofi ph~II~5e.s,;and,.acC8'Jltli1tedrthe,jipioutl lnas wJth eiegaEiblin8s-oI cross·s1litDhing.ano olhe~ ql-~a.mGl1t~i e-m gw'i'ctBr.y. Tb<,'rnOrlilication ~ell1pts~-iJe'IlJleGtator mW8yifl'On1 ,tile. obyio~s; ~grno' graD hie d ~l8 'prernlio n s,~: th a.tF.s udd e0lY:the",sj-ra tru"tit al:!aBvel1ljt .choi,. seeril<to em)<,g e frorot hose un ro is til kab tyi 1 u b ri ~16u s!II'ps.=l'he1p'ubilca.

fionrof Fr8Ilch;phllosaphsr,l3B;ofges BataiIJas-book Les;larmesdf'Eros t

(1965).ilasiQIade.",s-awa"raofjust·ho'W-iarlr,eliq1tllls 6<>stasy,islnterlwlji1ecl with15e)Wality,rueath,'sqd. vlotences StJ'ikis>sUbject Is"the;sarne;IJOJis

quaint ~i11b."lde.r.y;te"bniqiJ",ollallefigeS t "e:h'ipoll~lsywi thli~11 ;oi:lopast

HE!.],;' JO"'GERIUS Bookzooj

Designers: CO/-,fA, Amsterdam/New York Author: louise Schouwcnberg

Publisher: Phaidon

Photograph: Dan Meyers


IJooked into th~ form without really knowing it at first; I saw wslls flying across space. The tilting planes climbed ~nd cut into each other, violent, shatrering any notion of building in the CDnve~tiollal se~s~,

.A.ndthe dialogue began between Daniel Libeskind and myself, how cOllld such a form be built?

Libeskind took me back to ancient times, to the Pyr_?mids. We talked of stone and how to build a form like <his from masonry - but the oblique plane, and large spans would ha .. e needed huge 'strapping' with pre,tress or numerous tie devices. Attractive as the idea was in its primiti\/8 urges. I advocated concrete or steel to maintain the daring "Iignments.

There were two ways to consider the question:

implant a certain massiveness and celebrate a high redundancy in the confiq uration:

trap the tilting planes in a modern rationale of discrete 'frarninq',

The former would give concrete as a material of tradition, used in an extreme definition; the latter would reduce the great planes to a

framing buttressed by internal stiffeners and cross bracing. One

method provides density, opacity, and tnrae-dimensional surface as strUcture, the other iigntrless and openness that is then clad and Thefirst answer leads to a labyrinth, the second to transparency.

We excha nged metaphors.

the form were closed, it could be ami rival deposit, or if a nope n transparent steel framed building, it could be a lantern or a beacon. If it Were heav:y, could it be hacked out of granite, or was it buildable out of special masonry? The images helped loosen the thinking and inspired u, ro IQok far the radiGal.



I~FonM I. 800k, :1.002.

Designer: [anuzzi Smith Author; Cecil Ball1lo11d Publisher: Presicl Photograph: D,ll1 M yCI's Tlt;,1 book is a flWltife·IIO

JOI' all "irt!ormul" lljJproadr 10 stl'ur:wral ~Hgil~cering and a,.cltil~ct" r e. TI,rDllghol.lI. lire boo,~. Ihe I.Yjlogral'lry mmbilles jlml' !eJi IJnd jh!sil right "liglll"~I1I.<. cr~alillg a lilly inll iJistsIrmI S['lUI~ or fiSSHF~ il1side Ihe lext Wlllllll1, and ir"g~d"r mg. 011 Ine oula ,:ligc',

T],;s cons/melion b';ClI'I~i.dly eXI'",sl·es I.h,~ I'rim;iplr- oj

il 10m IQ/il.r·, Ulld~l·s':OI'~d b~'

I"~ inlegra/iM oJsk~ldle5 wilh.lh" IV/JOgrapll)1 oJlhe /jODk.



-rEX'1" I 90


(FAR "EFT) Wildwood, New Jersey Photographer:

Dorothy Kresz


japan, 1924

Commeroial signs often employ ,<t~lI:b oJdwmdm,


StaGk~d i~U"rs sometimes appear 011 the spillf' oJbooks, b",t vertiwi baselil1es are mare COll1JrIOfi. Staltingjimn IIIl; fOp r;md rearlil1g dow" is til~ prer.iOf>1'J1aJ1t direction, "speciall~ il1 ti,e [),s.



v V V V :r> -< 0
~ ('D b.D
E E e e 0- ~ • 1"'"""1 :r>
'< rt +-J
~ 1-'. H~
R R r r ~crq .0.:: Q)o-
0- 0 U :>'<
~ 0
u ~
T T t t '" {j i=<>
P"' :E III
n 0
0 ~
I 1 i ~ 'U
b.D~ 8-
• 1"'"""1 n
G G g +-J 0
g >. ~
H ..CJ
Q) S
0 0 0 u:J
0 :> ~
---------------~~ ..... -- --------
Sp!'b\LL C,-\rs, S'1' .. \CKEn TYPE CRIME: ~CALI\ i.o wr n cx se . V.tli.'T1Ci\L A SF. LI N [S
srx c k r » lOWEHCt\SL: lOp 10 I>olloll! vollum t() lOp !Joll, dir~ctiol1s STACKED CAPITALS Rom all Ie tte rs are designed to sit side by side, 110t on top of

one another. Uppercase letters form more stable stacks than lowercase letters. Centering the column helps to even out the differences in width. (The letter I is a

perennial problem.)

STACKED l.OWERCASE Stacks 0 f lowercase letters are especiall y awkward because

the ascenders and descenders make the vertical spacing appear uneven, and the varied width of the characters makes the stacks look precariou s.


The simplest way to make a line of

text fonn a vertical line is to change

the orientation of the baseline from horizontal to vertical. This preserves -the natural affinity among letters sitting on a line.

There is no fixed rule determining whether type should run from top to bottom or from bottom to top. It is more common, however, especially in the U.S., to run text on tbe spines of books from top to bottom. (You can also run text up and down simultaneously]

English is not Chinese. John Kane, 2002

l'EXT I 92



, I

TEXT 193


(CROSS] NG PA RAtI.HS) Posters, [997

Designer: Gerwin Schmidt Publisher: Art-Club Karlsruhe Tlu: aXl! oJ t}'Pe and landscap" 1111emc( to .reate IIle5t posl"rs rlla! nre limple, pOlVa[ul, w1d dlr~cJ. The type)5 mirrorod in Gerl11ll/l and Frw"ll.



Division of angels

A. Angel

B. Archangel

C. Cherubim

D. Seraphim

II Ruling body of clergy

A. Pope

B. Cardinal

C. Archbishop

D. Bishop

III Parts ora text

A. Work

B. Chapter

C. Section

D. Subscctlon



Division of ~Ing Is Allgd Archangel Cherubim Seraphim

Ruling body of clergy Pope

Cardinal Archbishop Bishop

Parts of a lelit Work Chapter Section Subsection



H IE RARe H Y A typogra phic 11ierarch.y expresses an organizational system for content, emphasizing some data and diminishing others. A hierarchy helps readers scan a text, knowingwhere to enter and exit and how to pick and choose among its offerings. Each level of the hierarchy should be signaled by

one or more cues, applied consistently across a body of text. A cue can be spatial (indent, line spacing. placement on page) or graphic (size, style, color of typeface], Infinite variations are possible.


'I' I II

"II ':1






TOO MANY StGNALS f!mplmsis all1 b,o rreal"d witl, jllS( OIrr sll ifl.



III ~HJ\Ii:C:ll\'

DIVISION Of ;\N G I:! i.s Allgel

Arelwngei CiJe""b,m SeJ"tlpilirJ1


IJ I V 1" 0 N arcl,ai1gd OF AN GEL,S d~crl.birn "mplti 11 I






s u u x c IJOrH C[lrdimr!

OF CLI!IIGY ,uchbj~l,oJl bis/lOp

P.'\RTS 0 F A T~:-"'T Work

Clwple r SectiM S"b5""Jion

I!lark PARTS OF c/Ulplel"

A TEXT Sf.ctiOH :mbS"cctiQII


r .. LIGN.r.'lENTr FONT CIJl'Nt:c, t\Nu liNE 1JP.EJ\KS

REDUNDANCY Writers are generally trained to avoid redundancy, as in the expressions "future plans" or "past history." In typography, some redundancy is acceptable, even recommended. For example, paragraphs are traditionally marked with a line break and an indent, a redundancy that has proven quite practical, as earn signal provides backup for the other. To create an elegant eCOIJOITI), of signals; try using no more than three cues for each level or break in a document.

CREATING E:rvlPI'IAsrs W[THIN RUNNING TEXT Emphasizing a word or phrase within a body of text usually requires only one signal. Italic is the standard form of emphasis. There are many alternatives, however, including boldface, SMA Ll CA l' S, or a change in color. You can also create emphasis with a different font; a full-range type family such as Scala has many font variations designed to work together. If you want to mix font families, such as Scala and Futurtl, adjust the sizes so that the x-heights align.

T~'pa.::.'I~'1~I,.-ja A rt!r~lsINIl ~.IIl;:i(·I~' Ilnl (!oIl"" h:J.M :'iflt·(I~ the wrung rvpefare.

TI.d.!i rorullrion is o::cn p.:dII:!J with I}I(D (nplicd kt~I·llln!;: di:;lI~d~I), tilt! need te cUII::.ldlilly i1dj·..1~1 and readjust tee !ipJCe3 between letters.

TEXT 195

MAI~ llJ:A[l ---

:'-1i1,_1N TF.XT ---

Tfren~ ar~ imdJess IV/! ys 10 Express

I h" IrierMr III'

Of a riO["lI11JEJlf.



Va rious form s of dys function appea r among popu lations exposed to typography for long periods of time. Listed here are a number of frequently observed afflictions.

TnOPl1I L.,\ An excessive attachment to JI1d fascination with the shape ofletters, often to the exclusion of other interests and object choices. Typophiliacs usually die penniless and alone,

TY r o r HO orA The irrational dislike of lcttcrforms. often marked U)' a preference for icons, dingbats, and-in fatal cases-bullets a nd daggers. The feats 0 r t11 typophobe ca 11 often be qu ieied Ibut not cured) by steady doses af Helvetica and Times Roman.

TVPOCHON DR].,\ A persistent anxiety that one has selected tile wrong typeface, This condition is often paired with OKD (optical kerning disorder}, the need to constantly adjust and readjust tile spaces between letters,

"POTll """I., The promiscuous refusal to make a Iirdol1[l commitment to" single typeface-s-or even to five or six, as some doctors recommend. rile il'jl or I,,'nr I iar. is constantly tempted to test drive "hot" new [Ol1t,. oflen without" proper license.


Various forms of dysfunctien :JPp~;H ,"lmong POPUliJtiOllS exposed to typography for long periods of lime. Listed here are a IIU nther nf freqlwnlly observed affiicticns.

T~'I~LlJJi'Ii,'iG An eecessfve a-cctuneru In nud f¥lSdt~iilrUl"1 Y, illl illr..! ~11io?t rl k!t;t!n, often to 1110:: esclueon of other lntereete and c-bj('r: chclces .. Trrllph1.1.i.:lc'Ill!lIJ:l.ily di"'1H:.nllll~~q ~lId ,1!·1!rit',

Ti'Pl:I~'llib!oJ 111~ [rtltimul di~:ilu' 11f1f!IIf't{;.1Inl~, c;.i1I'I\ ft:..Ir! c t'I! y 01. preference rot lCOt"1.5, d1t1gbJI..!i, and-hi f.:lt"J! cases-cSullcu and dJ[:i';Ji!ls.

11w rE'nr~ IIi' Hie ryPDl'liolll:! ~,",n ellen be quieted (boLiI not cured!

b~' !:~J cly doses (lor Hd v -e-fca cud Tun p,~ Rem n n.

T~pulill:!lII!il Thl2 F'mm[~cllml' 1it':II~lll~ 1I1"I\:"t J, IIr"lj'rtl:l'lJltmll~III'l:nll~ il

~il"lp;lt' rype lace-c-cr even 10 Five or si\:,.:IS: some doctors eecorumend. Toe tJ','lDt,'It:I".'III{I'!: i~ f;nn!>I~.lIII~ If'tliPII"~ ll~ 1000sI drive '11;:Il" ne ..... Jorus. orten without a pro;:-cr hccnec.

zur'HuldigUllg des Kaise;s'" u, abgebild et:






. Kar!l(r'aus zahlt, Wilhelm n. zu ~den Schwerverbrechern auf dern Thron" mit der "Beteu'erung, daB sie as nlcht gewollt·~a1?en, woran sle,

da sie es taten, doch ~chuldig sind" [E 595,2].

- - (Momentan sind wlr z. B. bel der seit der Thronbesteigung I) __

. - -- So. erleble ich, dall er einen doth 0

Nl.ajOf, den. AdJuta~ten des Kranprinzen, gal Ohr zog, i h m e r n en tQcht!gen 5chlill gab lind sagle: - _

- - empfing er in Tempelhof im S~I:~ mintster und den Chef des Milit~rkabjnetle! mi :; all en Ese I glaubt, dall lbr alles besser ~iB ~

~) Deutsche Verlagsansta!\, Stuttfart,

Und daB das »gemeinsame Vorgehen« fi1r ds war, »sobald Kraus die Satire auf Kaiser Wilheill werde«, beweist eine Vertrautheit der llln~ <01 Programrn, die ieh selbst am Nachmittag nocb n ; innen in die Faile gegangen! Abel' wenn einer ~


Innsbruck auf Demonstrationen ausgehen, bs '" Abends eine Ahnung von dern Vorhandensein will ich dem Wilhelm glauben, daf er es nicht ge " Josef, daf er alles reillich erwogen hat. Die Wal ... einer vagen Kenntnis meiner Gesinnung, "ben die ihre auszuleben, in den Saal gefuhrten Iii Abends ein Dutzend weit besserer Anlasse-« zwei D iebsgenerale - batten voru bergehen lB.' del' Laut auf den Lippen erstarb, und erst zu.rn libel' die eigene Unregsamkeit ihneu BewuB~ ihre Anwesenheit legitimierten, indem sis

TEXT 197

'- ...


Book. 1999

Designer: Anne Burdick

Publisher; Oslerrcichisclien Akadernic UN Wissenschof"ten ntis hook present» cssuys [rOil I the JUUnt,,1 Die Fackcl.

pubJisl"ea bl' lI,e Vien"es~ lliril~r Karl Kmn,ji-ol't1 f~99 10 ]936, Ti," JOII mal's I,xl "ppwrs ilt I.f..: cen/a or <IJeII page, Til is lexl is sOllletimes represenicd with 1m image o(lhe original publica/iolt mid sometilllcsJ,/luerilitl'O"gh I.ho mode.m If'pogrllIJi<V of the new edition_ III the beige-colored margins, difJerenr stl'I,~s alld sizes oj

I J'P" Iu dim It~ difJere Fit III odes of cdi rori a J em", ne Ilia I}'_

Most Rec ene

• ~·\lIi! CaCiper

• Projl!!l;;'; M - Vol, 1

• l w) Alm'')~t Ahl'a'ls HIJ"9ry

l H'1~J" ilt'l~ £l.Ien~~

i-:::' .. ········,·----· ... ' .. ·'' .. · ... '", ,.,--~ .... , .. "- .• - •• "

I Mjn~r Recro L.;,ILillI:I'le!':: ,TI',,!! Brand '3~PI A one-Dav 'Norksh(li'

, !"eywordlrq with t=Qn~5hop

• pre-Bone er "'Q~I:."'tt.) , Spe-: Wr'rl Arithmetic

I Atlo=enC.;JmmonMI:o:t:lIl es


) Br(OoJ;. I.t\rlitson I p aul kimball

) ArnJ~to L::11t'l1lil:!'

i.E.. el Disefio G .... fico Untversal?

... ,h,.


. "-:,'V,~,'YWY" ,

151 graphtc design a untverse l lenguage t A, the face of the United etatee ch~ngElIiI, how do designers fit Into the gr(!Jwing 19l'lSUo!IIge challen.geG? for instance, the new light ral.l ~j'Vl]t-t'!m In l-tfnneapalis b.;ll:!;i ticket machrnea that have mstr-uctlcn .. Infour Jengueges: nngltsh , Span~hl Somali and Hmcng ,

i ~ ~ ";\I,d,.,.w bl.!l ... ve!t tpe~l,s Up' rJj

j I ;::~'I::~'" ';:"~::t~~::'::~;!1 Foot.

, I:llilfj~nl .;11~'1l end \l'Jell, and Llefm

YOLJI'" Ntuilft l~iqulr~d)

Andrew Blauvelt Speaks Up

.. ~ .. "

r ut r r 'I~'II'

.. , ... \.~.""

Can graphic design Gave itaelf~ Wha~ exactly do we need to save OUl'Ge:IVe5 from 'l Quo!itions like these plagued me after reading Andrew ale u vel t'~ er;f;I.!k y In Emigre # 04 Towards Cntfcai Autonomy .or Can ~h'!c Deslgn.3avc rt1~{fI 'I'his waf-mit the Jirst time Blauvelt's '\Jrltlng had Incited me. Bwldinp !Jrldgf!s: A R~$ea/i=h llg~ndo.fo~· Educat/.(;m and, Pl'actic~c.atl!;d Jor a refinement oFgraduatestudy and practice in GrlL~hjc design, We eheuld push beyond the Hmits already eepertenced, And that's where hi~ Emigre article put a blgger ftre undo!' me. Change what we do, not how we de It.lt~s more about point of view than visualizing your point, with It great opportuntty for

revel ution.tL,ry wor-k. Obvli::IIJd For me it wasn't.


By Je scn a-n F~b, 1 "9,200<l ) Link , r:t1rnrll~~~ [3]

....... , .... , ""-... _.... , .... , ..... ' .~-".- ...


, Are There Too M.iI!1Y Of Lhi' [I t ~1 1 ~ } A Rewarcltoi EHp.1!.;n'~ [91

In the fr1id~Iu-'t[Z71

l,.i r.:.!4i~dodJ £d.ucat,.iil-n [21:1]

Are There Too Mnny Of Us?

... ,L ..


.. "'.'Y.~.., ... "

Gnlng to a b~l' or e coffee shop thtltitl di\'!lSl it seems like the cIty is ever-run bV art dlrectcrs, deslgners and other Cfl!!!l1livf'I professionels.Jj used to be that wheu you stated ttl be a graphic designer, H: WM perceived as exotic and even epeclal end people Iccked et you with the "ah , that explains J t" type oflook. Now ever-yeme seems to be in the I creative field. And r don" t think 1 frequent spots that are considered designer-hang-outs. However, l live- and work in l..M Angeles and what happens here mIght not be the norm fur the reut of the countr-y, but 1 noticed \hi'!! eeme in Swltzei-Iand, where T grew up and went through ,ut school. Maybe not to the extent as here in southern Caljfornte , but stjll, the ahlA: is stgntftcant.

~ .. "


SPEAK UP [L£n) Web site, 2004

Designer: Armin Vit; logo h)' Michael Cia rk TIlis oll·lil1-e design fan"" presents readers with <! dmse 1JIet!« of wlllenl "'iiwiat.,d il1-lo 0 deal" hierarchy. Each type of coHtml i5 labe/'ld

(intuvicw. diswlsion, "say J. Fwtur"d Ir"cmis nre prmnled at Ihe cwler oftl,o screen, wl'"re a .ubslanlial passage q{tcxL al/mvs readers to decide whether to proco,d jilrll'er. Tilles ar~ given drama mid importrmcc li1rm'gi< placemclt/, (.0101; al1a

jont elwice. Sile branding is kept ro a miniliHl/II, ~lf.oUling a," con!ent 10 dominale.


Most Web sites are controlled b)' hierarchies in an even more systematic way than print documents.

A site's file structure proceeds from a root down to directories holding various levels of content. An arxn, page contains a hierarchy of elements that can be nested one inside the other. The site's organization is reflected in its interface-from navigation to the formatting of content. Typography helps elucidate the hierarchies governing all these features.

Dynamic Web sites use databases to build pages on the Hy as users search for specific content. Databases cut across the planned b ierarchy of a site, bringing up links from different levels and content areas-or from other Web sites, Typographic style sheets are used to weight the information gathered, helping users find what they need.

i@searCh: I"'E"'lIe-n""L,.-u-p7'"to-n------------------@lli

Web Results ~


Showing 1 - 10 of about


Ellen Lupton: New Home Pafile

Think mora, design less, Announcements, Archive, This site is an informal archive and dasiqn resource drawn from the work of Ellen Lupton and Abbott Miller .... http..' www,deslgnwntingrese;)FcI1.org - 41 (a"hed 1J!t.lnji)

Design Writing Research: Ellen Lupton

About us, Ellen lupton is a writer, curator, and graphic designer. She is director of the MFA program In graphi~ design at Maryland .. ,

http: . www.design.Nntingresearch.org<lupton_page.l1l·ml - 51: C<lch~d 1,.,g!L,,"

: : Speak Up > Ellen Lupton, "Thinking With

Design" : : ~ ... Ellen Lupton, "Thinking with Design ", Ellen Lupton ~ To Present "Thinl.inq With Design", Ellen Lupton,

curator, graphic designer ... http::lwww.underconsideration.com .• spaakup/archlves/

Hello, ~ to enable "Ita features.

Book Results l.ill>.cil

Showing 1 - 10 of about 470

Design Writing Research

by Ellen Lupton (10 June, 1999)

Skin: Surface, Substance. and Design

by Ellen Lupton, Jennifer Tobias, Alicia Imperiale, Grace Jeffers, "i,d Randi Mates (March, 2002)

Design Culture Now: The National Design Triennial

by Donald Albrecht, Ellen Lupton, Steven Holt, and Steven Sl.ov Holt (15 M<lrcl1, 2000j

Mixing Messages: Graphic DesIgn in Contemporary Culture

by Ellen Lupton (September, 1996)

Letters from the Avant-Garde: Modern Graphic Design

by Ellen Lupton and Elaine Lustig Cohen (March, ~ 1996)

WWW,A9.CO", Search. eftgille .. 2004

A search "flgill"s appli," a. J},IJOW'lph,o hiuu,.d,)' to the I·~sults it "ails lip, "sing WiD,., size, wr.iglrt, and IIllderiining to dijJi!rwJial" its parts.


II, ~ I I

d I

II ~

I •

r II



Many designers are passionately committed to building accessible sites for the Web. This medium was invented in order to provide universal access to information, a goal it may some day achieve, regardless of a user's physical abilities or access to specialized software.

r axr li o o

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS} allow designers to plan alternate layouts depending on tbe user's software and hardware. For example, cell phones and personal digital assistants display Web sites in a text-only format, while some users have outdated browsers or lack tbe software "plug-ins:' required for displaying certain kinds of files. Style sheets cal] also be used to design print-friendly versions of interactive documents.

ABo!JTTl-'E WJ1 I crt.'\F{ .. 'Cn:RS ! pFSEGRi:GATlON TH-!nmE I ~ I com·,CT

an [CK- uv- snrc«.o RG Web site. 2DD! Designers: Red CHloe Publisher: Kavanagh Prod uctio IlS

This Rosh-enabled site JVM created jor a dowmentaryfilm ah 0 II/' d e)"~gregaliOJI. J! in ellides a text-based, HTML versioe!, dcsig"ed lDr /ISr.rS witilout sccess 10 Flash. The HTM L version is also eaS}' 10 pri"/ ancl is I-Isefili to jOH malists Dr ,·eseard,as desiring direct (l,;ce.lS to Ih" lext.

!ifF-k by Bnd: .'I [;10'1'1 r,'!jJ'Jts. .stOr)' ra a IlclI:;III1'll~r"ll:;3r~' b" 8111 ,cllvr.'IntlllJh, lL t~lI!o the '~If:'I)' of one or l:onlljl1'lllfll'ary Arr.,crlci:l's n'fl~1 tmpurtarr; hatrle s for te r houalnn iln:l (;110'11 rlghb.

!Ib;:; \\"cbJ1..eIi 11'.,,! ... 1'u:11\ 1iYlb1 trll\~I..I.·I,,.·l!.lId CDI1I U!-C the. 1!!111i~1 ,,_"'., l!!XrlQ li ... d IIInt."~,I'~E ... II~m ~1I("iljfbnM.'l:Ol:r~~Plllrt.!l

'5Ir.fipl,,;:~ illl-:lIf1~ !:!!!E.!Z!L~ .. !l.lln·' ~ caer, I'l'l H"'tnm~:llh;,1 HrU ~ryl;ffiij 'fi1Jr bl~oI'l'l!'" Ir-. .ie ... ~lld !Jr.>jl~,lr:J,rl["h ene .... ,~ "-,~I ~lh~r mcc cm ".ell t""I~11 ~.I'II' j .. n l_nog!ll'd~ 'f!"IJr b"~"""""~ilfunlll:r'1'''''rttr(JI,·,·qll>1,F.::1..::n'-'[f"~,J



BJ I Ka"'-3'lil~ll'~ HfJC;" V)' Dr'c).; A eMf R,ghts Srnry b.,. rt:i'llllIfHenglh .lecurnentorv Ihllt rrJItCi"'~ tli.rfl@ rernt le s 111 y[1I1· .. ers, NY through oil ...,ir1i.111I1j unlh i:I~ lhev oantmnc clt,r DtlIl1h:: .. fir redn! drvisfun uno wcrlf, to r.hiill'1!;tr: their hcmctcwn. TII'I:; rum rolio'l'I.5 n d'~cade·I~llg nmggle u v erd~l>e!]rC:!JJotlon In e contemp m-ar y nnn:IIe.J n locale.

The lltr n ne als 1\llth the Isoi"tlc;1I ~Ir p1!:.pIIJ of euler In en ril~UIIJ(loJni!JII'I' e reate d [J ubn r h tnJ~ !Il.g !,'ltit:! rtc, an d til ~ :.;efj r .... '!:Ii3 r J!! d n tho DI ~ In Lh!:.;

r ommU"IIII-... B rr::.k b,' BJ'jL.:~'; t., r:11~1 ",(onr.s Story 9 cee 0 n 1 [J ~!lKU men t trm I'IrD:gres! of commYI111·.; 30.1-01'1 to Improve ~i:hrrQI~ and rln:tl1v a fr.!d'=.1"1"I1 !oIO! nl~d ln rcrce IIH: CIty bad.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful