RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer
Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide

RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam - The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide
Copyright © 2009 Notice of rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.

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This self-study exam preparation guide for the RHCE RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam contains everything you need to test yourself and pass the Exam. Including all the exam topics, covered indepth and insider secrets, complete explanations of all RHCE subjects, test tricks and tips, over 250 highly realistic sample questions, and exercises designed to strengthen understanding of the RHCE concepts and prepare you for exam success on the first attempt are provided.
Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a "Thank You" letter? This book includes new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering numerous sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus information available nowhere else, this book will help you pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam on your FIRST try. Buy this. Read it. And Pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam. This book provides a laser sharp focus on all the exam objectives with a cohesive, concise, yet comprehensive coverage of all the topics included in the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Lab Exam. It includes over 250 questions modeled after the real exam with answers and an Exam Quick Prep feature which recaps all the important points for the last hour preparation before taking the exam. Covers all RH302 exam topics, including: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Hardware installation and configuration The boot process Linux filesystem administration Package management and Kickstart User and group administration System administration tools Kernel services and configuration Apache and Squid Network file sharing services (NFS, FTP, and Samba) Domain Name System (DNS) E-mail (servers and clients) Extended Internet Services Daemon (xinetd), the Secure package, and DHCP The X Window System Firewalls, SELinux, and troubleshooting

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....... 27 2........................ 20 2................. 15 1..................Overview................ 1 Installation and Hardware Configuration ...........................................3......................................2.......Configuring Grub . 25 2...................................................1...........................................1.................................. 14 1...............2......................................Using Network ..................................................1..........RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam .Installation ...........................Kickstart File .................................Grub ............................................................................ 1 Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE . 29 2...................................................................................................Use of Kickstart file ..............2....................................... 18 1.......... 25 2............2................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer ....2.......Using DVD...........5 Contents RHCE ................. 14 1......1...... 26 2........................................................................................................ 16 1.................................................................................................................................................... 14 1..........................................................................................The Boot Process ......................................................Starting init .............3.Configuring Hardware ......... 19 1..............Creating Kickstart file ...................................................Grub configuration file ..................................2..................................................................................................... 16 1.........3....................3................................................................................................................................Graphical utilities ...................................................Overview ...............................................................................4.................................................................... 15 1................................................................................................./etc/inittab file ..........................................The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide ...............................2...2........ 29 ..........................................1.................................3.4...............................................................................Using Hard Disk ................1..........3................................................ 14 1..................................................................................1...........2................... 25 2...................2.............................................................

. 39 3..................................1.............................Creating Swap space ............................................ 48 3.3.5................................................................5.................5..................Creating RAID device ....... 50 3............................ 43 3./etc/mtab .........................................................................................................Logical Volume Group ............7..............Overview ..... 34 2.........1...............................................................................1.................................. 41 3................................5............... 40 3.........................................................................................Creating a filesystem .......6........................................... 33 2...............................................1...........Searching for badblocks ...Disabling swap space .............Enabling swap space..............................................1..................................2...................................................4....................................3..........Using Graphical utilities ............................................................ 48 3..........3.................. 43 3....................................4..............Filesystem Administration .............2.2................ 49 3.6.......................................................Filesystem Information ...................................................................................................3..Initializing System................................ 47 3......................................./etc/fstab file ................................ 46 3..Automatically mounting a filesystem ............... 40 3.................Checking and Repairing a filesystem ...........................................3.............................................. 37 2............................ 44 3..................................... 52 3....................................4...............................................2....................................................................1.......................................................................................Mounting a filesystem................... 42 3......runlevel............2.............................................................................6 2......................................... 54 ...............................................................................................2.........................................3............. 52 3..................Unmounting a filesystem......................................3........................................................................ 52 3..............................................................................4................................3...RAID disks .............................................................4................2.................................. 40 3.........................................Checking status of automount .................Using command chkconfig ......2.................................

........................................ 66 5.....................................Creating User Account .................7.............................Remove a volume group .................................. 72 5............................................................. 62 4............................................................5....................Overview... 64 4................ 58 3.......4.........................................................4...........................................5............................................. 73 5.................. 73 5........ 59 4............. 76 5............................................5..............................................................................................................................................5.Using rpm ...........7..........................................................5...........................Logical volume management utility ..........7...............................Changing user password ........Using yum ........................................3...................6............................................. 54 3........3........................... 59 4.....Package Manager ........................................................................................Deleting group........... 73 5.1............... 73 5..................................7............................................................1..................................................................................Using User Manager .................................................................................. 73 5..........................7......4................................... 72 5.................................................................................................................................Remove a logical volume ...7............Remove a physical volume ..........................2...................................1......... 76 6............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 58 3...........................................................2......... 59 4.... 66 5...................................System Administration ............................... 57 3....5...................Creating A Logical Volume Group .............................................................................................................................3............3..................................... 66 5...6..............Deleting user account .............2............................................................................User and Group Administration .................................................................................................................1................................................Modifying user account ..................Space Usage . 77 .........................Package Management ............................................................Group Administration ..Overview .................................................................................2.................................................................................Modifying group information .........................................................Using make ................ 65 5.....................1.........Adding New Group .................... 58 4...7 3.........................................................

........................... 78 6.....Modules Loaded into Kernel .5...................Kernel Services and Configuration .............................................1......................... 78 6.............................. 82 6.................................3............ 86 7..4......................................................................8 6......................................................4............................2............. 88 7.............................Using the su ........2.. 90 ........................................................................................1..... 89 7.........................................3................................2........1....3......................................Monitoring System performance ................................. 84 6................................................................ 87 7.............................1..................................................................... 79 6.................2........................................2...........................2.......2..Using System Monitor .................................................Log information........................................... 87 7. 79 6.......................................................................................Other commands .............................2......... 81 6.2.................................. 82 6.........................................................................The su command...........................................1............................................................2..........................................3..............................................................................Using modprobe command ...........................................................Changing priority of process................................3..................... 90 7............................ 87 7..Process and Kernel Information ....1...4....................................... 78 6...........................................The ps command .........3.............................................. 90 7........2.................................../etc/sudoers file .................. 89 7.......Getting Administration Rights ......................4......................4................................................................................Overview...................3...........................Administrative commands ........................................Using top .Changing owner and group ...................................................................................................................................................... 77 6.........................................2..................................................................4.......................2.............................................Overview ...Removing module from kernel ....................................................kernel Modules ........................... 84 6..2....................................................................Inserting module into kernel .............................. 89 7............

.........................................................Web Server ...............................................3.........................................................Overview...............................Squid Server ...........................1................ 93 7.........................Main Configuration file .............................................................1..................1...2..................................................................................2...............................Using cron ........ 99 8.......................Syslogd ...............................3....... 92 7.............. 111 9......................................... 111 9...................Virtual hosts section .......................................3.........3..........................................4..................................................................Starting Apache ....................... 99 8.......................2..............................Configuring Squid ................Neighbor selection algorithm option .............HTTP Server Configuration ............................................ 112 9.............Using at . 112 9..........2....................... 105 8............. 91 7........................................................4.................................................................. 111 9........................ 101 8.................................1........................................................4....... 103 8................................................................................... 106 9.. 101 8..................................Using batch command ...............................Overview ..................................................................9 7.....Global Environment Configuration ...........................................................................3.............2...............................................................Access control section .. 97 8............................Cache size options....................Main server section ............................3.3........................ 99 8..........................................................2..................................................................................................4.....Network options ........................................................................................4..........................................................................................................................2..............................................................................................4.............5..2........ 96 7....................................1.................. 111 9..................Using dmesg ..2..... 113 ....................................................................................Log File and Cache directory section .............3..........................................................3............................................................. 112 9........3......................4...................2................ 93 7..................................................................Automating Tasks -....................

..................Overview ...1............4...........................................................................1...........................................................................................................................Administrative parameters .................... 130 12.....................4.......... 116 10........................................................................................................6........................................6....................Starting Samba service ..................................................................................................................Options format................................Starting NFS service..................... 114 9........................LDAP Server ........................................................................................................ 128 12.....................Configuring vsftpd ...........................3.....Sharing Folders ..................................................................................................................................................................................1............................................................................... 131 13.............................................................Overview .......3............................Samba configuration file .........................................................2...................NFS Server Configuration....Using nfsstat ...............................3..........................................................................................................................Format of hostname ...Checking the service ................................................................... 120 10...................................................Samba Server Configuration ........................................ 117 10......................... 118 10........ 126 11..................................... 115 10.2........................................5............................................................1............................1...............................................2.............. 133 ...............................................................3....... 119 10........................................................................ 117 10............ 114 9.................................................................4..................................................... 127 12.....3.............. 128 12......................................Cache Manager ................... 116 10................................................................................................Overview .................................................... 128 12........................................................................................... 122 11............................................................1........................................................................... 122 11....................................................................................................................5......... 116 10............. 133 13.................. 122 11......................................................Starting vsftd....................... 127 11..........................................Samba Server ..................2......................................................NFS Server .............................3....Squid Daemon ...................................................10 9......Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration ...Accessing the NFS directory ................... 128 12....2........................................overview ...........................................4................................................................FTP Server ............................................... 122 11...................................ftp command prompt .......4................................................

....................................................Configuration .......................5.......................................................5........................................................................................................3...... 135 14................................ 147 .....4..................1.....Configuring NIS ..................................................................... 143 16................................ 137 14................... 137 14...........................................Sendmail...............................................................................DHCP Server .................................................................2............................................................................................4...........1................................................................... 146 17...........................................................................Overview ........................................................ 135 14...........2...............................2......3................................................................................................................................................................................................ 136 14......................Working of DHCP server...........................................................................................................Staring NIS server ......Starting the ldap ............................... 140 15....................NIS server..............................................................1.......................... 135 14...........................................2.. 146 17...............................................3.. 133 13.........................................BIND Configuration GUI .......Overview ............. 139 15.....................................................2...............................................................................Starting NIS server ..................................................................................................................................4.............. 139 15.............. 143 16......................................................................................................1........................... 139 15........................................................... 137 14.....................................................................................................................................................................2......... 137 14............Configuration file ...............................................................................................................................4............................................................Overview ........Important files ............................................... 143 16.............................................................................................. 143 16...................................................................................................................................................Starting the DHCP server............1....................Starting ypbind service ...................... 140 15.............................DNS server ......................................................5.DHCP client.............................4..................2..........Mail Services ......................../etc/mail ..........................Setting NIS domain name ......................1........... 146 17......................................................11 13....................NIS database ..................... 139 15.............................Starting Named daemon ........Overview ................................. 145 17......................... 135 14.....Mapping Information ..3.................................. 140 16.......................................................................................................1..........................

.... 153 17..............................................................................................2..................................Generating the ..Network Security............5................................. 156 18..................../var/spool/postfix ....3................... 153 18...................................................3.3......1..................Security Level Configuration .1........................................................................................... 147 17.....5.................................3...................................1..Dovecot ...................Starting Dovecot ...................................................................................................Starting postfix server .....2....................................................................3.......................................................................................Actions taken by server on a mail ........2......................... 159 ................................................................2............Postfix ..........Overview .....2......................... 152 17..........................db files ..............Important Files ......................................Configuration files .................................................................. 149 17....3................................. 155 18..4..............5....... 155 18.................................................. 156 18.....................Switching MTA .......... 152 17.....................................................................................................................................................................3.................2..deny ........2............ 149 17................................ 152 17........3......................................................................................4..........................................................................3.......................................1....................3................................................................................2......................3.......12 17..........1............................4.............. 151 17......................................................................................................... 151 17............5.......Using TCP wrappers............................................................................allow................................................................................ 148 17.......Checking Sendmail Server ...............4..... 156 18................................ 157 18........................................................................................................................................5......4........................./etc/hosts....................................................The daemon xinetd ......../etc/hosts............................... 150 17..Mailbox ..........2..Configuration file ................................. 155 18.....................................................Configuration file ................. 150 17........... 153 17..........................................................................Log files ...

..............2...............d ........................................................................ 164 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................Command Reference .....2....................................../etc/pam........................1..........................13 18..................... 160 19.......... 160 19.............PAM and SELinux ................SELinux ................................................................Command Reference .......................... 162 19................. 162 19............................................................................................3.....................................5..PAM .....................................................SELinux administration .....................................2........................................... 159 19........... 160 19.................1.............................. 163 Over 250 Exam Preparation Questions ...........................................................................................................................

Choose partitioning (options are use free space on hard disk. Choose the time zone in which system is. Select the packages. New version of Fedora Core Linux is released every six months.1. z z z z z z z z z z z Choose the software packages to install.Using DVD To begin installation using the DVD place the DVD media in the DVD drive of the computer and set the BIOS to boot from DVD drive. Choose keyboard layout. User can either choose for new install or upgrade an existing installation.14 INSTALLATION AND HARDWARE CONFIGURATION 1. Choose partition scheme (options are automatic partition or manual partition) . After installation is complete remove the DVD media from DVD drive. 1. Configure the network device. Choose the languages system should support. Fedora Core Linux is an open source project of Red Hat.and custom partition) If custom partition option is chosen create at least one / partition and swap partition (for single boot system) and create a / partition. Choose install type. The steps of the installation process are z z z z The DVD media is checked Choose language to use during installation process.Configure the firewall. The installation process can be broadly divided into many parts depending on the method used for installation z z z DVD Network Hard Disk 1. Set the firewall options.swap partition and one /boot partition (for dual boot system) Install the grub bootloader on MBR.Installation Anaconda is the default installer in Red Hat Linux.Configure the sound card.2.1. The user had to accept the License terms.2.use whole hard disk. Enter the root password. .use current Linux partitions.Overview Red Hat Enterprise Linux is one of the major commercial Linux distributions available in market .

These files are needed to boot the installation process. After above steps reboot the computer. 1.img root(hd0. Then copy the vmlinuz and initrd files of the DVD media in /boot directory. In case of web server or HTTP server the files need to be copied in the directory /var/www/html.7) kernel /vmlinuz initrd /initrd.Using Network For the network installation the installation files should be copied to the computer which will act as install server.conf file to achieve the purpose title Red Hat-Installation root (hd0.7) means that /boot partition exists on eighth partition of first hard disk.15 Then the user is prompted for user name and password on the login screen.2. 1. Choose Red Hat Installation on the Grub menu to begin the install process.2.Using Hard Disk For installation from hard disk it is assumed that Red hat Linux is already running on the computer. GRUB is installed as the bootloader in Red Hat by default. The following entry is added in the /boot/grub/grub. In case of FTP server copy the files to directory /var/ftp/pub. In the hard disk install copy all the files of the DVD in a partition drive which is not used during the new installation.3. In case of NFS server the directory containing the installation files should be made accessible. . To boot the installation process the boot loader should be informed about the files copied in the /boot directory.2.

cfg is created based on the options chosen by the user during the installation process.3.UTF-8 keyboard us xconfig --startxonboot network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp rootpw --iscrypted firewall --enabled --port=22:tcp authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5 selinux --enforcing timezone bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="rhgb quiet" .Kickstart File After successful installation of Red Hat Linux a kickstart file /root/anaconda-ks. 1.Text File install cdrom lang en_US. 1.16 Note : when using the installation from Network or Hard disk choose the option INSTALL OR UPGRADE in text mode on the first screen of the Installation process.1. At the boot prompt enter the command askmethod :boot linux askmethod This lets the user to select the Installation Method.3. 1.1.Creating Kickstart file User has a choice to use graphical utility to create kickstart file or open a text editor and write the commands.3.1.

firewall command sets the firewall label. selinux is used to set the security enhanced linux the options are .HTTP.and hard disk install methods. rootpw denotes the root password.2.-disable timezone is used to select the timezone of the user.hard drive are other options which can be used for NFS. z z z z For FTP method use option url –url give the ftp url name for HTTP method use option url –url give http url name for hard drive use option harddrive –dir=/give directory path –partition=give partition for NFS method use option nfs –server=servername –dir=directory name Third line sets the installation language to be used during installation .Graphical utility Open Terminal and type the command system-config-kickstart to start the kickstart configurator. The xconfig is used to configure the monitor and video card. bootloader command is used to set the partition where the default bootloader grub is installed.FTP.--permissive.17 The install option denotes new installation and upgrade option will denote upgrade of an existing system. Fourth line chooses the keyboard layout. option disable means firewall disabled.3. 1. cdrom shows the install method used. In above case it configures the Ethernet interface.HTTP.-enforcing.1. [root@localhost ~]# system-config-kickstart . option –enable means firewall is enabled. The network command is used to configure the network.FTP. NFS.

on network or on Local hard drive use above commands on the :boot prompt during the installation Kickstart from CDROM Kickstart from a file (path = 'fd0/ks.2. ks=nfs(:options):<path> Kickstart from NFS. 1.Use of Kickstart file It is used to automate the installation process. NFS mount options .cfg') Kickstart from FTP. for example) ks=cdrom: ks=file:<path> ks=ftp://<path> ks=hd:<dev> ks=http://<path> Kickstart from HTTP. To use kickstart installation use following steps z z z create a kickstart file copy the kickstart file on cdrom.3.18 The user can use the graphical interface to choose the options and the kickstart file will be generated automatically. Kickstart via harddrive (dev = 'hda1'.

1. It checks the file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf for the hardware installed and matches the data with the current hardware. The command kudzu can be run to detect and configure the changed hardware on a system. kudzu is run every time a Red Hat box is rebooted.xdriver: i810 .4. Below is the format of the /etc/sysconfig/hwconf file class: CDROM bus: SCSI detached: 0 device: scd0 desc: "HL-DT-ST CD-RW GCE-8526B" host: 1 id: 0 channel: 0 lun: 0 class: VIDEO bus: PCI detached: 0 driver: i2c-i810 desc: "Intel Corporation 82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE Chipset Integrated Graphics Device" video.19 are optional.Configuring Hardware The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf contains the listing of installed hardware.

Graphical utilities 1.1.1.4. It then updates the data in /etc/sysconfig/hwconf.For keyboard layout Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-keyboard .20 vendorId: 8086 deviceId: 2562 subVendorId: 8086 subDeviceId: 2562 pciType: 1 pcidom: 0 pcibus: 0 pcidev: 2 pcifn: 0 The first entry is for a CDROM drive attached with the system and second is for the VIDEO card attached with the system. 1. kudzu can be started in two modes z z safe probe mode no safe probe mode safe probe mode disables serial port probing.4.1. If any hardware is added or removed then it configures the added one and unconfigures the removed one.PS/2 probing.DDC monitor probing. To enable no safe probe mode on startup enter the line SAFE=no in the file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu.

1.4.For monitor and video card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-display z z z User can set the Resolution.4.3.For sound card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-soundcard .2.1.21 The user can select the keyboard layout and press OK .Color depth under the setting tab configure the monitor type and video card under tab hardware tab Use dual type tab for second monitor type and video card.1. 1.

4.For network devices Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-network or [root@localhost pub]# neat .22 This utility can be used to check the proper working of soundcard and reload the audio drivers and rewriting the configuration files. 1.4.1.

23 This utility is used to configure the network devices.secondary and tertiary dns IP addresses and dns search path.1. IPSec tab is used to configure IPSec tunnel and host to host connections.5. DNS tab is used to configure system's hostname and primary. Any network device can be selected and activated. 1.4. Hosts tab is used to specify static computer host name to IP address mapping. On hardware tab the network hardware physically attached with computer and detected by Red Hat Linux can be configured. z z z z z On devices tab all network devices detected by Red Hat Linux are listed.For printer Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-printer .

24 This utility is used to add new printer or configure printers.6. 1.For date and time Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-date or [root@localhost pub]# system-config-time .4.1.

Grub is able to boot non Linux operating system like Windows also. The grub menu lists the operating systems which are installed on the system. 2. Booting the Operating System 2.2.Overview The boot process can be divided into many steps. Loading the bootloader in MBR. . z z z z Checking of MBR (Master boot record) by BIOS. When a system is booted the user sees the grub menu.Grub Grub is default bootloader if Red Hat Linux is installed in the system. Every operating system displayed on the grub menu has its listing in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub.25 z z z date & time tab is used to set the current date and time.conf.1. network time protocol tab is used to synchronize system's clock with remote time server using network time protocol time zone tab is used to select the time zone in which the system lies.THE BOOT PROCESS 2. Choosing Operating system to boot on bootloader menu. Grub boots the operating system chosen by the user on the grub menu.

conf generated by anaconda # # Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file # NOTICE: You have a /boot partition.7)/grub/splash.1.0) .21-1.7) kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/sda11 initrd /initrd-version.fc7 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet initrd /initrd-2.Grub configuration file Let the system have two operating system installed windows and Fedora Linux then the contents of the grub configuration file is # grub.img #boot=/dev/sda default=0 timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0.3194.fc7. root (hd0.6.7) kernel /vmlinuz-2.gz hiddenmenu title Fedora-Linux root (hd0.3194.21-1.img title Windows rootnoverify (hd0.26 2. e.xpm.2.g.6. This means that # # # # all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/.

If the user chooses the windows option then the windows operating system is booted. The option timeout=5 means that the user will have to make choice in 5 seconds on the grub menu. The option default=0 means that if user makes no choice then the first operating system in the file will be booted. 2. The rootnoverify (hd0. The option chainloader +1 means that grub will call the other boot loader to boot the operating system.7) means the files needed to boot the operating system is present on the eighth partition of the first hard disk.2.2.27 chainloader +1 The title is used to set the display name on the grub menu corresponding to the operating system. The ro option on the kernel line means that the partition is to be mounted read only. If the user makes no choice in 5 seconds then the default operating system will boot.Configuring Grub There are two ways to configure the grub bootloader. In the above file the default operating system that will boot is Fedora. The initrd denotes the initial RAM disk boot image. on grub menu Fedora-Linux Windows is displayed. kernel indicates the kernel which is loaded.0) means that grub will not mount the partition.g. z z By editing the configuration file using text editors by using Boot Configuration . E. The kernel gives the control to the init process which is called father of all processes. If user chooses fedora Linux on menu then the bootloader sees /dev/sda8 partition of the first hard disk (root (hd0.

2.1.2.2.2. It also helps the user to choose the timeout period in seconds.2. 2.conf using Text editors The configuration file can be edited using any of the text editors like vi. gedit .By using Boot Configuration To start the boot configuration graphical utility type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-boot The utility helps to chose default operating system which will be booted in case user has not made any choice within the time period on the grub menu.Editing /boot/grub/grub. If the user chooses 5 seconds then grub will wait for 5 seconds for user to make a choice after that it will boot the default operating system. The MD5-encrypted password for grub can be generated using the command [root@localhost ~]# man grub-md5-crypt .2.28 2.3.2.2.Password Protecting Grub Grub can also be password protected.and emacs. This option is also available during the installation of Red Hat Linux. After making the changes the grub has to be restarted to make the changes take place.

runlevel is the value between 0. init looks to the file /etc/inittab and runs the script in the file /etc/inittab. init Action respawn Description The process is restarted using the process for this action. After entering the command the user is prompted to enter the password and then to verify the password user has to reenter the password. The process will be started once when the specified runlevel is entered and init will wait wait for its termination.3.1. The init process looks for the entry initdefault in the file /etc/inittab. The entry initdefault indicates the default runlevel with which system needs to be started up.3.3. process specifies the process to be executed.5 and 6 (some more values are available but not used). and bootwait entries are ignored./etc/inittab file This file describes which processes are started at boot up and during normal boot process (for different run levels different numbers of processes are started).Starting init init is the father of all processes.The runlevel field of sysinit.29 in terminal. 2. The init process has the pid (process identification number each and every process running on the system has a unique number assigned to them known as PID) of 1.2.4. The kernel starts the init process after mounting basic filesystems during the boot process. boot. Action describes the action to be taken by init. If the entry initdefault is not mentioned in the file then the user has to enter the runlevel values in the console for the boot process to proceed.1. 2. An entry in the inittab file has the following format: id:runlevel:action:process z z z z id is the unique identifier. initdefault An initdefault entry specifies the runlevel .

init will prompt for runlevel on console.30 entered after system boot. . The runlevel field is ignored. If none exists.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) This file describes how the INIT process should set up the system in a certain run-level. Lines beginning with ‘#’ are comments. Below is a sample /etc/inittab file. # # inittab # # # Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 . ctrlaltdel If the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard together then the init responds by shutting down the system or rebooting (depending on the process set) powerfail This action denotes that power failure has occurred and init takes the action depending upon the process set for this action Powerokwait If the powerfail action has occurred and the process mentioned for the powerfail action is to shutdown after 2 minutes then this action comes into picture if the power is restored before 2 minutes then the process for this action takes place. The process field is ignored. sysinit The process will be executed during system boot.

X11 # 6 .reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:5:initdefault: # System initialization. assume we have a few minutes # of power left. # This does. si::sysinit:/etc/rc. if you do not have networking) # 3 .Full multiuser mode # 4 .d/rc 5 l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.Single user mode # 2 .d/rc 2 l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.Multiuser. assume you have powered installed and your .sysinit l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 4 l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.31 # 1 .d/rc 0 l1:1:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc. Schedule a shutdown for 2 minutes from now.d/rc 3 l4:4:wait:/etc/rc. without NFS (The same as 3.d/rc 6 # Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now # When our UPS tells us power has failed.unused # 5 . of course.d/rc 1 l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.

d/rc.32 # UPS connected and working correctly.d/rc 5 denotes that the process /etc/rc. The line ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now denotes that if the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys then the system reboots after three seconds.sysinit is executed for every runlevel for the action sysinit the process /etc/rc. cancel it.sysinit is executed.d/rc. Shutdown Canceled" # Run gettys in standard runlevels 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1 2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2 3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3 4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4 5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5 6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6 # Run xdm in runlevel 5 x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon The line id:5:initdefault: sets the action to initdefault and the runlevel is 5.d/rc5 will be executed for the runlevel 5 and init will wait until the process is not completed. System Shutting Down" # If power was restored before the shutdown kicked in. The line si::sysinit:/etc/rc. pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure. . The line 5:5:wait:/etc/rc. pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored.

The network services are available but the graphics mode is not available 4 5 Not used Multiuser mode. Thus graphic interface is available in runlevel 5. 1 Single user mode. The line x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon denotes that the X11 server is started in case of runlevel 5. The graphics mode is also available as . The line pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored. 2 Multiuser mode. The graphical tools are not available as the X server is not running. Shutdown Canceled" denotes that if the power resumes before two minutes then cancel the shutdown of the system.33 The line pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure.3. All the network services are available. No graphical tools are available. 2. runlevel 0 Description It is used to halt the system. Network services like NFS/NIS/Xinetd are not available.runlevel A runlevel is a software configuration of the system which allows only a selected group of processes to exist. System Shutting Down" denotes that if power failure occurs then the powerfail action takes place and the system is scheduled to wait for two minutes before shutting down. 3 Multiuser mode. It should not be used in initdefault. Many users can login into the system.3.

d/rc0.d/rc3.3. The runlevels 0.4.sysinit is run once at the boot time.a.d /etc/rc. Other runlevels like 7.d /etc/rc.3.d/rc2.Initializing System The script /etc/rc.b.34 the X11 is running.1.d/rc4.d /etc/rc. 2.4. A good choice for the initdefault entry 6 All the process is terminated and the system is rebooted.1 and 6 are reserved.8. runlevel 0 1 2 3 4 directory /etc/rc.d /etc/rc.9.d . This is not good choice for initdefault.c are also available but are not used. It is a shell script which performs many functions like z z z z z z z z sets the hostname of the system checks SELinux status sets the system clock Initializes hardware Configures kernel parameters Mounts the filesystems Configures the hardware Starts and enables the swap space 2.d/rc1.Starting Services The services which will be started for a run level depends on the files contained in the directory of that runlevel.

4. #! /bin/bash # # network # # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 # description: Activates/Deactivates all network interfaces configured to \ # start at boot time. The directory /etc/rc.3.d.35 5 6 /etc/rc.3. The concept of deciding the order in which the scripts will run remains the same for the files with name beginning with K. 2.d are to be run depends on the contents of the directory corresponding to the runlevels.2.g. Bring up/down networking . Name of all the programs either begins with S or K followed by 2 digits (0-9) and after that name of the service.d/rc5.d/rc5.d/rc6.3.d/init.d contains the run level scripts.Naming convention of files in runlevel directories The files in the runlevel directories have special naming convention.Format of scripts in /etc/rc. the directory /etc/rc. E.d contains files for runlevel 5.d/init.4.d/init. Below is the sample file to start the network service. It contains two files S10network and S56Xinetd then the service S10network is run first.d/init.d The directory contains the scripts of all the runlevels. All the programs (files of run level directories) whose name begin with S starts the service and name begin with K kills or stops the service.d All programs in the directories of the above runlevel are symbolic link to programs in the directory /etc/rc.d /etc/rc. 2. Thus for a run level which scripts of the directory /etc/rc. The two digits determine the order in which the services will run.

d/rc5.4 and 5 with the priority or order 10 and in case of all other runlevels it stops the service with the order or priority 90.6 that is Use telinit 5 to switch to runlevel 5. 5 denote that the current runlevel is 5.4. In the runlevel 5 directory /etc/rc.Configuring services for a runlevel .3.4.d a file with name S10network will exist (as network service starts for run level 5 with the priority 10 and in the runlevel directory /etc/rc.2. 2.4.5.3.3. The init process kills or starts the processes necessary to switch to that runlevel in above case it will do it for runlevel 5.6.36 # ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provides: $network ### END INIT INFO The line # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 sets the script to start in the runlevels 2. 2.1.Determining current and previous runlevel To determine current and previous runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# runlevel N5 The letter N denotes that there is no previous runlevel (that is runlevel has not been changed).4.Changing runlevels To change the current runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# telinit n The letter n should be replaced by the values 0.3.4.d/rc1.3.d a file with name K90network will exist as network service stops with the priority 90 in runlevel 1.5. 2.

2. It can also be used to add a new service or delete a new service as well. User can also see the status of each service in each runlevel. 2.3.Adding a new service To add new service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --add new-service-name The new-service-name should have a start or kill entry in each of the runlevel.5.5.4. There are two methods to reorganize the services and view the information about the services in a runlevel.Enable a service To enable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level).3.Using command chkconfig The command chkconfig can used to view the information about every service in a runlevel and start or stop them.1.3. 2.3.Deleting a new service To delete service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --del new-service-name The service new-service-name is deleted from the chkconfig management and all the links in the runlevel directories are also removed.5.Disable a service . [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name on The service service-name is enabled for that runlevel.5.3. 2. 2.37 User can decide the services which should run in a runlevel and which should not run in a run level.3. 2.5.

3.Starting a service To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name start The service service-name is started in that runlevel.5.List status of a service To list status of a service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list service-name The status of the service service-name is displayed for all runlevel.5.4 and 5 and disabled in 0. 2. and 6.3.38 To disable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level) [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name off The service service-name is disabled for that runlevel.List status of all services To list status of all service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list The status of all the services is displayed for all runlevel.5.3. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start . 2.6.3.5. For example [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The service httpd is enabled in the runlevels 2.7.1. 2.

39 Starting httpd: The service httpd is started. It can be used to start a service. To start the service configuration use the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# serviceconf or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-services .add a service and delete a service.3. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd stop Stopping httpd: The service httpd is stopped. stop a service.4.8. 2.5.Using Graphical utilities [ OK ] The service configuration utility can be used to edit a runlevel. 2.Stopping a service [ OK ] To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name stop The service service-name is stopped in that runlevel.

3. All the filesystems which don't have separate partition are stored in the partition of / filesystem.stop or restart the service.Filesystem Information /bin – it contains commands to be used by common users. If a disk partition is mounted on a filesystem then all the sub directories and files below that mount point are stored on that partition. It has journaling feature that improves recovery from crashes. Let the / partition and /usr partition are mounted on /dev/sda5 and /dev/sda6 partitions then the sub directories and files below the /usr are stored in the /dev/sda6 partition.1.Overview Red Hat Linux uses the ext3 filesystem. All other filesystems are contained in it in form of subdirectories.2. The filesystems are organized in a hierarchy.40 User can check the box on the left of the service and then clicks to start. The / filesystem is on top of the hierarchy. After making any changes it need to be saved using the save option on the graphic tool. 3. .FILESYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 3.

/proc – The /proc filesystem is virtual file system. It about the directory of the /proc. The name of the sub 3. /sbin – it contains administrative commands.2.mode=620 defaults defaults defaults 00 12 12 12 12 00 00 00 00 11 LABEL=/home1 /home LABEL=/boot1 tmpfs devpts sysfs proc /boot /dev/shm tmpfs /dev/pts /sys /proc devpts sysfs proc LABEL=SWAP-sda13 swap swap . The process information is kept into a sub The file contains information about the filesystems. This means that is not mounted on any disk partiotion. processes running on the system./etc/fstab file the /proc filesystem contains system information and information directory is same as that of process PID. data used by services like /var – it contains log files of different services. Web server. and documentation. applications.41 /boot – it contains bootable Linux kernel and bootloader /dev – it contains files representing device of the system. user configuration files. The sample /etc/fstab file is LABEL=/1 LABEL=/opt1 LABEL=/usr1 / /opt /usr ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults gid=5. /usr – contains user and administrative commands. /etc – it contains configuration file.1. and directories of FTP.

The filesystem with the option noauto in the fourth field are not mounted during boot time. exec. rw means in read write mode. 3. The difference is /etc/fstab contains the static information about the filesystems while /etc/mtab contains the dynamic information about the filesystem. The second column represents the mount point in the filesystem. suid Allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect.2.2. The defaults option mounts the filesystem with following options of mount rw.42 The first column represents the device name representing the filesystem.and async. exec means allow execution of executable files. The fourth column contains the options used while mounting the filesystem during the system boot using the mount command.swap are associated with a device that is Partition of hard disk but the filesystems with type proc. The third column denotes the filesystem type. nouser a non root user cannot mount the filesystem. dev./etc/mtab To view the filesystems which are actually used by a running Linux system type the command mount in terminal or view the contents of the /etc/mtab file. The sample /etc/mtab file is below /dev/sda11 proc sysfs / /proc /sys ext3 proc sysfs rw rw rw 00 00 00 . dev Interpret character or block special devices on the file system. nouser. async All I/O to the file system should be done asynchronously. The filesystem types ext3. auto. suid. auto means automatically mounted at boot time.sysfs.tmpfs are not associated with any partition of hard disk.

43 devpts /dev/sda12 /dev/pts /opt devpts ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 tmpfs rw. Second column contains the filesystem mounted.3.gid=5. The standard format of mount command is mount -t filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name If a user wants to mount cdrom media in directory /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/cdrom /home/movies If a user wants to mount windows partition /dev/sda4 on /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount -t vfat /dev/sda4 /home/movies 3.2.4.on-which-the-device-was-mounted . Rests of the columns are same as that of the /etc/fstab file.2. 3.Unmounting a filesystem To unmount a filesystem use the following command umount directory-name.mode=620 0 0 rw rw rw rw rw 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 /dev/sda10 /usr /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs none sunrpc /home /boot /dev/shm /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs rpc_pipefs rw First column contains the disk partition which is mounted.Mounting a filesystem To mount a filesystem mount command is used.

filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 mkfs.Creating a filesystem A filesystem can be created on a device.rewritable Cd s. mkfs -t ext3 . A device can be floppy disks.ext3. Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked. root@localhost ~]#umount -l /home/movies To force unmounting of a directory use the below command root@localhost ~]#umount -f /home/movies 3.rewritable DVDs and hard disk partitions.44 To unmount the /dev/sda4 use the following command root@localhost ~]#umount /home/movies To unmount a device when the device is no longer in use (at the time when the command is issued the device is in use so the command waits for the device). mkfs command is used to create the filesystems on a device. For example files are being copied from mounted directory /home/movies then below command will unmount the directory when file copy is over.5. The format of the command is mkfs -t filesystem-type device-name For example if ext3 filesystem is to be created on the re writable CD device then the command will be mkfs -t ext3 /dev/cdrom mkfs command is front end to the commands which are actually invoked to carry out the work of creating the filesystems on the device. mke2fs . mkfs -t ext2 mkfs. mke2fs . The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be created.ext2 .2.

msdos ntfs xfs swap mkfs.ntfs. mkfs -t vfat.45 vfat mkfs.vfat .resize_inode.mkfs.filetype.mkfs -t ntfs mkfs.dir_index blocksize = 4096 inode_ratio = 8192 [fs_types] small = { blocksize = 1024 inode_ratio = 4096 } floppy = { blocksize = 1024 } news = { inode_ratio = 4096 .xfs .mkdosfs. mkfs -t xfs mkswap The commands mke2fs uses the configuration file /etc/mke2fs.conf. The configuration file contains the default parameters while creating the ext2 and ext3 filesystems. Below is the sample /etc/mke2fs file [defaults] base_features=sparse_super.

The chmod command is used to change the file permissions of swap to 0 so that no one has the right to read. The default parameters can be overridden from the command line. The file should be created using the following commands [root@localhost ~]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/swap bs=1000000 10+0 records in 10+0 records out 10000000 bytes (10 MB) copied.write or execute it.3.Creating Swap space mkswap command is used to create a swap area on a device or file. 267 MB/s This creates a file named swap in the /home directory of size 10 MB. The fs_types section defines the default parameters which should be used for a specific filesystems for example for the floppy the blocksize is set to 1024.0373886 s. 0. count=10 . It is data file (the output of the command file swap will return data as output). 3. If the system has less swap area and no partition device can be used as swap area or user is not willing to do that then a swap area can also be created on a file.The ls -l swap command below shows the file permissions attached with the swap file created.46 } largefile = { inode_ratio = 1048576 } largefile4 = { inode_ratio = 4194304 } The defaults section of the file defines the default parameters used by the mke2fs.

.3.Enabling swap space The swap space created cannot be used by the system unless it is enabled using the swapon command. The format of the swapon command is swapon device-name For example to enable the swap space created on the swap file above use the command [root@localhost home]# swapon swap The file /proc/swaps shows the swap space area of the system. To check the contents of the /proc/swaps enter the below command on terminal [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 /home/swap Type partition file Size Used Priority -1 -2 819272 4 9756 0 The listing shows two swap areas on the system /dev/sda13 which is hard disk partition and /home/swap which is file.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap Create swap space on the file swap [root@localhost home]# mkswap swap Setting up swapspace version 1.47 [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap -rw-r--r-.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap [root@localhost home]# chmod 0 swap [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap ---------. This file can be used to see whether the swap area thus enables is used by the system or not.1. size = 9994 kB 3.

fsck -t xfs .ntfs.2.ext2 . fsck -t ext2 fsck. The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be checked.Disabling swap space To disable a swap area use the command swapoff.4.48 3. The fsck command is the front end to the commands which are invoked for different filesystem types.fsck. Filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 vfat ntfs xfs fsck. The format of the command swapoff is swapoff device-name To disable the swap area created on the file swap in above case use the command [root@localhost home]# swapoff swap Now to check whether the swap file is disabled view the contents of the file /proc/swaps [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 Type partition Size Used Priority 819272 4 -1 3.vfat .xfs . The general format of the fsck command is fsck -t filesystem-type device-name If no device-name is specified on the command line then the command checks the filesystem in order they are mentioned in the /etc/fstab file. fsck -t vfat.msdos fsck.3. fsck -t ext3 fsck.ext3.Checking and Repairing a filesystem The fsck command is used to check the linux filesystem and optionally repair it. Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked.fsck -t ntfs fsck.

Operational error 16 . To protect data and check for badblocks use the below command badblocks device-name or badblocks -n device-name To erase the data and check for the badblocks use the below command badblocks -w device-name .4.the filesystems which have data should not be checked with badblocks using the -w option.System should be rebooted 4 .1.Usage or syntax error 32 . The badblocks command should not be run with the -w option as badblocks searches for the presence of badblocks on the device by writing a pattern on every block of the device which erases the data on the device.Searching for badblocks The command badblocks searches for the badblocks on a device.49 fsck command returns the following exit codes 0 .fsck canceled by user request 128 . The -n option is read only mode so no data is written on the device block and hence the data is not erased.File system errors corrected 2 . 3.Shared library error The exit code returned when multiple file systems are checked is bit-wise OR of the exit codes for each file system that is checked. So.No errors 1 .File system errors left uncorrected 8 . Those devices or filesystem should be checked for badblocks using the badblocks command without any option or with the -n option.

# Sample auto. # # Note that if there are entries for /net or /misc (as # above) in the included master map any keys that are the .5./usr etc. automount mounts a mount point when the mount point is accessed and deactivates it when it is no longer used.Automatically mounting a filesystem When a system is booted the filesystems are automatically mounted. Below is the sample /etc/auto.d/init.master file # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # For details of the format look at autofs(5). When a system boots then the autofs service runs with the option start and when the system is shutting down the autofs service runs with the option stop. The autofs service controls the operation of the automount daemons. # /misc /etc/auto. It reads the file /etc/auto.master file.misc /net -hosts # # Include central master map if it can be found using # nsswitch sources. The autofs service lies in the /etc/rc.master and finds the mount points on system. The users don’t have to run the mount command to mount the filesystems like /home.d directory.50 3. This automatic mounting of filesystem is due to the autofs service which runs when the system boots. Each mount points found is mounted by automount and a thread is also started by automount to manage the mount point.

The sample /etc/auto.example. The line cd -fstype=iso9660.org:/pub/linux :/dev/hda1 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/sdc1 :/dev/hdd #removable In the above file the line starting with # are comments.nodev :/dev/cdrom .master In the above file the lines starting with # are comments.misc tells the daemon automount to look into the file /etc/auto.ro.misc for the mount points.51 # same will not be seen as the first read key seen takes # precedence.nosuid.nodev :/dev/cdrom # the following entries are samples to pique your imagination #linux #boot #floppy #floppy #e2floppy #jaz -ro. The line /misc /etc/auto.misc file is # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # Details may be found in the autofs(5) manpage cd -fstype=iso9660.intr -fstype=ext2 -fstype=auto -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 ftp. # +auto.nosuid.ro.soft.

1. Linux Software RAID devices are implemented through the md (Multiple Devices) device driver. This allows multiple devices to be combined into a single device to hold a single filesystem.52 Causes the automount to mount the /dev/cdrom device when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive and change the directory to the /dev/cdrom. RAID devices are virtual devices created from two or more real block devices. If user comments this line the /dev/cdrom drive will not be automatically mounted when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive.1. If power failure occurs when a system is running and it shutdowns immediately (not a graceful shutdown that is the system shuts down before user can shutdown using the shutdown -h now command or from the graphic panel choosing the shutdown option) leaves the filesystem in a inconsistent state. 3. RAID6.d/init.Creating RAID device The RAID devices can be created during installation and after installation. Journaling feature of the filesystem enables it to recover from such kind of crashes. Currently.5. Linux supports LINEAR md devices.During installation . 3.RAID disks Linux uses the ext3 filesystem type which has journaling feature.6. RAID5. RAID10. 3.1.6.Checking status of automount To check whether automount is running in the system or not type the following command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# /etc/rc. RAID0 (striping).d/autofs status automount (pid 2157) is running. Journaling feature means that it helps to recover from crashes and brings the filesystem into a consistent state.. 3. RAID disks are used to improve disk performance and minimize the chance of data loss. But journaling feature is not sufficient to handle all the cases for example if one of the partition is damaged then the files cannot be recovered. RAID1 (mirroring). RAID4.6.1..

/dev/sda1. 5. enables. The raid devices information can be monitored.6. The hard-disk-device name is name of the devices separated by spaces.Other uses of mdadm The mdadm can be used to mark a device of a raid array to be marked as failed.1. To create a raid device /dev/md0 of level 1 using the hard disks /dev/sda0.6. 1. The raid device name will be /dev/md0 if the first raid device is being created and so on. Create the partition with software raid as the filesystem type from the raid options panel select create a raid device button Enter the mount point. mdadm command is all purpose command for raid devices. assembles and monitors the raid devices. The various format of the mdadm command are mdadm raid-device-name -f hard-disk-device-name . remove it from the raid array or add it to raid array. 6.-create raid-device-name .-level=1 . raid device.Using mdadm command To create the RAID device use the mdadm command. The values of n1 can be 0.2. 4. raid level information on the raid device panel.-raid devices=3 /dev/sda0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 3. The value of n2 is equal to the number of physical devices which forms the raid device /dev/md0./dev/sda2 use the following command mdadm . It creates. This creates the raid devices.3. Raid array means the physical devices which together makes a logical raid device. viewed using the mdadm command after the installation.-create /dev/md0 .1. and 10.53 During installation of Red Hat Linux the RAID devices can be created using the disk druid partition manager. The format of the mdadm command for creating raid devices is mdadm .-level=n1 .-raid devices=n2 hard-disk-device-name n1 is a number which denotes the raid level of the raid device. 3. z z z z z On the disk druid menu selecting the raid button launches the raid options panel. filesystem type. On that panel select create a software raid partition button.

7. To add the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda2 3.54 to mark the device as failed. 3. The pvcreate command is used to initialize the partition for use by logical volume utilities.Creating A Logical Volume Group To create a Logical volume group at first physical volume is initialized.1.Logical Volume Group Logical volume group support is provided in Red Hat Linux. To mark the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example as failure the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -r hard-disk-device-name is used to remove the device. To remove the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -a hard-disk-device-name is used to add the device as a spare.1.6.7.4. The command used for the purpose is given below mdadm . The format of pvcreate command is pvcreate hard-disk-partition-name To initialize the partition /dev/sda5 of the hard disk run the command [root@localhost ~]# pvcreate /dev/sda5 .-details raid-device-name 3.Information about a raid device The mdadm command is also used to see the detailed information about an active raid device.

55 Physical volume "/dev/sda5" successfully created Then add the physical volume thus created to the new volume group using the command vgcreate or added to an existing volume group using the command vgextend......... The format of command vgcreate and vgextend is vgcreate volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 …. vgextend volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 .. The format of the command vgdisplay is vgdisplay volume-group-name For example to view the attributes of the volume group my_vol_grp use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgdisplay my_vol_grp --....Volume group --VG Name System ID Format Metadata Areas lvm2 1 my_vol_grp Metadata Sequence No 1 VG Access VG Status read/write resizable ... To create the new volume group my_vol_grp for the /dev/sda5 of the above example use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgcreate my_vol_grp /dev/sda5 Volume group "my_vol_grp" successfully created To view the attributes of the volume group created use the command vgdisplay.

7G my_vol_grp .77 GB 4. The format of the command lvcreate is lvcreate -l %VG or %FREE volume-group-name lvcreate -L G or M or K volume-group-name In the first case the space on which the logical group is to be created is expressed as the percentage of the total space of the volume group or the percentage of the total space of the free space. GB.00 MB 2500 0/0 2500 / 9. To create the logical volume group on the my_vol_grp volume group created earlier use the command [root@localhost dev]# lvcreate -L 9. M means MB and K means KB).56 MAX LV Cur LV Open LV Max PV Cur PV Act PV VG Size PE Size Total PE Alloc PE / Size Free PE / Size VG UUID 0 0 0 0 1 1 9. KB (G means GB.77 GB 3I5EmB-es47-Deqz-hN9w-eUaK-u1i6-tMSCoW To create a new logical volume in the volume group the command lvcreate is used. In the second case space on which the logical group is to be created is given as the total space expressed in MB.

It will contain an entry lvol0.70 GB Logical volume "lvol0" created The above commands create the logical volume successfully.Logical volume --LV Name VG Name LV UUID LV Write Access LV Status # open LV Size Current LE Segments Allocation /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 my_vol_grp CaD0Bp-Czo8-fCbu-QXi5-d0I1-LHS3-TwJvVw read/write available 0 9. To check the logical volume created view the contents of the directory /dev/my_vol_grp. The format is lvremove /dev/volume-group/logical-volume-name .7. [root@localhost dev]# lvdisplay /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 --.57 Rounding up size to full physical extent 9.2. To display the information about the logical volume thus created use the lvdisplay command.Remove a logical volume The lvremove command is used for this purpose.70 GB 2484 1 inherit 0 Read ahead sectors Block device 253:0 3.

5.7. To remove all the logical volumes in a volume group use lvremove /dev/volume-group 3.Logical volume management utility Red Hat offers graphical utility to achieve all the functions performed above like creating a volume group.7. removing volume group and logical volume. To invoke the Logical Volume Management utility run the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-lvm .58 To remove logical volume logical-volume-name.7.Remove a physical volume The command pvremove is used for this purpose. vgremove volume-group-name 3. pvremove physical-volume 3.Remove a volume group The command vgremove is used for this purpose. viewing and editing the information about the volume group and logical volume. creating a logical volume.3.4.

59 In the above utility the left hand panel shows the volume groups and the uninitialized entries. The yum uses the configuration file /etc/yum. rpm. There are many options available to the user yum. The uninitialized entries are the normal partitions of the hard disks and the volume group shows the volume group created for example this window shows the volume group my_vol_grp and within the volume group the logical volume lvol0 is listed. User can use the buttons edit properties to edit the properties of the logical volume.Using yum yum (Yellow Dog Updater .conf and the configuration files in the directory /etc/yum. 4.1. .Modified) is used to install and update the software packages in rpm format from software repositories on the web.Overview A good operating system should allow the user to install and update software with ease. Red Hat offers the luxury of maintaining the package in a simple and efficient way.d. 4.conf.2. and graphical utilities.PACKAGE MANAGEMENT 4.

ls . The log file where yum writes the log information.repos.conf is [main] cachedir=/var/cache/yum keepcache=0 debuglevel=2 logfile=/var/log/yum.log exactarch=1 obsoletes=1 gpgcheck=1 plugins=1 metadata_expire=1800 cachedir mentions the directory which yum uses as the cache memory that is storage for storing temporary file.d contain the location on the web which yum searches for the packages. The files in the directory /etc/yum. The format of sample configuration file /etc/yum.60 The yum command checks the configuration files and searches the locations mentioned in the configuration files for the package which is needed to be updated or installed by yum. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost etc]# cd yum.repos.d. Each file represents the location of the packages. The option gpgcheck if 1 forces yum to check the gpg keys of the packages and if 0 the gpg keys are not checked. keepcache options value if 0 causes the headers and cache files to be deleted after successful installation and value 1 retains the files.

61 fedora-development. The yum command takes a number of inputs.repo livna-testing.repo fedora-updates.repocp livna-devel.repo fedora-updates-testing.repo fedora.repo Each file corresponds to a software repository on web.repocp fedora-updates. The file will be in the below form [fedora] name=Software-Server baseurl=give the http address of the server mirrorlist=give address of the mirror location enabled=1 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=location of the gpg key file.repo fedora. The general format of the command is yum option package-name In case of some options yum don't need package name so the format becomes yum option Option install update Description Installs a package Updates a package usage yum install package-name yum update package-name yum check-update check-update Checks whether an update is available for the packages installed in the system .repo livna.

-F rpm -F package-name Upgrade a previously installed package. If any previous version of package is not installed then the package is installed.62 remove Removes the package and any dependent package from the system yum remove package-name erase Same as remove Same as remove 4. If the in- .Using rpm A lot number of Red Hat software exists in rpm format. The rpm command can be used to install. -e rpm -e package-name Erases a package from system -q rpm -q package-name Queries about a package -V rpm -V package-name Verify an installed package against its original software package. Option Usage -i -U description rpm – i package-name Install a package rpm -U package-name Updates package already installed on the system. verify. and uninstall the rpm software.3. upgrade. It is very easy to install the rpm software packages by using the rpm command.

63 stalled package matches with original software package then there is no output. 50 # are printed when 100% processing is done. -v rpm -v Prints verbose information -vv rpm -vv Prints lots of verbose information -h rpm -h Prints # marks during the package processing using rpm. If the rpm command is to be used with two options then use this form usually the option -v.5-12.fc7 . key ID 4f2a6fd2 python-2. The format is [root@localhost rpm]# rpm -qvv python D: opening db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages joinenv D: opening db index D: locked db index D: opening db index D: opening db index /var/lib/rpm/Packages rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Name rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys rdonly mode=0x0 D: read h# 1353 Header sanity check: OK D: ========== DSA pubkey id b44269d0 4f2a6fd2 (h#1353) D: read h# 741 Header V3 DSA signature: OK. -vv. and -h is used with the other options.

Using make The software packages are available in the tar. It also uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information.4.gz extension use the commands gunzip realplay.tar generates directory realplay. The two commands can be combined into one command tar xvfz realplay. If the software is installed it prints the information about the software. The packages need to be uncompressed and then the source code is to be build using the. The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc.gz. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system. and tar. make and make install commands. tgz. The configuration file . In above case it queries the database to get the information about the python rpm package. /configure.tar and then use the command tar xvf realplay.tar. The option -q and -vv are used together. 4.bz2 format.gz This forms realplay. To uncompress the packages with tar.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user level rpm configuration file.64 D: closed db index D: closed db index D: closed db index /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: closed db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: May free Score board((nil)) In above example rpm queries the rpm database to find out whether the python software is installed.gz .tar.

4. To invoke the Package Manager enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost redhat]# system-config-packages . The command make install installs the package on the system./configure make make install The .tar.tar After uncompressing the package change the working directory of the terminal to the directory realplay Now to install the package run the commands .Package Manager package manager is a graphical utility which gathers the information about the packages available over the web for update and installation./configure command configures the package for the platform of the system. It searches the software repositories which have been defined in the yum configuration files. If the source code is in tar. The make command makes the package for the system.bz2 format then use the command bzip2 -d realplay.5.bz2 It forms the directory realplay.65 generates directory realplay.

Overview Linux is a multi user operating system. User account can also be created after installation. After choosing for the packages which need to be installed the user can decide to apply the changes made on the panel. On the search tab user can search for a package and on the list tab the user gets the listing of all the package.Creating User Account The useradd command is used to create a new user.1. available package. 5. 5. One more user account is asked to create (user may choose to create the account or skip). It is also used to update default values used while creating a new user. The general format of the useradd command is useradd options user-name . Each user belongs to a group account.USER AND GROUP ADMINISTRATION 5.2. During installation root user account has to be created (root user is administrator of the system). Group account can also be created after installation. If the changes are applied then the packages are downloaded from web and are installed. and installed package depending upon the option box chosen by the user.66 On the browse tab user can browse for the packages available over the web in different categories.

The sample /etc/login.defs for the default values to be used while creating the user. # QMAIL_DIR is for Qmail .defs file is # *REQUIRED* #Directory where mailboxes reside. The third form is used to view the default values which will be used while creating a user account. MAIL_DIR takes #precedence. relative to the # home directory. To view the default values enter the following command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/bash SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes Simplest form of useradd command is useradd user-name If this command is run useradd creates the user account by using the default values. useradd reads the file /etc/login.67 useradd -D options useradd -D The first form is used to create a new user while the second form is used to override the default options used while creating a new user. If you _do_ define both.or name of file.

. PASS_WARN_AGE Number of days warning given before a #password expires.68 # #QMAIL_DIR MAIL_DIR #MAIL_FILE Maildir /var/spool/mail . PASS_MIN_LEN Minimum acceptable password length.mail # Password aging controls: # #PASS_MAX_DAYS Maximum number of days a password may #be used. # # # # PASS_MAX_DAYS 99999 PASS_MIN_DAYS 0 PASS_MIN_LEN 5 PASS_WARN_AGE 7 # # Min/max values for automatic uid selection in useradd # UID_MIN UID_MAX # # Min/max values for automatic gid selection in groupadd 500 60000 PASS_MIN_DAYS Minimum number of days allowed #between password changes.

we do. # #USERDEL_CMD /usr/sbin/userdel_local # # If useradd should create home directories for users by default # On RH systems. # It should remove any at/cron/print jobs etc.69 # GID_MIN GID_MAX # # If defined. . owned by # the user to be removed (passed as the first argument). # the permission mask will be initialized to 022. # CREATE_HOME yes 500 60000 # The permission mask is initialized to this value. this command is run when removing a user. This option is overridden with the -m flag #on # useradd command line. UMASK 077 # This enables userdel to remove user groups if no members exist. If not specified. # USERGROUPS_ENAB yes # Use MD5 or DES to encrypt password? Red Hat use MD5 by #default.

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MD5_CRYPT_ENAB yes So if a user is created with the command [root@localhost ~]# useradd user1 Then a directory user1 is created in /home, shell is /bin/bash, mailbox lies in /var/spool/mail directory and the contents of the /etc/skel directory is copied in the /home/user1 directory. /etc/skel contains the login and application startup scripts. The contents of the /etc/skel are viewed using ls -la command. [root@localhost skel]# ls -la total 80 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 2009-01-13 22:20 . drwxr-xr-x 138 root root 12288 2009-01-13 22:53 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 33 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_logout -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 176 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_profile -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 124 2007-02-12 20:48 .bashrc -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 500 2007-05-23 19:45 .emacs drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:21 .kde drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:08 .xemacs -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 658 2007-03-06 01:54 .zshrc .bash_logout,.bash_profile,and .bashrc contains the user specific options and aliases which is used by the bash shell each time the bash shell starts up..kde contains the kde desktop application options. The .bashrc file can be used by user to customize user's shell environment. The sample .bashrc file is # .bashrc # Source global definitions

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if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then . /etc/bashrc fi # User specific aliases and functions If the file /etc/bashrc exists then the file is executed./etc/bashrc contains the global options to the bash shell. The options in /etc/bashrc apply to all users using bash shell. The values in /etc/bashrc can be overridden using the .bashrc file. Much information needed to create user account is taken from the file /etc/profile. It sets the hostname, histsize of the shell, shell environment variables like PATH,USER,LOGNAME,and INPUTRC etc. The /etc/profile file also looks in the directory /etc/profile.d for the files which contain aliases and environment variables for use by the user. General format The default values used while creating a user account can be overridden by passing those values from shell. The format of useradd command is useradd -c “comment” -d home directory path -g group name -p password -s shell -u userid [root@localhost ~]# useradd -c "new user" -d /home/user2 -g user1 -s /bin/csh user2 When a user account is created an entry corresponding to the user name for example user1,user2 is created in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow file. An entry is also added when a new group is created for example user1. Below is the content of /etc/passwd filesystem user1:x:502:502::/home/user1:/bin/bash user2:x:503:502:new user:/home/user2:/bin/csh /etc/shadow file contains the user name and the encrypted password of the user. The entry of /etc/group file is user1:x:502: Changing default values

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The command useradd -D -b home directory name -s shell -g group can be used to change the default values used while creating new user account. Below command is used to change the shell to /bin/tcsh from /bin/bash [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D -s /bin/tcsh [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/tcsh SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes
5.3.Modifying user account

usermod command is used to modify the user information. The general format of usermod command is usermod -c “comment” -d home-directory-name -g group-name -l login-name -s shell -u user-id
5.4.Deleting user account

userdel command is used to delete the user account. userdel user-name this deletes the entry corresponding to the user name from /etc/passwd file and /etc/shadow. To delete the home directory along with the account following command is used userdel -r user-name

73 5.5.Group Administration

5.5.1.Adding New Group groupadd command is used to add new group. If no options are specified on the command line default values are used. The format of groupadd command is groupadd -g group-id groupadd-r option Second command is used to add administrative groups. Administrative group and users have ids below 500.The file /etc/gshadow is used to store the group's password. 5.5.2.Modifying group information groupmod command is used to modify existing group information. groupmod -g new-group-id -n new-group-name. 5.5.3.Deleting group groupdel command is used to delete group. It deleted the entry of group from the files like /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
5.6.Using User Manager

The user manager utility is used to perform all the tasks discussed above using the graphical interface. To invoke the user manager utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-users

.modify and delete user and group information. The below panel is generated. To modify existing user information click on the user name and then use the properties button. The information can be edited on the below panel and changes can be saved.74 It can be used to add .

. The below window is thrown and the information of new user can be entered.75 To create a new user. click on the add user button.

6.1.Space Usage The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a directory.Changing user password The password of user can be changed by entering the command passwd. The command prompts for root user's password and then for the new password. . 5.7.and G (gigabyte) form.76 5. The size of files contained in a subfolder is also displayed . The password needs to be entered twice.M(megabytes). The format of the command is du folder-name if the option -h is used the command displays the size of files and subfolders in K (kilobytes). passwd user-name if the user-name is not mentioned then it is assumed that user wants to change root user's password.

The root user is administrator account on Red Hat Linux.77 [root@localhost ~]# du -h /home/user1 8.Overview The root user is can perform all the tasks on the system.1.xemacs 44K /home/user1 The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem. .kde/Autostart 12K /home/user1/.kde 8.0K /home/user1/.0K /home/user1/. The format of the command is df filesystem If the filesystem option is not used on command line then df displays the amount of space available in all the mounted filesystems of the system. [root@localhost ~]# df Filesystem /dev/sda11 /dev/sda12 /dev/sda10 /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on 9920592 2390424 7018100 26% / 4956284 141220 4559232 4% /opt 9920592 4643932 4764592 50% /usr 16479668 384520 15244508 3% /home 101086 383428 18499 77368 20% /boot 0 383428 0% /dev/shm 6. During installation the root account is must to create.SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 6.

The su command The su command is used to change the user id and group id of the user issuing the command to that of user mentioned on the su command./sbin/nologin refuses login from the user.Getting Administration Rights 6. 6.2.2. Outside that terminal he won't have the privilege of user1). Below is the sample /etc/passwd file root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin .78 6. The format of the su command is su – user-name If user2 has entered this command in terminal then he will have the privilege of user-name (he can perform all actions which user1 can perform using the terminal in which he entered the above command. There are some administrative accounts which are automatically created by Linux but the user accounts cannot be used to log into the system as they are defined with the /sbin/nologin. If he enters the password correctly then he gets the privilege of root user else he won't get the privilege. Te user and group ids below 500 are reserved for the administrative users.2. The user id and group id of the root user is 0.1. The user accounts are listed in the file /etc/passwd.Using the su Using the su command a user can also get privilege of root user but the user will be prompted for the root user's password.2.

/sbin/mii-tool ## Installation and management of software Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm. /bin/mount.and mail are defined with /sbin/nologin so those user accounts cannot be used to login into system. /usr/bin/up2date./etc/sudoers file The file /etc/sudoers file defines group of similar command under an alias name. The root user must be created on a Linux machine and all other user accounts in above sample are automatically created.4. /sbin/partprobe. /sbin/sfdisk. /usr/bin/yum ## Services Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service. /usr/bin/rfcomm.79 The users bin. 6.. /sbin/dhclient. /sbin/chkconfig ## Updating the locate database Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/sbin/updatedb ## Storage Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk. The privilege can be granted by the root user only.1. For example ## Command Aliases ## These are groups of related commands.adm.2./sbin and /usr/sbin directory The directory /sbin and /usr/sbin contain administrative commands. /sbin/iptables. /sbin/ifconfig.lp. /bin/ping. /usr/bin/net. /usr/bin/wvdial..Other uses must have given privilege to use those commands.Administrative commands 6.3.2. ## Networking Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route.3.daemon. Only root user can use the commands . 6. /bin/umount .2. /sbin/iwconfig. /sbin/parted.

STORAGE is defined for the commands /sbin/fdisk. ## service management apps and more. DRIVERS ## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands # %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Same thing without a password # %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL ## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the ## cdrom as root # %users ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom. LOCATE. The explanation is any user can use mount command to view the filesystems currently mounted on the system but only root can use it to mount a filesystem. STORAGE./sbin/sfdisk./bin/mount. In above case the command mount is in directory /bin. SERVICES./bin/umount. /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom ## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system # %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now . # %sys ALL = NETWORKING. DELEGATING. PROCESSES. software. SOFTWARE. ## Allow root to run any commands anywhere root ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking. Then in the file /etc/sudoers different groups are defined with different levels of privilege. Since normal users can not use commands in /sbin directory that is why mount command is in /bin directory.80 At first command aliases are defined in the /etc/sudoers file.

adm.bin. The general format of the command is chown owner:group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner.Changing owner and group The chown command is used to change the owner or/and group of a file. The chgrp command is used to change the group of a file.daemon daemon:x:2:root.adm.3.bin. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens.daemon The entry jack is made in /etc/group file.bin. Now the user jack can use the command rpm to install any software prefixing the command rpm with sudo for example sudo rpm -i vlc 6.daemon sys:x:3:root..81 The file /etc/sudoers should be edited using the /sbin/visudo command.jack adm:x:4:root. Then open the file /etc/group and add the user jack on line corresponding to the group sys root:x:0:root bin:x:1:root. The format of the command is . Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. Suppose a user jack is to be given the privilege of group sys then uncomment the line #%sys using the /sbin/visudo command.

1. To start the system monitor utility follow these steps on desktop go to system--> then go to administration-->then click on System Monitor.deleting.modifying user and group accounts) (discussed before) managing services to be run in a runlevel (discussed before) Updating existing software and installing new software (discussed before) Monitoring system performance Automating tasks Managing and tuning kernel 6.4.82 chgrp group-name file-name changes the group of file-name to group.Using System Monitor The system information can be viewed using the System Monitor utility. The system administration can be divided into several parts z z z z z z Managing user accounts (creating.Monitoring System performance 6. .4.

Using the view menu option user can choose the option to see only processes started by him (his process) or all process or active processes on the system. Using the filesystems tab the filesystems currently mounted on the system are displayed. A user can also choose which information he/she wants to see for the processes using the Edit->preferences option of the menu . View Process. On the preferences window the user can choose the time interval after which the information is to be refreshed. and also change the priority of the process. . End Process. Using the Edit menu option the user can Start Process. The user can click on a process and then can end process by clicking on the End Process button.83 On the processes tab the user can see the listing of all the processes of the system at that moment. Kill Process.

no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number ).4. The priority of the process.1.2.3.% memory usage. the command used for invoking the process.Other commands There are several commands available in Linux which can be used to view the system information. no of processes active.4.Using top The top utility is started by typing the top command in the terminal window. .84 6. 6.4. 6.Using w command The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system.percent CPU usage. no of processes sleeping. The top command gives various information about the system z z z z z z number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes.3.

22.00s 0.3.10. Load average of the system and number of users logged on the system currently.19 6. under swap heading amount of memory swapped in from disk(si) and amount of memory swapped out(so).3. 0.free memory. 0.2.85 [root@localhost ~]# w 23:17:20 up 32 min. . 0. 0.03s 0.21.00s w 6.4. Under the CPU heading the CPU related information. Under the memory heading it displays amount of virtual memory used(swpd). [root@localhost ~]# vmstat procs --memory----.Using vmstat The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics.--system-. cache memory.00s find /home 23:08 1.Using uptime The uptime command is used to show the time for which system is running. 2 users.4. load average: 0.---swap-r b swpd free buff cache -io---. load average: 0.0 LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT 22:48 10:07 0.-----cpu-----si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st 0 0 0 218808 20736 258632 0 0 144 38 114 435 7 1 89 2 0 Under the proc heading it displays the no of processes waiting for run time (under r sub heading).19.19 USER TTY FROM root root pts/0 :0.blocks sent to block devices(bo).04s 0. Under the io heading blocks received from block devices(bi). 2 users.0 pts/1 :0. [root@localhost ~]# uptime 23:17:44 up 32 min. buffer memory.3.no of processes in sleep(under sub heading b).

If the pid is 1 then processes with pid >1 re signaled if pid is > 1 then the process with that id is signaled. 6.5.4.4. . The format of the kill command is kill -s signal-name pid z z z if the pid is 0 then all process in current process are signaled.4.Using kill The kill command is used to end a process.4.The system log viewer is launched from desktop using SYSTEM-->ADMINISTRATION-->SYSTEM LOG.Log information The user can see the log information of the system using the System Log viewer . [root@localhost ~]# free total Mem: 766860 used 550340 266068 0 free 216520 500792 shared 0 buffers 22476 cached 261796 -/+ buffers/cache: Swap: 819272 819272 6.3.Using free It gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system.3.86 6.

The hardware drivers are maintained as the modules of the kernel. The * is replaced by the output of uname -r command. The log information about the cups can be seen by expanding the tree under the cups entry on the left panel of the utility.fc7]# ls build modules. 7. Clicking on the cron entry on left displays the log information about the jobs scheduled using the cron utility on the right panel of the above utility.networking modules.1. The drivers can be inserted.6. 7. The content of the directory is [root@localhost 2.kernel Modules All the modules configured into the kernel are located in the directory /lib/modules/*/.2. The hardware drivers are installed to interface with the hardware.symbols .3194.dep modules.log contains the log information of boot time.KERNEL SERVICES AND CONFIGURATION 7. User can click on the name of files to view the log information.Overview Linux kernel is heart of Linux operating system.21-1. For example the file /var/log/boot.and the information about the drivers can be viewed.deleted.87 On the left hand side the list of log files is displayed.

ieee1394map modules.88 extra modules.libata modules.21-1.Modules Loaded into Kernel To view the modules currently loaded into the kernel use the command lsmod.pcimap modules.3194.scsi updates modules.networking contains the name of the drivers for the network devices.1. 7. [root@localhost ~]# lsmod Module i915 drm Size Used by 25793 3 78037 4 i915 7745 1 ipt_MASQUERADE iptable_nat nf_nat 11461 1 22125 2 ipt_MASQUERADE. For example to view information about the driver i915 of above case use the command [root@localhost ~]# modinfo i915 filename: license: /lib/modules/2.ofmap kernel modules.alias modules.isapnpmap modules.usbmap source modules.2.fc7/kernel/drivers/char/drm/i915.seriomap weak-updates The kernel subdirectory of the above output contains the drivers currently part of the kernel.iptable_nat The modinfo command can be used to view information about any of the loaded module into the kernel.6. The file/proc/module contains the listing of modules currently loaded into the kernel.ccwmap modules.inputmap modules. The file modules.ko GPL and additional rights description: Intel Graphics .

7.4.Inserting module into kernel Sometimes a user might need to install a hardware device if the hardware driver is not part of the kernel.2.2. The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command.Using modprobe command The modprobe command can be used to insert a module into kernel . The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel.2. Inc. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. 9274BE575209BE18EC18D84 drm 7.Removing module from kernel The rmmod command is used to remove a module from the kernel.and remove a module from the kernel.89 author: srcversion: depends: Tungsten Graphics. The module dependencies are listed into the modules.ko /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1.ko: /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1. If module2 is dependent on module1 then the file contents will be /lib/modules/*/kernel/crypto/module2. Let module2 is module dependent on module1 then if the command modprobe module1 is executed then the modules module1 and module2 both are inserted as the module2 is dependent on module1.ko . The user has to insert the driver module into the kernel. The format of the command is rmmod module-name 7.3.dep file located in the directory /lib/modules/uname -r/.2.

But if the command insmod is used then the module1 is only inserted. 7. In above case if the command modprobe binfmt-0000 is run then the command /bin/true is executed. The option options define the options which will be used when the module is inserted into the kernel.3.90 : In above example the modules module1 and module2 are listed using fully qualified path name. The command modprobe -r module-name is used to remove the modules from the kernel. The dependent module is on left side and the independent module is on the right side of the semicolon.1.3.3. The command ps aux is used to display all the processes currently running on the system. The install option is used to run the commands defined after the module name.d. The modprobe command looks in the directory /lib/modules/*/ and also for the configuration file /etc/modprobe.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe.conf file is alias eth0 via-rhine options snd-intel8x0 index=0 install binfmt-0000 /bin/true The option alias defines an alternate name eth0 for the via-rhine.2.Process and Kernel Information 7.Changing priority of process The renice command is used to change the priority of the running process. 7. There are many options available for the ps command. The format of the renice command is renice priority -p pid of process -u user-name -g group-id . The sample modprobe.The ps command The ps command is all purpose command to get information about the processes running on the system.

..Using dmesg It is used to examine and print the boot up message..fedora.... [root@localhost modprobe.....d]# dmesg -c Linux version 2. After the execution the kernel ring buffer gets clear now if the command dmesg is run again then there will be no output...1..redhat.... The user can use the command to capture the messages.6.2 20070502 (Red Hat 4..3194.. 7. is the output of command.com) (gcc version 4..1..21-1.3.3.. The format of the command is dmesg -c -n level The -c option clears the kernel ring buffer after printing -n option sets the level of messages which will be printed.. . ....phx... If the value of level is 1 then the serious error messages are only printed.fc7 (kojibuilder@xenbuilder4. .91 If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes and if issued for group then the process priority of all processes owned by the group is changed and if issued for process id then the process priority is changed.2-12)) #1 SMP Wed May 23 22:35:01 EDT 2007 BIOS-provided physical RAM map: sanitize start sanitize end copy_e820_map() start: 0000000000000000 size: 000000000009fc00 end: 000000000009fc00 type: 1 ....

info. The syslogd and klogd comprises the sysklogd package.authpriv. Below is the sample /etc/syslog.mail.news. syslogd supports the system logging.* # Log cron stuff cron. #kern.news.emerg * # Save news errors of level crit and higher in a special file.crit # Save boot messages also to boot. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written.none. # Logging much else clutters up the screen. uucp.92 7.* /dev/console # Log anything (except mail) of level info or higher.log local7.conf file # Log all kernel messages to the console.cron.none. authpriv.conf. # Don't log private authentication messages! *.none.4.Syslogd The syslogd supports the system logging as well as kernel message trapping. mail.* /var/log/secure /var/log/messages # Log all the mail messages in one place. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog.log /var/log/spooler .3.* /var/log/cron -/var/log/maillog # Everybody gets emergency messages *.none # The authpriv file has restricted access.* /var/log/boot.

The root user can use the at command.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. 7. The klogd daemon always runs on a running system and traps any messages which kernel generates. The /etc/at.93 # # INN # news. There are two files which determine which users can use the at command. For example the PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) related messages are logged in this file. The at command cannot be used by all the users.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command.1.batch.notice /var/log/news/news.=crit news.pid.Using at The at command is used to schedule a job at a time and the atd daemon runs the job scheduled by the at command.deny is checked to see the users who cannot use the at command.4.=err news.crit /var/log/news/news. The /etc/at.allow file is first checked for the user name who can use the at command if the file is not present then the file /etc/at. 7. The cron job messages are logged in the file /var/log/cron The file name can be changed by the root user if root wants to log the information into different file. The klogd captures the kernel messages.and cron facilities are used to schedule a job at a specified time. The source for the kernel message is the /proc/kmsg file. The file /etc/at. If the file is not present then klogd uses a system call to obtain kernel messages.Automating Tasks -- A user can schedule to run a job at a specified time.notice In the above file /var/log/secure file is defined to contain the authorization and security related messages.4. The process id(PID) of the klogd daemon is defined in the file /var/run/klogd. If . The at.err /var/log/news/news.

7.deny is jack mark The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespace in the user name.1. The at -l command is used to list all the scheduled jobs(if root user runs this command then scheduled job of all users is displayed).4.if invoked by other users the scheduled job of only that user is displayed. The three ways in which jobs can be scheduled are 7.using pipe A list of command can be scheduled using pipe for example [root@localhost ~]# ls -la | at now+5min job 1 at Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 to schedule a number of commands write each command separated by semicolons. and the jobs with b on right are in batch queue.1.4. [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 4 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root Fri Jan 16 23:03:00 2009 a root at -m sends mail to the user when the job completes even if the job has no output. The sample format of the /etc/at. The jobs which are listed have an on right are in at queue. The command at time-specification is used to schedule the job at that time.94 both the files are not present then only root user can run the at command.Using at prompt . the jobs which have = on right are jobs currently executing.2.1.allow or /etc/at.

7.Using file The at -f filename time-specification command is used to give the command using the file filename.4.95 The at prompt is presented to the user if at time-specification is entered for example [root@localhost ~]# at now+20min at> ps at> du at> <EOT> press CTRL+D to come out of at prompt. The format is atrm jobid to delete the job 4 in below case use the command at -l gives listing of all scheduled jobs. [root@localhost ~]# at -l 4 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:46:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root use atrm to delete job 4. atq – The atq command is used to list the scheduled job. In above example ps and du both are scheduled. . The contents of the file(commands in the file name is executed at time specification).1.3. Same as at -l atrm – command is used to delete a scheduled job.

96 [root@localhost ~]# atrm 4 the command atq gives listing of all scheduled jobs.8. 7. [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root The outputs of the commands are mailed to the owner of the job after successful completion of the job.4.2. The job runs when the load average of the system is below .Using batch command The batch command is used to schedule a job. The sample file for the commands scheduled using the batch command is #!/bin/sh # atrun uid=0 gid=0 # mail root 0 .The batch scheduled job is run by the atd daemon. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled. The batch command invokes the at command prompt [root@localhost ~]# batch at> df at> du at> <EOT> job 5 at Fri Jan 16 22:58:00 2009 The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at.

using an empty one crontab: installing new crontab The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory.....3./etc/cron. The /etc/cron.... [root@localhost at]# crontab -e no crontab for root .. The root user can access cron facility.Using cron The cron facility is also used to schedule the jobs. The users can be given access to cron using two files. export SHELL .. If both files don't exists then only root user can use cron facility... The name of the file is same as the name of the user... The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file....allow file is used to list the users who can use the cron facility.localdomain. The /etc/cron. The format of the file is 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local .. export HOSTNAME DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID=..allow file is first searched by the cron facility if the file does not exists then the /etc/cron....deny file is searched. A text editor can be used to create a file-name.4...deny lists the user names which are not allowed to access the cron facility. The crontab jobs are executed by the cron daemon. df du 7... export DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID SHELL=/bin/bash. export SSH_AGENT_PID HOSTNAME=localhost.97 umask 22 SSH_AGENT_PID=2866.cron file . .

1. [root@localhost cron]# crontab -r [root@localhost cron]# crontab -l no crontab for root 7. fifth field is day of week(0-7).Sun.mar.Apr format is also used.0 and 7 both are used for Sunday The field value * in the fields denotes all possible value./etc/crontab The file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file.4.3.Feb. [root@localhost at]# crontab -l 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local The crontab -r command is used to delete the crontab jobs.Jan.Tue format is also used.hourly 02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.daily .98 z z z z z z z The first field is minute (0-59) second field is hour (0-23) third field is day of month(0-31) fourth field is month (0-12).Mon. The command crontab -l is used to list all the crontab jobs. The sample /etc/crontab file is SHELL=/bin/bash PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root HOME=/ # run-parts 01 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron. After the time fields the command field follows. The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file.

weekly. The runparts define the time when the scripts in the directories /etc/cron. The apache web server source code is freely downloadable.-list option is used to check whether the Apache web server is enabled or not [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The httpd service (the daemon corresponding to the Apache web server) is enable in runlevel 2.1.monthly are executed by the cron daemon.Overview The web server accepts the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol(HTTP) requests and sends a response to the client.weekly 42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron. If the service is not enabled then the command chkconfig httpd on is used.2. /etc/cron. The apache web server is the most widely used web server. The mail is done to root user (MAILTO parameter).daily.hourly.4. 8.Starting Apache The user should check whether the Apache web server is enabled in the runlevel or not. 8.and 5.and /etc/cron./etc/cron.WEB SERVER 8.monthly The environment of the sub shell is set using this file.3. The SHELL parameter sets the shell to /bin/bash. The chkconfig .99 22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron. If the service is enabled in a runlevel use the command service httpd start to start the Apache Web Server. [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start Starting httpd: [ OK ] After starting the service check the working of Apache web server by typing the address http://localhost .

d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 2009-01-06 16:15 logs -> . The logs directory is symbolic link to /var/log/httpd directory which contains the httpd log information . [root@localhost httpd]# ls -l total 36 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:01 conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:29 conf.conf.and PHP)..././var/log/httpd drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:20 modsecurity././. sub directories and symbolic links to other directories. The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd.100 in the address bar of the Mozilla Firefox (web browser).Perl..database(Mysql) and the authorization modules... The conf.d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 27 2009-01-06 16:15 modules -> ./usr/lib/httpd/modules lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 2009-01-06 16:15 run -> .. The directory contains main configuration file./var/run The conf directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd.d contains the configuration files relating to the languages( like Python.

and log files are kept.3.Global Environment Configuration In the global environment configuration section the following attributes are set # Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents # we are running. . # ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's # configuration. # Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out. Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites # finding out what major optional modules you are running ServerTokens OS This hides the additional subcomponent modules from the remote sites. The modules directory is symbolic link to the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory which contains the library files for the Apache web server. Configuration parameters for the main server (not virtual hosts but these parameters also set default values for all virtual hosts) Settings for virtual hosts.pid file which contains the PID of httpd daemon.Main Configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. The additional subcomponent configuration files reside in the /etc/httpd/conf. http policy. error. ServerRoot "/etc/httpd" The server root names the main directory where all the server information is kept. 8.conf file is main configuration file for Apache web server.3.101 the modsecurity directory contains files relating to the security.1. 8.d directory. The run directory contains the symbolic link to /var/run directory which contains the httpd. and protocols related. The file is divided into three parts. z z z Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole.

so LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest. # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support # LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic.d".d directory. # Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or # ports.so LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file. # Include conf.conf Loads the additional component support component files from the /etc/httpd/conf.102 # Timeout 120 The server will wait for 120 secs for a response and after that the connection will timeout.so The LoadModule loads the modules from the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory (the directory /etc/httpd/modules is a symbolic link to above directory).d/*. # Load config files from the config directory "/etc/httpd/conf.Perl. in addition to the default Listen 80 In this case apache listens to port number 80.Python.The port number can be changed to any port number by the user. The directory contains the configuration files for PHP. User apache Group apache .and Mysql etc.

html file and kept it in this directory and open the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index. By default. # AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory # for additional configuration directives. 8. ServerAdmin root@localhost In case of any information server wants to give then the information is send to the email address mentioned in the directive ServerAdmin. The user account apache and the group account apache are automatically created (user don't create the accounts). but # symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.htaccess # .3. See also the AllowOverride # directive.html file will be displayed. all requests are taken from this directory.The user can set this to his/her user-name and group-name. where problems with the server should be # e-mailed.Main server section # ServerAdmin: Your address.2. The email address can be edited if user wants so. For example if you create an index. # DocumentRoot "/var/www/html" This is the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server. # AccessFileName .103 The httpd server runs under the user apache and group apache. # DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your # documents.

ht"> Order allow. # <Files ~ "^\.htaccess file is used to control access to the directory. error.htaccess and .htpasswd files from being # viewed by Web clients. # Possible values include: debug. crit.deny Deny from all </Files> The . Uncomment the following lines to # enable the proxy server: # <IfModule mod_proxy. The line Deny from all sets the access level that no user can be able to see the file .htaccess (the address in the web browser address bar corresponding to the . # alert. emerg. In above case the warning messages will be logged in the file.104 # The following lines prevent . notice. # Proxy Server directives. The contents of htaccess file should not be visible to the clients who are accessing the server (people who are using web browser to view contents or pages on the server). info. # LogLevel warn The loglevel defines the messages which are to be logged.c> ProxyRequests On . warn.htaccess file won't give anything). # LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.

The permission level set for the proxy server in above case is the access is denied from all except .org/docs/2.3.example. # <IfModule mod_disk_cache.com.c> CacheEnable disk / CacheRoot "/var/cache/mod_proxy" </IfModule> # If the following lines are uncommented then the apache web server servers as a cache server.3.apache.example.Virtual hosts section # .2/mod/mod_cache.allow Deny from all Allow from .com </Proxy> The apache web server acts as proxy server if the above lines are uncommented.105 # <Proxy *> Order deny. # # To enable a cache of proxied content. The root directory for the cached files is /var/cache/mod_proxy. 8.html for more details. # See http://httpd. uncomment the following lines. In the above example if the Proxy Requests directive is OFF then apache will act as a cache server.

com DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host.106 # Use name-based virtual hosting.example.com-access_log common </VirtualHost> The virtual host section is used to configure virtual hosting which supports more than one domain using a single web server system. 8.com ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.example.com is fetched.com. So if a user requests a document in the domain ServerName then the documents or files from the directory /www/docs/dummy-host.HTTP Server Configuration The HTTP Server Configuration is used to configure the HTTP server.4. To invoke the utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost conf]# system-config-httpd . # #NameVirtualHost *:80 # <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.example.com-error_log CustomLog logs/dummy-host.com ServerName dummy-host.example.example.example.example. Each and every apache directive can be used within the VirtualHost. In the following example the ServerName is set to dummy-host.

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The main tab is used to configure the server name and web master email address to add the ip address click on the add button.

The new address and the port can be added on the panel displayed. The user can choose to listen to all address option . Use the virtual host tab to configure the virtual host.

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The add button is used to add a new virtual host and the edit button is used to edit the properties of the virtual host highlighted on the left part of panel. the delete option can be used to delete the virtual host. If the user choose to edit the properties of a virtual host the below panel is displayed

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The user can use the tabs on top of the panel to configure the options. The general properties like virtual host name ,document root directory, web master email address can be configured on the general tab. The server tab on the main panel is used to configure the server lock file location, core directory where all the configuration files of the server will be kept, and the location of the pid file. The user and group under which the apache server is running can also be edited.

110

The performance tab is used to configure the parameters which help in improve the performance of the apache web server. Parameters like connection timeout period ,maximum number of requests per connection are set here. These options are impact the performance of the apache web server.

111 9. 9.conf. The socket address can be defined in three forms: z z port alone hostname with port . The main configuration file for the squid server is /etc/squid/squid.1.Network options Under the network options the user can define the socket addresses.FTP. http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client requests. Squid consists of a main server program squid.1. The squid configuration file is divided into sections 9.and Gopher data objects.SQUID SERVER 9. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks.2.Configuring Squid The directory /etc/squid contains the configuration files for squid server.2.Overview It is high performance proxy caching server for web clients with supporting HTTP.

#Default: cache_dir ufs /var/spool/squid This section also defines the format of the squid log files. For example hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ? means that when the URL consists of certain string of characters then the original server handles the request.log cache.2.Cache size options This section defines the options which control the cache size and swap memory used to handle the objects.out store.2.4.log squid. 9.and negative cache objects(recent failed requests).2.hot objects(objects that are used often).2.Log File and Cache directory section This section defines the directory which will be used as a cache directory.Neighbor selection algorithm option Under this section the user define the mapping of rules for the requests and neighbor which will be called if a request obeys the rule. For example #Default: cache_mem 8 MB This sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use).112 z IP address with port # Squid normally listens to port 3128 http_port 3128 9. 9. The cache dir /var/spool/squid contains the following files [root@localhost squid]# ls access.3.log .

0.Access control section This section defines the access control.0.0.0.conf file acl all src 0. 9.0.5. The acl tag is used to define access control.0.0/0.113 The squid pid is stored in the file /var/run/squid.255.0.0/8 acl SSL_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 80 acl Safe_ports port 21 acl Safe_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 70 acl Safe_ports port 210 # http # ftp # https # gopher # wais acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535 # unregistered ports acl Safe_ports port 280 acl Safe_ports port 488 acl Safe_ports port 591 acl Safe_ports port 777 # http-mgmt # gss-http # filemaker # multiling http acl CONNECT method CONNECT . the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file below is the example of acl tags from /etc/squid/squid.255.1/255. By default no outside client is allowed to access the contents.0.pid.2.255 acl to_localhost dst 127.0 acl manager proto cache_object acl localhost src 127.

Administrative parameters The administrative parameter defines the user under which squid will run . The configuration file controls which servers will be managed by the cache manager.2.6.Cache Manager The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs. #Default: cache_mgr root Above line define that root user is mailed in case the cache dies. 9. # This file controls which servers may be managed by # the cachemgr. The configuration file for cache manager is /etc/squid/cachemgr.conf. The manager can access the contents as defined by the second line. The next lines define different ports with a name for example port 443 with name SSL_ports. This entry can be edited to add more number of clients who can access the content. #Default: cache_effective_user squid The above line define that the effective user of the squid is squid user.cgi script # .3. Squid is an administrative user account created automatically. http_access allow localhost http_access deny all the above lines define that the localhost can only access the http content all others are denied. The localhost name is given to the loopback interface.114 the first line gives name all to all the addresses.the user receiving mails in case cache dies etc. 9.

Should not be necessary # most of the time. localhost In the above example the localhost server is managed by the cache manager. The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://server-name/cgibin/cachemgr. SQUID_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT=100 . The sample format of the file is # default squid options # -D disables initial dns checks.4. # # hostname is matched using shell filename matching. If you most likely will not to have an # internet connection when you start squid. :* or :any matches # any port on the target server. uncomment this SQUID_OPTS="-D" # Time to wait for Squid to shut down when asked.115 # The file consists of one server per line on the format # hostname:port description # # Specifying :port is optional.cgi. allowing # * and other shell wildcards. If not specified then # the default proxy port is assumed.Squid Daemon The squid daemon receives the configuration information from the squid daemon configuration file /etc/sysconfig/squid. 9.

1. 10. NFS is example of a file server. [ OK ] [ OK ] if the squid daemon is not running then use /etc/init. Alternatively the command [root@localhost squid]# squid -k reconfigure causes the squid to read the configuration file again.NFS SERVER 10. 10. The access to files is defined by rules set at the server machine.d/squid start command.Starting NFS service To start the NFS service enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# service nfs start Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] . Starting squid: .Overview In organizations it is common that the files are kept at one server.116 After making changes in the configuration file restart the squid daemon if the squid daemon is already running using the command [root@localhost squid]# /etc/init.2.d/squid restart Stopping squid: . The files are accessible by some computers on the intranet of the organization.

The combination of lp address and hostname can also be used.1/255. The format of the /etc/exports file entry is directory-name host-name(options) #comments directory name is the name of the directory which is shared with other computers on network. 192.87 All the hosts from a particular network can also be entered using the ip address/net mask format.3.Format of hostname Multiple hostnames or lp address can be entered separated by blank.example.? can also be used.com The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group.117 10.com should be allowed access to directory files then enter the entry files *.1. The NIS group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the NIS group name. ? matches any one character and * matches any number of character.168.3.0 The wildcard characters *. The options define security levels that is who can access and which users can access the directory. So for example if all the computers in the domain example.com but if the access should be restricted to computers with first name of 5 characters use files ?????.12.255. One directory entry is done on one line. For example to give access to mynis group add entry .123.1. The host names are the computers which have right to access the files.example.Sharing Folders The file /etc/exports contain the name of the folders which are to be shared. The format of the entry is hostname1 hostname2 hostname1 hostname2 165.255. 10.

root_squash) In the first entry the directory /home/vishnu is made accessible by each computer (indicated by *) and options sync. The second entry makes the directory /home/user1 accessible to computers with five letter name in domain example. async – It responds to the request before the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk).118 @mynis 10.2.all_squash) /home/user1 ?????.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used. The other option is ro which allows read operation only.insecure. root_squash – this option maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid.ro.3. The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534.com with options async.rw. rw – the clients can read the files on NFS volume and also write on the directory .insecure.Options format The valid options used in the /etc/exports file are secure – the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. Other option is no_all_squash which causes no mapping to be done.So this option improves performance but increases chance of inconsistencies .and root_squash.com(async.secure and all_squash is used. The sync option means server will respond to the request after the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk) so there is no chance of inconsistency. Below is the sample /etc/exports file /home/vishnu *(sync.rw.ro.secure. no_root_squash – the root user of client is treated as the root user of the server as well ( the uid/gid of root is not mapped to the anonymous uid and gid). .example. all_squash – map uid and gid of all users to anonymous uid and gid.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid.

z z z z -a option is used to export all directories -u option is used to unexport one or more directories. [root@localhost ~]# exportfs -a -v exporting ?????.119 The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service.com:/home/user1 exporting *:/home/vishnu The exportfs -a -v command is used to export all directories listed in the /etc/export file and print verbose output.example.Accessing the NFS directory [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] The NFS directory needs to be mounted before it can be accessed. -r reexport the directories -v verbose mode produces output or use the below command [root@localhost nfs]# service nfs restart Shutting down NFS mountd: Shutting down NFS daemon: Shutting down NFS quotas: Shutting down NFS services: Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: 10. For example to access the /home/vishnu directory enter the below command in the terminal .4. To mount the NFS directory the mount command can be used.

It is invoked using the below command [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-nfs It lists the two directories which are exported. To add a new directory for export click on the add button.120 [root@localhost nfs]# mount localhost:/home/vishnu /mnt/win This mounts the /home/vishnu directory on /mnt/win directory of the same system. User can also edit the properties of the directories already exported by selecting the . For example to access the directory /home/vishnu the below command is used cd /net/localhost 10.master /net /etc/auto.5.NFS Server Configuration The NFS server configuration utility can be used to create the /etc/exports file using the graphical interface. To mount the NFS directories using the autofs use the following step add the below line in the /etc/auto. The autofs facility can also be used to mount the NFS shared directories on demand.net Then restart the autofs service.

The below panel is displayed which can be used to edit the options which are used to share the directory /home/vishnu. .121 directory in the directory listing and click on the properties button. The above panel is also displayed if the user wants to share a new directory (by clicking on the add button) but that time the panel will not contain any previous value. The server settings can also be edited by clicking on the server settings button The user can enter the port numbers in the text boxes of the panel to force NFS daemon for using these ports.

sync. It uses following files to present the output in user readable format z z z z z z z /proc/net/rpc/nfsd -.anonuid=65534. 11.anongid=65534) 11.root_squash.no _subtree_check.acl.hide.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS client statistics.mapping=identity.root_squash.secure_locks.anonuid=65534.2. To invoke the samba server configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-samba .secure_ locks.no_all_squash. /proc/mounts -. The files xtab.nocrossmnt.anongid=65534) /home/vishnu *(ro.all_squash.6.mapping=identity. use nfsstat -s to display server side information use nfsstat -c for client side information use nfsstat -n for NFS statistics use nfsstat -r for rpc statistics The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory.122 10.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS server statistics.Overview samba is used if the network connected with the system comprising of the computers running the windows operating system.and rmtab files contain the information about the exported files.nocrossmnt.no_subtree_check.Using nfsstat The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity.etab.acl.com(rw.insecure. Windows operating system uses the SMB(Session Message Block) protocol for sharing files and printers. The sample etab file is /home/user1 ?????.hide.SAMBA SERVER 11.1.wdelay.insecure. /proc/net/rpc/nfs -.wdelay.Samba Server Configuration The samba server configuration utility is used to configure the samba server on the system.example.procfs-based interface to the mounted filesystems.async.

the authentication server.and new samba share. To edit the server setting click on the preferences menu and then to the server settings drop down choice. On the security tab the enter the following information the authentication mode. On the basic tab enter the work group name and the description of the work group. samba users . encrypt password and guest account. The below panel is displayed.kerberos realm.123 The panel can be used to configure the server settings. Set the value of the option to below values .

124 On the preferences menu list the samba user tab invokes the Samba Users panel which helps to add new samba users. After entering the user-name and password click on the add share button to display the below panel . Click on the new user button to display the below panel On the above panel enter the UNIX user name and windows user name (the UNIX user name and the windows user name are usually same). The passwords for the users are also entered on this panel.

The share name for the directory is entered which can be any valid name and a description is added (you may write here anything). On the access tab user can define who can access the share. Enter the values and click on OK.If writable in not checked then the client can't write on the share. The below panel displays the samba share created using the above procedure and values displayed in the example panels . The share can be made accessible to samba users (by checking the check box) or can be allowed to everyone by clicking on the option box allow access to everyone.The writable option and visible option lets the user choose whether the clients can write to the directory (writable option) and whether it is visible(visible).125 On the basic tab of create samba share the directory which is to be shared is entered. If the visible is not checked then the share won't be visible.

. To add the above /home/user1 directory to the share the below content is to be added in the /etc/samba/smb.3. browseable = yes valid users = vishnu In above entry the user1 is the name of the share comment is the description added and writable option means the client have write access to the share and the users who can access the share are listed using the valid user’s entry.Samba configuration file The /etc/samba directory contains the configuration files for the samba server.conf configuration file [user1] comment = user1 home directory path = /home/user1 writeable = yes .126 11. The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of the samba users. The path of the shared directory is mentioned in the path entry.conf is the main configuration file of the samba server. The /etc/samba/smb.

127 The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users.Starting Samba service Use the below command to start the samba service.25-2. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu The left hand side denotes the UNIX user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name.0. service smb start 11.4.Checking the service To check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be use the below command [root@localhost samba]# smbclient -L localhost Password: Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3. 11.fc7] Server --------Comment ------- .4.25-2.0.1.fc7] Sharename --------user1 IPC$ ---Disk IPC Type Comment ------user1 home directory IPC Service (demo sama server) Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3.

download files from the FTP server.3.conf file is # Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware . 12. .conf.Overview File Transfer Protocol is standard method of sharing files over the Internet.128 LOCALHOST Workgroup --------MYGROUP demo sama server Master ------- when asked for password press the ENTER or RETURN key of the keyboard to login as anonymous user.1. The users can connect to the FTP server and upload.2.Starting vsftd Enter the below command to start the vsftpd service if it is not running [root@localhost ~]# service vsftpd start Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: 12. anonymous_enable=YES # # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in. The sample vsftpd.FTP SERVER 12.Configuring vsftpd [ OK ] The directory /etc/vsftpd contains the configuration and other options file for the vsftpd. The command can be used to check the working of the samba server and the samba share. 12. The vsftp is name given to Very Secured File Transfer Protocol.allowed by default if you #comment this out). The command displays all the shared directories on the system and also the workgroup created on the system. The main configuration file for the vsftpd is /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.

pam_service_name=vsftpd userlist_enable=YES the pam_service_name denotes the name of the service for the Pluggable Authentication Module. connect_from_port_20 if set to yes then port 20 is used for transfer of data by ftp. local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server.129 local_enable=YES # the parameter anonymous_enable is when set to YES then the anonymous user login is allowed by the ftp server. userlist_enable is set to YES then vsftp don't allow users listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list to login through ftp. connect_from_port_20=YES # xferlog_enable directive is set to YES logs information about the upload and download events. # Activate logging of uploads/downloads. The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. All the administrative users are listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list root bin . if set to NO then anonymous user login is not allowed. xferlog_enable=YES # # Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 #(ftp-data).

The user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers are administrative users (they are same set of users as the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file). The file lists the user names who are not allowed to login through ftp. The file /var/log/vsftpd.4.ftp command prompt To start the ftp command prompt enter the below command [root@localhost log]# ftp ftp> ftp supports lot of commands like . 12.130 daemon adm lp sync shutdown halt mail news uucp operator games nobody The vsftpd pam also looks for the user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers.log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server.

12.lists the content of a directory on remote computer.5. lcd – to change to a directory on local system mkdir – to create a directory on remote system rename – rename a file or directory on remote computer get – copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system mget – same as get but multiple files at once put – copy a file from current directory on local system to current directory on remote system mput – same as put but multiple files at once. bye – closes current connection and exits ftp. cd – used to change directory on remote computer. To invoke the utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-vsftpd .131 open hostname or ip address – connect to the computer identified by hostname or ip address close – close a connections pwd – shows name of current working directory on remote computer.Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration The Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility is used to configure the vsftpd daemon. ls -.

On the access control tab the user can define whether the local users should be able to login into the ftp server and the file which is to be used to ban users from accessing the ftp server for example the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file contain the list of the administrative user who should not be allowed to access the ftp server. The users can view the directory list if or not can also be controlled. The information which will be logged can also be defined. . On logging tab the user can provide the files which will be used for logging the standard logging file is /var/log/vsftpd. It also defines the port on which the ftp server listens.whether to run in standalone mode or not(in standalone mode vsftpd listens to the port it don't run under inetd or xinetd).log. On network tab the user can define the network options. The anonymous user behavior and the system users behavior is set differently so as to provide better grain of control On the directory option the file access options are set. File names which match a user defined criteria can be made inaccessible and invisible to the clients. The active connection options and the passive connection options as well. on Users tab the way system users and the anonymous users will access the ftp server is defined.132 On the general tab user can specify options like enable upload and download of files . Under server control tab user can start or stop the server view the log files.

conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:17 schema The file ldap.example.Configuration The main directory of the ldap is /etc/openldap. dc=com URI ldap://ldap. 13. The sample ldap.conf is the main configuration file for the ldap.LDAP SERVER 13.133 Maximum number of clients connecting through a single source . BASE dc=example.com:666 SIZELIMIT TIMELIMIT 12 15 . It is used to create directories of information that can be shared among client applications over a network.1.2.conf(5) for details # This file should be world readable but not world writable.com ldap://ldap-master.conf file is # # LDAP Defaults # # See ldap.example. The directory contains the configuration files and schema files for the ldap.1 root root 246 2007-02-20 02:25 ldap.overview LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost openldap]# ls -l total 24 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-02-20 02:25 cacerts -rw-r--r-. 13.

schema.ldif and save the file.134 DEREF never The BASE directive is used to set the set the distinguished name in the ldap format using the dc=value format. TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search.and finding.schema The default schema can be used by the user or edited by the user to create the directory information of his/her own.searching. The structure used to create directories is the LDAP Data Interchange Format(LDIF). Create a directory entry with the extension . The time limit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request. .schema use include /etc/openldap/schema/samba. This is the default. DEREF options specifies the way an alias is dereferenced. SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched. The other values of the DEREF options is always. The server name can be specified or the ip address of the server can be specified. The schema directory contains the schema files. The port can also be specified on the URI directive.schema samba.conf file for the syntax change. The various schema files are z z z z cosine.conf using the include directive. The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap. For example to include the samba. The value of deref directive is never the alias is never dereferenced. After editing the configuration file user can start creating the directories using any of the ldap schemas. To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.schema nis.schema inetorgperson. URI specifies the uri of the ldap server to which the ldap library will attach.

2. The formats of the commands are domainname domain-name-of-system nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system the below command sets the NIS domain name of the system to localdomain [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain The commands if used without any options give the nis domain name of the system .Starting the ldap Use the below command to start the ldap service service ldap start 14. It is used to create an central information database which is kept at a server system and other computers on the network access the information.Overview Network Information Service (NIS) was created by Sun Microsystems. ldapdelte command is used to delete an entry from the ldap server. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. The computers which access the database information (maps) of the server are referred as NIS domain.1. z z z z ldapadd -a command adds a new entry to the ldap directory.Setting NIS domain name The command domainname .NIS SERVER 14. The time of search or the time within which the ldap server should respond is defined in the TIMELIMIT option.and ypdomainname are used to set the NIS domain name of the system. ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters.135 To add the contents of the ldif file created to the ldap directory the command ldapadd is used. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned. 13.or nisdomainname.3. ldapmodify command is used to modify the entries of the ldap server. 14.conf.

conf. 14.3.conf .Configuring NIS The main configuration file of the NIS server is /etc/yp.conf file is # /etc/yp.136 [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# nisdomainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# ypdomainname localdomain The NIS domain name of the system is lost when the computer is rebooted. . The sample /etc/yp.ypbind configuration file # Valid entries are # domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST # # # domain NISDOMAIN broadcast # # # domain NISDOMAIN slp # # # ypserver HOSTNAME Query local SLP server for ypserver supporting NISDOMAIN Use broadcast on the local net for domain NISDOMAIN Use server HOSTNAME for the domain NISDOMAIN.

4. The IP-address of server must be listed in /etc/hosts.Mapping Information The /etc/nsswitch.1.Staring NIS server To start the NIS server daemon enter the below command in terminal service ypserv start 14.2.4.5. 14. To start the ypbind service enter the below command service ypbind start 14. The configuration file is read by the ypbind daemon.Starting NIS server 14.4. try a broadcast call to find a server. The sample /etc/nsswitch file is # Legal entries are: # . The entry domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST defines the NIS domain name and the NIS server name of the system.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files by a client system.137 # # # Use server HOSTNAME for the local domain. # broadcast # # # If no server for the default domain is specified or none of them is reachable.Starting ypbind service The ypbind service handles requests for information from the NIS server.

The clients’ computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file.255.0. also called YP Use DNS (Domain Name Service) Use the local files Use the local database (. Next the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server.0 10.16 so all the computers on the network 10.138 # # # # # # # # nisplus or nis+ nis or yp dns files db compat hesiod Use NIS+ (NIS version 3) Use NIS (NIS version 2).and group on them and if the files are not found on the system then after that they will search for the files on nisplus domain.255. The file names which should not be shard in commented out. passwd: files nisplus nis shadow: files nisplus nis group: files nisplus nis In the above example the client computers will search the files passwd.db) files Use NIS on compat mode Use Hesiod for user lookups Stop searching if not found so far [NOTFOUND=return] the above list defines the valid entries which can be added in the /etc/nsswitch. .conf file.0.0.16 can access the NIS sever information.0.shadow. The format of the entry in the /var/yp/securenets file is netmask network example 255.

2.netmask.DNS server and other information to the computers in its network. DHCP server is used to assign the ip address.and DNS server.Overview DHCP stands for the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. 14. The client computers will have to select that they want to use the DHCP server for the information like ip address. The security can have values as none(to allow access).1.NIS database The NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is created by using the ypinit command.conf.139 The finer grain of control can be implemented using the file /etc/ypserv.netmask.port(to allow access from port below 1024).DHCP SERVER 15. The server then provides the requested information to the clients 15.deny(denying access) the mangle field is having the value yes or no.5. The format of the file is ip address of network:file-name for which access is defined:security:mangle{:field} the field is optional.Starting the DHCP server To check the status of the dhcp server run the above command in the terminal chkconfig –list dhcpd if the service is not running then enable the service by issuing the command chkconfig dhcpd on after enabling the user can run the dhcpd service using the command service dhcpd start . 15.1. This file can be used to set rules that define which host computers can access which files.

140 15. On the client computer if a user enters the command ifconfig -a then corresponding to the Ethernet interface which was assigned ip address using the dhcp server the user will be the ip address mentioned in the file /etc/dhcpd.Configuration file The configuration file for the DHCP server is /etc/dhcpd.conf 15.conf.DHCP client The DHCP client can be configured using the utility Network Configuration. To invoke the Network Configuration window enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# neat or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-network . The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign a ip address to a computer on its network.3.4.5. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.Working of DHCP server The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. 15.leases. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network.leases contains information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server.

141 To configure a device to obtain the ipaddress. On the below Ethernet device panel choose the general tab . Choose the device listing.dns server information and other information needed for connecting to the internet from the dhcp server follow this steps. In the above example the device eth0 is chosen (Ethernet interface eth0). click on the edit button. This will throw a Ethernet device panel to the user.

After making the changes the user should restart the network using the below command service network start The dhclient is used to get the information from the dhcp server. User can also choose to obtain the DNS server information using dhcp by clicking on the check box Automatically obtain DNS information from provider.142 Then to set up a dhcp client click on the option box Automatically obtain ip address settings with and in the drop down menu items choose dhcp. The dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient at boot time if the client is configured to obtain the ip address from the dhcp server at boot time else invoked when the activate button of the network configuration utility is clicked after selecting the Ethernet interface) gets the ip address information from the dhcp server it first checks the configuration file /etc/dhclient. The process id (PID) of the dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient) is stored in the file /var/run/dhclient.pid.conf for configuration parameters). .

3.DNS SERVER 16.2.143 16. It also contains information about each domain and organization of domain into zones. 16. To invoke the BIND Configuration GUI enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-bind .d/named start or service named start 16.BIND Configuration GUI The BIND Configuration GUI is used to configure the DNS server on a Red Hat Box. In Red Hat the DNS service is implemented using the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND).Overview The DNS stands for Domain Name System.1.-list named if the service is not running then enable the service using the command chkconfig named on to start the service named use the command /etc/init. It is used to translate the host names into ip address and also ip address into the host names.Starting Named daemon The status of the named daemon can be checked by the command chkconfig .

After editing the values the changes can be saved using the save button of the main panel.144 The properties button is clicked after selecting the object in the listing panel. . The properties of an existing DNS server can be edit by selecting the server in the drop down list and then clicking the object on the drop down list. In the current case the DNS server is selected. The objects which are displayed in the drop down list are z z z z z z z z Zone View Access Control List Security key Server Controls Logging DNSSEC Trusted keys The user can enter the value of the parameter by clicking on the object. This displays a panel on which user can enter the value. The values can be edited on the displayed panel. To add a new DNS server click on the New button to add a new server. After clicking on the new tab a drop down list is displayed on which the user can choose the object which he/she wants to set the value.

145 To delete a listing use the delete button on the panel and selecting the object in the drop down list. named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named. The important action defined elements are acl – access control list used as acl “description “ { ip address }. The directory /var/named directory is the zone file directory of the named service.conf file.Important files The named daemon configuration file is /etc/named.// . The lines marked by /* */.txt The path and the description of the files can also be viewed using the utility BIND Configuration GUI. ON the BIND Configuration GUI the DNS server is selected on the list and clicking on the the outside.conf file the syntax of the file can be checked using the command named-checkconf by default it checks the file /etc/named. The pid of the named daemon is stored in the file /var/run/named. The statistics file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/named_stats. The dump file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/cache_dumb. 16.conf.pid.and # are marked as comment lines.4.db. the central directory request may come . The statements in this file are enclosed in braces and are terminated by semicolon.conf for syntax. server – to describe the server logging – logging facility definitions options – various options like view – the value can be inside and outside for a DNS server the from the private network(inside) or from Zone – to describe the zone information After editing the /etc/named.

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properties button displays the location on which the important files are kept and also the description of the files.

Command whois

Description Searches for the availability of the domain name. Format is whois domain-name.

host

It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. Format is

dig

It is used to query the DNS server and display information returned by the DNS server. It is often used to troubleshoot the DNS server.

17.MAIL SERVICES
17.1.Overview

There are three parts of message transfer
z z z

MTA – Mail Transfer Agent MDA – Mail Delivery Agent MUA – Mail User Agent

MTA's are also referred as the mail server. The sendmail and postfix are examples of the mail server.
17.2.Sendmail

To start the sendmail server type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# service sendmail start

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17.2.1./etc/mail The /etc/mail is the core directory of the sendmail. The files which are contained in the directory are /etc/mail are divided into following category 17.2.1.1.configuration file The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc. The file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail, location of the log files and database files. 17.2.1.2.Domain name mapping file The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. 17.2.1.3.Access file The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmail will accept mail for delivery or relay. 17.2.1.4.Virtual server files The file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. 17.2.1.5.Virtual users file The file /etc/mail/virtusertable defines the actions which sendmail should take after receiving mail from the trusted users and hosts. Apart from this files the directory /etc/mail also contains the .db files which are database files corresponding to the files described above for example access.db. 17.2.2.Generating the .db files To generate the .db files use the following approaches /etc/init.d/sendmail reload or

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/etc/init.d/sendmail restart in above case the database files are automatically created as the sendmail is restarted or the configuration files are reloaded when the reload option is used. But this case doesn’t work if user doesn’t want to stop or reload the sendmail server. Then the second approach is used Use the below command sequence to create .db files for all the configuration file cd /etc/mail make all if the user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access.db replace the filename access.db with the .db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.db makes the file virtusertable.db. 17.2.3.Checking Sendmail Server The sendmail server responds to requests on the port 25. To check whether the server is working or not type the command [root@localhost mail]# telnet localhost 25 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. 220 localhost.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8.14.1/8.14.1; Sun, 18 Jan 2009 17:55:26 +0530 ^] user can enter help command to see the sendmail commands he/she can use.

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help 214-2.0.0 This is sendmail 214-2.0.0 Topics: 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA RSET NOOP QUIT HELP VRFY EXPN VERB ETRN DSN STARTTLS AUTH

214-2.0.0 For more info use "HELP <topic>". 17.2.4.Important Files 17.2.4.1./var/spool/mail The directory contains files corresponding to the user names that are using sendmail. These files contain the incoming messages received and processed by the sendmail. 17.2.4.2./var/spool/mail/statistics This file contains the collected statistics about the sendmail. 17.2.4.3./var/spool/mqueue This directory keeps the outgoing messages temporarily .the outgoing messages are kept until they are send. 17.2.4.4.Log files The sendmail log information is maintained in three files /var/log/maillog,/var/log/maillog.1,and /var/log/maillog.2. The log files contain different level of information. The file /var/log/maillog.2 contains the detailed log information. An entry is made for each mail been send by the server or received by the server. 17.2.5.Actions taken by server on a mail There are four actions which the server can take

For example # by default we allow relaying from localhost. The directory /etc/postfix contain the main configuration files and access related files used by the postfix server.3. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected.150 RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail.Postfix RELAY RELAY RELAY It is a mail transfer agent that is mail server.. This options are used to configure the actions of a sendmail server.0.3. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected.1 17.0. but is not referenced in any runlevel (run 'chkconfig --add postfix') [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --add postfix the first command shows that postfix is not in any runlevel. ERROR:user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message.. To enable the postfix server enter the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig postfix on . Connect:localhost.localdomain Connect:localhost Connect:127.Starting postfix server The postfix server is not added in any run level by default (sendmail is generally there).1. 17. So to add the postfix server use the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --list postfix service postfix supports chkconfig. The second command adds the postfix server to run level which the user is currently logged on. The options are used in the /etc/mail/access file.

Mailbox The directory /var/spool/mail contains files corresponding to the user name of each user having access to the postfix mail server.cf.Post install file The file /etc/postfix/post-install is a shell script which performs the post installation configuration of the postfix server.2.4. The files act as mailbox.2. 17.1.3.Daemon Configuration file The file /etc/postfix/master. For example for a user named jack the mailbox will be /var/spool/mail/jack. 17.cf.2.3.2. The incoming mail of the users processed by the postfix server is kept in the file.Script file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-scripts file is a shell script which executes the postfix administrative commands.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server. 17. It defines the hostnames and domain names . 17.3. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main. mailbox.3.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.3.3.postfix queues and locations to be used for logging.3. [ OK ] .3. 17.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process.2.Configuration file The /etc/postfix/main. Access file – the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server.Permissions file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server.default which is exact copy of the main.2.151 to start the postfix server use the below command [root@localhost postfix]# service postfix start Starting postfix: 17.

Log files The log information about the postfix server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog. 17.152 17. ./var/spool/postfix The directory contains a list of directories to temporarily store the mails. The file /var/log/maillog. 17. In the window displayed choose the postfix as the alternate mail server.Switching MTA On a Red Hat Linux box the sendmail and postfix both the servers are installed but the sendmail is used as the default MTA.5.3.3. To switch between the mail services from desktop perform following actions System Tools --> Mail Transport Agent Switcher./var/log/maillog.ls active corrupt deferred hold bounce defer flush maildrop private saved public trace incoming pid In above example the directory /var/spool/postfix contains the sub directories incoming to temporarily store the incoming mails which have not been delivered yet. The postfix server is treated as an alternative service to the sendmail server.1. The directory contain the entry mta-sendmail this makes sendmail as the default mail server.4.2. Bounce to temporarily store the bounced mails.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix server. The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives display the default services configured on the system.4.and /var/log/maillog. The /var/lib/alternatives directory contains file mta which lists other mail servers. [root@localhost mail]# cd /var/spool/postfix. The alternatives services and the default services are defined in the directory /var/lib/alternatives directory and the /etc/alternatives directory.

The mailboxes of sendmail and postfix are one single file so the above protocols are used to access the mails. The user sending mail and receiving mail don’t see any difference as there is change only in the transport agent. [root@localhost alternatives]# service sendmail stop Shutting down sm-client: Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] [ OK ] the default sendmail server s stopped and the below command is used to start the postfix server.5.2. It replaces the sendmail components and uses the postfix components but the location of the mailbox and the log files remain same in both the services.Configuration file The main configuration file for the dovecot service is /etc/dovecot.153 Then use the following commands to stop the sendmail server and start the postfix server.1. [root@localhost alternatives]# service postfix start Starting postfix: [ OK ] The postfix server takes the mail transport agent work in place of sendmail.conf file is # Base directory where to store runtime data.Starting Dovecot To enable the dovecot service use the command chkconfig dovecot on and to start the dovecot service use the command service dovecot start 17. 17.Dovecot The dovecot is used to configure the IMAP and POP3. 17.conf.The sample format of the /etc/dovecot.5.5.IMAP stands for Internet message Access Protocol and POP3 stands for Post Office Protocol. base_dir = /var/run/dovecot/ .

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base_dir option sets the location where dovecot will store the run time data. The base_dir will contain the file master.pid file which contains the PID of the dovecot service. protocols = imap imaps pop3 pop3s protocols option sets the protocols which the dovecot listens. Above example sets the dovecot to listen imap,imaps,pop3 ,and pop3s protocols. # specify different ports for IMAP/POP3. For example: protocol imap { listen = *:10143 ssl_listen = *:10943 .. } the above part sets the port for the imap. Different ports are used for different protocols. # Log file to use for error messages, instead of sending them to syslog .# /dev/stderr can be used to log into stderr. log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log # Log file to use for informational and debug messages. # Default is the same as log_path. info_log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log The log_path and the info_log_path sets the log file paths where the dovecot will log the informational messages and error messages. # Maximum number of running mail processes. When this limit is reached, # new users aren't allowed to log in. max_mail_processes = 1024

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max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously

18.NETWORK SECURITY
18.1.Overview

Network security is becoming a vital and challenging task. If a system is connected with network then the administrator should pay considerable attention to network security.
18.2.The daemon xinetd

The daemon xinetd is started when the system boots and listens on lot of ports corresponding to the services configured in the configuration file of the xinetd daemon /etc/xinetd.conf. The directory /etc/xinetd.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. These services are called on demand services and can be seen using the command [root@localhost xinetd.d]# system-config-services

or by viewing the contents of the directory /etc/xinetd.d [root@localhost ~]# cd /etc/xinetd.d;ls chargen-dgram daytime-dgram discard-stream rsync time-dgram

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chargen-stream daytime-stream echo-dgram tcpmux-server time-stream cvs dgram echo-stream tftp

discard-

Each file correspond to a service which xinetd automatically starts when connection is made to that port. This on demand services should not be accessible by everyone. The access can be made selective by the use of TCP wrappers.
18.3.Using TCP wrappers

The tcpd (tcp wrapper daemon) program can be set up to monitor incoming requests for xinetd services or in other words the services which xinetd supports and also services that have one to one mapping onto executable files. If tcp wrapper is used then if a client makes connection at a port for services like finger,talk,telnet,and rsh ( xinetd service) then at first tcp wrapper daemon determines whether the connection will be allowed or refused. If the connection is allowed then the corresponding service is invoked to listen at the port. The tcpd authenticates the client using the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. 18.3.1./etc/hosts.allow It contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. This file is first scanned by tcpd. 18.3.2./etc/hosts.deny Iit contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts.allow file. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. Format of the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny are same. The keyword ALL is specified for all clients. For example in.telnetd: .example.com fingerd: ALL the connection for the telnet is allowed for clients from domain example.com and connection for the finger is allowed for all the clients.

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The service daemon is listed on the left if two service daemons are to be listed then the daemons are separated by comma (,) character. The semicolon acts as a separator between the daemon names and the address part. If multiple address is to be mentioned then the addresses are separated by comma. The ALL flag enables user to make the files as restrictive as it can be made. This enhances security.
18.4.Security Level Configuration

The Security Level Configuration utility is used to set the security level of the system. To invoke the Security Level Configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-securitylevel

On the Firewall Options tab the user can set the firewall is enabled or disabled. The trusted services are allowed to pass through the firewall. On the other ports the user can add the trusted ports by clicking on the Add button clicking on the Add button displays the below panel

After making the changes click on apply and then OK.158 On the add port panel the user can enter the port and also the protocol (tcp and udp). The user can browse and upload the file containing the user defined rules. This allows user to add more complex rules and also customize the fire- wall. The user can click on the Advanced options tab to add a file containing iptable rules in the iptables save format.after entering the value press ok. .

Configuration files There are two configuration files /etc/sysconfig/iptables and /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config.159 18. 18. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. load additional iptables modules. In above example the modules ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp are loaded. The sample /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config file is IPTABLES_MODULES="ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp" The directive IPTABLES_MODULES defines the modules which are loaded.5.Command Reference Command iptables -A Description To append a security rule in current iptable rule iptables -D iptables -R iptables -I iptables -L Delete a rule Replace a rule Insert a rule List all rules . The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to. default: no # Saves all firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables if firewall gets # restarted. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility. IPTABLES_SAVE_ON_RESTART="no" If the value is yes then the rules are saved to the file /etc/sysconfig/iptables.1.4. # Value: yes|no. # Save current firewall rules on restart.

d is used for configuring PAM. PAM allows four types account.password.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam.d The files in the directory /etc/pam. .0 auth include system-auth system-auth system-auth account include password include the first line is a comment.d are present.path module-argument The type in above case is auth./etc/pam. For example the file passwd in the above directory contains the following line #%PAM-1. PAM is a system of libraries that handle the authentication tasks of applications (services) on the system. 19. The second line contains the rule for the PAM.160 iptables-save Save rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file. The configuration file /etc/pam. The format of the next lines are or rule lines are type control module.PAM PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication module. The contents of the file /etc/pam.1.and session.PAM AND SELINUX 19.2. 19.conf or the files in the directory /etc/pam.authentiction.

so nullok try_first_pass requisite required pam_succeed_if. Contents of file system-auth auth auth auth auth required pam_env. Password – the password type is used to update the user information like changing user password. .161 Account – the account type defines access to a service based on the availability of resource.so sufficient pam_unix.so uid >= 500 quiet pam_deny. Include – this module includes all lines given in the configuration file of a specific type.so in the above file the pam modules are called for verification of a user for the service passwd. let three modules are called and if this module returns false then the resultant will be false but pam will call all the modules which are to be called for the process. Required – means that pam will return failure if this PAM modules returns failure. The valid values for the control are include.and optional. Optional – the success and failure of this module is not important on the overall return value (success or failure) of PAM. authentication(auth) – the authentication type prompts the user for a password and if the user provides it then he/she can access the service. The system-auth is the module path. The configuration file is passwd as an argument. Sufficient – means that PAM returns success if this module returns success and other PAM modules will not be called which are to be called for the process. Session –this type is used to perform the jobs (like logging) before a user access a service or after a user access a service.sufficient. The module is important if it is the only module for the service. time and other parameters.required. The system-auth module resides in the current directory.

The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux. 19. Disable-.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled. It is flexible access control architecture and provides support for the role based access control and multilevel security.2. The contents of the file are (for the above configuration of SELinux administration) warning . 19. To invoke the SELinux administration enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost selinux]# system-config-selinux The user can set the value of SELinux enforcing mode. Three values are allowed enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues instead of enforcement.2.SELinux administration The SELinux administration utility is used to configure the SELinux.1.SELinux SELinux stands for the Security Enhanced Linux.162 The PAM modules reside in the directory /lib/security.

list selinux policy modules. interface and hosts and file context mapping.SELinux is fully disabled.Command Reference Command semanage Description Mapping Linux user names to SELinux user identities.Only targeted network daemons are protected. SELINUXTYPE=targeted 19.SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.Full SELinux protection. Possible values are: # # targeted .SELinux security policy is enforced.163 # This file controls the state of SELinux on the system. . permissive . SELINUX=disabled # SELINUXTYPE= type of policy in use. # SELINUX= can take one of these three values: # # # enforcing . security context mapping for network port. strict . chcat Change file or users SELinux security category chcon Change the security context of each file to context semodule Used to install.remove. disabled .3.

-enforcing b.log Answer – b Explanation -. anaconda b. 2. After an installation a user wants to see the log information of the installation process. grub . 3. Which is default installer of Red Hat Enterprise Linux? a.164 O V E R 2 5 0 E X A M P R E PA R AT I O N Q U E S T I O N S 1. Which line should be added in the Kickstart file to install the bootloader in the Master Boot Record (MBR)? a. /root/install. redhatinstaller d.log is default log file.info d. Which line should he add in the Kickstart file? a. /root/anaconda. set selinux .cfg b. He wants to set the SELinux policy during installation to enforcing. Which command is entered on the anaconda boot prompt to install using the kickstart file located on the website http://kickstart-file/install/linux. grub .-location=mbr c.-location=hd0 d. Which file the user should refer? a.-enforcing c. selinux .log c. selinux = enforce Answer – b 4. selinux . bootloader .com? .cfg is the Kickstart file created after successful installation of Red Hat and /root/install.-location=mbr b. /root/install-log. Grub is the default bootloader for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux and anaconda is default installer.-location=hd0 Answer – a 5. bootloader . /root/anaconda-ks. grub Answer – a Explanation – disk druid is the default partition manager for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux./root/anaconda-ks. disk druid c. A user wants to use Kickstart file for installing Red Hat Linux.-default d.

So it is mandatory to make a / partition. DISK DRUID d. swap Answer -. GRUB b. /. 1 b. 9.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. /usr b.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. LILO c. :anaconda ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux.com d. :boot ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux.com Answer – d Explanation – The anaconda boot prompt is denoted by: boot.165 a.com c. /home d. 8. Which two partitions are necessary for Red Hat Linux installation? a. All other partitions can lie within the / partition. :anaconda ks . ANACONDA Answer – a Explanation – GRUB is the default bootloader of Red Hat Linux. Which of the following is the default Red Hat Linux bootloader? a. 2 c. LILO is also bootloader but nowadays it is not used as default bootloader. How many modes can kudzu operate? a. You want to start the kudzu in safe probe mode. The swap partition is . 4 Answer – 2 Explanation – kudzu can operate in two modes x safe probe mode x no safe probe mode 7. DISK DRUID is the default partition manager in Red Hat Linux. swap c. SAFE=YES c.com b. 6. 3 d. /home.d Explanation – The / filesystem is root of the Linux file system structure. /boot. SAFE=? d. :boot ks . Anything other than no can be used on the left hand side of the assignment. What will you add in the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu? a. Answer – d Explanation – SAFE=no denotes that kudzu starts in no safe probing mode and anything other than no means that it is started in the safe mode. SAFE=no b. /.

You have computer 256 MB RAM .conf. keyboard which are configured for X.conf Answer – c Explanation -. system-config-neat Answer – a. c Explanation – system-config-network and neat both the commands can be used to invoke the Network Configuration utility. What command is used to invoke the Network Configuration utility? a.conf b. 128 MB c. 12. /etc b. /etc/modprobe. mouse. 256 MB b. Which files will kudzu query to find out the devices already configure? a. 13. 512 MB d. /var c.What is the size of swap space for good performance of the system? a./etc/X11/xorg.conf.conf is module configuration file /etc/X11/xorg. neat d. The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf is not present on the system. /etc/modprobe. /etc/modprobe. 10.conf./etc/X11/xorg./etc/modprobe. system-config-net c./etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth0 lists the network device detected if there are more than one network device present then /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth1 lists the second network device detected and so on. 11. 400 MB Answer – c Explanation – For good performance of the system the swap space area should be double of the physical RAM attached with the System. /usr d. /mnt Answer – a .166 also necessary as Linux uses swap partition as extension of main memory. /etc/sysconfig/lasthwconf c./etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* d.conf lists the hardware like monitor. Which filesystem contains the configuration files? a. system-config-network b.

17. b./root/anaconda-ks. Your friend used systemconfig-time for the same purpose.167 14. no file contains that information b.You used system-config-date to set the date of your system. You want to see the options you have chosen during the installation process. You want to upgrade a system using the kickstart file. /boot c. d. 15. /root/anaconda-ks. /sys Answer – c Explanation -. yes both are different Answer – a . /proc d. Answer – b Explanation – install option is used in the first line of kickstart file to show fresh install and upgrade option is used in the first line to show upgrade of a previous installation. Which option will you use in kickstart file? a. update option in line 5 of kickstart file. d. upgrade option in line 5 of kickstart file. /root/anaconda-ks Answer – b Explanation -. You have installed Red Hat Linux in your box. upgrade option in line 1 of kickstart file. /home/anaconda-ks.cfg c. /root b.cfg is the default kickstart file created by anaconda based on the options chosen during installation. c. c. No both are same b. system-config-date is used to set date only. Which file should you look for? a. 16. update option in line 1 of kickstart file. You want to see the information about the processes running on your system.cfg d./proc is pseudo filesystem which contains information about the processes running on the system. Which filesystem will you use to get the information? a. Is there any difference? a. system-config-time is used to set time only.

0) in the grub configuration file? a. timeout=10 secs c. timeout=10 b.6. 0) option is used in case there is another operating system installed along with Red Hat Linux. boot /kernel-2. don’t verify the / partition b.6. Which process has the PID of 1? a.14 d. Don’t mount the partition within braces of rootnoverify option. grub d.14. timeout .6. init b. Don’t verify the first sector of hard disk. kernel /kernel-2. 19. boot /vmlinuz-2. c. main Answer – a . 20.6. d.14 Answer – a 21. Which command will you use in grub configuration file? a. You want to boot the default operating system if user did not make a choice for 10 seconds.-10 Answer – a Explanation – The timeout=10 parameter is allowed in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. For example if windows is installed along with Red Hat then grub should not try to mount the partition on which windows is installed. Answer – b Explanation – The rootnoverify (hd0. You want to boot your Red Hat Linux operating system using kernel2. inittab c.14 b. mount the partition indicated within the rootnoverify option. What is meaning of the option rootnoverify (hd0. You have grub bootloader installed on your system.conf. kernel /vmlinuz-2.14 c. What changes should be made in the grub configuration file? a.6.168 18. timeout=10 s d.

It is a comment b. Answer – a Explanation – The numeric digits i.d d.d/r5. What should you do? a. 23. It cannot be done Answer – a Explanation – The init process looks the /etc/inittab file for the processing to be done. What will happen if runlevel is set to 6? a. and 5 the multiuser mode is active. What is the meaning of this line? a. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –r now in /etc/inittab file b.it is called father of all processes. Can’t be determined. /etc/rc. Since 1 is less than 8 so S111USERDEF is run first.e. 3. . /etc/rc. A runlevel script has the line #chkconfig 345 25 75. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3. Multiuser mode booting b. During boot process kernel gives control to the init process. /etc/rc.169 Explanation – The init process have the PID of 1. 4. At same time d. The system comes to halt Answer –c Explanation – In runlevel 0 the system comes to halt and in runlevel 2. 24.d/rcv. The entry captures the CTRL+ALT+DELETE key sequence and the command shutdown –r now is executed. 25.d/rc5. You want to reboot your system if a user presses CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard during the boot process. Write a shell script for that and keep it in root directory c.4. 5 and the start priority is 25 and the stop priority is 75. A user created two scripts S111USERDEF and S85USERDEP which are executed during boot time.d Answer – a 26.5 c. 22. The system reboots in a loop d. 111 and 85 decide the order of run. Multiuser with networking mode c.d b. /etc/rc. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –h now in /etc/inittab file d. Which of the two services will start first? a.d/rc. S111USERDEF b. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3. Which directories contain the boot time scripts for the run level 5? a. The digits are compared from left to right taking one digit at a time.5d c. S85USERDEP c.

lastrunlevel d. disable a service and lists the status of a service or services. Which command is used to get the previous run level of a system? a. Which command will you use to do so? a. What does it mean? a. 31. c. The output of the runlevel command is N 5. runlevel service-name on b. Answer – d 29. service httpd on Answer – a . service httpd start b. chkconfig service-name on d. chkconfig httpd on d. Which command is used to change the current run level? a. enable service-name c. The line gives an error Answer –c 27.c Explanation – the chkconfig command is used to enable a service. How will the problem resolve? a. The current runlevel of the system is N. 28. The runlevel of the system was never changed from 5 so the previous runlevel is displayed as N. init d. prevrunlevel c.170 d. chkconfig httpd start c. runlevel c. The previous runlevel of the system was 5 d. chkconfig service-name enable Answer -. The httpd service is enabled in the runlevel 5 but it is not running. You want to enable a service service-name for current run level (run level 5). Previous runlevel of the system was N b. runlevel b. prevrun Answer – a Explanation – the runlevel command is used to get the current run level and the previous runlevel of a system. chgrunlevel Answer – a 30. telinit b.

/usr d.d c. 36.d contain symbolic links to the scripts of directory /etc/rc. system-config-services d.d Answer – b Explanation – The directory /etc/rc. Using chkconfig –list c. /proc Answer – d Explanation – The proc filesystem is virtual filesystem (it is not mounted on a disk partition) which contains the process and system information.d contains all the runlevel scripts and the directories /etc/rc.d/init. /etc/rc. Which filesystem is not mounted on disk partition? a. Using chkconfig –all d.d/init. Which file contains the static information about the filesystem? a. Using chkconfig list Answer – b Explanation – the chkconfig –list gives the listing of all the services in different run levels with the status of services as on or off. /etc/ftab . None of these Answer – c 33.d/all. 34. serviceconf. /etc/rc.d/rc. 32. /etc/fstab c. /etc/rc. Which command is used to start the service configuration utility? a.d 35. /home c.171 Explanation – the service httpd needs to be started for that the service httpd start command is used.d/init. Using chkconfig all b. serviceconf b. /etc/rc.d d.d/rc*.d/rcall. /etc/mtab b. Which directory contains the run level scripts of all the runlevel? a.all b. How will you view the status of all the services in all the runlevel? a. /etc b. system-config-services c.

What should he do? a.172 d. mount –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win c. 40. What should he/she do? a. 39. /etc/mstab Answer – b Explanation – The file /etc/fstab contains mount point. A system has windows and Red Hat Linux installed on it. 38. /etc/mstab d. /etc/ftab Answer – b Explanation -. fdisk –m c. A user wants don’t want to mount the /home partition automatically at boot time. fdisk –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win d. mount –t d. and other options. mount vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win b. mount Answer – d Explanation – fdisk command is used for creating new partition and view all the partitions of the hard disk. /etc/fstab b. Which command is used to see the listing of filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. 37./etc/mtab contains the information about the filesystem currently used by a running system. mount –t vfat /mnt/win /dev/sda6 Answer – b Explanation – The mount command has the form mount –t filesystem-type source partition target partition . Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab b. If noauto option is used the filesystem is not automatically mounted. The user wants to access files kept in the /dev/sda6 partition with the vfat filesystem type. /etc/mtab c. fdisk -l b. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab c. filesystem type. Which filesystem contains the information about the filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/mstab Answer –a Explanation – At boot time the /etc/fstab file is scanned for information about the filesystem to be mounted. Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/mtab d.

42. Both of above d. 2GB d. /etc/mkfs/mke2fs.vfat /dev/cdrom c. 44. cat /proc/swaps b. So the size of the file is 1000000 * 2 = 2 MB. mkfs. /etc/mke2fs. A file is created using the below command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/demo bs=1000000 count=2. None of above Answer – c Explanation – The mkfs –t vfat is frontend of the command mkfs.conf b. cat /proc/swap d.How will you decide which swap partition is active? a. None of above Answer – a Explanation -. fdisk –l c.173 to mount a source filesystem on target directory. None of above Answer – b 43.What is the size of the file /home/demo? a.conf d. mkfs c.conf c. Which command is used to create vfat filesystem on a re writable CDROM? a. The command is wrong Answer – b Explanation – The bs option denotes the blocksize and count denotes the number of that. /etc/ext3. mkfs -t vfat /dev/cdrom b. Which command is used to create a swap filesystem on a device or file? a. 41. 2MB c. Your system has a swap partition on /dev/sda3 and another swap partition on /dev/sda5. Which configuration file is used while creating ext3 filesystem on a partition using the mke2fs command? a. 20MB b. mkswap d. swapon Answer – c 45. createswap b.vfat./proc/swaps contain the entries .

master d.conf b. /etc/init. mdadm .-status Answer –b Explanation -.d/autofs .d/autofs status c.-create /dev/md0 . Which command is used to check a device for badblocks? a.-level=5 . How will you check the status of the automount daemon? a. badblocks Answer – d 47. mdadm .-create /dev/md0 ./etc/rc. /etc/autofs.conf c. The contents of the file can be viewed using cat command. Which command is used to create a raid device of level 5 using devices /dev/sda1.d/init.master Answer –c 50. /etc/auto.-raid devices= /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 d.174 of the entire active swap space of the system. /etc/rc. /etc/rc. 46. chkfs d.d/automount status d. 48. No problem b.-create /dev/md1 .d/init. What will be the problem? a.d/autofs status b.d/init.-create /dev/md0 . mdadm .d/init. -w is invalid option to badblocks command Answer – b Explanation – The data is not deleted if the badblocks command is used without option or with –n option. Which configuration file does /etc/rc. mkfs c. Data on device will not be erased d.-level= should be used. 49. /etc/auto. Data on the device will be erased c.-level=5 . mdadm .-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 c.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 b. In the third option .d/autofs controls the operation of the automount daemon.-level=5 devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 Answer – a Explanation – In second option .d/init. fsck b. /etc/autofs.d/autofs use? a. /dev/sda2? a. /etc/rc.-raid .-level 5 . A user ran command badblocks -w on a device containing important data files.

System-config-lv b. No directory has the entry b.175 devices=n where n is no of devices is missing. Which command is used to create volume group? a. Both of them Answer – d Explanation –Physical volume is to be initialized first and then the volume group is to be created before creating Logical volume. There is no such utility Answer – b 55. Which command is used to invoke the Logical Volume Management utility? a. A raid device contains four devices.-raid is missing from . Which file and directory yum does look for information about the software . mdadm device-name –r raid-device-name c.-raid devices. 51. mdadm –r raid-device-name device-name d. /sys/vol_grp Answer – b Explanation – The directory /dev/vol_grp contains lvol0 entry corresponding to the logical volume lvol0. mdadm –r device-name raid-device-name Answer – a 52. pvcreate Answer – a Explanation – vgcreate is used to create a new volume group and vgextend is used to extend an existing volume group. System-config-logman d. volgrpcr d. 54. Which of the following should be created first before creating the Logical volume? a. vgextend c. Volume group c. Which directory contains entry for the logical volume group lvol0 created by a user in the volume group vol_grp? a. mdadm raid-device-name –r device-name b. 56. How will you remove one of the devices from the raid device? a. /home/vol_grp d. None of them d. /dev/vol_grp c. System-config-lvm c. Physical volume b. 53. In fourth option . vgcreate b.

conf. How can user decide whether the install was successful or failure? a. Yellow dog updater modified b. Yellow umbrella c. The status of yum commands execution will be logged there. The install completed before his return. global b.log.176 repositories? a.conf. What is full form of yum? a. The configuration file . Looking at /etc/yum. If the gpgkey option is 1 then the packages are checked for the gpgkeys before installing or updating the packages. Looking at /etc/yum. A user ran yum command to install a package. None of them Answer – c Explanation – it looks for the configuration file /etc/yum. User can use the file to decide the install was successful or failure.conf. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install or update b. User. User.d directory d.conf b.log Answer – d Explanation – The log file of the yum command is /var/log/yum. /etc/yum. What are the levels of rpm configuration file? a.conf file c.system. /etc/yum. Sytem.conf file? a. What is the importance of option gpgcheck=1 in /etc/yum. The gpgkeys of packages are not checked before install or update c.conf and then looks for the files in the directory /etc/yum.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user .global c. User.global d. Looking at /var/log/yum. system Answer – b Explanation – The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install only d. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before update only Answer – a Explanation – Usually the gpgkeys are installed before adding any software repository. Yellow software updater modified Answer – a 58. Then he went for a cup of coffee. Both of them d. He can’t decide b. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system. 59.d c.d 57. Yellow updater modified d. 60.

yum install package-name . No use rpm -v b. Which is a valid rpm command? a. and e. How will you check vendor’s statement? a. rpm –F installs a package if it is not installed previously c. b. 64. The options i. /var/lib/rpm/* b.rpm has been installed in your machine. Yes c.e. 65. 63. rpm –U installs a package if it is not installed previously b. /var/log/rpm/* c. /var/lib/rpm/db/* d. 61. F are mutually exclusive. rpm –q package-name d. rpm –Ueh c. Using system monitor c. rpm –ieh b. No use rpm-q d.177 level rpm configuration file. /var/lib/rpmdb/* Answer – a Explanation – The rpm command uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information. Is the command correct? a. None of the above Answer – a Explanation – The command rpm –U updates a previously installed package but installs a new package and the command rpm –F updates a previously installed package but does not installs a new package. 62. A user used the command rpm –U package-name to install the package packagename which is not previously installed on the system. Your software vendor informed you that package-name. No it is used for update only Answer –b Explanation – The command rpm –U is used to upgrade a previously installed package and if the package is not installed in the system then it installs the package. U and e. Where does the rpm package information kept? a. What is the difference between rpm –U and rpm –F commands? a. Both command do same function d. There is no way to check vendor’s statement. rpm –iF Answer – c Explanation – the options -v (verbose information).-vv (verbose lots of information) and h (prints hash marks are rpm options which can be used with other options. rpm –ivvh d.

system-config-manages Answer – c . xvfz uncompress a . Which command is used to invoke a Package Manager? a.yum install is used to install the package packagename.tar file but xvf uncompress a . Package Admin d.gz file but xvf uncompress a . system-config-package b. bzip2 –d uncompress a tar. xvfz compresses a .tar format and then the command tar xvf is used to uncompress the tar file.178 Answer – c Explanation – rpm –q package-name queries the rpm package database and finds out information about the package-name.tar file c. Package manager b. Package management c. Using bzip2 followed by tar xvf Answer – b Explanation – gunzip uncompressed the tar. system-config-manage c. Using tar xvf followed by gunzip d. Package manage Answer – a 70. Using gunzip followed by tar xvf c. Answer – a Explanation – bzip2 command is used to create and decompress a bz2 file. 66.bz2 file.bz2 file and –d option is used to uncompress a . bzip2 –d creates a tar. bzip2 is used to uncompress .bzip2 –c is used to create .tar. xvfz is verbose mode of command xvf Answer – c 68. No difference b.bz2 file b.gz format. bzip2 is used to compress a file to .gz file into .system monitor is used to view system information. How will you uncompress the file? a. Using tar xvf b. Which utility is used to manage packages on a Red Hat box? a. You have downloaded a package in tar.zip file d.bz2 file c. 69. What does command bzip2 does? a. 67. system-config-packages d.tar file d.zip format. What is the difference between the commands tar xvf and tar xvfz? a.

bashrc file in home directory of user b. Which file does define the default values to be used while creating the user account? a. MAIL_CONFIG=/var/temp Answer – a Explanation – The line MAIL_DIR is used to denote the directory where mailbox of a user will reside. Creating a . /etc/bashrc Answer – d 72. Which file does contain global options to the bash shell? a. /etc/user. Creating a . MAIL_JOHN=/var/temp d. What action should be taken by him? a.defs c. 73.What line will you add in the file /etc/login.defs? a. A user Matt have a user id of 400. A user wants to override the default values used for bash shell.conf c. You want to create a user account john. /etc/skel b. 74. /etc/initial Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/userdefs d. /etc/bash b.defs b./etc/skel directory contains the initial login and a startup scripts. The default values can be overridden on the command line. /etc/bash.bashrc file in home directory of user Answer – a Explanation – The . Creating a .bash file in home directory of user c. The mail box of john should lie in the directory /var/temp.defs c.conf d. /etc/login d. /etc/login.bashrc file in the home directory of the user is used to override the default values used for bash shell. MAIL_BOX=/var/temp c.179 71. /etc/bashrc. 75. /etc/login.What is the significance of it? . 76. MAIL_DIR=/var/temp b. d. Which directory contains the initial login and startup scripts? a.The content of /etc/skel is copied to the home directory of user when the user account is created. /etc/login. Editing the /etc/bashrc file.conf Answer – b Explanation – The file contains the default values to be used while creating a user account.

usermod –s /bin/bash c. User Manger b. userdel –r user1 c. 80. He wants the bash shell. /etc/pass c. 79. 78.What should be his approach? a. User Admin d. usermod –D –s /bin/bash Answer – a Explanation – usermod command is used to modify the user information. usermod –s /bin/bash new-user b. User Administrator c. Matt is an administrative user. /etc/passwd b. If the –r option is not used then the home directory of the user is not deleted. and modify user and group information. delete. 81. System Administrator wants to delete the account of user user1 along with the home directory of the user user1. Matt is a non administrative user. The file/etc/passwd contains information about the user but at the place of passwd x character is written. So matt is an administrative user. Answer – c Explanation – User id less than 500 are reserved for the administrative users. A user cannot have user id 400 c. 77. d. Which file does contain the password of user? a. None of these Answer – d Explanation – The file /etc/shadow contains the user login name and encrypted password. userdel user1 b. What command will the system administrator execute? a. /etc/password d.180 a. A new user is working on the /bin/tcsh shell. userdel –h /home/user1 user1 d. Which graphical utility is used to manage users? a. User id 400 is of root user b. userdel –r /home/user1 user1 Answer – b Explanation – The command userdel –r user1 is used to delete the account of a user along with his/her home directory. useradd –D –s /bin/bash new-user d. User Configuration Answer – a Explanation –User Manager is used to create. Which command is used to invoke user Manager Utility? .

A user wants to list the space used up by files and subdirectories of his home directory. Which command is used to change the password of the root user? a. It means the password of user user-name is to be changed.The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem. grppasswd c. 85. The system administrator wants to see the disk space used up by user Jack. system-config-usr c. Ask the system administrator c. What should he do? a. df /home/jack c. gpassword Answer – c 86. grpasswd b. space /home/jack d. What sh0uld he do? a. df /home/user Answer – c Explanation – The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a . 83. /etc/gpasswd b. Which command is used to change password of a group? a. passwd root b. /etc/group d. /etc/passwd c. df /home Answer – b Explanation -. system-config-users d. system-config-user b. Ask jack about the disk space usage b. su root d. gpasswd d. system-config-usrs Answer – c 82. du /home/user d. Check each file size and subdirectory size b. passwd Answer – d Explanation – The format of passwd command id passwd user-name. Which file does contain the information about the groups in a system? a.181 a. su – c. /etc/groups Answer – d 84. If the command passwd is used alone it means the password of root user is to be changed.

What will happen ? a. A root user used the command su – user-name where user-name is a non administrative user. A user entered the command chown : file-name. Yes he will have to use visudo shutdown –h now Answer – c Explanation – The commands should be prefixed by the sudo command. No he can’t use the command directly c. No the shell will prompt for password of user-name but root can choose not to enter the password c. Using vi c. He then opened a new terminal and ran command to mount a filesystem.chown owner: group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner. 90. The group of the file will change to that of group’s Answer – a Explanation -. How will you edit /etc/sudoers file? a. Yes he will have to use sudo shutdown –h now d. Using geditsudo Answer – c Explanation – the visudo command is used to edit the /etc/sudoers file. A user Vishnu is member of group demo. 91. Yes he can use shutdown –h now b. Will the command execute successfully? a.182 directory 87. The user of the file will change to that of user’s d. The user and group of the file will change to that of user’s c. Does Vishnu have privilege to run the command shutdown –h now? a. If root don’t enter user-name’s password then he won’t be able to execute user-name’s files d. A user ran su – command in a terminal (terminal1) and got privilege of root user.Will root has to enter the user’s password? a. Yes c. . No shell won’t prompt for user-name’s password Answer – d 89. Answer – d 88. Using gedit b. Nothing b. No as it is different terminal session he won’t have root privilege in this session. Using visudo d. Yes root user will have to enter user’s password b. Yes he has to enter the root password d. No su – command don’t give root privilege b. The group demo is defined with the privilege of command shutdown –h now in /etc/sudoers file.

. None of these Answer – a Explanation – The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them. A user issues the chown user-name-group-name file-name command on a file filename which belongs to the root user. Gives an error c. The group of the file will change d. all processes in current process are signaled. Process with pid 0 is re signaled d. W b. b. 94. Frees RAM memory b. A user issues a command kill 0. 93. He gets an error b. gives the amount of free and used memory of a filesystem Answer – c 96. Vmstat c. Which command shows the virtual memory statistics of a system? a. The owner of the file will change c. All d.What will be the impact of the command? a. Iostat b. gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system d. What will happen? a. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens.The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics 95. Frees swap memory c. 92. Nothing happens Answer – a Explanation – The user don’t have privilege to change the file permissions of root user so he gets an error. Users c. Which command will help the system administrator? a. What does free command do? a. All process with pid >0 are re signaled. System administrator wants to see the users currently logged into the system and the processes run by them. All of these Answer – b Explanation -.183 Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. Virtual d. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system.

184 Answer – d 97. memory and swap information. 98. A process pid can be set to 0 using renice command Answer – a Explanation – The lowest pid that a process can have is 1 which is pid of init process ( init is called father of all processes). Log Manager b. May a process have pid of 0? a. System Administration d. number of users currently logged on b.The top command gives various information about the system number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes. System Log Viewer d. No process can have pid of 0 b. no of processes sleeping.no other process can have pid of 1 or lower than that. Log Configuration Answer – c 99. load average of the system c. network usage information Answer – d Explanation -. Boot process have pid of 0 d. percent CPU usage. the command used for invoking the process. /proc/uptime b. no of processes active. System Log Manager c. Yes init process have pid of 0 c. System Information c. Which of the following information does top command not give? a. /proc/sys/uptime c. no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number). no of zombie processes d. System Monitor b. no of processes active. Which utility is used to view various system information like CPU usage. . 101. Which file does the command uptime use to present the output? a. network information. /sys/uptime d. process information? a. SystemManager Answer – a 100. no of processes sleeping. % memory usage. Which utility is used to see system log information? a. total number of processes. It don’t use any file Answer – a Explanation – The uptime command uses the file /proc/uptime for the information and formats them in user readable format.

6. file name should be given from sysin d. /proc/modules c. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name . modinfo modulename b.uname -a prints all the information about the system. 103.The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel.14 c. It is a signal used with kill command generally b. uname -k Answer – c Explanation -. For example kill –SIGKILL 5009 command gives the signal SIGKILL to process with pid 5009. Both of them Answer – a Explanation – The SIGKILL is used to signal a process. uname -p d.185 102. 106. what should he do? a. Which file contains the list of currently loaded modules in the kernel? a. lsmod modulename d. 104. A user issues command insmod -. uname -r b. /proc/module b. modprobe modulename Answer – a Explanation –modinfo gives the details of a module loaded into the kernel. A user wants to see the filename of a module currently loaded into the kernel. no such file is there Answer – b Explanation – The lsmod command is also used to list the modules currently loaded into kernel. 105.the command uname is used to print various system information. It is a command c. infomod modulename c. None of above d. lists all the modules of kernel2. uname -n c. Error will occur b. What is SIGKILL? a.What will happen? a. none of the above Answer –c Explanation -. Which command is used to print the processor type of a system? a. /proc/mod d. The file /proc/modules also contain the same information.

Which configuration file and directory does modprobe command refer? a. The command renice 5 -u Jack is issued.insmod loads only the module mentioned on the command line. which command should be used to load the module A into kernel? a. 110.If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes . The module A is dependent on module B. none of them c. Modprobe -a b.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe. priority 5 not allowed Answer – b Explanation -. renice c.d d. no change in priority d. modinfo Answer – b Explanation -. What command does administrator use? a. rmmod d.d.186 if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. both of them Answer – d Explanation – modprobe looks for the configuration file /etc/modprobe.conf b. 107. priority d. /etc/modprobe. insmod b. What will happen? a. process priority of all processes belonging to user is changed to 5 c. /etc/modprobe.The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command. nice b. Error occurs no pid mentioned b. Which command is used to remove a module from the kernel? a. 108. modprobe -d Answer – c 109. modprobe -b c. modprobe c. On business requirement your client wants to run the process A (already running on the system) with increased priority. schedule Answer – b 111. modprobe -r d.

It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog. error d. /etc/sysconfig/syslog. Which configuration file does syslogd use? a. /var/run/klogd Answer –a 117.pid b. /var/run/klogd.conf Answer – d Explanation – syslogd supports the system logging. /etc/syslog d. Which file should he/she edit? a. help options displayed for dmesg Answer – a Explanation – dmesg when used with the -c option clears the kernel ring buffer. so dmesg command prints no output. Which file does contain the pid of klogd daemon? a. /etc/syslog. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b.conf c.conf. /etc/syslog.log c. .187 112.allow a. /var/log/cron b. A user issues two commands back to back dmesg -c dmesg What will be the output of second command? a. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written. 113. none of the above Answer – a 114. No output b. /var/klogd. /var/log/cron/cron.conf c. In which file is cron utility log the messages? a. System administrator wants to allow the user Mac to access the at facility.log d.conf Answer --d 115. A user wants to log the boot messages in the file /var/log/boot. kernel messages displayed c. /etc/sysconfig/syslog. 116. /var/run/klog.pid d. What system administrator does? Add name on mac in /etc/at.pid c. /etc/syslog d. /var/log/cron.

In which directory the jobs scheduled by the batch command spooled? a. jack e.spool Answer – a Explanation -.deny are not present. /var/spool/at b. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled. none of them c. /var/spool/at. Which users can use the at facility? a. Add name on mac in /etc/at c. atq Answer – c Explanation -. 122. only root user d.allow? a.allow and /etc/at. /var/spool/batch c. 121. If the /etc/at. error condition Answer – c 120.The file /etc/at.deny d. 118. Same as at -l. don't add name on mac in /etc/at.The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at.The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespaces between the username (on a line). /var/spool/batch. Which command is used to create a crontab file? . Jack.jill d.spool d.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. what will be content of file /etc/at. jack:jill c. 119.188 b.atq the atq command is used to list the scheduled job. at -l b. no user of the system c. System administrator allows users Jack and Jill to use at facility.jill b. All the users of system b. On a system the files /etc/at.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command. jack. Which command is used to list all the scheduled jobs? a. jill Answer – d Explanation -. both of them d. any of the above Answer – a Explanation -.

Which file does contain the pid of the httpd daemon? a. crontab -l b. Which file is system crontab file? a.conf. /var/run/httpd.conf Answer – c Explanation -.The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file.the file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file. /lib/httpd/modules d. /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf b. Which command is used to start the Apache web server? a. 124. /etc/httpd/conf c. /etc/httpd/conf. 123. Which file does contain the configuration information about the httpd server? a. . The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory.189 a. /etc/httpd. service httpd on d. The name of the file is same as the name of the user. service httpd start c.pid c.d Answer – c Explanation -.conf d. service http start b. /lib/httpd/module Answer – b 127.The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd. service http on Answer – b 125. /usr/lib/httpd/modules b.pid b. /var/run/http d. /var/run/httpd Answer – b 126. crontab -k Answer – b Explanation -. Which directory contains the library modules for the httpd server? a. /var/run/http. /etc/cron c. crontab -e c. /usr/lib/httpd/module c. The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file. /etc/crontab b. The conf sub directory of /etc/httpd directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd. /etc/cron. none of the above d. crontab -d d.

Settings for virtual hosts. The conf. b. Configuration parameters for the main server c. Where the users need to put the html files to be served by the server in response of client request? . In the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole. ServerRoot is not a directive. system-config-httpconf Answer – a 133. HTTPD Server Configuration b. d. and PHP). error. What are the sections of Apache web server main configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.190 128.d contains the configuration files relating to the languages (like Python. and log files are kept 129. The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration. system-config-httpd b. HTTP Configuration d. Which is the graphical utility for httpd server configuration? a. What will be the impact? a. What is the content of /etc/httpd/conf. nothing d. error. HTTP Server Configuration c. The DocumentRoot directive of main apache web server configuration file is set to “/home/demo”. database (Mysql) and the authorization modules. Error value c.conf? a. All of the above Answer –d 131. system-config-https d. no changes d.conf file the user set the directive ServerRoot “/etc/demo”. Answer – d 130. Which command invokes the HTTP Server Configuration utility? a. system-config-http c.d directory? a. load libraries related to Apache server c. b. Answer – a Explanation – ServerRoot directive defines The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration. and log files are kept will be /etc/demo. Configuration file related to Apache client b. HTTPD Configuration Answer – b 132. Perl.

conf d. /etc/squid/squidd. 137.191 a. alert. /var/log/apache c. none of them d. /var/www/html c.html file and kept it in this directory and opened the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index. Warn b. What are the possible values of LogLevel directive in Apache web server main configuration file? a.dns c.dnssrv b.squid consists of a main server program squid. squid. Which is the main configuration file for squid server? a. none of them Answer – a Explanation – DocumentRoot defines the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server. squid.debug info. /var/log/http d. squid. For example if you create an index.conf Answer – c 138. /etc/squid/sqd. both of them d.squiddemo Answer – c Explanation -. squid.conf b. On which port does squid listen by default for http? . What are the two main programs consisting Squid server? a. debug c.html file will be displayed. error. Which directory does contain the log information about the httpd server? a. /etc/squid. notice. 135. and emerg are possible value of LogLevel directive.log Answer --a 136. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks. /home/demo b. /var/log/httpd.dsnserver d. /etc/squid/squid. warn. 134. /var/log/httpd b. crit.conf c.

none of them d. What are hot objects in connection with squid server? a. http_port 4000 Answer – d Explanation -. An administrator wants to change the default http port that squid listen to 4000. httpport 4000 d. 3120 Answer – a 139. 3128 b.conf .conf c.http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client 140. hostname with port c. RAM_mem of /etc/squid/squid. 141. 413 d. hostname with port. 80 c. In what forms does http_port socket address be defined in the squid server main configuration file? a. Objects used often b. objects used very often Answer –d 143.What should he/she do in main squid configuration file? a. objects very complex c.192 a. cache_mem of /etc/squid/squid. ram_mem of /etc/squid/squid. What do you mean by in transit objects in terms of squid server? a.The socket address can be defined in three forms: port alone. objects never used c. and IP address with port. port 4000 c. Port alone b. Objects in use b. How will you set the RAM memory used to handle the in transit and hot objects of squid server? a.conf b. objects that are in use Answer –d 142. objects not in use d. objects which moved out d. httpd_port 4000 b. all of them Answer – d Explanation -.

144. /var/spool/cache d. allow is invalid d. yes it can be d. hot objects (objects that are used often).0 of main squid server configuration file? a. /var/run/squidd. gives name all to all the addresses b. no http_access is not allowed Answer – c . An administrator writes the below line in main squid server http_access allow 192.168. gives name src to all the addresses Answer – a Explanation -.pid d. /var/run/squid c. No all not allowed b.0.The acl tag is used to define access control.pid b. b. what does it refer? a. Wrong format c.56.56. Can the line http_access deny all be added in the /etc/squid/squid.0.193 d. 148. /var/spool/squid/cache b.168.65.pid Answer – a 146.0. /var/spool/squid c. /var/run/squid/squid.conf Answer – a Explanation – cache_mem sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use). 192.0.0/0. /var/spool/squid/cachedir Answer – b 145. What is the meaning of the line acl all src 0. Which file does contain the pid of the squid server? a. and negative cache objects (recent failed requests). ip address should be with netmask Answer – a Explanation – http_access define which clients can access the squid server for http contents. gives name all to no address c.conf file? a. gives name acl to all the addresses d. no deny is not allowed c. mem_ram of /etc/squid/squid. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file 147. Which is the default cache directory for the squid server? a. /var/run/squid.65 can access the http content.

/etc/squid/cache. /etc/squid/cachemanager. squiduser d.cgi.conf c. root c. Using system-config-cache d. 154. The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs. Which is the configuration file for the cache manager? a. using http://server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr. What does the line SQUID_OPTS="-D" in the squid daemon configuration file mean? Squid can be started without having internet connection load default values from configuration file a. 153. /etc/sysconfig/squid Answer – d Explanation -. Which is the configuration file for the squid daemon? a. /etc/squid/squid.conf d.conf b. /etc/cachemgr. How is the cache manager invoked? a. What is cache manager? a. /etc/sysconfig/squid. . /etc/sysconfig/squid.194 Explanation – line means the http content is denied for all the clients. Used to see amount of cache space used by a process c. b. it is daemon process name of squid server./etc/sysconfig/squid is configuration file for squid daemon and /etc/squid/squid. Answer – a 151. 149. Cache-manager command b.conf is configuration file for squid server.d/squid. b.conf c. Squid b. c.conf Answer – c 152.conf d. all of the above Answer – b Explanation -.The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://servername/cgi-bin/cachemgr. /etc/squid/cachemgr.cgi. all of them Answer – a 150.conf b. nothing d. Under which user does squid server run? a.

service nfs start c. service nfsd on Answer – b 158. use SELinux d. Service nfsd start b. 160. service nfd start d. use PAM c.d/squid restart d. Which command is used to restart the squid daemon? a.The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group. The nis group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the nis group name. An administrator wants to add host1 and host2 in /etc/exports file corresponding to . all of above Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/init. none of above Answer – d Explanation -. Which command does make squid to reread the configuration file? a.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used. use #NISGRP Answer – c Explanation -. use NISGRP c. Which command is used to start the NFS services? a.the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. An administrator wants to add a NIS group NISGRP in /etc/exports file? Which of the following is true? a. 159. squid reconfigure d. Not possible b. service sqd restart c. Invalid option b. runs squid in safe mode d. Service squidd restart b. squid -k configure c. squid -k reconfigure b. What does the option secure mean in case of /etc/exports file? a. squid configure Answer – a 156. service squid reload Answer – c 157.-D option disables initial dns checks so squid can be started without having internet connection 155. use @NISGRP d.195 c.

Exports b. Which graphical utility is used to create the /etc/exports file? a. host1 host2 d. The combination of ip address and hostname can also be used. exportfs c. export d. all of above Answer – c Explanation -. Maps root user to client to user jack's account b. NFS Server Administration Answer – b . NFS Configuration b. maps client root user to NFS server root user d. 163. myhost.com b.com entry in the file /etc/exports. The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid.example. A system administrator has made *. host1:host2 c.example. Host1. New. Which of the following is valid entry? a.example. What is meaning of option root_squash in the file /etc/exports? a. Which of the below address match the entry? a.196 the directory /home/user. 161.Multiple hostnames or Ip address can be entered separated by blank. both of above d. none of above Answer – b Explanation -.maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid. maps the root user of client to anonymous user Answer – d Explanation -.The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service.myhost. 164.host2 b. Which command is used to export all directories listed in the file /etc/exports? a. NFS Server Configuration c. exportsf Answer – b Explanation -.myhost (means new belonging to domain myhost) 162.com c.* character matches any number of characters in a domain name that is * matches for myhost (of option b) but not of option a as in option a there was new. NFS Server Manager d. don't allow client root user to login c.

Which command is used to invoke the Samba Server Configuration utility? System-config-samba system-config-smb system-config-sambad a. the directory is unmounted c. /var/log/nfs/nfs. Which utility is used to configure samba server? a. Smaba configuration Answer – b 170.The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory. /var/spool/nfs d. both of them d. nfstat Answer – a Explanation -. 169. Which directory does contain information about the exported directory using the NFS? a. b. no operation is done d. Smaba Server configuration b. System-config-nfsd b.197 165.The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity 168. etab. nfs d. none of them Answer – b 166. Which command is used to display server side NFS information? a. /var/log/nfs c. /var/lib/nfs b. system should be rebooted Answer – a Explanation – before accessing a NFS directory the directory should be mounted using mount command or using autofs 167. and rmtab files which contain the information about the exported files. . What operation is performed before user accesses a NFS directory? a. The directory is mounted b. nfsstat -c c. c. nfsstat -s b. Samba configuration d. system-config-nfs c. Which command is used to invoke the NFS server configuration utility? a. Samba Server configuration c.log Answer – a Explanation -. The files xtab.

service sambad start Answer – c 175. smbclient -L d. jack:jack Answer – a Explanation -.conf c. service smb start d. . An administrator wants to add a user Jack as samba user. smb status c. Which file does contain the name of the all samba users? a.conf b. /etc/samba/smbusrs d.198 d. /etc/smb. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu the left hand side denotes the Unix user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name. jack=jack b. Which command is used to start the samba server? a.The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users. service samba start c. The Unix username and windows user name of Jack are same (it is Jack). Which command is used to view the samba server status information? a. user=jack c. /etc/samba/samba. /etc/smbusers c. user:jack d.conf d. none of them Answer – c Explanation – the command is used to check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be.what should be the format of entry in samba user file? a. /etc/samba/smb.conf Answer – c 172. /etc/samba. Which of the following is main configuration file of samba server? a. smbstatus b. /etc/samba/smbusers b. system-config-smbd Answer – a 171. /etc/samba/sambausers Answer – a 173. 174. Service smbd start b.

no users c. Which users are allowed to login into ftp? a. a. users in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list d.conf Answer – d 178. c.conf d. service vsftpd start d. service ftpd start c. local_enable=YES Answer – d Explanation -. jack Answer – d Explanation – the users should be listed one in a line. In the main configuration file of ftp server the directive userlist_enable=NO is used. local_usr=YES d. /etc/vsftpd/vsftp. b. which of the following lines is to be added in the ftp server configuration file? a.conf c. service vftpd start Answer – c 177. /etc/ftpd/vsftpd. All users b. Service ftp start b. Which command is used to start the ftp server? a. An administrator wants to list the names of two users John and Jack in /etc/vsftpd/user_list file. An administrator wants the local users to use the ftp service.The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO.199 176. 180. users not in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list Answer – c Explanation -. local_user=YES b. d. /etc/ftp/vsftpd.local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server.jack john:jack john . Which of the following is valid entry? John. jack john. local_users=YES c. Which is the main configuration file for the vsftpd server? a. /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. 179.conf b.

sftp c. system-config-ftp c.200 181. system-config-vsftpd Answer –d 186. Which command is used to invoke the Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility? a.conf d. vsftp b. none of them Answer – d Explanation --The file /var/log/vsftpd. paste Answer – a 183. What is the significance of the sizelimit option in the main configuration file of . 182.conf b.conf c. VSFTP daemon Configuration d. copy d.a 185. /etc/ldap/openldap. /etc/openldap/ldap. Which graphical utility is used to configure the ftp server? a. /etc/openldap/openldap. put c.conf Answer – a 187. both of them d.log b. Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration b. Which files contain the logging information about the ftp server? a. system-config-ftpd d. ftpd Answer –c 184. ftp d. A user wants to copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system. Get b. Which is the main configuration file for the LDAP server? a. /etc/ldap/ldap. VSFTPD Configuration Answer -. Very Secure FTP Configuration c. Which command invokes the ftp command prompt? a. Which ftp command should he/she use? a. /var/log/vsftp.log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server. /var/log/xferlogd c. System-config-vsftp b.

nothing is to be done c. What should be file extension? a. Add the schema in /etc/openldap/ldap.conf using the include directive.201 ldap? a.TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request.LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) 190. use c. A user makes changes in the file /etc/openldap/ldap. Minimum time taken by ldap to answer a search request c. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search. The timelimit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request. He/she wants to check .conf b. ldfa Answer – b Explanation -. specifies the limit of results returned Answer – d Explanation -. Memory size limit b. What is the significance of the timelimit option in the main configuration file of ldap? a. 188. Before using a schema to create ldap directory information what a user should do? a. the number of records in ldap c. ad schema in /etc/openldap/openldap. A user created a file which contains the directories of information he/she wants to add into an ldap server. Maximum time taken by ldap to add a entry d. make the schema file Answer – a Explanation -. 191. Which directive is used to include a schema in the file /etc/openldap/ldap. number of concurrent processes d. Ldap b. include d. ldif c. ldaf d.conf. make Answer – c 192.SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched.conf? a. Copy b.conf d. none of above Answer – a Explanation -. 189. Maximum time taken by ldap to answer a search request b.To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.

all of these Answer – d Explanation -. domainname b.conf d. ypdomainname d. yes using ldap -t d. /etc/openldap/ldap/schema/ b. /etc/nis/yp. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. /etc/nis. 193. ldap -s c. /etc/openldap/schemaldap Answer – c 195.conf Answer – d 197. Which directory does contain the default ldap schema file? a.conf c. ldapsrch Answer – c Explanation -. /etc/yp. 194. which command is used to set the nis domain name of a system? a. /etc/yp/yp.Ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters. Can he/she do this? a. Which command is used to start the NIS server? service ypserver start service yp start a. Which command is used to search for an entry in the ldap directory? a. nisdomainname c.The command domainname.conf file for the syntax change. No he can't do this using any command b. yes using slapd -t c. ldap b. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned. and ypdomainname is used to set the NIS domain name of the system 196. /etc/openldap/schema/ d.conf b.The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap. /etc/ldap/schema/ c. yes using ldcheck Answer – b Explanation -. or nisdomainname. b.conf.202 whether he/she made any syntax error. . ldapsearch d. Which is the main configuration file for NIS server? a.

the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server.conf? a. None b. /etc/nisswitch. /etc/nwitch. service ypd start Answer – c 198. Make in /var/yp directory Answer – b Explanation -. Makefile in /var/nis directory d.the NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is . Which file contains the name of the files being shared by the NIS server? a. Which file does contain the entry for the client computers with access to NIS server? a. deny (denying access) 202. /etc/nsswitch. service ypserv start d.The /etc/nsswitch.conf c.The client’s computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file.conf Answer – a Explanation -. yp b. Makefile in /var/yp directory c. port c. The files /etc/passwd and /etc/group are being shared by the NIS server.The security can have values as none (to allow access).conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files 199. deny d. /var/yp/access. 200. What are the valid values of security field in file /etc/ypserv. ypserv Answer – c Explanation -.conf b.203 c. Which file is used to map NIS? a.conf d. Which command is used to create a NIS database? a. /var/yp/securenet b. /var/yp/secure Answer – b Explanation -. /var/yp/securenets c. ypinit d. Sharefile in /var/yp directory b. 201. The file names which should not be shard in commented out.conf d. /etc/nswitch. all of these Answer – d Explanation -. port (to allow access from port below 1024). ypdata c.

c. Which graphical utility is used to configure the dhcp client? a. all of there d. What does the file /etc/dhcpd. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network. neat c.pid. /etc/dhcp. chkconfig dhcp on Answer –b 204. chkconfig dhcpd start b. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. chkconfig dhcpd on c. chkconfig dhcpd enable d. 207. /var/run/dhpclient. Answer – b . d. Which command is used to enable the dhcp server? a.conf d.count c. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. /etc/dhcp/dhcpd. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.pid.leases b.conf b. /var/run/dhclient.pid. 203.pid. Using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.conf c.The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign an ip address to a computer on its network. 206. /var/run/dhcplient.conf contain? Answer -.leases contain information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server. How can administrator decide number of client’s assigned address using the DHCP server? a.stat Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/dhcpd/dhcpd.204 created by using the ypinit command. b. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. /var/run/dhcpclient. Which file does contain the process id of the dhcp client? a. System-config-network b.num d. none of these Answer – c 208.The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. Which of the following is dhcp server configuration file? a.conf Answer – c 205. /etc/dhcpd.leases.

conf? a. Which command is used to start the named server? a. BIND Configuration c.conf c. /etc/dhpclient. To define access control list b. service bind start b. 215. /etc/named. system-config-name b. Which configuration file does dhcp client use? a. /etc/dhcplient. BIND Server Configuration Answer –a 212. BIND Server Configuration GUI d.conf d.conf c. Which is the main configuration file for the named daemon? a. system-config-bind d. /etc/dhclient. /etc/named/named. Which graphical utility is used to configure the DNS server? a. /etc/name. system-config-named c. /etc/dhcpdclient. service name start Answer – b 211. /etc/init.conf.d/named start c. BIND Configuration GUI b. system-config-dns Answer – c 213. An administrator made changes to file /etc/named.conf Answer – c 214. to define server pid d.conf d.conf b.d/name start d. to define performance option c.205 209. What is the function of acl directive in the file /etc/named. /etc/init.conf b. none of the above Answer – a Explanation -. Which command does check file for syntax error? . Which command is used to invoke BIND Configuration GUI? a.conf Answer – d 210.acl – access control list used as acl “description “{ip address}. /etc/named/name.

host b. you have chosen a domain name for your system. Which command is used to check the syntax of the zone files? a. domaincheck Answer – b Explanation – whois command is used to search for the availability of domain name format whois domain-name 219. who b. gethost d. Format is host host-name host ip address 220.txt /var/named/data/stats.206 a. b. checkfile d. checkzone c. namedcheckconf Answer – a 216.txt /var/named/data/named_stats /var/named/data/named_stats. domainchk d. 217. zonecheck Answer – a Explanation -. hostname c. Which file is dump file for the named daemon? /var/named/data/cache_dumb. checkconf c. How can you get the hostname of your system from ip address? a. .Named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named.db /var/named/data/named_dumb.txt Answer – c 218. c.It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. Which file does contain the statistics of named daemon? /var/named/data/named_statistics.conf file.db a. whois c. Named-checkconf b. none of these Answer – a Explanation -. How can you check the availability of domain name? a. named-checkzone b. checkzonenamed d.db /var/named/data/dumb.

/etc/mail/access b. After changing the /etc/mail/access file a user wants to create the access. Can't be done b.cf.cf b. 222. Domain name mapping in file /etc/domain b.allow d. location of the log files and database files.db file. You want to configure the sendmail server to handle two domain names. /etc/mail/sendmail. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the sendmail server? a. 225.The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. Which of the following files are configuration files for the sendmail server? a. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. /var/named/data/cache_dumb Answer – a 221. both of them d. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail. 223.The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmal will accept mail for delivery or relay. domain name mapping in file /etc/mail/domaintable d.207 d. /etc/mail/security Answer – a Explanation -. define domain names in /etc/mail/domain-name d.deny c. /etc/mail/sendmail. The file /etc/mail/sendmail. /etc/mail/access. What should the administrator do? a. define domain names in /etc/mail/virtual Answer – b Explanation -. /etc/mail/access. What will you do? a. What command does server the purpose? . define domain names in /etc/mail/local-host-name c.the file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. none of above Answer – c Explanation -.The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail.mc.mc c.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail. The domain name of your system changed from oldone to newone. 224. use command domainname c.

cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.cf d. 226.cf b. Which is the main configuration file for postfix server? a.the /etc/postfix/main.cf. c. Which is the postfix daemon configuration file? /etc/postfix/master. .The user wants to make the individual configuration files into the . REJECT c. Make access. RELAY b. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected. /etc/postfix/main.db. /var/spool/mail/statistics b. It defines the hostnames and domain names. /var/spool/mail/stat c. 229. both of them d.conf /etc/postfix/master.default which is exact copy of the main.db makes the file virtusertable.cf /etc/postfix/postfix.cf. create access d. /etc/postfix/postfix.db b. postfix queues and locations to be used for logging. 227. make access c. none of them Answer – c Explanation -.db Answer – a Explanation -.cf /etc/postfix/daemon.conf a.db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access.208 a.cf Answer – a Explanation -.db replace the filename access.db with the . /var/spool/mail/statistic Answer – a 228.There are four actions which the sendmail server can take RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail. /etc/postfix/post.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server. /etc/postfix/main. What actions does sendmail do on a mail? a. mailbox. b.mc c. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main. /var/spool/mail/stats d. create access. d. ERROR: user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message.Which file does contain collected statistics from sendmail? a. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected.

1 c.209 Answer – a Explanation -.The file /etc/postfix/master.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix and sendmail server. all of above Answer – d Explanation -. Which file does contain the directory and file permission set by postfix? a.1. . 231.and /var/log/maillog. /etc/service/alternatives Answer –b Explanation -.deny c. 232. /etc/postfix/postfix-file d.The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives displays the default services configured on the system 234.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process. /var/log/maillog. /var/log/maillog b. /etc/services/alternatives d. Which file does contain the alternative mail services? /var/lib/alternatives /var/lib/alternatives/mta /var/lib/alternative/mta a. /etc/postfix/access.the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server. The file /var/log/maillog. c. /etc/postfix/permit-files c./var/log/maillog. /etc/postfix/access b. /etc/postfix/permission-files Answer –a Explanation -. 230. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the postfix server? a.allow d. /var/log/maillog. /etc/postfix/access. /etc/alternatives c. /etc/postfix/postfix-files b.2 d. /etc/alternative b.the file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server. Which files does contain the sendmail and postfix server log information? a. 233. b.2.the log information about the postfix and sendmail server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog. /etc/postfix/security Answer – a Explanation -. Which directory does contain the default services configured on the system? a.

Which directive of dovecot configuration file does set the directory path containing run time data? a. /etc/dovecot/dovecot.d/services Answer -. /etc/xinetd c. /etc/xinetd.conf Answer – a 236. Which directory does contain the files corresponding to the services supported by xinetd? a. /etc/dovecot. max_run_mail_processes c. /etc/xinet. base_dir Answer – d Explanation – base_dir defines Base directory where to store runtime data 237. base_run c. mail_processes Answer – a Explanation -. max_mail_processes b. max_mail_run_processes d. /etc/xinetd. Which directive of dovecot configuration defines maximum number of running mail processes? a. 238. /etc/xinetd. /etc/dovecot.mc d.conf c.d/service d. /etc/xinetd. Which is the main configuration file for the dovecot services? a.conf b. run_dir b.a . /var/lib/alternatives/mta-alternate Answer – b 235. /etc/xine.cf c.210 d.conf b. /etc/xinetd/xinetd.conf d.max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously. main_dir d.d b. /etc/dovecot. Which configuration file does xinetd use? a.conf Answer – d 239.

Which file contains the current security level settings? a. /etc/sysconfig/iptable b. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility. all is specified for all services c. yes Answer – b Explanation -. system-config-securitylevel Answer – d 244. security Level Configurations c. What is the significance of ALL in /etc/hosts. security Configuration b. security Level Configuration d. /etc/sysconfig/ipchains d.211 Explanation -. All is specified to denote all clients b. No b. both of these d. system-config-security b. allow and /etc/hosts.Is the configuration right? a. Which graphical utility is used to configure security level of a system? a.allow – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection.allow file.The directory /etc/xinetd.allow and c in /etc/hosts. system-config-securelevel d. none of these Answer – a 242. Which command is used to invoke security level configuration? a. /etc/sysconfig/iptables c.The client A is listed in file /etc/hosts. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts. /etc/sysconfig/ipchain Answer – b Explanation -. deny? a. 240.deny. system-config-level c. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. B. This file is first scanned by tcpd.deny – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. . Administrator wants to allow A and B for xinetd services (with tcp wrappers). /etc/hosts. and C. 241. These services are called on demand services. security Level Manager Answer – c 243./etc/hosts.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. There are three clients A.

both of them Answer – c Explanation -.d are present. and optional. The /etc/pam. authentiction. mandate b. /etc/pam. auth b. /etc/sysconfig/iptable-config Answer – a Explanation -. Where will the configuration file for PAM find? a.The valid values for the control are include. /etc/pam. and session.d/pam d.212 245. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-nat c. Which directory does contain the PAM modules? /lib/security a. /etc/pam/pam. Which command is used to save the rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file? a. load additional iptables modules. What are the valid control types for a PAM configuration file? a. iptables-kernel d.d b. 248. password. done c.d/conf c. none of them d. The files in the directory /etc/conf. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-filter d. password c. iptables-save b. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers. sufficient. Which of the following account types does PAM allow? a.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to. iptables-load c.The contents of the file /etc/pam.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.conf file is absent on a system. /etc/pam.PAM allows four types account. iptables -S Answer – a 247. 246. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config b. required. . 250. Which file does configure the modules needed for NAT filtering? a. both of them d. none of them Answer – c Explanation -.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam.d Answer – d Explanation -. 249.

SELinux manager Answer – c 252. permissive b. /lib/PAM c. Which graphical utility is used for SELinux configuration? a. system-config-se Answer – a 253.213 b. system-config-SElinux c. /etc/sysconfig/seladmin Answer – a Explanation -. Which file does SELinux Administration utility change? a. enforcing c. /etc/sysconfig/seladm d. SELinux configurations c. Which configuration file does SELinux use? a.conf b. /etc/sysconfig/selinux Answer – d 255.enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced.cf d. disable d. /etc/sysconfig/selad c.mc c. Disable-. /etc/sysconfig/selinux b. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues warning instead of enforcement. /etc/sysconfig/selinux.The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux . What of the following is valid SELinux enforcing mode? a. SELinux administration d. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. /etc/PAM Answer – a 251. all of them Answer – d Explanation -.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled. SELinux configuration b. system-config-SELinux d. Which command is used to invoke the SELinux administration utility? a. /lib/security/PAM d. 254. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. system-config-selinux b.

115. 81. 205 acl tag 113. 145. 208-9 [4] access control 113. 135. 107. 196 anonuid 122 Anonymous login 127 anonymous uid 118. 195.conf 210 etc/groups 181 etc/ldap/openldap. 205 access control section 9. 201 command xvf 178 dev/sda2 174 device-name raid-device-name 175 dumb 207 error condition 188 etc/autofs. 193 access control list 145. 129. 113-14. 132. 122.log squid. 103.conf 200 etc/name. 26. 156. 151. 172 access tab user 125 access.conf 198 etc/sysconfig/selinux 213 etc/syslog.conf 187 etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. 194 anaconda 14. 130 Administrative group 73 administrator 66. 183. 150-1.conf 199 etc/xinetd. 116-17. 161. 113 Access file 147. 32.conf 210 etc/yp. 207. 119-20. 211 assigned 140.conf 205 etc/openldap/schemaldap 202 etc/PAM 213 etc/samba/sambausers 198 etc/smb. 203. 192-3. 79. 204 lp 117 adm 78-9.db 147-8. 204-5.log cache. 138-9. 103-4.master 174 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cachemgr.conf 204 etc/dovecot/dovecot. 193-4. 204. 155. 193 actions System Tools 152 address 61. 196 anonymous user behavior 132 answer 3. 211 AGE 68 AGENT 97 Alias SERVICES 79 aliases 70-1. 208 AccessFileName 103 access. 164-5. 125-6.com 165 .out store. 169 amount 85-6. 105.log 112 account system-auth 160 user jack's 196 acl 113. 198-9. 193. 140. 167 anaconda boot prompt 164-5 anaconda ks 165 anongid 118. 134.214 INDEX* A access 97.conf 205 etc/dhcp. 134 ALT 30. 99.conf 202 filesystem 183 ftpd 200 gpassword 181 hd0 164 kickstart-file/install/linux. 122.conf 194 etc/dhclient. 153. 191.

101. 133-4. 165. 5 boot 14-15. 174 base 45.215 lib/httpd/module 189 modified 176 namedcheckconf 206 paste 200 renice command 184 schedule 186 security Level Manager 211 service name start 205 service sambad start 198 service squid reload 195 service vftpd start 199 service ypd start 203 squid configure 195 system-config-dns 205 system-config-httpconf 190 system-config-manages 178 system-config-se 213 system-config-securitylevel 211 system-config-smbd 198 system-config-usrs 181 system-config-vsftpd 200 var/log/httpd. 179-80 bashrc 70 batch 93. 190 Apache web server 99.pid 193 var/spool/mail/statistic 208 var/spool/squid/cachedir 193 apache 102. 174. 118. 210 bash 70 bash shell 70-1. 149. 180 bin/bash new-user 180 bin/mount 79-80 bin/tcsh 72 bin/true 90 bin/umount 79-80 Block device 57. 49. 96 bi 19. 41. 97-9. 212 auto 42. 85 bin/bash 35. 189 apache server 109. 153-4. 91. 174 B badblocks 6. 101 auth 102. 78. 50. 105-6 configuration apache configuration file httpd. 167-8 boot configuration 27-8 . 52 automount daemons 50. 51. 160-1. 122 atq 94-6. 190 async 42.conf 100. 197 autofs status 174 automount 6. 189 apache web server process 101. 212 file system-auth 161 authentication 111. 110.log 191 var/run/httpd 189 var/run/klogd 187 var/run/squidd. 85 blocksize 45-6. 160-1. 25-9. 189-91 apache web server configuration directory 100. 51 autofs 50-1. 67. 70. 173 bo 85 book 3. 72. 188 atrm 95-6 attributes 55. 191.

195200. 54-8. single 14 boot time 34-5. 188 badblocks 49. 80 CDROM media 52 change 36. 169. 72. 170-5. 99. 142. 138-40. 123. 25. 203 client side information 122 client system 137 clients 3. 90. 131. 52. 90 Changing runlevels 36 chgrunlevel 170 chkconfig 35-8. 186. 41. 41. 113-14. 84. 164-5 bootloader command 17 broadcast 136-7 browse tab user 66 buffer 86. 121. 168 boot ks 165 boot partition 14-15. 118. 170. 169 cache 105. 144-5. 82-3. 42. 99. 114-15. 170 choice 16. 142. 194 Cache-manager command 194 cache server 105 cache size 112. 181-3. 127-8. 193 cachedir 60 case 81. 112. 180-90. 43-4. 120-1. 188 . 184 normal 29 boot process kernel 169 boot prompt 16.216 boot directory 15 boot/grub/grub. 81. 211 web 104. 155 cdrom 16-19. 131. 28. 114. 87. 125-6. 64-5. 36-40. 169. 196 subnet masks of 156. 123-5. 27-8. 112 cache files 60 cache manager 10. 207. 5. 157 bzip2 178 C ca 31. 156. 142. 86-91. 141. 121. 79. 192 change directory 131 change root user's password 76 Changing priority of process 8. 183 cat 47-8. 125. 78. 26 boot process 3. 142. 204. 204 root user of 118. 172 bootloader 15-16. 18 boot system. 202-7 [29] administrative 8. 152. 169. 174 batch 96. 27. 34. 83. 173-4 cd 120. 47-8. 151 atq 95. 25. 76-81. 187 button 107-8. 119-20. 195. 168 click 40. 144-5. 91. 132-3. 87. 75. 104. 139-40. 186. 211 [1] dhcp 142.conf 25. 158 user information 74 clicking 83. 196. 29. 192-4. 93-8. 163. 87. 164-5 default 25. 171 chkconfig command 170 chkconfig dhcpd 204 chkconfig service-name 37-8. 150. 46. 192-3 cache directory 112 default 193 cache directory section 9. 153. 157 client computers 118. 111 Cmnd 79 columns 42-3 comma 157 command 20-4.

196 fdisk 172 filename time-specification 95 following 46. 183 whois 206 183 ypinit 139. 72. 204 yum 60-1. 176 command aliases 79-80 command askmethod 16 command atq 96 command badblocks 49. 153 free 183 fsck 48-9 groupadd 73 groupdel 73 groupmod 73 insmod 89.217 bzip2 178 chgrp 81 chmod 46 chown 81 chown user-name-group-name file-name df 77. 202 lsmod 185 lvdisplay 57 lvremove 57 mdadm 53-4 mke2fs 173 mkfs 44 mkswap 46 modinfo 88 modprobe 89-90. 186 rmmod 89 sbin/visudo 81 sudo 182 swap 46 swapon 47 top 84. 178 command chkconfig 37. 52. 90 pvcreate 54 renice 90-1. 90 purpose 53. 186 network 17 nfsstat 122. 71 userdel 72 usermod 72. 184 uptime 85 useradd 66-7. 67. 180 visudo 182 vmstat 85. 174 command badblocks device-name 49 command badblocks searches 49 command bzip2 65. 181 dmesg 187 exportfs 119. 197 ps 8. 185 install 64 ldapsearch 135. 143 command chkconfig dhcpd 139 command chkconfig dovecot 153 command chkconfig httpd 99 command chown 182 command crontab 98 command dd 173 command dhclient 142 command dmesg 91 .

218 command domainname 135. 41. 135-6.insmod loads 186 commands gunzip realplay.gz 64 command umount directory-name 43 command uname 185 command useradd 72 command userdel 180 command vgcreate 55 command vgdisplay 55 command vgextend 55 command vgremove 58 command. 190. 101. 59-60. 205 . 169 computers 14-15. 143. 202 command swapoff 48 command system-config-kickstart 17 command tar xvf 178 command tar xvfz realplay. 200. 159. 186-7. 11. 162. 133-5. 163 command renice 186 command root@localhost 44 command rpm 81. 64. 77. 96 command ps 90 command pvremove 58 Command Reference 13. 166. 165-6. 102. 177 command sequence 148 command service dhcpd start 139 command service dovecot start 153 command service httpd start 99 command service network start 142 command service ypbind start 137 command sets 135 command shutdown 169.tar. 176. 160.tar. 212-13 [19] Configuration GUI 11. 207-8. 211 httpd server 190 post installation 151 samba 197 server's 190 configuration directives 103 Configuration directives for Apache web server process 190 configuration file cd 148 configuration file restart 116 configuration files 11-12.gz 64 commands mke2fs uses 45 commands tar xvf 178 comment 71-2. 202. 212 conf directory 100 config directory 102 configuration 8-9. 204 remote 131 conf 100. 133. 101. 128. 186 command lsmod 88 command lvcreate 56 command mdadm 53 command mkfs. 126-8. 73. 189-90. 147-8. 131. 122. 182 command slapd 134. 179. 48. 140. 27-8. 45.vfat 173 command modprobe 90 command mount 42. 173. 181 command prompts 76. 205. 116-18. 194-5. 207 command don W  command execute 182 command field 98 command file swap 46 command ifconfig 140 command insmod 90 command kudzu 19 command ldapadd 135 command line 46. 80 command passwd 76. 138-40. 23. 159-61. 145.

155 data files 46. 27. 147-8. 150. 109-10. 173 . 112. 187 named 143. 179. 147 cpu 85 CPU usage 84. 163. 136 Configuring services 36 Configuring Squid 9. 101. 81. 190 database files 147-8. 128 connect 118. 205-6 tcp wrapper 156 daemon Configuration 10. 131. 190 configuration configure 14. 189 crontab jobs 97-8 CTRL 30. 184 crashes 40. 27 Configuring Hardware 5.219 configuration information 115. 104. 23. 131. 169. 97 crontab 97-8. 211 internet 115. 99. 168 default parameters 45-6 default runlevel 29-30 default values 66-7. 152 dev 18. 45 deflate/module 89 Deleting user account 7. 110. 41-2 dev/cdrom 43-4. 32. 164 default operating system 27-8. 150. 174 database 64. 189 klogd 93. 19-20. 131. 207 days 68 db 138 db files 12. 208 dc 133-4 default installer 14. 86. 195 connection 102. 192. 122-3. 200-1 core directory 109. 130. 79. 141. 52 Creating Kickstart 5. 35. 128-9. 157 cron 97-9. 92 control 27. 125-6. 123. 204-5 [5] configure command configures 65 configure IPSec tunnel 23 configure printers 24 configure samba server 197 configure security level 211 configure system's hostname 23 Configuring Grub 5. 155-6. 200 Daemon Configuration 151 daemon process name 194 daemon xinetd 12. 51-2. 17. 33. 169 ctrlaltdel 30-2. 159. 212 copy 15. 169 D daemon 78-9. 106-7. 72 deref 134 DEREF options 134 desc 19 description 29. 162. 64-5. 131. 145. 19 Configuring NIS 11. 194. 131. 66 cron facility 93. 147. 177. 100. 143. 71-3. 205 desktop 82. 111 Configuring vsftpd 10. 189 configuration parameters 142. 194-5 conntrack 159 console 29-30. 91. 61-2. 207 defaults 41. 145-6. 16 Creating User Account 7. 153. 161.

206 var/nis 203 var/yp 203 directory entry 117.tar 65 directory tree 101. 139. 181 dhcp 139. 131. 143-6. 1967. 143 domain example. 200 etc/alternatives 152 etc/httpd 189 schema 134 target 173 var/lib/alternatives 152 var/named 145. 99-104. 90. 142 DHCP client 11. 43 df 77. 41-2. 175 filesystem-type 44. 59-60. 166. 117-21. 210 directory realplay 64-5 directory realplay. 210 DIR 67-8. 149-52. 190-1 domain 106. 173-5 multiple 52 physical 53 device listing 141 device name 42 device-name 48-9.com 117-18. 49. 160. 210 current 131. 205 dns server information 141 DNS server information 142 DNS service 143 DocumentRoot 103. 46. 77. 48 devpts 41. 141. 44. 175-7. 167. 77 dev/sda0 53 dev/sda1 53. 187 DNS server 11. 118. 127. 156 . 47-8. 134 directory files 117 directory information 134 directory list 132 directory listing 121 directory name 17. 204 difference 42. 106. 127. 188-91. 209-12 [25] base 153. 174 dev/sda2 53-4. 169 dir 17. 190 directory user 70 directory yum 175 disk 85. 171. 139-40. 125-6. 181 display server side information 122 display server side NFS information 197 dmesg 91. 124. 42-3. 45. 96-7. 133-4. 40-1. 153-4. 171 disk druid 164-5 display 57. 204 DHCP server 11. 117 directory-name host-name 117 directory option 132 directory path 17. 161. 174 dev/sda4 43 dev/sda5 40.220 dev/fd0 51 dev/md0 53-4. 54-5. 177-8 digits 35. 153. 179 directory 15. 174 dev/my 57 dev/sda 26. 34-6. 52-4. 140 dhcp server 139-42. 173 dev/sda6 172 dev/vol 175 device 19. 105.

138.deny 93-4. 126. 143. 196.conf 140. 175. 114. 186 etc/modprobe. 156. 204 etc/exports 117. 117-18. 120-1. 150. 166.deny 12. 211 etc/hosts.allow 94. 123. 208 etc/mail/local-host-name 147. 87-8 drm 88-9 DSO (Dynamic Shared Object) 102 dual boot system 14 dumb. 205 etc/inittab 29 etc/login. 104.conf 90. 179 email address. 185-7. 144. 109 ENAB 69-70 entry 15.misc 50-1 etc/bashrc 71 etc/cron. 37. 156. 195-6 etc/fstab 42. 207 Domain Name Service 138 Domain Name System 111. 207 etc/modprobe 90. 147-8. 189-90 etc/httpd/conf/httpd.daily 98-9 etc/demo 190 etc/dhcpd. 50-1. web master 107.deny command lists 93. 134. 190-1. 201-3 [2] valid 136. 149.cf 147. 188 etc/at. 101.db 145. 206-8 domain NISDOMAIN 136 domain ServerName 106 domainname domain-name-of-system 135 don W   dovecot 12. 182 editing 27-8. 211 etc/hosts. 207 etc/mail/sendmail. 171-2 etc/ftab 171-2 etc/gshadow 73 etc/hosts 137. 20. 99. 195. 108.allow 12. 183. 144-5. 187-8 etc/at. 207 etc/mail/sendmail. 188 etc/auto. 199 entry initdefault 29 entry mta-sendmail 152 environment 96. 188 customize user's shell 70 EOT 95-6 error 49. 83. 189 etc/httpd/conf 101-2.221 domain name mapping 147. 147-8.conf 189-90 etc/init 116. 211 etc/httpd 100-1. 186 . 173. 154 etc/alternatives 209 etc/at. 151. 71-3. 59.mc 147. 208 error Answer 170 error messages 91. 191 domain names 146-7. 138. 196 etc/exports file 118-20. 29. 196.defs 67. 179 etc/mail 11. 80. 135. 174. 58. 153-4 dovecot configuration 210 down list 144-5 drivers 19. 143. 206 DVD 14-15 DVD drive 14 DVD media 14-15 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 139 Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) 102 E edit 39. 169.

222 etc/mstab 172 etc/mtab 6. 117-19. 200-2 etc/openldap/openldap. 132. 87-8. 91. 213 etc/sysconfig/squid 115. 208-9 etc/postfix/permission-files 209 etc/postfix/permit-files 209 etc/postfix/postfix-files 151. 197 exportfs 119. 161. 210-11 etc/yp. 166 etc/sysconfig/ipchains 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables 159. 203 etc/postfix/main.conf 145. 72 Explanation 164-213 export 119. 212 etc/sysconfig/selinux 162.conf 200-1 etc/pam 13. 203 etc/openldap/ldap. 209 etc/profile 71 etc/rc 31-2. 52. 179 etc/squid/squid.conf 59-60. 156 exec 42 execution.cf 151. 169. 205 etc/nsswitch.conf 187 etc/syslog 187 etc/syslog. 179 etc/skel directory 70. 142 exam 3 exam topics 3 example. 196 export HOSTNAME DESKTOP 97 exported directory 122. 48.cf 151. 78. 184 fc7 26.conf 92. 127 fdisk 172-3 Fedora Core Linux 14 . 72. 194 etc/sysconfig/syslog 187 etc/sysconfig/syslog. 208 etc/postfix/master. 196 ext2 44-5. 50. 174 etc/samba directory 126 etc/service/alternatives 209 etc/services/alternatives 209 etc/skel 67. 169. 173 ext3 rw 42-3 F facility 187-8 failure 54. 166 etc/xinetd 155. 63. 160. 191-4 etc/sudoers 80-1 etc/sysconfig/hwconf 19-20. 67. 171. 51 ext3 41. 212 etc/passwd 71. 176 Ethernet device panel 141 Ethernet interface 17. 176 father 27. 42. 140.conf 137. 187 etc/vsftpd/ftpusers 130 etc/vsftpd/user 129-30. 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159. 34-6.com 105.conf 160. 199 etc/X11 32-3.conf 134-5. 70. 122. 180-1.conf 111. 212 etc/pam. yum commands 176 exit codes 49 expire 60. 29. 48 filesystem types 42 ext3 filesystem type 52 ext3 filesystems 40. 44. 171-2 etc/named.conf 136 etc/yum. 44-5.

conf 15 bz2 178 cached 105 change 163 component support component 102 configu-ration 92 crontab 97. 189 etc/dovecot. 88. 182 . 138. 185. 93. 139 fourth 42.db 148. 98.conf configuration 126 etc/samba/smbusers 126-7.db 207 apache web server configuration 190 authpriv 92 bash 179 bashrc 70-1. 185 filename access.conf 153 etc/export 119 etc/fstab 6. 171-6. 48.master 50 etc/auto.allow 156.networking 88 file names 67. 190 etc/inittab 5. 203 file owner 81. 81 etc/hosts.conf 193 etc/sudoers 8. 182-3 file permissions 46. 79-80. 92-9. 207 etc/mke2fs 45 etc/mtab 42 etc/named.conf 145. 172 etc/group 71. 211 etc/httpd/conf/httpd. 49 virtual 41 file system errors 49 file systems.allow 97 etc/cron. 43. 129-34. 198 etc/shadow 71 etc/squid/squid. 145-7.defs 67 etc/mail/access 147.deny 97 etc/crontab 98. 169 etc/login. 17890.conf 212 etc/passwd 72 etc/postfix/access 151. 46-8. 206 etc/nsswitch 137 etc/nsswitch. 209 etc/postfix/postfix-scripts 151 etc/profile 71 etc/rpmrc configuration 64. 198-201.conf 134. 115-18. 208 files 29-30. 149-52.conf 101.conf 138 etc/openldap/ldap. 132. 101-4. 87. 155-64. 137-40. 203-13 [20] access. 179 boot/grub/grub. 34-6. multiple 49 filename 47-8. 183 file swap 47-8 file system 42. 78-81. 182-3 file modules.223 field 98. 29-30. 95. 176 etc/samba/smb. 202 etc/pam. 150. 41. 188-9 dhcp server configuration 204 domain name mapping 147 dovecot configuration 210 download 128 dump 145. 206 entry 117 etc/at.misc 51 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cron.allow 93 etc/auto. 172 file group 81.

96 sample auto. 191 initrd 15 inittab 29 ldif 135 library 101 list 130.cron 97 ftp server configuration 199 global configuration 64.gz 178 temporary 60 using 95. 192 squid daemon configuration 115.pid 101 important 11-12.bz2 178 tar.pid 154 file-name.conf 128 script 151 sharing 122.cf 151. 194 squid server configuration 193 standard logging 132 sub-component configuration 101 swap 46-8 tar 178 tar. 128 single 153 special 92 squid configuration 111. 176 gpg key 61 htaccess 104 htpasswd 104 httpd. 156 execute user-namex201fs 182 exported 122. 208 modules.html 103. 206 files he/she 103.224 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159 etc/syslog.conf 176 executable 42.dep 89 multiple 131 named daemon configuration 145 pid 109 postfix daemon configuration 208 proc/kmsg 93 rmtab 122.conf 92 etc/yp. 197 file master. 126 samba user 198 sample 35. 145-6.conf 90 sample vsftpd.master 50 sample configuration 60 sample etab 122 sample ldap. 149 index. 132. 200 var/yp/securenets 138. 199 load config 102 local 138 main. 197 samba configuration 10. 203 ypbind configuration 136 yum configuration 65 zip 178 zone 145. 204 var/log/secure 93 var/log/xferlog 130.conf 136 etc/yum. 191 files nisplus nis shadow 138 files passwd 138 .conf 133 sample modprobe.

78. 180. 46. 82 Group Administration 7. 77. 196 Global Environment Configuration 9. 146. 33.225 files S10network 35 files xtab 122. 59. 130. 80. 53. 199-200 FTP server 128 ftp service 199 G GB 56 gid 41. 40 filesystem mount command 43 filesystem option 77 filesystem type 42. 204-5. 15. 43. 101 gpgcheck 60-1 gpgkeys 61. 25. 48. 171 pseudo 167 single 52 vfat 173 filesystems tab 83 finger 156 firewall 3. 52. 174 fstype 51 ftp 18. 16-17. 48-50. 122 proc 41. 190. 76-8. 51 following commands cd 148. 138-9. 181-2 basic 29 df 77 mounted 77. 175 grub 5. 34. 27-8. 73 group administration group apache 102-3 group demo 182 group ids 78 group information 73-4. 199-200 FTP 3. 71. 111 ftp command 200 ftp command prompt 10. 25-6. 65. 53-7. 41. 171-2. 164-5. 25. 83. 20. 157. 27-8 gunzip 178 H halt 30. 89-91. 73 group accounts 66. 118.bz2 64-5 value 134 Fri 94-6 fs 45-6 fsck 48-9. 29. 47-8. 79-82. 184-5 [17] tar. 165-7. 19. 109. 213 group 8. 181-3 logical 56 new 7. 40-4. 58-9. 71-3. 132. 69. 50-1. 16-17. 35. 200. 196. 200 ftp server 129-30. 67. 129-30. 14. 168 grub configuration file 5. 159. 73 grp 55-7. 117. 180 group-name 72. 72-3. 208 format 10. 17-18. 91. 81. 211. 103 group sys root 81 groupadd 68. 96. 130. 172 filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name 43 filesystems 6. 168 grub menu 15. 159 firewall command sets 17 firewall rules 159 floppy 45-6. 176 graphical tools 33 graphical utility 5. 169 . 60-1. 138. 197 Filesystem Administration 6 Filesystem Information 6.

31-4 initialize 54 Initializing System 6. 77. 167 Installation and Hardware Configuration 5 installation files 15 . 77. 112 home 41. 151. 29. 131. 59. 212 install server 15 installation 5. 52. 65-6. 50. 34. 89 install 14. 174. 89-90. 206. 31. 176. 166 Hardware Configuration 5 hardware drivers 87. 160. 196 home/vishnu 118-22 home/vishnu directory 119-20 host 19. 16. 53-4. 59. 98. 206 virtual 107-8 host names 117. 69.226 hard disk 14-16. 126-7. 117. 26-7. 184 init process 27. 72. 137-8. 34. 97 grp System 55 IfModule mod 104-5 imap 153-4 include 50. 201-2 sendmail commands 148 hierarchy 40. 47 hardware 19-20. 52-3. 61-2. 87. 126. 163-4. 146. 35. 27. 50. 115. 212 system-auth password 160 inconsistencies 118 index closed db 64 opening db 63 info 92. 168. 134. 172. 195-6. 161. 60. 44. 67. 23. 170 I id 19. 191 HTTPD Server Configuration 190 httpd service 99. 65. 168. 14-17. 143 hostname 10. 165. 181 home/demo 173. 170-1. 164. 172 hard-disk-device name 53 hard-disk-device-name 53-4 hard-disk-partition 55 vgcreate volume-group-name 55 vgextend volume-group-name 55 hard disk partitions 42. 154 infomod modulename 185 information he/she 83. 32. 203. 81. 171. 189. 146. 89 hd0 15. 168 he/she 144. 104. 179-81 his/her 180 home directory name 72 home-directory-name 72 home directory of user 179 home directory path 71 home/jack 181 home/movies 43-4 home/swap 47 home/user 70-1. 122. 201 information server 103 init 29-30. 192. 34 initrd 15. 180-1. 64. 118-19. 29. 169. 77. 26-7 inode 45-6 Inserting module 8. 184 INIT process 30 initdefault 29. 160-1. 192. 190-1 home directory 46. 36. 164. 71. 196. 201. 208 htaccess 103-4 HTTPD Configuration Answer 190 httpd server 103. 79. 67. 69-70. 42. 72. 86. 176-8.

34-8. 15. procfs-based 122 ip. 160. 93. 161. 212 iptables modules 159. ns 159 ip address 131. 18. 32.conf 133 ldapsearch 202 ldif 134. 94. 18. 169-71. 201 ldap service service ldap start 135 ldap. 41 languages system 14 largefile 46 lastrunlevel 170 ldap 11. 204-6 list of 156. 188. 185 Kernel Services and Configuration 8 kernel subdirectory 88 keyboard 16. 139-40. 80. 20-1 keys 30. 174. 201-2 LDAP Data Interchange Format 134. 149-50. 198-9 jill 188 jobs 87. 151. 168. 90 kernel/lib/zlib 89 kernel messages 92-3. 17. 187 kernel Modules 8. 201 ldap directory 135. 164. 188 john 179. 167 interface. 30. 167 kickstart-file/install/linux. 202 ldap directory information 201 ldap server 134-5. 87-91. 145-6. 142-3. 87. 201 LEN 68 letter 36 level 29. 185-7. 199 journaling feature 40. 52 K KB 56 kde 70 kernel 8. 16. 212 iso9660 51 J jack 81. 176 level directories 35 level rpm configuration file 177 lib/modules 87-90 lib/modules/uname 89 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 133 . 128. 212 kernel/crypto/module 89 Kernel Information 8. 211 IPC 127 IPC Service 127 ipt 88 iptables 158-9. 169 keyboard layout 14. 50-1. 134.227 installation process 14-16. 164. 181. 169 gpg 60 Kickstart 18 kickstart configurator 17 kickstart file 5. 193. 166. 196. 26-7. 93-7. 29. 133-5. 91. 165 L LABEL 26. 186.com 164-5 Kickstart Kill Process 83 klogd 92-3 ko 89 ks 18 kudzu 19-20. 53.

152 lsmod modulename 185 lvcreate 56 lvremove 57-8 M mac 187-8 mail 12. 132. 148. 132. 164. 92-3. 208 main configuration file 100-1. 100. 60. 129. 152. 154. 87. 78-9. 198-202. 151. 99. 130. 191. 60-1. 152. 70. 104. 149. 208 logical volume 7. 96. 191 logout 70 logs directory 100 lp 78-9. 120. 207-10 Makefile 138. 78. 146-7. 130 lrwxrwxrwx 100 ls 46-7. 187 Log Configuration Answer 184 Log File and Cache directory section 9. 200 local system mget 131 local system mkdir 131 localdomain 135-6 localhost 99. 54. 70. 151. 109.228 LILO 165 line. 190. 112. 152. 147. 60. 160. 111. 72. 112 log files 12. default partition 164-5 maps 91. 83. 196. 100. 164. 188. 114. 207 default 164 log information 8. 25. 87. 133. 147. 135. 209 logging 92. 171-2 load average 84-5. 100-3 Linux 15. 127-8. 126. 199 [5] list of commands 44. 128. 60. 97-8. 199 links. 97-8. 103. 88. 131. 66. 150. 87. 131-2. 150-1. 67-8. 47. 136. 56-9. 150. 70. 94. 176. 199 list root 129 list service-name 38 list status 38 listing 19. 41. 128. 203 manager. 85. 152-4. 149. 114-15. 103. 133. 183-4 LoadModule auth 102 local system 131. 126. 25. 153. 196 automounter 50-1 . 143. 150 Mail Transport Agent Switcher 152 mail transport agent work 153 Mail User Agent 146 mailbox 12. 191 entry domain Localdomain server 137 location 16. 56 Logical volume group support 54 login 33. 179. 147. 153-4. 52. 205. 66. 151. 140. 168 linux file system structure 165 linux filesystem 48 list 38. 152-5. 179. 208 mail server sendmal 207 mail services 11. 95-6. 106. 207-10 incoming 151-2 mail processes 155. 190-2. 207-8 locks 122 log 78. 207 default 152 mail server request 150. 78-9. 153. 209 mail transfer agent 146. 50-1. 101. 48 list of users 129. 199 anonymous user 129 initial 179 LogLevel 104. 149-50. 87. 210 mail root 96 mail server 146-7. 86-7. 161. 84. 170-1. 94. 175 Logical Volume Group 6-7. 94-5. 132. symbolic 35. 138. 67. 185. 92. following 104-5. 152. 129. 128-30.

symbols 87 modules.networking modules. 169 Multiuser mode booting 169 MYGROUP 127-8 . 53. 111. 56. 161. 50. 210 MAX 68-9 maximum number of mail processes 155. 210 Maximum number of running mail processes 154 MB 46. 41-3. 166. 80. 173 mbr 16. 25. 50. 192-3 members 69. 52. 25. 33 misc 50-1 mke2fs 44. 190 command modprobe 89 driver 89. 29. 197 mount-options-separated-by-comma 50-1 mount point 40. 73 Modifying user account 7. 165 graphics 33 multiuser 31. 49. 166. 80. 164 MD5 69-70 mdadm 53-4. 172-3.list selinux policy 163 system-auth 161 modules directory 101 Modules Loaded 8. 119. 164 matt 180 max 154-5. 102. 50 Multiuser 31. 168. 166 package package-name. 182 mount command 42-3. 100. 82 mount 27. 169 safe probe 20. 42. 156. 42-3. 166. 119-20. 172 mounted directory 44 mounting 6. 175 mem 112.inputmap 88 monitor 17. 164 MBR (Master Boot Record) 14. 173-4 mnt/cdrom 80 mnt/win 120. 191. 159. 93. 185 remove. 150. 50.usbmap kernel modules. 72 modinfo 88. 185-6 modinfo modulename 185 modprobe 186 modprobe modulename 185 modsecurity directory 101 module modules/mod 102 module name 90 module-name 90 modules 87-90. 185-6. 174-5 mdadm device-name 175 mdadm raid-device-name 53-4.system 178 monitor type 21 Monitoring System performance 8. 80. 33. 88 modules module 89-90 modules. 185 loaded 88.229 master 50 MASQUERADE 88 Master Boot Record (MBR) 14. 104. 63. 42-3. 183-4 messages 91. 112. 187. 182 memory 85. 46 mkfs 44-5. 172. 165 Modifying group information 7. 172 mnt/win directory 120 modes 20. 21. 53. 208 outgoing 149 Min/max values 68 minutes 30-1. 212 authorization 100.

197 option url 17 options format 10. 120 netbios 159 netmask 139. 155 network usage information 184 networking 31. 143 OS 127 output 46. 196 NFS server configuration utility 120. 122. 166. 203 NIS server name 137 NIS version 138 nisdomainname 135-6. 79-80 NFS 3. 103. 61. 197 NFS Server Administration Answer 196 NFS Server Configuration 10. 197 NFS server root user 196 NFS service 116. 197 NFS Configuration 196 NFS daemon 119. 128-9. 68. 118. 132 network port 163 network security 12. 71. 198-9 [3] Naming convention of files 35 nat 88 NAT filtering 159. 122. 192-3 hot 112. 96. 88. 120. 166 network devices 14. 104-5. 144-5. 119. 202-3 NIS server information 138. 196. 166 network information 184 Network Information Service 135 network options 9. 119. 190 N name 35. 204 net 50. 48. 53. 111. 173. 201-2. 169 organizations 116. 131. 93. 202 NIS group 117. 31. 117. 212 neat 22. 88. 155. 85. 53. 120. 114. 101. 35-6. 166. 179 . 174. 170. 204. 94. 193. 202 nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system 135 NISGRP 195 noauto option 172 nocrossmnt 122 nodaemon 32-3 nodev 51 nosuid 51 notauto option 172 nouser 42 ntfs 45. 104. 201 overridden 46. 119-20. 48 number 29. 138-40. 102. 133. 126. 134. 69. 61-2. 193 network 16-18. 192-3 operation 50. 184. 91. 137-8. 147. 195 NIS server 11. 116. 41. 195-6 nfsstat 122. 119. 122. 142. 97. 17-18. 94. 187-9. 197 nis 135. 87-8. 207 network access 135 Network Configuration 140. 140. 117. 121 NFS directory 10. 139. 203 NIS domain name 11. 187. 203 files nisplus 138 NIS database 11. 192-3 transit 112. 114. 118 order 35-6. 117. 22-3. 196. 204 O objects 112-13. 63. 135.230 Mysql 100. 135-7. 184. 197 NFS server 15. 136-9.

166 Perl 100. 90. 191-2. 145. 85. 150-3. 182-3 probing 20 problem 103. 107-9. 142. 52-4. 190 physical volume 7. 5. 176-8 gpgkeys of 176 installed 62. 65. 43. 121. 161. 76. 154. 118. 170. 66. 102. 78. 97. 181-2. 180 path 18. 186 privilege 78-81. 168-9. 84. 102. 123-5. 177 yum install 61. 160-1. 93. 129 pop3 153-4 port 16. 212 panel 53. 139. 165. 47-8. 157 partition 14. 193 pipe 94 Pluggable Authentication Module 93. 127. 171 . 107. 68. 178 package name 61 package-name 62. 121. 96. 172 disk 40. 132. 64-6. 168. 190 permission mask 69 PHP 100. 145. 157 PASS 68 passwd 138. 52. 28-9. 212 password of user 76. 102. 177 software 14. 98. 32-3. 174 proc 41-2.231 owner 81. 183-7. 146. 32-3 powerfail action 30. 155. 126. 80. 148. 154-8. 47-8. 209 list postfix service 150 postfix mail server 151 postfix server 150-3. 144-5. 129. 17. 208-9 postfix server log information 209 power 30-2 power failure 30. 171 filesystem-type source 172 pass 3. 52 Power Restored 32-3 powerfail 30. 203 port number 102. 59-62. 62-4 istration xf0b7 3 pam 129. 177 package-name queries 178 package-name. 161.yum install 178 package package-name 177 package processing 63 packages 3. 180-1 passwd user-name 76 passwd command id 181 password 15. 59. 167. 122 Prints 63 priority 36. 121. 54-5. 114-15. 171-3 dev/sda6 40. 118. 154 performance 110. 182-3 P Package management and Kickstart 3 Package Manager 7. 124. 14. 33 powerokwait 30. 111-12. 175 pid 29. 27. 189. 32-3 prefdm 32-3 prevrunlevel 170 printers 23-4. 71. 211 port panel 158 postfix 12. 58. 212 configuring 160 PAM configuration file 212 PAM modules 161-2. 83-4. 134. 40. 74. 86. 66. 195. 71.

89-90. 29-30. 194 running 90 total number of 84. 146 protocols 101. 186 processes 8. 184 process pid 90. 5 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 14. 143. 184 zombie 84. 174-5 RAID devices 52-3 raid devices information 53 RAID disks 6. 64. 36. 62.sysinit 31-2 read/write 55. 16. 77. 53-4. 58-9. 173 proc/uptime 184 Process and Kernel Information 8. 191 prompt 30. 169. 184 processes tab 83 profile 70 program dnsserver 111. 93. 195 Red Hat 14-15. 150. 69. 83-6. 144 properties button 74. 94-5. 168. 80. 191 programs 35. 136. 161. 144. 53-4. 95 pts 85 Python 100. 194. 164. 142. 172 relay 147. 192-3 ratio 45-6 rc 31-2. 52 raid level information 53 raid options panel 53 ram 192-3 RAM memory 84. 208 remote system mput 131 remote system rename 131 remove 7. 5 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam 3. 175. 108-9. 168 Red Hat Certified Engineer 3. 209 proxy 114. 57-8. 154-5. 121. 62. 84. 169 rc. 210 active 83 concurrent 201 postfix daemon 151. 156. 171 rc1 34. 183-6. 102. 32-4. 146 R raid 174-5 RAID 52 raid array 53 raid device name 53 raid-device-name 53-4. 91. 158 proxy 104-5 ps 20. 164 Red Hat Linux 14. 184 process PID 41 process priority 91. 153-4. 90-1. 35-6. 204 process identification number 29. 120. 167-9. 27. 207-8 RELAY 150. 165. 186 remove user groups 69 . 171. 184. 57 reconfigure 116. 28. 90 process id 91. 23. 36 rc5 32. 182 properties 59. 69. 175 raid-device-name device-name 175 raid devices 53-4. 122. 41. 112. 190 Q QMAIL 67-8 queries 62. 25.232 proc/modules 185 proc/swaps 47-8.

36-9. 198 . 169 document 109 root/install-log. 85. 116 rootnoverify 26-7. 197 samba server status information 198 samba users 123-6. 70-3. 118. 77. 46. 159-60. 150. 168 rootnoverify option 168 rpm 7. 5 ro 51. 118. 164.log 164 root password 14. 54. 80-1. 176-7 rpm configuration file 176 user level 64 rpm format 59. 62-3. 122. 122 S Samba 3. 177 rules 112. 70. 120. 43-4. 17. 182 root privilege 182 root root 47. 58. 89 respawn 29. 135-6. 52. 182 root user's password 76. 140 [8] root@localhost alternatives 153 root@localhost cron 98 root@localhost dev 55-7 root@localhost home 47-8 root@localhost mail 148. 169-71 previous 36. 159. 82. 171 runlevel service-name 170 runlevel values 29 running mail processes 154. 26-7. 93-8. 118.cfg 16. 100. 85-8. 210 rw 42. 177-8 rpm command 62-3 valid 177 rpm command uses 64. 170 standard 32 runlevel command 170 runlevel directories 35-7 runlevel field 29-30 runlevel scripts 169. 78 root@localhost 17. 180-3. 188 maps 196 maps client 196 privilege of 78. 60. 181-2. 97. 142.info 164 root/install. 77-9. 5 RH systems 69 RHCE 3. 93-4. 196 RH 3. 122 root@localhost postfix 150-1 root@localhost pub 20-4 root@localhost squid 112. 167. 66. 32-3 restart 40. 62 rpm package information 177 storing 64. 212 iptable 158-9 runlevel 6. 114. 99. 152 root@localhost nfs 119-20. 28. 167 root directory 105. 198 list of 127. 165. 133 root run-parts 98-9 root user 42. 122. 94-9. 118.233 Removing module 8. 195 service nfs 119 service sqd 195 service squidd 195 restarting 119. 78. 99. 127 Samba Server Configuration 10. 122 root 15. 67. 59. 32-9. 194 root/anaconda-ks. 29-30.

162-3. 67. 12. 41. 137. 163-4 SELinux 3. 15. 157. 157. 114-16. 134-5. 148-50. 78-9. 201 schema files 133-4. 213 SELinux administration 13. 213 SELinux configuration file 162. 139-40. 207 server 3. 127. 171 search 60. 201 search tab user 66 seconds 27-8. 190 . 99. 159. 80. 191 Server Configuration 9. 50-1. 118. 15. 93. 201 default ldap 202 scripts 29. 190. 115 sample questions 3 sbin 41. 103 server system 135 single web 106 ServerAdmin root@localhost 103 servername 17 ServerName 106 ServerName dummy-host. 41-2. 98. 164. 101. 207-9 default 153 sendmail server type 146 sendmail uses 147. 188 schema 133. 146. 213 SELinux configurations 213 SELinux manager Answer 213 SELinux policies 162. 139. 195. 169. 32. 103. 78-9. 65-6. 134-5. 101. 70. 33. 118. 96-7 scheduled jobs 94-6. 134 server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr. 101-4. 34-6. 201-2. 162. 112-13 global environment configuration 101 security 17. 45. 207-8 [6] demo sama 127-8 high performance proxy caching 111 proxy 104-5 samba 10. 211 security Level Configurations 211 selinux 17. 144-5.example. 136-7. 211 Security Level Configuration 12. 105.234 sample 30. 190. 98 sbin directory 80 sbin/fdisk 79-80 sbin/nologin 78-9 sbin/service 79 sbin/sfdisk 79-80 sbin/shutdown 31-3. 92. 128. 146-50. 203 security Configuration 211 security level 117. 159. 168. 201 section 9. 157. 198 web 9. 208 sendmail 11. 169 schedule 31. 205 Server Configuration Answer 205 server HOSTNAME 136-7 server information 101 server mirrorlist 61 server name 107. 106. 122. 134. 93-4. 206 search request 134. 126. 152-3.cgi 194 server root names 101 server section 9. 204-5. 213 SELinux user identities 163 Selinuxtype 163 sender 150. 138.com 106 ServerRoot 101. 207-9 mail server 147 sendmail log information 149 sendmail restart 148 sendmail server 12. 152-3. 99. 147-8. 13. 159 sample format 94. 150.

134-5. 199 service yp start 202 service ypserv start 203 terminal 137 service ypserver start 202 serviceconf 39.235 service daemons 157 service ftp start 199 service ftpd start 199 service httpd 38-9. 70-2. 27. 182 Shutdown Canceled 32-3 Shutting 119. 181 SIZELIMIT 133-4. 182. 125. 36 new 37 samba 127. 169 shutdown 30-3. 154. 101. 175 software configuration 33 software repositories 59. 199. 34-41. 189 service httpd stop 39 service management apps 80 service-name 170 service nfd start 195 service nfs start 116. 52. 195 service nfsd 195 service nfsd start 195 service passwd 161 service postfix start 153 service S10network 35 service samba start 198 service sendmail start 146 service service-name 37-9. 79-82. 130. 209 dhcpd 139 dovecot 153-4. 211 ypbind 137 services Answer 210 session 160-1. 61. 32. 198 service smbd start 198 service vsftpd start 128. 201-2 [20] set initdefault 30-1 share 121. 132. 65. 152-3. 115. 120 default 152. 21. 155-6. 127. 126. 128 shared directories 120. 30. 99. 189 service httpd start 38. 160-1. 33 size. 210 managing 82 net-work 35 network 33. 128 shell 67. 78. 192 software 64. 153 SIGKILL 185 signal 185 Single user mode 31. 182 shell script 34. subdirectory 181 size of files 76. 151. 139. 176 . 145. 125-7. 210-12 alternatives 152 autofs 50. 129-30. 205. 99. 156-7. 80. 198 sharing 3 trusted 157 xinetd 156. 170 service service-name start 38 service service-name stop 39 service smb start 127. 103-4. 189. 25. 129. 169-71. 170-1. 79-80. 98-9. 143. 201 Smaba configuration Answer 197 Smaba Server configuration 197 socket 111. 212 set 14. 17. 198 samba 123. 170-1. 171 services 10.

99. 176 stop 35-7. 153 Starting httpd 39. 119 Starting NFS mountd 116. 191-2. 137 startup 20. 82. 85-6. 137 Starting postfix. 49-50. 153 network service 36 service sendmail 153 storage 60. 45-7. 181 subfolders 76. 195 squid server 9. 187 system 25-6. 196-8 [21] . 64-6. 181 subtree 122 success 161 suid 42 Sun Microsystems 135 swap 41-2. 29 Starting Named 11. 33-4.236 source code 64-5 source filesystem 173 space 53. 116. 79-80 subdirectories 40. 172-4. 130 synchronize system's clock 25 syntax 145. 130. 137. 139. 205 [10] Start Process 83 start squid 115 Starting Apache 9. 1836. 77-80. 118. 173 swap space 6. 47. 91. 111-12. 143. 127-8. 92. 143 Starting NFS daemon 116. 99 Starting init 5. 34. 194-5 server program 111. 176-7. 166-70. 119 Starting NFS quotas 116. 56. 127 Starting Services 34 Starting squid 116 Starting vsftd 10. 198-9. 191 squid daemon 10. 183 status 37-8. 189. 111. 191-4 squid start 116 squid user 114 squiduser 194 start 17. 116. 35-40. 122. 97 statistics kernel NFS client 122 kernel NFS server 122 virtual memory 85. 181 amount of 77. 132. service postfix start 151 Starting postfix server 12. 150 Starting Samba 10. 114-16. 128 Starting ypbind service 11. 99 Starting Dovecot 12. 174. 181 total 56 squash 118. 170-1. 194-5 squid log files 112 squid reconfigure 195 squid restart 116. 80-1. 148. 119 Starting NIS server 11. 76. 39-40. 166 swpd 85 sync 78. 46-7. 206 sys 41. 196 squid 3. 165 swap area 46-8 swap filesystem 173 swap partition 14. 82-6. 61-2. 122. 135-8. 165. 29-30. 119 Starting NFS services 10. 167 sysfs 41-2 sysinit 29-32 syslogd 9. 115-16. 153. 127-8. 28. 134-5. 143.

189 system information. 169 system users 132 system users behavior 132 SystemManager 184 T tab 21. 205 system-config-boot 28 system-config-date 24. 50. 166. 144 basic 123. 197 System-config-nfsd 197 system-config-packages 65. 109. 155 system clock 34 system-config-bind 143. 187 System Monitor 82.uname 185 system initialization 31 System Log 86 system log information 184 System Log Manager 184 system log viewer 86. 178 system-config-printer 23 system-config-samba 122. 181 system-config-usr 181 System-config-vsftp 200 system-config-vsftpd 131 system crontab file 98. 42. 184 system logging 92. 175 system-config-manage 178 system-config-name 205 system-config-neat 166 system-config-net 166 system-config-network 22. 211 . 171 system-config-smb 197 system-config-soundcard 21 system-config-time 24. 155. 190 system-config-https 190 system-config-keyboard 20 system-config-kickstart 17 system-config-level 211 System-config-logman 175 System-config-lv 175 system-config-lvm 58. 23. 187-8. 213 system-config-SElinux 213 system-config-SELinux 213 system-config-services 39.237 system administration 7. 107. 167 system-config-display 21 system-config-ftp 200 system-config-ftpd 200 system-config-httpd 106. 167 system-config-users 73. 196 system administrator execute 180 system-auth 160-1 system boots 30. 184 system reboots 32. 141. 183. 82. 140. 125 samba user 124 tab user 132 server control 132 tar xvf 178 tcpd 156. 204 system-config-nfs 120. 184 system administrator 180-1. 197 system-config-sambad 197 system-config-securelevel 211 system-config-security 211 system-config-securitylevel 157 system-config-selinux 162.

16-17. 44. 167 upload 128-9. 201 timeout 26. 115. 69-71. 115. 198-201. 132. 112 usage 49. 148. 154. 178 xvf 178 unconfigures 20 uninitialized entries 59 Unix 127 Unix user name 198 UNIX user name 124. 168 timezone 16-17 tmpfs 41-3 topics 3. 177 upgrade option 17. 45. 206-9 [31] administrative 78. 83-7. 97 time 19. 197 user account apache 103 . 150-1. 127 Unix username 198 unmount 43-4. 101. 80 unmounting 6.238 Te user 78 telinit 36. 199 menu option 83 modifying 82 multi 66 new 66-7. 176-7 upgrade 14. 132. 115. 180 anonymous 128. 163 processor 185 running Linux system 42 U uid 68. 43-4 update option 167 updates 20. 161. 78-80. 158 UPS 31-2 uptime command uses 184 URI 133-4 url 17. 183 time-specification 94-5 TIMELIMIT 133-4. 196 umount 44 uname 87. 139-42. 102-4. 71. 180 normal 80 password 29 trusted 147 useradd 70 userdel 180 valid 126 user accesses 161. 61. 70. 201 local 128-9. 170 telnet 156 text editors 16. 59. 27-30. 118. 65-6. 61-2 Use NIS 138 user 14-18. 179-91. 93-4. 75. 132. 169. 167. 27-8. 101-2. 127. 47-8. 128 uncompress 64. 99. 196 ban 132 bin/bash 71 bin/csh 71 common 40 configuration file 134 effective 114 etc/passwd filesystem 71 ldap directories 134. 174-7. 84-5. 24-5. 160-1. 91. 121. 129-30. 135. 161. 132. 149 type 17. 93-5. 52. 124-30. 185 uncomment 81. 104-5. 66-7. 62. 157-8.

78. 149. 124. 72. administrative 182 user V  user V HQWU\ YDOLG  user V SDVVZRUG  . 90. 199 directive 199 usermod 72. 76.Will root. 182 his/her 103 useradd options 66 user names 15. 93-4. 78-9. 198 user login name 180 user lookups 138 user Mac 187 User Manager 180 user Manager Utility 180 User Manger 180 user Matt 179 user-name 72. 71-2. 106 user set 190 user squid 114 USER TTY 85 user user 180 user user-name 181 user Vishnu 182 user yum 59 user1 126 useradd 67-9. 74. 130. 180 userdel user-name 72 USERGROUPS 69 userid 71 userlist 129. 180 username 188 users don W  users group 80 users Jack 188 users John 199 users localhost 80 users SELinux security cate-gory 163 users tab 132 user. 180 user issues 183. 187 user issues command insmod 185 user jack 81 user Jack 181. 188 user-name V SDVVZRUG  user password. 179-80 user-id 72 user information 72. 180 useradd command line 69 useradd user-name 67 userdel 69. 161 user requests 49.239 user account john 179 user accounts 66-7. 161. 97. 71-2. changing 7. 179 administrative 114 installation root 66 new 72 User Admin 180 User Administrator 180 User and Group Administration 7 user apache 102-3 user applications 41 user button 75 new 124 User Configuration 180 user doesn W  user don W  user id 78. 71-2. 151. 76.

151 var/spool/mail directory 70 var/spool/mail/stats 208 var/spool/postfix 12. 144-5. 123. 177 var/lib/rpm/Name 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Packages 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys 63-4 var/log/cron 92-3. 178. 73 usr 40-1. 37 Using mdadm command 53 Using modprobe command 8. 165-6. 89 Using system-config-cache 194 Using system monitor 177 Using System Monitor 8.log 60. 149. 193 var/temp 179 var/yp/securenets 203 vendor V VWDWHPHQW  verbose information 63. 87. 198 vmlinuz 15 vol 55-7. 149. 175 vgextend 55. 206-7 var/run directory 101 var/spool/at 96.240 Using batch command 9. 96 Using chkconfig 171 Using command chkconfig 6. 59. 189 var/spool/mail 68. 98. 45. 53. 152 var/spool/squid 112. 197 daemon Configuration 131. 198 samba user 127. 125. 171. 188 var/spool/cron directory 97. 171 system monitor 82 user manager 73 utility Answer 175 utility Network Configuration 140 V values 29.log 130. 175 video card 17. 209 var/log/vsftpd. 82 Using tar xvf 178 Using User Manager 7. 200 var/log/yum. 36. 91. 184.leases 140. 50. 199 usr/lib/httpd/modules 189 usr/lib/httpd/modules directory 101-2 usr/local 97-8 usr/sbin directory 79 utility 22-4. 162-3. 139. 21 View Process 83 Virtual server files 147 Virtual users file 147 VirtualHost 106 vishnu 126-7. 48. 77. 134. 28. 71. 78. 177 Very Secure 10.log 154 var/log/httpd directory 100 var/log/maillog 92. 69. 200 network configuration 142 samba server configuration 122 service configuration 39. 131. 106. 59 . 131. 159. 187 var/log/dovecot. 204 var/lib/nfs directory 122. 182. 145. 172-3 vfat filesystem type 172 vgcreate 55. 191 [4] var/cache/mod 105 var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. 60. 197 var/lib/rpm 64. 132. 176 var/named/data/cache 145. 152. 200 vfat 43.

example. 210-11 xorg. 48 xinetd 3. 86. 104. 176 yum uses 59-60 Z zombie processes usage detail zone file directory 145 184 . 152. 172 windows user name 124. 23. 144 st 144 xferlog 129 xfs 45. 191 wdelay 122 web 59-61. 191 wheel 80 Window System 3 windows 25. 34. 168. 127. 20. 122. 84. 122. 132. 59.conf 166 Y yp 138. 200 VSFTP daemon Configuration 200 vsftpd 128 VSFTPD Configuration Answer 200 vsftpd service 128 vsftpd userlist 129 vv 63-4. 203 ypdomainname 135-6. 75. 119.241 volume group 7. 65-6 web browser 100. 202 ypserver HOSTNAME 136 yum 59-60. 198 won W  workgroup 128 writable option 125-6 www/docs/dummy-host. 25. 103-4. 55-6. 82.com 106 X xconfig 16-17 -18. 177 W warn 68. 58-9. 98. 27. 175 vsftp 128-9. 27. 53. 155-6.

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