'T···· 'he B' ·~"l·g··'·o .....

S:,··'I··X·······;·l ,': sn ·8~···~':-1- 'g·····:···2'~-·······8·····~'······

" t . .': .' . ,J' . .• .' . • ~ : ,," .'"'. ",. _ ._ '._ ~ ... ::: .:' ~ - . 1 . "'., .... .,.,'. .. . ",-1 '. : • "

" , '.: .' -'. :' ' .. ' ',,: ', " __ ' .. ' .._. . .. '_'-'

i .. _", . "

. _ .', -. I 'f"~" .,1"" ...'11,_ .. __ d'· .. '- ,.' rtrr .' nt ,.- . - ,.'. effe .te "d' '.,: ··:d·:1 ,L:. de . th :,' ah II

man Uri actu r'l:n,g ... ,e'par~~.,m.enl.·s we·.r~· e _ ,e.CI'~".! a, .. nc un .. er .'. ie capan e

I d hi f F' d Z d '. · d 'Ii! - I..... . t t d

ea , ersmp 0': .. : i rei':" z.e er. e,n'gJne,er:ling, esrgn work was srartec 'On

th . ' ... "'. ' ..... " __ ',' '. d ",:,',1':.. E' . '_'. "'.:' , .'~ .... : ... -, . ',' .L·t··,··1 I .. ·· .. '.' ·,t·· oty .. ~-. es 'W: ··e·'· reo ·c····o· '···m· nplete d f':" -

.. re:€, n'ew mo: e s. ,)(,perlm'en.:a: ;pro .. : .. ·p;.,.", ... ~.:_,;:,~~, .. ~, ;~'O'r

testing by September, 1917, and actual production was started by November but on a verv limited scale due t.o fuel and p c roductio-,

'," ' .. " .... _ , ... . 11.1' .-' ~ .' .. - '__ '''. ... I .. ,' , I , , '. -' . - - . '. '" .... '.'. .• . ..... . ,,' .J' ..

Ii. d th ti th 'i!I f"

restrictions u noer t '~·e wartime economy t ren II'n ': orce.

'T':-h" e t'h·-··· r:'e· 'e-~ 1m·· .. · od iels wh I .. 'c'h-···· "w· .. '···· .r ,-·e·:c~r~,e'~ t·o comp rise . the :n:,ew Stu de'bak.e···-r

..... .: __ .. ;:.;.' II ! .... ' '.' ,~". _. " I .' '_. ::. ".' ,- .'."", ... , ...•.. , , =- ","'. ".' ','._' . _ .. _. ,,,.,._ e.' ... • .. _ ..

line were I -,the Light Four. the Lig:,·~.· ht 'g'I'X'-, and, the B.'ig-·,·. Six, 'The: reader

' _ I .'. . .... ,_, . i! .:_, ' _c, _ • . . I, , ' '. . __, . , . '" . .' '" .<. ,_ ~_ .... .. . "

.- h .. ild b'-" ~... ti "'. d .' t th .~. -, t--,I! ,--'-' .. ' ,,-;.' ··,t'· to : .. ,- .. f .".. th: -.. Il' igh t S: .:'''',

S.:· o:u I .• :~. .~ .• ··.e ca,U,ic.llon"el_:, a:o n ~s· .~ I me~, nO'I, ;0 con, use, .... ' I,e I .. ~.,~"'-- . .··'lX'

developed in 1917 with the later Light Six of 192Q. The earlier Light

. . . 1'"( d' h s· t, II s··... 'T'h f' f' , ., . " 'ii,

Six was eventua J'y, rename ,~<. the Special ... : .. rx, I" e tocus ,Or attention

.: I

~ -- . h ~. - . 'h"- . -_. -'- .. _. '~. th: .. ' B'~ _. s-· ~. de - .~ I. '.- ~.'.. be St . d .. b . k ... 1' .. -u .... -" : st ~.

rn t "1'5' C .. .apter ~,5 the Big : .. txj'·.le;stl'neu to <'e:·Ul·,_e'i':a:..cer·s ,p·r.es-Ige

d II f' 1" 0"'-' I lti ..

rno _ et rorover ' tu orrg, exerting years.

- -. .',.,. db" -k . h d d id d it t-" - _. t

By 1917, Studebaker management ,'3 .. i_eCL.:ei.~' was nme I~O

br-eak completely from the old design carryovers from, EMF days

and to .. : .. ·· build a completely ne"w line of motor car-s which would

,R-.- _' .. _' '.' .... -, .. ~ ..... ,., ' .. ' ... _: .. ' , i'-"'-'" ,.,,, ,::. ",' ., .. ;. I. [I .... ·, .... , . ':'. '- . _. -ee- ' •• ~.' - . - -- •• -

.. -' I' -- f' ' .. h '. d ~.'.. . 'f"~ '··'d· .. rd ~,.. b'·:·· ····t·:·h th .. 'LJ 5'·:' .. :. -. ,. d .' -- : .- rt

satis y a ,~'roa: range 0' .. e·ma.n'·, I:n:o. I, .... Ie_ ::.' ,an::-" ie'xpo'r~

markets ln May'." suitable reorganizations of the engineering and

>;_._ ", ••..• : ...... ".; iii] - ":;.' ',' :.>' ... :"'_-,~ ," '. '.: .::.~ ,"."_ .. . .". ';_:.';'. I '. ..' . -. .' • '_ .. _. _. _'._ ~_ -c- .~".' _.

B'I:(j, IS: IX. O"OMI,NATES NEW M,ODE·.L:S

In September, 1917 r the three experimental cars -the Light four; the Light Six, and the Big Six (Fig. 9-1) were shipped from Detroit by lake steamer to Buffalo, New York, where they arrived on September 15. Erskine himself IS said to have accompanied the cars on 'the first legs of their journey, The cars were driven 'to

6 .. 14 ...... '

, "

_ ,

":-:"

Hg, 9~ t. Tile ~191:8 Mode) ,EG" Big SIX' touring car, which was introduced in 1·9'18' and

produ 'c'<cd··:·:' W··:··"I~t·,·h···' 0'" nly .~' m ... -inor

. I.' .'" _ :.'~~ .~. ~ .. _", : ".:. ,_ .. " ._.~.' '. ' . .::.:.i

.

changestor tour yesrs, wo,n

a reoutetion as' a deaende-

~. ~ I • ~ ~

. ,.

ble endtireless motor cer.

fu .:

..

:: t!-

fig. 9.-2. The "Crsnddeddv"

B "v S'-:'~X":' m :"'a'" nuie cture .. d·,·',; in

(g , J, j: ' ' 'c' . '. I~: :." ' .

Ap·ril 1.918· established a

" '! '_,., .. ! ,"-," ;"'. _:. " ,.', .',

record of ·490,000 miles in 5~'V2 years o"f driving .. It late" .' " "," :', '. ed .," in th"'~! 'e' S" ··t,',u' deb a",' k:, e'····,r'

rep os .. ·. I, , ":- '., . ' Ui_ :_ ._. ,

museum.

Albany, New York, then north to Canada where they visited Mo' mtreai and Que b rec h ieforo returning to New York state. In New

• "_ " - 1 "':' JJ _ - '. . .. "_: . r I -I.' .' _ • • .... -. ' . - .. "... . • • - • '":. l ~ .~' '.' • ,.__ • • ,,- ~, _,... _. ,;;'I. '. _. iii! . -

. . . .

York and Pen nsyl va ni a , the cars tackled the toughest grades of the

Alleghenies as they journeyed westward. Through Ohio and Michig-an the worst possible roads were deliberately selected .

d' d d

. ,.\ "I ". . - ". ' ,"' , .

mu «r san:'- , ani, 'gu' mbo, .

By December, the cars reached Chicago after accumulating 'a total of nearly 20,000 miles each. They were then put on the

Chi 5" d h 'h d .' d d .t, ht ft <l-

I .-I·c~.,g-o,.:,pee:w'ay wherethey were urrven day an : ·nl:.g·_' f. 0:_. ten m

sleet and snow; for an additional 30,000 miles. The Big Six ~onsistently logged over 800 miles per day. As each car completed Its 30,000 miles, it was shipped back to the factory in Detroit to be carefully scrutinized for any signs of weakness in design. On the basis of the fine showing made by the cars, limited production was started late in 1917, and models were on display -at the New York Auto Show in January! 1918.

The Rig Six quickly won a reputation for its toughness, performance, and durability (F-ig.9-2). Remember this was a big car,

1'26,-in'c'h, wheelbase 60 horsepower, and at 'a price of less than

. _.I, .. _ . . '. 1 .'. ., ,,' _ ..., _ ••• _ , _ ., ,'- ,.. • •

. ..

$2" O' 00" f b f t lit . k b I I ~ it d Th B·

, . "f'::'~' I: .. 0, .. ",:~ ractorv, I.: was ... a, rernarkab e vatue I!n ~,S · .. ay~ , .. e ,.Ig.

Six cost hundreds and even thousands of dol ars.less than some, of

• . Ii ii - h 'I d ,;, -I' • .. h ~ b ,;;, lt 'iIi

'Its contemporaries Wit tess power am 'certain 'y wttr ress i·~. UJ, -rn

quality. .

Through 191"8 and 1919 it was not 'a question of how many cars

could be sold but rather how many could be built. Problems of reconversion to civilian production ' shortages of materials and

, . _". "'". : . " '.' " . . ." , .- ' ~'I' ' • . .. . " " . .. -' , ''': . ,. , , ",", '_.' I , . . _.. I . _'- j, - •

, ~ .

shortages of rail cars continued to hamper production tor months,

and b: .' .~1'1'··'1' 0":""0"0'" B='-',·· s: , ,. ,: b iltand sold ;"." l' '9':'1'18 d '1'9""1'9:"'"

an.> ,:.ar-ely 1 I , r' ,_,I.,,:lg "Jxes.wer1e r- ul "an:_, SOL" )n,~', ,~. an:, ,:"./.

Th S· S·· .. th f t b ilt b- St d b . k it h

re ,'Ig :-···I·X engine was tne rirst .. ='·U~ t nv otuceoas .. er WI:' a

detachable cylinder head. Although the basic layout of the engine remained the same as the 1~91[7 Six. the entire chassis Was so

. "._ c;, . .',...: .. ' , .',' ...... . " ." '_ Ie' , , ., ., . ' ." " I. ..' '. . .' .. '_ '" _'" . c.'. '.. . .

improved that the Mbdel EG Big Six may be considered a completely new car.

Th EG' .' ;j iI l 'h d t 3 771.· h b b 5 ,t h

~ .. - ,e".~. e'rl·gll n e. rs an )~ near type j:_c"8'~1 n'c 'I" ore :.:'·:Y·:':·--I ncn

,',' ,·t-,· ,' .. '. k .... ·· d·· .... ',·1' .... !:, "", '60'" ho .. , ," .. ", "', ""." . t ·2···· 0" 0"'·"0'" l' . --. "".'. 'Th' ,,' ,'. ' """ -c .ed '.

slro' .. '.',e',·eve o'p'ln.g '" "o'rsepiQW,e'r a ,,/.:" rpm. : .!e rU.,gg.e:

crankshaft ran in four main bearings of ample size. The exception-

6""5

,I, • '., I

'~>I ~'" t·, .~ ""-'. n . , . _", I'~ k .'. ",'. r "-" .. ' .. , ·~;;;'t- h'-' '-'.'~ ct .'> .. ,-~~ ... ' I}' bb .~ 'n';" 'g" a" b 0···· U' t t h'" e'"" rn "a': "1: n bea ri n:' g'-'

alll'y S·i~ro _g ,cran .', ca,s~,e WI I I e-x .. ·eln,Slve rt,I:,L ~,~~ ':_~..' .I __ :-,._~ I' .>'.:. _ _I.'~.

webs resulted in an engine of remarkable smoothness and freedom from vi bration l.arge heavy motor mounts were cast lrrteg ral Jy'.:,

. . ".' _. '. '._ . .. '. . iI; ., _~ '_.: .." .... . ~',:, . .. _. 1_. . . '. . I, . _ .•. ... .. , '. :'. _ .. _.

with the crankcase. The. Wagner and Rernv ignition, starting, and generator systems were similar to the ones on the 1917 cars. A

'-. c_, .. ···llr de ,".iil." ' ... ~. d -' .. ' .... '-·t,·~ .. ' f: ..... ed ,'c '1',:' h r ~ III ~ '. -'1' -st ... : r-: ' m·· wa :5-' us; .ed a n~' d "a'

we· I ~;!e.s'l.g:n:e,! _' .po,s.IJve_.ee~:- I' ~s,pa .. s_. _. O.II.~ ng s·ys.,e .i. "'..~. :'I,_-':" ,.1- i:

large tubular radiator with centrifugal pump and four-bladed fan -. - - .--. ":-.' f:"':-· ." t ' ... -'" '-~f:' the . r: . "I~' - "< .•• -. t ._'. ".

wer'e' . eal-.U re's Q - .' _i . e (,0'0._1 ng: .sys .' em •

The transmlsslons of the new Studebaker cars of 1'9'18· were

, - _. d d

_ ~. ' .. '.' ,,_' \ .'~.; ",=-' " ," : :- i!!!':. ' _ ,,_. "I :._ ,". '"" I!I! .' .' ..• _ '",' ""',_." ',:.:. I' ",,' .:<;:,",.:. ,"" . .'. ', .. -:._ -_l , .• ,,' ,'_" ' •. ,,~, ._.~ •. ' ~.,

mounted amidships directly under the floorboards on a stur y

':.' bf '3im:·· e· -The: t --. ' ..... ", .... le .... , .. ;··t·· ",' >' .. - ::c· farn rilia r' ·f .. e··· .. .atu r'~e'"'' 'Q"-"n: a' 1'1

SU, r,a' ",'-', '., .··rans,ax, e sys:e,m;. ,a. _.ct 1 J L_·· ._ .,~;: ,-.- '~ ..

S d- 'b' k . h'· ill' b- d d" f" B' .'

.- tlU ·e~">a.er cars up to t, 1'5. 'fl' me, 'Wit··s a:--a:n:, ,o'ne. "or'ev'er .". etwee,n

t·h·', !e··:_·· m'~ ~ oto,r ,a·~·· n d" 't''-''r' "a~; n"" ·5···.· ·m·· :.-.' I~ s'~ . .'S".',I· ·o·':n'· -t··h· 'e.·~~~ r· e·.· w.··a·-· S:-' a:i 11 ex~i b'.:'i I e ,c'ou"p •• ·~. ·Il ng.····. w'h' i c'h;~

• . • I • .. _ ...' .. _ ' ... 1 ' •. - ~ ,I. ,.1 .. .... '.' , • l J . • .' J l _ . _. I. "... .. .' . .' '" '"\: I ... ,. l_ ,

h',e,,1 p.':-"Ie<'d to "smllooth Qlu:-t. p-o·.-·w'e·:.r- II m.p .. ··u.·I'ls.e·,·,s··'·. lo •. ;·f-' the, moto·r a'nd wh:i ch to"o"k,

- I ... _ • • '. • • • • • ••• •••. "",,'. __ • _'. _._.... ,. -_' ~,." ._.J' '...... • • . .• - . • 1 • _. ,_. • _, . .. • • • ..',

'.' ','. --:··f\ '. - - ... ,'!, """." ' .• ,. "1'·' -- .. ' - .. ' '. tf. "f' "-" ·'t:··L. ' '.' "··d' t .. - ..... - ~, ... -;!I: -.,'- T'h' ... : .. ~

'c,·are ,0 a,ny m:l:nor m'lsa"lgnlmenr. 0:.' m,Q or .·an:.r.a~nr,sm,r:SSI.on~ .: e

C·: "o'-'--"'n' . ·s····· 'C'" :1' u't':-c····'h·L. 0" ... f . ',11 I' 'm-~'-·"··· .. · .. ·.·-'ii~th· ~"~It'·:h· e'" :- f'';'a··c·'i n"'or e"" -n" g:' ·;ag:··,:e:-··,d- t; h'e'" ·1' in:"" :s·~·d·-·-,e·-· o····f··

..... .... .'. '.' ' .. '" , .. , au. II.n,U.m W,I' . l;eit7 .. 1 _;.·r __ I~J!. -0/<'" .~>_."".'.~'-:. ';:. ,- .,L .. ·'.·

the flywheel. A clutch brake was employed to slow the cou ntersh aft

':'I·'·d·'- - -. '::-, '~'d" ."., f'····· .- .. :iI... .' "'dii1 . -' ·-t"'h-·" .- '- "-ih~ .I'·f··-t .. '~""'·-·_· A· .. ··· '1'-1 '-t,: ., .. - - .. '.- t .. - -.;;;:, ,.~

an: .. p1ro,vl:'.e or e,a,Sler anl', s~mo;o~.: er geoa.r S::·I· ~n.g" :~_!ra.n.smls'Slon

f h d eJ h "'. k '1' t· :I' d t'-h

gears w'ere o··ar, eneu c·,·ro,me-·n'!c'e 5 ~·ee~ an"'·' _ e ~Qle··ar' cas·e was

.: "- ·c·· ".' '-'.' =-_" .:-"'- - '." . --,' •.• • ,'." ._-. '.' '.- I . .' _' '. - "_::'.' '. -: 1- ," '01 .. ' ' .. '., :'.' - .... '.- " .• _ ..• '.-.'

_.: ':f'~ .~J , .. nlru '.'- T' 'h ·e··, -m····-~'· .. · ·'·-,··· .. ··~h',,··~~-;,f:·:·t·'c -.'.- ~ -: .-_: fo I',' -T''; --··· .. ·,k- '. -c"1 b ":.- '.'~ -., 'td the

o. adU'm,1 .. u,m~ _.' .'.:" . ·aJn·'s .. a:. r~n. on ,our ,.Im,'en-ear~ngs an:: -,,_,e

counter shaft in bronze bushings. The short, straight gear shift

le .. ·:···· ··e'·.'·· . W' a: "'5: 'rno' - - 'n'- te d d lire C'" t~1 ~'-'- '.' t-.lh ":.'. tra ,.-, . ~ >.'. :~. '.. ,c:. ':" - ... - .. '. rd . I. .-

I wer was sou .n.e o rnre lyon ... e rransrrussron Coyer ano gave

h t "rio . h t't t r: I bt t, b' I ., h

snort posmve eear can'g:··~·es·, an action no usua r 'y .• 0 .... :'al name witt

,. . ! -,_, : : I· .. : ,0····'··.. -- '. _.~: .• ':": :-.,./ .'.' '-. ,':. : '.', -e '::···c. '.-'_"'''.''_I :., :.' "'c:,' _ 'C:',_,: -' ""'.' _" .. ' 1:..1_

h I d I· -, I

teo .':-:: transax e' assernb v.

'p ~ . d toth I' b 'b I ~I

'. " :.: _. -. "" : .. -:.".c ' .. ' .. , i':-'" .-.,': .. 1-'1""" . .-,: _. -- :. '''-:''''' '.,-. '.", 1: -:-··, ·'1 I': I ,. ,.' '-,.' "_..,

ower was transrnitte to t· e rear ax e .y a tuu ar proper er

:~-h' .aft. ;','.", ..... red with Soicer 'nech.rr "":""':'I-U-' ~"~' t:x'. Th:~-"''=' ;-',~ <'.= .". ··-1 .. ···· ltselt

,5,_ a., equ I.ppe.i W.I -iP,~c.· .. r mec __ ,a.nlca._,_:''''jOI,n:.s,~. I '~' re:,a.r a.x. e L_s,elll, t

-. '."" .. ' d t - h -."' .. -. - . h . ., . 't .. t h T" ~ ..... k .' . I" h .'- e . _. - '. .. -. . ... .'...,.. -, -··;1 - f"

e'qIUI.pple~-1 '1_" rou,B.'::Q,u.-:. WL_': " ._ rm>e.on· :' ea.rl n.g·s., w:as ·a. ma.rvel' 0·'.

r:u ggedness and .si rnp licitv The silent. Hoi ral beve! 'g':~e,ars were': of

! .. _ "_' _.' #' ~ ... '.: .. :., . .i' + v _

S P·-· .. , ·e.-· 'c"; a:· -. -I h ·e·.-:·- a; I·t· .... t . roe" ated c··· h r·· o' 'm' ', .. " e''': n···· I 'e': 'k 'e' II ste el 'T' I he - ·:'e :.. ' .. ' .. I·· ':-. h ... ' · .. f -to '. :- .',.- .... ~ ... _~

,-'.'-:~:' ~.I.> ':,- _'-: .. 11 < _' .. \:; . .:,' .. ;" ':. - _I 1'- "_.J, s'-< :.;1.,:. .~ r~-:ar ax 'e 5, ,a .s were

d f .',1 h d'··' I' ~'. II' ,

m~a, e, 0 -. sple'Cla] C ~ ro:mle-v'an~a.-'~.[Ium ste~~ I vlrtually immune to

b·-· .".:'_- :-- -k"" .. '. ,':. A······ , . ". -.-.:!' ·ft ·t'~ ' -ty. - f':--:' ., '. '1' . '-'. - - "d" A'" H' t'l ,- h'k+

rea .. _': .. ·ag.e., .~ ". ,se~ml-.: ~o,a.;"ng . ,:.p,e o. re·ar ax~_e was u.se:<~'- .. ,_O,C,' <1.·5:5

rear drive was used with its .advantages of simplicity, smoothness,. an,d lo,w U' ns,:p ru' ng····. we·i:g-·:ht. 'r:h'e ru'g--,~g---"eld p";'res's·ed' ste,el: cha:n n·,e·l ...

. .... f·· :._ .1 - .... '.. . • - _ , l. . . :.- ....• :,-: . .-:... . .. - _ . .. _ - _... . ..- .. ... . I ,'.. . I _

.. ' :-:t·-" 0."'" -f'· .' ~ " .. ' ~-. ~- .. ~ ···d .. :' -:-'., "-'. d:' '.' ·t'· ·t'·:h· ." : .. - .. ' : ·th· - t· "t··':hL.,.. • '-.' . ,- _ •• ';Ii.. .' .'. . fd'-

sec .Io~n . ram'e was -w~ ene_. ;a, . .c_ ,e· rear :So- ... :a.: .1_ e rear s'pr~ng.s c,~ou 11'_:

'b t" d Ii·t, h t' h- A- ~I ,. l~ i'll ' .

. :e m·ou n'<e· ·W.I<;O'U··- .a'iny o,ver_- a.·n:g~~ "JI s,pr'~ng's ·werle· uU'I,Jt In.

Stude.balke'r's Q'-wn fa.ctories clnld w'·ere' semi-,e,llip:,t:ical a.~1 aro'und,.

, . I"

'·w:J~·th~ b':,-ro' :··,-n'l·z· ··,e·'-·}!!!!i -b,,:" U- '5' ··h~'· 'e' d"" 'e> y'e,.___··-s, A·: .. ··· .. g.' :r· e' 'a: ····t d'" e:~il 0> ,f: .0 .. ,": ·ili - ~.~,'- ".' '.: ···t· .'d-·,···' ..... ~.'J., t.-

' ... : .: .. < _ 1- ... , . 'e, '.1_ 0;'::) ,---", . '. :~~. ~._.". ,-'_ .a. , C.·.ngil nleer~ ng .5 U Y wen.

into the design of chassis and springs with the result that

FI'··g·,: 9···1 .. '3'·:, T~'e' 1'·'9"'·2:'2:: M",o·.'-::·,d,'·e·" {- E~-K' .. ··

, . ' .. _ 'I. ,... 1 _ , t.' I II·_.· ,._. , .. _ .... ., :. .. .. ~ .. : ... , . . ..

,~·:I ~ - .. " ,I _ •. _' ' •... _ ". '.-. ]l._

Bi,g Slx. ,sported" ne·w h'e.ad-

IIg'ht's} a one~p.re~ce, ·wind··

$,hield with ·c,owllig·hts, an',d

num' >.af·O··U·S· n'" e- 'w" c··~'ha-:·s·\s·;·I.,c: l'~m"-:;'

_ .... ~"·'l· ... ~.' ... '~.~ ,',.' .. ' .. ' .: •.. '- ~~ ...... ,.:,' .. : ~I . ~.I~'.:!JIIIiiii!

prove.me'nls .but its' ,~tatus as

;:;::]1 P'_'<' ·e·:-' ,f"-o' r· m:· . "a'" n' .. ;: C, 'e:·· l:e:· .... ··a· -·d'·e·:r--· I'~n~i 1-~t:'S<

[;rl ...' .. ft q I , ... ' .,' _ . _. . .. _- I·...." .' r. • •• 1 u_" .- . _ .

P· r.'J' iIi·C'-'--:· e': c'~'I-'~s' S'" r'e'" m; '::lJ'~n'" ";e: d·· U-_'-·'---:.n··· ......

_. .'.'..'- !. I. . .• a.., ... : ... ~ \ . .' :' . a;. '... :' ... , _~ . ._.

,chan.ged·~

66·'~

,

.. ."' ."

. ' , . to· idi f II

Studebaker .cars of this vintage were among the easiest nurng 0 'a

rna kes The front axle was of conventional design but extremely

a ..:_" 0 :.' I' ; .~. ! _ _ . [ _ "_ _'~' ':, . _~.. • ' .. _ _' _ - _ • I _ ~ • _ I '_ .-' • _ •. ;" ,-';0 • _. I~

strong .

, ,

Taken by Us component parts, the Big Six chassis cannot be

said to nave had daring innovations orcngineerlrrg breakthroughs to excite the connoisseur of 'motor vehicles. Such noveltiesand

d '1 d h b · k iii" "j "h t· h t" ..

ep a rtu r es W", ''':.10'·: 'U . ":', n' ot '~"~V::""~ r- een ~ n· ceeprng wit :':,' '.II'~·~e conservatism

• .... _ ' _. .••• : ~" ' •. -_' , II "',:~,' ' I' ':'.,', ,_, : , '_ ,:~ ... " a ~"' L ' " ',-, "' _ " ,'_, ",'_." ~,', _ ' _, ,

, -

of" Studebaker, lit would have to be left to others to p .• iioneer:

. '- .... ~ .... _ " ' ,-.!.-- .;.: '., .' II" • ~ .-' -, -.,.' -.' _ _',"V" _ _ • _'

'S':~-t::"1 rd 'b"--' ak .;",. d·II··-"·;:~·' ," . .d '--""'·,1"1 b t ,;._-" ,t'- f":I':,· -: hilv '0,""·" nly bv obse rvin g~" the : .. >,·u· .... :·e.··11a'I··e·r ..... ,e,s~g -, ne',· we·" ':, .. ;IU .. n:o, I a,s, .[ y~ ·, .. :.n., ,.y .... :.,': ... ,_.,~_::'_-.,_. ~ .

. , h"" '" ", ,', , vhole ar d ./. ,. . ~ . ~. ,:. t ,-,' -,- -'--'f:: . '1"1 . ' ,".-,"" t h " ',', .. _..",' "h'" , ,-::' '. II!. -: ·.-'1

c assi s a·s a wnore ann exarru n I n:.g, ~ :: care u ,IYl' can . ne mec .. ran I ca

h b - d T~h · -- k oolnt 'I! . h d '"

. .arrnony ne appreciated. .'. ere IS not. a weaj point rn tr e esrgn.

·H· ,: er e' and there are parts an-d' components which wil I lasta I ifeti me,

t _ ' ' ,I ',' , : 1 ' ". .:_, _,,, ..: ' : .. ' ,_I _', : -; • " • ,,". 1.- ,', ~ , • _ .... ','. ' I ,,} '.".' '..' l' I" t , .r _' _ _. '._ iii.

Huge Timken bearings and high-quality alloy steels abound. Everything that requires adjustment is easily accessible and convenient towork with - The ruased dep .. endabilitv the sheer indestrue-

_ , '; I ,,' ,,_,,; '_'_ ',,' , '_'. '.' 'I .. ~.. '~. 0"0,"-'" ; /1" ," ", .] ,_" , - 1 __ 0' ','-', ,_I_, -rl" __ [ _" _ "'I.,' _, ,_ ,_ "~ , _,

tibility, the inherent toughness were soon to build a world-wide rep uta ition for t h e'",'" Big Six Big Sixes were' equally at horne on the

,'_. ::, .. ':, :, ~" . ',.' !.', '"," - ":~'. ,_.- ", it :"',: ',,' ,." ,'" . "", ,,_ ',_ . ..-"'1:"',-. "-,, '.:' '. ,c '.' I .', - - .. " " __ , - ., c

. -

b,ou leva, rds or in the backwoods They carried royalty and th ey

"'.-- ,,-,,',., '" -- "::':_' -;" .' ',,', ',._ ',' _", ",-:1 .. ·' _ .;__ ''-~''''''~.'~ ,_ '.- ,:: __ ,:.,1. ,.":. ,'.':' -,.: ~': _--, ," ' __ ' .-,

.' -' '.

" ,,'." ':: :-:' d ," ,-,"" ",' ,',,'" :" rk he ',' ,',- .'--' , '.: ,.- ':"k', .>!I' -, ",' 1-.: .rv r: " I" . :,t"'" '--',: f<- ':'~',.' -e 't" 'h-·,··iI ,', ':e"':"rs' M······ "'li n"'y""

server as. won .orses. a .. s._J n,.g no q'lu,ar,er rom. ,eJ r owners ,0, ':'

ran for two-. three .. ,. and even fou r-hundred-thousand miles.

'- -- . . -, - - - - '-, ." . . ' " ...."'.'., -,', ,-' .' ,-- -" ~ - - - . ,', . .

'THIE, M,QD',EL E·G :UIG .-S"I·X' 1,9:1:,8 TO 1921

For the first several' years, the Big Six was produced only as a seven-passenger tou ring car I but by 1921 a seven~pa5senger sedan and a four-passenger coupe were added to the line. Chassis

h f" th fl t f '. ,t S' d f t

c "a,n,ges tor r ne '~-I' rst " ou r years were rm nor, noc Y' re rnernen ·,-5 were

introduced in 1.920 as cowl light's were added and the windshield frame was redesigned, On 192"1 models. a reverse c.u rve was added to the rear fenders and Alemite lubrication fittings replaced the oil cups used before.

T'H.,E M O·D'.E·L EK arc ,S I'X, '1'9~22, 101924,

By 1922 the Big Six was one of the most talked about cars in

A- m-- " e·: rica Over ?O'c, -0""10·0':: of the E:G,,' ''; mod els were no iw r 'I~ n t h::' 'e'--"" hands o f"

,-: 1,. I, ca •. ,' . __ ' ,:}. 1",'" " - '["'. .-.',"',"', "' .' ',,-,' ','-,', ~ I I,:,' "'.: '_'.~ :c--,.

satisfied owners" and Studebaker could find little to change or improve in the chassis except the cone dutch which 'gave way to a single .. plate dry-disc dutch of Studebaker manufacture. Bodies were further refined; the windshield was Changed to a one-piece type; a cowl ventilator was added; and a courtesy light added to illuminate the left side of the car at night as an aid to passing motorists (Fig. 9-3). The seven-passenger Touring, seven-

passenger Sedan-and four-passenger Coupe werecontinued.

F/~'a ,~!-5'~ Tn,: ~·e··" Mo tie! E',,'K','·· 8",'·"t"

0" :::1 ... 'i!i 'j.'. -:- ..' .," .~. 'V - . . . ' ... ' 0

Six .Speedster of 1923 was

the ultimate in Studebeker

l -,. _ _ • ] 1 _ .. ' _ I .. • • >I' _. • _ _ _, ~

tourine ca •. r lu :¥u' 'ry',' '--,~.

, .. ~ . .. rl ... - - ,A. . r I

'.- . '~

68'

,

"

. .

Nickel-plated radiator shells appeared on the Big Sixes in 1921.

Automatic wi rrdsh i eld wipers brake-actuated stop': lights, nl ckel-

, . ,_. ,. -. " ,- ,;, "'. ..', . ". l ~," .~"' " . - ... " ., I

, . ,

plated burnpers , motometers, and disc wheels became, standard

equi pment ,i n this same model year. Two new models were added: a five-passenger Coupe, virtually a two-door Sedan fFig. 9-4); and a deluxe Tourer the five-passenger Speedster (Fig" 9-5)., The Speedster was of exceptionally striking appearance being equipped with two side-mounted spare wheels; 'a commodious trunk on

the rear platform, and extra nickel trirrr, The 1924 models (Fig. 9-6) were continued almost without change untilv mid-vear when

, '

production was shutdown to make way for the improved 1925 cars.

Z" "', d -~ ~ '" 1- 9-"2'--:"0- -,' -"1 B'·'··'-" " , R":' <, - " ' ,'- d ,'- t h - c' n i 19'2"6"

~ eoer lin, :,:,-~ .'. unti barnev :;0,05 appeare on : ne seer _e· rn .. ,~~;'-, ... ~

During this time, their engineering accomplishments were for the

most part dismal, and management seemed incapable of reacting to the competition. Successful automobile manufacturing requires the careful blending of engineering, production, and sales. This analysis neglects-the role of styling certainly less important in the Twenties than today. If anyone of these elements is lacking, the

b ~,,, · " t b il . ff I t ~ t - 41' bit" - ,:. - k- , - f . .. I' 'k . 'f:

, .r I .. ' 'I -~.: •. -I'" :~:_..';' '> :,-. .:- . , : 1:,",., . ' I 'I ' I' ,. ,I " .',' , ". ml, i . " 'U ' ",- r a. 'c .' 0' I'

, us~nless l.neVI a" Iy SU, I ,e.rs~, .. IS nn pos.SI.. -e 0 ,1 ,a.,,,, ... e p -,0, ~" ':-' --'.'

one element by superior work in others.

Thus we find Studebaker soaring to, great heights from 1!91'9

I ••. ,. , _ • . ~ _. j _. .. , _. - • • • '. -_ '. .'. • j - - " _. - ;. '.~ - - •• - -. - - _ -'';' - •

through 1923 on the basis of the fine. models developed during and immediately after the war. Then, Just as suddenly, we see them d b hi d th '!iI'''', d f: hot h 'h I f:OB ~ k '_.:,rop I. 'e: unc the .cornpetttion ... lnstea 0 hot Ion' t:, 'e neers 0.'- _~ urcx

as they were in 1923, they were way behind Buick by 1926. In the

.' - .h I ~ , , "ill ' d ~ l' 92' "4 h d b' 19' "2''":6' f d'

','" .-,1 , •• C",,',- ,.1""",·,: .... ','-' , ..... "-', :':;",," 'i'~'~,",·-" ,'-1':'.'" In"I' ,"':,:., '.,,', .r: i:"",""" ,; ',::,,:. 'o"'r'--'e:-:':'

.. ' " - ''; , .. . .~ '. - I I ;......:." I. I . . "_ I '. . . I I . , ~. _.. • . .'. ... ". "c- ~.

rneantirne- C rYs"e.r.r]u.stgettln.,g,starte,--, ", __ a y . __ g _

ahead of Studebaker in sales. lt is no comfort that Studebaker did fairly well in the Twenties: the question is how well they might have done had they the engineering talent that departed with Zeder, Skelton, and Breer.What effect these factors may have had on the f.- rtu re of" Studebaker can no t be told.

u _ . _,.. .' ,",<" • '. " ..'

, dditl ~ h h d b h d t. f'

ln ace ttion to t ie cnanges mac e' necessary .~y t te adoption 0'

full pressure lubrication and unit pow~r plant construction, the 192.5 models featu red improved rear axles and brakes._Thewheel~ b . f II d I '. .. d' . 'I' h B· S'" t 12'7

. ·a.s1e.s 0,' ~, . mode 5. were ;I ncreasec one met I 'o'n . ~,lg~'lx',es TO "e,: '

inches. Body lines were improved and rounded, and balloon tires were 'made standard equipment on all models.

THE M'OD,EL EP B~I:~G SiIX, 1':92,5,1'0 19'26

The Model EP BIg Sixes: of 1925 {Fig. ·9~7), announced Sep-

"tl "··e': rn ,~e'-;r' '1' 4'·'-· ,·192", ',4,'" I· nc Iu ded the f'-Ili rst rna [ort e,"~,ch, in 'i cal imp rovements in

,_ " 1 U. . ":;]), ' ,<. .', ',' . .. . _ . . , . _ • '". _. _ _ . Cit _. _ . ,.

the Big Six since its introduction in 1918. The basic engine design ,': "n'" d; I d ,; m" - "Je"",ln-" S ~,~ Q",~,' ·n'· s,' W'" ..... e" .' r'e"· f"e·. ': .• t·· ain ed " bu t: th 'e c:'o m'p' .. " ressl on, rati 0 'w':a's

a, I ,I, ~.. ~ ','. .".u",,, ._. _ ,', ._,,' .

increased from 4.1 to 4.45 with the result that the engine now produced 75 horsepower at2,400 rpm. Full pressure lubrication is provided to .all mains, connecting rod bearings, and camshaft bearings. Simultaneously, the old system of mounting the transmission on a separate subfrarne was discontinued in favor of the transmission in unit with the engine with enclosed flywheel housing. These improvements plus provision of astiffe.r and

heavier crankshaft crankpin and jnain bearing journals were increased 5/16 irrch or better in diameter resulted in an engine fully capable 'Of sustained high speed driving.

Thus revitalized, the famous Big Six engine was again able to face competition from some of the new, high-compression, high"'-speed powerplants then coming to the fore. With nothing Comparable on the drawing boards, Studebaker could only cau nter the threat with the brute force of its, ponderous Big Six. It was inevmtabJethatfinesse would win out In the end, butthe BigSix held

its own for quitea while. ..

'O:E'C'E.PT,IV':E:L Y PROSP~EROU"S, Y'E:A'RS

,_. The rn id-Twe nties, while seemingly prosperous years for ~~lIdebaker I Were in a broader sense a low point. They lacked camp"' to t '.. .. I d hl f th t~ f d ture - f

.', oerem engirreenng reaoers np ;rom r,' re trrne or ceparture :0"

THE, ,KAR,E A,ND C·U,R,:I',OUS· FOUR:~'WHE'E'L ,B,RA.K.ES·'

Now we come' to one of: the curious .. lncidents which make automotive history the fascinating subject that binds our interest. Studebaker's principal competitors, Buick .and Chrysler, both adopted four .. wheel brake systems on their 1924 'Cars. In spite of competent engineering advice to the contrary, the top management of Studebaker adamantly refused to go along with the

four-wheel brake concept. However, the public enthusiastically endorsed four-wheel systems, and soon Studebaker dealers were complaining bitterly of lass of sales to other makes.

Several years earlier 1912 to be exact Studebaker had publidy acknowledged that they made a mistake with the two-speed

ss

, ,"

The system was so pOD rly received that Studebaker itself

d b I k husi forii it ,J b

seerne 'Ulna,' e: to- work 'up any entr usrasrn tor It as wrtnesseo <"Y'

th e toll owi ng-' q ••. ~ uotation from the 1925' Studebeker Facts Book for

~ •. l

S,··· ales ' .. rn 'I"'e'-~ n "Tw """0'< W":"" h'l ee! b ra k es - P"'" ro .: p e",'/r',I.y""-' d e·:s:··' lgn e··- .d sue .h as,

.,.) ~.- ", 'I " '. ",' ','., "",,-.11 .' ~ "'" . -, I' "',,', I,." '.', --' .;" .~",--.', .. ' . -'

" .

Studebaker uses as regular equiprnent on aU models, are adequate

for all demands of service; but, if a buyer believes that he should have four-wheel brakes to satisfy a eonviction that they should be added as a necie,s:sa,ry,' 'P';;' recaut.ion, 'Stu d:eb,aker c,an, f'urnish,' the',m !as

,_. 1

opti'onal equipment on any Studebaker car/' Thus, Studebaker

refused to admit that four-wheel brakes were anything other tha.n an unnecessary luxury.

The fou r-wheel brake option could be insta lled only at the

'_' • I .•.. ; - I . . .. ,... 'c __ 1'.... .' I" .. • _' _ ".", .. _ •• _.J ',y-<' ." .... , • ".--.l" I ._''I._"_ ' ..•.. ,. .' ~._, ''I., '. ~-

1 •

fa ..- 't- -', .' ' A: ..... h ',' d '.-" ·',,1 'I ~~ " .. '; -I't '." d ." '.-= ,'. b .:: t 1': sz, inch ";. ,." -~: " di ",' .. ~·c ., ·t", .. : ,- -, '--'. -.' ;-',

actorv.An Y",'irau, ~JC cy I noer anou ,':, . -va inc .. e,s· I, n marne .. er was

, ti t th b -k f'- t h' t '. ~ h .'1' II d " Ii" h .

cast ~ n' =.0 :I~.: e nac ,,". '0:)= . me trans rmssron case 1 ortzonta ,y ann at rtght

angles to the, axis of the main shaft. ln the cylinder were two opposed pistons which travel outward from the center a. maximum of 2,~ Va inches in each direction. Attached to the rear 'OT the

t :i.' "",' .... ,::~ ',: ''"'''' ','" "''_:''''!' .'. ".,.; .c~ .".'I-I·····:,'·~ ,.1' '-,C- ,-.' d "~.,." '.,C- offthe t .. ,".',,' ;., .. ,:,",." I_ ... ~ .. _., ·- .. rain

ransrrussion was asmai 0111 purnp.. rrven 0 ,,:' e. ransrrnssion main

shaft which drew oil from the, bottom of the transmission case whenever the car was in forward motion. The a-il was normally

d b k I~ t -h --' II '. th h a ret I

pu mpec nacx I nto the transmrssron tn rou gn a. retu rn passage. ;1 n

this, passage was a control va lve which '-'1 was operated whenever the

,d·-:r·J I·v··.··~e'r.- . ~e:~,--p··'··.· r·,,'e-,-'s,'s·e·.·~:"-·d' J ,t-"h,,·-'e:-.,· ·f'o'"o'·t,~· 'b"" r~--a·"·k'.· .. · e:c--' pJ.e", -d'-'- ~'I '-t'~ h"';':e-~ -' f:-I,'·r":s,'-·,·t··-ccCC,t'--':'h; .. ··, r-:··e,::,'e·:-" "I~ n-'-: -c •• h····.·e~-,s.·- 0: "f'·'

.", : ,.':".' u; '. .: I "'.' " '.".: _' __ ", . ~ ":' . '. '. ' I l .: : .', . ',.' .'. J,'"_ _.' -", l . l • i" . . .:. '", . ". , u '. .. ,,",":.- I " . " •. ' '._ , .,'.~. t: " I " • :~ [ .:} • ~ '.

travel lf t -h·--·· e valve 'W' vas ·c' Iosed b "''-y"., 'O"iP' .e ra tio n of th: re foot b irake pe ·d"" a 'I

- I .. ' -->il!l ~ , .... '~'. I::-'~.:;__- .'. .'\-;; /:.' i' .. » :111;.. ... , '.' ,,~~. ; '::"'--:- ',.'. ':.,',1'. :'_:__ ~J<-"." ,

·,t'h· ',' flow "-f;~>"'~'~' frr: .·,C the -.'- '·m'II'· .... '.-~ , diverted into the h vdra rlic

ne IO:W 0 Q~I rom; ,e. p'u~ ,P' was rnverre :1 in 0 me nv rauuc

cyli nder, and the pressure forces the pistons to travel outward, ThIs

mo,: 'Jt";o,"I':n':-" f:u·"r'n'lliIIs,:··.·hi·,e',s.-) ·t~hl. e' .. ',' p,-~r·e'.-"s,:s'··u: j·r:e··:.' ·t""OI'· JO··'·:P-i8. :-r"·a'·'t':'e',' ,t':·h··e.·'··· b·'r':a,:,·k'·"·le<,'-s:·'·', t:··h·, r';o'",',',u g\,_h:c, ,

_ ,·,Ii ," I '"'_ _' ;-." , ..... ':' '.'.' .. _".' . _" ~ ',_\},_"-.-.', "._ _.' _','- . .'> -.'_" ..... "_ "> _ .. 1 .. '.... . .' '.. _.'", _ -." ..... J _-:. ,", ',_ .• 1::_-:,"

me'-':'c;' h'"'' a:·:' n' I'"'C"':a--"II! I i n~'" k-~a'" g .• : e~"s:" "'0'·, t' h·' e,'·-,'·, f"'ro·..-"·.-··n"--:·t a"·" n",·'·d·,··, r"e-:a''-! r- w·····~·····~h';,·· e'" eJs'·

_ ',-",' ',';,. ,.,,<,-~ ,II I .. ' ','. ,",'. ,~_" , .',', 1« - 'c. _ ' '.-' :', '_,_ ", '''I.'I,::,~,

The leverages ,on the brake control rods was: such that the braking power was gre.ater on the rear wheels than on th.e front,

'F1i' d d -h bli ._,. 'I ith the d ~,~ ,

_; lane ers, ann tr ·e. puc ,I ,C went a: D'ng WI t__ tr e aorn I, SSI:o,n ~

Su . d ;,: eb. .', kc ',- '-"" '." ::, ',- be -k'.-"" .' ')-, -':-'" .'-, .. '. 't 'N""''-' ",' " :~., . ':' :-". ,"'" '1'""" ,,'., ' .• ~~ .' .. ' t st ", -, b ho , r 'n~ "~'I Y"'"

..:JU.,·e':.·,aer w,o',n ""-, .Iac"." suppor .. 'I' ,ow ; man·agem!en. ~ S _Ui',-.. , .

refused to admit that they hadmisjudged. The only concession was an' optional to '···U-I -, r-whe "e'·''': I" brak .... ·· esvstem for 19'25: cars Hastily: designed

__ ', _ _:-', , "'_', ", ...:.._ ._,,::~. __ r ," -.:.,~ _ 0 ", • _, .', _', _. '",' ~' •• " ~' ••• - •• ' "'.: ••• ,~. 1 I . '_ - .. ..:.__."' '\.. .•..• .:_~ .... , ':.: '", '_"!_'-. ,~.~ •• '.- ,. - .

. ,~ ,:_ . .

d· d "-I' d f I th .

an II naoequ ate y tested t or :c,o .. nsumer appeai I t .. , _·e system w'a·s

radically different from anything seen before in this country, and as we shall see later, was never to beseen again for good reason.

70

Contracting bands were used on the rear wheels and internal expanding shoes on the front, The amount of pressure which could be exerted on the pistons varied from about 45 to 80 pounds per square inch, and the maximum pressure was set at the factory by ·a;···· d IJ- U strn . £;lin" 'to of a·:' r'[e;-'" -111;1' ef v r . ·· alv Ie:· a",'" C .. C '0' ". rd ~ n",' g ... ; t o·~ th·· .. : ,e· "_. wei g .. :, h- t··, of a, g';.' I!IIV··:·:: e··-··· n

. ..... ',', _._ . I ~ .' ~: .. I . I •. f,.. .. -' .' .. ' "._: .. __ ... ,',. I. ". I [: .~. . .': " . . J' • •• '. _:_:. I . . . J'~ ...•• . _ '. '

_: :_~. . . _:' , ';,

model. The relief valve was set so that, with the maximum braking

force, the rear wheel'S could just be skidded on dry pavement, The front wheels could not be locked because the braking force was less on them and the instant t re rear wheels Jock, the braking force w,as re'l leved [.

When the car was still or backing up, no pressure could be exerted by the pump; hence, no braking force was derived.

However, the. first three inches of pedal travel operated only the control valve; additional movement of the pedal brought the rear wheel brakes into play by an independent mechanical linkage. The

h d I'io ~I .' . d b ke ooti . tem I

. 'y~: rau real y-actuatec orake option was ,a, true servo system m

which t-':h['~ e/' driver actuated only a valve by f100t pressure, and the

- - .. . . ~ - -' Q. ~ .. " ...,..,. . . - .' . . '. ." ..... ..,. ". -

. . ,

bra k ... ing ·f'"o·'· rce w ·'a·: S:' e' xe irted by .. ' the m" ·0·" rtio n" of th['" e':' c a r itself th ro .u g'~

. ~ , . . I. . '. " : .. ' .~ . '. - .' . ~ I.. •• - . . ..:_:.' ,. • _:' • _ t - _: .. :' " .." I '.' I_ . • - ~ . .'. • . [ II. _ . [ l 1 • [~, . . _.. . • ~ j I

..:. '. :

the development of hydraullcpressu reo

The exclusive advantag .. zes claimed for the system were two

' . '. .' . _.' .' .... .' . , ._ .. ... :.: '.~' • ", .. - I l I' . . . • . , I. _ ' ,;' r.. .:-- ' ." '. ,... '. . _ '. " .... 'llil

F'lIl t h d II· fl id d d h - I rrst, :no separate hyc aunc ':' UII: was neec ec as the transmission oil

is used hence no tubes nor hoses were required to carry fluid

P·'rle'·'ss·· ·'e· to Ii td .. vid ··· .. I! wh .. '··· .:...:·····1- ··· .. vli . d ,'.' ,~. ·5::·· .. -·,···· ·····'-···,d f····:···· itwhe ":-1,,- ... : .... Id!1 .: .. ···ur, In._·III,.,ua. wee· cy I.n~ers._,econ.; ron:~w._e.e_scou ".

not lock because less braking pressure was exerted 'upon them. If

[II

Fig. 9-7. The Model EP Big Six Sedan of 1925-26 .testured an improved powerplent with full pressure lubrication and increesed horsepower.

the rear wheels should lock, as: on a wet pavement, hydraulic pressure was momentarily relieved and the wheels would start to turn again. A gauge mounted on the instrument panel had a fixed hand, setal the tactcry, which showed the maximum hydraulic pressure that the pump would develop before the relief valve

" b Ii' d

opens, Amoving hand showed the actual pressureelng. ,':e-

veloped while the brakes were being applied, Just what the virtue ofthis gauge is we cannot tell at this time, because in most braking situations the driver is notin a position to take his eyes off the road to examine his braking pressure. It is assumed that the gauge imparted some feeling. of reassurance to the driver that everything was normal as longas the gauge was functioning,

Th'''' , :" , ~·t: '''. ~. II·· ,,-c, k .' ood .".: ' ,.- <'p'e"'r' '5"'0"" wha t's .... w--: TO :n' 'p wit h ·I'tl'/ So

, e sy.s",em ~OO. S ,go,,_ on p~a,. :'., -1',." ".~ .. :,,';' '" '- -'0' .. . -"'. .' .. « .»:

rare are these systems today on original or restored cars, that few people have had a chance to personally experience the operating characteristics. and time, has dimmed the memories of old timers

--, " d h h · I"·' d :, ff f ,,'

who 'may have been .aroun .. W' fen tnev 'were m use. .. t IS :JiICUI,t

today to critically assess the system, but it is suspected that the potential buyer of the day distrusted it because it felt "funny"

d lIO 'h hat h d _. A : IS'" d b k did

compare with what he was usee to, Apparent y_, Studebakerc I"

not take the time and trouble tocampaign the system and educate the publlcto its merits.

Unlike, the mechanical brake systems; and hydraulic, too, for that matter, wherein the braking force relates more or less proportionallyto the pedal pressure, the full servo-system does not affor d- th e d river any "feel" of the effect of his b raking ', P':', ressu re

~r -< .' . ' '''",. I, " .' I ' " I "-.~ .' - ' -'. - .' - ' ,',., '. . . ' , '. . . _, .] ; ," .. I

. , .

and he lacks the, comfortable though tenuous €onnectionwith the

road below that enables, him to gauge its condition. Then, too, as the car comes to a full halt, the driver unexpectedly finds that his braking pressure suddenly diminishes or ceases altogether, and

~ dl .,11:1 iii '!I' dt - b ·iI - - t 'h " ,,- , 'h' - , ~ . II <Ii" t -- ,

·a'u'.·ltl,onal pressure 'IS requrrec to bring: ;',e rear rnecr arucars mto

play. Regardless of its merits or faults, the four-wheel brake system was 'not a success was not accepted by r the pu .. blic and' was not a

," . ..' " , - ,', '(,'., !' ,'"," " ' i' L_.,., , '__ ... . ,-' - , I· .

suitabletopic of conversation around top Studebaker management

for several years.

On the Big Six; the extra cost of the.four-wheel. hydraulicallyoperated brake option was a modest $75. In addition to the equipment described above, disc wheels were supp ied in place of the wood .. spoke wheels which were standard on two-wheel brake

, . ddi " Ii It ~ d .h f ,', h -f d '~ d d f ,

cars, The ace rtional WI'_~t:.'· orthe ': ront d ru me preciu ,_8"" use 0:' wood

wheels because the kingpin was too far inboard of the tire contact with the road; a factor which resulted in bard steering and

excessive wear on kingpins. Only by using a dished discwheel could the problem be alleviated. Later; when the front axle was

redesigned to a reverse Elliott type with suitable kingpin inclination, Studebaker reverted to the cheaper wood-spoke wheels on

." . h f h I' b -k . I' '!I d .urd 41'

1'9'28. cars, The rour-wneet nra .. ce system a, sa requrren a sturdier

f~ .... , ··,1 ,',. ,·t' . .tir to . ," ,~ t b 'k''''' '., ... t :"-1·"', -. - ,'" d th~'" ·~,t·, _', " ,"

'ront axie construcnon "0 resist nra In'g s rains am ".,,_IS I: ern was

included in the option.

TH- -"E EXC" IUS "I'-V" -E D" '-U-"P"L" E'X BOD--Y

,_: ''':', ~~":'.' ';,: :., ~,.': '. ~ - ~' ::'''-_ ': .. ,-, -,: .. ';',~" ': ..

The bad luck or misjudgment involved in adoption of the four-wheel brake option should not be interpreted to mean that Studebaker was completely lacking in imagination at this time. Today every restorer, or at least most of them, aspire to own an open ,car (Fi,g. 9-B}-a touring, ,::\ roadster, or perhapsa convertible. Therefore; open cars today are worth much more-than correspond-

II. n 'g:. ·c·_,..-I ose :.'·d"· m o idels O'~"· ·n'" t'; hi:' ~ m''-·'' u -dd Y""', d:'· ,U stv ro, .ads of vestery ear.

- , • - ,. , , ' . ,,, ,,- - .,.,',' ,!!!! .. .. I".'~ , _ -, , .. ,' :.' I' ".,. ~,. _.. "" " , r -" - '''', ,~,

though, the average driver of an open car wouldgladly have traded it for its counterpart in a dosed car and giv,en a handsome bonus besides. This was the era of the "California" or "Carson" top when the touring car owner tried to get a little, relief from the dust of Summer or the cold of: Winter by adding a makeshift accessory top with cheap curtains or sliding glass windows. These were an improvement over the flapping side cu rtains=-whtch usually las-ted only a season ortwo--but not much.

Studebaker designers reasoned that a factory version of the California topwould provide the owner withthe safetyand comfort ofa closed car with no more cost than ·a touring, car. The result of their design efforts 'was the Duplex body (Fig. 9~9), firstintroduced on the 1925 models. The Duplex body which was in production for only three years Wi'S discontinued after the 1927 model vear. By this time, taking advantage of larger scale production methods! the automobile manufacturers were-in general able to break down the hitherto large price, differential between dosed and open cars, and the Touring car per se virtually became a thing of the past as. the buvi ng public refused them in favor of the dosed family sedan ..

7,2'

F'· , 9···· 8" The M·:·; d ' .... J. E"'P" B····'~'·',

Ig.. .- o, ~ u e rv oae, cr: :_:_./.g

S'/'X,,··' R,:,·o·,·,·.,'d:·,'s,:·t,:'e--r> was on re 0'" . "f·' tire

. :oF" :_ ... ·._ .. ·0.- .. '~"'. ," " .. ' .. ' ' .. ,."c. ". I ....... :' .' ",I'" . i_ •

really fast cats of its day.

01' -"1·,, "~I·"":--I':'" ..... ' .. ~ .. :,' , '. ,,'._." 11'1., .. ,: .. : ·e· . ,,' .. - ," .. '. t- odav t'h"" -",', 'D' -,,11<_,,' b··· idv '.' .i»: "., "'.'-::,"

ruv occ~s,~o,naluy S,I, en rooav, ,I e izuprex ."O~jy was ~a.n

e :'V'C'" '-I U'~Ji!V"""'e"" Stu d e" ,··b··-,· a k '·e.--·,,' r desi g': n Th e u In" ~f' n form I" e',::d" ob 5'" e rve r:'1 ilil: '5': !a,·~" pt 'to o

'-"'1'\., ,._ .'. ".;;:1 ""'" :' I, ..... ;·c. " ..... ~ ,. "'" .... , ,",,'" :.~I,.'.~ .• , <II ' • ,,:_' ..... ·_1, .. , _ ' .... '. " __ ' , '.:' \,:;:.;1" """":;' :c.... e." -':::0.,_'_ .. ':,"='

describe it as a-" "California" top and- conclude t hat it: is unoriginal

", .'"'.. - '_ '. '.. • , . - , - '. . . ,.: '. .'~' l '. .... , . ..:' • :. _. ," ' ... ". I, " ..". . . ·c.' '. I ... "-_ .. ..:.', . -:: ::. ~. " . _ . ._ . '. '. _. _ ' . _ ~. l _ " . _ I ! . ,":~ _ .. I .1

- ' --

:"T"-h D' . ~' b dv i II f" ..... ., - -h

-e ,,-'uplex' "CIO·. y rs actually 'Car superIor rn construction to te

'average accessory hlp/is carefully designed for the Studebaker car

- -. .

'h"" hlt i d d ( .' f tacki . ,"- .) ,Ii ,',.' d fh

on wt ten it rs use>" an (except ror tac ···'In.g." strips rs constructec 0,'

." , ._," "I· .. <- -.",!, "." ., ,: , _'_ :__', ,-,c."-,,._, '< " .. ' __ """",'.' '.".' _ _.', " .. ,. '.<."

_.1 .::'

S t ~·I t h '. - " aho ·,t'~ 'T h .',.' 0:' ' "·1 .. · .' , t"" .,}' ' . .-, .:.. .. -:., .. '. t )d; , t h ,-,' t'· t- Ih' ,.', f "I ~I, .' -., Ii " c' h . t "" f

,c.:_ee,II, .. _,oug DU,. ,. e l:u.p,_ex,op I.S so S.u r',_y ·1 ·a,.: e ,_ u ~, wel,g~ ~ o.

the' car can be supported by it, and the car can even he rolled over

~ h -

WIt: out collapsing, it.

Th D'" I b dl ."" d it h '1 d I'~

me .zup ex .. oomes are e,qr'UI!'pP'~ft:, W,I '-" conceaieo ro er

curtain5fo~r in number on Phaetons that can be drawn quickly When demanded by inclement weather .. The' edges of the: curtains sl . ide i' n slots :1" n'" the W'I~ ndshi eld .• ·.·: 'p:::o·.·· .. rsts Iii; 'n'" fro .. in rt and . in th eJ side

. . . "'; '- ", ~ , " " " ." _ I . '. , . " '.' ;.' '_ , ' ,. _I '_ _ ,,' _ .1 "'." . I. . '

,

SUpports at the rear of the body, Thecurtai ns overlap at the center,

,p'r'(>vi:d·in:g· ..• ·. maxim "'U rn weath crtightn ess. ·0···.·.· ",n'''' lv ...•. t he U niq u: e",<" Duplex body."" constr·u. c,' ',t.', I·. a ~'n-'I '·m':· al·'k:,a~t"·':h·e· "u',; S' 'eo, 'o.·f='~r'~'o'··II"'I"e· .r r: "u' - r~t:a'"1 'n··' '1,' "p"r':'a'c't"I'c" a:1 'b'y'

, .' '. , '- .:' , "" ' •. , , .... '" . ~,;::" '. , ._.:' ,:' '. c·, ' . I ", ,.. '.' _ ". c ,,_' I .;;;Ji _ " ,I ". I· " ,II,.

glvinp the top suff .... lcient r'I·~g· iditv .. ·.,; to ..... mo': .... U" Tl .. rt t""h e.'m'·' ':'- T'h';-.-· e~~ :D······u- rpl ox·'·' b .. ·.o··· .. · d 'y': .. '

Was :Vailable~nallthree6fthe regular Studebaker mod;ls'the

Big Six th ::""'" :'~":~. c' :~':' ",.010:" '. " ··d···· .. -=-, "::-~ '-, ,','C'C --,.'1 :: t.. '-, ,.,-- r , - -" ....• ,'-:- dste ~,~

,i., t e Special S~Xl an t .. he Standard ,S'IX,,~ Duplex Roac sters

"\1.1" - I '. ". I,' ..

:oyere also available. The tops are permanent and not designed to be

PER,'F'O;R,M.ANC·'E R"ECORDS, BV' AB, JEN"KIIN.S,

The model EP Big Sixes were continued with only minor changes through mid-year 1926. In addition to the 127-inch 'W" -heelbas e'" s e·:· ... d a: n·-···: Co up:" e'~:' B-": r·:·Q"···'U' gh .a m an d , Ph ae ~t"oJ'n':~ s< (b ot hl." .. , DU1p" lex

,'. ,""J.:,I':.. ..~,.!:~ !' .... ~,. ,-:"<~, . ,,"_.,:~ _ _r,:,1 ,. "_.,'. ',~,~<,--. :.', 'I, I"_' '.',_,\:... '. . ... ~<', ~~-:.:-.A,

and folding top), some 120-in'chwheelbase cars were offered with

. h 8"'" 5" Ii' + Th t l ded f 5 d'

the _I}'l.g· ".'I'..X, e'ngtne. ,'Iese InC.,IU;._·~ .. ' .. a "rv·e~pla,s:slenge'.r .'"JC!·'.'"anl' a'

two-door Club Sedan, a Duplex-Roadster, a Sport Roadster, and the Sheriff. The last named was made in both a Duplex and folding top version

.', ..... '- ~". :__'" ' ~,

The Big; Six engine In the lighter and shorter 120-inch wheelbase chassis set some remarkable, performance and endurance records, particularly in, the hands of Ab Jenkins. Jenkins was a well-to-do Salt Lake City contractor who drove high speed cars

simply for the love of it. A stock Studebaker Sheriff driven by Ab

JI'e" In"'" ;k·'~·' -I' n" 5>· a n!- d .... 'R'-"a"" 'y. '" po. 'eck .. , ~5::',-~ 'I:-t- l ,.~:' k .':.' 'C" 't ty:'" '--. '". de: ·1···· '. '. :.'-., ..... ; .. ' d .. " t h·' .'.

. . _ .,~ I.c· ; . .·.·,·'~'··.·_·:.I :a .' a~ .. ,.3: .>~-e_J , .. ;' car.,_ea ,e.r, .c,ro's·se-·.,··e·

co"':"'" t~ .: . 'e' . t f -', -- ,,' . N' -I. -' ... y.... . I>;; t [S':''- '-F' ". ". Ii! • - 3'-'" 4"'1'~'-7: . ~. 'I . ¥ . -I'

· :n In snt rrom :' .ew.· Orf( ,.-·o.:an '. ·ra.nclsc;O,'r:':-· mr es, in a total

:e .... ·· I a'" P"~ .sed t~1 m":'" of ;'8'\"6;" h ,- .. ' .. ,"" ":-, , :- id '2'··0'- -~.- ", -I It -,,", A' t -- ,", --' .. ' ,"" ",,'''' '- ,'--,,' -:. :-: d,,-, .. f

,'.~',,:',.' "..' ,Ie O,'~ ,. Otl rs a,n,::~.c ':' m,11 nu es I'" Jan ,avera.g1e' s'ple'e:: 0:

40.2. miles per hour, Jenkins and Peck broke the then existing record for an automobile by over '1'6 hou rs. Th"I'~' d late Q·,',,··f""1 this h ,~s·-'·,t·:-'o''- .. ':''r''I~c''··-

• _ . .. ~ _. _ _ . -.' .. "_ I _. . 'I'; ," .. f~ _.; I I _!II'! __ _ ~. '. '. • ,", ", _ ',_ .:.... .• ' . -:_ ~ . _ _ II ., ... ·.1 .::. .. II I . _ ..

ru n"": --," "., J', ,"', z.. '1' 4 "1"-7'" 1':;"'9>'2'·""'6"

I:_ II w:a,"s .~,u ni e ~ \-' ... 1 '" ~.-': .•

wh eelbase .. Both cars were cqu ip .. .ped with tou r-whe .-e.J rnech a··.·· n ica :1'

- , .. _.. ~ _ - - , '.', . , .' .. . ' .-.' .. '.' ,:.., ' '''., -' I

bra Ik'" 'e" :;5" a:- nd B: -u d ",', d ,- -M:' lchel ~ -.'-- dls .. '. ,'h: " '.' .:1,) M--""--' ',', .. "',.' "",:' '-t-.'-" ; ,,,:-: ,ii,. ,"'-.,'" , .:_. " f" ',"c, ", "~'I

. _ ,·-)1·· "'" .. c, . ·· ... ···._'1,. rt II,~_ ,_~I n ' ;I,se W'. ee~s"I": I.ore extensive u:'se!o I .stee .

resulted in the 1927 model ES cars being some 200 pounds lighter than corresponding models of 1925-26 and the overall heights of ·the new models were approximately three inches less than the

• ." • ..."" • 0: • _ • • • _....: - _. __ ..,..--- • _ • ._~ .. ' ._ ~~:,."". • -. • .' , I.: _ ~ _. ~.

di d I

prece mg moe e· '5'''1

Bullet-shaped headlarnps were used and a colortul figu re from

G,,·' ':' , ',. ,'.-, k ",: 't" h;'-: ~. ~' .'. - - ..... '.' A" t" ,/: ,-. - tn .- d ,- ... _-.-,' . -. d - .ht ~. d ',~ -':' -.-' - -. ,,' , 'f~ - II 1'" "',-- .'" . . : ree ... my I , .o-Io.gy,;'-.,a,a',n~a.); ·a.'.'o,rn,e'·. the ra,~ rator ca'pr'S 0'.' ;a_~, , .. 92,7

cars, Considerable.attention was devoted to production of pleasing

b t, t ,. f'"' - d i!I " I

cornornatrons 0: exterior anc Interior coors, upholstery. and

accessories. The upholstery fabrics, interior trim, and hardware of

th 1- 'ES"'- B'" ~-''- 'S,·~·,::-·~·", -'. ' .. k',,-- "',,". '·,',,'·',·,1'·': r- the ,:,', ..... ,.,. ':-'1' ., '.- , .. ':, .... __ 'f", '1'1' " ,-,' ',,'. - -'f"j

_' _ e : .. ,.I"g.f.xes, ra,n, " a,ml,o,nig .'. Ie most __ ,IUXU rIO.U,S, 0 ;a, '_ motor cars 0'::

h E t" h

-~. ;'.',.' 1'.::, :-.".' ':: '_-".' .c-_ ":,;'. _"'-' ···1···· "': •.. ' ,-- .. ' ;~ -'- '.~' ~"<~, .", '.' ., ',' .. ' . ,- .. -_" - ' ;.... "'. '" - '..-.' .

t e era. except or t e mechanical alterations necessary to mcorpo-

rate the four-wheel brakes, and other minor changes involved in

T'HE M,ODE.L, E:S :BIG S:IXE,S-

Studebaker announced the production of a new "Custom Designed" line of dosed cars starting in July, 1926. Initially, two models were' offered on the model ES Big Six chassis: the first was the Big Six seven-passenger President on a'127-inch wheelbase: the

second was the five-passenger Custom Brougham on a 120-inch

Fig, 9~91 'The ,Moidel EP BiP' Six 7-p~····.,as'seng·:-:e.r Duplex Phseton - an exclusive Stu ,deb, 'seke: b "'o",c:'d-':y"c tie slen

.". • --I' _ -_-' [0"· ._' ... -.-: ..... " .. _ .. _ '.:- .. , .. ' '- .. ~I.- .... -_' ... -_ ..... _.' ,~ .. _:. t -.~.--. ' •. _ ....:.._. '._ - ... .:- •.. _-.::...._.,_ •. -.~ : . ..:~ .~.... • .•..•....•.. ,':;' . ~ . '-.~:.I·d·-·!Ij

74~':

"

_'- ..

lowering the bodies, few mechanical improvements were introduced In t,he'1927 models.

n addition to the seven-passenger President Custom Sedan arid five-passenger Custom Brougham mentioned earlier i the ES line was later expanded to include a seven-passenger Custom Touter and a Custom President Limousine, and a four-passenger Victoria on a 120-inch wheelbase chassis. The production of a Sheriff, a Duplex-Roadster, and a Sport Roadster on the 120-inch wheel base chassis is reported but not confi rmed, and the evidence seems conflicting Oil whether any of these body styles were actually built in the ES series.

The term "President" seems to have been originally reserved only for the 127-inch wheelbase models of the ES series, The later trend has been torefer to all ES Big Sixes as Presidents, .and even Studebaker appears to have been lax in terminology. In the opinion of the author I only the 127-inch wheelbase ES cars the Custom Sedan, the Custom Tourer, and, the Limousine -should ,be referred

to as Presidents: the 12'O--inc'h wheelbase E.S models should be called 'simply Big Sixes.

By the end of 1926, the 120~inch wheelbase ES Big Sixes were dropped and replaced by the basically similar model EW Big Sixes. The EW models were near1y identical in appearance. to the short wheelbase ES models, but they were equipped with a lighter front axle and steering gear. The EW model is a story in itself and its amazing history will be taken up in the Commander chapter to

follow, The 1.27 ... i nch wheelbase mod e 'I ES Presidents were CQ,n'tinued in production until late:l927 .

The Big Six engine, then nearly 10 years old, was rapidly nearing theend of its career . Rather than being defensive about the venerable old powerplant, Studebaker took the offensive, and the last two years of the Big Six engines were glorious ones. The fantastic records amassed by the Big Six Commanders in 1927 and

1:9~~':-2',~'~81-'" s·:'··p: ica k,,-·-'f· or 'to. h·' em selves

_ . ·"f·: -.;' . I' '. . " .. - _ _, ,'._. ," - .'~' i, , " • II!

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