1921573449 RHCE - RH302 Red Hat | Booting | Computer Architecture

RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer
Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide

RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam - The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide
Copyright © 2009 Notice of rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.

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This self-study exam preparation guide for the RHCE RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam contains everything you need to test yourself and pass the Exam. Including all the exam topics, covered indepth and insider secrets, complete explanations of all RHCE subjects, test tricks and tips, over 250 highly realistic sample questions, and exercises designed to strengthen understanding of the RHCE concepts and prepare you for exam success on the first attempt are provided.
Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a "Thank You" letter? This book includes new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering numerous sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus information available nowhere else, this book will help you pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam on your FIRST try. Buy this. Read it. And Pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam. This book provides a laser sharp focus on all the exam objectives with a cohesive, concise, yet comprehensive coverage of all the topics included in the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Lab Exam. It includes over 250 questions modeled after the real exam with answers and an Exam Quick Prep feature which recaps all the important points for the last hour preparation before taking the exam. Covers all RH302 exam topics, including: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Hardware installation and configuration The boot process Linux filesystem administration Package management and Kickstart User and group administration System administration tools Kernel services and configuration Apache and Squid Network file sharing services (NFS, FTP, and Samba) Domain Name System (DNS) E-mail (servers and clients) Extended Internet Services Daemon (xinetd), the Secure package, and DHCP The X Window System Firewalls, SELinux, and troubleshooting

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............... 16 1..Overview ....................2.......................................4..........................................................2..........................................Creating Kickstart file ..........................................................Using Network ..................................................................3............................................................................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam ......Grub ...... 20 2............................................................................................................... 15 1....Using DVD..................................Kickstart File ..................... 25 2.......3........Use of Kickstart file ...................................................1........ 29 2.......... 1 Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE ......................... 14 1............Using Hard Disk ............................Starting init ........................2.......Configuring Grub ........................................2.......................................2............................................................................................................1............................. 27 2.........................................................3.................................4....................................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer ........Installation ............................Graphical utilities ..............................................................................................2..................1..............The Boot Process .........................................................................Grub configuration file ..............Configuring Hardware .......3................................2..........................................................The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide .........5 Contents RHCE ......................................................3....... 26 2.........1........................ 25 2........Overview.................................................... 16 1............................................2...................................1............................................................. 29 .................................................................................. 1 Installation and Hardware Configuration ............1............................................................................................3............................................................ 15 1.................. 14 1...................1............................. 18 1............2................................................................../etc/inittab file ..................................... 14 1..2......................................................................................................................................................... 14 1..................................... 25 2... 19 1................

............... 33 2...............................................4.1...................................................Mounting a filesystem.....................1..... 37 2.... 52 3........... 48 3............................................................................................................................................................Creating RAID device ......................................................................... 39 3........................................Using Graphical utilities ......RAID disks ...Searching for badblocks ............................................................ 40 3..Filesystem Information ....... 46 3......3..........Creating a filesystem .....Initializing System.......4.............. 54 ........................................................................................................../etc/mtab ................................................Automatically mounting a filesystem ...........3......................................4...............Creating Swap space .....................Checking status of automount .....................7.............................../etc/fstab file ............. 41 3...1............................Disabling swap space ..................2....................................... 48 3.................................................... 50 3.4.............................................................................................. 52 3.3.......5.........................................2.................................................................. 40 3.........1...............................2................... 42 3............................................Overview ...................................................................................6.......................Unmounting a filesystem........................................................................................runlevel.....................................................3........................ 44 3...........Logical Volume Group ...................2........5......................................5............................................. 52 3.........Using command chkconfig ....................................1.......................................Filesystem Administration .............................................. 43 3..........................................................................3........................................6 2...................4...........2...2............................................................................................2.........3.........5................Enabling swap space.2..................1...............................................................................................3........ 49 3............... 34 2....Checking and Repairing a filesystem .............................................................................................................. 47 3...........6............ 43 3............................................................................................................................3.................. 40 3...................................

2....................................................................... 62 4................1...................................5............................................... 73 5.......... 76 5...................................................................................................................................................................................2.............................. 58 3..................................................1...............User and Group Administration ........3.................................................... 76 6.......7.. 66 5.......................................................................................................... 66 5.4........................ 72 5......Using rpm ................................................Group Administration ...........................................................................Modifying group information ..........................................................................................6........................................................ 58 3.................... 54 3...........7..........5.......3..2.............................. 77 .........................Creating User Account ......5....................1.......................................Overview......Overview ......7..............................................................................................2.........4............................................1...............................................................................................................................Modifying user account ....................................................Remove a volume group ....................... 59 4....................................................Deleting group.........................Logical volume management utility .............................6................Package Management ...............Adding New Group .........................................................................Remove a logical volume ............................................. 59 4.Changing user password ...............................Creating A Logical Volume Group ......................................................................................Remove a physical volume .7.......................System Administration .7...........................5.......3..............................................................................7..........................Using yum ...........7 3....................................5...................................................................................................... 73 5..........................................4................................. 73 5...... 65 5.................. 66 5.................... 57 3...............................1.............................................Using make ......... 73 5..................................................................................................................................... 72 5........................................................................... 73 5........................................................................... 58 4................................................................................................................ 64 4................Space Usage ..................Package Manager ...........................................................3.5..Deleting user account .... 59 4........................................Using User Manager ............

.............................................2............. 82 6.........2....................................2..............................................4...................................Removing module from kernel .................................................................Administrative commands ..........................................3....................... 87 7........... 79 6.Using top .....................................................4...................................................................................................................2.......Getting Administration Rights ....................................................... 84 6............2...../etc/sudoers file ...... 89 7...........4.........................................1....5..............Using modprobe command ........................................................1.......................2..........................2............................................................................................................ 81 6..2.................................................... 90 7.................... 79 6..............2................... 78 6.................2........................................2.................................Using the su ..Overview ......................................... 82 6...........................................................................2......................................The ps command ..............................1............................3............The su command.......................................4..............4............... 90 7.....................Overview....... 90 ...3......1...........1.............................................................Changing priority of process.................1............................... 88 7...Log information........3....Using System Monitor .............................................................................3............................................ 78 6..............................................3................................. 86 7..................... 89 7.............................................Inserting module into kernel ...................................................... 87 7...................................................................Kernel Services and Configuration ..................................................................................................Modules Loaded into Kernel ..........................4...........Other commands ......................... 89 7...............Process and Kernel Information ...............................................................Changing owner and group .......................... 77 6............2................2.................................................................................................................kernel Modules .......... 84 6...........................................8 6.........................................3.......... 78 6........Monitoring System performance ........... 87 7....................................................................................................

.........................................................Using cron ......................... 97 8.............. 105 8.............3..............................2.............................. 111 9.................... 91 7.........................3.....................................................................................1.....Access control section ..............Using batch command ...............................2................................2............2...........4.............................................................................................................................................................................................2.......9 7...........Cache size options........4...........Web Server ...................Network options ..Neighbor selection algorithm option .............................Using dmesg ................................ 92 7..................................... 112 9..................... 93 7..................................................... 111 9......Automating Tasks -........ 101 8................ 111 9.....................................................................................Starting Apache ...... 103 8..................... 113 ..........................................................1....................................................................3........................4.........5...................3............................................................................................................Overview.....................Overview .............3..4.......................Log File and Cache directory section ....................................................... 111 9..........................................3........................................................ 93 7......................1..........................................3..2..............Syslogd .................4................................................................1.. 101 8..........................................Main Configuration file ...................................................................................................................... 99 8.............................Virtual hosts section ... 96 7........................................................................2................................. 99 8............................................... 106 9..............................................3..Using at ........................................................HTTP Server Configuration ........................................................Global Environment Configuration ..................................2.......Squid Server ........ 99 8......................3........Main server section ....................................4..1....................................................................................................................2......................................2...............4.....................................3....................Configuring Squid ........... 112 9.................. 112 9................................................................................................................

.......................................... 116 10....... 114 9................................................................................................Overview ..................... 128 12................................Overview .......Overview ..................................................................FTP Server ............................................1.... 126 11................................................Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration .................................................. 122 11.................Starting vsftd.......................................................................................................................3..10 9........................................................ 128 12.......................................................................................................................................................................................................NFS Server Configuration.............Administrative parameters ................................... 117 10..............6...................................4............overview ................................................................................................................................................4.......................................Starting NFS service.....................................................................................4......... 122 11. 115 10..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................Options format............................5....................................LDAP Server ..... 114 9.................................................................................................................... 120 10......................... 116 10....Samba configuration file ..............................1.................................................................3...................................................................................................................... 122 11.......................Checking the service ..............................Accessing the NFS directory ................ 117 10.....................................................1..................3......... 127 12......................Sharing Folders .................................... 131 13........................................... 122 11..........................................................................................3................. 116 10.............Starting Samba service .............................2........................................Squid Daemon ..........................................................................................4............Configuring vsftpd ........................... 128 12..........................NFS Server ....................................1.........................2............. 130 12...............................ftp command prompt ........5......2.........................................................................................Cache Manager ..................2..3.... 128 12.........................................................................................4.....................3................. 133 13.....Samba Server Configuration ........................ 133 .................6...............................Using nfsstat ............Format of hostname ..2............................................................................................. 127 11.................................................................................................. 119 10..................................................................................................Samba Server .......................................... 118 10.............1.....................1...............

............................... 143 16..............................2.................................................................... 143 16.....................................................4..........................................................................................Sendmail..................................1.......... 133 13.................................................................BIND Configuration GUI ........ 139 15............................................Mapping Information ..1......................................... 139 15.................................................................................. 137 14..........................DNS server ............... 137 14........................................................ 135 14.............................................NIS database ..................2...................................................................................4............................11 13. 135 14...........DHCP Server ...Starting ypbind service ................................................................................................................. 143 16.................5............................................................................................................ 135 14.............................................................................................2.....4.................................................................................................. 146 17.............1............1........4......................................................... 140 15..... 146 17.............................................Configuring NIS ....................................................3..............Starting Named daemon ................. 140 16.....................................Working of DHCP server..................4................................................ 143 16............................Mail Services ........................3...............................................Setting NIS domain name ............................... 145 17........................................1.................1................................ 139 15... 147 ................. 137 14............................................................................ 137 14................2.....................................................1..............................................................................Configuration ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................3............. 146 17............... 136 14..........NIS server.................2.............................................................................................3......................Overview ..............................................................Staring NIS server ......................................................................................... 139 15.........................................Configuration file ..........................2.........................................................Overview ........................DHCP client............ 140 15..............................................2............................................................5............................................................................ 135 14................................................................................................................Starting the DHCP server.......................................................................................................................................5........................Starting the ldap ....../etc/mail ......Important files .Overview ...................................................................................Overview ....Starting NIS server ........................................

.............................4.......................Starting Dovecot ............................../etc/hosts......................................................................................3......3....................................................3............................................. 153 18....................Network Security................................3............................................................................................. 152 17.................................................................. 151 17.......................................... 155 18..Actions taken by server on a mail ................................... 148 17.........................................3..................................Generating the ...................................Configuration file ....................allow......2..........3............................................................................................4.................2............................. 151 17..../etc/hosts........................................................................................................................................ 149 17. 156 18....Switching MTA .......................................4...............Dovecot ...Configuration file ..............Security Level Configuration ..................Overview ........... 150 17.The daemon xinetd ....................................................... 156 18.....Checking Sendmail Server .1... 152 17................5..........................3............................. 155 18............. 147 17.. 150 17...............................................................................................1......2..................................1.......................................2..................................................12 17.......................................................3..........................................4...........................................................................5.................................................... 152 17... 149 17..............................................................Mailbox .......................................db files .2............................................1.................................2...........Postfix ...................Important Files ..........5.......................................................... 155 18.. 156 18....... 157 18............................................................................................................................................................................................................................2.......5.............2... 159 ........................................................................................................................Using TCP wrappers............3..................................3.........../var/spool/postfix .2.................... 153 17........................3......................1..........Log files ..........................deny ..........................5....................4.....................................Configuration files ... 153 17...............Starting postfix server .

.............1........................................................1......................... 160 19...........................................................................3....................2................. 163 Over 250 Exam Preparation Questions ...........................................................d ....................Command Reference .........................................................................PAM ....2....... 162 19...................................................PAM and SELinux ........................SELinux ........13 18......................2.................................................................................. 160 19.....Command Reference .................................................................................................................................................................................................................5.................................... 162 19....................../etc/pam................ 160 19..............SELinux administration ............. 164 ............................................................................. 159 19........................................................

use whole hard disk.2. Choose the time zone in which system is.1. New version of Fedora Core Linux is released every six months.and custom partition) If custom partition option is chosen create at least one / partition and swap partition (for single boot system) and create a / partition.use current Linux partitions.swap partition and one /boot partition (for dual boot system) Install the grub bootloader on MBR. Enter the root password.Overview Red Hat Enterprise Linux is one of the major commercial Linux distributions available in market . . Choose install type. The installation process can be broadly divided into many parts depending on the method used for installation z z z DVD Network Hard Disk 1. Configure the network device. 1. Select the packages. Fedora Core Linux is an open source project of Red Hat.Configure the firewall.Using DVD To begin installation using the DVD place the DVD media in the DVD drive of the computer and set the BIOS to boot from DVD drive.Installation Anaconda is the default installer in Red Hat Linux.1. After installation is complete remove the DVD media from DVD drive. Choose the languages system should support.Configure the sound card. Choose keyboard layout.14 INSTALLATION AND HARDWARE CONFIGURATION 1. User can either choose for new install or upgrade an existing installation. Choose partition scheme (options are automatic partition or manual partition) . z z z z z z z z z z z Choose the software packages to install. Choose partitioning (options are use free space on hard disk. The steps of the installation process are z z z z The DVD media is checked Choose language to use during installation process. Set the firewall options.2. The user had to accept the License terms.

GRUB is installed as the bootloader in Red Hat by default.img root(hd0. The following entry is added in the /boot/grub/grub. In case of NFS server the directory containing the installation files should be made accessible. Then copy the vmlinuz and initrd files of the DVD media in /boot directory.2. 1.2.15 Then the user is prompted for user name and password on the login screen. In case of FTP server copy the files to directory /var/ftp/pub. Choose Red Hat Installation on the Grub menu to begin the install process. After above steps reboot the computer. In the hard disk install copy all the files of the DVD in a partition drive which is not used during the new installation. .3.Using Hard Disk For installation from hard disk it is assumed that Red hat Linux is already running on the computer.2. 1.7) kernel /vmlinuz initrd /initrd.Using Network For the network installation the installation files should be copied to the computer which will act as install server.7) means that /boot partition exists on eighth partition of first hard disk. These files are needed to boot the installation process. In case of web server or HTTP server the files need to be copied in the directory /var/www/html. To boot the installation process the boot loader should be informed about the files copied in the /boot directory.conf file to achieve the purpose title Red Hat-Installation root (hd0.

16 Note : when using the installation from Network or Hard disk choose the option INSTALL OR UPGRADE in text mode on the first screen of the Installation process.Text File install cdrom lang en_US.cfg is created based on the options chosen by the user during the installation process. At the boot prompt enter the command askmethod :boot linux askmethod This lets the user to select the Installation Method.Creating Kickstart file User has a choice to use graphical utility to create kickstart file or open a text editor and write the commands. 1.3.1. 1. 1.1.3.UTF-8 keyboard us xconfig --startxonboot network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp rootpw --iscrypted firewall --enabled --port=22:tcp authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5 selinux --enforcing timezone bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="rhgb quiet" .3.Kickstart File After successful installation of Red Hat Linux a kickstart file /root/anaconda-ks.1.

option –enable means firewall is enabled.Graphical utility Open Terminal and type the command system-config-kickstart to start the kickstart configurator.HTTP.FTP.2.1.17 The install option denotes new installation and upgrade option will denote upgrade of an existing system. NFS. bootloader command is used to set the partition where the default bootloader grub is installed. rootpw denotes the root password. The network command is used to configure the network. In above case it configures the Ethernet interface.hard drive are other options which can be used for NFS. cdrom shows the install method used.HTTP.--permissive.FTP.-disable timezone is used to select the timezone of the user.and hard disk install methods. firewall command sets the firewall label. z z z z For FTP method use option url –url give the ftp url name for HTTP method use option url –url give http url name for hard drive use option harddrive –dir=/give directory path –partition=give partition for NFS method use option nfs –server=servername –dir=directory name Third line sets the installation language to be used during installation . [root@localhost ~]# system-config-kickstart .-enforcing. 1. Fourth line chooses the keyboard layout. selinux is used to set the security enhanced linux the options are .3. The xconfig is used to configure the monitor and video card. option disable means firewall disabled.

3. Kickstart via harddrive (dev = 'hda1'. for example) ks=cdrom: ks=file:<path> ks=ftp://<path> ks=hd:<dev> ks=http://<path> Kickstart from HTTP.Use of Kickstart file It is used to automate the installation process.2. To use kickstart installation use following steps z z z create a kickstart file copy the kickstart file on cdrom.18 The user can use the graphical interface to choose the options and the kickstart file will be generated automatically. on network or on Local hard drive use above commands on the :boot prompt during the installation Kickstart from CDROM Kickstart from a file (path = 'fd0/ks.cfg') Kickstart from FTP. ks=nfs(:options):<path> Kickstart from NFS. NFS mount options . 1.

xdriver: i810 . It checks the file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf for the hardware installed and matches the data with the current hardware.Configuring Hardware The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf contains the listing of installed hardware.4. Below is the format of the /etc/sysconfig/hwconf file class: CDROM bus: SCSI detached: 0 device: scd0 desc: "HL-DT-ST CD-RW GCE-8526B" host: 1 id: 0 channel: 0 lun: 0 class: VIDEO bus: PCI detached: 0 driver: i2c-i810 desc: "Intel Corporation 82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE Chipset Integrated Graphics Device" video. kudzu is run every time a Red Hat box is rebooted.19 are optional. 1. The command kudzu can be run to detect and configure the changed hardware on a system.

4. kudzu can be started in two modes z z safe probe mode no safe probe mode safe probe mode disables serial port probing.PS/2 probing.DDC monitor probing.20 vendorId: 8086 deviceId: 2562 subVendorId: 8086 subDeviceId: 2562 pciType: 1 pcidom: 0 pcibus: 0 pcidev: 2 pcifn: 0 The first entry is for a CDROM drive attached with the system and second is for the VIDEO card attached with the system. If any hardware is added or removed then it configures the added one and unconfigures the removed one.1.1.Graphical utilities 1. 1.1. It then updates the data in /etc/sysconfig/hwconf.4.For keyboard layout Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-keyboard . To enable no safe probe mode on startup enter the line SAFE=no in the file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu.

2.For sound card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-soundcard .Color depth under the setting tab configure the monitor type and video card under tab hardware tab Use dual type tab for second monitor type and video card.3.21 The user can select the keyboard layout and press OK .4. 1.1.1. 1.For monitor and video card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-display z z z User can set the Resolution.4.

22 This utility can be used to check the proper working of soundcard and reload the audio drivers and rewriting the configuration files. 1.For network devices Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-network or [root@localhost pub]# neat .1.4.4.

For printer Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-printer .4. Hosts tab is used to specify static computer host name to IP address mapping. DNS tab is used to configure system's hostname and primary.secondary and tertiary dns IP addresses and dns search path. z z z z z On devices tab all network devices detected by Red Hat Linux are listed. 1. IPSec tab is used to configure IPSec tunnel and host to host connections.1.5. On hardware tab the network hardware physically attached with computer and detected by Red Hat Linux can be configured.23 This utility is used to configure the network devices. Any network device can be selected and activated.

For date and time Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-date or [root@localhost pub]# system-config-time . 1.24 This utility is used to add new printer or configure printers.1.4.6.

The grub menu lists the operating systems which are installed on the system. Booting the Operating System 2. z z z z Checking of MBR (Master boot record) by BIOS.Overview The boot process can be divided into many steps. . network time protocol tab is used to synchronize system's clock with remote time server using network time protocol time zone tab is used to select the time zone in which the system lies. Choosing Operating system to boot on bootloader menu.1. Grub is able to boot non Linux operating system like Windows also.conf.2. Every operating system displayed on the grub menu has its listing in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. When a system is booted the user sees the grub menu. 2.Grub Grub is default bootloader if Red Hat Linux is installed in the system.25 z z z date & time tab is used to set the current date and time.THE BOOT PROCESS 2. Loading the bootloader in MBR. Grub boots the operating system chosen by the user on the grub menu.

gz hiddenmenu title Fedora-Linux root (hd0. root (hd0.6.7) kernel /vmlinuz-2.3194.0) . e.Grub configuration file Let the system have two operating system installed windows and Fedora Linux then the contents of the grub configuration file is # grub.21-1. This means that # # # # all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/.6.3194.1.img #boot=/dev/sda default=0 timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0.21-1.fc7 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet initrd /initrd-2.26 2.2.xpm.img title Windows rootnoverify (hd0.7) kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/sda11 initrd /initrd-version.fc7.conf generated by anaconda # # Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file # NOTICE: You have a /boot partition.7)/grub/splash.g.

E. If the user chooses the windows option then the windows operating system is booted. The option chainloader +1 means that grub will call the other boot loader to boot the operating system. 2.2.27 chainloader +1 The title is used to set the display name on the grub menu corresponding to the operating system. z z By editing the configuration file using text editors by using Boot Configuration . If the user makes no choice in 5 seconds then the default operating system will boot. If user chooses fedora Linux on menu then the bootloader sees /dev/sda8 partition of the first hard disk (root (hd0.g. The option timeout=5 means that the user will have to make choice in 5 seconds on the grub menu.2. The rootnoverify (hd0. The kernel gives the control to the init process which is called father of all processes.Configuring Grub There are two ways to configure the grub bootloader.0) means that grub will not mount the partition. The initrd denotes the initial RAM disk boot image. The option default=0 means that if user makes no choice then the first operating system in the file will be booted. The ro option on the kernel line means that the partition is to be mounted read only.7) means the files needed to boot the operating system is present on the eighth partition of the first hard disk. kernel indicates the kernel which is loaded. In the above file the default operating system that will boot is Fedora. on grub menu Fedora-Linux Windows is displayed.

Password Protecting Grub Grub can also be password protected.By using Boot Configuration To start the boot configuration graphical utility type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-boot The utility helps to chose default operating system which will be booted in case user has not made any choice within the time period on the grub menu.and emacs. gedit .Editing /boot/grub/grub.1. 2. The MD5-encrypted password for grub can be generated using the command [root@localhost ~]# man grub-md5-crypt .28 2.3.2.2. If the user chooses 5 seconds then grub will wait for 5 seconds for user to make a choice after that it will boot the default operating system.conf using Text editors The configuration file can be edited using any of the text editors like vi. It also helps the user to choose the timeout period in seconds. 2.2. After making the changes the grub has to be restarted to make the changes take place.2.2. This option is also available during the installation of Red Hat Linux.2.2.

The process will be started once when the specified runlevel is entered and init will wait wait for its termination. An entry in the inittab file has the following format: id:runlevel:action:process z z z z id is the unique identifier.3. If the entry initdefault is not mentioned in the file then the user has to enter the runlevel values in the console for the boot process to proceed.4. The entry initdefault indicates the default runlevel with which system needs to be started up.3. 2. The init process looks for the entry initdefault in the file /etc/inittab. 2. initdefault An initdefault entry specifies the runlevel .5 and 6 (some more values are available but not used). init looks to the file /etc/inittab and runs the script in the file /etc/inittab. and bootwait entries are ignored.3. init Action respawn Description The process is restarted using the process for this action.Starting init init is the father of all processes. The kernel starts the init process after mounting basic filesystems during the boot process. process specifies the process to be executed. The init process has the pid (process identification number each and every process running on the system has a unique number assigned to them known as PID) of 1. Action describes the action to be taken by init. boot./etc/inittab file This file describes which processes are started at boot up and during normal boot process (for different run levels different numbers of processes are started).1.2. runlevel is the value between 0.The runlevel field of sysinit.29 in terminal.1. After entering the command the user is prompted to enter the password and then to verify the password user has to reenter the password.

The process field is ignored. If none exists.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) This file describes how the INIT process should set up the system in a certain run-level. # # inittab # # # Default runlevel. . The runlevel field is ignored. ctrlaltdel If the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard together then the init responds by shutting down the system or rebooting (depending on the process set) powerfail This action denotes that power failure has occurred and init takes the action depending upon the process set for this action Powerokwait If the powerfail action has occurred and the process mentioned for the powerfail action is to shutdown after 2 minutes then this action comes into picture if the power is restored before 2 minutes then the process for this action takes place. sysinit The process will be executed during system boot. Lines beginning with ‘#’ are comments. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 .30 entered after system boot. init will prompt for runlevel on console. Below is a sample /etc/inittab file.

without NFS (The same as 3.d/rc 3 l4:4:wait:/etc/rc. # This does.unused # 5 .reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:5:initdefault: # System initialization.d/rc 0 l1:1:wait:/etc/rc.Multiuser. Schedule a shutdown for 2 minutes from now. assume you have powered installed and your .sysinit l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.Full multiuser mode # 4 . si::sysinit:/etc/rc.31 # 1 .d/rc 4 l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 2 l3:3:wait:/etc/rc. assume we have a few minutes # of power left.d/rc 6 # Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now # When our UPS tells us power has failed.d/rc 5 l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc. of course.d/rc 1 l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.X11 # 6 . if you do not have networking) # 3 .Single user mode # 2 .

The line 5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc. Shutdown Canceled" # Run gettys in standard runlevels 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1 2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2 3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3 4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4 5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5 6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6 # Run xdm in runlevel 5 x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon The line id:5:initdefault: sets the action to initdefault and the runlevel is 5.d/rc5 will be executed for the runlevel 5 and init will wait until the process is not completed.32 # UPS connected and working correctly.sysinit is executed for every runlevel for the action sysinit the process /etc/rc. pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure. The line si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc 5 denotes that the process /etc/rc. .d/rc.sysinit is executed. System Shutting Down" # If power was restored before the shutdown kicked in. pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored. cancel it. The line ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now denotes that if the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys then the system reboots after three seconds.

Many users can login into the system. No graphical tools are available. Shutdown Canceled" denotes that if the power resumes before two minutes then cancel the shutdown of the system.3.33 The line pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure. 3 Multiuser mode. The line pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored. The graphics mode is also available as .3. 2 Multiuser mode. Thus graphic interface is available in runlevel 5. It should not be used in initdefault. System Shutting Down" denotes that if power failure occurs then the powerfail action takes place and the system is scheduled to wait for two minutes before shutting down. The graphical tools are not available as the X server is not running. The line x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon denotes that the X11 server is started in case of runlevel 5. 1 Single user mode. All the network services are available. Network services like NFS/NIS/Xinetd are not available. runlevel 0 Description It is used to halt the system. The network services are available but the graphics mode is not available 4 5 Not used Multiuser mode. 2.runlevel A runlevel is a software configuration of the system which allows only a selected group of processes to exist.

d/rc2. The runlevels 0.Initializing System The script /etc/rc. It is a shell script which performs many functions like z z z z z z z z sets the hostname of the system checks SELinux status sets the system clock Initializes hardware Configures kernel parameters Mounts the filesystems Configures the hardware Starts and enables the swap space 2. Other runlevels like 7.8. runlevel 0 1 2 3 4 directory /etc/rc. This is not good choice for initdefault.1 and 6 are reserved.3. 2.d /etc/rc.d/rc4.b.9. A good choice for the initdefault entry 6 All the process is terminated and the system is rebooted.4.a.Starting Services The services which will be started for a run level depends on the files contained in the directory of that runlevel.d /etc/rc.d/rc1.4.34 the X11 is running.sysinit is run once at the boot time.3.d/rc0.d/rc3.c are also available but are not used.1.d .d /etc/rc.d /etc/rc.

4. Below is the sample file to start the network service.d/rc5.4. The concept of deciding the order in which the scripts will run remains the same for the files with name beginning with K.d/init.35 5 6 /etc/rc. the directory /etc/rc. 2. 2. It contains two files S10network and S56Xinetd then the service S10network is run first.3. E.d contains files for runlevel 5.3.2.d /etc/rc.3. Thus for a run level which scripts of the directory /etc/rc.d/init.d/rc6.d.d are to be run depends on the contents of the directory corresponding to the runlevels.d The directory contains the scripts of all the runlevels. #! /bin/bash # # network # # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 # description: Activates/Deactivates all network interfaces configured to \ # start at boot time.d contains the run level scripts.Format of scripts in /etc/rc.d/init. The two digits determine the order in which the services will run. The directory /etc/rc.d All programs in the directories of the above runlevel are symbolic link to programs in the directory /etc/rc.d/init.d/rc5. Name of all the programs either begins with S or K followed by 2 digits (0-9) and after that name of the service. All the programs (files of run level directories) whose name begin with S starts the service and name begin with K kills or stops the service. Bring up/down networking .g.Naming convention of files in runlevel directories The files in the runlevel directories have special naming convention.

The init process kills or starts the processes necessary to switch to that runlevel in above case it will do it for runlevel 5.Determining current and previous runlevel To determine current and previous runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# runlevel N5 The letter N denotes that there is no previous runlevel (that is runlevel has not been changed).4.5.d/rc1.1.6.d/rc5.3.3.5.4.4.3. 2.36 # ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provides: $network ### END INIT INFO The line # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 sets the script to start in the runlevels 2.d a file with name S10network will exist (as network service starts for run level 5 with the priority 10 and in the runlevel directory /etc/rc.4 and 5 with the priority or order 10 and in case of all other runlevels it stops the service with the order or priority 90.d a file with name K90network will exist as network service stops with the priority 90 in runlevel 1.3. 5 denote that the current runlevel is 5.2.6 that is Use telinit 5 to switch to runlevel 5. In the runlevel 5 directory /etc/rc. 2.Changing runlevels To change the current runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# telinit n The letter n should be replaced by the values 0.4.Configuring services for a runlevel . 2.3.4.

2. User can also see the status of each service in each runlevel.4.5.3.5.Adding a new service To add new service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --add new-service-name The new-service-name should have a start or kill entry in each of the runlevel.37 User can decide the services which should run in a runlevel and which should not run in a run level.Using command chkconfig The command chkconfig can used to view the information about every service in a runlevel and start or stop them.3.1.2. 2.Disable a service .3. It can also be used to add a new service or delete a new service as well.3.5.3. 2.5. 2. There are two methods to reorganize the services and view the information about the services in a runlevel.3.5. 2.Enable a service To enable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level).Deleting a new service To delete service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --del new-service-name The service new-service-name is deleted from the chkconfig management and all the links in the runlevel directories are also removed. [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name on The service service-name is enabled for that runlevel.

3. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start .5.1.5.7.4 and 5 and disabled in 0.List status of all services To list status of all service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list The status of all the services is displayed for all runlevel. 2.3. 2. 2.38 To disable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level) [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name off The service service-name is disabled for that runlevel.Starting a service To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name start The service service-name is started in that runlevel. For example [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The service httpd is enabled in the runlevels 2.List status of a service To list status of a service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list service-name The status of the service service-name is displayed for all runlevel.5.3.5.3.6. and 6.

For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd stop Stopping httpd: The service httpd is stopped.add a service and delete a service.8. stop a service.3. To start the service configuration use the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# serviceconf or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-services . 2.Stopping a service [ OK ] To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name stop The service service-name is stopped in that runlevel.5.Using Graphical utilities [ OK ] The service configuration utility can be used to edit a runlevel.39 Starting httpd: The service httpd is started. It can be used to start a service. 2.4.

2. 3. Let the / partition and /usr partition are mounted on /dev/sda5 and /dev/sda6 partitions then the sub directories and files below the /usr are stored in the /dev/sda6 partition. . It has journaling feature that improves recovery from crashes. The / filesystem is on top of the hierarchy.Filesystem Information /bin – it contains commands to be used by common users.40 User can check the box on the left of the service and then clicks to start. The filesystems are organized in a hierarchy.FILESYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 3. After making any changes it need to be saved using the save option on the graphic tool.stop or restart the service.Overview Red Hat Linux uses the ext3 filesystem. All the filesystems which don't have separate partition are stored in the partition of / filesystem. 3. If a disk partition is mounted on a filesystem then all the sub directories and files below that mount point are stored on that partition.1. All other filesystems are contained in it in form of subdirectories.

applications. The name of the sub 3.41 /boot – it contains bootable Linux kernel and bootloader /dev – it contains files representing device of the system./etc/fstab file the /proc filesystem contains system information and information directory is same as that of process PID. This means that is not mounted on any disk partiotion. data used by services like /var – it contains log files of different services. processes running on the system. /sbin – it contains administrative commands. and documentation. /usr – contains user and administrative commands. The sample /etc/fstab file is LABEL=/1 LABEL=/opt1 LABEL=/usr1 / /opt /usr ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults gid=5. and directories of FTP. The process information is kept into a sub The file contains information about the filesystems. user configuration files.2. Web server. /proc – The /proc filesystem is virtual file system.1.mode=620 defaults defaults defaults 00 12 12 12 12 00 00 00 00 11 LABEL=/home1 /home LABEL=/boot1 tmpfs devpts sysfs proc /boot /dev/shm tmpfs /dev/pts /sys /proc devpts sysfs proc LABEL=SWAP-sda13 swap swap . /etc – it contains configuration file. It about the directory of the /proc.

and async. The defaults option mounts the filesystem with following options of mount rw.swap are associated with a device that is Partition of hard disk but the filesystems with type proc. exec.sysfs. The filesystem types ext3. The difference is /etc/fstab contains the static information about the filesystems while /etc/mtab contains the dynamic information about the filesystem.2.tmpfs are not associated with any partition of hard disk. 3. The second column represents the mount point in the filesystem. The filesystem with the option noauto in the fourth field are not mounted during boot time. dev Interpret character or block special devices on the file system. auto. The sample /etc/mtab file is below /dev/sda11 proc sysfs / /proc /sys ext3 proc sysfs rw rw rw 00 00 00 . The fourth column contains the options used while mounting the filesystem during the system boot using the mount command. auto means automatically mounted at boot time. exec means allow execution of executable files. dev./etc/mtab To view the filesystems which are actually used by a running Linux system type the command mount in terminal or view the contents of the /etc/mtab file. async All I/O to the file system should be done asynchronously. nouser a non root user cannot mount the filesystem. suid. nouser. suid Allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect.42 The first column represents the device name representing the filesystem. rw means in read write mode. The third column denotes the filesystem type.2.

4.2.Unmounting a filesystem To unmount a filesystem use the following command umount directory-name. The standard format of mount command is mount -t filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name If a user wants to mount cdrom media in directory /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/cdrom /home/movies If a user wants to mount windows partition /dev/sda4 on /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount -t vfat /dev/sda4 /home/movies 3.3.43 devpts /dev/sda12 /dev/pts /opt devpts ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 tmpfs rw.2.on-which-the-device-was-mounted . Rests of the columns are same as that of the /etc/fstab file. 3.gid=5. Second column contains the filesystem mounted.mode=620 0 0 rw rw rw rw rw 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 /dev/sda10 /usr /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs none sunrpc /home /boot /dev/shm /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs rpc_pipefs rw First column contains the disk partition which is mounted.Mounting a filesystem To mount a filesystem mount command is used.

Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked. A device can be floppy disks.ext2 . mkfs -t ext2 mkfs.44 To unmount the /dev/sda4 use the following command root@localhost ~]#umount /home/movies To unmount a device when the device is no longer in use (at the time when the command is issued the device is in use so the command waits for the device).rewritable Cd s. mke2fs .5. mke2fs .Creating a filesystem A filesystem can be created on a device. mkfs command is used to create the filesystems on a device. mkfs -t ext3 . For example files are being copied from mounted directory /home/movies then below command will unmount the directory when file copy is over. The format of the command is mkfs -t filesystem-type device-name For example if ext3 filesystem is to be created on the re writable CD device then the command will be mkfs -t ext3 /dev/cdrom mkfs command is front end to the commands which are actually invoked to carry out the work of creating the filesystems on the device. filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 mkfs.rewritable DVDs and hard disk partitions.ext3.2. The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be created. root@localhost ~]#umount -l /home/movies To force unmounting of a directory use the below command root@localhost ~]#umount -f /home/movies 3.

mkfs -t ntfs mkfs. mkfs -t vfat.vfat . Below is the sample /etc/mke2fs file [defaults] base_features=sparse_super.conf.mkdosfs. mkfs -t xfs mkswap The commands mke2fs uses the configuration file /etc/mke2fs.dir_index blocksize = 4096 inode_ratio = 8192 [fs_types] small = { blocksize = 1024 inode_ratio = 4096 } floppy = { blocksize = 1024 } news = { inode_ratio = 4096 .ntfs.45 vfat mkfs.filetype.resize_inode.xfs . The configuration file contains the default parameters while creating the ext2 and ext3 filesystems.mkfs.msdos ntfs xfs swap mkfs.

The file should be created using the following commands [root@localhost ~]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/swap bs=1000000 10+0 records in 10+0 records out 10000000 bytes (10 MB) copied. count=10 . It is data file (the output of the command file swap will return data as output). The default parameters can be overridden from the command line. 0.3. The fs_types section defines the default parameters which should be used for a specific filesystems for example for the floppy the blocksize is set to 1024.Creating Swap space mkswap command is used to create a swap area on a device or file.46 } largefile = { inode_ratio = 1048576 } largefile4 = { inode_ratio = 4194304 } The defaults section of the file defines the default parameters used by the mke2fs. If the system has less swap area and no partition device can be used as swap area or user is not willing to do that then a swap area can also be created on a file.The ls -l swap command below shows the file permissions attached with the swap file created. 267 MB/s This creates a file named swap in the /home directory of size 10 MB. The chmod command is used to change the file permissions of swap to 0 so that no one has the right to read. 3.0373886 s.write or execute it.

Enabling swap space The swap space created cannot be used by the system unless it is enabled using the swapon command.1.3.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap [root@localhost home]# chmod 0 swap [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap ---------. size = 9994 kB 3. To check the contents of the /proc/swaps enter the below command on terminal [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 /home/swap Type partition file Size Used Priority -1 -2 819272 4 9756 0 The listing shows two swap areas on the system /dev/sda13 which is hard disk partition and /home/swap which is file. This file can be used to see whether the swap area thus enables is used by the system or not. . The format of the swapon command is swapon device-name For example to enable the swap space created on the swap file above use the command [root@localhost home]# swapon swap The file /proc/swaps shows the swap space area of the system.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap Create swap space on the file swap [root@localhost home]# mkswap swap Setting up swapspace version 1.47 [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap -rw-r--r-.

msdos fsck. The general format of the fsck command is fsck -t filesystem-type device-name If no device-name is specified on the command line then the command checks the filesystem in order they are mentioned in the /etc/fstab file.ext3. fsck -t vfat. fsck -t ext3 fsck. fsck -t xfs .fsck. The fsck command is the front end to the commands which are invoked for different filesystem types. fsck -t ext2 fsck.2.Checking and Repairing a filesystem The fsck command is used to check the linux filesystem and optionally repair it. Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked.vfat .fsck -t ntfs fsck.4.3.ext2 .ntfs. The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be checked.Disabling swap space To disable a swap area use the command swapoff. Filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 vfat ntfs xfs fsck.xfs . The format of the command swapoff is swapoff device-name To disable the swap area created on the file swap in above case use the command [root@localhost home]# swapoff swap Now to check whether the swap file is disabled view the contents of the file /proc/swaps [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 Type partition Size Used Priority 819272 4 -1 3.48 3.

The badblocks command should not be run with the -w option as badblocks searches for the presence of badblocks on the device by writing a pattern on every block of the device which erases the data on the device.Searching for badblocks The command badblocks searches for the badblocks on a device.Shared library error The exit code returned when multiple file systems are checked is bit-wise OR of the exit codes for each file system that is checked. Those devices or filesystem should be checked for badblocks using the badblocks command without any option or with the -n option. 3.the filesystems which have data should not be checked with badblocks using the -w option.Usage or syntax error 32 .1. So.Operational error 16 .49 fsck command returns the following exit codes 0 .File system errors corrected 2 .4.System should be rebooted 4 . The -n option is read only mode so no data is written on the device block and hence the data is not erased.File system errors left uncorrected 8 .fsck canceled by user request 128 . To protect data and check for badblocks use the below command badblocks device-name or badblocks -n device-name To erase the data and check for the badblocks use the below command badblocks -w device-name .No errors 1 .

Below is the sample /etc/auto.Automatically mounting a filesystem When a system is booted the filesystems are automatically mounted.d directory. When a system boots then the autofs service runs with the option start and when the system is shutting down the autofs service runs with the option stop.master file./usr etc. The users don’t have to run the mount command to mount the filesystems like /home. This automatic mounting of filesystem is due to the autofs service which runs when the system boots. # /misc /etc/auto. The autofs service controls the operation of the automount daemons.master and finds the mount points on system. The autofs service lies in the /etc/rc. automount mounts a mount point when the mount point is accessed and deactivates it when it is no longer used.misc /net -hosts # # Include central master map if it can be found using # nsswitch sources. Each mount points found is mounted by automount and a thread is also started by automount to manage the mount point.d/init.master file # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # For details of the format look at autofs(5). It reads the file /etc/auto. # # Note that if there are entries for /net or /misc (as # above) in the included master map any keys that are the .50 3. # Sample auto.5.

The line cd -fstype=iso9660.51 # same will not be seen as the first read key seen takes # precedence.misc tells the daemon automount to look into the file /etc/auto.master In the above file the lines starting with # are comments. # +auto.intr -fstype=ext2 -fstype=auto -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 ftp.nodev :/dev/cdrom .misc file is # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # Details may be found in the autofs(5) manpage cd -fstype=iso9660.org:/pub/linux :/dev/hda1 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/sdc1 :/dev/hdd #removable In the above file the line starting with # are comments.nosuid.nosuid.ro.misc for the mount points.nodev :/dev/cdrom # the following entries are samples to pique your imagination #linux #boot #floppy #floppy #e2floppy #jaz -ro. The line /misc /etc/auto.example.soft. The sample /etc/auto.ro.

RAID1 (mirroring). 3. Journaling feature of the filesystem enables it to recover from such kind of crashes.6. 3.Checking status of automount To check whether automount is running in the system or not type the following command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# /etc/rc.1. If power failure occurs when a system is running and it shutdowns immediately (not a graceful shutdown that is the system shuts down before user can shutdown using the shutdown -h now command or from the graphic panel choosing the shutdown option) leaves the filesystem in a inconsistent state.Creating RAID device The RAID devices can be created during installation and after installation. This allows multiple devices to be combined into a single device to hold a single filesystem. 3. 3.d/autofs status automount (pid 2157) is running. RAID4.6. Currently. But journaling feature is not sufficient to handle all the cases for example if one of the partition is damaged then the files cannot be recovered. RAID devices are virtual devices created from two or more real block devices.52 Causes the automount to mount the /dev/cdrom device when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive and change the directory to the /dev/cdrom.1.d/init.. RAID10.. RAID5. Journaling feature means that it helps to recover from crashes and brings the filesystem into a consistent state.1. Linux supports LINEAR md devices.1.5. Linux Software RAID devices are implemented through the md (Multiple Devices) device driver. If user comments this line the /dev/cdrom drive will not be automatically mounted when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive. RAID0 (striping).6.RAID disks Linux uses the ext3 filesystem type which has journaling feature. RAID6.During installation . RAID disks are used to improve disk performance and minimize the chance of data loss.

To create a raid device /dev/md0 of level 1 using the hard disks /dev/sda0./dev/sda1. 3. It creates.1.6. raid level information on the raid device panel.53 During installation of Red Hat Linux the RAID devices can be created using the disk druid partition manager. The various format of the mdadm command are mdadm raid-device-name -f hard-disk-device-name ./dev/sda2 use the following command mdadm .-create raid-device-name . raid device. The hard-disk-device name is name of the devices separated by spaces. 5. The raid devices information can be monitored.2. The value of n2 is equal to the number of physical devices which forms the raid device /dev/md0. filesystem type. The values of n1 can be 0.1. The raid device name will be /dev/md0 if the first raid device is being created and so on. remove it from the raid array or add it to raid array.-raid devices=3 /dev/sda0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 3.-raid devices=n2 hard-disk-device-name n1 is a number which denotes the raid level of the raid device. Raid array means the physical devices which together makes a logical raid device.Other uses of mdadm The mdadm can be used to mark a device of a raid array to be marked as failed. On that panel select create a software raid partition button.6. This creates the raid devices. enables. mdadm command is all purpose command for raid devices. The format of the mdadm command for creating raid devices is mdadm . and 10. viewed using the mdadm command after the installation. assembles and monitors the raid devices. Create the partition with software raid as the filesystem type from the raid options panel select create a raid device button Enter the mount point. 4. 6.-create /dev/md0 . 1.-level=n1 .Using mdadm command To create the RAID device use the mdadm command. z z z z z On the disk druid menu selecting the raid button launches the raid options panel.-level=1 .3.

The command used for the purpose is given below mdadm .7. The pvcreate command is used to initialize the partition for use by logical volume utilities. To remove the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -a hard-disk-device-name is used to add the device as a spare.-details raid-device-name 3. The format of pvcreate command is pvcreate hard-disk-partition-name To initialize the partition /dev/sda5 of the hard disk run the command [root@localhost ~]# pvcreate /dev/sda5 . 3.Logical Volume Group Logical volume group support is provided in Red Hat Linux.7.54 to mark the device as failed. To mark the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example as failure the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -r hard-disk-device-name is used to remove the device.4.1.Information about a raid device The mdadm command is also used to see the detailed information about an active raid device.1.6.Creating A Logical Volume Group To create a Logical volume group at first physical volume is initialized. To add the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda2 3.

. vgextend volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 .Volume group --VG Name System ID Format Metadata Areas lvm2 1 my_vol_grp Metadata Sequence No 1 VG Access VG Status read/write resizable .. To create the new volume group my_vol_grp for the /dev/sda5 of the above example use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgcreate my_vol_grp /dev/sda5 Volume group "my_vol_grp" successfully created To view the attributes of the volume group created use the command vgdisplay...... The format of command vgcreate and vgextend is vgcreate volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 …......55 Physical volume "/dev/sda5" successfully created Then add the physical volume thus created to the new volume group using the command vgcreate or added to an existing volume group using the command vgextend... The format of the command vgdisplay is vgdisplay volume-group-name For example to view the attributes of the volume group my_vol_grp use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgdisplay my_vol_grp --.

KB (G means GB. In the second case space on which the logical group is to be created is given as the total space expressed in MB. M means MB and K means KB).56 MAX LV Cur LV Open LV Max PV Cur PV Act PV VG Size PE Size Total PE Alloc PE / Size Free PE / Size VG UUID 0 0 0 0 1 1 9.77 GB 4. To create the logical volume group on the my_vol_grp volume group created earlier use the command [root@localhost dev]# lvcreate -L 9. The format of the command lvcreate is lvcreate -l %VG or %FREE volume-group-name lvcreate -L G or M or K volume-group-name In the first case the space on which the logical group is to be created is expressed as the percentage of the total space of the volume group or the percentage of the total space of the free space.00 MB 2500 0/0 2500 / 9.77 GB 3I5EmB-es47-Deqz-hN9w-eUaK-u1i6-tMSCoW To create a new logical volume in the volume group the command lvcreate is used.7G my_vol_grp . GB.

Remove a logical volume The lvremove command is used for this purpose. To check the logical volume created view the contents of the directory /dev/my_vol_grp.7. The format is lvremove /dev/volume-group/logical-volume-name .70 GB Logical volume "lvol0" created The above commands create the logical volume successfully. It will contain an entry lvol0.70 GB 2484 1 inherit 0 Read ahead sectors Block device 253:0 3.2. To display the information about the logical volume thus created use the lvdisplay command. [root@localhost dev]# lvdisplay /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 --.Logical volume --LV Name VG Name LV UUID LV Write Access LV Status # open LV Size Current LE Segments Allocation /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 my_vol_grp CaD0Bp-Czo8-fCbu-QXi5-d0I1-LHS3-TwJvVw read/write available 0 9.57 Rounding up size to full physical extent 9.

removing volume group and logical volume.7.7.3.7.Remove a volume group The command vgremove is used for this purpose. vgremove volume-group-name 3.4. viewing and editing the information about the volume group and logical volume. To remove all the logical volumes in a volume group use lvremove /dev/volume-group 3. pvremove physical-volume 3.5.58 To remove logical volume logical-volume-name.Remove a physical volume The command pvremove is used for this purpose. creating a logical volume. To invoke the Logical Volume Management utility run the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-lvm .Logical volume management utility Red Hat offers graphical utility to achieve all the functions performed above like creating a volume group.

and graphical utilities.2.conf and the configuration files in the directory /etc/yum. 4. .Using yum yum (Yellow Dog Updater . Red Hat offers the luxury of maintaining the package in a simple and efficient way.conf. There are many options available to the user yum. rpm. 4.Overview A good operating system should allow the user to install and update software with ease.Modified) is used to install and update the software packages in rpm format from software repositories on the web. User can use the buttons edit properties to edit the properties of the logical volume.PACKAGE MANAGEMENT 4.d. The yum uses the configuration file /etc/yum.1.59 In the above utility the left hand panel shows the volume groups and the uninitialized entries. The uninitialized entries are the normal partitions of the hard disks and the volume group shows the volume group created for example this window shows the volume group my_vol_grp and within the volume group the logical volume lvol0 is listed.

The option gpgcheck if 1 forces yum to check the gpg keys of the packages and if 0 the gpg keys are not checked. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost etc]# cd yum.conf is [main] cachedir=/var/cache/yum keepcache=0 debuglevel=2 logfile=/var/log/yum.d contain the location on the web which yum searches for the packages. The files in the directory /etc/yum.ls .d. Each file represents the location of the packages.repos. The log file where yum writes the log information.60 The yum command checks the configuration files and searches the locations mentioned in the configuration files for the package which is needed to be updated or installed by yum. keepcache options value if 0 causes the headers and cache files to be deleted after successful installation and value 1 retains the files.repos. The format of sample configuration file /etc/yum.log exactarch=1 obsoletes=1 gpgcheck=1 plugins=1 metadata_expire=1800 cachedir mentions the directory which yum uses as the cache memory that is storage for storing temporary file.

61 fedora-development.repocp fedora-updates.repo fedora.repo fedora-updates-testing. The file will be in the below form [fedora] name=Software-Server baseurl=give the http address of the server mirrorlist=give address of the mirror location enabled=1 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=location of the gpg key file. The general format of the command is yum option package-name In case of some options yum don't need package name so the format becomes yum option Option install update Description Installs a package Updates a package usage yum install package-name yum update package-name yum check-update check-update Checks whether an update is available for the packages installed in the system .repo Each file corresponds to a software repository on web. The yum command takes a number of inputs.repo livna.repo fedora.repo fedora-updates.repo livna-testing.repocp livna-devel.

Option Usage -i -U description rpm – i package-name Install a package rpm -U package-name Updates package already installed on the system. If any previous version of package is not installed then the package is installed. If the in- . upgrade. -e rpm -e package-name Erases a package from system -q rpm -q package-name Queries about a package -V rpm -V package-name Verify an installed package against its original software package.3. It is very easy to install the rpm software packages by using the rpm command. verify.Using rpm A lot number of Red Hat software exists in rpm format.62 remove Removes the package and any dependent package from the system yum remove package-name erase Same as remove Same as remove 4. and uninstall the rpm software. -F rpm -F package-name Upgrade a previously installed package. The rpm command can be used to install.

fc7 . 50 # are printed when 100% processing is done. -vv. key ID 4f2a6fd2 python-2.5-12. The format is [root@localhost rpm]# rpm -qvv python D: opening db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages joinenv D: opening db index D: locked db index D: opening db index D: opening db index /var/lib/rpm/Packages rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Name rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys rdonly mode=0x0 D: read h# 1353 Header sanity check: OK D: ========== DSA pubkey id b44269d0 4f2a6fd2 (h#1353) D: read h# 741 Header V3 DSA signature: OK. If the rpm command is to be used with two options then use this form usually the option -v.63 stalled package matches with original software package then there is no output. and -h is used with the other options. -v rpm -v Prints verbose information -vv rpm -vv Prints lots of verbose information -h rpm -h Prints # marks during the package processing using rpm.

The two commands can be combined into one command tar xvfz realplay.tar.4. In above case it queries the database to get the information about the python rpm package.tar. If the software is installed it prints the information about the software. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system.gz . tgz.Using make The software packages are available in the tar.64 D: closed db index D: closed db index D: closed db index /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: closed db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: May free Score board((nil)) In above example rpm queries the rpm database to find out whether the python software is installed.tar and then use the command tar xvf realplay.gz This forms realplay. The packages need to be uncompressed and then the source code is to be build using the. The configuration file . /configure. The option -q and -vv are used together.tar generates directory realplay.gz.bz2 format. 4. make and make install commands. and tar. The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc. It also uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user level rpm configuration file. To uncompress the packages with tar.gz extension use the commands gunzip realplay.

bz2 It forms the directory realplay./configure command configures the package for the platform of the system. The command make install installs the package on the system. It searches the software repositories which have been defined in the yum configuration files. 4.Package Manager package manager is a graphical utility which gathers the information about the packages available over the web for update and installation.5.tar.65 generates directory realplay. If the source code is in tar. The make command makes the package for the system./configure make make install The .tar After uncompressing the package change the working directory of the terminal to the directory realplay Now to install the package run the commands .bz2 format then use the command bzip2 -d realplay. To invoke the Package Manager enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost redhat]# system-config-packages .

1. On the search tab user can search for a package and on the list tab the user gets the listing of all the package.USER AND GROUP ADMINISTRATION 5. available package. and installed package depending upon the option box chosen by the user. One more user account is asked to create (user may choose to create the account or skip). If the changes are applied then the packages are downloaded from web and are installed. 5. Each user belongs to a group account.2. User account can also be created after installation. 5. The general format of the useradd command is useradd options user-name . It is also used to update default values used while creating a new user. After choosing for the packages which need to be installed the user can decide to apply the changes made on the panel.66 On the browse tab user can browse for the packages available over the web in different categories. Group account can also be created after installation.Creating User Account The useradd command is used to create a new user.Overview Linux is a multi user operating system. During installation root user account has to be created (root user is administrator of the system).

If you _do_ define both. MAIL_DIR takes #precedence. # QMAIL_DIR is for Qmail .defs file is # *REQUIRED* #Directory where mailboxes reside.67 useradd -D options useradd -D The first form is used to create a new user while the second form is used to override the default options used while creating a new user.or name of file. To view the default values enter the following command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/bash SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes Simplest form of useradd command is useradd user-name If this command is run useradd creates the user account by using the default values. relative to the # home directory. useradd reads the file /etc/login. The sample /etc/login.defs for the default values to be used while creating the user. The third form is used to view the default values which will be used while creating a user account.

mail # Password aging controls: # #PASS_MAX_DAYS Maximum number of days a password may #be used.68 # #QMAIL_DIR MAIL_DIR #MAIL_FILE Maildir /var/spool/mail . PASS_WARN_AGE Number of days warning given before a #password expires. . PASS_MIN_LEN Minimum acceptable password length. # # # # PASS_MAX_DAYS 99999 PASS_MIN_DAYS 0 PASS_MIN_LEN 5 PASS_WARN_AGE 7 # # Min/max values for automatic uid selection in useradd # UID_MIN UID_MAX # # Min/max values for automatic gid selection in groupadd 500 60000 PASS_MIN_DAYS Minimum number of days allowed #between password changes.

# #USERDEL_CMD /usr/sbin/userdel_local # # If useradd should create home directories for users by default # On RH systems.69 # GID_MIN GID_MAX # # If defined. # the permission mask will be initialized to 022. owned by # the user to be removed (passed as the first argument). # It should remove any at/cron/print jobs etc. we do. If not specified. # CREATE_HOME yes 500 60000 # The permission mask is initialized to this value. this command is run when removing a user. # USERGROUPS_ENAB yes # Use MD5 or DES to encrypt password? Red Hat use MD5 by #default. . UMASK 077 # This enables userdel to remove user groups if no members exist. This option is overridden with the -m flag #on # useradd command line.

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MD5_CRYPT_ENAB yes So if a user is created with the command [root@localhost ~]# useradd user1 Then a directory user1 is created in /home, shell is /bin/bash, mailbox lies in /var/spool/mail directory and the contents of the /etc/skel directory is copied in the /home/user1 directory. /etc/skel contains the login and application startup scripts. The contents of the /etc/skel are viewed using ls -la command. [root@localhost skel]# ls -la total 80 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 2009-01-13 22:20 . drwxr-xr-x 138 root root 12288 2009-01-13 22:53 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 33 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_logout -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 176 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_profile -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 124 2007-02-12 20:48 .bashrc -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 500 2007-05-23 19:45 .emacs drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:21 .kde drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:08 .xemacs -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 658 2007-03-06 01:54 .zshrc .bash_logout,.bash_profile,and .bashrc contains the user specific options and aliases which is used by the bash shell each time the bash shell starts up..kde contains the kde desktop application options. The .bashrc file can be used by user to customize user's shell environment. The sample .bashrc file is # .bashrc # Source global definitions

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if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then . /etc/bashrc fi # User specific aliases and functions If the file /etc/bashrc exists then the file is executed./etc/bashrc contains the global options to the bash shell. The options in /etc/bashrc apply to all users using bash shell. The values in /etc/bashrc can be overridden using the .bashrc file. Much information needed to create user account is taken from the file /etc/profile. It sets the hostname, histsize of the shell, shell environment variables like PATH,USER,LOGNAME,and INPUTRC etc. The /etc/profile file also looks in the directory /etc/profile.d for the files which contain aliases and environment variables for use by the user. General format The default values used while creating a user account can be overridden by passing those values from shell. The format of useradd command is useradd -c “comment” -d home directory path -g group name -p password -s shell -u userid [root@localhost ~]# useradd -c "new user" -d /home/user2 -g user1 -s /bin/csh user2 When a user account is created an entry corresponding to the user name for example user1,user2 is created in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow file. An entry is also added when a new group is created for example user1. Below is the content of /etc/passwd filesystem user1:x:502:502::/home/user1:/bin/bash user2:x:503:502:new user:/home/user2:/bin/csh /etc/shadow file contains the user name and the encrypted password of the user. The entry of /etc/group file is user1:x:502: Changing default values

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The command useradd -D -b home directory name -s shell -g group can be used to change the default values used while creating new user account. Below command is used to change the shell to /bin/tcsh from /bin/bash [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D -s /bin/tcsh [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/tcsh SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes
5.3.Modifying user account

usermod command is used to modify the user information. The general format of usermod command is usermod -c “comment” -d home-directory-name -g group-name -l login-name -s shell -u user-id
5.4.Deleting user account

userdel command is used to delete the user account. userdel user-name this deletes the entry corresponding to the user name from /etc/passwd file and /etc/shadow. To delete the home directory along with the account following command is used userdel -r user-name

73 5.5.Group Administration

5.5.1.Adding New Group groupadd command is used to add new group. If no options are specified on the command line default values are used. The format of groupadd command is groupadd -g group-id groupadd-r option Second command is used to add administrative groups. Administrative group and users have ids below 500.The file /etc/gshadow is used to store the group's password. 5.5.2.Modifying group information groupmod command is used to modify existing group information. groupmod -g new-group-id -n new-group-name. 5.5.3.Deleting group groupdel command is used to delete group. It deleted the entry of group from the files like /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
5.6.Using User Manager

The user manager utility is used to perform all the tasks discussed above using the graphical interface. To invoke the user manager utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-users

The information can be edited on the below panel and changes can be saved.modify and delete user and group information. .74 It can be used to add . The below panel is generated. To modify existing user information click on the user name and then use the properties button.

The below window is thrown and the information of new user can be entered. click on the add user button. .75 To create a new user.

1.Space Usage The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a directory.Changing user password The password of user can be changed by entering the command passwd.M(megabytes). The size of files contained in a subfolder is also displayed .76 5. .7. passwd user-name if the user-name is not mentioned then it is assumed that user wants to change root user's password. The command prompts for root user's password and then for the new password. The format of the command is du folder-name if the option -h is used the command displays the size of files and subfolders in K (kilobytes).6.and G (gigabyte) form. The password needs to be entered twice. 5.

Overview The root user is can perform all the tasks on the system. [root@localhost ~]# df Filesystem /dev/sda11 /dev/sda12 /dev/sda10 /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on 9920592 2390424 7018100 26% / 4956284 141220 4559232 4% /opt 9920592 4643932 4764592 50% /usr 16479668 384520 15244508 3% /home 101086 383428 18499 77368 20% /boot 0 383428 0% /dev/shm 6.xemacs 44K /home/user1 The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem.1.kde/Autostart 12K /home/user1/. The format of the command is df filesystem If the filesystem option is not used on command line then df displays the amount of space available in all the mounted filesystems of the system.SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 6.0K /home/user1/.kde 8.77 [root@localhost ~]# du -h /home/user1 8. . The root user is administrator account on Red Hat Linux. During installation the root account is must to create.0K /home/user1/.

The format of the su command is su – user-name If user2 has entered this command in terminal then he will have the privilege of user-name (he can perform all actions which user1 can perform using the terminal in which he entered the above command. Below is the sample /etc/passwd file root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin .The su command The su command is used to change the user id and group id of the user issuing the command to that of user mentioned on the su command.Getting Administration Rights 6./sbin/nologin refuses login from the user. There are some administrative accounts which are automatically created by Linux but the user accounts cannot be used to log into the system as they are defined with the /sbin/nologin. The user accounts are listed in the file /etc/passwd. The user id and group id of the root user is 0. If he enters the password correctly then he gets the privilege of root user else he won't get the privilege.2.1.78 6.Using the su Using the su command a user can also get privilege of root user but the user will be prompted for the root user's password. Outside that terminal he won't have the privilege of user1).2.2. 6.2. Te user and group ids below 500 are reserved for the administrative users.

. /sbin/chkconfig ## Updating the locate database Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/sbin/updatedb ## Storage Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk.and mail are defined with /sbin/nologin so those user accounts cannot be used to login into system.3. /sbin/iwconfig.. ## Networking Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route.Administrative commands 6.1. The privilege can be granted by the root user only./sbin and /usr/sbin directory The directory /sbin and /usr/sbin contain administrative commands. /usr/bin/rfcomm. /sbin/iptables. 6.3./etc/sudoers file The file /etc/sudoers file defines group of similar command under an alias name. /sbin/dhclient. /sbin/ifconfig. The root user must be created on a Linux machine and all other user accounts in above sample are automatically created.Other uses must have given privilege to use those commands. /usr/bin/up2date. 6. /usr/bin/wvdial.2. Only root user can use the commands . For example ## Command Aliases ## These are groups of related commands. /bin/mount.4. /bin/umount .adm. /sbin/partprobe. /usr/bin/yum ## Services Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service.2. /bin/ping. /usr/bin/net. /sbin/parted. /sbin/sfdisk. /sbin/mii-tool ## Installation and management of software Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm.lp.daemon.2.79 The users bin.

PROCESSES.80 At first command aliases are defined in the /etc/sudoers file. ## service management apps and more. ## Allow root to run any commands anywhere root ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking. STORAGE. The explanation is any user can use mount command to view the filesystems currently mounted on the system but only root can use it to mount a filesystem. SERVICES./bin/mount. DELEGATING. software. STORAGE is defined for the commands /sbin/fdisk. Then in the file /etc/sudoers different groups are defined with different levels of privilege. SOFTWARE. DRIVERS ## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands # %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Same thing without a password # %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL ## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the ## cdrom as root # %users ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom. LOCATE. # %sys ALL = NETWORKING./bin/umount. In above case the command mount is in directory /bin. /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom ## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system # %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now ./sbin/sfdisk. Since normal users can not use commands in /sbin directory that is why mount command is in /bin directory.

Then open the file /etc/group and add the user jack on line corresponding to the group sys root:x:0:root bin:x:1:root. Suppose a user jack is to be given the privilege of group sys then uncomment the line #%sys using the /sbin/visudo command. The general format of the command is chown owner:group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner.jack adm:x:4:root. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens.bin.Changing owner and group The chown command is used to change the owner or/and group of a file. The format of the command is .. Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group.adm.3.81 The file /etc/sudoers should be edited using the /sbin/visudo command.bin.adm.daemon The entry jack is made in /etc/group file.daemon sys:x:3:root. Now the user jack can use the command rpm to install any software prefixing the command rpm with sudo for example sudo rpm -i vlc 6.daemon daemon:x:2:root.bin. The chgrp command is used to change the group of a file.

modifying user and group accounts) (discussed before) managing services to be run in a runlevel (discussed before) Updating existing software and installing new software (discussed before) Monitoring system performance Automating tasks Managing and tuning kernel 6.Using System Monitor The system information can be viewed using the System Monitor utility. . The system administration can be divided into several parts z z z z z z Managing user accounts (creating.1.deleting.82 chgrp group-name file-name changes the group of file-name to group.Monitoring System performance 6.4.4. To start the system monitor utility follow these steps on desktop go to system--> then go to administration-->then click on System Monitor.

83 On the processes tab the user can see the listing of all the processes of the system at that moment. and also change the priority of the process. On the preferences window the user can choose the time interval after which the information is to be refreshed. The user can click on a process and then can end process by clicking on the End Process button. Using the filesystems tab the filesystems currently mounted on the system are displayed. Using the view menu option user can choose the option to see only processes started by him (his process) or all process or active processes on the system. . Kill Process. View Process. A user can also choose which information he/she wants to see for the processes using the Edit->preferences option of the menu . End Process. Using the Edit menu option the user can Start Process.

percent CPU usage.% memory usage.Using top The top utility is started by typing the top command in the terminal window.4. 6. no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number ).Using w command The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them. The top command gives various information about the system z z z z z z number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes.3. no of processes sleeping.1.2. no of processes active. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system. the command used for invoking the process.84 6.4. The priority of the process.Other commands There are several commands available in Linux which can be used to view the system information.4. 6.3. .

21.0 pts/1 :0. cache memory.--system-. Under the io heading blocks received from block devices(bi).3.22.Using vmstat The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics.00s 0.00s find /home 23:08 1.4.19. Under the CPU heading the CPU related information.free memory. under swap heading amount of memory swapped in from disk(si) and amount of memory swapped out(so). 0. 0. Load average of the system and number of users logged on the system currently.03s 0.2. 2 users. [root@localhost ~]# uptime 23:17:44 up 32 min.---swap-r b swpd free buff cache -io---. load average: 0. buffer memory. [root@localhost ~]# vmstat procs --memory----.85 [root@localhost ~]# w 23:17:20 up 32 min.00s w 6.Using uptime The uptime command is used to show the time for which system is running. 0.10.3.0 LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT 22:48 10:07 0. load average: 0. .4.19 6.3. Under the memory heading it displays amount of virtual memory used(swpd).-----cpu-----si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st 0 0 0 218808 20736 258632 0 0 144 38 114 435 7 1 89 2 0 Under the proc heading it displays the no of processes waiting for run time (under r sub heading).no of processes in sleep(under sub heading b).19 USER TTY FROM root root pts/0 :0. 0.blocks sent to block devices(bo). 2 users.04s 0.

Using kill The kill command is used to end a process. [root@localhost ~]# free total Mem: 766860 used 550340 266068 0 free 216520 500792 shared 0 buffers 22476 cached 261796 -/+ buffers/cache: Swap: 819272 819272 6.4.Log information The user can see the log information of the system using the System Log viewer .4.3.5. The format of the kill command is kill -s signal-name pid z z z if the pid is 0 then all process in current process are signaled.86 6. 6. .4.The system log viewer is launched from desktop using SYSTEM-->ADMINISTRATION-->SYSTEM LOG.4.Using free It gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system. If the pid is 1 then processes with pid >1 re signaled if pid is > 1 then the process with that id is signaled.3.

The drivers can be inserted.KERNEL SERVICES AND CONFIGURATION 7. The hardware drivers are installed to interface with the hardware. For example the file /var/log/boot. 7. Clicking on the cron entry on left displays the log information about the jobs scheduled using the cron utility on the right panel of the above utility.and the information about the drivers can be viewed. The hardware drivers are maintained as the modules of the kernel.6.networking modules. The log information about the cups can be seen by expanding the tree under the cups entry on the left panel of the utility. 7.3194.log contains the log information of boot time.Overview Linux kernel is heart of Linux operating system.1.fc7]# ls build modules. The content of the directory is [root@localhost 2.21-1.2.kernel Modules All the modules configured into the kernel are located in the directory /lib/modules/*/.87 On the left hand side the list of log files is displayed. User can click on the name of files to view the log information.symbols .deleted.dep modules. The * is replaced by the output of uname -r command.

scsi updates modules.6.3194.pcimap modules.ko GPL and additional rights description: Intel Graphics .ofmap kernel modules. [root@localhost ~]# lsmod Module i915 drm Size Used by 25793 3 78037 4 i915 7745 1 ipt_MASQUERADE iptable_nat nf_nat 11461 1 22125 2 ipt_MASQUERADE.usbmap source modules.fc7/kernel/drivers/char/drm/i915.libata modules.networking contains the name of the drivers for the network devices.21-1.iptable_nat The modinfo command can be used to view information about any of the loaded module into the kernel.isapnpmap modules.ccwmap modules. The file/proc/module contains the listing of modules currently loaded into the kernel. For example to view information about the driver i915 of above case use the command [root@localhost ~]# modinfo i915 filename: license: /lib/modules/2. 7.alias modules.88 extra modules.ieee1394map modules.1. The file modules.2.seriomap weak-updates The kernel subdirectory of the above output contains the drivers currently part of the kernel.inputmap modules.Modules Loaded into Kernel To view the modules currently loaded into the kernel use the command lsmod.

7. The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command.89 author: srcversion: depends: Tungsten Graphics.4.dep file located in the directory /lib/modules/uname -r/. The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input.2.2.Using modprobe command The modprobe command can be used to insert a module into kernel .ko . If module2 is dependent on module1 then the file contents will be /lib/modules/*/kernel/crypto/module2. The user has to insert the driver module into the kernel.2.Inserting module into kernel Sometimes a user might need to install a hardware device if the hardware driver is not part of the kernel.2.ko /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1. Let module2 is module dependent on module1 then if the command modprobe module1 is executed then the modules module1 and module2 both are inserted as the module2 is dependent on module1. The format of the command is rmmod module-name 7.and remove a module from the kernel. 9274BE575209BE18EC18D84 drm 7.ko: /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1.Removing module from kernel The rmmod command is used to remove a module from the kernel. The module dependencies are listed into the modules. Inc.3.

3.2. The option options define the options which will be used when the module is inserted into the kernel.3.d. In above case if the command modprobe binfmt-0000 is run then the command /bin/true is executed. 7. But if the command insmod is used then the module1 is only inserted. The modprobe command looks in the directory /lib/modules/*/ and also for the configuration file /etc/modprobe. There are many options available for the ps command.Changing priority of process The renice command is used to change the priority of the running process. The dependent module is on left side and the independent module is on the right side of the semicolon.90 : In above example the modules module1 and module2 are listed using fully qualified path name. The command modprobe -r module-name is used to remove the modules from the kernel. The install option is used to run the commands defined after the module name.conf file is alias eth0 via-rhine options snd-intel8x0 index=0 install binfmt-0000 /bin/true The option alias defines an alternate name eth0 for the via-rhine.3.Process and Kernel Information 7.The ps command The ps command is all purpose command to get information about the processes running on the system. The format of the renice command is renice priority -p pid of process -u user-name -g group-id . The command ps aux is used to display all the processes currently running on the system.1.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe. 7. The sample modprobe.

.... .2-12)) #1 SMP Wed May 23 22:35:01 EDT 2007 BIOS-provided physical RAM map: sanitize start sanitize end copy_e820_map() start: 0000000000000000 size: 000000000009fc00 end: 000000000009fc00 type: 1 ...2 20070502 (Red Hat 4..fc7 (kojibuilder@xenbuilder4. .. .. The format of the command is dmesg -c -n level The -c option clears the kernel ring buffer after printing -n option sets the level of messages which will be printed. 7.... If the value of level is 1 then the serious error messages are only printed.3.3194..6..redhat.21-1.91 If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes and if issued for group then the process priority of all processes owned by the group is changed and if issued for process id then the process priority is changed..fedora....3..... [root@localhost modprobe...Using dmesg It is used to examine and print the boot up message. The user can use the command to capture the messages.1.com) (gcc version 4.1. After the execution the kernel ring buffer gets clear now if the command dmesg is run again then there will be no output....d]# dmesg -c Linux version 2....phx. is the output of command.

* # Log cron stuff cron. syslogd supports the system logging.3.* /dev/console # Log anything (except mail) of level info or higher.log local7. mail. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written.news.Syslogd The syslogd supports the system logging as well as kernel message trapping.none. authpriv. # Logging much else clutters up the screen.none.4.none # The authpriv file has restricted access.* /var/log/boot. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog. #kern.cron. The syslogd and klogd comprises the sysklogd package.conf. uucp.mail.news.log /var/log/spooler .emerg * # Save news errors of level crit and higher in a special file.conf file # Log all kernel messages to the console. # Don't log private authentication messages! *. Below is the sample /etc/syslog.92 7.info.* /var/log/secure /var/log/messages # Log all the mail messages in one place.* /var/log/cron -/var/log/maillog # Everybody gets emergency messages *.authpriv.none.crit # Save boot messages also to boot.

93 # # INN # news. The cron job messages are logged in the file /var/log/cron The file name can be changed by the root user if root wants to log the information into different file. If the file is not present then klogd uses a system call to obtain kernel messages.1. The file /etc/at.deny is checked to see the users who cannot use the at command.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command. If . The source for the kernel message is the /proc/kmsg file.err /var/log/news/news. The at.notice /var/log/news/news.Automating Tasks -- A user can schedule to run a job at a specified time.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command.and cron facilities are used to schedule a job at a specified time. For example the PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) related messages are logged in this file.=err news. The process id(PID) of the klogd daemon is defined in the file /var/run/klogd. The klogd daemon always runs on a running system and traps any messages which kernel generates. The at command cannot be used by all the users.allow file is first checked for the user name who can use the at command if the file is not present then the file /etc/at.batch.notice In the above file /var/log/secure file is defined to contain the authorization and security related messages. 7. The root user can use the at command.crit /var/log/news/news.=crit news.Using at The at command is used to schedule a job at a time and the atd daemon runs the job scheduled by the at command.4. 7. The /etc/at. The /etc/at.pid. There are two files which determine which users can use the at command. The klogd captures the kernel messages.4.

1. and the jobs with b on right are in batch queue.4.1.deny is jack mark The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespace in the user name.if invoked by other users the scheduled job of only that user is displayed.94 both the files are not present then only root user can run the at command. The three ways in which jobs can be scheduled are 7.Using at prompt . The command at time-specification is used to schedule the job at that time.2. [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 4 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root Fri Jan 16 23:03:00 2009 a root at -m sends mail to the user when the job completes even if the job has no output. The at -l command is used to list all the scheduled jobs(if root user runs this command then scheduled job of all users is displayed). The sample format of the /etc/at.allow or /etc/at.4. 7.1. The jobs which are listed have an on right are in at queue. the jobs which have = on right are jobs currently executing.using pipe A list of command can be scheduled using pipe for example [root@localhost ~]# ls -la | at now+5min job 1 at Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 to schedule a number of commands write each command separated by semicolons.

The format is atrm jobid to delete the job 4 in below case use the command at -l gives listing of all scheduled jobs. .95 The at prompt is presented to the user if at time-specification is entered for example [root@localhost ~]# at now+20min at> ps at> du at> <EOT> press CTRL+D to come out of at prompt. In above example ps and du both are scheduled.Using file The at -f filename time-specification command is used to give the command using the file filename. atq – The atq command is used to list the scheduled job.3.4. [root@localhost ~]# at -l 4 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:46:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root use atrm to delete job 4. Same as at -l atrm – command is used to delete a scheduled job.1. The contents of the file(commands in the file name is executed at time specification). 7.

4.The batch scheduled job is run by the atd daemon. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled.8.Using batch command The batch command is used to schedule a job. 7.96 [root@localhost ~]# atrm 4 the command atq gives listing of all scheduled jobs.2. The job runs when the load average of the system is below . The batch command invokes the at command prompt [root@localhost ~]# batch at> df at> du at> <EOT> job 5 at Fri Jan 16 22:58:00 2009 The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at. [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root The outputs of the commands are mailed to the owner of the job after successful completion of the job. The sample file for the commands scheduled using the batch command is #!/bin/sh # atrun uid=0 gid=0 # mail root 0 .

97 umask 22 SSH_AGENT_PID=2866. export SHELL . df du 7../etc/cron.. The /etc/cron.. [root@localhost at]# crontab -e no crontab for root .. The /etc/cron..... The root user can access cron facility.allow file is used to list the users who can use the cron facility. The name of the file is same as the name of the user. export HOSTNAME DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID=.deny file is searched.. . The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file. export DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID SHELL=/bin/bash. The crontab jobs are executed by the cron daemon..cron file ... If both files don't exists then only root user can use cron facility.localdomain.using an empty one crontab: installing new crontab The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory...... The users can be given access to cron using two files.. The format of the file is 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local .4..deny lists the user names which are not allowed to access the cron facility....Using cron The cron facility is also used to schedule the jobs. A text editor can be used to create a file-name.3...allow file is first searched by the cron facility if the file does not exists then the /etc/cron.. export SSH_AGENT_PID HOSTNAME=localhost.

[root@localhost at]# crontab -l 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local The crontab -r command is used to delete the crontab jobs.98 z z z z z z z The first field is minute (0-59) second field is hour (0-23) third field is day of month(0-31) fourth field is month (0-12). The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file.3. [root@localhost cron]# crontab -r [root@localhost cron]# crontab -l no crontab for root 7.Sun. The sample /etc/crontab file is SHELL=/bin/bash PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root HOME=/ # run-parts 01 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.0 and 7 both are used for Sunday The field value * in the fields denotes all possible value.Tue format is also used.4.mar. The command crontab -l is used to list all the crontab jobs. After the time fields the command field follows.Jan.1.Apr format is also used./etc/crontab The file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file. fifth field is day of week(0-7).Feb.Mon.daily .hourly 02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.

daily. The runparts define the time when the scripts in the directories /etc/cron. If the service is enabled in a runlevel use the command service httpd start to start the Apache Web Server./etc/cron.monthly The environment of the sub shell is set using this file. The SHELL parameter sets the shell to /bin/bash. 8. /etc/cron. 8.-list option is used to check whether the Apache web server is enabled or not [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The httpd service (the daemon corresponding to the Apache web server) is enable in runlevel 2.4.WEB SERVER 8.Starting Apache The user should check whether the Apache web server is enabled in the runlevel or not. If the service is not enabled then the command chkconfig httpd on is used.99 22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron.hourly.2. The mail is done to root user (MAILTO parameter). The apache web server source code is freely downloadable.monthly are executed by the cron daemon.weekly 42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron.and /etc/cron.3.Overview The web server accepts the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol(HTTP) requests and sends a response to the client. The chkconfig . The apache web server is the most widely used web server.and 5. [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start Starting httpd: [ OK ] After starting the service check the working of Apache web server by typing the address http://localhost .weekly.1.

The conf.d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 2009-01-06 16:15 logs -> .and PHP)./usr/lib/httpd/modules lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 2009-01-06 16:15 run -> .d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 27 2009-01-06 16:15 modules -> ..database(Mysql) and the authorization modules. [root@localhost httpd]# ls -l total 36 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:01 conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:29 conf.d contains the configuration files relating to the languages( like Python./var/log/httpd drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:20 modsecurity.100 in the address bar of the Mozilla Firefox (web browser)./.../var/run The conf directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd./. The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd. The directory contains main configuration file.. The logs directory is symbolic link to /var/log/httpd directory which contains the httpd log information . sub directories and symbolic links to other directories./..Perl..conf.

conf file is main configuration file for Apache web server.Main Configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. error.Global Environment Configuration In the global environment configuration section the following attributes are set # Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents # we are running. 8. The file is divided into three parts. The run directory contains the symbolic link to /var/run directory which contains the httpd. The additional subcomponent configuration files reside in the /etc/httpd/conf.101 the modsecurity directory contains files relating to the security. 8. Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites # finding out what major optional modules you are running ServerTokens OS This hides the additional subcomponent modules from the remote sites. http policy.d directory. and protocols related. z z z Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole.3. ServerRoot "/etc/httpd" The server root names the main directory where all the server information is kept. # ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's # configuration. The modules directory is symbolic link to the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory which contains the library files for the Apache web server.1.3.pid file which contains the PID of httpd daemon. Configuration parameters for the main server (not virtual hosts but these parameters also set default values for all virtual hosts) Settings for virtual hosts. # Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out. and log files are kept. .

# Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support # LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic.conf Loads the additional component support component files from the /etc/httpd/conf. # Load config files from the config directory "/etc/httpd/conf. # Include conf. in addition to the default Listen 80 In this case apache listens to port number 80.102 # Timeout 120 The server will wait for 120 secs for a response and after that the connection will timeout.so LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest.Perl.so The LoadModule loads the modules from the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory (the directory /etc/httpd/modules is a symbolic link to above directory).d/*.and Mysql etc.so LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file. User apache Group apache .Python.d directory. # Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or # ports.d".The port number can be changed to any port number by the user. The directory contains the configuration files for PHP.

# AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory # for additional configuration directives. # DocumentRoot "/var/www/html" This is the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server.html file and kept it in this directory and open the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index.Main server section # ServerAdmin: Your address.3. ServerAdmin root@localhost In case of any information server wants to give then the information is send to the email address mentioned in the directive ServerAdmin.html file will be displayed.103 The httpd server runs under the user apache and group apache. all requests are taken from this directory. # DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your # documents. For example if you create an index.The user can set this to his/her user-name and group-name. See also the AllowOverride # directive. but # symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.2. # AccessFileName . The email address can be edited if user wants so. 8.htaccess # . where problems with the server should be # e-mailed. The user account apache and the group account apache are automatically created (user don't create the accounts). By default.

deny Deny from all </Files> The .htaccess (the address in the web browser address bar corresponding to the . # alert.htaccess file won't give anything). # LogLevel warn The loglevel defines the messages which are to be logged.htpasswd files from being # viewed by Web clients. crit.htaccess and . notice. info. In above case the warning messages will be logged in the file.htaccess file is used to control access to the directory.c> ProxyRequests On . # <Files ~ "^\. error. The contents of htaccess file should not be visible to the clients who are accessing the server (people who are using web browser to view contents or pages on the server). warn. emerg. # Proxy Server directives.ht"> Order allow. Uncomment the following lines to # enable the proxy server: # <IfModule mod_proxy. # Possible values include: debug.104 # The following lines prevent . # LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log. The line Deny from all sets the access level that no user can be able to see the file .

allow Deny from all Allow from .3.Virtual hosts section # .org/docs/2. In the above example if the Proxy Requests directive is OFF then apache will act as a cache server.3.com. # See http://httpd. The root directory for the cached files is /var/cache/mod_proxy. 8.2/mod/mod_cache. uncomment the following lines.example.c> CacheEnable disk / CacheRoot "/var/cache/mod_proxy" </IfModule> # If the following lines are uncommented then the apache web server servers as a cache server.com </Proxy> The apache web server acts as proxy server if the above lines are uncommented. # <IfModule mod_disk_cache.html for more details. The permission level set for the proxy server in above case is the access is denied from all except . # # To enable a cache of proxied content.apache.105 # <Proxy *> Order deny.example.

com-error_log CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example. In the following example the ServerName is set to dummy-host.com.com-access_log common </VirtualHost> The virtual host section is used to configure virtual hosting which supports more than one domain using a single web server system. 8.example. # #NameVirtualHost *:80 # <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.106 # Use name-based virtual hosting.com ErrorLog logs/dummy-host. Each and every apache directive can be used within the VirtualHost.4.example.example.com is fetched. To invoke the utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost conf]# system-config-httpd .example.com DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host.example.example.HTTP Server Configuration The HTTP Server Configuration is used to configure the HTTP server.com ServerName dummy-host. So if a user requests a document in the domain ServerName then the documents or files from the directory /www/docs/dummy-host.

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The main tab is used to configure the server name and web master email address to add the ip address click on the add button.

The new address and the port can be added on the panel displayed. The user can choose to listen to all address option . Use the virtual host tab to configure the virtual host.

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The add button is used to add a new virtual host and the edit button is used to edit the properties of the virtual host highlighted on the left part of panel. the delete option can be used to delete the virtual host. If the user choose to edit the properties of a virtual host the below panel is displayed

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The user can use the tabs on top of the panel to configure the options. The general properties like virtual host name ,document root directory, web master email address can be configured on the general tab. The server tab on the main panel is used to configure the server lock file location, core directory where all the configuration files of the server will be kept, and the location of the pid file. The user and group under which the apache server is running can also be edited.

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The performance tab is used to configure the parameters which help in improve the performance of the apache web server. Parameters like connection timeout period ,maximum number of requests per connection are set here. These options are impact the performance of the apache web server.

Network options Under the network options the user can define the socket addresses.conf.Overview It is high performance proxy caching server for web clients with supporting HTTP.FTP. http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client requests. The socket address can be defined in three forms: z z port alone hostname with port . 9.111 9.2.Configuring Squid The directory /etc/squid contains the configuration files for squid server.2.1.and Gopher data objects. The squid configuration file is divided into sections 9. The main configuration file for the squid server is /etc/squid/squid.SQUID SERVER 9.1. Squid consists of a main server program squid. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks.

2.4.Cache size options This section defines the options which control the cache size and swap memory used to handle the objects.Neighbor selection algorithm option Under this section the user define the mapping of rules for the requests and neighbor which will be called if a request obeys the rule. #Default: cache_dir ufs /var/spool/squid This section also defines the format of the squid log files.hot objects(objects that are used often). For example hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ? means that when the URL consists of certain string of characters then the original server handles the request. 9.2. For example #Default: cache_mem 8 MB This sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use). 9.112 z IP address with port # Squid normally listens to port 3128 http_port 3128 9.2.log squid.log . The cache dir /var/spool/squid contains the following files [root@localhost squid]# ls access.out store.and negative cache objects(recent failed requests).Log File and Cache directory section This section defines the directory which will be used as a cache directory.log cache.3.2.

By default no outside client is allowed to access the contents.conf file acl all src 0. 9.0.0.Access control section This section defines the access control.0/8 acl SSL_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 80 acl Safe_ports port 21 acl Safe_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 70 acl Safe_ports port 210 # http # ftp # https # gopher # wais acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535 # unregistered ports acl Safe_ports port 280 acl Safe_ports port 488 acl Safe_ports port 591 acl Safe_ports port 777 # http-mgmt # gss-http # filemaker # multiling http acl CONNECT method CONNECT .pid. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file below is the example of acl tags from /etc/squid/squid.255.1/255.0.113 The squid pid is stored in the file /var/run/squid.0.0.0.5. The acl tag is used to define access control.2.255.0/0.255 acl to_localhost dst 127.0 acl manager proto cache_object acl localhost src 127.0.0.

The configuration file for cache manager is /etc/squid/cachemgr.conf. This entry can be edited to add more number of clients who can access the content.3. #Default: cache_effective_user squid The above line define that the effective user of the squid is squid user. http_access allow localhost http_access deny all the above lines define that the localhost can only access the http content all others are denied. #Default: cache_mgr root Above line define that root user is mailed in case the cache dies. 9.cgi script # .114 the first line gives name all to all the addresses.the user receiving mails in case cache dies etc. 9.Administrative parameters The administrative parameter defines the user under which squid will run . Squid is an administrative user account created automatically. The localhost name is given to the loopback interface. # This file controls which servers may be managed by # the cachemgr. The next lines define different ports with a name for example port 443 with name SSL_ports. The manager can access the contents as defined by the second line.2.Cache Manager The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs.6. The configuration file controls which servers will be managed by the cache manager.

SQUID_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT=100 . The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://server-name/cgibin/cachemgr. localhost In the above example the localhost server is managed by the cache manager. Should not be necessary # most of the time.4. The sample format of the file is # default squid options # -D disables initial dns checks. :* or :any matches # any port on the target server. allowing # * and other shell wildcards.Squid Daemon The squid daemon receives the configuration information from the squid daemon configuration file /etc/sysconfig/squid. 9. If you most likely will not to have an # internet connection when you start squid. # # hostname is matched using shell filename matching. If not specified then # the default proxy port is assumed.115 # The file consists of one server per line on the format # hostname:port description # # Specifying :port is optional. uncomment this SQUID_OPTS="-D" # Time to wait for Squid to shut down when asked.cgi.

Starting squid: .1.116 After making changes in the configuration file restart the squid daemon if the squid daemon is already running using the command [root@localhost squid]# /etc/init. Alternatively the command [root@localhost squid]# squid -k reconfigure causes the squid to read the configuration file again. The access to files is defined by rules set at the server machine.2.d/squid start command. The files are accessible by some computers on the intranet of the organization. NFS is example of a file server. 10.d/squid restart Stopping squid: . 10.NFS SERVER 10.Starting NFS service To start the NFS service enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# service nfs start Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] . [ OK ] [ OK ] if the squid daemon is not running then use /etc/init.Overview In organizations it is common that the files are kept at one server.

com but if the access should be restricted to computers with first name of 5 characters use files ?????. So for example if all the computers in the domain example.com The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group.255.1. The format of the /etc/exports file entry is directory-name host-name(options) #comments directory name is the name of the directory which is shared with other computers on network. The NIS group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the NIS group name. The options define security levels that is who can access and which users can access the directory.Format of hostname Multiple hostnames or lp address can be entered separated by blank.3. One directory entry is done on one line.168.12.1/255.? can also be used.0 The wildcard characters *.117 10.Sharing Folders The file /etc/exports contain the name of the folders which are to be shared.255.example.com should be allowed access to directory files then enter the entry files *. 10.123. For example to give access to mynis group add entry . 192.1. The format of the entry is hostname1 hostname2 hostname1 hostname2 165. The combination of lp address and hostname can also be used.3. ? matches any one character and * matches any number of character.87 All the hosts from a particular network can also be entered using the ip address/net mask format.example. The host names are the computers which have right to access the files.

secure.ro. . async – It responds to the request before the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk).com(async. Other option is no_all_squash which causes no mapping to be done.118 @mynis 10. The sync option means server will respond to the request after the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk) so there is no chance of inconsistency.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid.root_squash) In the first entry the directory /home/vishnu is made accessible by each computer (indicated by *) and options sync.rw. The other option is ro which allows read operation only.all_squash) /home/user1 ?????. The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534. no_root_squash – the root user of client is treated as the root user of the server as well ( the uid/gid of root is not mapped to the anonymous uid and gid). rw – the clients can read the files on NFS volume and also write on the directory .example.insecure. The second entry makes the directory /home/user1 accessible to computers with five letter name in domain example.3. all_squash – map uid and gid of all users to anonymous uid and gid.secure and all_squash is used.Options format The valid options used in the /etc/exports file are secure – the client computer should connect using the port below 1024.com with options async.insecure.rw.2.ro.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used.and root_squash. root_squash – this option maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid.So this option improves performance but increases chance of inconsistencies . Below is the sample /etc/exports file /home/vishnu *(sync.

4.119 The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service. To mount the NFS directory the mount command can be used.example. [root@localhost ~]# exportfs -a -v exporting ?????.Accessing the NFS directory [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] The NFS directory needs to be mounted before it can be accessed. -r reexport the directories -v verbose mode produces output or use the below command [root@localhost nfs]# service nfs restart Shutting down NFS mountd: Shutting down NFS daemon: Shutting down NFS quotas: Shutting down NFS services: Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: 10.com:/home/user1 exporting *:/home/vishnu The exportfs -a -v command is used to export all directories listed in the /etc/export file and print verbose output. For example to access the /home/vishnu directory enter the below command in the terminal . z z z z -a option is used to export all directories -u option is used to unexport one or more directories.

NFS Server Configuration The NFS server configuration utility can be used to create the /etc/exports file using the graphical interface.120 [root@localhost nfs]# mount localhost:/home/vishnu /mnt/win This mounts the /home/vishnu directory on /mnt/win directory of the same system.net Then restart the autofs service. It is invoked using the below command [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-nfs It lists the two directories which are exported. User can also edit the properties of the directories already exported by selecting the .master /net /etc/auto.5. To mount the NFS directories using the autofs use the following step add the below line in the /etc/auto. To add a new directory for export click on the add button. The autofs facility can also be used to mount the NFS shared directories on demand. For example to access the directory /home/vishnu the below command is used cd /net/localhost 10.

The server settings can also be edited by clicking on the server settings button The user can enter the port numbers in the text boxes of the panel to force NFS daemon for using these ports.121 directory in the directory listing and click on the properties button. The above panel is also displayed if the user wants to share a new directory (by clicking on the add button) but that time the panel will not contain any previous value. . The below panel is displayed which can be used to edit the options which are used to share the directory /home/vishnu.

and rmtab files contain the information about the exported files.nocrossmnt.mapping=identity.1. use nfsstat -s to display server side information use nfsstat -c for client side information use nfsstat -n for NFS statistics use nfsstat -r for rpc statistics The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory.etab.async.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS server statistics.secure_locks.hide. Windows operating system uses the SMB(Session Message Block) protocol for sharing files and printers.procfs-based interface to the mounted filesystems.wdelay.secure_ locks.com(rw. It uses following files to present the output in user readable format z z z z z z z /proc/net/rpc/nfsd -.acl.anongid=65534) /home/vishnu *(ro.SAMBA SERVER 11. /proc/mounts -.anongid=65534) 11.no_subtree_check.2.nocrossmnt.mapping=identity. To invoke the samba server configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-samba . The files xtab.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS client statistics.no _subtree_check.6. The sample etab file is /home/user1 ?????.Using nfsstat The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity.anonuid=65534.Samba Server Configuration The samba server configuration utility is used to configure the samba server on the system.insecure.122 10.sync.root_squash.wdelay.all_squash.no_all_squash.acl.insecure.hide.anonuid=65534. /proc/net/rpc/nfs -. 11.Overview samba is used if the network connected with the system comprising of the computers running the windows operating system.root_squash.example.

On the security tab the enter the following information the authentication mode. Set the value of the option to below values . the authentication server. The below panel is displayed. On the basic tab enter the work group name and the description of the work group.kerberos realm. samba users .123 The panel can be used to configure the server settings.and new samba share. To edit the server setting click on the preferences menu and then to the server settings drop down choice. encrypt password and guest account.

The passwords for the users are also entered on this panel. Click on the new user button to display the below panel On the above panel enter the UNIX user name and windows user name (the UNIX user name and the windows user name are usually same). After entering the user-name and password click on the add share button to display the below panel .124 On the preferences menu list the samba user tab invokes the Samba Users panel which helps to add new samba users.

Enter the values and click on OK. The share name for the directory is entered which can be any valid name and a description is added (you may write here anything). The below panel displays the samba share created using the above procedure and values displayed in the example panels .If writable in not checked then the client can't write on the share.125 On the basic tab of create samba share the directory which is to be shared is entered. The share can be made accessible to samba users (by checking the check box) or can be allowed to everyone by clicking on the option box allow access to everyone. If the visible is not checked then the share won't be visible. On the access tab user can define who can access the share.The writable option and visible option lets the user choose whether the clients can write to the directory (writable option) and whether it is visible(visible).

conf configuration file [user1] comment = user1 home directory path = /home/user1 writeable = yes . To add the above /home/user1 directory to the share the below content is to be added in the /etc/samba/smb. The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of the samba users. .3.conf is the main configuration file of the samba server.Samba configuration file The /etc/samba directory contains the configuration files for the samba server.126 11. The path of the shared directory is mentioned in the path entry. The /etc/samba/smb. browseable = yes valid users = vishnu In above entry the user1 is the name of the share comment is the description added and writable option means the client have write access to the share and the users who can access the share are listed using the valid user’s entry.

service smb start 11.25-2.Starting Samba service Use the below command to start the samba service.fc7] Server --------Comment ------- .4.Checking the service To check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be use the below command [root@localhost samba]# smbclient -L localhost Password: Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3.4.1.0.fc7] Sharename --------user1 IPC$ ---Disk IPC Type Comment ------user1 home directory IPC Service (demo sama server) Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3. 11.25-2.0. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu The left hand side denotes the UNIX user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name.127 The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users.

1. The command displays all the shared directories on the system and also the workgroup created on the system.conf.128 LOCALHOST Workgroup --------MYGROUP demo sama server Master ------- when asked for password press the ENTER or RETURN key of the keyboard to login as anonymous user.conf file is # Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware . 12. The sample vsftpd.Starting vsftd Enter the below command to start the vsftpd service if it is not running [root@localhost ~]# service vsftpd start Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: 12. 12.2.allowed by default if you #comment this out).Configuring vsftpd [ OK ] The directory /etc/vsftpd contains the configuration and other options file for the vsftpd. The users can connect to the FTP server and upload. The vsftp is name given to Very Secured File Transfer Protocol. download files from the FTP server.FTP SERVER 12.3. The main configuration file for the vsftpd is /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.Overview File Transfer Protocol is standard method of sharing files over the Internet. anonymous_enable=YES # # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in. . The command can be used to check the working of the samba server and the samba share.

129 local_enable=YES # the parameter anonymous_enable is when set to YES then the anonymous user login is allowed by the ftp server. pam_service_name=vsftpd userlist_enable=YES the pam_service_name denotes the name of the service for the Pluggable Authentication Module. All the administrative users are listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list root bin . userlist_enable is set to YES then vsftp don't allow users listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list to login through ftp. # Activate logging of uploads/downloads. xferlog_enable=YES # # Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 #(ftp-data). connect_from_port_20 if set to yes then port 20 is used for transfer of data by ftp. connect_from_port_20=YES # xferlog_enable directive is set to YES logs information about the upload and download events. local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server. The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. if set to NO then anonymous user login is not allowed.

12. The file lists the user names who are not allowed to login through ftp.4. The file /var/log/vsftpd.130 daemon adm lp sync shutdown halt mail news uucp operator games nobody The vsftpd pam also looks for the user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers.ftp command prompt To start the ftp command prompt enter the below command [root@localhost log]# ftp ftp> ftp supports lot of commands like .log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server. The user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers are administrative users (they are same set of users as the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file).

lcd – to change to a directory on local system mkdir – to create a directory on remote system rename – rename a file or directory on remote computer get – copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system mget – same as get but multiple files at once put – copy a file from current directory on local system to current directory on remote system mput – same as put but multiple files at once.5. bye – closes current connection and exits ftp.131 open hostname or ip address – connect to the computer identified by hostname or ip address close – close a connections pwd – shows name of current working directory on remote computer. To invoke the utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-vsftpd .lists the content of a directory on remote computer. 12. ls -. cd – used to change directory on remote computer.Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration The Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility is used to configure the vsftpd daemon.

The users can view the directory list if or not can also be controlled. Under server control tab user can start or stop the server view the log files. On the access control tab the user can define whether the local users should be able to login into the ftp server and the file which is to be used to ban users from accessing the ftp server for example the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file contain the list of the administrative user who should not be allowed to access the ftp server. The information which will be logged can also be defined.whether to run in standalone mode or not(in standalone mode vsftpd listens to the port it don't run under inetd or xinetd). File names which match a user defined criteria can be made inaccessible and invisible to the clients.132 On the general tab user can specify options like enable upload and download of files . On logging tab the user can provide the files which will be used for logging the standard logging file is /var/log/vsftpd. It also defines the port on which the ftp server listens. The anonymous user behavior and the system users behavior is set differently so as to provide better grain of control On the directory option the file access options are set.log. . The active connection options and the passive connection options as well. On network tab the user can define the network options. on Users tab the way system users and the anonymous users will access the ftp server is defined.

The contents of the directory are [root@localhost openldap]# ls -l total 24 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-02-20 02:25 cacerts -rw-r--r-.com:666 SIZELIMIT TIMELIMIT 12 15 . 13.conf is the main configuration file for the ldap.conf(5) for details # This file should be world readable but not world writable.1. BASE dc=example.conf file is # # LDAP Defaults # # See ldap.example.Configuration The main directory of the ldap is /etc/openldap.example.overview LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. dc=com URI ldap://ldap.2.LDAP SERVER 13. It is used to create directories of information that can be shared among client applications over a network.conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:17 schema The file ldap.1 root root 246 2007-02-20 02:25 ldap.com ldap://ldap-master. 13. The directory contains the configuration files and schema files for the ldap.133 Maximum number of clients connecting through a single source . The sample ldap.

The other values of the DEREF options is always. This is the default.conf file for the syntax change. The structure used to create directories is the LDAP Data Interchange Format(LDIF). TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request. The value of deref directive is never the alias is never dereferenced. After editing the configuration file user can start creating the directories using any of the ldap schemas. SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched. URI specifies the uri of the ldap server to which the ldap library will attach. The server name can be specified or the ip address of the server can be specified. The time limit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request. DEREF options specifies the way an alias is dereferenced. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search.conf using the include directive. The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap.and finding.schema The default schema can be used by the user or edited by the user to create the directory information of his/her own. The schema directory contains the schema files. Create a directory entry with the extension . The various schema files are z z z z cosine.searching.schema.schema use include /etc/openldap/schema/samba. To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. .schema inetorgperson. The port can also be specified on the URI directive. For example to include the samba.134 DEREF never The BASE directive is used to set the set the distinguished name in the ldap format using the dc=value format.ldif and save the file.schema samba.schema nis.

14. 13.Setting NIS domain name The command domainname .and ypdomainname are used to set the NIS domain name of the system.Starting the ldap Use the below command to start the ldap service service ldap start 14. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned. ldapmodify command is used to modify the entries of the ldap server.conf. The time of search or the time within which the ldap server should respond is defined in the TIMELIMIT option.135 To add the contents of the ldif file created to the ldap directory the command ldapadd is used. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. The formats of the commands are domainname domain-name-of-system nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system the below command sets the NIS domain name of the system to localdomain [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain The commands if used without any options give the nis domain name of the system .Overview Network Information Service (NIS) was created by Sun Microsystems. It is used to create an central information database which is kept at a server system and other computers on the network access the information.or nisdomainname.NIS SERVER 14. ldapdelte command is used to delete an entry from the ldap server. ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters. The computers which access the database information (maps) of the server are referred as NIS domain.1. z z z z ldapadd -a command adds a new entry to the ldap directory.2.3.

conf .conf file is # /etc/yp.ypbind configuration file # Valid entries are # domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST # # # domain NISDOMAIN broadcast # # # domain NISDOMAIN slp # # # ypserver HOSTNAME Query local SLP server for ypserver supporting NISDOMAIN Use broadcast on the local net for domain NISDOMAIN Use server HOSTNAME for the domain NISDOMAIN.Configuring NIS The main configuration file of the NIS server is /etc/yp. 14.136 [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# nisdomainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# ypdomainname localdomain The NIS domain name of the system is lost when the computer is rebooted.3. The sample /etc/yp.conf. .

1.2.Starting NIS server 14.Mapping Information The /etc/nsswitch.4.Starting ypbind service The ypbind service handles requests for information from the NIS server. The IP-address of server must be listed in /etc/hosts. The sample /etc/nsswitch file is # Legal entries are: # . try a broadcast call to find a server.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files by a client system. 14. The entry domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST defines the NIS domain name and the NIS server name of the system.Staring NIS server To start the NIS server daemon enter the below command in terminal service ypserv start 14.4. # broadcast # # # If no server for the default domain is specified or none of them is reachable.5. To start the ypbind service enter the below command service ypbind start 14.4.137 # # # Use server HOSTNAME for the local domain. The configuration file is read by the ypbind daemon.

138 # # # # # # # # nisplus or nis+ nis or yp dns files db compat hesiod Use NIS+ (NIS version 3) Use NIS (NIS version 2).0. The file names which should not be shard in commented out.0.0 10. . passwd: files nisplus nis shadow: files nisplus nis group: files nisplus nis In the above example the client computers will search the files passwd.and group on them and if the files are not found on the system then after that they will search for the files on nisplus domain.conf file.db) files Use NIS on compat mode Use Hesiod for user lookups Stop searching if not found so far [NOTFOUND=return] the above list defines the valid entries which can be added in the /etc/nsswitch.255. The format of the entry in the /var/yp/securenets file is netmask network example 255. also called YP Use DNS (Domain Name Service) Use the local files Use the local database (.16 so all the computers on the network 10. The clients’ computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file.255.16 can access the NIS sever information.0.shadow. Next the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server.0.

The server then provides the requested information to the clients 15.5.netmask. The security can have values as none(to allow access). DHCP server is used to assign the ip address.139 The finer grain of control can be implemented using the file /etc/ypserv.and DNS server.2. The format of the file is ip address of network:file-name for which access is defined:security:mangle{:field} the field is optional.deny(denying access) the mangle field is having the value yes or no.port(to allow access from port below 1024). 14.netmask.Starting the DHCP server To check the status of the dhcp server run the above command in the terminal chkconfig –list dhcpd if the service is not running then enable the service by issuing the command chkconfig dhcpd on after enabling the user can run the dhcpd service using the command service dhcpd start . The client computers will have to select that they want to use the DHCP server for the information like ip address.1.Overview DHCP stands for the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.NIS database The NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is created by using the ypinit command.DNS server and other information to the computers in its network.1. 15.conf.DHCP SERVER 15. This file can be used to set rules that define which host computers can access which files.

3.conf 15. The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign a ip address to a computer on its network.4.Working of DHCP server The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.DHCP client The DHCP client can be configured using the utility Network Configuration.leases contains information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network.conf. On the client computer if a user enters the command ifconfig -a then corresponding to the Ethernet interface which was assigned ip address using the dhcp server the user will be the ip address mentioned in the file /etc/dhcpd.leases.5. To invoke the Network Configuration window enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# neat or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-network .140 15.Configuration file The configuration file for the DHCP server is /etc/dhcpd. 15.

click on the edit button. Choose the device listing.dns server information and other information needed for connecting to the internet from the dhcp server follow this steps. This will throw a Ethernet device panel to the user. In the above example the device eth0 is chosen (Ethernet interface eth0). On the below Ethernet device panel choose the general tab .141 To configure a device to obtain the ipaddress.

conf for configuration parameters). User can also choose to obtain the DNS server information using dhcp by clicking on the check box Automatically obtain DNS information from provider. The dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient at boot time if the client is configured to obtain the ip address from the dhcp server at boot time else invoked when the activate button of the network configuration utility is clicked after selecting the Ethernet interface) gets the ip address information from the dhcp server it first checks the configuration file /etc/dhclient. .pid. After making the changes the user should restart the network using the below command service network start The dhclient is used to get the information from the dhcp server. The process id (PID) of the dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient) is stored in the file /var/run/dhclient.142 Then to set up a dhcp client click on the option box Automatically obtain ip address settings with and in the drop down menu items choose dhcp.

16.Starting Named daemon The status of the named daemon can be checked by the command chkconfig . To invoke the BIND Configuration GUI enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-bind .d/named start or service named start 16.3. In Red Hat the DNS service is implemented using the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND).BIND Configuration GUI The BIND Configuration GUI is used to configure the DNS server on a Red Hat Box.Overview The DNS stands for Domain Name System.2.-list named if the service is not running then enable the service using the command chkconfig named on to start the service named use the command /etc/init.DNS SERVER 16. It also contains information about each domain and organization of domain into zones.143 16.1. It is used to translate the host names into ip address and also ip address into the host names.

To add a new DNS server click on the New button to add a new server. In the current case the DNS server is selected. The values can be edited on the displayed panel. . This displays a panel on which user can enter the value. After editing the values the changes can be saved using the save button of the main panel. The objects which are displayed in the drop down list are z z z z z z z z Zone View Access Control List Security key Server Controls Logging DNSSEC Trusted keys The user can enter the value of the parameter by clicking on the object.144 The properties button is clicked after selecting the object in the listing panel. The properties of an existing DNS server can be edit by selecting the server in the drop down list and then clicking the object on the drop down list. After clicking on the new tab a drop down list is displayed on which the user can choose the object which he/she wants to set the value.

Important files The named daemon configuration file is /etc/named.conf. The pid of the named daemon is stored in the file /var/run/named. the central directory request may come . The directory /var/named directory is the zone file directory of the named service.pid. The statements in this file are enclosed in braces and are terminated by semicolon. 16.// . ON the BIND Configuration GUI the DNS server is selected on the list and clicking on the the outside.and # are marked as comment lines.145 To delete a listing use the delete button on the panel and selecting the object in the drop down list.txt The path and the description of the files can also be viewed using the utility BIND Configuration GUI.conf file the syntax of the file can be checked using the command named-checkconf by default it checks the file /etc/named. The important action defined elements are acl – access control list used as acl “description “ { ip address }.conf for syntax. The statistics file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/named_stats. named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named. server – to describe the server logging – logging facility definitions options – various options like view – the value can be inside and outside for a DNS server the from the private network(inside) or from Zone – to describe the zone information After editing the /etc/named. The dump file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/cache_dumb. The lines marked by /* */.conf file.4.db.

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properties button displays the location on which the important files are kept and also the description of the files.

Command whois

Description Searches for the availability of the domain name. Format is whois domain-name.

host

It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. Format is

dig

It is used to query the DNS server and display information returned by the DNS server. It is often used to troubleshoot the DNS server.

17.MAIL SERVICES
17.1.Overview

There are three parts of message transfer
z z z

MTA – Mail Transfer Agent MDA – Mail Delivery Agent MUA – Mail User Agent

MTA's are also referred as the mail server. The sendmail and postfix are examples of the mail server.
17.2.Sendmail

To start the sendmail server type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# service sendmail start

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17.2.1./etc/mail The /etc/mail is the core directory of the sendmail. The files which are contained in the directory are /etc/mail are divided into following category 17.2.1.1.configuration file The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc. The file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail, location of the log files and database files. 17.2.1.2.Domain name mapping file The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. 17.2.1.3.Access file The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmail will accept mail for delivery or relay. 17.2.1.4.Virtual server files The file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. 17.2.1.5.Virtual users file The file /etc/mail/virtusertable defines the actions which sendmail should take after receiving mail from the trusted users and hosts. Apart from this files the directory /etc/mail also contains the .db files which are database files corresponding to the files described above for example access.db. 17.2.2.Generating the .db files To generate the .db files use the following approaches /etc/init.d/sendmail reload or

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/etc/init.d/sendmail restart in above case the database files are automatically created as the sendmail is restarted or the configuration files are reloaded when the reload option is used. But this case doesn’t work if user doesn’t want to stop or reload the sendmail server. Then the second approach is used Use the below command sequence to create .db files for all the configuration file cd /etc/mail make all if the user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access.db replace the filename access.db with the .db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.db makes the file virtusertable.db. 17.2.3.Checking Sendmail Server The sendmail server responds to requests on the port 25. To check whether the server is working or not type the command [root@localhost mail]# telnet localhost 25 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. 220 localhost.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8.14.1/8.14.1; Sun, 18 Jan 2009 17:55:26 +0530 ^] user can enter help command to see the sendmail commands he/she can use.

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help 214-2.0.0 This is sendmail 214-2.0.0 Topics: 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA RSET NOOP QUIT HELP VRFY EXPN VERB ETRN DSN STARTTLS AUTH

214-2.0.0 For more info use "HELP <topic>". 17.2.4.Important Files 17.2.4.1./var/spool/mail The directory contains files corresponding to the user names that are using sendmail. These files contain the incoming messages received and processed by the sendmail. 17.2.4.2./var/spool/mail/statistics This file contains the collected statistics about the sendmail. 17.2.4.3./var/spool/mqueue This directory keeps the outgoing messages temporarily .the outgoing messages are kept until they are send. 17.2.4.4.Log files The sendmail log information is maintained in three files /var/log/maillog,/var/log/maillog.1,and /var/log/maillog.2. The log files contain different level of information. The file /var/log/maillog.2 contains the detailed log information. An entry is made for each mail been send by the server or received by the server. 17.2.5.Actions taken by server on a mail There are four actions which the server can take

1 17. ERROR:user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message.. This options are used to configure the actions of a sendmail server. The directory /etc/postfix contain the main configuration files and access related files used by the postfix server. The options are used in the /etc/mail/access file.3.3. So to add the postfix server use the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --list postfix service postfix supports chkconfig. Connect:localhost. 17.Starting postfix server The postfix server is not added in any run level by default (sendmail is generally there). For example # by default we allow relaying from localhost. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected.0. but is not referenced in any runlevel (run 'chkconfig --add postfix') [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --add postfix the first command shows that postfix is not in any runlevel.150 RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail. To enable the postfix server enter the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig postfix on .Postfix RELAY RELAY RELAY It is a mail transfer agent that is mail server.0.1.localdomain Connect:localhost Connect:127. The second command adds the postfix server to run level which the user is currently logged on.. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected.

3. 17. The files act as mailbox.2.cf.3.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process. [ OK ] .Script file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-scripts file is a shell script which executes the postfix administrative commands.Post install file The file /etc/postfix/post-install is a shell script which performs the post installation configuration of the postfix server.3.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main. 17. 17.3.3.3.postfix queues and locations to be used for logging. Access file – the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server.Mailbox The directory /var/spool/mail contains files corresponding to the user name of each user having access to the postfix mail server. 17.1.4. 17. mailbox.2.2. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main. It defines the hostnames and domain names . The incoming mail of the users processed by the postfix server is kept in the file.2.Permissions file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server.cf.3.default which is exact copy of the main.Configuration file The /etc/postfix/main.151 to start the postfix server use the below command [root@localhost postfix]# service postfix start Starting postfix: 17. For example for a user named jack the mailbox will be /var/spool/mail/jack.3.2.Daemon Configuration file The file /etc/postfix/master.2.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server.

.3. Bounce to temporarily store the bounced mails. To switch between the mail services from desktop perform following actions System Tools --> Mail Transport Agent Switcher.3. In the window displayed choose the postfix as the alternate mail server. 17.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix server.Switching MTA On a Red Hat Linux box the sendmail and postfix both the servers are installed but the sendmail is used as the default MTA. 17. The /var/lib/alternatives directory contains file mta which lists other mail servers. The directory contain the entry mta-sendmail this makes sendmail as the default mail server./var/log/maillog. The postfix server is treated as an alternative service to the sendmail server.2. The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives display the default services configured on the system.Log files The log information about the postfix server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog.5.ls active corrupt deferred hold bounce defer flush maildrop private saved public trace incoming pid In above example the directory /var/spool/postfix contains the sub directories incoming to temporarily store the incoming mails which have not been delivered yet.4./var/spool/postfix The directory contains a list of directories to temporarily store the mails. The alternatives services and the default services are defined in the directory /var/lib/alternatives directory and the /etc/alternatives directory. The file /var/log/maillog.and /var/log/maillog.1. [root@localhost mail]# cd /var/spool/postfix.152 17.4.

17.2.Dovecot The dovecot is used to configure the IMAP and POP3.conf.IMAP stands for Internet message Access Protocol and POP3 stands for Post Office Protocol. base_dir = /var/run/dovecot/ .Configuration file The main configuration file for the dovecot service is /etc/dovecot. 17.5.153 Then use the following commands to stop the sendmail server and start the postfix server. [root@localhost alternatives]# service postfix start Starting postfix: [ OK ] The postfix server takes the mail transport agent work in place of sendmail.5.Starting Dovecot To enable the dovecot service use the command chkconfig dovecot on and to start the dovecot service use the command service dovecot start 17.The sample format of the /etc/dovecot.conf file is # Base directory where to store runtime data.1. It replaces the sendmail components and uses the postfix components but the location of the mailbox and the log files remain same in both the services. [root@localhost alternatives]# service sendmail stop Shutting down sm-client: Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] [ OK ] the default sendmail server s stopped and the below command is used to start the postfix server.5.The mailboxes of sendmail and postfix are one single file so the above protocols are used to access the mails. The user sending mail and receiving mail don’t see any difference as there is change only in the transport agent.

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base_dir option sets the location where dovecot will store the run time data. The base_dir will contain the file master.pid file which contains the PID of the dovecot service. protocols = imap imaps pop3 pop3s protocols option sets the protocols which the dovecot listens. Above example sets the dovecot to listen imap,imaps,pop3 ,and pop3s protocols. # specify different ports for IMAP/POP3. For example: protocol imap { listen = *:10143 ssl_listen = *:10943 .. } the above part sets the port for the imap. Different ports are used for different protocols. # Log file to use for error messages, instead of sending them to syslog .# /dev/stderr can be used to log into stderr. log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log # Log file to use for informational and debug messages. # Default is the same as log_path. info_log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log The log_path and the info_log_path sets the log file paths where the dovecot will log the informational messages and error messages. # Maximum number of running mail processes. When this limit is reached, # new users aren't allowed to log in. max_mail_processes = 1024

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max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously

18.NETWORK SECURITY
18.1.Overview

Network security is becoming a vital and challenging task. If a system is connected with network then the administrator should pay considerable attention to network security.
18.2.The daemon xinetd

The daemon xinetd is started when the system boots and listens on lot of ports corresponding to the services configured in the configuration file of the xinetd daemon /etc/xinetd.conf. The directory /etc/xinetd.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. These services are called on demand services and can be seen using the command [root@localhost xinetd.d]# system-config-services

or by viewing the contents of the directory /etc/xinetd.d [root@localhost ~]# cd /etc/xinetd.d;ls chargen-dgram daytime-dgram discard-stream rsync time-dgram

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chargen-stream daytime-stream echo-dgram tcpmux-server time-stream cvs dgram echo-stream tftp

discard-

Each file correspond to a service which xinetd automatically starts when connection is made to that port. This on demand services should not be accessible by everyone. The access can be made selective by the use of TCP wrappers.
18.3.Using TCP wrappers

The tcpd (tcp wrapper daemon) program can be set up to monitor incoming requests for xinetd services or in other words the services which xinetd supports and also services that have one to one mapping onto executable files. If tcp wrapper is used then if a client makes connection at a port for services like finger,talk,telnet,and rsh ( xinetd service) then at first tcp wrapper daemon determines whether the connection will be allowed or refused. If the connection is allowed then the corresponding service is invoked to listen at the port. The tcpd authenticates the client using the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. 18.3.1./etc/hosts.allow It contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. This file is first scanned by tcpd. 18.3.2./etc/hosts.deny Iit contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts.allow file. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. Format of the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny are same. The keyword ALL is specified for all clients. For example in.telnetd: .example.com fingerd: ALL the connection for the telnet is allowed for clients from domain example.com and connection for the finger is allowed for all the clients.

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The service daemon is listed on the left if two service daemons are to be listed then the daemons are separated by comma (,) character. The semicolon acts as a separator between the daemon names and the address part. If multiple address is to be mentioned then the addresses are separated by comma. The ALL flag enables user to make the files as restrictive as it can be made. This enhances security.
18.4.Security Level Configuration

The Security Level Configuration utility is used to set the security level of the system. To invoke the Security Level Configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-securitylevel

On the Firewall Options tab the user can set the firewall is enabled or disabled. The trusted services are allowed to pass through the firewall. On the other ports the user can add the trusted ports by clicking on the Add button clicking on the Add button displays the below panel

The user can browse and upload the file containing the user defined rules. After making the changes click on apply and then OK. The user can click on the Advanced options tab to add a file containing iptable rules in the iptables save format.after entering the value press ok.158 On the add port panel the user can enter the port and also the protocol (tcp and udp). . This allows user to add more complex rules and also customize the fire- wall.

The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to. IPTABLES_SAVE_ON_RESTART="no" If the value is yes then the rules are saved to the file /etc/sysconfig/iptables.Configuration files There are two configuration files /etc/sysconfig/iptables and /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config.1.4.159 18. # Save current firewall rules on restart. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility.Command Reference Command iptables -A Description To append a security rule in current iptable rule iptables -D iptables -R iptables -I iptables -L Delete a rule Replace a rule Insert a rule List all rules . # Value: yes|no. The sample /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config file is IPTABLES_MODULES="ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp" The directive IPTABLES_MODULES defines the modules which are loaded. 18. In above example the modules ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp are loaded. default: no # Saves all firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables if firewall gets # restarted. load additional iptables modules.5. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers.

19.PAM AND SELINUX 19. .and session.d The files in the directory /etc/pam. The second line contains the rule for the PAM. The format of the next lines are or rule lines are type control module. The contents of the file /etc/pam. PAM allows four types account./etc/pam.0 auth include system-auth system-auth system-auth account include password include the first line is a comment.authentiction.path module-argument The type in above case is auth.PAM PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication module. PAM is a system of libraries that handle the authentication tasks of applications (services) on the system.d is used for configuring PAM.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam. For example the file passwd in the above directory contains the following line #%PAM-1. 19.d are present.2.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.160 iptables-save Save rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file.1.conf or the files in the directory /etc/pam.password. The configuration file /etc/pam.

The system-auth module resides in the current directory. The module is important if it is the only module for the service. Optional – the success and failure of this module is not important on the overall return value (success or failure) of PAM.so uid >= 500 quiet pam_deny.so sufficient pam_unix. Include – this module includes all lines given in the configuration file of a specific type. The system-auth is the module path. Password – the password type is used to update the user information like changing user password. The valid values for the control are include. time and other parameters. The configuration file is passwd as an argument.required. authentication(auth) – the authentication type prompts the user for a password and if the user provides it then he/she can access the service.and optional. Sufficient – means that PAM returns success if this module returns success and other PAM modules will not be called which are to be called for the process.161 Account – the account type defines access to a service based on the availability of resource. let three modules are called and if this module returns false then the resultant will be false but pam will call all the modules which are to be called for the process.so nullok try_first_pass requisite required pam_succeed_if. Required – means that pam will return failure if this PAM modules returns failure. Session –this type is used to perform the jobs (like logging) before a user access a service or after a user access a service. Contents of file system-auth auth auth auth auth required pam_env. .so in the above file the pam modules are called for verification of a user for the service passwd.sufficient.

Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues instead of enforcement.2.1. 19. Disable-. It is flexible access control architecture and provides support for the role based access control and multilevel security. The contents of the file are (for the above configuration of SELinux administration) warning .2.SELinux SELinux stands for the Security Enhanced Linux. To invoke the SELinux administration enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost selinux]# system-config-selinux The user can set the value of SELinux enforcing mode.162 The PAM modules reside in the directory /lib/security. Three values are allowed enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced. The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux. 19.SELinux administration The SELinux administration utility is used to configure the SELinux.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled.

SELINUXTYPE=targeted 19.SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing. Possible values are: # # targeted . permissive . SELINUX=disabled # SELINUXTYPE= type of policy in use.list selinux policy modules. disabled .Command Reference Command semanage Description Mapping Linux user names to SELinux user identities. security context mapping for network port.163 # This file controls the state of SELinux on the system. chcat Change file or users SELinux security category chcon Change the security context of each file to context semodule Used to install.Full SELinux protection.SELinux security policy is enforced.SELinux is fully disabled. interface and hosts and file context mapping. strict . .remove.Only targeted network daemons are protected. # SELINUX= can take one of these three values: # # # enforcing .3.

com? . Which is default installer of Red Hat Enterprise Linux? a. grub .log Answer – b Explanation -.cfg b. bootloader .-enforcing b. 2.164 O V E R 2 5 0 E X A M P R E PA R AT I O N Q U E S T I O N S 1. grub Answer – a Explanation – disk druid is the default partition manager for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Which command is entered on the anaconda boot prompt to install using the kickstart file located on the website http://kickstart-file/install/linux. Which line should he add in the Kickstart file? a.log is default log file. He wants to set the SELinux policy during installation to enforcing. grub . /root/install-log.-location=mbr b. selinux .-enforcing c. redhatinstaller d./root/anaconda-ks. set selinux . /root/anaconda-ks. /root/anaconda. /root/install. disk druid c.-location=mbr c. anaconda b. Which line should be added in the Kickstart file to install the bootloader in the Master Boot Record (MBR)? a. Grub is the default bootloader for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux and anaconda is default installer.info d. 3. A user wants to use Kickstart file for installing Red Hat Linux. selinux .-location=hd0 d. selinux = enforce Answer – b 4. bootloader .-location=hd0 Answer – a 5. After an installation a user wants to see the log information of the installation process.log c.-default d. Which file the user should refer? a.cfg is the Kickstart file created after successful installation of Red Hat and /root/install.

How many modes can kudzu operate? a. SAFE=YES c. 6.com Answer – d Explanation – The anaconda boot prompt is denoted by: boot.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. Answer – d Explanation – SAFE=no denotes that kudzu starts in no safe probing mode and anything other than no means that it is started in the safe mode. DISK DRUID d. /. SAFE=no b. Which of the following is the default Red Hat Linux bootloader? a. 2 c. The swap partition is . You want to start the kudzu in safe probe mode. GRUB b. /boot. swap Answer -.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. swap c. LILO is also bootloader but nowadays it is not used as default bootloader. ANACONDA Answer – a Explanation – GRUB is the default bootloader of Red Hat Linux. /home d. 9. DISK DRUID is the default partition manager in Red Hat Linux. :boot ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux. 4 Answer – 2 Explanation – kudzu can operate in two modes x safe probe mode x no safe probe mode 7.165 a. What will you add in the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu? a. /. All other partitions can lie within the / partition. Anything other than no can be used on the left hand side of the assignment.com d.com b.d Explanation – The / filesystem is root of the Linux file system structure. :boot ks . Which two partitions are necessary for Red Hat Linux installation? a. 3 d. 1 b.com c. /home. :anaconda ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux. LILO c. /usr b. 8. So it is mandatory to make a / partition. SAFE=? d. :anaconda ks .

256 MB b. /var c. 11. 12. You have computer 256 MB RAM . 400 MB Answer – c Explanation – For good performance of the system the swap space area should be double of the physical RAM attached with the System. /etc/modprobe. keyboard which are configured for X. The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf is not present on the system./etc/modprobe. /etc b./etc/X11/xorg.conf Answer – c Explanation -. /etc/modprobe. neat d. Which filesystem contains the configuration files? a.166 also necessary as Linux uses swap partition as extension of main memory. /mnt Answer – a . /etc/modprobe.conf. Which files will kudzu query to find out the devices already configure? a. 10. 13./etc/X11/xorg.conf lists the hardware like monitor.conf.What is the size of swap space for good performance of the system? a. 512 MB d. mouse. /usr d. system-config-network b./etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth0 lists the network device detected if there are more than one network device present then /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth1 lists the second network device detected and so on.conf is module configuration file /etc/X11/xorg.conf b. What command is used to invoke the Network Configuration utility? a.conf. system-config-net c./etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* d. /etc/sysconfig/lasthwconf c. 128 MB c. c Explanation – system-config-network and neat both the commands can be used to invoke the Network Configuration utility. system-config-neat Answer – a.

system-config-date is used to set date only. c. d. You want to see the options you have chosen during the installation process. /proc d. Which option will you use in kickstart file? a./root/anaconda-ks. system-config-time is used to set time only. 17. b. Is there any difference? a. Which filesystem will you use to get the information? a. Your friend used systemconfig-time for the same purpose. no file contains that information b. No both are same b.You used system-config-date to set the date of your system.cfg d. 15. /sys Answer – c Explanation -. d. 16. Answer – b Explanation – install option is used in the first line of kickstart file to show fresh install and upgrade option is used in the first line to show upgrade of a previous installation.cfg is the default kickstart file created by anaconda based on the options chosen during installation. upgrade option in line 1 of kickstart file./proc is pseudo filesystem which contains information about the processes running on the system. c. You want to upgrade a system using the kickstart file. yes both are different Answer – a . update option in line 1 of kickstart file.cfg c. update option in line 5 of kickstart file. /home/anaconda-ks. You want to see the information about the processes running on your system. /root b. /boot c. /root/anaconda-ks. Which file should you look for? a. /root/anaconda-ks Answer – b Explanation -.167 14. upgrade option in line 5 of kickstart file. You have installed Red Hat Linux in your box.

14 Answer – a 21. What is meaning of the option rootnoverify (hd0.14 b. You want to boot your Red Hat Linux operating system using kernel2. 19.6. main Answer – a . kernel /kernel-2. timeout=10 s d. inittab c.14 c. You have grub bootloader installed on your system.14.14 d. boot /vmlinuz-2.-10 Answer – a Explanation – The timeout=10 parameter is allowed in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. grub d. d. init b. c. Don’t verify the first sector of hard disk. boot /kernel-2. For example if windows is installed along with Red Hat then grub should not try to mount the partition on which windows is installed. mount the partition indicated within the rootnoverify option. Don’t mount the partition within braces of rootnoverify option.6. Answer – b Explanation – The rootnoverify (hd0. don’t verify the / partition b. Which command will you use in grub configuration file? a.6. What changes should be made in the grub configuration file? a.6.conf. 20. timeout=10 b.168 18. 0) in the grub configuration file? a.6. timeout . You want to boot the default operating system if user did not make a choice for 10 seconds. kernel /vmlinuz-2. Which process has the PID of 1? a. 0) option is used in case there is another operating system installed along with Red Hat Linux. timeout=10 secs c.

it is called father of all processes. What should you do? a. What will happen if runlevel is set to 6? a. Which of the two services will start first? a. It cannot be done Answer – a Explanation – The init process looks the /etc/inittab file for the processing to be done.5 c. The system reboots in a loop d. 111 and 85 decide the order of run. 22. The system comes to halt Answer –c Explanation – In runlevel 0 the system comes to halt and in runlevel 2. Multiuser mode booting b.d b. You want to reboot your system if a user presses CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard during the boot process.5d c.4. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –h now in /etc/inittab file d. During boot process kernel gives control to the init process.169 Explanation – The init process have the PID of 1. 25. At same time d. A runlevel script has the line #chkconfig 345 25 75. Which directories contain the boot time scripts for the run level 5? a. 23. Multiuser with networking mode c. and 5 the multiuser mode is active.d/rcv. /etc/rc. 5 and the start priority is 25 and the stop priority is 75. 24. It is a comment b. /etc/rc. . The entry captures the CTRL+ALT+DELETE key sequence and the command shutdown –r now is executed. /etc/rc.e. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –r now in /etc/inittab file b.d d. /etc/rc. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3.d/rc. Write a shell script for that and keep it in root directory c. S111USERDEF b. What is the meaning of this line? a.d/rc5.d Answer – a 26. Since 1 is less than 8 so S111USERDEF is run first. 4. Answer – a Explanation – The numeric digits i. The digits are compared from left to right taking one digit at a time. A user created two scripts S111USERDEF and S85USERDEP which are executed during boot time. 3. Can’t be determined. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3. S85USERDEP c.d/r5.

Which command is used to get the previous run level of a system? a. runlevel c. 28. chkconfig service-name on d. chkconfig service-name enable Answer -. The current runlevel of the system is N. The output of the runlevel command is N 5. init d. prevrun Answer – a Explanation – the runlevel command is used to get the current run level and the previous runlevel of a system. runlevel service-name on b. You want to enable a service service-name for current run level (run level 5). disable a service and lists the status of a service or services. The line gives an error Answer –c 27. 31. Previous runlevel of the system was N b.170 d. chkconfig httpd on d. What does it mean? a. service httpd on Answer – a . prevrunlevel c. The runlevel of the system was never changed from 5 so the previous runlevel is displayed as N. lastrunlevel d. enable service-name c. chkconfig httpd start c. service httpd start b. Answer – d 29. How will the problem resolve? a. chgrunlevel Answer – a 30.c Explanation – the chkconfig command is used to enable a service. Which command is used to change the current run level? a. Which command will you use to do so? a. c. runlevel b. telinit b. The previous runlevel of the system was 5 d. The httpd service is enabled in the runlevel 5 but it is not running.

/etc/mtab b. /etc/fstab c.d/all.d/init. 34. /etc/rc.171 Explanation – the service httpd needs to be started for that the service httpd start command is used. /etc b. Which directory contains the run level scripts of all the runlevel? a. /home c.d/rcall.d Answer – b Explanation – The directory /etc/rc. /usr d.d/rc. /etc/ftab .d 35. None of these Answer – c 33. Using chkconfig –list c.d d. Using chkconfig all b. /etc/rc. 36. Using chkconfig –all d.d c.d/rc*. system-config-services c. /etc/rc.d contains all the runlevel scripts and the directories /etc/rc. Which command is used to start the service configuration utility? a. /proc Answer – d Explanation – The proc filesystem is virtual filesystem (it is not mounted on a disk partition) which contains the process and system information. serviceconf.d/init. serviceconf b.d contain symbolic links to the scripts of directory /etc/rc. system-config-services d.all b. 32. Which filesystem is not mounted on disk partition? a. Using chkconfig list Answer – b Explanation – the chkconfig –list gives the listing of all the services in different run levels with the status of services as on or off. How will you view the status of all the services in all the runlevel? a.d/init. /etc/rc. Which file contains the static information about the filesystem? a.

Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/mtab d. A system has windows and Red Hat Linux installed on it. fdisk –m c. Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab b. fdisk –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win d. mount –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win c./etc/mtab contains the information about the filesystem currently used by a running system. /etc/ftab Answer – b Explanation -. What should he/she do? a. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab c.172 d. fdisk -l b. 39. 38. If noauto option is used the filesystem is not automatically mounted. mount Answer – d Explanation – fdisk command is used for creating new partition and view all the partitions of the hard disk. /etc/mstab Answer – b Explanation – The file /etc/fstab contains mount point. and other options. filesystem type. What should he do? a. 40. /etc/mtab c. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/mstab Answer –a Explanation – At boot time the /etc/fstab file is scanned for information about the filesystem to be mounted. mount –t vfat /mnt/win /dev/sda6 Answer – b Explanation – The mount command has the form mount –t filesystem-type source partition target partition . mount vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win b. Which filesystem contains the information about the filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. 37. /etc/mstab d. The user wants to access files kept in the /dev/sda6 partition with the vfat filesystem type. A user wants don’t want to mount the /home partition automatically at boot time. Which command is used to see the listing of filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. /etc/fstab b. mount –t d.

createswap b. mkswap d. /etc/mkfs/mke2fs. cat /proc/swap d. 44.conf c. /etc/mke2fs. 2MB c. The command is wrong Answer – b Explanation – The bs option denotes the blocksize and count denotes the number of that. mkfs c. cat /proc/swaps b. Both of above d./proc/swaps contain the entries . Which command is used to create vfat filesystem on a re writable CDROM? a. A file is created using the below command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/demo bs=1000000 count=2. fdisk –l c.How will you decide which swap partition is active? a. Which configuration file is used while creating ext3 filesystem on a partition using the mke2fs command? a. Your system has a swap partition on /dev/sda3 and another swap partition on /dev/sda5. None of above Answer – a Explanation -.What is the size of the file /home/demo? a. swapon Answer – c 45. 41. mkfs.vfat /dev/cdrom c. Which command is used to create a swap filesystem on a device or file? a. /etc/ext3.vfat. 42.conf b. None of above Answer – b 43. 20MB b. 2GB d.conf d. None of above Answer – c Explanation – The mkfs –t vfat is frontend of the command mkfs. So the size of the file is 1000000 * 2 = 2 MB. mkfs -t vfat /dev/cdrom b.173 to mount a source filesystem on target directory.

conf c.-status Answer –b Explanation -.d/init. 46. mdadm . /etc/autofs. mdadm .-create /dev/md0 .-create /dev/md1 . /etc/auto. Which configuration file does /etc/rc.d/autofs controls the operation of the automount daemon.d/init. -w is invalid option to badblocks command Answer – b Explanation – The data is not deleted if the badblocks command is used without option or with –n option.d/init.-level=5 devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 Answer – a Explanation – In second option . Data on device will not be erased d. What will be the problem? a. mkfs c. A user ran command badblocks -w on a device containing important data files.conf b.-create /dev/md0 . /etc/rc. Which command is used to create a raid device of level 5 using devices /dev/sda1. Which command is used to check a device for badblocks? a.-level=5 . mdadm .-create /dev/md0 .d/automount status d. 49.d/init.d/init. /etc/auto.-raid . /etc/autofs.-raid devices= /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 d. mdadm .d/autofs status c. chkfs d. badblocks Answer – d 47.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 b. /etc/rc./etc/rc. In the third option .-level= should be used.master Answer –c 50.174 of the entire active swap space of the system.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 c.-level 5 . No problem b. 48.-level=5 .master d.d/autofs status b. fsck b. How will you check the status of the automount daemon? a. /dev/sda2? a. Data on the device will be erased c.d/autofs use? a. /etc/rc.d/autofs . /etc/init. The contents of the file can be viewed using cat command.

There is no such utility Answer – b 55. How will you remove one of the devices from the raid device? a. /dev/vol_grp c. mdadm device-name –r raid-device-name c. vgcreate b. Which file and directory yum does look for information about the software . System-config-logman d. Which command is used to create volume group? a. mdadm –r device-name raid-device-name Answer – a 52. In fourth option . 53. A raid device contains four devices. Which of the following should be created first before creating the Logical volume? a.175 devices=n where n is no of devices is missing. 56. System-config-lvm c. 51. pvcreate Answer – a Explanation – vgcreate is used to create a new volume group and vgextend is used to extend an existing volume group. No directory has the entry b. vgextend c. Which directory contains entry for the logical volume group lvol0 created by a user in the volume group vol_grp? a. System-config-lv b. Physical volume b. volgrpcr d. mdadm raid-device-name –r device-name b. None of them d. Volume group c.-raid devices. 54. mdadm –r raid-device-name device-name d. /home/vol_grp d. Both of them Answer – d Explanation –Physical volume is to be initialized first and then the volume group is to be created before creating Logical volume.-raid is missing from . /sys/vol_grp Answer – b Explanation – The directory /dev/vol_grp contains lvol0 entry corresponding to the logical volume lvol0. Which command is used to invoke the Logical Volume Management utility? a.

conf.d directory d. User. Both of them d.conf.conf file? a.log Answer – d Explanation – The log file of the yum command is /var/log/yum.global c. User. 59. /etc/yum. Yellow software updater modified Answer – a 58.conf b.conf file c. global b. Looking at /etc/yum. The status of yum commands execution will be logged there. Yellow dog updater modified b. What is the importance of option gpgcheck=1 in /etc/yum.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user . The gpgkeys of packages are not checked before install or update c. What are the levels of rpm configuration file? a.d 57. User. system Answer – b Explanation – The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc. User can use the file to decide the install was successful or failure. Then he went for a cup of coffee. None of them Answer – c Explanation – it looks for the configuration file /etc/yum. Yellow updater modified d. Yellow umbrella c. 60. How can user decide whether the install was successful or failure? a.conf. He can’t decide b. Looking at /var/log/yum. The install completed before his return. /etc/yum.system.global d. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install or update b.log. If the gpgkey option is 1 then the packages are checked for the gpgkeys before installing or updating the packages.176 repositories? a. What is full form of yum? a. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install only d. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before update only Answer – a Explanation – Usually the gpgkeys are installed before adding any software repository. Sytem. A user ran yum command to install a package. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system. Looking at /etc/yum. The configuration file .d c.conf and then looks for the files in the directory /etc/yum.

e.rpm has been installed in your machine. A user used the command rpm –U package-name to install the package packagename which is not previously installed on the system. rpm –ivvh d.177 level rpm configuration file. 64. No use rpm-q d. rpm –iF Answer – c Explanation – the options -v (verbose information). 65. Your software vendor informed you that package-name. /var/log/rpm/* c. yum install package-name . Where does the rpm package information kept? a. /var/lib/rpmdb/* Answer – a Explanation – The rpm command uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information. Both command do same function d. What is the difference between rpm –U and rpm –F commands? a. No it is used for update only Answer –b Explanation – The command rpm –U is used to upgrade a previously installed package and if the package is not installed in the system then it installs the package. 63. U and e. No use rpm -v b. rpm –F installs a package if it is not installed previously c. The options i. b. Yes c. rpm –Ueh c. rpm –ieh b. How will you check vendor’s statement? a. /var/lib/rpm/db/* d. rpm –U installs a package if it is not installed previously b. rpm –q package-name d.-vv (verbose lots of information) and h (prints hash marks are rpm options which can be used with other options. 61. 62. Is the command correct? a. Which is a valid rpm command? a. Using system monitor c. None of the above Answer – a Explanation – The command rpm –U updates a previously installed package but installs a new package and the command rpm –F updates a previously installed package but does not installs a new package. There is no way to check vendor’s statement. and e. /var/lib/rpm/* b. F are mutually exclusive.

178 Answer – c Explanation – rpm –q package-name queries the rpm package database and finds out information about the package-name. bzip2 –d uncompress a tar. How will you uncompress the file? a. What is the difference between the commands tar xvf and tar xvfz? a.tar. Which utility is used to manage packages on a Red Hat box? a. system-config-manage c. bzip2 is used to uncompress .bzip2 –c is used to create . bzip2 –d creates a tar. 66. xvfz uncompress a .system monitor is used to view system information. system-config-packages d.zip file d.zip format.tar file d.yum install is used to install the package packagename. You have downloaded a package in tar. system-config-manages Answer – c .gz file into . Package Admin d. Using tar xvf followed by gunzip d. Using tar xvf b.bz2 file. Package management c. xvfz is verbose mode of command xvf Answer – c 68.bz2 file c.tar file c.gz format. Which command is used to invoke a Package Manager? a.bz2 file and –d option is used to uncompress a . system-config-package b. bzip2 is used to compress a file to . 69. Answer – a Explanation – bzip2 command is used to create and decompress a bz2 file. Package manager b.tar format and then the command tar xvf is used to uncompress the tar file. xvfz compresses a . Package manage Answer – a 70.tar file but xvf uncompress a . What does command bzip2 does? a. Using bzip2 followed by tar xvf Answer – b Explanation – gunzip uncompressed the tar.gz file but xvf uncompress a .bz2 file b. No difference b. 67. Using gunzip followed by tar xvf c.

/etc/login. Which directory contains the initial login and startup scripts? a. Which file does define the default values to be used while creating the user account? a. /etc/login.bashrc file in home directory of user Answer – a Explanation – The .defs b./etc/skel directory contains the initial login and a startup scripts. /etc/skel b.bashrc file in home directory of user b. Editing the /etc/bashrc file. d.What is the significance of it? .conf c.179 71. 75.What line will you add in the file /etc/login. Creating a . /etc/user. /etc/bash b. /etc/login d.The content of /etc/skel is copied to the home directory of user when the user account is created. /etc/bashrc. /etc/bashrc Answer – d 72.defs c. Creating a . MAIL_DIR=/var/temp b. 74.defs c. Creating a . MAIL_JOHN=/var/temp d.conf Answer – b Explanation – The file contains the default values to be used while creating a user account. /etc/initial Answer – a Explanation -. MAIL_CONFIG=/var/temp Answer – a Explanation – The line MAIL_DIR is used to denote the directory where mailbox of a user will reside. The mail box of john should lie in the directory /var/temp. /etc/bash. A user Matt have a user id of 400. /etc/userdefs d. You want to create a user account john. What action should be taken by him? a. 73.bashrc file in the home directory of the user is used to override the default values used for bash shell. Which file does contain global options to the bash shell? a. The default values can be overridden on the command line.conf d. 76. A user wants to override the default values used for bash shell. /etc/login. MAIL_BOX=/var/temp c.defs? a.bash file in home directory of user c.

User id 400 is of root user b. userdel –r user1 c. Answer – c Explanation – User id less than 500 are reserved for the administrative users. /etc/passwd b. usermod –s /bin/bash c. Matt is a non administrative user. /etc/password d. Which command is used to invoke user Manager Utility? . 77. User Configuration Answer – a Explanation –User Manager is used to create. useradd –D –s /bin/bash new-user d. usermod –s /bin/bash new-user b. /etc/pass c. Matt is an administrative user. userdel –r /home/user1 user1 Answer – b Explanation – The command userdel –r user1 is used to delete the account of a user along with his/her home directory. Which graphical utility is used to manage users? a. A user cannot have user id 400 c. What command will the system administrator execute? a. System Administrator wants to delete the account of user user1 along with the home directory of the user user1. A new user is working on the /bin/tcsh shell. 80. He wants the bash shell.180 a. userdel –h /home/user1 user1 d. None of these Answer – d Explanation – The file /etc/shadow contains the user login name and encrypted password. User Admin d. User Administrator c. usermod –D –s /bin/bash Answer – a Explanation – usermod command is used to modify the user information. 81. The file/etc/passwd contains information about the user but at the place of passwd x character is written. userdel user1 b. delete. 79. So matt is an administrative user.What should be his approach? a. d. and modify user and group information. Which file does contain the password of user? a. If the –r option is not used then the home directory of the user is not deleted. 78. User Manger b.

Check each file size and subdirectory size b. /etc/passwd c. system-config-usr c. grpasswd b. system-config-user b. A user wants to list the space used up by files and subdirectories of his home directory. grppasswd c. system-config-users d.The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem. 85. system-config-usrs Answer – c 82. gpasswd d. df /home/jack c. The system administrator wants to see the disk space used up by user Jack. Ask the system administrator c. Ask jack about the disk space usage b. /etc/groups Answer – d 84. du /home/user d. What should he do? a. su – c. passwd Answer – d Explanation – The format of passwd command id passwd user-name. /etc/group d. 83. passwd root b. su root d. df /home/user Answer – c Explanation – The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a . Which command is used to change password of a group? a. space /home/jack d. Which file does contain the information about the groups in a system? a. It means the password of user user-name is to be changed. /etc/gpasswd b. gpassword Answer – c 86. Which command is used to change the password of the root user? a. If the command passwd is used alone it means the password of root user is to be changed. df /home Answer – b Explanation -. What sh0uld he do? a.181 a.

The group demo is defined with the privilege of command shutdown –h now in /etc/sudoers file. Using visudo d. Yes he can use shutdown –h now b. The group of the file will change to that of group’s Answer – a Explanation -. Yes c. No shell won’t prompt for user-name’s password Answer – d 89. Using gedit b. A root user used the command su – user-name where user-name is a non administrative user.chown owner: group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner. What will happen ? a. Will the command execute successfully? a. The user of the file will change to that of user’s d. 91. Yes root user will have to enter user’s password b. Does Vishnu have privilege to run the command shutdown –h now? a. No su – command don’t give root privilege b. No as it is different terminal session he won’t have root privilege in this session. Nothing b. He then opened a new terminal and ran command to mount a filesystem. How will you edit /etc/sudoers file? a. No the shell will prompt for password of user-name but root can choose not to enter the password c.182 directory 87. . A user ran su – command in a terminal (terminal1) and got privilege of root user. Yes he will have to use visudo shutdown –h now Answer – c Explanation – The commands should be prefixed by the sudo command. If root don’t enter user-name’s password then he won’t be able to execute user-name’s files d. Using vi c.Will root has to enter the user’s password? a. Yes he will have to use sudo shutdown –h now d. Yes he has to enter the root password d. Using geditsudo Answer – c Explanation – the visudo command is used to edit the /etc/sudoers file. Answer – d 88. A user Vishnu is member of group demo. The user and group of the file will change to that of user’s c. A user entered the command chown : file-name. 90. No he can’t use the command directly c.

Frees swap memory c. Users c.What will be the impact of the command? a. The owner of the file will change c. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens. None of these Answer – a Explanation – The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them.The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics 95. gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system d. What will happen? a. Frees RAM memory b. Process with pid 0 is re signaled d. Iostat b. A user issues the chown user-name-group-name file-name command on a file filename which belongs to the root user. 94. System administrator wants to see the users currently logged into the system and the processes run by them. Which command shows the virtual memory statistics of a system? a. A user issues a command kill 0. What does free command do? a. 92. all processes in current process are signaled. Vmstat c. Virtual d. The group of the file will change d. Which command will help the system administrator? a. Gives an error c. Nothing happens Answer – a Explanation – The user don’t have privilege to change the file permissions of root user so he gets an error. b.183 Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. . He gets an error b. gives the amount of free and used memory of a filesystem Answer – c 96. All d. 93. All process with pid >0 are re signaled. W b. All of these Answer – b Explanation -. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system.

network information. no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number). number of users currently logged on b. process information? a. System Administration d. May a process have pid of 0? a. no of processes sleeping. no of processes active. no of processes sleeping. 101. load average of the system c. Yes init process have pid of 0 c. System Log Manager c. network usage information Answer – d Explanation -. It don’t use any file Answer – a Explanation – The uptime command uses the file /proc/uptime for the information and formats them in user readable format. System Monitor b. Which utility is used to see system log information? a. Log Configuration Answer – c 99. memory and swap information. 98. Log Manager b. . Boot process have pid of 0 d. no of processes active. System Log Viewer d. % memory usage. A process pid can be set to 0 using renice command Answer – a Explanation – The lowest pid that a process can have is 1 which is pid of init process ( init is called father of all processes). No process can have pid of 0 b. /sys/uptime d. /proc/sys/uptime c.184 Answer – d 97.no other process can have pid of 1 or lower than that. percent CPU usage. Which utility is used to view various system information like CPU usage. no of zombie processes d. System Information c.The top command gives various information about the system number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes. total number of processes. /proc/uptime b. Which file does the command uptime use to present the output? a. SystemManager Answer – a 100. Which of the following information does top command not give? a. the command used for invoking the process.

14 c.The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel. Both of them Answer – a Explanation – The SIGKILL is used to signal a process. lsmod modulename d. what should he do? a. A user wants to see the filename of a module currently loaded into the kernel.6. 104. /proc/modules c. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name . modprobe modulename Answer – a Explanation –modinfo gives the details of a module loaded into the kernel. It is a command c. Which file contains the list of currently loaded modules in the kernel? a. uname -r b.What will happen? a. /proc/mod d. For example kill –SIGKILL 5009 command gives the signal SIGKILL to process with pid 5009. What is SIGKILL? a.the command uname is used to print various system information. 105.185 102. 106. 103. Which command is used to print the processor type of a system? a. no such file is there Answer – b Explanation – The lsmod command is also used to list the modules currently loaded into kernel. none of the above Answer –c Explanation -. /proc/module b. infomod modulename c. modinfo modulename b. Error will occur b. A user issues command insmod -. None of above d. It is a signal used with kill command generally b. file name should be given from sysin d.uname -a prints all the information about the system. uname -n c. uname -k Answer – c Explanation -. uname -p d. The file /proc/modules also contain the same information. lists all the modules of kernel2.

Modprobe -a b. which command should be used to load the module A into kernel? a. modprobe -b c. 107.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe. none of them c.186 if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input.The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command. priority d. nice b. 110. priority 5 not allowed Answer – b Explanation -. modprobe -d Answer – c 109. insmod b. Error occurs no pid mentioned b. 108. /etc/modprobe. modprobe c. Which configuration file and directory does modprobe command refer? a. modprobe -r d.If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes .d d. rmmod d.conf b. both of them Answer – d Explanation – modprobe looks for the configuration file /etc/modprobe. schedule Answer – b 111. no change in priority d. renice c. On business requirement your client wants to run the process A (already running on the system) with increased priority. Which command is used to remove a module from the kernel? a. modinfo Answer – b Explanation -. The command renice 5 -u Jack is issued. The module A is dependent on module B.d. What command does administrator use? a. process priority of all processes belonging to user is changed to 5 c.insmod loads only the module mentioned on the command line. /etc/modprobe. What will happen? a.

187 112. .pid b. A user wants to log the boot messages in the file /var/log/boot. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. /var/run/klogd. 116. kernel messages displayed c. In which file is cron utility log the messages? a. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog.conf c. /var/klogd.conf Answer – d Explanation – syslogd supports the system logging. /var/run/klogd Answer –a 117. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. none of the above Answer – a 114. /etc/syslog. What system administrator does? Add name on mac in /etc/at. help options displayed for dmesg Answer – a Explanation – dmesg when used with the -c option clears the kernel ring buffer. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written. /etc/syslog d. Which configuration file does syslogd use? a. 113.log c. /etc/syslog. error d. so dmesg command prints no output.conf c.conf Answer --d 115. /var/log/cron/cron. /etc/sysconfig/syslog.allow a.pid c. No output b.pid d. System administrator wants to allow the user Mac to access the at facility. A user issues two commands back to back dmesg -c dmesg What will be the output of second command? a.log d. /etc/syslog d. /var/log/cron b.conf. Which file should he/she edit? a. /etc/sysconfig/syslog. /var/log/cron. Which file does contain the pid of klogd daemon? a. /var/run/klog.

The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespaces between the username (on a line). jack:jill c.allow? a.spool Answer – a Explanation -. both of them d. error condition Answer – c 120. /var/spool/at. If the /etc/at. atq Answer – c Explanation -. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled. don't add name on mac in /etc/at. none of them c. 122. Add name on mac in /etc/at c. /var/spool/at b.The file /etc/at.deny d. no user of the system c. jill Answer – d Explanation -. System administrator allows users Jack and Jill to use at facility.spool d. Which command is used to create a crontab file? . any of the above Answer – a Explanation -.allow and /etc/at.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. Which command is used to list all the scheduled jobs? a. In which directory the jobs scheduled by the batch command spooled? a. Same as at -l.atq the atq command is used to list the scheduled job. /var/spool/batch c. 121. Jack. at -l b. only root user d. On a system the files /etc/at. 118. jack.jill b.deny are not present. Which users can use the at facility? a.188 b. /var/spool/batch.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command.The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at. All the users of system b. what will be content of file /etc/at.jill d. 119. jack e.

the file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file. The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file. The conf sub directory of /etc/httpd directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd. service httpd on d.conf.The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd. crontab -d d. The name of the file is same as the name of the user. /usr/lib/httpd/modules b.The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file.pid c. 124. Which command is used to start the Apache web server? a. /var/run/httpd.conf b.d Answer – c Explanation -. /usr/lib/httpd/module c. /etc/cron c. crontab -l b.189 a. /etc/httpd. /var/run/httpd Answer – b 126. service http on Answer – b 125. /lib/httpd/modules d. none of the above d.conf Answer – c Explanation -. /etc/cron. Which directory contains the library modules for the httpd server? a.pid b. /etc/httpd/conf. Which file does contain the configuration information about the httpd server? a. /var/run/http d. /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. /lib/httpd/module Answer – b 127. /var/run/http. /etc/httpd/conf c. /etc/crontab b. service httpd start c. . service http start b. 123. The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory. Which file does contain the pid of the httpd daemon? a.conf d. crontab -k Answer – b Explanation -. crontab -e c. Which file is system crontab file? a.

conf? a. and log files are kept will be /etc/demo. HTTP Server Configuration c. b. database (Mysql) and the authorization modules.d directory? a. Which command invokes the HTTP Server Configuration utility? a. system-config-http c. Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole. load libraries related to Apache server c. ServerRoot is not a directive. system-config-httpconf Answer – a 133. Where the users need to put the html files to be served by the server in response of client request? . b. Error value c. and log files are kept 129. Answer – d 130. system-config-httpd b. HTTPD Server Configuration b.190 128. error. system-config-https d. Which is the graphical utility for httpd server configuration? a. In the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Answer – a Explanation – ServerRoot directive defines The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration.conf file the user set the directive ServerRoot “/etc/demo”. The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration. error. HTTP Configuration d. What will be the impact? a. Configuration file related to Apache client b. What are the sections of Apache web server main configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Perl. What is the content of /etc/httpd/conf. d. Settings for virtual hosts. The DocumentRoot directive of main apache web server configuration file is set to “/home/demo”. nothing d. no changes d. All of the above Answer –d 131. and PHP). The conf. Configuration parameters for the main server c.d contains the configuration files relating to the languages (like Python. HTTPD Configuration Answer – b 132.

debug info. /etc/squid/squid.dns c. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks.conf d. 137. crit. alert. squid. /var/log/httpd b.191 a. /home/demo b. /etc/squid/sqd.dnssrv b. debug c. warn. /var/log/httpd.squiddemo Answer – c Explanation -. /etc/squid/squidd. error.conf c. squid. What are the possible values of LogLevel directive in Apache web server main configuration file? a. Warn b. /var/log/http d. none of them d. squid. and emerg are possible value of LogLevel directive. 135. /var/log/apache c.conf b. squid. notice. /var/www/html c.html file and kept it in this directory and opened the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index. /etc/squid.log Answer --a 136.dsnserver d. 134. Which directory does contain the log information about the httpd server? a.conf Answer – c 138. Which is the main configuration file for squid server? a. For example if you create an index. What are the two main programs consisting Squid server? a. all of them Answer – d Explanation -.squid consists of a main server program squid. both of them d. none of them Answer – a Explanation – DocumentRoot defines the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server. On which port does squid listen by default for http? .html file will be displayed.

141.http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client 140. 413 d.conf c. port 4000 c. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. An administrator wants to change the default http port that squid listen to 4000. objects used very often Answer –d 143. 3128 b.What should he/she do in main squid configuration file? a. Objects in use b.192 a. What do you mean by in transit objects in terms of squid server? a. How will you set the RAM memory used to handle the in transit and hot objects of squid server? a. cache_mem of /etc/squid/squid. Objects used often b. httpport 4000 d.The socket address can be defined in three forms: port alone. RAM_mem of /etc/squid/squid. What are hot objects in connection with squid server? a. 3120 Answer – a 139. objects not in use d.conf . Port alone b. objects very complex c. none of them d. In what forms does http_port socket address be defined in the squid server main configuration file? a. objects never used c. objects which moved out d. httpd_port 4000 b. hostname with port c.conf b. ram_mem of /etc/squid/squid. hostname with port. objects that are in use Answer –d 142. http_port 4000 Answer – d Explanation -. 80 c. and IP address with port.

/var/spool/cache d. What is the meaning of the line acl all src 0. yes it can be d.conf Answer – a Explanation – cache_mem sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use). /var/run/squidd. what does it refer? a. 144. ip address should be with netmask Answer – a Explanation – http_access define which clients can access the squid server for http contents. no deny is not allowed c.168. 148. and negative cache objects (recent failed requests). /var/spool/squid c. mem_ram of /etc/squid/squid.0/0. allow is invalid d.56.0.65 can access the http content. /var/run/squid/squid. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file 147. /var/run/squid. gives name src to all the addresses Answer – a Explanation -.conf file? a.pid d.pid Answer – a 146. Wrong format c.The acl tag is used to define access control. no http_access is not allowed Answer – c . /var/spool/squid/cache b.0. Can the line http_access deny all be added in the /etc/squid/squid. /var/spool/squid/cachedir Answer – b 145.0 of main squid server configuration file? a. 192. b. An administrator writes the below line in main squid server http_access allow 192. Which file does contain the pid of the squid server? a. gives name acl to all the addresses d.193 d.pid b.168.0.65.0. Which is the default cache directory for the squid server? a. /var/run/squid c.56. hot objects (objects that are used often). gives name all to all the addresses b. No all not allowed b. gives name all to no address c.

squiduser d. /etc/squid/squid. What is cache manager? a. /etc/sysconfig/squid. /etc/cachemgr. .conf c. Cache-manager command b.194 Explanation – line means the http content is denied for all the clients. root c. nothing d. b. 149. Under which user does squid server run? a.conf Answer – c 152. 153. /etc/squid/cachemanager. /etc/squid/cache. c./etc/sysconfig/squid is configuration file for squid daemon and /etc/squid/squid.conf d. /etc/sysconfig/squid Answer – d Explanation -. Answer – a 151. How is the cache manager invoked? a. all of them Answer – a 150.conf b. /etc/sysconfig/squid.conf is configuration file for squid server. The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs. /etc/squid/cachemgr. 154.conf d. Which is the configuration file for the cache manager? a.d/squid. all of the above Answer – b Explanation -.cgi.conf c. Using system-config-cache d. What does the line SQUID_OPTS="-D" in the squid daemon configuration file mean? Squid can be started without having internet connection load default values from configuration file a. Used to see amount of cache space used by a process c.cgi. using http://server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr.The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://servername/cgi-bin/cachemgr. Which is the configuration file for the squid daemon? a.conf b. it is daemon process name of squid server. b. Squid b.

195 c. Not possible b. Service nfsd start b. Which command is used to restart the squid daemon? a. service nfs start c. Which command is used to start the NFS services? a. use @NISGRP d. use #NISGRP Answer – c Explanation -. squid reconfigure d. What does the option secure mean in case of /etc/exports file? a. squid -k configure c. service sqd restart c. use PAM c. Which command does make squid to reread the configuration file? a. The nis group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the nis group name. An administrator wants to add host1 and host2 in /etc/exports file corresponding to . squid configure Answer – a 156. use NISGRP c.d/squid restart d. all of above Answer – a Explanation -. none of above Answer – d Explanation -. Invalid option b.The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group. 159. service squid reload Answer – c 157. use SELinux d. Service squidd restart b. runs squid in safe mode d.the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. squid -k reconfigure b. 160.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used. service nfd start d. An administrator wants to add a NIS group NISGRP in /etc/exports file? Which of the following is true? a.-D option disables initial dns checks so squid can be started without having internet connection 155. service nfsd on Answer – b 158. /etc/init.

example. Maps root user to client to user jack's account b.com b.maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid. exportfs c. Which of the following is valid entry? a.myhost (means new belonging to domain myhost) 162.host2 b.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid. Which graphical utility is used to create the /etc/exports file? a.* character matches any number of characters in a domain name that is * matches for myhost (of option b) but not of option a as in option a there was new.com c. all of above Answer – c Explanation -. Exports b. Which command is used to export all directories listed in the file /etc/exports? a.Multiple hostnames or Ip address can be entered separated by blank. host1:host2 c.myhost. host1 host2 d. 163. export d. NFS Configuration b. 164. none of above Answer – b Explanation -. 161. NFS Server Manager d. Host1. don't allow client root user to login c.example. New.The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service. maps the root user of client to anonymous user Answer – d Explanation -. The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534. The combination of ip address and hostname can also be used. exportsf Answer – b Explanation -.example. A system administrator has made *. both of above d.196 the directory /home/user.com entry in the file /etc/exports. Which of the below address match the entry? a. NFS Server Administration Answer – b . maps client root user to NFS server root user d. myhost. What is meaning of option root_squash in the file /etc/exports? a. NFS Server Configuration c.

What operation is performed before user accesses a NFS directory? a. nfstat Answer – a Explanation -.log Answer – a Explanation -. Samba configuration d. Which command is used to invoke the NFS server configuration utility? a. 169. /var/lib/nfs b. Smaba configuration Answer – b 170. b. and rmtab files which contain the information about the exported files. System-config-nfsd b. . nfs d. Samba Server configuration c. both of them d. c. etab. no operation is done d. Smaba Server configuration b. Which command is used to invoke the Samba Server Configuration utility? System-config-samba system-config-smb system-config-sambad a. Which command is used to display server side NFS information? a. /var/spool/nfs d. Which directory does contain information about the exported directory using the NFS? a.197 165. nfsstat -c c. The directory is mounted b. /var/log/nfs c.The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity 168. /var/log/nfs/nfs. nfsstat -s b. Which utility is used to configure samba server? a. system should be rebooted Answer – a Explanation – before accessing a NFS directory the directory should be mounted using mount command or using autofs 167. The files xtab. none of them Answer – b 166. the directory is unmounted c.The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory. system-config-nfs c.

system-config-smbd Answer – a 171. The Unix username and windows user name of Jack are same (it is Jack). An administrator wants to add a user Jack as samba user. smb status c. Which of the following is main configuration file of samba server? a. service sambad start Answer – c 175. Which command is used to start the samba server? a.conf c. /etc/samba/smbusrs d. /etc/samba. jack:jack Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/smb. smbclient -L d. Service smbd start b.what should be the format of entry in samba user file? a. service smb start d. Which command is used to view the samba server status information? a.198 d. Which file does contain the name of the all samba users? a. 174. /etc/samba/samba. user=jack c. user:jack d. /etc/samba/smb. /etc/samba/sambausers Answer – a 173. jack=jack b.conf Answer – c 172. . service samba start c.conf b. /etc/samba/smbusers b. smbstatus b.conf d. none of them Answer – c Explanation – the command is used to check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu the left hand side denotes the Unix user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name. /etc/smbusers c.The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users.

no users c. users not in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list Answer – c Explanation -. Which is the main configuration file for the vsftpd server? a. 180. /etc/vsftpd/vsftp. b. d. An administrator wants to list the names of two users John and Jack in /etc/vsftpd/user_list file. local_usr=YES d. An administrator wants the local users to use the ftp service. All users b. local_enable=YES Answer – d Explanation -. jack john.199 176. local_users=YES c. a.local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server. which of the following lines is to be added in the ftp server configuration file? a.conf Answer – d 178. service ftpd start c.jack john:jack john .The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. Which command is used to start the ftp server? a. c. local_user=YES b.conf b. Service ftp start b. /etc/ftp/vsftpd. In the main configuration file of ftp server the directive userlist_enable=NO is used.conf c. Which users are allowed to login into ftp? a. service vftpd start Answer – c 177. jack Answer – d Explanation – the users should be listed one in a line. service vsftpd start d. /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. Which of the following is valid entry? John.conf d. /etc/ftpd/vsftpd. users in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list d. 179.

System-config-vsftp b. /etc/openldap/ldap.conf b. Which command is used to invoke the Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility? a.conf d. system-config-ftp c. copy d. Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration b. A user wants to copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system. 182. none of them Answer – d Explanation --The file /var/log/vsftpd.log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server. VSFTPD Configuration Answer -. Which graphical utility is used to configure the ftp server? a. VSFTP daemon Configuration d. Get b. Which command invokes the ftp command prompt? a. /etc/ldap/openldap.a 185.log b. ftpd Answer –c 184.conf Answer – a 187. /etc/ldap/ldap. /var/log/xferlogd c. What is the significance of the sizelimit option in the main configuration file of . paste Answer – a 183. sftp c. /etc/openldap/openldap. Which is the main configuration file for the LDAP server? a. system-config-ftpd d. system-config-vsftpd Answer –d 186. /var/log/vsftp. put c. both of them d. Which ftp command should he/she use? a.200 181. ftp d. Which files contain the logging information about the ftp server? a.conf c. Very Secure FTP Configuration c. vsftp b.

To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. ldif c. Minimum time taken by ldap to answer a search request c. nothing is to be done c. A user created a file which contains the directories of information he/she wants to add into an ldap server. Maximum time taken by ldap to add a entry d. the number of records in ldap c. The timelimit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request. ldaf d. What is the significance of the timelimit option in the main configuration file of ldap? a. What should be file extension? a.SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched. make the schema file Answer – a Explanation -. 189. number of concurrent processes d. Ldap b.conf? a. Before using a schema to create ldap directory information what a user should do? a. none of above Answer – a Explanation -.TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request. He/she wants to check . Copy b.conf. A user makes changes in the file /etc/openldap/ldap.conf d. 191. specifies the limit of results returned Answer – d Explanation -. Add the schema in /etc/openldap/ldap. Maximum time taken by ldap to answer a search request b. 188.conf using the include directive. make Answer – c 192. ad schema in /etc/openldap/openldap. Memory size limit b. use c. Which directive is used to include a schema in the file /etc/openldap/ldap. ldfa Answer – b Explanation -.LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) 190. include d.201 ldap? a. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search.conf b.

conf file for the syntax change.conf d. /etc/openldap/schemaldap Answer – c 195. 194. /etc/yp. Which is the main configuration file for NIS server? a. ypdomainname d. No he can't do this using any command b. ldap -s c. Can he/she do this? a. nisdomainname c.conf b. ldapsearch d.conf Answer – d 197. yes using ldcheck Answer – b Explanation -. . Which command is used to search for an entry in the ldap directory? a. /etc/openldap/ldap/schema/ b. yes using slapd -t c.The command domainname. b. /etc/nis. and ypdomainname is used to set the NIS domain name of the system 196. /etc/ldap/schema/ c. which command is used to set the nis domain name of a system? a.Ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters. domainname b. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned.conf c. Which directory does contain the default ldap schema file? a.conf. yes using ldap -t d. ldap b.The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap. ldapsrch Answer – c Explanation -.202 whether he/she made any syntax error. all of these Answer – d Explanation -. /etc/yp/yp. Which command is used to start the NIS server? service ypserver start service yp start a. /etc/openldap/schema/ d. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. /etc/nis/yp. or nisdomainname. 193.

Which file does contain the entry for the client computers with access to NIS server? a. ypdata c. 200.conf b. service ypd start Answer – c 198. /var/yp/securenets c. The files /etc/passwd and /etc/group are being shared by the NIS server. Sharefile in /var/yp directory b. Makefile in /var/nis directory d. 201.203 c. Make in /var/yp directory Answer – b Explanation -.the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server. port (to allow access from port below 1024). /etc/nisswitch.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files 199.The security can have values as none (to allow access).The client’s computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file. deny d. Which file contains the name of the files being shared by the NIS server? a. /etc/nsswitch. ypinit d. /etc/nwitch.conf Answer – a Explanation -. Which command is used to create a NIS database? a. Which file is used to map NIS? a.The /etc/nsswitch.the NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is . /var/yp/securenet b. What are the valid values of security field in file /etc/ypserv. /var/yp/secure Answer – b Explanation -. all of these Answer – d Explanation -.conf d. yp b.conf c. /etc/nswitch. The file names which should not be shard in commented out. port c.conf d. /var/yp/access. deny (denying access) 202. service ypserv start d. Makefile in /var/yp directory c.conf? a. ypserv Answer – c Explanation -. None b.

pid. chkconfig dhcpd start b. neat c. 203. chkconfig dhcp on Answer –b 204. chkconfig dhcpd on c. /var/run/dhcpclient. System-config-network b. /etc/dhcpd/dhcpd. Using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.pid. /etc/dhcpd.pid. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network.conf contain? Answer -.conf b.The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. Which command is used to enable the dhcp server? a. 207.num d.conf c.leases b. /var/run/dhcplient.The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign an ip address to a computer on its network. Which of the following is dhcp server configuration file? a. /var/run/dhpclient. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. 206. Which file does contain the process id of the dhcp client? a. /var/run/dhclient. d.stat Answer – a Explanation -.leases contain information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server.pid.204 created by using the ypinit command. c. /etc/dhcp. What does the file /etc/dhcpd. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf d. How can administrator decide number of client’s assigned address using the DHCP server? a.count c. none of these Answer – c 208. Which graphical utility is used to configure the dhcp client? a.conf Answer – c 205. Answer – b .leases. all of there d. b. chkconfig dhcpd enable d.

Which command does check file for syntax error? . /etc/dhcplient. /etc/dhcpdclient. 215.205 209. BIND Configuration GUI b.conf d. BIND Configuration c. system-config-dns Answer – c 213.d/name start d. none of the above Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/init. BIND Server Configuration GUI d.d/named start c. /etc/name. An administrator made changes to file /etc/named. to define server pid d.conf b. /etc/named/name. /etc/named. /etc/named/named.conf c. system-config-name b.conf b. Which is the main configuration file for the named daemon? a.acl – access control list used as acl “description “{ip address}.conf Answer – c 214. Which command is used to start the named server? a. Which command is used to invoke BIND Configuration GUI? a.conf d. To define access control list b. Which graphical utility is used to configure the DNS server? a. Which configuration file does dhcp client use? a. service name start Answer – b 211. What is the function of acl directive in the file /etc/named. service bind start b. BIND Server Configuration Answer –a 212. /etc/init.conf.conf Answer – d 210. to define performance option c. system-config-named c. system-config-bind d.conf c. /etc/dhpclient.conf? a. /etc/dhclient.

Which file does contain the statistics of named daemon? /var/named/data/named_statistics. hostname c.db /var/named/data/dumb. . checkzone c.Named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named.db /var/named/data/named_dumb. checkzonenamed d. b.txt /var/named/data/named_stats /var/named/data/named_stats. none of these Answer – a Explanation -. you have chosen a domain name for your system. zonecheck Answer – a Explanation -. namedcheckconf Answer – a 216. c.txt Answer – c 218. Which command is used to check the syntax of the zone files? a. whois c. domaincheck Answer – b Explanation – whois command is used to search for the availability of domain name format whois domain-name 219. domainchk d. Which file is dump file for the named daemon? /var/named/data/cache_dumb.It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. checkfile d. Named-checkconf b.conf file. gethost d. Format is host host-name host ip address 220.206 a. How can you check the availability of domain name? a.txt /var/named/data/stats. checkconf c. who b. host b. named-checkzone b. How can you get the hostname of your system from ip address? a. 217.db a.

domain name mapping in file /etc/mail/domaintable d.db file. none of above Answer – c Explanation -. define domain names in /etc/mail/local-host-name c.The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the sendmail server? a. use command domainname c.The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. Which of the following files are configuration files for the sendmail server? a. both of them d. define domain names in /etc/mail/virtual Answer – b Explanation -. 222.207 d. 225. /etc/mail/sendmail. /etc/mail/access b.deny c. /etc/mail/access.The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmal will accept mail for delivery or relay.cf.mc. location of the log files and database files. What will you do? a. /etc/mail/security Answer – a Explanation -. The file /etc/mail/sendmail. define domain names in /etc/mail/domain-name d. Can't be done b.the file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. What command does server the purpose? .allow d. After changing the /etc/mail/access file a user wants to create the access. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. Domain name mapping in file /etc/domain b. What should the administrator do? a. /var/named/data/cache_dumb Answer – a 221.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail. The domain name of your system changed from oldone to newone. You want to configure the sendmail server to handle two domain names. /etc/mail/sendmail. 223.mc c. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail. /etc/mail/access.cf b. 224.

cf d.mc c. /etc/postfix/main. /etc/postfix/postfix. /var/spool/mail/stats d.default which is exact copy of the main. b.cf Answer – a Explanation -. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected.db file you want to create for example make virtusertable. /etc/postfix/post. d.conf /etc/postfix/master. create access.cf b. What actions does sendmail do on a mail? a.cf.db.db with the . /etc/postfix/main.Which file does contain collected statistics from sendmail? a.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server. /var/spool/mail/statistic Answer – a 228. make access c.db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access.db replace the filename access. both of them d. 229.db b. c.conf a.cf. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected.cf /etc/postfix/daemon.db makes the file virtusertable. postfix queues and locations to be used for logging. It defines the hostnames and domain names.cf /etc/postfix/postfix. Which is the postfix daemon configuration file? /etc/postfix/master. ERROR: user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message.The user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .the /etc/postfix/main.db Answer – a Explanation -. RELAY b. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main. /var/spool/mail/statistics b.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.208 a. REJECT c. create access d. 227. Which is the main configuration file for postfix server? a. 226. . /var/spool/mail/stat c.There are four actions which the sendmail server can take RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail. Make access. mailbox.

230.2. /etc/postfix/access b. 233. Which directory does contain the default services configured on the system? a. /etc/postfix/access. 232. .The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives displays the default services configured on the system 234. Which files does contain the sendmail and postfix server log information? a. /etc/postfix/postfix-file d. /var/log/maillog b. /etc/postfix/access. /etc/alternatives c. /etc/postfix/security Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/services/alternatives d. /etc/alternative b. /etc/postfix/permit-files c.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix and sendmail server. Which file does contain the alternative mail services? /var/lib/alternatives /var/lib/alternatives/mta /var/lib/alternative/mta a.the file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server. /var/log/maillog. b. 231. /etc/postfix/postfix-files b.2 d./var/log/maillog. all of above Answer – d Explanation -. The file /var/log/maillog.The file /etc/postfix/master.deny c.1 c. c. /var/log/maillog.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process.the log information about the postfix and sendmail server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog.and /var/log/maillog. Which file does contain the directory and file permission set by postfix? a. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the postfix server? a.1.the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server.209 Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/service/alternatives Answer –b Explanation -.allow d. /etc/postfix/permission-files Answer –a Explanation -.

mc d. mail_processes Answer – a Explanation -. Which configuration file does xinetd use? a. /etc/xinetd/xinetd.d/service d. /etc/xine.conf b. /var/lib/alternatives/mta-alternate Answer – b 235. /etc/dovecot.conf Answer – d 239.d b.conf Answer – a 236. /etc/dovecot. max_mail_processes b. Which is the main configuration file for the dovecot services? a. /etc/xinet. /etc/dovecot. max_mail_run_processes d. Which directory does contain the files corresponding to the services supported by xinetd? a. Which directive of dovecot configuration file does set the directory path containing run time data? a. base_dir Answer – d Explanation – base_dir defines Base directory where to store runtime data 237. Which directive of dovecot configuration defines maximum number of running mail processes? a. /etc/xinetd.max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously.d/services Answer -.conf c. /etc/xinetd c.a . run_dir b.cf c. /etc/xinetd.210 d. max_run_mail_processes c. /etc/xinetd. base_run c. main_dir d.conf b. /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf d. 238. /etc/xinetd.

system-config-securelevel d. none of these Answer – a 242./etc/hosts. What is the significance of ALL in /etc/hosts. 240. security Level Manager Answer – c 243. /etc/hosts. and C. /etc/sysconfig/ipchains d.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number.deny – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. No b. This file is first scanned by tcpd. deny? a. Administrator wants to allow A and B for xinetd services (with tcp wrappers). /etc/sysconfig/iptables c. /etc/sysconfig/iptable b. system-config-security b. All is specified to denote all clients b. yes Answer – b Explanation -. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility. . Which file contains the current security level settings? a.The client A is listed in file /etc/hosts. There are three clients A. 241.deny.Is the configuration right? a. both of these d. Which command is used to invoke security level configuration? a. These services are called on demand services. Which graphical utility is used to configure security level of a system? a. security Level Configurations c. system-config-level c.allow – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection.allow and c in /etc/hosts.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system.allow file. security Configuration b. system-config-securitylevel Answer – d 244.211 Explanation -. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. B. all is specified for all services c.The directory /etc/xinetd. /etc/sysconfig/ipchain Answer – b Explanation -. security Level Configuration d. allow and /etc/hosts.

The valid values for the control are include. 248. password.d Answer – d Explanation -. Which file does configure the modules needed for NAT filtering? a. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers. sufficient. 246.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication. iptables-save b. /etc/pam/pam. authentiction. load additional iptables modules. iptables-kernel d. and session. Where will the configuration file for PAM find? a. Which command is used to save the rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file? a. done c.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to. and optional. . both of them Answer – c Explanation -.PAM allows four types account. /etc/pam. What are the valid control types for a PAM configuration file? a.d are present.d/conf c. /etc/pam. /etc/pam.The contents of the file /etc/pam.212 245.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam. /etc/sysconfig/iptable-config Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-filter d. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config b. password c. Which directory does contain the PAM modules? /lib/security a. Which of the following account types does PAM allow? a. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-nat c.d b. both of them d. The files in the directory /etc/conf. mandate b. auth b. The /etc/pam.conf file is absent on a system. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. 250. iptables -S Answer – a 247. iptables-load c. none of them d. 249.d/pam d. required.

/etc/sysconfig/selinux. /etc/sysconfig/seladmin Answer – a Explanation -.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled. /etc/sysconfig/selinux b. system-config-selinux b. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues warning instead of enforcement.mc c. /etc/sysconfig/selinux Answer – d 255. 254. Which file does SELinux Administration utility change? a.enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced. Which graphical utility is used for SELinux configuration? a. disable d. SELinux manager Answer – c 252. /lib/PAM c. /etc/sysconfig/seladm d. /etc/sysconfig/selad c. /lib/security/PAM d.213 b.The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux . SELinux administration d. SELinux configuration b. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. enforcing c. permissive b. system-config-se Answer – a 253. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. Which command is used to invoke the SELinux administration utility? a. What of the following is valid SELinux enforcing mode? a. Disable-. /etc/PAM Answer – a 251. Which configuration file does SELinux use? a. system-config-SElinux c. all of them Answer – d Explanation -.cf d. system-config-SELinux d.conf b. SELinux configurations c.

204-5.conf 200 etc/name. 132. 195.out store. 192-3. 164-5.master 174 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cachemgr. 205 acl tag 113. 103.conf 204 etc/dovecot/dovecot. 129. 122. 193 access control list 145. 32.log squid. 198-9.log cache. 99. 193-4. 196 anonuid 122 Anonymous login 127 anonymous uid 118. 205 access control section 9. 81. 103-4. 140. 116-17.conf 198 etc/sysconfig/selinux 213 etc/syslog. 145. 150-1. 211 assigned 140.conf 205 etc/dhcp.conf 194 etc/dhclient. 134. 201 command xvf 178 dev/sda2 174 device-name raid-device-name 175 dumb 207 error condition 188 etc/autofs. 113-14. 125-6. 113 Access file 147.conf 187 etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. 194 anaconda 14. 26.com 165 . 79. 130 Administrative group 73 administrator 66. 208 AccessFileName 103 access.conf 210 etc/yp. 204. 151. 191. 156. 153.214 INDEX* A access 97. 196 anonymous user behavior 132 answer 3. 105. 208-9 [4] access control 113. 183. 119-20.db 147-8.log 112 account system-auth 160 user jack's 196 acl 113. 204 lp 117 adm 78-9. 203. 161. 135. 172 access tab user 125 access.conf 210 etc/groups 181 etc/ldap/openldap. 155. 193 actions System Tools 152 address 61.conf 202 filesystem 183 ftpd 200 gpassword 181 hd0 164 kickstart-file/install/linux. 138-9. 211 AGE 68 AGENT 97 Alias SERVICES 79 aliases 70-1. 193. 115. 167 anaconda boot prompt 164-5 anaconda ks 165 anongid 118.conf 199 etc/xinetd. 207. 122. 107.conf 205 etc/openldap/schemaldap 202 etc/PAM 213 etc/samba/sambausers 198 etc/smb. 134 ALT 30. 169 amount 85-6.

118.log 191 var/run/httpd 189 var/run/klogd 187 var/run/squidd. 25-9. 212 file system-auth 161 authentication 111. 190 async 42. 96 bi 19. 167-8 boot configuration 27-8 . 212 auto 42. 173 bo 85 book 3. 133-4. 50. 5 boot 14-15. 210 bash 70 bash shell 70-1. 174. 189 apache web server process 101. 197 autofs status 174 automount 6. 101 auth 102. 189-91 apache web server configuration directory 100. 149. 122 atq 94-6. 191.215 lib/httpd/module 189 modified 176 namedcheckconf 206 paste 200 renice command 184 schedule 186 security Level Manager 211 service name start 205 service sambad start 198 service squid reload 195 service vftpd start 199 service ypd start 203 squid configure 195 system-config-dns 205 system-config-httpconf 190 system-config-manages 178 system-config-se 213 system-config-securitylevel 211 system-config-smbd 198 system-config-usrs 181 system-config-vsftpd 200 var/log/httpd. 165. 97-9. 174 base 45. 153-4. 189 apache server 109. 85 blocksize 45-6. 174 B badblocks 6. 72. 67. 105-6 configuration apache configuration file httpd. 70. 101.conf 100. 85 bin/bash 35. 179-80 bashrc 70 batch 93. 52 automount daemons 50. 110. 160-1. 51 autofs 50-1. 49. 160-1. 180 bin/bash new-user 180 bin/mount 79-80 bin/tcsh 72 bin/true 90 bin/umount 79-80 Block device 57.pid 193 var/spool/mail/statistic 208 var/spool/squid/cachedir 193 apache 102. 188 atrm 95-6 attributes 55. 78. 190 Apache web server 99. 41. 51. 91.

203 client side information 122 client system 137 clients 3. 172 bootloader 15-16. 131. 25.conf 25. 151 atq 95. 36-40. 142. 125. 99. 184 normal 29 boot process kernel 169 boot prompt 16. 121. 131. 144-5. 169. 170 choice 16. 169 cache 105. 157 bzip2 178 C ca 31. 144-5. single 14 boot time 34-5. 80 CDROM media 52 change 36. 142. 125-6. 142. 34. 138-40. 123-5. 91. 42. 87. 139-40. 5. 183 cat 47-8. 196. 195.216 boot directory 15 boot/grub/grub. 72. 204. 170. 207. 168 click 40. 82-3. 141. 174 batch 96. 112. 83. 187 button 107-8. 79. 118. 112 cache files 60 cache manager 10. 81. 168 boot ks 165 boot partition 14-15. 114. 202-7 [29] administrative 8. 90 Changing runlevels 36 chgrunlevel 170 chkconfig 35-8. 41. 84. 41. 164-5 default 25. 193 cachedir 60 case 81. 186. 169. 25. 87. 47-8. 123. 192 change directory 131 change root user's password 76 Changing priority of process 8. 75. 76-81. 211 [1] dhcp 142. 163. 150. 152. 173-4 cd 120. 142. 114-15. 156. 104. 86-91. 120-1. 188 . 99. 186. 119-20. 54-8. 192-4. 29. 87. 27. 113-14. 28. 194 Cache-manager command 194 cache server 105 cache size 112. 93-8. 195200. 169. 196 subnet masks of 156. 64-5. 18 boot system. 27-8. 153. 188 badblocks 49. 157 client computers 118. 127-8. 204 root user of 118. 43-4. 26 boot process 3. 164-5 bootloader command 17 broadcast 136-7 browse tab user 66 buffer 86. 170-5. 180-90. 192-3 cache directory 112 default 193 cache directory section 9. 155 cdrom 16-19. 158 user information 74 clicking 83. 181-3. 111 Cmnd 79 columns 42-3 comma 157 command 20-4. 132-3. 46. 171 chkconfig command 170 chkconfig dhcpd 204 chkconfig service-name 37-8. 211 web 104. 78. 52. 121. 90.

71 userdel 72 usermod 72. 90 purpose 53.217 bzip2 178 chgrp 81 chmod 46 chown 81 chown user-name-group-name file-name df 77. 204 yum 60-1. 202 lsmod 185 lvdisplay 57 lvremove 57 mdadm 53-4 mke2fs 173 mkfs 44 mkswap 46 modinfo 88 modprobe 89-90. 90 pvcreate 54 renice 90-1. 185 install 64 ldapsearch 135. 180 visudo 182 vmstat 85. 52. 181 dmesg 187 exportfs 119. 153 free 183 fsck 48-9 groupadd 73 groupdel 73 groupmod 73 insmod 89. 184 uptime 85 useradd 66-7. 176 command aliases 79-80 command askmethod 16 command atq 96 command badblocks 49. 197 ps 8. 196 fdisk 172 filename time-specification 95 following 46. 186 network 17 nfsstat 122. 178 command chkconfig 37. 186 rmmod 89 sbin/visudo 81 sudo 182 swap 46 swapon 47 top 84. 183 whois 206 183 ypinit 139. 72. 174 command badblocks device-name 49 command badblocks searches 49 command bzip2 65. 143 command chkconfig dhcpd 139 command chkconfig dovecot 153 command chkconfig httpd 99 command chown 182 command crontab 98 command dd 173 command dhclient 142 command dmesg 91 . 67.

133. 116-18.vfat 173 command modprobe 90 command mount 42. 23.tar. 169 computers 14-15.gz 64 command umount directory-name 43 command uname 185 command useradd 72 command userdel 180 command vgcreate 55 command vgdisplay 55 command vgextend 55 command vgremove 58 command. 189-90. 194-5. 101. 126-8. 166. 140. 200. 143. 204 remote 131 conf 100. 211 httpd server 190 post installation 151 samba 197 server's 190 configuration directives 103 Configuration directives for Apache web server process 190 configuration file cd 148 configuration file restart 116 configuration files 11-12. 96 command ps 90 command pvremove 58 Command Reference 13. 165-6. 73. 138-40. 59-60. 147-8. 133-5. 179. 186 command lsmod 88 command lvcreate 56 command mdadm 53 command mkfs. 101. 190. 122. 80 command passwd 76. 64. 177 command sequence 148 command service dhcpd start 139 command service dovecot start 153 command service httpd start 99 command service network start 142 command service ypbind start 137 command sets 135 command shutdown 169. 160. 27-8. 102. 48. 159-61. 11. 202. 163 command renice 186 command root@localhost 44 command rpm 81. 77. 212-13 [19] Configuration GUI 11. 202 command swapoff 48 command system-config-kickstart 17 command tar xvf 178 command tar xvfz realplay. 135-6. 212 conf directory 100 config directory 102 configuration 8-9. 176.insmod loads 186 commands gunzip realplay. 207-8. 159.218 command domainname 135. 182 command slapd 134. 145. 131.tar. 181 command prompts 76. 205. 162. 41. 186-7.gz 64 commands mke2fs uses 45 commands tar xvf 178 comment 71-2. 45. 207 command don W  command execute 182 command field 98 command file swap 46 command ifconfig 140 command insmod 90 command kudzu 19 command ldapadd 135 command line 46. 173. 128. 205 .

143. 207 defaults 41. 200-1 core directory 109. 61-2. 169. 147. 173 . 81.219 configuration information 115. 190 database files 147-8. 64-5. 205-6 tcp wrapper 156 daemon Configuration 10. 71-3. 187 named 143. 207 days 68 db 138 db files 12. 192. 110. 122-3. 147 cpu 85 CPU usage 84. 35. 19 Configuring NIS 11. 111 Configuring vsftpd 10. 51-2. 104. 91. 97 crontab 97-8. 174 database 64. 204-5 [5] configure command configures 65 configure IPSec tunnel 23 configure printers 24 configure samba server 197 configure security level 211 configure system's hostname 23 Configuring Grub 5. 79. 184 crashes 40. 109-10. 123. 106-7. 52 Creating Kickstart 5. 32. 152 dev 18. 155 data files 46. 145. 41-2 dev/cdrom 43-4. 27 Configuring Hardware 5. 72 deref 134 DEREF options 134 desc 19 description 29. 162. 195 connection 102. 17. 33. 101. 179. 27. 153. 130. 128 connect 118. 163. 200 Daemon Configuration 151 daemon process name 194 daemon xinetd 12. 66 cron facility 93. 194. 112. 150. 205 desktop 82. 190 configuration configure 14. 157 cron 97-9. 136 Configuring services 36 Configuring Squid 9. 212 copy 15. 99. 189 crontab jobs 97-8 CTRL 30. 169 D daemon 78-9. 169 ctrlaltdel 30-2. 159. 168 default parameters 45-6 default runlevel 29-30 default values 66-7. 19-20. 125-6. 164 default operating system 27-8. 128-9. 147-8. 189 klogd 93. 131. 131. 45 deflate/module 89 Deleting user account 7. 208 dc 133-4 default installer 14. 155-6. 131. 161. 145-6. 211 internet 115. 150. 86. 16 Creating User Account 7. 194-5 conntrack 159 console 29-30. 141. 92 control 27. 23. 131. 189 configuration parameters 142. 177. 131. 100.

46.tar 65 directory tree 101. 142 DHCP client 11. 143 domain example. 52-4. 40-1. 204 DHCP server 11. 175-7. 34-6. 141. 1967. 175 filesystem-type 44. 134 directory files 117 directory information 134 directory list 132 directory listing 121 directory name 17. 169 dir 17. 210 current 131. 156 . 204 difference 42. 99-104. 181 dhcp 139. 187 DNS server 11. 41-2. 174 dev/sda4 43 dev/sda5 40. 210 DIR 67-8. 205 dns server information 141 DNS server information 142 DNS service 143 DocumentRoot 103. 43 df 77. 166. 42-3. 105. 190-1 domain 106. 117 directory-name host-name 117 directory option 132 directory path 17. 171 disk druid 164-5 display 57. 143-6. 139. 77. 106. 153-4. 171. 96-7. 210 directory realplay 64-5 directory realplay. 124. 125-6. 174 dev/sda2 53-4. 161. 153. 173 dev/sda6 172 dev/vol 175 device 19. 173-5 multiple 52 physical 53 device listing 141 device name 42 device-name 48-9. 160. 48 devpts 41. 179 directory 15. 190 directory user 70 directory yum 175 disk 85. 44. 54-5. 127. 181 display server side information 122 display server side NFS information 197 dmesg 91. 140 dhcp server 139-42.220 dev/fd0 51 dev/md0 53-4. 90. 174 dev/my 57 dev/sda 26. 127. 117-21. 45. 133-4. 200 etc/alternatives 152 etc/httpd 189 schema 134 target 173 var/lib/alternatives 152 var/named 145. 177-8 digits 35. 149-52. 47-8. 139-40. 206 var/nis 203 var/yp 203 directory entry 117. 188-91. 49. 131.com 117-18. 77 dev/sda0 53 dev/sda1 53. 118. 59-60. 167. 209-12 [25] base 153.

126. 123. 166.conf 90. 143. 205 etc/inittab 29 etc/login. 211 etc/hosts. 189 etc/httpd/conf 101-2. 175. 80. 188 etc/auto. 120-1.deny command lists 93. 206-8 domain NISDOMAIN 136 domain ServerName 106 domainname domain-name-of-system 135 don W   dovecot 12.allow 94.mc 147. 201-3 [2] valid 136. 109 ENAB 69-70 entry 15. 195. 29.conf 140. 185-7. 153-4 dovecot configuration 210 down list 144-5 drivers 19. 186 etc/modprobe. 199 entry initdefault 29 entry mta-sendmail 152 environment 96. 189-90 etc/httpd/conf/httpd. 179 email address. 171-2 etc/ftab 171-2 etc/gshadow 73 etc/hosts 137. 138. 144. 135. 207 etc/mail/sendmail. 196. 154 etc/alternatives 209 etc/at. 196. 59.daily 98-9 etc/demo 190 etc/dhcpd. 191 domain names 146-7. 50-1. 156. 183. 99. 117-18. 182 editing 27-8. 71-3. 208 etc/mail/local-host-name 147. 134.deny 93-4. 186 .db 145. 101.conf 189-90 etc/init 116. 174. 187-8 etc/at. 208 error Answer 170 error messages 91. web master 107.allow 12.cf 147.defs 67. 147-8. 207 Domain Name Service 138 Domain Name System 111. 173. 83. 151. 58. 190-1. 108. 104. 207 etc/modprobe 90. 114.misc 50-1 etc/bashrc 71 etc/cron. 156. 211 etc/hosts. 211 etc/httpd 100-1. 147-8. 195-6 etc/fstab 42. 37. 144-5. 138. 204 etc/exports 117. 188 etc/at. 188 customize user's shell 70 EOT 95-6 error 49. 143. 87-8 drm 88-9 DSO (Dynamic Shared Object) 102 dual boot system 14 dumb.deny 12. 206 DVD 14-15 DVD drive 14 DVD media 14-15 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 139 Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) 102 E edit 39. 150. 179 etc/mail 11. 149. 196 etc/exports file 118-20. 20.221 domain name mapping 147. 207 etc/mail/sendmail. 169.

200-2 etc/openldap/openldap. 205 etc/nsswitch. 52. 156 exec 42 execution. 34-6. 203 etc/openldap/ldap. 160. 140.conf 92. 174 etc/samba directory 126 etc/service/alternatives 209 etc/services/alternatives 209 etc/skel 67.conf 137.conf 200-1 etc/pam 13. 122. 179 etc/squid/squid. 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159. 132. 171-2 etc/named. 176 Ethernet device panel 141 Ethernet interface 17. 194 etc/sysconfig/syslog 187 etc/sysconfig/syslog. 72 Explanation 164-213 export 119. 187 etc/vsftpd/ftpusers 130 etc/vsftpd/user 129-30. 191-4 etc/sudoers 80-1 etc/sysconfig/hwconf 19-20. 44. 212 etc/passwd 71. 210-11 etc/yp. 91. 166 etc/sysconfig/ipchains 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables 159. 44-5. 208 etc/postfix/master. 127 fdisk 172-3 Fedora Core Linux 14 . 169. 50. 48 filesystem types 42 ext3 filesystem type 52 ext3 filesystems 40. 196 ext2 44-5. 173 ext3 rw 42-3 F facility 187-8 failure 54. 70. 203 etc/postfix/main. 171. 166 etc/xinetd 155. 87-8.conf 145. 63.222 etc/mstab 172 etc/mtab 6. 169. 199 etc/X11 32-3.cf 151. 213 etc/sysconfig/squid 115.conf 160. 161. 42. 117-19. 208-9 etc/postfix/permission-files 209 etc/postfix/permit-files 209 etc/postfix/postfix-files 151. 176 father 27. 184 fc7 26. 78.conf 111.conf 136 etc/yum. 51 ext3 41. 29. 209 etc/profile 71 etc/rc 31-2.cf 151. 72. yum commands 176 exit codes 49 expire 60. 142 exam 3 exam topics 3 example.conf 134-5. 179 etc/skel directory 70.conf 59-60. 180-1. 212 etc/pam.conf 187 etc/syslog 187 etc/syslog. 197 exportfs 119. 212 etc/sysconfig/selinux 162. 48. 67.com 105. 196 export HOSTNAME DESKTOP 97 exported directory 122.

198-201.master 50 etc/auto.networking 88 file names 67. 176 etc/samba/smb.conf 15 bz2 178 cached 105 change 163 component support component 102 configu-ration 92 crontab 97. 207 etc/mke2fs 45 etc/mtab 42 etc/named. 190 etc/inittab 5. 182 . 41. 202 etc/pam. 209 etc/postfix/postfix-scripts 151 etc/profile 71 etc/rpmrc configuration 64. 189 etc/dovecot.deny 97 etc/crontab 98. 88.conf 134. 150.conf configuration 126 etc/samba/smbusers 126-7. 145-7.conf 153 etc/export 119 etc/fstab 6. 211 etc/httpd/conf/httpd. 81 etc/hosts. 34-6.allow 97 etc/cron.conf 145. 115-18.db 207 apache web server configuration 190 authpriv 92 bash 179 bashrc 70-1. 185.defs 67 etc/mail/access 147. 208 files 29-30. 172 file group 81. 155-64. 198 etc/shadow 71 etc/squid/squid. 101-4. 182-3 file modules. 203-13 [20] access.223 field 98. 49 virtual 41 file system errors 49 file systems. 79-80. 17890. 206 etc/nsswitch 137 etc/nsswitch. 78-81.conf 101. 185 filename access. 182-3 file permissions 46. 43.conf 193 etc/sudoers 8. 48. 172 etc/group 71. 169 etc/login. 149-52.db 148.conf 138 etc/openldap/ldap.allow 156. 92-9. 129-34. 183 file swap 47-8 file system 42. 188-9 dhcp server configuration 204 domain name mapping 147 dovecot configuration 210 download 128 dump 145. 171-6. 139 fourth 42. multiple 49 filename 47-8.conf 212 etc/passwd 72 etc/postfix/access 151. 137-40.misc 51 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cron.allow 93 etc/auto. 95. 98. 93. 179 boot/grub/grub. 138. 29-30. 203 file owner 81. 206 entry 117 etc/at. 132. 46-8. 87.

html 103.bz2 178 tar.cron 97 ftp server configuration 199 global configuration 64.gz 178 temporary 60 using 95. 128 single 153 special 92 squid configuration 111. 192 squid daemon configuration 115.pid 154 file-name. 149 index. 96 sample auto.conf 176 executable 42.conf 133 sample modprobe. 194 squid server configuration 193 standard logging 132 sub-component configuration 101 swap 46-8 tar 178 tar. 126 samba user 198 sample 35. 197 file master.pid 101 important 11-12.conf 136 etc/yum.dep 89 multiple 131 named daemon configuration 145 pid 109 postfix daemon configuration 208 proc/kmsg 93 rmtab 122.master 50 sample configuration 60 sample etab 122 sample ldap. 132. 145-6. 156 execute user-namex201fs 182 exported 122. 199 load config 102 local 138 main. 200 var/yp/securenets 138. 203 ypbind configuration 136 yum configuration 65 zip 178 zone 145.cf 151. 206 files he/she 103. 191 files nisplus nis shadow 138 files passwd 138 .conf 92 etc/yp. 204 var/log/secure 93 var/log/xferlog 130. 197 samba configuration 10. 208 modules. 191 initrd 15 inittab 29 ldif 135 library 101 list 130.conf 128 script 151 sharing 122.224 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159 etc/syslog.conf 90 sample vsftpd. 176 gpg key 61 htaccess 104 htpasswd 104 httpd.

83. 69. 79-82. 52. 109. 41. 19. 132. 73 grp 55-7. 146. 65. 122 proc 41. 208 format 10. 25-6. 51 following commands cd 148. 50-1. 165-7. 48. 204-5. 47-8. 200 ftp server 129-30. 59. 60-1. 168 grub menu 15. 27-8 gunzip 178 H halt 30. 199-200 FTP server 128 ftp service 199 G GB 56 gid 41. 168 grub configuration file 5. 181-3 logical 56 new 7. 103 group sys root 81 groupadd 68. 34. 196. 20. 138-9. 184-5 [17] tar. 196 Global Environment Configuration 9. 164-5. 180 group-name 72. 29. 213 group 8. 117. 111 ftp command 200 ftp command prompt 10. 46.225 files S10network 35 files xtab 122. 43. 101 gpgcheck 60-1 gpgkeys 61.bz2 64-5 value 134 Fri 94-6 fs 45-6 fsck 48-9. 138. 53. 175 grub 5. 81. 169 . 129-30. 159 firewall command sets 17 firewall rules 159 floppy 45-6. 171-2. 89-91. 181-2 basic 29 df 77 mounted 77. 190. 96. 211. 130. 73 group accounts 66. 200. 72-3. 71. 40-4. 17-18. 80. 53-7. 180. 172 filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name 43 filesystems 6. 199-200 FTP 3. 159. 197 Filesystem Administration 6 Filesystem Information 6. 176 graphical tools 33 graphical utility 5. 130. 71-3. 118. 73 group administration group apache 102-3 group demo 182 group ids 78 group information 73-4. 15. 82 Group Administration 7. 174 fstype 51 ftp 18. 40 filesystem mount command 43 filesystem option 77 filesystem type 42. 25. 25. 77. 58-9. 67. 157. 16-17. 33. 78. 35. 171 pseudo 167 single 52 vfat 173 filesystems tab 83 finger 156 firewall 3. 16-17. 48-50. 76-8. 14. 27-8. 91.

164. 165. 203. 212 system-auth password 160 inconsistencies 118 index closed db 64 opening db 63 info 92. 122. 191 HTTPD Server Configuration 190 httpd service 99. 170 I id 19. 172 hard-disk-device name 53 hard-disk-device-name 53-4 hard-disk-partition 55 vgcreate volume-group-name 55 vgextend volume-group-name 55 hard disk partitions 42. 50. 104. 32. 67. 206 virtual 107-8 host names 117. 14-17. 60. 184 init process 27. 81. 170-1. 174. 69. 131. 112 home 41. 143 hostname 10. 77. 126. 160. 206. 201-2 sendmail commands 148 hierarchy 40. 201. 176-8. 97 grp System 55 IfModule mod 104-5 imap 153-4 include 50. 184 INIT process 30 initdefault 29. 31-4 initialize 54 Initializing System 6. 36. 23. 29. 16. 115. 72. 190-1 home directory 46. 208 htaccess 103-4 HTTPD Configuration Answer 190 httpd server 103. 192. 72. 77. 212 install server 15 installation 5. 69-70. 151. 89 hd0 15. 87. 89 install 14. 35. 65-6. 126-7. 192. 52-3. 160-1. 42. 180-1. 47 hardware 19-20. 137-8. 164. 71. 59. 168. 67. 64. 196 home/vishnu 118-22 home/vishnu directory 119-20 host 19. 118-19. 201 information server 103 init 29-30. 44. 146. 134. 168. 31. 26-7 inode 45-6 Inserting module 8. 61-2. 29. 34. 161. 59. 65. 98. 53-4. 146. 176. 189. 34 initrd 15. 181 home/demo 173. 179-81 his/her 180 home directory name 72 home-directory-name 72 home directory of user 179 home directory path 71 home/jack 181 home/movies 43-4 home/swap 47 home/user 70-1. 166 Hardware Configuration 5 hardware drivers 87. 168 he/she 144. 34. 79. 86. 154 infomod modulename 185 information he/she 83. 89-90.226 hard disk 14-16. 196. 117. 26-7. 52. 77. 172. 167 Installation and Hardware Configuration 5 installation files 15 . 171. 50. 169. 163-4. 195-6. 27.

52 K KB 56 kde 70 kernel 8. ns 159 ip address 131. 145-6. 161. 50-1. 34-8. 142-3. 18. 196. procfs-based 122 ip. 181. 201 LEN 68 letter 36 level 29. 201-2 LDAP Data Interchange Format 134. 199 journaling feature 40. 20-1 keys 30. 176 level directories 35 level rpm configuration file 177 lib/modules 87-90 lib/modules/uname 89 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 133 . 93-7. 202 ldap directory information 201 ldap server 134-5. 16. 198-9 jill 188 jobs 87. 169 gpg 60 Kickstart 18 kickstart configurator 17 kickstart file 5. 201 ldap directory 135. 204-6 list of 156. 167 interface. 166. 187 kernel Modules 8. 212 iso9660 51 J jack 81. 80.227 installation process 14-16. 169 keyboard layout 14. 94. 93. 30. 164. 168. 87-91. 174.conf 133 ldapsearch 202 ldif 134. 18. 185 Kernel Services and Configuration 8 kernel subdirectory 88 keyboard 16. 188. 212 iptables modules 159. 87. 151. 32. 26-7. 29. 41 languages system 14 largefile 46 lastrunlevel 170 ldap 11. 91. 169-71. 185-7. 164. 133-5. 15. 17. 139-40. 160. 128. 165 L LABEL 26. 53. 201 ldap service service ldap start 135 ldap. 211 IPC 127 IPC Service 127 ipt 88 iptables 158-9. 186. 188 john 179. 134. 167 kickstart-file/install/linux. 193. 149-50.com 164-5 Kickstart Kill Process 83 klogd 92-3 ko 89 ks 18 kudzu 19-20. 90 kernel/lib/zlib 89 kernel messages 92-3. 212 kernel/crypto/module 89 Kernel Information 8.

150 Mail Transport Agent Switcher 152 mail transport agent work 153 Mail User Agent 146 mailbox 12. 100. 114-15. 128. 149-50. 176. 60. 67-8. following 104-5. 148. 200 local system mget 131 local system mkdir 131 localdomain 135-6 localhost 99. 128-30. 208 logical volume 7. 52. 70. 120. 60. 152-5. 199 [5] list of commands 44. 106. 94-5. 97-8. 136. 147. 203 manager. 171-2 load average 84-5. 151. 152 lsmod modulename 185 lvcreate 56 lvremove 57-8 M mac 187-8 mail 12. 143. 103. 130. 150. 72. 175 Logical Volume Group 6-7. 70. 191 entry domain Localdomain server 137 location 16. 147. 48 list of users 129. 87. 147. 151. 179. 112 log files 12. 100-3 Linux 15. 87. 67. 94. 126. 128. 92-3. 207-8 locks 122 log 78. 199 anonymous user 129 initial 179 LogLevel 104. 150. 56 Logical volume group support 54 login 33. 99. 209 logging 92. 153. 152. 152-4. 205. 140.228 LILO 165 line. 96. 149. 50-1. 207-10 incoming 151-2 mail processes 155. 104. 83. 130 lrwxrwxrwx 100 ls 46-7. 78-9. 103. 70. 100. 86-7. 41. 114. 208 mail server sendmal 207 mail services 11. 85. 94. 132. 129. 111. 198-202. 149. 207 default 152 mail server request 150. 66. 187 Log Configuration Answer 184 Log File and Cache directory section 9. 190-2. 210 mail root 96 mail server 146-7. 191. 60-1. 209 mail transfer agent 146. 133. 133. 92. 66. default partition 164-5 maps 91. 78-9. 60. 161. 164. 208 main configuration file 100-1. 153. 154. 56-9. 190. 127-8. 151. 199 list root 129 list service-name 38 list status 38 listing 19. 152. 132. 129. 152. 109. 188. 153-4. 183-4 LoadModule auth 102 local system 131. 132. 138. 207-10 Makefile 138. 131-2. 25. 87. 191 logout 70 logs directory 100 lp 78-9. 152. 179. 95-6. 54. 150-1. 164. 112. 97-8. 87. 126. 101. 160. 25. 199 links. 168 linux file system structure 165 linux filesystem 48 list 38. 185. 84. 131. 47. 146-7. 88. 196. 196 automounter 50-1 . 170-1. 135. 78. symbolic 35. 207 default 164 log information 8.

system 178 monitor type 21 Monitoring System performance 8. 191. 172 mounted directory 44 mounting 6. 52. 159. 183-4 messages 91. 166. 80. 33 misc 50-1 mke2fs 44. 50. 164 MD5 69-70 mdadm 53-4. 56. 46 mkfs 44-5. 150. 33. 173-4 mnt/cdrom 80 mnt/win 120.networking modules. 173 mbr 16. 192-3 members 69. 164 matt 180 max 154-5. 172-3. 25. 185 remove. 25. 165 Modifying group information 7. 210 MAX 68-9 maximum number of mail processes 155. 197 mount-options-separated-by-comma 50-1 mount point 40. 49. 212 authorization 100. 185-6 modinfo modulename 185 modprobe 186 modprobe modulename 185 modsecurity directory 101 module modules/mod 102 module name 90 module-name 90 modules 87-90. 172.list selinux policy 163 system-auth 161 modules directory 101 Modules Loaded 8. 41-3. 88 modules module 89-90 modules. 210 Maximum number of running mail processes 154 MB 46. 174-5 mdadm device-name 175 mdadm raid-device-name 53-4. 119-20. 182 memory 85. 164 MBR (Master Boot Record) 14. 53. 42-3. 166. 168. 169 safe probe 20. 166 package package-name. 182 mount command 42-3. 104. 29. 208 outgoing 149 Min/max values 68 minutes 30-1. 112. 190 command modprobe 89 driver 89. 72 modinfo 88. 185 loaded 88. 161. 166. 93. 185-6. 119. 42. 165 graphics 33 multiuser 31. 169 Multiuser mode booting 169 MYGROUP 127-8 . 53. 80. 156. 82 mount 27. 80. 100. 50. 111. 63. 102. 50 Multiuser 31.229 master 50 MASQUERADE 88 Master Boot Record (MBR) 14.usbmap kernel modules. 175 mem 112. 42-3.symbols 87 modules. 50. 187. 73 Modifying user account 7. 21. 172 mnt/win directory 120 modes 20.inputmap 88 monitor 17.

114. 103. 198-9 [3] Naming convention of files 35 nat 88 NAT filtering 159. 114. 126. 196. 122. 48. 111. 31. 88. 192-3 transit 112. 117. 135. 203 NIS server name 137 NIS version 138 nisdomainname 135-6. 101. 203 files nisplus 138 NIS database 11. 88. 104. 187-9. 116. 118 order 35-6. 41. 197 nis 135. 135-7. 132 network port 163 network security 12. 166. 196. 87-8. 192-3 operation 50. 104-5. 35-6. 94. 94. 61. 197 NFS Server Administration Answer 196 NFS Server Configuration 10. 69. 155 network usage information 184 networking 31. 169 organizations 116. 122. 139. 138-40. 121 NFS directory 10. 202 NIS group 117. 197 option url 17 options format 10. 143 OS 127 output 46. 53. 137-8. 119-20. 136-9. 119.230 Mysql 100. 166. 192-3 hot 112. 79-80 NFS 3. 155. 93. 122. 133. 179 . 166 network devices 14. 193. 196 NFS server configuration utility 120. 119. 53. 71. 17-18. 202 nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system 135 NISGRP 195 noauto option 172 nocrossmnt 122 nodaemon 32-3 nodev 51 nosuid 51 notauto option 172 nouser 42 ntfs 45. 96. 117. 119. 22-3. 63. 201 overridden 46. 212 neat 22. 85. 140. 193 network 16-18. 120. 97. 48 number 29. 204 net 50. 197 NFS server root user 196 NFS service 116. 131. 134. 203 NIS domain name 11. 128-9. 166 network information 184 Network Information Service 135 network options 9. 202-3 NIS server information 138. 201-2. 195 NIS server 11. 120 netbios 159 netmask 139. 184. 204 O objects 112-13. 174. 195-6 nfsstat 122. 147. 120. 204. 170. 173. 117. 184. 91. 190 N name 35. 102. 197 NFS server 15. 61-2. 197 NFS Configuration 196 NFS daemon 119. 144-5. 207 network access 135 Network Configuration 140. 142. 68. 187. 118.

27. 146. 83-4. 80. 121. 66. 139. 52-4. 191-2. 165. 132. 193 pipe 94 Pluggable Authentication Module 93. 168. 190 physical volume 7. 182-3 P Package management and Kickstart 3 Package Manager 7. 114-15.yum install 178 package package-name 177 package processing 63 packages 3. 64-6. 84. 211 port panel 158 postfix 12. 180 path 18. 171 filesystem-type source 172 pass 3. 52 Power Restored 32-3 powerfail 30. 178 package name 61 package-name 62. 58. 212 password of user 76. 154. 175 pid 29. 62-4 istration xf0b7 3 pam 129. 118. 155. 122 Prints 63 priority 36. 32-3 powerfail action 30. 71. 145.231 owner 81. 189. 54-5. 85. 168-9. 183-7. 208-9 postfix server log information 209 power 30-2 power failure 30. 150-3. 86. 5. 66. 181-2. 96. 102. 154-8. 102. 126. 59-62. 33 powerokwait 30. 71. 170. 90. 129 pop3 153-4 port 16. 180-1 passwd user-name 76 passwd command id 181 password 15. 172 disk 40. 209 list postfix service 150 postfix mail server 151 postfix server 150-3. 186 privilege 78-81. 161. 121. 166 Perl 100. 118. 74. 127. 176-8 gpgkeys of 176 installed 62. 123-5. 78. 142. 28-9. 167. 47-8. 157 partition 14. 154 performance 110. 171-3 dev/sda6 40. 160-1. 102. 161. 157 PASS 68 passwd 138. 98. 111-12. 76. 145. 121. 203 port number 102. 129. 43. 148. 59. 212 panel 53. 124. 65. 182-3 probing 20 problem 103. 134. 47-8. 174 proc 41-2. 212 configuring 160 PAM configuration file 212 PAM modules 161-2. 32-3. 177 software 14. 177 package-name queries 178 package-name. 97. 171 . 17. 107. 40. 190 permission mask 69 PHP 100. 144-5. 93. 52. 68. 14. 32-3 prefdm 32-3 prevrunlevel 170 printers 23-4. 107-9. 177 yum install 61. 195.

146 protocols 101. 53-4. 144. 184 process PID 41 process priority 91. 41. 5 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam 3. 136. 35-6. 194 running 90 total number of 84. 102. 184. 62. 69. 143. 90-1. 153-4. 167-9. 77. 62. 182 properties 59. 5 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 14. 158 proxy 104-5 ps 20. 29-30. 23. 28. 172 relay 147. 210 active 83 concurrent 201 postfix daemon 151. 80. 112.232 proc/modules 185 proc/swaps 47-8. 95 pts 85 Python 100. 175. 191 prompt 30. 57-8. 154-5. 191 programs 35. 94-5. 93. 164 Red Hat Linux 14. 90 process id 91. 174-5 RAID devices 52-3 raid devices information 53 RAID disks 6. 208 remote system mput 131 remote system rename 131 remove 7. 186 remove user groups 69 . 144 properties button 74. 52 raid level information 53 raid options panel 53 ram 192-3 RAM memory 84. 27. 120. 142. 209 proxy 114. 122. 36.sysinit 31-2 read/write 55. 146 R raid 174-5 RAID 52 raid array 53 raid device name 53 raid-device-name 53-4. 165. 207-8 RELAY 150. 183-6. 83-6. 168 Red Hat Certified Engineer 3. 194. 168. 108-9. 204 process identification number 29. 171 rc1 34. 156. 89-90. 53-4. 58-9. 173 proc/uptime 184 Process and Kernel Information 8. 121. 25. 69. 169 rc. 184 zombie 84. 16. 32-4. 161. 195 Red Hat 14-15. 169. 57 reconfigure 116. 175 raid-device-name device-name 175 raid devices 53-4. 150. 192-3 ratio 45-6 rc 31-2. 171. 164. 186 processes 8. 36 rc5 32. 190 Q QMAIL 67-8 queries 62. 91. 184 process pid 90. 64. 184 processes tab 83 profile 70 program dnsserver 111. 84.

62-3. 78. 93-4. 182 root privilege 182 root root 47. 169 document 109 root/install-log. 198 . 118. 60. 32-9. 167. 99. 59. 32-3 restart 40. 122 S Samba 3. 82. 99. 159-60. 77-9. 77. 28.233 Removing module 8. 212 iptable 158-9 runlevel 6. 118. 29-30. 176-7 rpm configuration file 176 user level 64 rpm format 59. 140 [8] root@localhost alternatives 153 root@localhost cron 98 root@localhost dev 55-7 root@localhost home 47-8 root@localhost mail 148.cfg 16. 159. 197 samba server status information 198 samba users 123-6. 182 root user's password 76. 58. 26-7. 78 root@localhost 17. 122 root 15. 122. 194 root/anaconda-ks. 198 list of 127. 181-2. 120. 142. 188 maps 196 maps client 196 privilege of 78. 150.log 164 root password 14. 210 rw 42. 70-3. 152 root@localhost nfs 119-20. 114. 133 root run-parts 98-9 root user 42. 169-71 previous 36. 62 rpm package information 177 storing 64. 36-9. 80-1. 118. 177-8 rpm command 62-3 valid 177 rpm command uses 64. 177 rules 112. 85-8. 97. 168 rootnoverify option 168 rpm 7. 195 service nfs 119 service sqd 195 service squidd 195 restarting 119. 89 respawn 29. 164. 66. 94-9. 165. 122 root@localhost postfix 150-1 root@localhost pub 20-4 root@localhost squid 112. 5 RH systems 69 RHCE 3. 135-6. 17. 180-3. 85. 67. 196 RH 3. 46. 93-8. 70. 43-4. 52. 171 runlevel service-name 170 runlevel values 29 running mail processes 154. 122. 170 standard 32 runlevel command 170 runlevel directories 35-7 runlevel field 29-30 runlevel scripts 169. 100. 167 root directory 105. 118. 127 Samba Server Configuration 10. 5 ro 51. 54. 116 rootnoverify 26-7.info 164 root/install.

103. 101. 147-8. 78-9. 139-40. 101-4. 152-3. 101. 190. 207 server 3. 203 security Configuration 211 security level 117. 207-9 mail server 147 sendmail log information 149 sendmail restart 148 sendmail server 12.234 sample 30. 13. 206 search request 134. 67. 159 sample format 94. 213 SELinux user identities 163 Selinuxtype 163 sender 150. 80. 134. 15. 146-50. 114-16. 33. 201 default ldap 202 scripts 29. 168. 205 Server Configuration Answer 205 server HOSTNAME 136-7 server information 101 server mirrorlist 61 server name 107. 211 Security Level Configuration 12. 115 sample questions 3 sbin 41. 50-1. 41-2. 139. 159. 122. 98 sbin directory 80 sbin/fdisk 79-80 sbin/nologin 78-9 sbin/service 79 sbin/sfdisk 79-80 sbin/shutdown 31-3. 191 Server Configuration 9. 112-13 global environment configuration 101 security 17. 171 search 60. 148-50. 146. 144-5. 157. 169. 152-3. 99. 201 schema files 133-4. 128. 213 SELinux administration 13. 201 search tab user 66 seconds 27-8. 32. 164. 99. 12. 208 sendmail 11. 134-5. 190. 201-2. 96-7 scheduled jobs 94-6. 105. 159. 162-3. 195. 78-9. 134-5. 15. 134 server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr. 162. 157. 150. 118. 65-6. 198 web 9. 70. 118. 98. 41. 201 section 9. 190 . 126. 213 SELinux configuration file 162. 93. 211 security Level Configurations 211 selinux 17. 92. 207-8 [6] demo sama 127-8 high performance proxy caching 111 proxy 104-5 samba 10.com 106 ServerRoot 101. 188 schema 133. 106. 34-6. 45. 137. 213 SELinux configurations 213 SELinux manager Answer 213 SELinux policies 162. 157.example. 93-4. 204-5. 136-7.cgi 194 server root names 101 server section 9. 169 schedule 31. 127. 103 server system 135 single web 106 ServerAdmin root@localhost 103 servername 17 ServerName 106 ServerName dummy-host. 138. 207-9 default 153 sendmail server type 146 sendmail uses 147. 163-4 SELinux 3.

70-2. 182 shell script 34. 36 new 37 samba 127. 160-1. 101. 175 software configuration 33 software repositories 59. 199. 127. 198 service smbd start 198 service vsftpd start 128. 125. 209 dhcpd 139 dovecot 153-4. 21. 34-41. 154. 128 shared directories 120. 201-2 [20] set initdefault 30-1 share 121. 32. 171 services 10. 27. 120 default 152. 155-6. 169-71. 115. 17. 176 . 169 shutdown 30-3. 99. 129-30. 205. 156-7. 79-80. 211 ypbind 137 services Answer 210 session 160-1. 182 Shutdown Canceled 32-3 Shutting 119. 195 service nfsd 195 service nfsd start 195 service passwd 161 service postfix start 153 service S10network 35 service samba start 198 service sendmail start 146 service service-name 37-9. 65. 61. 170-1. 125-7. 139. 189. 128 shell 67. 151. 99.235 service daemons 157 service ftp start 199 service ftpd start 199 service httpd 38-9. 145. 143. 30. 199 service yp start 202 service ypserv start 203 terminal 137 service ypserver start 202 serviceconf 39. 98-9. 182. 210 managing 82 net-work 35 network 33. 181 SIZELIMIT 133-4. subdirectory 181 size of files 76. 129. 80. 103-4. 152-3. 192 software 64. 170 service service-name start 38 service service-name stop 39 service smb start 127. 198 sharing 3 trusted 157 xinetd 156. 25. 210-12 alternatives 152 autofs 50. 198 samba 123. 189 service httpd stop 39 service management apps 80 service-name 170 service nfd start 195 service nfs start 116. 33 size. 170-1. 52. 126. 212 set 14. 130. 78. 201 Smaba configuration Answer 197 Smaba Server configuration 197 socket 111. 132. 189 service httpd start 38. 153 SIGKILL 185 signal 185 Single user mode 31. 79-82. 134-5.

29 Starting Named 11. 176-7. 176 stop 35-7. 165 swap area 46-8 swap filesystem 173 swap partition 14. 143. 127-8. 137 startup 20. 130. 191-4 squid start 116 squid user 114 squiduser 194 start 17. 128 Starting ypbind service 11. 127-8. 143 Starting NFS daemon 116. 206 sys 41. 116. 181 amount of 77. 97 statistics kernel NFS client 122 kernel NFS server 122 virtual memory 85. 170-1. 196 squid 3. 165. 166 swpd 85 sync 78. 135-8. 85-6. 194-5 server program 111. 153 network service 36 service sendmail 153 storage 60. 77-80. 99 Starting init 5. 92. 153. 122. 119 Starting NFS quotas 116. 47. 91. 181 subfolders 76. 183 status 37-8. 119 Starting NFS mountd 116. 181 total 56 squash 118. 119 Starting NIS server 11. 116. 134-5. 143. 114-16. 150 Starting Samba 10. 181 subtree 122 success 161 suid 42 Sun Microsystems 135 swap 41-2. 61-2. 127 Starting Services 34 Starting squid 116 Starting vsftd 10. 196-8 [21] . service postfix start 151 Starting postfix server 12. 56. 45-7. 132. 167 sysfs 41-2 sysinit 29-32 syslogd 9. 130 synchronize system's clock 25 syntax 145. 39-40. 46-7. 122. 137.236 source code 64-5 source filesystem 173 space 53. 82. 99 Starting Dovecot 12. 82-6. 191-2. 28. 35-40. 187 system 25-6. 194-5 squid log files 112 squid reconfigure 195 squid restart 116. 33-4. 174. 118. 111-12. 115-16. 166-70. 1836. 76. 189. 34. 153 Starting httpd 39. 198-9. 148. 49-50. 195 squid server 9. 205 [10] Start Process 83 start squid 115 Starting Apache 9. 99. 172-4. 64-6. 119 Starting NFS services 10. 111. 173 swap space 6. 191 squid daemon 10. 29-30. 80-1. 137 Starting postfix. 139. 79-80 subdirectories 40.

109. 211 . 197 System-config-nfsd 197 system-config-packages 65. 42. 178 system-config-printer 23 system-config-samba 122. 155 system clock 34 system-config-bind 143. 213 system-config-SElinux 213 system-config-SELinux 213 system-config-services 39. 144 basic 123. 205 system-config-boot 28 system-config-date 24. 166. 175 system-config-manage 178 system-config-name 205 system-config-neat 166 system-config-net 166 system-config-network 22. 187-8. 167 system-config-display 21 system-config-ftp 200 system-config-ftpd 200 system-config-httpd 106. 171 system-config-smb 197 system-config-soundcard 21 system-config-time 24.uname 185 system initialization 31 System Log 86 system log information 184 System Log Manager 184 system log viewer 86. 187 System Monitor 82. 169 system users 132 system users behavior 132 SystemManager 184 T tab 21. 140. 141. 125 samba user 124 tab user 132 server control 132 tar xvf 178 tcpd 156. 23. 183. 184 system logging 92. 155.237 system administration 7. 189 system information. 50. 184 system administrator 180-1. 196 system administrator execute 180 system-auth 160-1 system boots 30. 107. 167 system-config-users 73. 184 system reboots 32. 82. 190 system-config-https 190 system-config-keyboard 20 system-config-kickstart 17 system-config-level 211 System-config-logman 175 System-config-lv 175 system-config-lvm 58. 197 system-config-sambad 197 system-config-securelevel 211 system-config-security 211 system-config-securitylevel 157 system-config-selinux 162. 181 system-config-usr 181 System-config-vsftp 200 system-config-vsftpd 131 system crontab file 98. 204 system-config-nfs 120.

124-30. 199 menu option 83 modifying 82 multi 66 new 66-7. 78-80. 176-7 upgrade 14. 62. 157-8. 149 type 17. 80 unmounting 6. 66-7. 132. 102-4. 170 telnet 156 text editors 16. 161. 115. 139-42. 84-5. 197 user account apache 103 . 27-30. 161. 97 time 19. 101-2. 47-8. 61-2 Use NIS 138 user 14-18. 132. 196 umount 44 uname 87. 65-6. 180 normal 80 password 29 trusted 147 useradd 70 userdel 180 valid 126 user accesses 161. 127 Unix username 198 unmount 43-4. 150-1. 168 timezone 16-17 tmpfs 41-3 topics 3. 198-201. 183 time-specification 94-5 TIMELIMIT 133-4. 135. 132. 201 local 128-9. 121. 178 xvf 178 unconfigures 20 uninitialized entries 59 Unix 127 Unix user name 198 UNIX user name 124. 83-7. 148. 163 processor 185 running Linux system 42 U uid 68. 169. 69-71. 167 upload 128-9.238 Te user 78 telinit 36. 93-4. 52. 75. 179-91. 59. 167. 24-5. 196 ban 132 bin/bash 71 bin/csh 71 common 40 configuration file 134 effective 114 etc/passwd filesystem 71 ldap directories 134. 158 UPS 31-2 uptime command uses 184 URI 133-4 url 17. 128 uncompress 64. 71. 104-5. 93-5. 201 timeout 26. 185 uncomment 81. 180 anonymous 128. 43-4 update option 167 updates 20. 70. 61. 99. 129-30. 127. 112 usage 49. 45. 44. 91. 115. 132. 160-1. 154. 118. 115. 206-9 [31] administrative 78. 177 upgrade option 17. 16-17. 101. 174-7. 27-8.

180 username 188 users don W  users group 80 users Jack 188 users John 199 users localhost 80 users SELinux security cate-gory 163 users tab 132 user. 179-80 user-id 72 user information 72. 76. 198 user login name 180 user lookups 138 user Mac 187 User Manager 180 user Manager Utility 180 User Manger 180 user Matt 179 user-name 72. 199 directive 199 usermod 72. 188 user-name V SDVVZRUG  user password. administrative 182 user V  user V HQWU\ YDOLG  user V SDVVZRUG  . 124. 180 user issues 183. 149. 72. 71-2. 180 useradd command line 69 useradd user-name 67 userdel 69. 179 administrative 114 installation root 66 new 72 User Admin 180 User Administrator 180 User and Group Administration 7 user apache 102-3 user applications 41 user button 75 new 124 User Configuration 180 user doesn W  user don W  user id 78. 151. 182 his/her 103 useradd options 66 user names 15. 180 userdel user-name 72 USERGROUPS 69 userid 71 userlist 129. 187 user issues command insmod 185 user jack 81 user Jack 181.Will root. 71-2. changing 7. 76. 90. 74. 78-9. 93-4. 106 user set 190 user squid 114 USER TTY 85 user user 180 user user-name 181 user Vishnu 182 user yum 59 user1 126 useradd 67-9. 97. 130. 161 user requests 49.239 user account john 179 user accounts 66-7. 78. 71-2. 161.

123. 200 network configuration 142 samba server configuration 122 service configuration 39. 175 video card 17. 98. 50. 77. 131. 198 samba user 127. 193 var/temp 179 var/yp/securenets 203 vendor V VWDWHPHQW  verbose information 63. 132. 199 usr/lib/httpd/modules 189 usr/lib/httpd/modules directory 101-2 usr/local 97-8 usr/sbin directory 79 utility 22-4. 28. 21 View Process 83 Virtual server files 147 Virtual users file 147 VirtualHost 106 vishnu 126-7. 171.log 60. 175 vgextend 55. 144-5. 145. 152 var/spool/squid 112. 73 usr 40-1. 159. 60. 172-3 vfat filesystem type 172 vgcreate 55. 36. 200 var/log/yum. 209 var/log/vsftpd. 139. 200 vfat 43. 106. 189 var/spool/mail 68. 37 Using mdadm command 53 Using modprobe command 8. 149. 191 [4] var/cache/mod 105 var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. 171 system monitor 82 user manager 73 utility Answer 175 utility Network Configuration 140 V values 29. 89 Using system-config-cache 194 Using system monitor 177 Using System Monitor 8. 197 var/lib/rpm 64.240 Using batch command 9. 165-6. 45. 177 Very Secure 10. 91. 204 var/lib/nfs directory 122. 187 var/log/dovecot. 152. 177 var/lib/rpm/Name 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Packages 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys 63-4 var/log/cron 92-3. 69.leases 140. 87. 206-7 var/run directory 101 var/spool/at 96. 131. 198 vmlinuz 15 vol 55-7. 59. 197 daemon Configuration 131. 178. 162-3. 59 . 184.log 154 var/log/httpd directory 100 var/log/maillog 92. 53. 182. 96 Using chkconfig 171 Using command chkconfig 6. 82 Using tar xvf 178 Using User Manager 7.log 130. 149. 78. 151 var/spool/mail directory 70 var/spool/mail/stats 208 var/spool/postfix 12. 125. 134. 48. 71. 176 var/named/data/cache 145. 188 var/spool/cron directory 97.

203 ypdomainname 135-6. 168. 23. 48 xinetd 3. 27. 98. 34. 75. 20. 155-6.com 106 X xconfig 16-17 -18. 152. 55-6. 122. 202 ypserver HOSTNAME 136 yum 59-60. 59. 210-11 xorg. 127.241 volume group 7. 27. 58-9. 82. 191 wdelay 122 web 59-61. 175 vsftp 128-9. 25. 191 wheel 80 Window System 3 windows 25.conf 166 Y yp 138. 200 VSFTP daemon Configuration 200 vsftpd 128 VSFTPD Configuration Answer 200 vsftpd service 128 vsftpd userlist 129 vv 63-4. 198 won W  workgroup 128 writable option 125-6 www/docs/dummy-host. 176 yum uses 59-60 Z zombie processes usage detail zone file directory 145 184 .example. 103-4. 122. 144 st 144 xferlog 129 xfs 45. 53. 172 windows user name 124. 65-6 web browser 100. 119. 177 W warn 68. 86. 84. 132. 104.

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