RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer
Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide

RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam - The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide
Copyright © 2009 Notice of rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.

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This self-study exam preparation guide for the RHCE RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam contains everything you need to test yourself and pass the Exam. Including all the exam topics, covered indepth and insider secrets, complete explanations of all RHCE subjects, test tricks and tips, over 250 highly realistic sample questions, and exercises designed to strengthen understanding of the RHCE concepts and prepare you for exam success on the first attempt are provided.
Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a "Thank You" letter? This book includes new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering numerous sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus information available nowhere else, this book will help you pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam on your FIRST try. Buy this. Read it. And Pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam. This book provides a laser sharp focus on all the exam objectives with a cohesive, concise, yet comprehensive coverage of all the topics included in the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Lab Exam. It includes over 250 questions modeled after the real exam with answers and an Exam Quick Prep feature which recaps all the important points for the last hour preparation before taking the exam. Covers all RH302 exam topics, including: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Hardware installation and configuration The boot process Linux filesystem administration Package management and Kickstart User and group administration System administration tools Kernel services and configuration Apache and Squid Network file sharing services (NFS, FTP, and Samba) Domain Name System (DNS) E-mail (servers and clients) Extended Internet Services Daemon (xinetd), the Secure package, and DHCP The X Window System Firewalls, SELinux, and troubleshooting

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.............1.................................................................Using DVD.........................................................................................................................................................2..........................Creating Kickstart file ... 14 1................................................................................................ 14 1.................................................4....................1.......................................Using Network ......... 16 1........ 16 1.Configuring Grub .................... 26 2............................ 29 ..................................................2........................................................../etc/inittab file ...................................... 25 2....................................................................................Using Hard Disk ................................................................. 15 1....................3..............3................... 14 1..........1.........................................................................................1..................................Starting init ............. 1 Installation and Hardware Configuration .......................1...........3....................Kickstart File ................. 25 2...........................1...Grub ....................Grub configuration file ...........3................................2.......3......................... 29 2......... 1 Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE .......2..................................Installation .......................2.................. 14 1.. 20 2.................................Overview ......................................................................................................... 25 2........4............................................................................................. 15 1.......................................................................................................................................................................................Graphical utilities ..........................Use of Kickstart file ........................5 Contents RHCE .........................2....2......... 18 1......................................................................................................................................................................................................Configuring Hardware ...................................................................................2........ 27 2................2...................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer ........................1............The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide .............................Overview.............The Boot Process .................................................2............................................................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam ......... 19 1...............3.........

....Checking status of automount ..................4..............Logical Volume Group .....Overview ........ 48 3...........3.3............................ 46 3........ 52 3..4.....................................3... 52 3.......5.................................................. 47 3.............................................................. 43 3.............Unmounting a filesystem.............................................Mounting a filesystem..Disabling swap space ................................................................................... 40 3....................... 43 3............................Checking and Repairing a filesystem .....Initializing System........................ 44 3..2.....................................................................................................................................7....................................................1....................................... 34 2........ 54 ..........................................................5.........2....3.......................................Enabling swap space.............................../etc/fstab file .........................................5................................................................................3.............. 37 2................................................................................................4.Creating RAID device ........... 42 3..............................................................Creating a filesystem ............................................Automatically mounting a filesystem ..Using command chkconfig ....4... 49 3.....................................................................................2..........................................................................Filesystem Administration .........RAID disks .............................3...........................................6 2.......................... 50 3...............................................................Creating Swap space ...............................runlevel................................................................................3........................2...........................Searching for badblocks .........................................2.... 48 3...Filesystem Information ......../etc/mtab ...........3.....................................................................................................................................2..........2....... 41 3...............................1..............................................................................6...................Using Graphical utilities ............................................... 33 2.......................................................................................................................................................1.............. 40 3.................................................. 40 3.............................................2.....................1............ 52 3............1.........................................................1........6............................4................................. 39 3.....5..............

........2.........4.................................... 66 5........................................................................................................7 3......................................... 59 4...................................................................................................... 57 3.....................................................5..............................................6............................Remove a logical volume ...............................Logical volume management utility . 58 3.............................................Using User Manager ....................... 58 4...........................Package Manager ...............................................7...3..........................................Modifying group information ......................1..................... 73 5......................................... 73 5.......................6.......3............................................................................................Package Management ....5.4.....1........... 58 3..........................................................................Overview................................................... 72 5....Remove a volume group ...........7......................................3...........................5............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 76 5.............................................................................5................... 64 4....User and Group Administration ...................................Space Usage ...............................................5...1...... 77 .......................7..................7.....4......System Administration ......................................................Using make ...................................................................... 54 3................................................................................ 73 5........................Using rpm ......................................Creating User Account ...........................................................................................................................Remove a physical volume ..3. 59 4..................................... 59 4...............................................2...............................................Changing user password ..... 73 5...... 76 6................................... 66 5......................5................ 65 5.............Overview ..............................................................................................Deleting user account .....7..7..........Creating A Logical Volume Group .................2.. 73 5............................................................................... 72 5.............................................................Modifying user account ........................... 62 4......................Deleting group......2..............................................................................................................................1.........................................................................................................................Adding New Group .......1.......................Using yum ..................Group Administration ........................................ 66 5.........................................................

........................................................................................Using the su ........................................................................................................Inserting module into kernel ...................... 82 6..............................................................................................Using modprobe command ...................Overview ...........................8 6................2.............Monitoring System performance ......................................Removing module from kernel .....................................4......Kernel Services and Configuration .2....Using System Monitor ...................................................................4................................. 78 6.3..........The su command......................3................... 78 6.........................4....... 79 6............................................................2.....................................Overview.Changing priority of process................................................................................................2............./etc/sudoers file ............................... 89 7.................. 89 7............Administrative commands ......4...........................................................................................3............................................2.......................kernel Modules ........Modules Loaded into Kernel ........................................... 87 7.... 87 7.......................................................5................. 90 7...... 78 6................................1.........................................2.........................3....................... 77 6.......... 86 7................................... 81 6.............................................1......2..........................The ps command .......................................................2..........3..............................................................................................................................................................Process and Kernel Information ....2.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 90 7.................................4..............Using top ..... 87 7... 89 7.......... 82 6....................1...............................................2......3............. 88 7.........................................................4..........................2...........Log information.....1....................................................Changing owner and group ................................Getting Administration Rights .2................................................... 84 6... 84 6..............................Other commands ..2.................................................1...........................................2.......................................... 79 6.......................3..................................................1....................... 90 ...............

............ 101 8.......................................2..............Log File and Cache directory section ..................................................................................................................1......................................... 93 7................................................ 112 9.................................................................................................3.........................2............................Automating Tasks -..................Using cron ................Overview....2.....................................2......3........... 97 8..............................................................................................................................Overview .....Network options ....................HTTP Server Configuration ......... 111 9.......2.................................Squid Server .....................Virtual hosts section ................................................4.............................................................. 93 7........................... 112 9..................... 106 9.................. 112 9....................... 111 9..........................................................4............ 101 8...Using batch command ...............................1...................Configuring Squid ........3........................................................................1..........................................................................4...4......................................................................4..............................................................................................................Using at .................4................ 99 8...............1.......................4.......2...................................................... 92 7...................2................................................................Web Server .1.................Using dmesg ..........Starting Apache .........................Access control section ....................................................2...3.........................3.......................................................................................3...... 103 8.......5........................................................................................................ 96 7....... 105 8.......Syslogd ...............................................3..............Main server section ................. 113 ........... 99 8........3....................................................9 7.........2..................................................Neighbor selection algorithm option ....................................... 99 8.................................Global Environment Configuration ........................................ 91 7..............................................................................................................................................Cache size options...............................................3............... 111 9...................................................................................2.................... 111 9...Main Configuration file ......3......................

.................... 120 10..................................................................................................Samba Server Configuration ............Checking the service ................................................................3...................................................................................................................................3................................................................NFS Server ....Administrative parameters ...................................................................................................Overview ....... 122 11..............1...Using nfsstat .........................................................................4...............Sharing Folders ...................................NFS Server Configuration....................................................................................................................................................................................3........... 117 10................................ 133 ................................................................................................................................. 122 11......................................Overview ..........Accessing the NFS directory .................................. 122 11.........................1........................................................4...............Format of hostname ........... 130 12....2.......................................................................overview .............................Options format.................2............................................4.. 128 12.....................................................5...............Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration ..........5...............Starting vsftd................ 117 10........1..............................................................................................ftp command prompt ................................................................................Starting Samba service .................3....3.......................Samba Server ......................................................................................... 128 12.............................................................................................................................................1.. 116 10................................................................Starting NFS service..........................................................................................................................Configuring vsftpd .....................2.......................................2.........................................................................4..............................................................................1............. 131 13............................................................................................................................................ 116 10. 119 10.............................................1........4............................. 127 12........................................... 128 12.............................................................................3.......................................................... 127 11..... 116 10...................................... 115 10.......................... 126 11...................................Samba configuration file .......6................. 118 10..............................2.......................................................................................... 122 11.10 9................Cache Manager ....................................Overview ......................Squid Daemon ................6.........LDAP Server ......................... 114 9........................ 128 12....... 114 9......................................................................................FTP Server ............................................ 133 13...........

.Sendmail......Overview ......................................................4.........................................................................................................................................BIND Configuration GUI ..............................................DHCP client...............Starting Named daemon ......................................11 13.. 135 14....................... 137 14................... 135 14..... 140 15.........................................2................... 139 15..................................2........ 143 16..............................DHCP Server ....................................................................... 135 14...............................1.........................................................................................Overview ........1...........................................3............. 146 17....................................................................................................5.....3.................................................................2..........4.......2......................................4................................................................................................5..........3.......... 133 13....................................................................................................................................1....................................................................... 136 14...4................................................................................................................................................................................................... 140 16.............../etc/mail ..... 143 16............ 146 17..............................................................NIS database ..................................2................................................Mapping Information ... 140 15...............................................NIS server.................................................................................... 143 16...................................Starting NIS server ........................................................................................................................................3............................................. 146 17.....................Configuration file ..............Setting NIS domain name .................................................1................................5.Staring NIS server ...... 137 14........................DNS server ....................................................................4.................Overview ...................................... 139 15.............Mail Services ...........................................Configuration .......................................Starting ypbind service ........................................1........................................... 145 17............................................................................................................................Configuring NIS ...Starting the DHCP server...................................................................................................Overview ......Important files ...................................... 137 14.................. 137 14................................................ 135 14........................................... 139 15...................................................Starting the ldap ........ 143 16.......................................1...........................2.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 139 15.................................. 147 ....2...................1........................Working of DHCP server..............................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................................Checking Sendmail Server . 155 18............/etc/hosts.....................Starting postfix server .........Dovecot ...........3........................ 159 ................................3...................Starting Dovecot .................Postfix .......................................................deny ....................5............................ 148 17........1................. 152 17............... 147 17....................................................2..... 150 17.........................3..................4.................5.....Configuration files .............................2................................................ 149 17........................................................................ 156 18.....................The daemon xinetd ..................................Generating the ....2.................................. 149 17.........allow......................Actions taken by server on a mail ...3......Overview .............................................................................Configuration file .........Important Files ............................................................3........................................................................................... 153 17....................4............................................ 156 18........................................................./etc/hosts..................2....................................... 157 18....................................Switching MTA .............................Security Level Configuration .....5............................ 153 18............................................................................2..................................................................... 152 17...............db files ...................... 150 17..........4.......3........................................................1...............Log files .......12 17.... 155 18...............4............Using TCP wrappers........................................../var/spool/postfix ..........2................................................................ 151 17.....4................................................Network Security................2...........................................................................................................................3....................Configuration file ...........3...........................................................1............................Mailbox .................. 152 17........................................................................................ 156 18..................5..3................... 151 17......................................1...................................................................................................................................................1.......................3... 155 18...................................................5...............2.................................................... 153 17...3.......2....................

.........SELinux administration ................................................. 160 19............................................... 162 19................/etc/pam........ 160 19.............................................................SELinux ............. 163 Over 250 Exam Preparation Questions ......................................................................... 160 19.......................................................................................2.......Command Reference .............................................................................................................................13 18... 162 19....................................................................d ............................................................................................................................. 164 ...........................Command Reference .PAM and SELinux ..........................1.............. 159 19.........................................3.........................1..2....5...................................................................................................2..............................................................PAM ............

Enter the root password.and custom partition) If custom partition option is chosen create at least one / partition and swap partition (for single boot system) and create a / partition. Choose the time zone in which system is. Fedora Core Linux is an open source project of Red Hat. Choose partitioning (options are use free space on hard disk. Choose partition scheme (options are automatic partition or manual partition) . The steps of the installation process are z z z z The DVD media is checked Choose language to use during installation process. . Choose keyboard layout.1.Installation Anaconda is the default installer in Red Hat Linux. The user had to accept the License terms. Configure the network device. The installation process can be broadly divided into many parts depending on the method used for installation z z z DVD Network Hard Disk 1.swap partition and one /boot partition (for dual boot system) Install the grub bootloader on MBR.use whole hard disk.use current Linux partitions. Select the packages.2. 1.Configure the firewall. Choose the languages system should support.Configure the sound card.Overview Red Hat Enterprise Linux is one of the major commercial Linux distributions available in market .1. After installation is complete remove the DVD media from DVD drive. z z z z z z z z z z z Choose the software packages to install. Set the firewall options. New version of Fedora Core Linux is released every six months. User can either choose for new install or upgrade an existing installation. Choose install type.Using DVD To begin installation using the DVD place the DVD media in the DVD drive of the computer and set the BIOS to boot from DVD drive.2.14 INSTALLATION AND HARDWARE CONFIGURATION 1.

In case of FTP server copy the files to directory /var/ftp/pub.2.2.Using Hard Disk For installation from hard disk it is assumed that Red hat Linux is already running on the computer.2. The following entry is added in the /boot/grub/grub.conf file to achieve the purpose title Red Hat-Installation root (hd0. 1. These files are needed to boot the installation process. In case of web server or HTTP server the files need to be copied in the directory /var/www/html.15 Then the user is prompted for user name and password on the login screen. In the hard disk install copy all the files of the DVD in a partition drive which is not used during the new installation.3. Choose Red Hat Installation on the Grub menu to begin the install process. Then copy the vmlinuz and initrd files of the DVD media in /boot directory.img root(hd0. 1. GRUB is installed as the bootloader in Red Hat by default.Using Network For the network installation the installation files should be copied to the computer which will act as install server. In case of NFS server the directory containing the installation files should be made accessible. To boot the installation process the boot loader should be informed about the files copied in the /boot directory. .7) means that /boot partition exists on eighth partition of first hard disk. After above steps reboot the computer.7) kernel /vmlinuz initrd /initrd.

cfg is created based on the options chosen by the user during the installation process. At the boot prompt enter the command askmethod :boot linux askmethod This lets the user to select the Installation Method. 1. 1.Creating Kickstart file User has a choice to use graphical utility to create kickstart file or open a text editor and write the commands.UTF-8 keyboard us xconfig --startxonboot network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp rootpw --iscrypted firewall --enabled --port=22:tcp authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5 selinux --enforcing timezone bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="rhgb quiet" .3.3.Kickstart File After successful installation of Red Hat Linux a kickstart file /root/anaconda-ks.1.Text File install cdrom lang en_US.3.1.16 Note : when using the installation from Network or Hard disk choose the option INSTALL OR UPGRADE in text mode on the first screen of the Installation process. 1.1.

option –enable means firewall is enabled. 1. The xconfig is used to configure the monitor and video card.-enforcing.HTTP. bootloader command is used to set the partition where the default bootloader grub is installed. NFS. rootpw denotes the root password.-disable timezone is used to select the timezone of the user.HTTP. option disable means firewall disabled. firewall command sets the firewall label.1.2. In above case it configures the Ethernet interface.3. z z z z For FTP method use option url –url give the ftp url name for HTTP method use option url –url give http url name for hard drive use option harddrive –dir=/give directory path –partition=give partition for NFS method use option nfs –server=servername –dir=directory name Third line sets the installation language to be used during installation . The network command is used to configure the network.FTP. cdrom shows the install method used.Graphical utility Open Terminal and type the command system-config-kickstart to start the kickstart configurator.17 The install option denotes new installation and upgrade option will denote upgrade of an existing system.FTP. Fourth line chooses the keyboard layout.and hard disk install methods.hard drive are other options which can be used for NFS.--permissive. selinux is used to set the security enhanced linux the options are . [root@localhost ~]# system-config-kickstart .

2. NFS mount options . Kickstart via harddrive (dev = 'hda1'.cfg') Kickstart from FTP. ks=nfs(:options):<path> Kickstart from NFS. on network or on Local hard drive use above commands on the :boot prompt during the installation Kickstart from CDROM Kickstart from a file (path = 'fd0/ks. for example) ks=cdrom: ks=file:<path> ks=ftp://<path> ks=hd:<dev> ks=http://<path> Kickstart from HTTP. To use kickstart installation use following steps z z z create a kickstart file copy the kickstart file on cdrom.18 The user can use the graphical interface to choose the options and the kickstart file will be generated automatically. 1.Use of Kickstart file It is used to automate the installation process.3.

kudzu is run every time a Red Hat box is rebooted.Configuring Hardware The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf contains the listing of installed hardware. 1. Below is the format of the /etc/sysconfig/hwconf file class: CDROM bus: SCSI detached: 0 device: scd0 desc: "HL-DT-ST CD-RW GCE-8526B" host: 1 id: 0 channel: 0 lun: 0 class: VIDEO bus: PCI detached: 0 driver: i2c-i810 desc: "Intel Corporation 82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE Chipset Integrated Graphics Device" video.19 are optional.4. It checks the file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf for the hardware installed and matches the data with the current hardware. The command kudzu can be run to detect and configure the changed hardware on a system.xdriver: i810 .

DDC monitor probing. 1.20 vendorId: 8086 deviceId: 2562 subVendorId: 8086 subDeviceId: 2562 pciType: 1 pcidom: 0 pcibus: 0 pcidev: 2 pcifn: 0 The first entry is for a CDROM drive attached with the system and second is for the VIDEO card attached with the system.4. To enable no safe probe mode on startup enter the line SAFE=no in the file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu.1.Graphical utilities 1. kudzu can be started in two modes z z safe probe mode no safe probe mode safe probe mode disables serial port probing.For keyboard layout Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-keyboard .1.PS/2 probing.4.1. If any hardware is added or removed then it configures the added one and unconfigures the removed one. It then updates the data in /etc/sysconfig/hwconf.

3.1.2.For monitor and video card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-display z z z User can set the Resolution.21 The user can select the keyboard layout and press OK .4.Color depth under the setting tab configure the monitor type and video card under tab hardware tab Use dual type tab for second monitor type and video card.1.4.For sound card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-soundcard . 1. 1.

1.For network devices Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-network or [root@localhost pub]# neat . 1.22 This utility can be used to check the proper working of soundcard and reload the audio drivers and rewriting the configuration files.4.4.

23 This utility is used to configure the network devices.5. z z z z z On devices tab all network devices detected by Red Hat Linux are listed. On hardware tab the network hardware physically attached with computer and detected by Red Hat Linux can be configured. Hosts tab is used to specify static computer host name to IP address mapping.secondary and tertiary dns IP addresses and dns search path.4.1.For printer Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-printer . Any network device can be selected and activated. DNS tab is used to configure system's hostname and primary. IPSec tab is used to configure IPSec tunnel and host to host connections. 1.

For date and time Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-date or [root@localhost pub]# system-config-time .6. 1.4.24 This utility is used to add new printer or configure printers.1.

2.THE BOOT PROCESS 2. Loading the bootloader in MBR. Grub boots the operating system chosen by the user on the grub menu. network time protocol tab is used to synchronize system's clock with remote time server using network time protocol time zone tab is used to select the time zone in which the system lies.conf.25 z z z date & time tab is used to set the current date and time. Booting the Operating System 2.2. When a system is booted the user sees the grub menu.1. The grub menu lists the operating systems which are installed on the system. Grub is able to boot non Linux operating system like Windows also.Overview The boot process can be divided into many steps. Every operating system displayed on the grub menu has its listing in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. .Grub Grub is default bootloader if Red Hat Linux is installed in the system. Choosing Operating system to boot on bootloader menu. z z z z Checking of MBR (Master boot record) by BIOS.

1.7) kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/sda11 initrd /initrd-version.6.img title Windows rootnoverify (hd0.xpm.g.fc7.conf generated by anaconda # # Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file # NOTICE: You have a /boot partition.21-1.26 2.3194.fc7 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet initrd /initrd-2.21-1.0) .7) kernel /vmlinuz-2.img #boot=/dev/sda default=0 timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0.gz hiddenmenu title Fedora-Linux root (hd0.3194.6.Grub configuration file Let the system have two operating system installed windows and Fedora Linux then the contents of the grub configuration file is # grub.2. root (hd0. e. This means that # # # # all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/.7)/grub/splash.

z z By editing the configuration file using text editors by using Boot Configuration . E.27 chainloader +1 The title is used to set the display name on the grub menu corresponding to the operating system.Configuring Grub There are two ways to configure the grub bootloader.0) means that grub will not mount the partition.2. If the user chooses the windows option then the windows operating system is booted. If the user makes no choice in 5 seconds then the default operating system will boot. In the above file the default operating system that will boot is Fedora. The kernel gives the control to the init process which is called father of all processes. The option chainloader +1 means that grub will call the other boot loader to boot the operating system. The initrd denotes the initial RAM disk boot image.7) means the files needed to boot the operating system is present on the eighth partition of the first hard disk. The rootnoverify (hd0. The option timeout=5 means that the user will have to make choice in 5 seconds on the grub menu. The option default=0 means that if user makes no choice then the first operating system in the file will be booted.g. on grub menu Fedora-Linux Windows is displayed. kernel indicates the kernel which is loaded. If user chooses fedora Linux on menu then the bootloader sees /dev/sda8 partition of the first hard disk (root (hd0. The ro option on the kernel line means that the partition is to be mounted read only.2. 2.

2.28 2.2.By using Boot Configuration To start the boot configuration graphical utility type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-boot The utility helps to chose default operating system which will be booted in case user has not made any choice within the time period on the grub menu.2. 2.2. If the user chooses 5 seconds then grub will wait for 5 seconds for user to make a choice after that it will boot the default operating system.2.1. This option is also available during the installation of Red Hat Linux.Editing /boot/grub/grub.conf using Text editors The configuration file can be edited using any of the text editors like vi.2.and emacs.3. gedit . It also helps the user to choose the timeout period in seconds. 2.2. The MD5-encrypted password for grub can be generated using the command [root@localhost ~]# man grub-md5-crypt . After making the changes the grub has to be restarted to make the changes take place.Password Protecting Grub Grub can also be password protected.

/etc/inittab file This file describes which processes are started at boot up and during normal boot process (for different run levels different numbers of processes are started).1. The kernel starts the init process after mounting basic filesystems during the boot process.3. 2.Starting init init is the father of all processes. Action describes the action to be taken by init. runlevel is the value between 0.29 in terminal. The init process looks for the entry initdefault in the file /etc/inittab.3. An entry in the inittab file has the following format: id:runlevel:action:process z z z z id is the unique identifier.4. The entry initdefault indicates the default runlevel with which system needs to be started up. 2.5 and 6 (some more values are available but not used).1. process specifies the process to be executed. If the entry initdefault is not mentioned in the file then the user has to enter the runlevel values in the console for the boot process to proceed. init looks to the file /etc/inittab and runs the script in the file /etc/inittab. initdefault An initdefault entry specifies the runlevel . The init process has the pid (process identification number each and every process running on the system has a unique number assigned to them known as PID) of 1.The runlevel field of sysinit. and bootwait entries are ignored. The process will be started once when the specified runlevel is entered and init will wait wait for its termination. boot. init Action respawn Description The process is restarted using the process for this action.3. After entering the command the user is prompted to enter the password and then to verify the password user has to reenter the password.2.

30 entered after system boot. The process field is ignored. init will prompt for runlevel on console. . # # inittab # # # Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 . Lines beginning with ‘#’ are comments. sysinit The process will be executed during system boot.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) This file describes how the INIT process should set up the system in a certain run-level. If none exists. Below is a sample /etc/inittab file. The runlevel field is ignored. ctrlaltdel If the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard together then the init responds by shutting down the system or rebooting (depending on the process set) powerfail This action denotes that power failure has occurred and init takes the action depending upon the process set for this action Powerokwait If the powerfail action has occurred and the process mentioned for the powerfail action is to shutdown after 2 minutes then this action comes into picture if the power is restored before 2 minutes then the process for this action takes place.

Single user mode # 2 . Schedule a shutdown for 2 minutes from now. # This does.sysinit l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 4 l5:5:wait:/etc/rc. assume you have powered installed and your . of course. si::sysinit:/etc/rc. assume we have a few minutes # of power left.d/rc 5 l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.Multiuser.d/rc 6 # Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now # When our UPS tells us power has failed.31 # 1 . without NFS (The same as 3.unused # 5 .d/rc.d/rc 2 l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:5:initdefault: # System initialization.d/rc 1 l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 3 l4:4:wait:/etc/rc. if you do not have networking) # 3 .X11 # 6 .Full multiuser mode # 4 .d/rc 0 l1:1:wait:/etc/rc.

d/rc 5 denotes that the process /etc/rc. cancel it. The line si::sysinit:/etc/rc. pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored.d/rc. Shutdown Canceled" # Run gettys in standard runlevels 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1 2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2 3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3 4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4 5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5 6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6 # Run xdm in runlevel 5 x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon The line id:5:initdefault: sets the action to initdefault and the runlevel is 5.sysinit is executed. .sysinit is executed for every runlevel for the action sysinit the process /etc/rc. The line ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now denotes that if the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys then the system reboots after three seconds.d/rc5 will be executed for the runlevel 5 and init will wait until the process is not completed.32 # UPS connected and working correctly. The line 5:5:wait:/etc/rc. System Shutting Down" # If power was restored before the shutdown kicked in.d/rc. pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure.

runlevel 0 Description It is used to halt the system. Shutdown Canceled" denotes that if the power resumes before two minutes then cancel the shutdown of the system.runlevel A runlevel is a software configuration of the system which allows only a selected group of processes to exist. The graphics mode is also available as . All the network services are available. System Shutting Down" denotes that if power failure occurs then the powerfail action takes place and the system is scheduled to wait for two minutes before shutting down. 2. The line x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon denotes that the X11 server is started in case of runlevel 5.3. The line pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored. No graphical tools are available. It should not be used in initdefault. Many users can login into the system. Network services like NFS/NIS/Xinetd are not available. 1 Single user mode. The network services are available but the graphics mode is not available 4 5 Not used Multiuser mode. 2 Multiuser mode. The graphical tools are not available as the X server is not running. Thus graphic interface is available in runlevel 5.33 The line pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure.3. 3 Multiuser mode.

3.a.d/rc2.4.d /etc/rc.1 and 6 are reserved.9.d /etc/rc. 2.d /etc/rc.Initializing System The script /etc/rc. The runlevels 0. Other runlevels like 7. It is a shell script which performs many functions like z z z z z z z z sets the hostname of the system checks SELinux status sets the system clock Initializes hardware Configures kernel parameters Mounts the filesystems Configures the hardware Starts and enables the swap space 2.d/rc1.1.d/rc4.Starting Services The services which will be started for a run level depends on the files contained in the directory of that runlevel. runlevel 0 1 2 3 4 directory /etc/rc.sysinit is run once at the boot time.d .4. This is not good choice for initdefault.d/rc3.34 the X11 is running.d/rc0. A good choice for the initdefault entry 6 All the process is terminated and the system is rebooted.3.8.d /etc/rc.c are also available but are not used.b.

All the programs (files of run level directories) whose name begin with S starts the service and name begin with K kills or stops the service.d/rc5. the directory /etc/rc. The directory /etc/rc. E.3.d The directory contains the scripts of all the runlevels.d/init.d/rc5. 2. Below is the sample file to start the network service.4.2.4.3. 2. The two digits determine the order in which the services will run.d. The concept of deciding the order in which the scripts will run remains the same for the files with name beginning with K. It contains two files S10network and S56Xinetd then the service S10network is run first.d/init. Bring up/down networking .d contains the run level scripts.3.g.d are to be run depends on the contents of the directory corresponding to the runlevels. Name of all the programs either begins with S or K followed by 2 digits (0-9) and after that name of the service. #! /bin/bash # # network # # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 # description: Activates/Deactivates all network interfaces configured to \ # start at boot time. Thus for a run level which scripts of the directory /etc/rc.d /etc/rc.d/rc6.35 5 6 /etc/rc.Format of scripts in /etc/rc.Naming convention of files in runlevel directories The files in the runlevel directories have special naming convention.d contains files for runlevel 5.d/init.d All programs in the directories of the above runlevel are symbolic link to programs in the directory /etc/rc.d/init.

3.4 and 5 with the priority or order 10 and in case of all other runlevels it stops the service with the order or priority 90.4. The init process kills or starts the processes necessary to switch to that runlevel in above case it will do it for runlevel 5.Determining current and previous runlevel To determine current and previous runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# runlevel N5 The letter N denotes that there is no previous runlevel (that is runlevel has not been changed).3.5.6 that is Use telinit 5 to switch to runlevel 5.4.1. 2.4.Configuring services for a runlevel .6.2.3.5. In the runlevel 5 directory /etc/rc.Changing runlevels To change the current runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# telinit n The letter n should be replaced by the values 0.4. 2.3. 2.4.36 # ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provides: $network ### END INIT INFO The line # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 sets the script to start in the runlevels 2.d/rc5.3.d a file with name S10network will exist (as network service starts for run level 5 with the priority 10 and in the runlevel directory /etc/rc. 5 denote that the current runlevel is 5.d a file with name K90network will exist as network service stops with the priority 90 in runlevel 1.d/rc1.

5.3.3. 2.4. 2.5. It can also be used to add a new service or delete a new service as well.2.Adding a new service To add new service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --add new-service-name The new-service-name should have a start or kill entry in each of the runlevel.Using command chkconfig The command chkconfig can used to view the information about every service in a runlevel and start or stop them. [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name on The service service-name is enabled for that runlevel.1.3.5.5. 2.5.3.37 User can decide the services which should run in a runlevel and which should not run in a run level. There are two methods to reorganize the services and view the information about the services in a runlevel.3. 2.Disable a service . 2. User can also see the status of each service in each runlevel.Deleting a new service To delete service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --del new-service-name The service new-service-name is deleted from the chkconfig management and all the links in the runlevel directories are also removed.3.Enable a service To enable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level).

7. 2.5.3.4 and 5 and disabled in 0. For example [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The service httpd is enabled in the runlevels 2.5.3.List status of all services To list status of all service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list The status of all the services is displayed for all runlevel. 2.List status of a service To list status of a service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list service-name The status of the service service-name is displayed for all runlevel. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start .3.5.Starting a service To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name start The service service-name is started in that runlevel.3.1. and 6. 2.6.5.38 To disable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level) [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name off The service service-name is disabled for that runlevel.

To start the service configuration use the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# serviceconf or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-services .8.Stopping a service [ OK ] To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name stop The service service-name is stopped in that runlevel. 2.39 Starting httpd: The service httpd is started. 2.3.4. It can be used to start a service.Using Graphical utilities [ OK ] The service configuration utility can be used to edit a runlevel.add a service and delete a service. stop a service.5. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd stop Stopping httpd: The service httpd is stopped.

. It has journaling feature that improves recovery from crashes.Overview Red Hat Linux uses the ext3 filesystem.2. All other filesystems are contained in it in form of subdirectories.FILESYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 3.stop or restart the service. The filesystems are organized in a hierarchy. If a disk partition is mounted on a filesystem then all the sub directories and files below that mount point are stored on that partition. 3. 3. All the filesystems which don't have separate partition are stored in the partition of / filesystem.40 User can check the box on the left of the service and then clicks to start.1. The / filesystem is on top of the hierarchy. After making any changes it need to be saved using the save option on the graphic tool. Let the / partition and /usr partition are mounted on /dev/sda5 and /dev/sda6 partitions then the sub directories and files below the /usr are stored in the /dev/sda6 partition.Filesystem Information /bin – it contains commands to be used by common users.

Web server. /sbin – it contains administrative commands. /proc – The /proc filesystem is virtual file system. /etc – it contains configuration file. The name of the sub 3.2. and directories of FTP.1. and documentation. user configuration files. /usr – contains user and administrative commands./etc/fstab file the /proc filesystem contains system information and information directory is same as that of process PID. It about the directory of the /proc. The sample /etc/fstab file is LABEL=/1 LABEL=/opt1 LABEL=/usr1 / /opt /usr ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults gid=5. This means that is not mounted on any disk partiotion. data used by services like /var – it contains log files of different services.mode=620 defaults defaults defaults 00 12 12 12 12 00 00 00 00 11 LABEL=/home1 /home LABEL=/boot1 tmpfs devpts sysfs proc /boot /dev/shm tmpfs /dev/pts /sys /proc devpts sysfs proc LABEL=SWAP-sda13 swap swap . applications. The process information is kept into a sub The file contains information about the filesystems.41 /boot – it contains bootable Linux kernel and bootloader /dev – it contains files representing device of the system. processes running on the system.

exec means allow execution of executable files. rw means in read write mode.swap are associated with a device that is Partition of hard disk but the filesystems with type proc.and async. auto. The second column represents the mount point in the filesystem. The filesystem types ext3. dev Interpret character or block special devices on the file system. nouser a non root user cannot mount the filesystem. async All I/O to the file system should be done asynchronously. The difference is /etc/fstab contains the static information about the filesystems while /etc/mtab contains the dynamic information about the filesystem. The filesystem with the option noauto in the fourth field are not mounted during boot time.42 The first column represents the device name representing the filesystem. suid. dev. The third column denotes the filesystem type. The defaults option mounts the filesystem with following options of mount rw./etc/mtab To view the filesystems which are actually used by a running Linux system type the command mount in terminal or view the contents of the /etc/mtab file.tmpfs are not associated with any partition of hard disk.2. The sample /etc/mtab file is below /dev/sda11 proc sysfs / /proc /sys ext3 proc sysfs rw rw rw 00 00 00 . nouser. suid Allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect. The fourth column contains the options used while mounting the filesystem during the system boot using the mount command. exec. 3.2.sysfs. auto means automatically mounted at boot time.

4.on-which-the-device-was-mounted .Unmounting a filesystem To unmount a filesystem use the following command umount directory-name.Mounting a filesystem To mount a filesystem mount command is used.3.gid=5.mode=620 0 0 rw rw rw rw rw 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 /dev/sda10 /usr /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs none sunrpc /home /boot /dev/shm /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs rpc_pipefs rw First column contains the disk partition which is mounted.2.43 devpts /dev/sda12 /dev/pts /opt devpts ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 tmpfs rw. Rests of the columns are same as that of the /etc/fstab file.2. 3. The standard format of mount command is mount -t filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name If a user wants to mount cdrom media in directory /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/cdrom /home/movies If a user wants to mount windows partition /dev/sda4 on /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount -t vfat /dev/sda4 /home/movies 3. Second column contains the filesystem mounted.

mke2fs .44 To unmount the /dev/sda4 use the following command root@localhost ~]#umount /home/movies To unmount a device when the device is no longer in use (at the time when the command is issued the device is in use so the command waits for the device). mkfs command is used to create the filesystems on a device.ext2 . root@localhost ~]#umount -l /home/movies To force unmounting of a directory use the below command root@localhost ~]#umount -f /home/movies 3.5. The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be created.Creating a filesystem A filesystem can be created on a device. Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked. For example files are being copied from mounted directory /home/movies then below command will unmount the directory when file copy is over.ext3. mkfs -t ext2 mkfs.2.rewritable Cd s. A device can be floppy disks. mke2fs .rewritable DVDs and hard disk partitions. The format of the command is mkfs -t filesystem-type device-name For example if ext3 filesystem is to be created on the re writable CD device then the command will be mkfs -t ext3 /dev/cdrom mkfs command is front end to the commands which are actually invoked to carry out the work of creating the filesystems on the device. mkfs -t ext3 . filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 mkfs.

ntfs.dir_index blocksize = 4096 inode_ratio = 8192 [fs_types] small = { blocksize = 1024 inode_ratio = 4096 } floppy = { blocksize = 1024 } news = { inode_ratio = 4096 . The configuration file contains the default parameters while creating the ext2 and ext3 filesystems.msdos ntfs xfs swap mkfs.mkdosfs.mkfs.filetype.45 vfat mkfs. mkfs -t vfat.vfat .conf. Below is the sample /etc/mke2fs file [defaults] base_features=sparse_super. mkfs -t xfs mkswap The commands mke2fs uses the configuration file /etc/mke2fs.xfs .mkfs -t ntfs mkfs.resize_inode.

0. The default parameters can be overridden from the command line. The file should be created using the following commands [root@localhost ~]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/swap bs=1000000 10+0 records in 10+0 records out 10000000 bytes (10 MB) copied. 267 MB/s This creates a file named swap in the /home directory of size 10 MB.0373886 s.Creating Swap space mkswap command is used to create a swap area on a device or file. It is data file (the output of the command file swap will return data as output). If the system has less swap area and no partition device can be used as swap area or user is not willing to do that then a swap area can also be created on a file.3. 3. The chmod command is used to change the file permissions of swap to 0 so that no one has the right to read.write or execute it. count=10 .46 } largefile = { inode_ratio = 1048576 } largefile4 = { inode_ratio = 4194304 } The defaults section of the file defines the default parameters used by the mke2fs. The fs_types section defines the default parameters which should be used for a specific filesystems for example for the floppy the blocksize is set to 1024.The ls -l swap command below shows the file permissions attached with the swap file created.

Enabling swap space The swap space created cannot be used by the system unless it is enabled using the swapon command. .3.47 [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap -rw-r--r-.1.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap [root@localhost home]# chmod 0 swap [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap ---------. This file can be used to see whether the swap area thus enables is used by the system or not. The format of the swapon command is swapon device-name For example to enable the swap space created on the swap file above use the command [root@localhost home]# swapon swap The file /proc/swaps shows the swap space area of the system. size = 9994 kB 3.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap Create swap space on the file swap [root@localhost home]# mkswap swap Setting up swapspace version 1. To check the contents of the /proc/swaps enter the below command on terminal [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 /home/swap Type partition file Size Used Priority -1 -2 819272 4 9756 0 The listing shows two swap areas on the system /dev/sda13 which is hard disk partition and /home/swap which is file.

3. The format of the command swapoff is swapoff device-name To disable the swap area created on the file swap in above case use the command [root@localhost home]# swapoff swap Now to check whether the swap file is disabled view the contents of the file /proc/swaps [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 Type partition Size Used Priority 819272 4 -1 3. fsck -t ext2 fsck.xfs . The general format of the fsck command is fsck -t filesystem-type device-name If no device-name is specified on the command line then the command checks the filesystem in order they are mentioned in the /etc/fstab file.48 3.2. fsck -t vfat. Filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 vfat ntfs xfs fsck.fsck.ext2 . fsck -t ext3 fsck. fsck -t xfs .ntfs. The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be checked. Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked.ext3. The fsck command is the front end to the commands which are invoked for different filesystem types.Checking and Repairing a filesystem The fsck command is used to check the linux filesystem and optionally repair it.fsck -t ntfs fsck.Disabling swap space To disable a swap area use the command swapoff.4.vfat .msdos fsck.

1. The badblocks command should not be run with the -w option as badblocks searches for the presence of badblocks on the device by writing a pattern on every block of the device which erases the data on the device. To protect data and check for badblocks use the below command badblocks device-name or badblocks -n device-name To erase the data and check for the badblocks use the below command badblocks -w device-name . Those devices or filesystem should be checked for badblocks using the badblocks command without any option or with the -n option.49 fsck command returns the following exit codes 0 .4.Usage or syntax error 32 .Shared library error The exit code returned when multiple file systems are checked is bit-wise OR of the exit codes for each file system that is checked.Operational error 16 .File system errors corrected 2 .Searching for badblocks The command badblocks searches for the badblocks on a device. So.fsck canceled by user request 128 .System should be rebooted 4 . The -n option is read only mode so no data is written on the device block and hence the data is not erased.the filesystems which have data should not be checked with badblocks using the -w option.No errors 1 . 3.File system errors left uncorrected 8 .

# Sample auto.master and finds the mount points on system.d directory.master file # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # For details of the format look at autofs(5). The users don’t have to run the mount command to mount the filesystems like /home. Each mount points found is mounted by automount and a thread is also started by automount to manage the mount point. The autofs service lies in the /etc/rc. This automatic mounting of filesystem is due to the autofs service which runs when the system boots. # /misc /etc/auto. The autofs service controls the operation of the automount daemons./usr etc. automount mounts a mount point when the mount point is accessed and deactivates it when it is no longer used. Below is the sample /etc/auto.5. It reads the file /etc/auto.master file.Automatically mounting a filesystem When a system is booted the filesystems are automatically mounted. # # Note that if there are entries for /net or /misc (as # above) in the included master map any keys that are the .d/init.misc /net -hosts # # Include central master map if it can be found using # nsswitch sources.50 3. When a system boots then the autofs service runs with the option start and when the system is shutting down the autofs service runs with the option stop.

nosuid.soft.51 # same will not be seen as the first read key seen takes # precedence.intr -fstype=ext2 -fstype=auto -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 ftp.misc tells the daemon automount to look into the file /etc/auto.misc file is # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # Details may be found in the autofs(5) manpage cd -fstype=iso9660.ro.org:/pub/linux :/dev/hda1 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/sdc1 :/dev/hdd #removable In the above file the line starting with # are comments.example.nosuid.nodev :/dev/cdrom .ro.nodev :/dev/cdrom # the following entries are samples to pique your imagination #linux #boot #floppy #floppy #e2floppy #jaz -ro. The line cd -fstype=iso9660.master In the above file the lines starting with # are comments. The line /misc /etc/auto. The sample /etc/auto. # +auto.misc for the mount points.

6.During installation . Currently.d/autofs status automount (pid 2157) is running. 3. RAID4. RAID10.1.6. RAID6.52 Causes the automount to mount the /dev/cdrom device when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive and change the directory to the /dev/cdrom. Linux Software RAID devices are implemented through the md (Multiple Devices) device driver. RAID5. RAID devices are virtual devices created from two or more real block devices.d/init. 3. Journaling feature means that it helps to recover from crashes and brings the filesystem into a consistent state. If power failure occurs when a system is running and it shutdowns immediately (not a graceful shutdown that is the system shuts down before user can shutdown using the shutdown -h now command or from the graphic panel choosing the shutdown option) leaves the filesystem in a inconsistent state. Linux supports LINEAR md devices. Journaling feature of the filesystem enables it to recover from such kind of crashes. 3.. This allows multiple devices to be combined into a single device to hold a single filesystem.. But journaling feature is not sufficient to handle all the cases for example if one of the partition is damaged then the files cannot be recovered.Creating RAID device The RAID devices can be created during installation and after installation. RAID0 (striping). If user comments this line the /dev/cdrom drive will not be automatically mounted when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive.Checking status of automount To check whether automount is running in the system or not type the following command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# /etc/rc.RAID disks Linux uses the ext3 filesystem type which has journaling feature.5. RAID1 (mirroring). RAID disks are used to improve disk performance and minimize the chance of data loss.1. 3.6.1.1.

filesystem type. The value of n2 is equal to the number of physical devices which forms the raid device /dev/md0.-raid devices=3 /dev/sda0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 3. On that panel select create a software raid partition button. The values of n1 can be 0. assembles and monitors the raid devices.1. and 10.Using mdadm command To create the RAID device use the mdadm command.-create raid-device-name . The various format of the mdadm command are mdadm raid-device-name -f hard-disk-device-name . 4. raid level information on the raid device panel.2. Raid array means the physical devices which together makes a logical raid device. 5. 1./dev/sda1. The format of the mdadm command for creating raid devices is mdadm .6. To create a raid device /dev/md0 of level 1 using the hard disks /dev/sda0.-level=n1 . 3. mdadm command is all purpose command for raid devices. 6.-level=1 .-raid devices=n2 hard-disk-device-name n1 is a number which denotes the raid level of the raid device. remove it from the raid array or add it to raid array. Create the partition with software raid as the filesystem type from the raid options panel select create a raid device button Enter the mount point. viewed using the mdadm command after the installation. raid device.Other uses of mdadm The mdadm can be used to mark a device of a raid array to be marked as failed. The raid device name will be /dev/md0 if the first raid device is being created and so on.3. The hard-disk-device name is name of the devices separated by spaces. The raid devices information can be monitored./dev/sda2 use the following command mdadm . enables.6. z z z z z On the disk druid menu selecting the raid button launches the raid options panel. It creates.1.53 During installation of Red Hat Linux the RAID devices can be created using the disk druid partition manager.-create /dev/md0 . This creates the raid devices.

6.-details raid-device-name 3. The pvcreate command is used to initialize the partition for use by logical volume utilities.4.7. The format of pvcreate command is pvcreate hard-disk-partition-name To initialize the partition /dev/sda5 of the hard disk run the command [root@localhost ~]# pvcreate /dev/sda5 .Creating A Logical Volume Group To create a Logical volume group at first physical volume is initialized.1. 3.7. To mark the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example as failure the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -r hard-disk-device-name is used to remove the device.Logical Volume Group Logical volume group support is provided in Red Hat Linux. To remove the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -a hard-disk-device-name is used to add the device as a spare.54 to mark the device as failed. To add the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda2 3.Information about a raid device The mdadm command is also used to see the detailed information about an active raid device.1. The command used for the purpose is given below mdadm .

. The format of command vgcreate and vgextend is vgcreate volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 …. To create the new volume group my_vol_grp for the /dev/sda5 of the above example use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgcreate my_vol_grp /dev/sda5 Volume group "my_vol_grp" successfully created To view the attributes of the volume group created use the command vgdisplay....55 Physical volume "/dev/sda5" successfully created Then add the physical volume thus created to the new volume group using the command vgcreate or added to an existing volume group using the command vgextend........ The format of the command vgdisplay is vgdisplay volume-group-name For example to view the attributes of the volume group my_vol_grp use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgdisplay my_vol_grp --..Volume group --VG Name System ID Format Metadata Areas lvm2 1 my_vol_grp Metadata Sequence No 1 VG Access VG Status read/write resizable . vgextend volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 ...

77 GB 3I5EmB-es47-Deqz-hN9w-eUaK-u1i6-tMSCoW To create a new logical volume in the volume group the command lvcreate is used. GB.7G my_vol_grp .56 MAX LV Cur LV Open LV Max PV Cur PV Act PV VG Size PE Size Total PE Alloc PE / Size Free PE / Size VG UUID 0 0 0 0 1 1 9. To create the logical volume group on the my_vol_grp volume group created earlier use the command [root@localhost dev]# lvcreate -L 9.77 GB 4. KB (G means GB.00 MB 2500 0/0 2500 / 9. In the second case space on which the logical group is to be created is given as the total space expressed in MB. The format of the command lvcreate is lvcreate -l %VG or %FREE volume-group-name lvcreate -L G or M or K volume-group-name In the first case the space on which the logical group is to be created is expressed as the percentage of the total space of the volume group or the percentage of the total space of the free space. M means MB and K means KB).

7.57 Rounding up size to full physical extent 9.Logical volume --LV Name VG Name LV UUID LV Write Access LV Status # open LV Size Current LE Segments Allocation /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 my_vol_grp CaD0Bp-Czo8-fCbu-QXi5-d0I1-LHS3-TwJvVw read/write available 0 9. The format is lvremove /dev/volume-group/logical-volume-name .2.70 GB 2484 1 inherit 0 Read ahead sectors Block device 253:0 3. [root@localhost dev]# lvdisplay /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 --. To check the logical volume created view the contents of the directory /dev/my_vol_grp. It will contain an entry lvol0. To display the information about the logical volume thus created use the lvdisplay command.Remove a logical volume The lvremove command is used for this purpose.70 GB Logical volume "lvol0" created The above commands create the logical volume successfully.

7.4. To invoke the Logical Volume Management utility run the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-lvm .3. removing volume group and logical volume.58 To remove logical volume logical-volume-name.7.5. To remove all the logical volumes in a volume group use lvremove /dev/volume-group 3.7. vgremove volume-group-name 3. pvremove physical-volume 3.Logical volume management utility Red Hat offers graphical utility to achieve all the functions performed above like creating a volume group. viewing and editing the information about the volume group and logical volume.Remove a physical volume The command pvremove is used for this purpose. creating a logical volume.Remove a volume group The command vgremove is used for this purpose.

Red Hat offers the luxury of maintaining the package in a simple and efficient way. 4. and graphical utilities.d. 4.conf.2. User can use the buttons edit properties to edit the properties of the logical volume. . There are many options available to the user yum.Modified) is used to install and update the software packages in rpm format from software repositories on the web. The uninitialized entries are the normal partitions of the hard disks and the volume group shows the volume group created for example this window shows the volume group my_vol_grp and within the volume group the logical volume lvol0 is listed.Overview A good operating system should allow the user to install and update software with ease.PACKAGE MANAGEMENT 4. rpm. The yum uses the configuration file /etc/yum.1.conf and the configuration files in the directory /etc/yum.59 In the above utility the left hand panel shows the volume groups and the uninitialized entries.Using yum yum (Yellow Dog Updater .

The files in the directory /etc/yum.60 The yum command checks the configuration files and searches the locations mentioned in the configuration files for the package which is needed to be updated or installed by yum.log exactarch=1 obsoletes=1 gpgcheck=1 plugins=1 metadata_expire=1800 cachedir mentions the directory which yum uses as the cache memory that is storage for storing temporary file.d. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost etc]# cd yum.repos. The log file where yum writes the log information. keepcache options value if 0 causes the headers and cache files to be deleted after successful installation and value 1 retains the files.repos.d contain the location on the web which yum searches for the packages.conf is [main] cachedir=/var/cache/yum keepcache=0 debuglevel=2 logfile=/var/log/yum. The option gpgcheck if 1 forces yum to check the gpg keys of the packages and if 0 the gpg keys are not checked. The format of sample configuration file /etc/yum.ls . Each file represents the location of the packages.

repo livna-testing.repo fedora.repocp livna-devel.61 fedora-development.repo Each file corresponds to a software repository on web.repo livna. The yum command takes a number of inputs.repo fedora-updates.repo fedora-updates-testing.repocp fedora-updates. The general format of the command is yum option package-name In case of some options yum don't need package name so the format becomes yum option Option install update Description Installs a package Updates a package usage yum install package-name yum update package-name yum check-update check-update Checks whether an update is available for the packages installed in the system . The file will be in the below form [fedora] name=Software-Server baseurl=give the http address of the server mirrorlist=give address of the mirror location enabled=1 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=location of the gpg key file.repo fedora.

If the in- . Option Usage -i -U description rpm – i package-name Install a package rpm -U package-name Updates package already installed on the system.Using rpm A lot number of Red Hat software exists in rpm format. It is very easy to install the rpm software packages by using the rpm command. -F rpm -F package-name Upgrade a previously installed package. upgrade. verify. If any previous version of package is not installed then the package is installed. -e rpm -e package-name Erases a package from system -q rpm -q package-name Queries about a package -V rpm -V package-name Verify an installed package against its original software package. The rpm command can be used to install. and uninstall the rpm software.62 remove Removes the package and any dependent package from the system yum remove package-name erase Same as remove Same as remove 4.3.

5-12. -v rpm -v Prints verbose information -vv rpm -vv Prints lots of verbose information -h rpm -h Prints # marks during the package processing using rpm.fc7 . and -h is used with the other options. -vv. If the rpm command is to be used with two options then use this form usually the option -v. 50 # are printed when 100% processing is done. The format is [root@localhost rpm]# rpm -qvv python D: opening db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages joinenv D: opening db index D: locked db index D: opening db index D: opening db index /var/lib/rpm/Packages rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Name rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys rdonly mode=0x0 D: read h# 1353 Header sanity check: OK D: ========== DSA pubkey id b44269d0 4f2a6fd2 (h#1353) D: read h# 741 Header V3 DSA signature: OK. key ID 4f2a6fd2 python-2.63 stalled package matches with original software package then there is no output.

The option -q and -vv are used together.gz This forms realplay.tar.gz extension use the commands gunzip realplay. If the software is installed it prints the information about the software. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system. make and make install commands.tar.gz . and tar. tgz. In above case it queries the database to get the information about the python rpm package. The two commands can be combined into one command tar xvfz realplay. The configuration file .4.gz.64 D: closed db index D: closed db index D: closed db index /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: closed db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: May free Score board((nil)) In above example rpm queries the rpm database to find out whether the python software is installed.bz2 format. The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc.tar generates directory realplay. /configure.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user level rpm configuration file. To uncompress the packages with tar.Using make The software packages are available in the tar. It also uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information. 4. The packages need to be uncompressed and then the source code is to be build using the.tar and then use the command tar xvf realplay.

The command make install installs the package on the system. To invoke the Package Manager enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost redhat]# system-config-packages . It searches the software repositories which have been defined in the yum configuration files./configure command configures the package for the platform of the system. If the source code is in tar.65 generates directory realplay.bz2 It forms the directory realplay./configure make make install The . The make command makes the package for the system.Package Manager package manager is a graphical utility which gathers the information about the packages available over the web for update and installation.5. 4.tar After uncompressing the package change the working directory of the terminal to the directory realplay Now to install the package run the commands .bz2 format then use the command bzip2 -d realplay.tar.

If the changes are applied then the packages are downloaded from web and are installed. User account can also be created after installation. After choosing for the packages which need to be installed the user can decide to apply the changes made on the panel.66 On the browse tab user can browse for the packages available over the web in different categories. 5. available package. It is also used to update default values used while creating a new user. During installation root user account has to be created (root user is administrator of the system). The general format of the useradd command is useradd options user-name . 5. Each user belongs to a group account.2.1.Creating User Account The useradd command is used to create a new user. and installed package depending upon the option box chosen by the user. On the search tab user can search for a package and on the list tab the user gets the listing of all the package.USER AND GROUP ADMINISTRATION 5. One more user account is asked to create (user may choose to create the account or skip).Overview Linux is a multi user operating system. Group account can also be created after installation.

relative to the # home directory. # QMAIL_DIR is for Qmail . MAIL_DIR takes #precedence. The sample /etc/login. To view the default values enter the following command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/bash SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes Simplest form of useradd command is useradd user-name If this command is run useradd creates the user account by using the default values.67 useradd -D options useradd -D The first form is used to create a new user while the second form is used to override the default options used while creating a new user. If you _do_ define both.defs for the default values to be used while creating the user.defs file is # *REQUIRED* #Directory where mailboxes reside.or name of file. The third form is used to view the default values which will be used while creating a user account. useradd reads the file /etc/login.

PASS_WARN_AGE Number of days warning given before a #password expires. .68 # #QMAIL_DIR MAIL_DIR #MAIL_FILE Maildir /var/spool/mail . PASS_MIN_LEN Minimum acceptable password length.mail # Password aging controls: # #PASS_MAX_DAYS Maximum number of days a password may #be used. # # # # PASS_MAX_DAYS 99999 PASS_MIN_DAYS 0 PASS_MIN_LEN 5 PASS_WARN_AGE 7 # # Min/max values for automatic uid selection in useradd # UID_MIN UID_MAX # # Min/max values for automatic gid selection in groupadd 500 60000 PASS_MIN_DAYS Minimum number of days allowed #between password changes.

# #USERDEL_CMD /usr/sbin/userdel_local # # If useradd should create home directories for users by default # On RH systems. UMASK 077 # This enables userdel to remove user groups if no members exist. we do. this command is run when removing a user. owned by # the user to be removed (passed as the first argument). . # the permission mask will be initialized to 022.69 # GID_MIN GID_MAX # # If defined. If not specified. # CREATE_HOME yes 500 60000 # The permission mask is initialized to this value. # USERGROUPS_ENAB yes # Use MD5 or DES to encrypt password? Red Hat use MD5 by #default. # It should remove any at/cron/print jobs etc. This option is overridden with the -m flag #on # useradd command line.

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MD5_CRYPT_ENAB yes So if a user is created with the command [root@localhost ~]# useradd user1 Then a directory user1 is created in /home, shell is /bin/bash, mailbox lies in /var/spool/mail directory and the contents of the /etc/skel directory is copied in the /home/user1 directory. /etc/skel contains the login and application startup scripts. The contents of the /etc/skel are viewed using ls -la command. [root@localhost skel]# ls -la total 80 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 2009-01-13 22:20 . drwxr-xr-x 138 root root 12288 2009-01-13 22:53 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 33 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_logout -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 176 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_profile -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 124 2007-02-12 20:48 .bashrc -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 500 2007-05-23 19:45 .emacs drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:21 .kde drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:08 .xemacs -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 658 2007-03-06 01:54 .zshrc .bash_logout,.bash_profile,and .bashrc contains the user specific options and aliases which is used by the bash shell each time the bash shell starts up..kde contains the kde desktop application options. The .bashrc file can be used by user to customize user's shell environment. The sample .bashrc file is # .bashrc # Source global definitions

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if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then . /etc/bashrc fi # User specific aliases and functions If the file /etc/bashrc exists then the file is executed./etc/bashrc contains the global options to the bash shell. The options in /etc/bashrc apply to all users using bash shell. The values in /etc/bashrc can be overridden using the .bashrc file. Much information needed to create user account is taken from the file /etc/profile. It sets the hostname, histsize of the shell, shell environment variables like PATH,USER,LOGNAME,and INPUTRC etc. The /etc/profile file also looks in the directory /etc/profile.d for the files which contain aliases and environment variables for use by the user. General format The default values used while creating a user account can be overridden by passing those values from shell. The format of useradd command is useradd -c “comment” -d home directory path -g group name -p password -s shell -u userid [root@localhost ~]# useradd -c "new user" -d /home/user2 -g user1 -s /bin/csh user2 When a user account is created an entry corresponding to the user name for example user1,user2 is created in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow file. An entry is also added when a new group is created for example user1. Below is the content of /etc/passwd filesystem user1:x:502:502::/home/user1:/bin/bash user2:x:503:502:new user:/home/user2:/bin/csh /etc/shadow file contains the user name and the encrypted password of the user. The entry of /etc/group file is user1:x:502: Changing default values

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The command useradd -D -b home directory name -s shell -g group can be used to change the default values used while creating new user account. Below command is used to change the shell to /bin/tcsh from /bin/bash [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D -s /bin/tcsh [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/tcsh SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes
5.3.Modifying user account

usermod command is used to modify the user information. The general format of usermod command is usermod -c “comment” -d home-directory-name -g group-name -l login-name -s shell -u user-id
5.4.Deleting user account

userdel command is used to delete the user account. userdel user-name this deletes the entry corresponding to the user name from /etc/passwd file and /etc/shadow. To delete the home directory along with the account following command is used userdel -r user-name

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5.5.1.Adding New Group groupadd command is used to add new group. If no options are specified on the command line default values are used. The format of groupadd command is groupadd -g group-id groupadd-r option Second command is used to add administrative groups. Administrative group and users have ids below 500.The file /etc/gshadow is used to store the group's password. 5.5.2.Modifying group information groupmod command is used to modify existing group information. groupmod -g new-group-id -n new-group-name. 5.5.3.Deleting group groupdel command is used to delete group. It deleted the entry of group from the files like /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
5.6.Using User Manager

The user manager utility is used to perform all the tasks discussed above using the graphical interface. To invoke the user manager utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-users

To modify existing user information click on the user name and then use the properties button. .74 It can be used to add . The below panel is generated.modify and delete user and group information. The information can be edited on the below panel and changes can be saved.

click on the add user button. .75 To create a new user. The below window is thrown and the information of new user can be entered.

.Space Usage The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a directory.6.7.Changing user password The password of user can be changed by entering the command passwd.and G (gigabyte) form. The size of files contained in a subfolder is also displayed .76 5. passwd user-name if the user-name is not mentioned then it is assumed that user wants to change root user's password. The command prompts for root user's password and then for the new password.1. The format of the command is du folder-name if the option -h is used the command displays the size of files and subfolders in K (kilobytes). The password needs to be entered twice. 5.M(megabytes).

xemacs 44K /home/user1 The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem. The format of the command is df filesystem If the filesystem option is not used on command line then df displays the amount of space available in all the mounted filesystems of the system. The root user is administrator account on Red Hat Linux.0K /home/user1/.kde 8.kde/Autostart 12K /home/user1/. During installation the root account is must to create. [root@localhost ~]# df Filesystem /dev/sda11 /dev/sda12 /dev/sda10 /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on 9920592 2390424 7018100 26% / 4956284 141220 4559232 4% /opt 9920592 4643932 4764592 50% /usr 16479668 384520 15244508 3% /home 101086 383428 18499 77368 20% /boot 0 383428 0% /dev/shm 6.77 [root@localhost ~]# du -h /home/user1 8.SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 6.0K /home/user1/.Overview The root user is can perform all the tasks on the system.1. .

Using the su Using the su command a user can also get privilege of root user but the user will be prompted for the root user's password. 6.Getting Administration Rights 6.1. The user id and group id of the root user is 0.78 6. Below is the sample /etc/passwd file root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin . Te user and group ids below 500 are reserved for the administrative users. There are some administrative accounts which are automatically created by Linux but the user accounts cannot be used to log into the system as they are defined with the /sbin/nologin. The format of the su command is su – user-name If user2 has entered this command in terminal then he will have the privilege of user-name (he can perform all actions which user1 can perform using the terminal in which he entered the above command.2.2. Outside that terminal he won't have the privilege of user1).2./sbin/nologin refuses login from the user. The user accounts are listed in the file /etc/passwd.2. If he enters the password correctly then he gets the privilege of root user else he won't get the privilege.The su command The su command is used to change the user id and group id of the user issuing the command to that of user mentioned on the su command.

4. /bin/mount. /bin/ping. /sbin/partprobe. Only root user can use the commands . /usr/bin/wvdial.2. /usr/bin/yum ## Services Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service. 6. /sbin/iptables. For example ## Command Aliases ## These are groups of related commands.and mail are defined with /sbin/nologin so those user accounts cannot be used to login into system.2. /sbin/mii-tool ## Installation and management of software Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm..lp. 6. /sbin/parted./sbin and /usr/sbin directory The directory /sbin and /usr/sbin contain administrative commands.1.Administrative commands 6.3. /sbin/ifconfig.2. The privilege can be granted by the root user only.daemon. /sbin/sfdisk. The root user must be created on a Linux machine and all other user accounts in above sample are automatically created. /usr/bin/rfcomm. /sbin/chkconfig ## Updating the locate database Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/sbin/updatedb ## Storage Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk. ## Networking Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route. /usr/bin/up2date./etc/sudoers file The file /etc/sudoers file defines group of similar command under an alias name..Other uses must have given privilege to use those commands.3. /sbin/dhclient. /bin/umount .adm.79 The users bin. /usr/bin/net. /sbin/iwconfig.

## service management apps and more. Then in the file /etc/sudoers different groups are defined with different levels of privilege. SOFTWARE. # %sys ALL = NETWORKING. The explanation is any user can use mount command to view the filesystems currently mounted on the system but only root can use it to mount a filesystem. DRIVERS ## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands # %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Same thing without a password # %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL ## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the ## cdrom as root # %users ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom. PROCESSES. software./bin/mount. LOCATE. /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom ## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system # %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now . STORAGE is defined for the commands /sbin/fdisk. STORAGE. ## Allow root to run any commands anywhere root ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking./sbin/sfdisk. DELEGATING. In above case the command mount is in directory /bin./bin/umount. Since normal users can not use commands in /sbin directory that is why mount command is in /bin directory. SERVICES.80 At first command aliases are defined in the /etc/sudoers file.

Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. The format of the command is .bin..adm.daemon The entry jack is made in /etc/group file.Changing owner and group The chown command is used to change the owner or/and group of a file.3. Suppose a user jack is to be given the privilege of group sys then uncomment the line #%sys using the /sbin/visudo command.adm. The general format of the command is chown owner:group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner.daemon daemon:x:2:root.bin. Now the user jack can use the command rpm to install any software prefixing the command rpm with sudo for example sudo rpm -i vlc 6.bin.daemon sys:x:3:root. The chgrp command is used to change the group of a file.81 The file /etc/sudoers should be edited using the /sbin/visudo command. Then open the file /etc/group and add the user jack on line corresponding to the group sys root:x:0:root bin:x:1:root. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens.jack adm:x:4:root.

4.deleting.1.modifying user and group accounts) (discussed before) managing services to be run in a runlevel (discussed before) Updating existing software and installing new software (discussed before) Monitoring system performance Automating tasks Managing and tuning kernel 6.4.Monitoring System performance 6. To start the system monitor utility follow these steps on desktop go to system--> then go to administration-->then click on System Monitor. .Using System Monitor The system information can be viewed using the System Monitor utility.82 chgrp group-name file-name changes the group of file-name to group. The system administration can be divided into several parts z z z z z z Managing user accounts (creating.

View Process. Kill Process. End Process. The user can click on a process and then can end process by clicking on the End Process button. A user can also choose which information he/she wants to see for the processes using the Edit->preferences option of the menu .83 On the processes tab the user can see the listing of all the processes of the system at that moment. On the preferences window the user can choose the time interval after which the information is to be refreshed. Using the Edit menu option the user can Start Process. and also change the priority of the process. Using the view menu option user can choose the option to see only processes started by him (his process) or all process or active processes on the system. Using the filesystems tab the filesystems currently mounted on the system are displayed. .

Other commands There are several commands available in Linux which can be used to view the system information. .4. no of processes sleeping.1. The priority of the process.% memory usage.2. 6.Using w command The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them.4. no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number ).4. The top command gives various information about the system z z z z z z number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes.84 6. 6.Using top The top utility is started by typing the top command in the terminal window. the command used for invoking the process.3.3.percent CPU usage. no of processes active. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system.

04s 0.10.3.19 6.no of processes in sleep(under sub heading b).blocks sent to block devices(bo). Under the memory heading it displays amount of virtual memory used(swpd). load average: 0. under swap heading amount of memory swapped in from disk(si) and amount of memory swapped out(so). 0.4.0 LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT 22:48 10:07 0.2.3. [root@localhost ~]# vmstat procs --memory----. Under the io heading blocks received from block devices(bi). 2 users.--system-. load average: 0.03s 0.3.00s find /home 23:08 1.19 USER TTY FROM root root pts/0 :0. [root@localhost ~]# uptime 23:17:44 up 32 min. .Using uptime The uptime command is used to show the time for which system is running.19.22. Load average of the system and number of users logged on the system currently.free memory.-----cpu-----si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st 0 0 0 218808 20736 258632 0 0 144 38 114 435 7 1 89 2 0 Under the proc heading it displays the no of processes waiting for run time (under r sub heading). Under the CPU heading the CPU related information.21.Using vmstat The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics.0 pts/1 :0. 0.00s w 6. cache memory. 0.4.00s 0.---swap-r b swpd free buff cache -io---. 0. 2 users.85 [root@localhost ~]# w 23:17:20 up 32 min. buffer memory.

3. The format of the kill command is kill -s signal-name pid z z z if the pid is 0 then all process in current process are signaled. 6.4. .4. [root@localhost ~]# free total Mem: 766860 used 550340 266068 0 free 216520 500792 shared 0 buffers 22476 cached 261796 -/+ buffers/cache: Swap: 819272 819272 6.Log information The user can see the log information of the system using the System Log viewer .86 6.The system log viewer is launched from desktop using SYSTEM-->ADMINISTRATION-->SYSTEM LOG.3.5. If the pid is 1 then processes with pid >1 re signaled if pid is > 1 then the process with that id is signaled.4.4.Using free It gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system.Using kill The kill command is used to end a process.

log contains the log information of boot time. The * is replaced by the output of uname -r command. 7.2.and the information about the drivers can be viewed.87 On the left hand side the list of log files is displayed. Clicking on the cron entry on left displays the log information about the jobs scheduled using the cron utility on the right panel of the above utility.21-1. The hardware drivers are installed to interface with the hardware. 7.networking modules.kernel Modules All the modules configured into the kernel are located in the directory /lib/modules/*/.fc7]# ls build modules. The content of the directory is [root@localhost 2.1.KERNEL SERVICES AND CONFIGURATION 7.3194. For example the file /var/log/boot.symbols . User can click on the name of files to view the log information. The hardware drivers are maintained as the modules of the kernel.dep modules.6. The log information about the cups can be seen by expanding the tree under the cups entry on the left panel of the utility. The drivers can be inserted.deleted.Overview Linux kernel is heart of Linux operating system.

ofmap kernel modules.2.21-1.ccwmap modules. The file/proc/module contains the listing of modules currently loaded into the kernel. For example to view information about the driver i915 of above case use the command [root@localhost ~]# modinfo i915 filename: license: /lib/modules/2.fc7/kernel/drivers/char/drm/i915.alias modules.inputmap modules.ieee1394map modules. 7. [root@localhost ~]# lsmod Module i915 drm Size Used by 25793 3 78037 4 i915 7745 1 ipt_MASQUERADE iptable_nat nf_nat 11461 1 22125 2 ipt_MASQUERADE.1.libata modules.pcimap modules.networking contains the name of the drivers for the network devices.scsi updates modules.3194.usbmap source modules.isapnpmap modules. The file modules.6.Modules Loaded into Kernel To view the modules currently loaded into the kernel use the command lsmod.seriomap weak-updates The kernel subdirectory of the above output contains the drivers currently part of the kernel.88 extra modules.iptable_nat The modinfo command can be used to view information about any of the loaded module into the kernel.ko GPL and additional rights description: Intel Graphics .

The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command. The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel. 7.and remove a module from the kernel. Inc. If module2 is dependent on module1 then the file contents will be /lib/modules/*/kernel/crypto/module2. 9274BE575209BE18EC18D84 drm 7. Let module2 is module dependent on module1 then if the command modprobe module1 is executed then the modules module1 and module2 both are inserted as the module2 is dependent on module1. The user has to insert the driver module into the kernel.2.2. The format of the command is rmmod module-name 7.Using modprobe command The modprobe command can be used to insert a module into kernel .ko /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1.Removing module from kernel The rmmod command is used to remove a module from the kernel.3.Inserting module into kernel Sometimes a user might need to install a hardware device if the hardware driver is not part of the kernel.2.ko .89 author: srcversion: depends: Tungsten Graphics. The module dependencies are listed into the modules.ko: /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1.2.dep file located in the directory /lib/modules/uname -r/.4.

90 : In above example the modules module1 and module2 are listed using fully qualified path name.Process and Kernel Information 7.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe. The modprobe command looks in the directory /lib/modules/*/ and also for the configuration file /etc/modprobe.2. There are many options available for the ps command.The ps command The ps command is all purpose command to get information about the processes running on the system.1. In above case if the command modprobe binfmt-0000 is run then the command /bin/true is executed.3. The command modprobe -r module-name is used to remove the modules from the kernel. 7.Changing priority of process The renice command is used to change the priority of the running process. The option options define the options which will be used when the module is inserted into the kernel. The command ps aux is used to display all the processes currently running on the system.conf file is alias eth0 via-rhine options snd-intel8x0 index=0 install binfmt-0000 /bin/true The option alias defines an alternate name eth0 for the via-rhine.3. The install option is used to run the commands defined after the module name. The dependent module is on left side and the independent module is on the right side of the semicolon. But if the command insmod is used then the module1 is only inserted. 7. The sample modprobe. The format of the renice command is renice priority -p pid of process -u user-name -g group-id .3.d.

....3194...... If the value of level is 1 then the serious error messages are only printed. ..fc7 (kojibuilder@xenbuilder4..Using dmesg It is used to examine and print the boot up message.1.3.1.91 If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes and if issued for group then the process priority of all processes owned by the group is changed and if issued for process id then the process priority is changed.2-12)) #1 SMP Wed May 23 22:35:01 EDT 2007 BIOS-provided physical RAM map: sanitize start sanitize end copy_e820_map() start: 0000000000000000 size: 000000000009fc00 end: 000000000009fc00 type: 1 . The user can use the command to capture the messages.6.phx.. [root@localhost modprobe..... The format of the command is dmesg -c -n level The -c option clears the kernel ring buffer after printing -n option sets the level of messages which will be printed.3..com) (gcc version 4...21-1....redhat. .2 20070502 (Red Hat 4.. After the execution the kernel ring buffer gets clear now if the command dmesg is run again then there will be no output....fedora.. is the output of command.. 7. .d]# dmesg -c Linux version 2...

* /var/log/cron -/var/log/maillog # Everybody gets emergency messages *.log /var/log/spooler .Syslogd The syslogd supports the system logging as well as kernel message trapping.log local7. Below is the sample /etc/syslog. uucp. #kern.* /var/log/secure /var/log/messages # Log all the mail messages in one place.none.conf. # Don't log private authentication messages! *.authpriv.none. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written. authpriv.info.none.* /var/log/boot. syslogd supports the system logging.crit # Save boot messages also to boot.news.* # Log cron stuff cron.* /dev/console # Log anything (except mail) of level info or higher. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog.mail.emerg * # Save news errors of level crit and higher in a special file.4. # Logging much else clutters up the screen.cron.92 7. The syslogd and klogd comprises the sysklogd package.3.conf file # Log all kernel messages to the console. mail.none # The authpriv file has restricted access.news.

The /etc/at.1.4.crit /var/log/news/news.4.batch. If the file is not present then klogd uses a system call to obtain kernel messages.and cron facilities are used to schedule a job at a specified time. The root user can use the at command. The klogd daemon always runs on a running system and traps any messages which kernel generates. The at. The /etc/at. 7.93 # # INN # news. The file /etc/at. The process id(PID) of the klogd daemon is defined in the file /var/run/klogd.err /var/log/news/news. 7. The klogd captures the kernel messages. If .deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. The at command cannot be used by all the users. There are two files which determine which users can use the at command. The source for the kernel message is the /proc/kmsg file.Automating Tasks -- A user can schedule to run a job at a specified time.allow file is first checked for the user name who can use the at command if the file is not present then the file /etc/at.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command.deny is checked to see the users who cannot use the at command.notice In the above file /var/log/secure file is defined to contain the authorization and security related messages.pid.=crit news.=err news.Using at The at command is used to schedule a job at a time and the atd daemon runs the job scheduled by the at command.notice /var/log/news/news. For example the PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) related messages are logged in this file. The cron job messages are logged in the file /var/log/cron The file name can be changed by the root user if root wants to log the information into different file.

2. and the jobs with b on right are in batch queue.using pipe A list of command can be scheduled using pipe for example [root@localhost ~]# ls -la | at now+5min job 1 at Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 to schedule a number of commands write each command separated by semicolons.deny is jack mark The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespace in the user name.1.1. 7.4. The jobs which are listed have an on right are in at queue. The at -l command is used to list all the scheduled jobs(if root user runs this command then scheduled job of all users is displayed).Using at prompt . The sample format of the /etc/at.4.if invoked by other users the scheduled job of only that user is displayed. The three ways in which jobs can be scheduled are 7.94 both the files are not present then only root user can run the at command. the jobs which have = on right are jobs currently executing. [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 4 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root Fri Jan 16 23:03:00 2009 a root at -m sends mail to the user when the job completes even if the job has no output.1.allow or /etc/at. The command at time-specification is used to schedule the job at that time.

3. The contents of the file(commands in the file name is executed at time specification).95 The at prompt is presented to the user if at time-specification is entered for example [root@localhost ~]# at now+20min at> ps at> du at> <EOT> press CTRL+D to come out of at prompt. In above example ps and du both are scheduled. atq – The atq command is used to list the scheduled job. 7. Same as at -l atrm – command is used to delete a scheduled job. The format is atrm jobid to delete the job 4 in below case use the command at -l gives listing of all scheduled jobs.Using file The at -f filename time-specification command is used to give the command using the file filename. . [root@localhost ~]# at -l 4 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:46:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root use atrm to delete job 4.4.1.

The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled.96 [root@localhost ~]# atrm 4 the command atq gives listing of all scheduled jobs.The batch scheduled job is run by the atd daemon. 7.2. The sample file for the commands scheduled using the batch command is #!/bin/sh # atrun uid=0 gid=0 # mail root 0 . The job runs when the load average of the system is below .4. The batch command invokes the at command prompt [root@localhost ~]# batch at> df at> du at> <EOT> job 5 at Fri Jan 16 22:58:00 2009 The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at. [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root The outputs of the commands are mailed to the owner of the job after successful completion of the job.Using batch command The batch command is used to schedule a job.8.

. A text editor can be used to create a file-name. The /etc/cron. The /etc/cron... The format of the file is 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local . The name of the file is same as the name of the user.using an empty one crontab: installing new crontab The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory. export SSH_AGENT_PID HOSTNAME=localhost./etc/cron...4..allow file is used to list the users who can use the cron facility.. The crontab jobs are executed by the cron daemon.... export SHELL .. The root user can access cron facility. .localdomain.deny file is searched..... df du 7.cron file ... The users can be given access to cron using two files..3.. If both files don't exists then only root user can use cron facility...allow file is first searched by the cron facility if the file does not exists then the /etc/cron. The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file.97 umask 22 SSH_AGENT_PID=2866..deny lists the user names which are not allowed to access the cron facility. export HOSTNAME DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID=. [root@localhost at]# crontab -e no crontab for root . export DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID SHELL=/bin/bash...Using cron The cron facility is also used to schedule the jobs..

Feb.98 z z z z z z z The first field is minute (0-59) second field is hour (0-23) third field is day of month(0-31) fourth field is month (0-12).daily . [root@localhost at]# crontab -l 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local The crontab -r command is used to delete the crontab jobs. The command crontab -l is used to list all the crontab jobs.Jan. The sample /etc/crontab file is SHELL=/bin/bash PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root HOME=/ # run-parts 01 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron. The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file.0 and 7 both are used for Sunday The field value * in the fields denotes all possible value.1. [root@localhost cron]# crontab -r [root@localhost cron]# crontab -l no crontab for root 7.Apr format is also used. fifth field is day of week(0-7)./etc/crontab The file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file.hourly 02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.mar.Mon.Sun.4.Tue format is also used. After the time fields the command field follows.3.

3.monthly The environment of the sub shell is set using this file.and /etc/cron.4.Starting Apache The user should check whether the Apache web server is enabled in the runlevel or not. 8.2. The mail is done to root user (MAILTO parameter).weekly.1. The runparts define the time when the scripts in the directories /etc/cron.-list option is used to check whether the Apache web server is enabled or not [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The httpd service (the daemon corresponding to the Apache web server) is enable in runlevel 2. If the service is not enabled then the command chkconfig httpd on is used.WEB SERVER 8.monthly are executed by the cron daemon.weekly 42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron.daily. 8. [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start Starting httpd: [ OK ] After starting the service check the working of Apache web server by typing the address http://localhost . The apache web server source code is freely downloadable. The apache web server is the most widely used web server. If the service is enabled in a runlevel use the command service httpd start to start the Apache Web Server.hourly. /etc/cron.and 5.99 22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron. The chkconfig .Overview The web server accepts the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol(HTTP) requests and sends a response to the client./etc/cron. The SHELL parameter sets the shell to /bin/bash.

100 in the address bar of the Mozilla Firefox (web browser).d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 2009-01-06 16:15 logs -> ..database(Mysql) and the authorization modules./var/log/httpd drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:20 modsecurity./. The directory contains main configuration file..conf. The logs directory is symbolic link to /var/log/httpd directory which contains the httpd log information ..d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 27 2009-01-06 16:15 modules -> .and PHP)./usr/lib/httpd/modules lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 2009-01-06 16:15 run -> .d contains the configuration files relating to the languages( like Python. The conf./.. The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd././var/run The conf directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd... [root@localhost httpd]# ls -l total 36 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:01 conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:29 conf. sub directories and symbolic links to other directories.Perl.

Configuration parameters for the main server (not virtual hosts but these parameters also set default values for all virtual hosts) Settings for virtual hosts. and log files are kept. z z z Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole. 8. error. . The additional subcomponent configuration files reside in the /etc/httpd/conf.Main Configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. ServerRoot "/etc/httpd" The server root names the main directory where all the server information is kept.conf file is main configuration file for Apache web server. The modules directory is symbolic link to the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory which contains the library files for the Apache web server.d directory. Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites # finding out what major optional modules you are running ServerTokens OS This hides the additional subcomponent modules from the remote sites.3.Global Environment Configuration In the global environment configuration section the following attributes are set # Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents # we are running. and protocols related.101 the modsecurity directory contains files relating to the security.3. 8. # Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out. http policy. # ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's # configuration. The file is divided into three parts. The run directory contains the symbolic link to /var/run directory which contains the httpd.pid file which contains the PID of httpd daemon.1.

The directory contains the configuration files for PHP.d".so LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest.Perl.so LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file.102 # Timeout 120 The server will wait for 120 secs for a response and after that the connection will timeout.d/*.Python. User apache Group apache . in addition to the default Listen 80 In this case apache listens to port number 80. # Include conf. # Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or # ports.conf Loads the additional component support component files from the /etc/httpd/conf.The port number can be changed to any port number by the user.so The LoadModule loads the modules from the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory (the directory /etc/httpd/modules is a symbolic link to above directory).d directory.and Mysql etc. # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support # LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic. # Load config files from the config directory "/etc/httpd/conf.

# AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory # for additional configuration directives.html file and kept it in this directory and open the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index.The user can set this to his/her user-name and group-name. but # symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations. # AccessFileName . By default.html file will be displayed.Main server section # ServerAdmin: Your address. The user account apache and the group account apache are automatically created (user don't create the accounts). ServerAdmin root@localhost In case of any information server wants to give then the information is send to the email address mentioned in the directive ServerAdmin.3. # DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your # documents.103 The httpd server runs under the user apache and group apache. # DocumentRoot "/var/www/html" This is the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server. The email address can be edited if user wants so. all requests are taken from this directory. where problems with the server should be # e-mailed.htaccess # . For example if you create an index.2. 8. See also the AllowOverride # directive.

info.deny Deny from all </Files> The . notice.htaccess (the address in the web browser address bar corresponding to the . The line Deny from all sets the access level that no user can be able to see the file .c> ProxyRequests On . # Proxy Server directives. crit.htpasswd files from being # viewed by Web clients. warn. Uncomment the following lines to # enable the proxy server: # <IfModule mod_proxy. # LogLevel warn The loglevel defines the messages which are to be logged.htaccess file is used to control access to the directory. # alert. # LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log. emerg. In above case the warning messages will be logged in the file.104 # The following lines prevent . error. # Possible values include: debug.ht"> Order allow. The contents of htaccess file should not be visible to the clients who are accessing the server (people who are using web browser to view contents or pages on the server). # <Files ~ "^\.htaccess file won't give anything).htaccess and .

105 # <Proxy *> Order deny.example.allow Deny from all Allow from . 8. The permission level set for the proxy server in above case is the access is denied from all except .3.example.com.com </Proxy> The apache web server acts as proxy server if the above lines are uncommented. uncomment the following lines. # # To enable a cache of proxied content. # See http://httpd. The root directory for the cached files is /var/cache/mod_proxy. # <IfModule mod_disk_cache.c> CacheEnable disk / CacheRoot "/var/cache/mod_proxy" </IfModule> # If the following lines are uncommented then the apache web server servers as a cache server.apache.html for more details. In the above example if the Proxy Requests directive is OFF then apache will act as a cache server.3.2/mod/mod_cache.Virtual hosts section # .org/docs/2.

com-access_log common </VirtualHost> The virtual host section is used to configure virtual hosting which supports more than one domain using a single web server system. In the following example the ServerName is set to dummy-host.4. Each and every apache directive can be used within the VirtualHost.example.example.example. 8.com DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host. # #NameVirtualHost *:80 # <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.com ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.example.HTTP Server Configuration The HTTP Server Configuration is used to configure the HTTP server.example.106 # Use name-based virtual hosting.com-error_log CustomLog logs/dummy-host. To invoke the utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost conf]# system-config-httpd .example. So if a user requests a document in the domain ServerName then the documents or files from the directory /www/docs/dummy-host.com is fetched.com.com ServerName dummy-host.example.

107

The main tab is used to configure the server name and web master email address to add the ip address click on the add button.

The new address and the port can be added on the panel displayed. The user can choose to listen to all address option . Use the virtual host tab to configure the virtual host.

108

The add button is used to add a new virtual host and the edit button is used to edit the properties of the virtual host highlighted on the left part of panel. the delete option can be used to delete the virtual host. If the user choose to edit the properties of a virtual host the below panel is displayed

109

The user can use the tabs on top of the panel to configure the options. The general properties like virtual host name ,document root directory, web master email address can be configured on the general tab. The server tab on the main panel is used to configure the server lock file location, core directory where all the configuration files of the server will be kept, and the location of the pid file. The user and group under which the apache server is running can also be edited.

110

The performance tab is used to configure the parameters which help in improve the performance of the apache web server. Parameters like connection timeout period ,maximum number of requests per connection are set here. These options are impact the performance of the apache web server.

FTP. The squid configuration file is divided into sections 9. The socket address can be defined in three forms: z z port alone hostname with port . 9. Squid consists of a main server program squid.Configuring Squid The directory /etc/squid contains the configuration files for squid server.Overview It is high performance proxy caching server for web clients with supporting HTTP.2.111 9.and Gopher data objects.SQUID SERVER 9.1.conf. The main configuration file for the squid server is /etc/squid/squid.1.Network options Under the network options the user can define the socket addresses. http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client requests.2. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks.

Log File and Cache directory section This section defines the directory which will be used as a cache directory.3. For example #Default: cache_mem 8 MB This sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use).log .2.Neighbor selection algorithm option Under this section the user define the mapping of rules for the requests and neighbor which will be called if a request obeys the rule.2.2. The cache dir /var/spool/squid contains the following files [root@localhost squid]# ls access.hot objects(objects that are used often). 9. 9.out store.2.112 z IP address with port # Squid normally listens to port 3128 http_port 3128 9.4.log squid.and negative cache objects(recent failed requests). #Default: cache_dir ufs /var/spool/squid This section also defines the format of the squid log files.Cache size options This section defines the options which control the cache size and swap memory used to handle the objects.log cache. For example hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ? means that when the URL consists of certain string of characters then the original server handles the request.

0. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file below is the example of acl tags from /etc/squid/squid.pid.255.0.conf file acl all src 0.0.0.0.0.0. The acl tag is used to define access control.0/8 acl SSL_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 80 acl Safe_ports port 21 acl Safe_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 70 acl Safe_ports port 210 # http # ftp # https # gopher # wais acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535 # unregistered ports acl Safe_ports port 280 acl Safe_ports port 488 acl Safe_ports port 591 acl Safe_ports port 777 # http-mgmt # gss-http # filemaker # multiling http acl CONNECT method CONNECT .0.2.113 The squid pid is stored in the file /var/run/squid.0/0.Access control section This section defines the access control.0 acl manager proto cache_object acl localhost src 127. By default no outside client is allowed to access the contents.255 acl to_localhost dst 127.255.1/255. 9.5.

http_access allow localhost http_access deny all the above lines define that the localhost can only access the http content all others are denied. The next lines define different ports with a name for example port 443 with name SSL_ports. 9.the user receiving mails in case cache dies etc. The configuration file controls which servers will be managed by the cache manager. Squid is an administrative user account created automatically.3.2.conf. 9. The localhost name is given to the loopback interface.cgi script # .Administrative parameters The administrative parameter defines the user under which squid will run . This entry can be edited to add more number of clients who can access the content.6. The configuration file for cache manager is /etc/squid/cachemgr. #Default: cache_effective_user squid The above line define that the effective user of the squid is squid user.Cache Manager The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs. # This file controls which servers may be managed by # the cachemgr. #Default: cache_mgr root Above line define that root user is mailed in case the cache dies.114 the first line gives name all to all the addresses. The manager can access the contents as defined by the second line.

:* or :any matches # any port on the target server. Should not be necessary # most of the time. uncomment this SQUID_OPTS="-D" # Time to wait for Squid to shut down when asked.4. SQUID_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT=100 . If not specified then # the default proxy port is assumed.115 # The file consists of one server per line on the format # hostname:port description # # Specifying :port is optional. # # hostname is matched using shell filename matching. 9. The sample format of the file is # default squid options # -D disables initial dns checks. allowing # * and other shell wildcards. localhost In the above example the localhost server is managed by the cache manager. If you most likely will not to have an # internet connection when you start squid.cgi.Squid Daemon The squid daemon receives the configuration information from the squid daemon configuration file /etc/sysconfig/squid. The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://server-name/cgibin/cachemgr.

The access to files is defined by rules set at the server machine.Overview In organizations it is common that the files are kept at one server.d/squid start command.NFS SERVER 10. 10. NFS is example of a file server. The files are accessible by some computers on the intranet of the organization.1. 10.d/squid restart Stopping squid: . Starting squid: .2.Starting NFS service To start the NFS service enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# service nfs start Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] . Alternatively the command [root@localhost squid]# squid -k reconfigure causes the squid to read the configuration file again. [ OK ] [ OK ] if the squid daemon is not running then use /etc/init.116 After making changes in the configuration file restart the squid daemon if the squid daemon is already running using the command [root@localhost squid]# /etc/init.

10.? can also be used.Sharing Folders The file /etc/exports contain the name of the folders which are to be shared.3.117 10.1/255. The NIS group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the NIS group name.com should be allowed access to directory files then enter the entry files *.3. The host names are the computers which have right to access the files. The format of the entry is hostname1 hostname2 hostname1 hostname2 165. The format of the /etc/exports file entry is directory-name host-name(options) #comments directory name is the name of the directory which is shared with other computers on network.87 All the hosts from a particular network can also be entered using the ip address/net mask format. The options define security levels that is who can access and which users can access the directory.example.255.com but if the access should be restricted to computers with first name of 5 characters use files ?????. 192.168.Format of hostname Multiple hostnames or lp address can be entered separated by blank. For example to give access to mynis group add entry .0 The wildcard characters *.12. ? matches any one character and * matches any number of character.123. The combination of lp address and hostname can also be used. So for example if all the computers in the domain example.example.com The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group.1. One directory entry is done on one line.1.255.

no_root_squash – the root user of client is treated as the root user of the server as well ( the uid/gid of root is not mapped to the anonymous uid and gid). The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534. async – It responds to the request before the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk).rw. The sync option means server will respond to the request after the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk) so there is no chance of inconsistency. . root_squash – this option maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid.all_squash) /home/user1 ?????.example.secure and all_squash is used.insecure.rw. The second entry makes the directory /home/user1 accessible to computers with five letter name in domain example.com(async.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid.secure. all_squash – map uid and gid of all users to anonymous uid and gid. Other option is no_all_squash which causes no mapping to be done.root_squash) In the first entry the directory /home/vishnu is made accessible by each computer (indicated by *) and options sync.ro.ro.118 @mynis 10.insecure.So this option improves performance but increases chance of inconsistencies .2. rw – the clients can read the files on NFS volume and also write on the directory .3.and root_squash.com with options async. Below is the sample /etc/exports file /home/vishnu *(sync.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used.Options format The valid options used in the /etc/exports file are secure – the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. The other option is ro which allows read operation only.

com:/home/user1 exporting *:/home/vishnu The exportfs -a -v command is used to export all directories listed in the /etc/export file and print verbose output. [root@localhost ~]# exportfs -a -v exporting ?????. For example to access the /home/vishnu directory enter the below command in the terminal .Accessing the NFS directory [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] The NFS directory needs to be mounted before it can be accessed.119 The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service. To mount the NFS directory the mount command can be used.4. z z z z -a option is used to export all directories -u option is used to unexport one or more directories. -r reexport the directories -v verbose mode produces output or use the below command [root@localhost nfs]# service nfs restart Shutting down NFS mountd: Shutting down NFS daemon: Shutting down NFS quotas: Shutting down NFS services: Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: 10.example.

5. To add a new directory for export click on the add button.master /net /etc/auto. It is invoked using the below command [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-nfs It lists the two directories which are exported. To mount the NFS directories using the autofs use the following step add the below line in the /etc/auto.NFS Server Configuration The NFS server configuration utility can be used to create the /etc/exports file using the graphical interface.120 [root@localhost nfs]# mount localhost:/home/vishnu /mnt/win This mounts the /home/vishnu directory on /mnt/win directory of the same system.net Then restart the autofs service. For example to access the directory /home/vishnu the below command is used cd /net/localhost 10. User can also edit the properties of the directories already exported by selecting the . The autofs facility can also be used to mount the NFS shared directories on demand.

The server settings can also be edited by clicking on the server settings button The user can enter the port numbers in the text boxes of the panel to force NFS daemon for using these ports. The below panel is displayed which can be used to edit the options which are used to share the directory /home/vishnu. .121 directory in the directory listing and click on the properties button. The above panel is also displayed if the user wants to share a new directory (by clicking on the add button) but that time the panel will not contain any previous value.

The sample etab file is /home/user1 ?????.6.hide.sync. Windows operating system uses the SMB(Session Message Block) protocol for sharing files and printers.Overview samba is used if the network connected with the system comprising of the computers running the windows operating system.insecure. /proc/mounts -.async.Using nfsstat The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity.root_squash.secure_locks.no_all_squash.Samba Server Configuration The samba server configuration utility is used to configure the samba server on the system.anonuid=65534.acl. The files xtab.2. /proc/net/rpc/nfs -.no _subtree_check.etab.mapping=identity.secure_ locks. use nfsstat -s to display server side information use nfsstat -c for client side information use nfsstat -n for NFS statistics use nfsstat -r for rpc statistics The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS server statistics.SAMBA SERVER 11.anongid=65534) 11. It uses following files to present the output in user readable format z z z z z z z /proc/net/rpc/nfsd -.and rmtab files contain the information about the exported files.mapping=identity.nocrossmnt.nocrossmnt.anonuid=65534.1.procfs-based interface to the mounted filesystems.wdelay.122 10.com(rw.wdelay.acl.example.no_subtree_check.all_squash.insecure. 11.anongid=65534) /home/vishnu *(ro.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS client statistics.hide.root_squash. To invoke the samba server configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-samba .

and new samba share. The below panel is displayed. On the security tab the enter the following information the authentication mode. samba users . To edit the server setting click on the preferences menu and then to the server settings drop down choice.kerberos realm. Set the value of the option to below values .123 The panel can be used to configure the server settings. On the basic tab enter the work group name and the description of the work group. encrypt password and guest account. the authentication server.

After entering the user-name and password click on the add share button to display the below panel .124 On the preferences menu list the samba user tab invokes the Samba Users panel which helps to add new samba users. Click on the new user button to display the below panel On the above panel enter the UNIX user name and windows user name (the UNIX user name and the windows user name are usually same). The passwords for the users are also entered on this panel.

125 On the basic tab of create samba share the directory which is to be shared is entered.The writable option and visible option lets the user choose whether the clients can write to the directory (writable option) and whether it is visible(visible). Enter the values and click on OK. If the visible is not checked then the share won't be visible.If writable in not checked then the client can't write on the share. The below panel displays the samba share created using the above procedure and values displayed in the example panels . On the access tab user can define who can access the share. The share can be made accessible to samba users (by checking the check box) or can be allowed to everyone by clicking on the option box allow access to everyone. The share name for the directory is entered which can be any valid name and a description is added (you may write here anything).

. The path of the shared directory is mentioned in the path entry.Samba configuration file The /etc/samba directory contains the configuration files for the samba server. browseable = yes valid users = vishnu In above entry the user1 is the name of the share comment is the description added and writable option means the client have write access to the share and the users who can access the share are listed using the valid user’s entry. The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of the samba users. To add the above /home/user1 directory to the share the below content is to be added in the /etc/samba/smb.conf is the main configuration file of the samba server. The /etc/samba/smb.3.conf configuration file [user1] comment = user1 home directory path = /home/user1 writeable = yes .126 11.

25-2.1.4.fc7] Server --------Comment ------- .0.4.25-2.Checking the service To check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be use the below command [root@localhost samba]# smbclient -L localhost Password: Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3. service smb start 11.fc7] Sharename --------user1 IPC$ ---Disk IPC Type Comment ------user1 home directory IPC Service (demo sama server) Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3.Starting Samba service Use the below command to start the samba service.0. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu The left hand side denotes the UNIX user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name. 11.127 The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users.

conf. The command displays all the shared directories on the system and also the workgroup created on the system. anonymous_enable=YES # # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in. download files from the FTP server.Configuring vsftpd [ OK ] The directory /etc/vsftpd contains the configuration and other options file for the vsftpd. The sample vsftpd. The users can connect to the FTP server and upload.2.allowed by default if you #comment this out).1. The main configuration file for the vsftpd is /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. The command can be used to check the working of the samba server and the samba share. .Overview File Transfer Protocol is standard method of sharing files over the Internet.FTP SERVER 12.128 LOCALHOST Workgroup --------MYGROUP demo sama server Master ------- when asked for password press the ENTER or RETURN key of the keyboard to login as anonymous user.3. 12.conf file is # Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware . The vsftp is name given to Very Secured File Transfer Protocol.Starting vsftd Enter the below command to start the vsftpd service if it is not running [root@localhost ~]# service vsftpd start Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: 12. 12.

The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. All the administrative users are listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list root bin . pam_service_name=vsftpd userlist_enable=YES the pam_service_name denotes the name of the service for the Pluggable Authentication Module. connect_from_port_20=YES # xferlog_enable directive is set to YES logs information about the upload and download events. userlist_enable is set to YES then vsftp don't allow users listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list to login through ftp. connect_from_port_20 if set to yes then port 20 is used for transfer of data by ftp.129 local_enable=YES # the parameter anonymous_enable is when set to YES then the anonymous user login is allowed by the ftp server. local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server. if set to NO then anonymous user login is not allowed. # Activate logging of uploads/downloads. xferlog_enable=YES # # Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 #(ftp-data).

4.130 daemon adm lp sync shutdown halt mail news uucp operator games nobody The vsftpd pam also looks for the user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers. The user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers are administrative users (they are same set of users as the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file).ftp command prompt To start the ftp command prompt enter the below command [root@localhost log]# ftp ftp> ftp supports lot of commands like .log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server. The file /var/log/vsftpd. The file lists the user names who are not allowed to login through ftp. 12.

lists the content of a directory on remote computer. ls -. To invoke the utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-vsftpd . 12.131 open hostname or ip address – connect to the computer identified by hostname or ip address close – close a connections pwd – shows name of current working directory on remote computer.Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration The Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility is used to configure the vsftpd daemon. lcd – to change to a directory on local system mkdir – to create a directory on remote system rename – rename a file or directory on remote computer get – copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system mget – same as get but multiple files at once put – copy a file from current directory on local system to current directory on remote system mput – same as put but multiple files at once. bye – closes current connection and exits ftp. cd – used to change directory on remote computer.5.

File names which match a user defined criteria can be made inaccessible and invisible to the clients. On logging tab the user can provide the files which will be used for logging the standard logging file is /var/log/vsftpd. . The information which will be logged can also be defined.log. It also defines the port on which the ftp server listens. on Users tab the way system users and the anonymous users will access the ftp server is defined. Under server control tab user can start or stop the server view the log files. The active connection options and the passive connection options as well. The anonymous user behavior and the system users behavior is set differently so as to provide better grain of control On the directory option the file access options are set. On network tab the user can define the network options.whether to run in standalone mode or not(in standalone mode vsftpd listens to the port it don't run under inetd or xinetd).132 On the general tab user can specify options like enable upload and download of files . On the access control tab the user can define whether the local users should be able to login into the ftp server and the file which is to be used to ban users from accessing the ftp server for example the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file contain the list of the administrative user who should not be allowed to access the ftp server. The users can view the directory list if or not can also be controlled.

conf is the main configuration file for the ldap. 13.example.overview LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.example. dc=com URI ldap://ldap. It is used to create directories of information that can be shared among client applications over a network.com:666 SIZELIMIT TIMELIMIT 12 15 .conf file is # # LDAP Defaults # # See ldap.conf(5) for details # This file should be world readable but not world writable.conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:17 schema The file ldap. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost openldap]# ls -l total 24 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-02-20 02:25 cacerts -rw-r--r-. 13.2.1.Configuration The main directory of the ldap is /etc/openldap.com ldap://ldap-master.1 root root 246 2007-02-20 02:25 ldap.LDAP SERVER 13. The directory contains the configuration files and schema files for the ldap.133 Maximum number of clients connecting through a single source . The sample ldap. BASE dc=example.

If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search. After editing the configuration file user can start creating the directories using any of the ldap schemas.134 DEREF never The BASE directive is used to set the set the distinguished name in the ldap format using the dc=value format. Create a directory entry with the extension . The other values of the DEREF options is always. This is the default. The server name can be specified or the ip address of the server can be specified. URI specifies the uri of the ldap server to which the ldap library will attach. The time limit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request. SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched.and finding.conf file for the syntax change.schema nis. The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap.searching.schema samba. DEREF options specifies the way an alias is dereferenced. . To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.schema.schema The default schema can be used by the user or edited by the user to create the directory information of his/her own. For example to include the samba. TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request.ldif and save the file. The structure used to create directories is the LDAP Data Interchange Format(LDIF). The various schema files are z z z z cosine. The schema directory contains the schema files.schema use include /etc/openldap/schema/samba. The value of deref directive is never the alias is never dereferenced.schema inetorgperson.conf using the include directive. The port can also be specified on the URI directive.

13. 14. The computers which access the database information (maps) of the server are referred as NIS domain. ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters.135 To add the contents of the ldif file created to the ldap directory the command ldapadd is used. The formats of the commands are domainname domain-name-of-system nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system the below command sets the NIS domain name of the system to localdomain [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain The commands if used without any options give the nis domain name of the system .2.conf. ldapmodify command is used to modify the entries of the ldap server. The time of search or the time within which the ldap server should respond is defined in the TIMELIMIT option. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned. ldapdelte command is used to delete an entry from the ldap server. It is used to create an central information database which is kept at a server system and other computers on the network access the information.3. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. z z z z ldapadd -a command adds a new entry to the ldap directory.and ypdomainname are used to set the NIS domain name of the system.Setting NIS domain name The command domainname .or nisdomainname.Starting the ldap Use the below command to start the ldap service service ldap start 14.NIS SERVER 14.1.Overview Network Information Service (NIS) was created by Sun Microsystems.

14.ypbind configuration file # Valid entries are # domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST # # # domain NISDOMAIN broadcast # # # domain NISDOMAIN slp # # # ypserver HOSTNAME Query local SLP server for ypserver supporting NISDOMAIN Use broadcast on the local net for domain NISDOMAIN Use server HOSTNAME for the domain NISDOMAIN.Configuring NIS The main configuration file of the NIS server is /etc/yp.conf .conf file is # /etc/yp.conf. The sample /etc/yp.3. .136 [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# nisdomainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# ypdomainname localdomain The NIS domain name of the system is lost when the computer is rebooted.

14.4.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files by a client system.5.4.2.Starting ypbind service The ypbind service handles requests for information from the NIS server. The entry domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST defines the NIS domain name and the NIS server name of the system.137 # # # Use server HOSTNAME for the local domain. # broadcast # # # If no server for the default domain is specified or none of them is reachable.Mapping Information The /etc/nsswitch. The IP-address of server must be listed in /etc/hosts.Starting NIS server 14.1.Staring NIS server To start the NIS server daemon enter the below command in terminal service ypserv start 14. The configuration file is read by the ypbind daemon. To start the ypbind service enter the below command service ypbind start 14.4. The sample /etc/nsswitch file is # Legal entries are: # . try a broadcast call to find a server.

passwd: files nisplus nis shadow: files nisplus nis group: files nisplus nis In the above example the client computers will search the files passwd.0.255.db) files Use NIS on compat mode Use Hesiod for user lookups Stop searching if not found so far [NOTFOUND=return] the above list defines the valid entries which can be added in the /etc/nsswitch.16 so all the computers on the network 10.0. The format of the entry in the /var/yp/securenets file is netmask network example 255. The clients’ computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file. .0.shadow.138 # # # # # # # # nisplus or nis+ nis or yp dns files db compat hesiod Use NIS+ (NIS version 3) Use NIS (NIS version 2).conf file.0 10.and group on them and if the files are not found on the system then after that they will search for the files on nisplus domain.255.16 can access the NIS sever information.0. The file names which should not be shard in commented out. Next the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server. also called YP Use DNS (Domain Name Service) Use the local files Use the local database (.

DNS server and other information to the computers in its network.netmask. This file can be used to set rules that define which host computers can access which files.port(to allow access from port below 1024).Starting the DHCP server To check the status of the dhcp server run the above command in the terminal chkconfig –list dhcpd if the service is not running then enable the service by issuing the command chkconfig dhcpd on after enabling the user can run the dhcpd service using the command service dhcpd start . The client computers will have to select that they want to use the DHCP server for the information like ip address.NIS database The NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is created by using the ypinit command.DHCP SERVER 15.Overview DHCP stands for the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.139 The finer grain of control can be implemented using the file /etc/ypserv. The security can have values as none(to allow access). 15.1. 14. The server then provides the requested information to the clients 15.netmask. DHCP server is used to assign the ip address.and DNS server.deny(denying access) the mangle field is having the value yes or no.2. The format of the file is ip address of network:file-name for which access is defined:security:mangle{:field} the field is optional.5.1.conf.

3. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.Configuration file The configuration file for the DHCP server is /etc/dhcpd.140 15. The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign a ip address to a computer on its network.DHCP client The DHCP client can be configured using the utility Network Configuration.conf. 15.leases. To invoke the Network Configuration window enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# neat or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-network .5.Working of DHCP server The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.4.leases contains information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network. On the client computer if a user enters the command ifconfig -a then corresponding to the Ethernet interface which was assigned ip address using the dhcp server the user will be the ip address mentioned in the file /etc/dhcpd.conf 15.

Choose the device listing. This will throw a Ethernet device panel to the user.dns server information and other information needed for connecting to the internet from the dhcp server follow this steps.141 To configure a device to obtain the ipaddress. In the above example the device eth0 is chosen (Ethernet interface eth0). click on the edit button. On the below Ethernet device panel choose the general tab .

After making the changes the user should restart the network using the below command service network start The dhclient is used to get the information from the dhcp server. The dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient at boot time if the client is configured to obtain the ip address from the dhcp server at boot time else invoked when the activate button of the network configuration utility is clicked after selecting the Ethernet interface) gets the ip address information from the dhcp server it first checks the configuration file /etc/dhclient.conf for configuration parameters).pid.142 Then to set up a dhcp client click on the option box Automatically obtain ip address settings with and in the drop down menu items choose dhcp. User can also choose to obtain the DNS server information using dhcp by clicking on the check box Automatically obtain DNS information from provider. . The process id (PID) of the dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient) is stored in the file /var/run/dhclient.

BIND Configuration GUI The BIND Configuration GUI is used to configure the DNS server on a Red Hat Box.3. 16.Overview The DNS stands for Domain Name System.DNS SERVER 16. It is used to translate the host names into ip address and also ip address into the host names. In Red Hat the DNS service is implemented using the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND).Starting Named daemon The status of the named daemon can be checked by the command chkconfig .-list named if the service is not running then enable the service using the command chkconfig named on to start the service named use the command /etc/init. It also contains information about each domain and organization of domain into zones.1.2.143 16.d/named start or service named start 16. To invoke the BIND Configuration GUI enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-bind .

The properties of an existing DNS server can be edit by selecting the server in the drop down list and then clicking the object on the drop down list. To add a new DNS server click on the New button to add a new server. . The values can be edited on the displayed panel. This displays a panel on which user can enter the value. The objects which are displayed in the drop down list are z z z z z z z z Zone View Access Control List Security key Server Controls Logging DNSSEC Trusted keys The user can enter the value of the parameter by clicking on the object. After clicking on the new tab a drop down list is displayed on which the user can choose the object which he/she wants to set the value.144 The properties button is clicked after selecting the object in the listing panel. In the current case the DNS server is selected. After editing the values the changes can be saved using the save button of the main panel.

conf file.conf file the syntax of the file can be checked using the command named-checkconf by default it checks the file /etc/named. The statistics file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/named_stats.Important files The named daemon configuration file is /etc/named. The directory /var/named directory is the zone file directory of the named service. named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named.conf for syntax.pid.and # are marked as comment lines. The statements in this file are enclosed in braces and are terminated by semicolon. The lines marked by /* */.db.// . the central directory request may come . The dump file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/cache_dumb.conf. 16. server – to describe the server logging – logging facility definitions options – various options like view – the value can be inside and outside for a DNS server the from the private network(inside) or from Zone – to describe the zone information After editing the /etc/named.txt The path and the description of the files can also be viewed using the utility BIND Configuration GUI.4.145 To delete a listing use the delete button on the panel and selecting the object in the drop down list. The pid of the named daemon is stored in the file /var/run/named. The important action defined elements are acl – access control list used as acl “description “ { ip address }. ON the BIND Configuration GUI the DNS server is selected on the list and clicking on the the outside.

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properties button displays the location on which the important files are kept and also the description of the files.

Command whois

Description Searches for the availability of the domain name. Format is whois domain-name.

host

It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. Format is

dig

It is used to query the DNS server and display information returned by the DNS server. It is often used to troubleshoot the DNS server.

17.MAIL SERVICES
17.1.Overview

There are three parts of message transfer
z z z

MTA – Mail Transfer Agent MDA – Mail Delivery Agent MUA – Mail User Agent

MTA's are also referred as the mail server. The sendmail and postfix are examples of the mail server.
17.2.Sendmail

To start the sendmail server type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# service sendmail start

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17.2.1./etc/mail The /etc/mail is the core directory of the sendmail. The files which are contained in the directory are /etc/mail are divided into following category 17.2.1.1.configuration file The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc. The file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail, location of the log files and database files. 17.2.1.2.Domain name mapping file The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. 17.2.1.3.Access file The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmail will accept mail for delivery or relay. 17.2.1.4.Virtual server files The file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. 17.2.1.5.Virtual users file The file /etc/mail/virtusertable defines the actions which sendmail should take after receiving mail from the trusted users and hosts. Apart from this files the directory /etc/mail also contains the .db files which are database files corresponding to the files described above for example access.db. 17.2.2.Generating the .db files To generate the .db files use the following approaches /etc/init.d/sendmail reload or

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/etc/init.d/sendmail restart in above case the database files are automatically created as the sendmail is restarted or the configuration files are reloaded when the reload option is used. But this case doesn’t work if user doesn’t want to stop or reload the sendmail server. Then the second approach is used Use the below command sequence to create .db files for all the configuration file cd /etc/mail make all if the user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access.db replace the filename access.db with the .db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.db makes the file virtusertable.db. 17.2.3.Checking Sendmail Server The sendmail server responds to requests on the port 25. To check whether the server is working or not type the command [root@localhost mail]# telnet localhost 25 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. 220 localhost.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8.14.1/8.14.1; Sun, 18 Jan 2009 17:55:26 +0530 ^] user can enter help command to see the sendmail commands he/she can use.

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help 214-2.0.0 This is sendmail 214-2.0.0 Topics: 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA RSET NOOP QUIT HELP VRFY EXPN VERB ETRN DSN STARTTLS AUTH

214-2.0.0 For more info use "HELP <topic>". 17.2.4.Important Files 17.2.4.1./var/spool/mail The directory contains files corresponding to the user names that are using sendmail. These files contain the incoming messages received and processed by the sendmail. 17.2.4.2./var/spool/mail/statistics This file contains the collected statistics about the sendmail. 17.2.4.3./var/spool/mqueue This directory keeps the outgoing messages temporarily .the outgoing messages are kept until they are send. 17.2.4.4.Log files The sendmail log information is maintained in three files /var/log/maillog,/var/log/maillog.1,and /var/log/maillog.2. The log files contain different level of information. The file /var/log/maillog.2 contains the detailed log information. An entry is made for each mail been send by the server or received by the server. 17.2.5.Actions taken by server on a mail There are four actions which the server can take

but is not referenced in any runlevel (run 'chkconfig --add postfix') [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --add postfix the first command shows that postfix is not in any runlevel. ERROR:user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message.3. 17.150 RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail.1 17. The options are used in the /etc/mail/access file. The directory /etc/postfix contain the main configuration files and access related files used by the postfix server..localdomain Connect:localhost Connect:127..0.Starting postfix server The postfix server is not added in any run level by default (sendmail is generally there). Connect:localhost.3. The second command adds the postfix server to run level which the user is currently logged on. To enable the postfix server enter the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig postfix on .Postfix RELAY RELAY RELAY It is a mail transfer agent that is mail server. This options are used to configure the actions of a sendmail server. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected.1.0. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected. For example # by default we allow relaying from localhost. So to add the postfix server use the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --list postfix service postfix supports chkconfig.

[ OK ] .3.Mailbox The directory /var/spool/mail contains files corresponding to the user name of each user having access to the postfix mail server.Configuration file The /etc/postfix/main. 17.cf.4.Script file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-scripts file is a shell script which executes the postfix administrative commands. The incoming mail of the users processed by the postfix server is kept in the file.Post install file The file /etc/postfix/post-install is a shell script which performs the post installation configuration of the postfix server.3.3.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.Daemon Configuration file The file /etc/postfix/master.3.postfix queues and locations to be used for logging.2.3.3.cf. The files act as mailbox. 17. It defines the hostnames and domain names .151 to start the postfix server use the below command [root@localhost postfix]# service postfix start Starting postfix: 17.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server.2.default which is exact copy of the main. 17.3.2. 17.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process.1.2. 17. For example for a user named jack the mailbox will be /var/spool/mail/jack.2. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main.3. Access file – the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server.2. mailbox.Permissions file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server.

17.2.4. In the window displayed choose the postfix as the alternate mail server.Log files The log information about the postfix server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog.3. The file /var/log/maillog. The /var/lib/alternatives directory contains file mta which lists other mail servers. Bounce to temporarily store the bounced mails.Switching MTA On a Red Hat Linux box the sendmail and postfix both the servers are installed but the sendmail is used as the default MTA.and /var/log/maillog.3.1./var/spool/postfix The directory contains a list of directories to temporarily store the mails. [root@localhost mail]# cd /var/spool/postfix. The directory contain the entry mta-sendmail this makes sendmail as the default mail server./var/log/maillog. The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives display the default services configured on the system. To switch between the mail services from desktop perform following actions System Tools --> Mail Transport Agent Switcher.5. The alternatives services and the default services are defined in the directory /var/lib/alternatives directory and the /etc/alternatives directory. 17. .ls active corrupt deferred hold bounce defer flush maildrop private saved public trace incoming pid In above example the directory /var/spool/postfix contains the sub directories incoming to temporarily store the incoming mails which have not been delivered yet. The postfix server is treated as an alternative service to the sendmail server.4.152 17.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix server.

[root@localhost alternatives]# service postfix start Starting postfix: [ OK ] The postfix server takes the mail transport agent work in place of sendmail.conf file is # Base directory where to store runtime data.Configuration file The main configuration file for the dovecot service is /etc/dovecot.5. 17.1. 17.2.153 Then use the following commands to stop the sendmail server and start the postfix server. base_dir = /var/run/dovecot/ . The user sending mail and receiving mail don’t see any difference as there is change only in the transport agent. [root@localhost alternatives]# service sendmail stop Shutting down sm-client: Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] [ OK ] the default sendmail server s stopped and the below command is used to start the postfix server.5.The mailboxes of sendmail and postfix are one single file so the above protocols are used to access the mails.The sample format of the /etc/dovecot. It replaces the sendmail components and uses the postfix components but the location of the mailbox and the log files remain same in both the services.5.IMAP stands for Internet message Access Protocol and POP3 stands for Post Office Protocol.conf.Starting Dovecot To enable the dovecot service use the command chkconfig dovecot on and to start the dovecot service use the command service dovecot start 17.Dovecot The dovecot is used to configure the IMAP and POP3.

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base_dir option sets the location where dovecot will store the run time data. The base_dir will contain the file master.pid file which contains the PID of the dovecot service. protocols = imap imaps pop3 pop3s protocols option sets the protocols which the dovecot listens. Above example sets the dovecot to listen imap,imaps,pop3 ,and pop3s protocols. # specify different ports for IMAP/POP3. For example: protocol imap { listen = *:10143 ssl_listen = *:10943 .. } the above part sets the port for the imap. Different ports are used for different protocols. # Log file to use for error messages, instead of sending them to syslog .# /dev/stderr can be used to log into stderr. log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log # Log file to use for informational and debug messages. # Default is the same as log_path. info_log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log The log_path and the info_log_path sets the log file paths where the dovecot will log the informational messages and error messages. # Maximum number of running mail processes. When this limit is reached, # new users aren't allowed to log in. max_mail_processes = 1024

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max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously

18.NETWORK SECURITY
18.1.Overview

Network security is becoming a vital and challenging task. If a system is connected with network then the administrator should pay considerable attention to network security.
18.2.The daemon xinetd

The daemon xinetd is started when the system boots and listens on lot of ports corresponding to the services configured in the configuration file of the xinetd daemon /etc/xinetd.conf. The directory /etc/xinetd.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. These services are called on demand services and can be seen using the command [root@localhost xinetd.d]# system-config-services

or by viewing the contents of the directory /etc/xinetd.d [root@localhost ~]# cd /etc/xinetd.d;ls chargen-dgram daytime-dgram discard-stream rsync time-dgram

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chargen-stream daytime-stream echo-dgram tcpmux-server time-stream cvs dgram echo-stream tftp

discard-

Each file correspond to a service which xinetd automatically starts when connection is made to that port. This on demand services should not be accessible by everyone. The access can be made selective by the use of TCP wrappers.
18.3.Using TCP wrappers

The tcpd (tcp wrapper daemon) program can be set up to monitor incoming requests for xinetd services or in other words the services which xinetd supports and also services that have one to one mapping onto executable files. If tcp wrapper is used then if a client makes connection at a port for services like finger,talk,telnet,and rsh ( xinetd service) then at first tcp wrapper daemon determines whether the connection will be allowed or refused. If the connection is allowed then the corresponding service is invoked to listen at the port. The tcpd authenticates the client using the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. 18.3.1./etc/hosts.allow It contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. This file is first scanned by tcpd. 18.3.2./etc/hosts.deny Iit contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts.allow file. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. Format of the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny are same. The keyword ALL is specified for all clients. For example in.telnetd: .example.com fingerd: ALL the connection for the telnet is allowed for clients from domain example.com and connection for the finger is allowed for all the clients.

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The service daemon is listed on the left if two service daemons are to be listed then the daemons are separated by comma (,) character. The semicolon acts as a separator between the daemon names and the address part. If multiple address is to be mentioned then the addresses are separated by comma. The ALL flag enables user to make the files as restrictive as it can be made. This enhances security.
18.4.Security Level Configuration

The Security Level Configuration utility is used to set the security level of the system. To invoke the Security Level Configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-securitylevel

On the Firewall Options tab the user can set the firewall is enabled or disabled. The trusted services are allowed to pass through the firewall. On the other ports the user can add the trusted ports by clicking on the Add button clicking on the Add button displays the below panel

The user can click on the Advanced options tab to add a file containing iptable rules in the iptables save format. This allows user to add more complex rules and also customize the fire- wall.after entering the value press ok. The user can browse and upload the file containing the user defined rules. After making the changes click on apply and then OK.158 On the add port panel the user can enter the port and also the protocol (tcp and udp). .

The sample /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config file is IPTABLES_MODULES="ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp" The directive IPTABLES_MODULES defines the modules which are loaded. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers. 18.5. IPTABLES_SAVE_ON_RESTART="no" If the value is yes then the rules are saved to the file /etc/sysconfig/iptables.4. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility. In above example the modules ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp are loaded. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to. # Save current firewall rules on restart. # Value: yes|no. default: no # Saves all firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables if firewall gets # restarted.1.159 18. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. load additional iptables modules.Configuration files There are two configuration files /etc/sysconfig/iptables and /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config.Command Reference Command iptables -A Description To append a security rule in current iptable rule iptables -D iptables -R iptables -I iptables -L Delete a rule Replace a rule Insert a rule List all rules .

19.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.and session.2./etc/pam. 19. The second line contains the rule for the PAM.PAM AND SELINUX 19. The contents of the file /etc/pam.path module-argument The type in above case is auth. The format of the next lines are or rule lines are type control module. PAM is a system of libraries that handle the authentication tasks of applications (services) on the system.PAM PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication module.password.conf or the files in the directory /etc/pam. For example the file passwd in the above directory contains the following line #%PAM-1.1.160 iptables-save Save rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file.0 auth include system-auth system-auth system-auth account include password include the first line is a comment.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam.d is used for configuring PAM.d are present.authentiction. PAM allows four types account. The configuration file /etc/pam.d The files in the directory /etc/pam. .

so in the above file the pam modules are called for verification of a user for the service passwd. Optional – the success and failure of this module is not important on the overall return value (success or failure) of PAM. Required – means that pam will return failure if this PAM modules returns failure. Contents of file system-auth auth auth auth auth required pam_env. time and other parameters. Sufficient – means that PAM returns success if this module returns success and other PAM modules will not be called which are to be called for the process.required.and optional.so sufficient pam_unix. The configuration file is passwd as an argument. Include – this module includes all lines given in the configuration file of a specific type.so uid >= 500 quiet pam_deny. Password – the password type is used to update the user information like changing user password.sufficient. The system-auth module resides in the current directory. . let three modules are called and if this module returns false then the resultant will be false but pam will call all the modules which are to be called for the process.so nullok try_first_pass requisite required pam_succeed_if. Session –this type is used to perform the jobs (like logging) before a user access a service or after a user access a service. authentication(auth) – the authentication type prompts the user for a password and if the user provides it then he/she can access the service. The valid values for the control are include. The system-auth is the module path. The module is important if it is the only module for the service.161 Account – the account type defines access to a service based on the availability of resource.

The contents of the file are (for the above configuration of SELinux administration) warning . 19.2. 19.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled. Disable-.1.SELinux SELinux stands for the Security Enhanced Linux. The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux. Three values are allowed enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced.SELinux administration The SELinux administration utility is used to configure the SELinux. To invoke the SELinux administration enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost selinux]# system-config-selinux The user can set the value of SELinux enforcing mode.2.162 The PAM modules reside in the directory /lib/security. It is flexible access control architecture and provides support for the role based access control and multilevel security. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues instead of enforcement.

Only targeted network daemons are protected.SELinux security policy is enforced.163 # This file controls the state of SELinux on the system. . SELINUXTYPE=targeted 19. disabled .Full SELinux protection.SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing. interface and hosts and file context mapping.3. Possible values are: # # targeted . security context mapping for network port.list selinux policy modules.SELinux is fully disabled. strict . SELINUX=disabled # SELINUXTYPE= type of policy in use.remove. # SELINUX= can take one of these three values: # # # enforcing . chcat Change file or users SELinux security category chcon Change the security context of each file to context semodule Used to install. permissive .Command Reference Command semanage Description Mapping Linux user names to SELinux user identities.

Grub is the default bootloader for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux and anaconda is default installer.log is default log file.-location=hd0 d.-location=mbr c. Which line should be added in the Kickstart file to install the bootloader in the Master Boot Record (MBR)? a. Which file the user should refer? a. He wants to set the SELinux policy during installation to enforcing.log Answer – b Explanation -.164 O V E R 2 5 0 E X A M P R E PA R AT I O N Q U E S T I O N S 1.-enforcing b. grub .log c. Which line should he add in the Kickstart file? a.com? . Which command is entered on the anaconda boot prompt to install using the kickstart file located on the website http://kickstart-file/install/linux. bootloader . A user wants to use Kickstart file for installing Red Hat Linux.cfg is the Kickstart file created after successful installation of Red Hat and /root/install./root/anaconda-ks.-location=hd0 Answer – a 5. 2. 3. redhatinstaller d. anaconda b. selinux .cfg b. selinux = enforce Answer – b 4. grub .-default d. set selinux . grub Answer – a Explanation – disk druid is the default partition manager for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux. disk druid c.-location=mbr b. bootloader .info d.-enforcing c. Which is default installer of Red Hat Enterprise Linux? a. /root/anaconda-ks. /root/install-log. /root/install. /root/anaconda. After an installation a user wants to see the log information of the installation process. selinux .

1 b. Which of the following is the default Red Hat Linux bootloader? a.com d. /.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. What will you add in the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu? a.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. DISK DRUID d. :boot ks . SAFE=no b. :anaconda ks . So it is mandatory to make a / partition. How many modes can kudzu operate? a. swap c. :boot ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux. Answer – d Explanation – SAFE=no denotes that kudzu starts in no safe probing mode and anything other than no means that it is started in the safe mode. 8.com b.165 a. All other partitions can lie within the / partition. SAFE=? d. /home d.com Answer – d Explanation – The anaconda boot prompt is denoted by: boot. You want to start the kudzu in safe probe mode. Anything other than no can be used on the left hand side of the assignment. LILO is also bootloader but nowadays it is not used as default bootloader. swap Answer -. :anaconda ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux. /usr b. 2 c. DISK DRUID is the default partition manager in Red Hat Linux. ANACONDA Answer – a Explanation – GRUB is the default bootloader of Red Hat Linux. Which two partitions are necessary for Red Hat Linux installation? a. SAFE=YES c. The swap partition is . 6. 9.com c. /boot. /. /home. GRUB b. 4 Answer – 2 Explanation – kudzu can operate in two modes x safe probe mode x no safe probe mode 7. 3 d. LILO c.d Explanation – The / filesystem is root of the Linux file system structure.

You have computer 256 MB RAM . keyboard which are configured for X.conf.conf b.conf lists the hardware like monitor.conf. 10. /var c. system-config-neat Answer – a. 11.What is the size of swap space for good performance of the system? a. system-config-network b. system-config-net c. c Explanation – system-config-network and neat both the commands can be used to invoke the Network Configuration utility. The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf is not present on the system.conf Answer – c Explanation -. /mnt Answer – a . 400 MB Answer – c Explanation – For good performance of the system the swap space area should be double of the physical RAM attached with the System. Which filesystem contains the configuration files? a./etc/X11/xorg./etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth0 lists the network device detected if there are more than one network device present then /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth1 lists the second network device detected and so on./etc/X11/xorg.conf is module configuration file /etc/X11/xorg. /etc b. /etc/modprobe. 12. Which files will kudzu query to find out the devices already configure? a. 13. /etc/modprobe./etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* d. 512 MB d. 256 MB b./etc/modprobe. mouse. /etc/modprobe. /etc/sysconfig/lasthwconf c. 128 MB c.166 also necessary as Linux uses swap partition as extension of main memory. /usr d. What command is used to invoke the Network Configuration utility? a. neat d.conf.

/boot c. upgrade option in line 5 of kickstart file. Which filesystem will you use to get the information? a.cfg d. You want to upgrade a system using the kickstart file.cfg c. d. Your friend used systemconfig-time for the same purpose. upgrade option in line 1 of kickstart file. You want to see the options you have chosen during the installation process. Which file should you look for? a. 16. /root/anaconda-ks Answer – b Explanation -. You have installed Red Hat Linux in your box.You used system-config-date to set the date of your system. /home/anaconda-ks. d. 17. system-config-time is used to set time only.167 14. yes both are different Answer – a . 15./proc is pseudo filesystem which contains information about the processes running on the system. update option in line 1 of kickstart file. Which option will you use in kickstart file? a. c. /sys Answer – c Explanation -./root/anaconda-ks. c. You want to see the information about the processes running on your system. /root b. No both are same b. Is there any difference? a. system-config-date is used to set date only. /root/anaconda-ks. no file contains that information b.cfg is the default kickstart file created by anaconda based on the options chosen during installation. b. Answer – b Explanation – install option is used in the first line of kickstart file to show fresh install and upgrade option is used in the first line to show upgrade of a previous installation. update option in line 5 of kickstart file. /proc d.

-10 Answer – a Explanation – The timeout=10 parameter is allowed in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. timeout=10 secs c. You have grub bootloader installed on your system. don’t verify the / partition b.14 b. 0) option is used in case there is another operating system installed along with Red Hat Linux. timeout=10 s d. boot /kernel-2. d. You want to boot the default operating system if user did not make a choice for 10 seconds. c. What is meaning of the option rootnoverify (hd0.6. You want to boot your Red Hat Linux operating system using kernel2. Which command will you use in grub configuration file? a. timeout . timeout=10 b. mount the partition indicated within the rootnoverify option. init b. For example if windows is installed along with Red Hat then grub should not try to mount the partition on which windows is installed. kernel /vmlinuz-2. kernel /kernel-2. 0) in the grub configuration file? a. inittab c.14. main Answer – a .conf.14 Answer – a 21. boot /vmlinuz-2.6.168 18. What changes should be made in the grub configuration file? a.14 c.14 d. 20. Which process has the PID of 1? a. Don’t mount the partition within braces of rootnoverify option.6. grub d. Answer – b Explanation – The rootnoverify (hd0. 19. Don’t verify the first sector of hard disk.6.6.

The digits are compared from left to right taking one digit at a time. A runlevel script has the line #chkconfig 345 25 75. Answer – a Explanation – The numeric digits i. /etc/rc. Multiuser mode booting b. /etc/rc. and 5 the multiuser mode is active.d b. You want to reboot your system if a user presses CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard during the boot process. S111USERDEF b. What should you do? a. 23. S85USERDEP c.d d.169 Explanation – The init process have the PID of 1. 22.d/rc5. Can’t be determined. The entry captures the CTRL+ALT+DELETE key sequence and the command shutdown –r now is executed. 111 and 85 decide the order of run. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3.5d c.d/rc. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3.5 c. 5 and the start priority is 25 and the stop priority is 75. Which of the two services will start first? a. The system reboots in a loop d. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –r now in /etc/inittab file b. During boot process kernel gives control to the init process. Since 1 is less than 8 so S111USERDEF is run first. Write a shell script for that and keep it in root directory c. At same time d. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –h now in /etc/inittab file d. 3.d/rcv. 25. A user created two scripts S111USERDEF and S85USERDEP which are executed during boot time. . The system comes to halt Answer –c Explanation – In runlevel 0 the system comes to halt and in runlevel 2. 24. 4. Which directories contain the boot time scripts for the run level 5? a.e. It is a comment b.4.it is called father of all processes. It cannot be done Answer – a Explanation – The init process looks the /etc/inittab file for the processing to be done. /etc/rc. /etc/rc. Multiuser with networking mode c. What will happen if runlevel is set to 6? a. What is the meaning of this line? a.d/r5.d Answer – a 26.

The httpd service is enabled in the runlevel 5 but it is not running. The runlevel of the system was never changed from 5 so the previous runlevel is displayed as N. chkconfig httpd on d. chgrunlevel Answer – a 30. service httpd on Answer – a . runlevel b. prevrun Answer – a Explanation – the runlevel command is used to get the current run level and the previous runlevel of a system. init d. enable service-name c. Previous runlevel of the system was N b. chkconfig service-name enable Answer -. lastrunlevel d.170 d. Which command will you use to do so? a. What does it mean? a. How will the problem resolve? a. The line gives an error Answer –c 27. You want to enable a service service-name for current run level (run level 5).c Explanation – the chkconfig command is used to enable a service. 28. runlevel c. disable a service and lists the status of a service or services. runlevel service-name on b. The current runlevel of the system is N. Which command is used to get the previous run level of a system? a. Which command is used to change the current run level? a. chkconfig httpd start c. The previous runlevel of the system was 5 d. 31. telinit b. c. The output of the runlevel command is N 5. Answer – d 29. prevrunlevel c. service httpd start b. chkconfig service-name on d.

d/init.d Answer – b Explanation – The directory /etc/rc.d/all. Which file contains the static information about the filesystem? a.d contain symbolic links to the scripts of directory /etc/rc.d/init. /etc/fstab c. serviceconf b. /home c. /etc/mtab b. Using chkconfig list Answer – b Explanation – the chkconfig –list gives the listing of all the services in different run levels with the status of services as on or off.d contains all the runlevel scripts and the directories /etc/rc.d/init. /etc b. /etc/ftab . Which filesystem is not mounted on disk partition? a.d/rc. 34. /etc/rc. serviceconf. /etc/rc. 32. Using chkconfig –list c. Using chkconfig –all d. /usr d. system-config-services d. How will you view the status of all the services in all the runlevel? a. /etc/rc. /proc Answer – d Explanation – The proc filesystem is virtual filesystem (it is not mounted on a disk partition) which contains the process and system information.all b.d d. system-config-services c.d 35. Which directory contains the run level scripts of all the runlevel? a.d c.d/rc*. Using chkconfig all b. Which command is used to start the service configuration utility? a. None of these Answer – c 33. 36.d/rcall.171 Explanation – the service httpd needs to be started for that the service httpd start command is used. /etc/rc.

172 d. 39. /etc/mtab c. Which command is used to see the listing of filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. fdisk –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win d. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/mstab Answer –a Explanation – At boot time the /etc/fstab file is scanned for information about the filesystem to be mounted. /etc/mstab Answer – b Explanation – The file /etc/fstab contains mount point. 40. and other options. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab c. 38. fdisk –m c. 37. What should he/she do? a. mount vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win b. mount Answer – d Explanation – fdisk command is used for creating new partition and view all the partitions of the hard disk. What should he do? a. A system has windows and Red Hat Linux installed on it. fdisk -l b. mount –t vfat /mnt/win /dev/sda6 Answer – b Explanation – The mount command has the form mount –t filesystem-type source partition target partition . mount –t d. /etc/ftab Answer – b Explanation -. Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/mtab d. A user wants don’t want to mount the /home partition automatically at boot time. filesystem type. Which filesystem contains the information about the filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. The user wants to access files kept in the /dev/sda6 partition with the vfat filesystem type./etc/mtab contains the information about the filesystem currently used by a running system. /etc/mstab d. /etc/fstab b. If noauto option is used the filesystem is not automatically mounted. Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab b. mount –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win c.

vfat /dev/cdrom c. None of above Answer – c Explanation – The mkfs –t vfat is frontend of the command mkfs. Which configuration file is used while creating ext3 filesystem on a partition using the mke2fs command? a.conf c. cat /proc/swap d./proc/swaps contain the entries .conf d. mkfs. /etc/mke2fs. The command is wrong Answer – b Explanation – The bs option denotes the blocksize and count denotes the number of that. A file is created using the below command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/demo bs=1000000 count=2. 2MB c. None of above Answer – b 43. Which command is used to create vfat filesystem on a re writable CDROM? a. 42. mkswap d.What is the size of the file /home/demo? a.conf b. 20MB b. mkfs c. mkfs -t vfat /dev/cdrom b. fdisk –l c. cat /proc/swaps b. 2GB d.173 to mount a source filesystem on target directory. Which command is used to create a swap filesystem on a device or file? a. So the size of the file is 1000000 * 2 = 2 MB. Both of above d. Your system has a swap partition on /dev/sda3 and another swap partition on /dev/sda5.vfat. 41. None of above Answer – a Explanation -.How will you decide which swap partition is active? a. 44. /etc/ext3. createswap b. /etc/mkfs/mke2fs. swapon Answer – c 45.

-level=5 devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 Answer – a Explanation – In second option .d/automount status d. Which command is used to check a device for badblocks? a. fsck b.d/init. /etc/autofs.174 of the entire active swap space of the system.conf c. -w is invalid option to badblocks command Answer – b Explanation – The data is not deleted if the badblocks command is used without option or with –n option. mdadm .-level=5 . The contents of the file can be viewed using cat command. /etc/rc. What will be the problem? a. badblocks Answer – d 47. How will you check the status of the automount daemon? a. /etc/rc.d/init. In the third option .-level=5 .-create /dev/md0 .conf b.master d.d/autofs status c./etc/rc. Which command is used to create a raid device of level 5 using devices /dev/sda1.d/init. 48.master Answer –c 50. mdadm . /etc/autofs.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 b. /etc/init.-level 5 . /etc/rc. mdadm . Data on the device will be erased c.d/init. 49. /dev/sda2? a. /etc/auto. mkfs c. Data on device will not be erased d.-level= should be used. chkfs d.-create /dev/md0 .-create /dev/md1 .d/autofs controls the operation of the automount daemon.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 c.-status Answer –b Explanation -. mdadm . No problem b.d/init.d/autofs status b. A user ran command badblocks -w on a device containing important data files. Which configuration file does /etc/rc.-create /dev/md0 . 46.d/autofs use? a.-raid devices= /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 d.-raid . /etc/auto.d/autofs .

System-config-lvm c. Volume group c. 51. /dev/vol_grp c. A raid device contains four devices. /home/vol_grp d. 56. mdadm device-name –r raid-device-name c. Physical volume b. mdadm –r device-name raid-device-name Answer – a 52. Which of the following should be created first before creating the Logical volume? a. 53. mdadm raid-device-name –r device-name b. None of them d. System-config-lv b. There is no such utility Answer – b 55. System-config-logman d. Which file and directory yum does look for information about the software . Which command is used to invoke the Logical Volume Management utility? a. How will you remove one of the devices from the raid device? a. Which directory contains entry for the logical volume group lvol0 created by a user in the volume group vol_grp? a. In fourth option . No directory has the entry b. vgextend c. mdadm –r raid-device-name device-name d. vgcreate b. pvcreate Answer – a Explanation – vgcreate is used to create a new volume group and vgextend is used to extend an existing volume group. Which command is used to create volume group? a.-raid is missing from . Both of them Answer – d Explanation –Physical volume is to be initialized first and then the volume group is to be created before creating Logical volume. 54.-raid devices.175 devices=n where n is no of devices is missing. /sys/vol_grp Answer – b Explanation – The directory /dev/vol_grp contains lvol0 entry corresponding to the logical volume lvol0. volgrpcr d.

What is full form of yum? a. The status of yum commands execution will be logged there. 60.log Answer – d Explanation – The log file of the yum command is /var/log/yum. system Answer – b Explanation – The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc. 59. A user ran yum command to install a package. Yellow dog updater modified b. User. The configuration file .176 repositories? a. /etc/yum. He can’t decide b. What is the importance of option gpgcheck=1 in /etc/yum. Yellow updater modified d.d c.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user . Sytem. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before update only Answer – a Explanation – Usually the gpgkeys are installed before adding any software repository. global b. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install only d. Both of them d. Looking at /var/log/yum. The install completed before his return. How can user decide whether the install was successful or failure? a.global d. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system. The gpgkeys of packages are not checked before install or update c.conf b. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install or update b. If the gpgkey option is 1 then the packages are checked for the gpgkeys before installing or updating the packages.system. /etc/yum.global c.conf file c.d directory d. Yellow umbrella c. What are the levels of rpm configuration file? a.log. Looking at /etc/yum.conf.conf and then looks for the files in the directory /etc/yum. Looking at /etc/yum. User. Then he went for a cup of coffee. User.conf.conf file? a. User can use the file to decide the install was successful or failure.conf. None of them Answer – c Explanation – it looks for the configuration file /etc/yum.d 57. Yellow software updater modified Answer – a 58.

Your software vendor informed you that package-name. None of the above Answer – a Explanation – The command rpm –U updates a previously installed package but installs a new package and the command rpm –F updates a previously installed package but does not installs a new package. rpm –U installs a package if it is not installed previously b. /var/lib/rpmdb/* Answer – a Explanation – The rpm command uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information. /var/lib/rpm/* b. What is the difference between rpm –U and rpm –F commands? a. 63. No use rpm-q d. Yes c. Is the command correct? a.177 level rpm configuration file. b. Both command do same function d. No use rpm -v b. rpm –ivvh d. Where does the rpm package information kept? a.-vv (verbose lots of information) and h (prints hash marks are rpm options which can be used with other options. 65. rpm –F installs a package if it is not installed previously c. rpm –ieh b. Which is a valid rpm command? a. F are mutually exclusive. A user used the command rpm –U package-name to install the package packagename which is not previously installed on the system.e. U and e. How will you check vendor’s statement? a. /var/lib/rpm/db/* d. 62. rpm –iF Answer – c Explanation – the options -v (verbose information). 64. No it is used for update only Answer –b Explanation – The command rpm –U is used to upgrade a previously installed package and if the package is not installed in the system then it installs the package. and e. Using system monitor c. rpm –q package-name d. yum install package-name .rpm has been installed in your machine. There is no way to check vendor’s statement. The options i. /var/log/rpm/* c. rpm –Ueh c. 61.

zip file d. system-config-packages d.gz file into .system monitor is used to view system information. What is the difference between the commands tar xvf and tar xvfz? a. You have downloaded a package in tar. bzip2 –d uncompress a tar. xvfz compresses a . Which utility is used to manage packages on a Red Hat box? a.gz format. 66. Using gunzip followed by tar xvf c. Which command is used to invoke a Package Manager? a. xvfz is verbose mode of command xvf Answer – c 68. Package Admin d. Using bzip2 followed by tar xvf Answer – b Explanation – gunzip uncompressed the tar. system-config-manages Answer – c . bzip2 is used to compress a file to . What does command bzip2 does? a. Answer – a Explanation – bzip2 command is used to create and decompress a bz2 file. Using tar xvf b. 67. system-config-package b. Package management c. bzip2 is used to uncompress . bzip2 –d creates a tar.tar file c. system-config-manage c.tar.tar file but xvf uncompress a .178 Answer – c Explanation – rpm –q package-name queries the rpm package database and finds out information about the package-name.zip format. xvfz uncompress a .tar file d.gz file but xvf uncompress a .bz2 file c.yum install is used to install the package packagename. Package manager b.bz2 file. Package manage Answer – a 70.tar format and then the command tar xvf is used to uncompress the tar file.bz2 file and –d option is used to uncompress a . No difference b. 69. Using tar xvf followed by gunzip d.bzip2 –c is used to create .bz2 file b. How will you uncompress the file? a.

Creating a . /etc/bashrc Answer – d 72. You want to create a user account john. /etc/login. Which file does define the default values to be used while creating the user account? a.conf d.defs? a. Creating a . The mail box of john should lie in the directory /var/temp. MAIL_DIR=/var/temp b.conf Answer – b Explanation – The file contains the default values to be used while creating a user account. /etc/user. /etc/login d. /etc/login. /etc/login.179 71.bashrc file in home directory of user b. MAIL_BOX=/var/temp c. A user wants to override the default values used for bash shell. 73. Editing the /etc/bashrc file. The default values can be overridden on the command line. 76./etc/skel directory contains the initial login and a startup scripts. Creating a . /etc/userdefs d. MAIL_CONFIG=/var/temp Answer – a Explanation – The line MAIL_DIR is used to denote the directory where mailbox of a user will reside. What action should be taken by him? a. A user Matt have a user id of 400.defs b. 75.bash file in home directory of user c. /etc/bashrc.conf c. d.What is the significance of it? .What line will you add in the file /etc/login. /etc/bash.bashrc file in home directory of user Answer – a Explanation – The . MAIL_JOHN=/var/temp d. Which file does contain global options to the bash shell? a. /etc/initial Answer – a Explanation -. 74.defs c. /etc/skel b.bashrc file in the home directory of the user is used to override the default values used for bash shell.The content of /etc/skel is copied to the home directory of user when the user account is created.defs c. Which directory contains the initial login and startup scripts? a. /etc/bash b.

useradd –D –s /bin/bash new-user d. userdel –r user1 c. Matt is a non administrative user. 81. A user cannot have user id 400 c. and modify user and group information. 80. User Manger b. 78. delete. He wants the bash shell. Answer – c Explanation – User id less than 500 are reserved for the administrative users. userdel user1 b. What command will the system administrator execute? a. Which graphical utility is used to manage users? a. Which file does contain the password of user? a. If the –r option is not used then the home directory of the user is not deleted. d. usermod –s /bin/bash c. Which command is used to invoke user Manager Utility? . User id 400 is of root user b. A new user is working on the /bin/tcsh shell.180 a. The file/etc/passwd contains information about the user but at the place of passwd x character is written. So matt is an administrative user. /etc/passwd b. User Admin d. User Configuration Answer – a Explanation –User Manager is used to create. Matt is an administrative user. 77. usermod –s /bin/bash new-user b. /etc/pass c. System Administrator wants to delete the account of user user1 along with the home directory of the user user1. None of these Answer – d Explanation – The file /etc/shadow contains the user login name and encrypted password.What should be his approach? a. userdel –r /home/user1 user1 Answer – b Explanation – The command userdel –r user1 is used to delete the account of a user along with his/her home directory. User Administrator c. 79. /etc/password d. userdel –h /home/user1 user1 d. usermod –D –s /bin/bash Answer – a Explanation – usermod command is used to modify the user information.

Check each file size and subdirectory size b. 85. system-config-usrs Answer – c 82. system-config-user b. The system administrator wants to see the disk space used up by user Jack.The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem. gpasswd d. /etc/gpasswd b. Which command is used to change the password of the root user? a. Which file does contain the information about the groups in a system? a. /etc/group d. passwd Answer – d Explanation – The format of passwd command id passwd user-name. A user wants to list the space used up by files and subdirectories of his home directory. It means the password of user user-name is to be changed. system-config-users d. Ask the system administrator c. /etc/passwd c. grppasswd c. space /home/jack d. Which command is used to change password of a group? a. /etc/groups Answer – d 84. gpassword Answer – c 86. Ask jack about the disk space usage b. du /home/user d. df /home Answer – b Explanation -. 83. If the command passwd is used alone it means the password of root user is to be changed. df /home/jack c. df /home/user Answer – c Explanation – The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a . grpasswd b. su – c. system-config-usr c. su root d. What sh0uld he do? a. passwd root b.181 a. What should he do? a.

Using geditsudo Answer – c Explanation – the visudo command is used to edit the /etc/sudoers file. . If root don’t enter user-name’s password then he won’t be able to execute user-name’s files d.Will root has to enter the user’s password? a. No the shell will prompt for password of user-name but root can choose not to enter the password c. Yes he can use shutdown –h now b. Does Vishnu have privilege to run the command shutdown –h now? a. A user entered the command chown : file-name. Yes he will have to use sudo shutdown –h now d. Yes root user will have to enter user’s password b. The user and group of the file will change to that of user’s c. A user ran su – command in a terminal (terminal1) and got privilege of root user. The group of the file will change to that of group’s Answer – a Explanation -. Yes he has to enter the root password d. Nothing b. Will the command execute successfully? a. No shell won’t prompt for user-name’s password Answer – d 89. How will you edit /etc/sudoers file? a. Answer – d 88. No as it is different terminal session he won’t have root privilege in this session. He then opened a new terminal and ran command to mount a filesystem. The group demo is defined with the privilege of command shutdown –h now in /etc/sudoers file. Yes he will have to use visudo shutdown –h now Answer – c Explanation – The commands should be prefixed by the sudo command. A root user used the command su – user-name where user-name is a non administrative user. Using gedit b.182 directory 87. Using visudo d. 91. No he can’t use the command directly c. Yes c. A user Vishnu is member of group demo. The user of the file will change to that of user’s d. What will happen ? a. 90.chown owner: group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner. Using vi c. No su – command don’t give root privilege b.

The owner of the file will change c. 94. System administrator wants to see the users currently logged into the system and the processes run by them. all processes in current process are signaled. Users c. A user issues the chown user-name-group-name file-name command on a file filename which belongs to the root user. Frees swap memory c. All d.What will be the impact of the command? a. Gives an error c. What will happen? a. Vmstat c. 93. b. Process with pid 0 is re signaled d.183 Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. . All of these Answer – b Explanation -. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens. He gets an error b. W b. None of these Answer – a Explanation – The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them.The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics 95. Which command shows the virtual memory statistics of a system? a. All process with pid >0 are re signaled. Which command will help the system administrator? a. What does free command do? a. Nothing happens Answer – a Explanation – The user don’t have privilege to change the file permissions of root user so he gets an error. Frees RAM memory b. gives the amount of free and used memory of a filesystem Answer – c 96. Iostat b. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system. gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system d. Virtual d. 92. The group of the file will change d. A user issues a command kill 0.

98. System Log Viewer d. /sys/uptime d. It don’t use any file Answer – a Explanation – The uptime command uses the file /proc/uptime for the information and formats them in user readable format. percent CPU usage. Yes init process have pid of 0 c. no of processes sleeping. the command used for invoking the process. Which utility is used to view various system information like CPU usage. network information. number of users currently logged on b. System Information c. load average of the system c. May a process have pid of 0? a. process information? a. % memory usage.184 Answer – d 97. SystemManager Answer – a 100. memory and swap information.The top command gives various information about the system number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes. No process can have pid of 0 b. 101. Which file does the command uptime use to present the output? a. total number of processes. no of processes sleeping. Boot process have pid of 0 d.no other process can have pid of 1 or lower than that. no of zombie processes d. no of processes active. network usage information Answer – d Explanation -. no of processes active. Which of the following information does top command not give? a. no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number). System Administration d. /proc/sys/uptime c. System Monitor b. A process pid can be set to 0 using renice command Answer – a Explanation – The lowest pid that a process can have is 1 which is pid of init process ( init is called father of all processes). . /proc/uptime b. Log Manager b. System Log Manager c. Log Configuration Answer – c 99. Which utility is used to see system log information? a.

the command uname is used to print various system information. For example kill –SIGKILL 5009 command gives the signal SIGKILL to process with pid 5009. /proc/mod d. None of above d. infomod modulename c. lsmod modulename d. uname -k Answer – c Explanation -. A user wants to see the filename of a module currently loaded into the kernel.6. It is a signal used with kill command generally b. /proc/modules c.The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel. Which file contains the list of currently loaded modules in the kernel? a.14 c. 103. /proc/module b. What is SIGKILL? a. file name should be given from sysin d. Both of them Answer – a Explanation – The SIGKILL is used to signal a process. The file /proc/modules also contain the same information. It is a command c. A user issues command insmod -. none of the above Answer –c Explanation -. no such file is there Answer – b Explanation – The lsmod command is also used to list the modules currently loaded into kernel. Error will occur b. modinfo modulename b. 104. 105.uname -a prints all the information about the system. modprobe modulename Answer – a Explanation –modinfo gives the details of a module loaded into the kernel. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name . lists all the modules of kernel2. uname -p d.185 102. uname -n c. Which command is used to print the processor type of a system? a. 106.What will happen? a. what should he do? a. uname -r b.

The module A is dependent on module B. schedule Answer – b 111. none of them c. What will happen? a. On business requirement your client wants to run the process A (already running on the system) with increased priority. priority d. process priority of all processes belonging to user is changed to 5 c. /etc/modprobe.d. which command should be used to load the module A into kernel? a. modinfo Answer – b Explanation -. /etc/modprobe. nice b. 107.If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes . Which command is used to remove a module from the kernel? a.conf b.d d. both of them Answer – d Explanation – modprobe looks for the configuration file /etc/modprobe. modprobe -r d. Modprobe -a b.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe. Which configuration file and directory does modprobe command refer? a. insmod b. The command renice 5 -u Jack is issued. What command does administrator use? a. no change in priority d. renice c. 110.186 if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. modprobe -b c. priority 5 not allowed Answer – b Explanation -. modprobe -d Answer – c 109. Error occurs no pid mentioned b. modprobe c.The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command.insmod loads only the module mentioned on the command line. rmmod d. 108.

/etc/syslog d. kernel messages displayed c. . Which configuration file does syslogd use? a. /etc/sysconfig/syslog.log c.conf c.pid d.conf Answer – d Explanation – syslogd supports the system logging.187 112.conf Answer --d 115. so dmesg command prints no output.log d. No output b.conf c. A user wants to log the boot messages in the file /var/log/boot. /var/log/cron. Which file does contain the pid of klogd daemon? a.allow a. Which file should he/she edit? a. 116.pid b. error d. In which file is cron utility log the messages? a. /etc/syslog d. /etc/syslog. What system administrator does? Add name on mac in /etc/at. /var/log/cron/cron. /var/log/cron b. none of the above Answer – a 114. A user issues two commands back to back dmesg -c dmesg What will be the output of second command? a. /etc/sysconfig/syslog.pid c. System administrator wants to allow the user Mac to access the at facility. /var/klogd. /var/run/klog. help options displayed for dmesg Answer – a Explanation – dmesg when used with the -c option clears the kernel ring buffer. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. /etc/syslog.conf. /var/run/klogd Answer –a 117. 113. /var/run/klogd. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written.

allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command. 119.atq the atq command is used to list the scheduled job. error condition Answer – c 120. Which command is used to list all the scheduled jobs? a. /var/spool/batch c. /var/spool/batch. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled. at -l b.allow? a. Which command is used to create a crontab file? . no user of the system c.deny are not present. jack e. 122.spool Answer – a Explanation -. 118. Add name on mac in /etc/at c. what will be content of file /etc/at. If the /etc/at. don't add name on mac in /etc/at. Jack.The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespaces between the username (on a line). none of them c. jack. On a system the files /etc/at. jill Answer – d Explanation -. /var/spool/at. only root user d. In which directory the jobs scheduled by the batch command spooled? a. jack:jill c.jill d.The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at. Which users can use the at facility? a.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. atq Answer – c Explanation -.jill b. any of the above Answer – a Explanation -. All the users of system b.The file /etc/at. both of them d.188 b.deny d. System administrator allows users Jack and Jill to use at facility.spool d. 121. /var/spool/at b.allow and /etc/at. Same as at -l.

service httpd start c. /etc/httpd.pid b. /lib/httpd/modules d.pid c. The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory. Which file does contain the pid of the httpd daemon? a.189 a. service httpd on d.d Answer – c Explanation -. . Which file does contain the configuration information about the httpd server? a. 124.conf Answer – c Explanation -. none of the above d. The conf sub directory of /etc/httpd directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd. /usr/lib/httpd/modules b. Which command is used to start the Apache web server? a. The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file. /lib/httpd/module Answer – b 127. /var/run/http. crontab -k Answer – b Explanation -. /var/run/httpd Answer – b 126. crontab -l b.The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file. Which file is system crontab file? a. /etc/crontab b. service http on Answer – b 125. /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd. crontab -d d. Which directory contains the library modules for the httpd server? a. The name of the file is same as the name of the user.conf d. service http start b. /usr/lib/httpd/module c. /etc/httpd/conf c. /etc/httpd/conf. /var/run/http d. 123.conf b. /etc/cron c.conf. /etc/cron. /var/run/httpd.the file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file. crontab -e c.

b. Where the users need to put the html files to be served by the server in response of client request? . HTTP Configuration d. Configuration parameters for the main server c. HTTPD Configuration Answer – b 132. Settings for virtual hosts. system-config-httpd b.conf? a. The conf. Error value c. and PHP). nothing d. Which command invokes the HTTP Server Configuration utility? a. What are the sections of Apache web server main configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Perl. Answer – a Explanation – ServerRoot directive defines The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration. The DocumentRoot directive of main apache web server configuration file is set to “/home/demo”.d contains the configuration files relating to the languages (like Python. database (Mysql) and the authorization modules. Which is the graphical utility for httpd server configuration? a. error. What will be the impact? a. All of the above Answer –d 131.conf file the user set the directive ServerRoot “/etc/demo”. error.190 128. What is the content of /etc/httpd/conf. HTTPD Server Configuration b. load libraries related to Apache server c. system-config-httpconf Answer – a 133. The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration. d. In the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. ServerRoot is not a directive. Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole. b. HTTP Server Configuration c. and log files are kept will be /etc/demo. system-config-https d. system-config-http c.d directory? a. and log files are kept 129. no changes d. Answer – d 130. Configuration file related to Apache client b.

squid. /var/log/httpd. Warn b.dnssrv b. /etc/squid/squid.conf b. What are the possible values of LogLevel directive in Apache web server main configuration file? a.conf Answer – c 138.html file and kept it in this directory and opened the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index. /etc/squid. On which port does squid listen by default for http? .html file will be displayed. squid.dsnserver d. crit. error. /var/log/http d. 137. Which is the main configuration file for squid server? a. alert.log Answer --a 136. What are the two main programs consisting Squid server? a.squid consists of a main server program squid. none of them d. squid. /etc/squid/squidd.conf d.squiddemo Answer – c Explanation -. /home/demo b. For example if you create an index. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks. both of them d. 135. /var/log/httpd b. warn. debug c. /var/www/html c. 134.191 a. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. squid.dns c. Which directory does contain the log information about the httpd server? a. /var/log/apache c. /etc/squid/sqd.debug info. and emerg are possible value of LogLevel directive.conf c. none of them Answer – a Explanation – DocumentRoot defines the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server. notice.

objects never used c. hostname with port.conf b. hostname with port c. How will you set the RAM memory used to handle the in transit and hot objects of squid server? a. objects very complex c. An administrator wants to change the default http port that squid listen to 4000. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. Port alone b. Objects used often b. port 4000 c. In what forms does http_port socket address be defined in the squid server main configuration file? a.What should he/she do in main squid configuration file? a. objects not in use d. cache_mem of /etc/squid/squid. RAM_mem of /etc/squid/squid. httpport 4000 d. none of them d. ram_mem of /etc/squid/squid.http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client 140. and IP address with port. 80 c.conf c. What are hot objects in connection with squid server? a. objects which moved out d. httpd_port 4000 b. objects that are in use Answer –d 142. 141. http_port 4000 Answer – d Explanation -. objects used very often Answer –d 143. 3120 Answer – a 139.The socket address can be defined in three forms: port alone. 3128 b.conf . 413 d.192 a. What do you mean by in transit objects in terms of squid server? a. Objects in use b.

Can the line http_access deny all be added in the /etc/squid/squid. /var/spool/squid/cache b. Wrong format c.65. Which is the default cache directory for the squid server? a.0/0.0 of main squid server configuration file? a. what does it refer? a. yes it can be d. allow is invalid d. and negative cache objects (recent failed requests).56.The acl tag is used to define access control. no http_access is not allowed Answer – c .56.pid Answer – a 146.pid d.65 can access the http content. /var/run/squidd. /var/run/squid/squid.pid b. gives name src to all the addresses Answer – a Explanation -. No all not allowed b. 148.0. 144.168. gives name acl to all the addresses d. An administrator writes the below line in main squid server http_access allow 192. What is the meaning of the line acl all src 0. hot objects (objects that are used often). 192. no deny is not allowed c.193 d. gives name all to no address c.0.0.conf file? a. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file 147. gives name all to all the addresses b. /var/run/squid c. /var/spool/squid c. /var/run/squid.168. b. ip address should be with netmask Answer – a Explanation – http_access define which clients can access the squid server for http contents. /var/spool/squid/cachedir Answer – b 145. mem_ram of /etc/squid/squid.0. /var/spool/cache d. Which file does contain the pid of the squid server? a.conf Answer – a Explanation – cache_mem sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use).

nothing d. /etc/sysconfig/squid. The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs. What does the line SQUID_OPTS="-D" in the squid daemon configuration file mean? Squid can be started without having internet connection load default values from configuration file a. How is the cache manager invoked? a. Using system-config-cache d. squiduser d. all of the above Answer – b Explanation -. Cache-manager command b.conf b. b. it is daemon process name of squid server.conf is configuration file for squid server. Under which user does squid server run? a. b. /etc/sysconfig/squid Answer – d Explanation -. /etc/squid/cachemanager.conf c.The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://servername/cgi-bin/cachemgr.conf b.cgi. c.cgi. /etc/squid/cache. root c. Which is the configuration file for the squid daemon? a. /etc/squid/squid.conf Answer – c 152.d/squid. Squid b. 153. Used to see amount of cache space used by a process c.conf d. /etc/cachemgr.194 Explanation – line means the http content is denied for all the clients. What is cache manager? a. Answer – a 151. . all of them Answer – a 150./etc/sysconfig/squid is configuration file for squid daemon and /etc/squid/squid. 154.conf c.conf d. /etc/squid/cachemgr. 149. using http://server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr. /etc/sysconfig/squid. Which is the configuration file for the cache manager? a.

Which command is used to start the NFS services? a. Service squidd restart b.d/squid restart d. service nfs start c.The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group. service nfd start d. An administrator wants to add a NIS group NISGRP in /etc/exports file? Which of the following is true? a. all of above Answer – a Explanation -.the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. The nis group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the nis group name. squid -k reconfigure b. use PAM c. 160. /etc/init. use @NISGRP d. 159. squid configure Answer – a 156.195 c.-D option disables initial dns checks so squid can be started without having internet connection 155. What does the option secure mean in case of /etc/exports file? a. squid reconfigure d. service squid reload Answer – c 157. Service nfsd start b. service nfsd on Answer – b 158. Invalid option b. use #NISGRP Answer – c Explanation -. An administrator wants to add host1 and host2 in /etc/exports file corresponding to . use SELinux d. runs squid in safe mode d. service sqd restart c. none of above Answer – d Explanation -. Not possible b.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used. squid -k configure c. use NISGRP c. Which command is used to restart the squid daemon? a. Which command does make squid to reread the configuration file? a.

Multiple hostnames or Ip address can be entered separated by blank. export d.example.example. Exports b. Maps root user to client to user jack's account b.myhost (means new belonging to domain myhost) 162. all of above Answer – c Explanation -. myhost. New. none of above Answer – b Explanation -. NFS Server Configuration c. both of above d. NFS Server Administration Answer – b .196 the directory /home/user. maps the root user of client to anonymous user Answer – d Explanation -. Which command is used to export all directories listed in the file /etc/exports? a. host1:host2 c.myhost. NFS Server Manager d. Which of the following is valid entry? a. Which graphical utility is used to create the /etc/exports file? a. exportfs c. 164.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid. The combination of ip address and hostname can also be used. host1 host2 d.com entry in the file /etc/exports. exportsf Answer – b Explanation -. The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534.com b.The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service.host2 b.example.com c. Host1. A system administrator has made *. 161. What is meaning of option root_squash in the file /etc/exports? a.maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid. don't allow client root user to login c. Which of the below address match the entry? a. maps client root user to NFS server root user d. 163.* character matches any number of characters in a domain name that is * matches for myhost (of option b) but not of option a as in option a there was new. NFS Configuration b.

Which command is used to invoke the Samba Server Configuration utility? System-config-samba system-config-smb system-config-sambad a. Which command is used to display server side NFS information? a. Which command is used to invoke the NFS server configuration utility? a. System-config-nfsd b.The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory. Samba configuration d. nfs d. 169.The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity 168. /var/spool/nfs d. /var/log/nfs/nfs. Samba Server configuration c. /var/log/nfs c. The directory is mounted b. and rmtab files which contain the information about the exported files. system should be rebooted Answer – a Explanation – before accessing a NFS directory the directory should be mounted using mount command or using autofs 167. Smaba configuration Answer – b 170. no operation is done d. nfstat Answer – a Explanation -. Which utility is used to configure samba server? a. What operation is performed before user accesses a NFS directory? a. Which directory does contain information about the exported directory using the NFS? a. the directory is unmounted c. both of them d.197 165. nfsstat -s b. . b. c. nfsstat -c c. none of them Answer – b 166. /var/lib/nfs b.log Answer – a Explanation -. etab. system-config-nfs c. The files xtab. Smaba Server configuration b.

service smb start d. An administrator wants to add a user Jack as samba user. /etc/samba. service sambad start Answer – c 175. /etc/samba/smb. /etc/samba/smbusers b.what should be the format of entry in samba user file? a. smb status c. none of them Answer – c Explanation – the command is used to check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be.198 d. The Unix username and windows user name of Jack are same (it is Jack). /etc/samba/sambausers Answer – a 173.conf d. jack:jack Answer – a Explanation -. user:jack d. Which of the following is main configuration file of samba server? a.conf c.conf Answer – c 172. service samba start c. jack=jack b.conf b. /etc/smbusers c. smbclient -L d. Which command is used to start the samba server? a. Service smbd start b. Which command is used to view the samba server status information? a. /etc/samba/samba. /etc/smb. 174. /etc/samba/smbusrs d. smbstatus b. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu the left hand side denotes the Unix user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name. Which file does contain the name of the all samba users? a. system-config-smbd Answer – a 171. user=jack c.The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users. .

jack john:jack john . b. local_enable=YES Answer – d Explanation -. jack Answer – d Explanation – the users should be listed one in a line. c. users in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list d. service vsftpd start d. Service ftp start b. service ftpd start c.conf c. All users b. no users c. local_usr=YES d. Which command is used to start the ftp server? a. local_user=YES b. d. Which is the main configuration file for the vsftpd server? a. /etc/ftpd/vsftpd.The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. 179. a. jack john.conf b.local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server. local_users=YES c. Which users are allowed to login into ftp? a. /etc/vsftpd/vsftp. users not in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list Answer – c Explanation -. which of the following lines is to be added in the ftp server configuration file? a. /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. service vftpd start Answer – c 177. /etc/ftp/vsftpd. Which of the following is valid entry? John.conf Answer – d 178. An administrator wants to list the names of two users John and Jack in /etc/vsftpd/user_list file.conf d. 180. In the main configuration file of ftp server the directive userlist_enable=NO is used. An administrator wants the local users to use the ftp service.199 176.

/etc/ldap/openldap.log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server. /etc/openldap/ldap. Which command invokes the ftp command prompt? a. sftp c. Which graphical utility is used to configure the ftp server? a.conf d. Which command is used to invoke the Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility? a.a 185. ftpd Answer –c 184. copy d. paste Answer – a 183. vsftp b.conf c. Very Secure FTP Configuration c. Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration b. ftp d.log b. What is the significance of the sizelimit option in the main configuration file of . system-config-vsftpd Answer –d 186.conf b. VSFTPD Configuration Answer -. /etc/ldap/ldap. Which is the main configuration file for the LDAP server? a. /etc/openldap/openldap. System-config-vsftp b.200 181. 182. put c. /var/log/xferlogd c. none of them Answer – d Explanation --The file /var/log/vsftpd. A user wants to copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system. Which files contain the logging information about the ftp server? a.conf Answer – a 187. Get b. system-config-ftp c. /var/log/vsftp. Which ftp command should he/she use? a. VSFTP daemon Configuration d. both of them d. system-config-ftpd d.

ldfa Answer – b Explanation -. Maximum time taken by ldap to answer a search request b. 188. the number of records in ldap c. Minimum time taken by ldap to answer a search request c.LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) 190. A user makes changes in the file /etc/openldap/ldap. 189.conf d.201 ldap? a. make the schema file Answer – a Explanation -. ldif c. number of concurrent processes d.conf b. The timelimit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request. A user created a file which contains the directories of information he/she wants to add into an ldap server. He/she wants to check . What is the significance of the timelimit option in the main configuration file of ldap? a. use c. Copy b. ad schema in /etc/openldap/openldap.To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. Which directive is used to include a schema in the file /etc/openldap/ldap. ldaf d. specifies the limit of results returned Answer – d Explanation -.conf? a. include d. none of above Answer – a Explanation -. Before using a schema to create ldap directory information what a user should do? a. Ldap b. Maximum time taken by ldap to add a entry d.conf using the include directive.SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched. What should be file extension? a.conf. nothing is to be done c. Add the schema in /etc/openldap/ldap.TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request. Memory size limit b. make Answer – c 192. 191. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search.

nisdomainname c. Which directory does contain the default ldap schema file? a.conf d. or nisdomainname.202 whether he/she made any syntax error. No he can't do this using any command b. yes using ldap -t d. Which is the main configuration file for NIS server? a. . ldap b. Can he/she do this? a. ypdomainname d. /etc/openldap/schema/ d. 193. Which command is used to start the NIS server? service ypserver start service yp start a. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. /etc/yp/yp. yes using ldcheck Answer – b Explanation -. /etc/nis. domainname b.conf Answer – d 197. Which command is used to search for an entry in the ldap directory? a. yes using slapd -t c. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned. /etc/openldap/ldap/schema/ b. and ypdomainname is used to set the NIS domain name of the system 196.The command domainname. 194.conf c. which command is used to set the nis domain name of a system? a.Ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters. /etc/nis/yp.conf. ldap -s c. ldapsrch Answer – c Explanation -.The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap. /etc/yp. all of these Answer – d Explanation -. /etc/openldap/schemaldap Answer – c 195.conf file for the syntax change. /etc/ldap/schema/ c. ldapsearch d.conf b. b.

The files /etc/passwd and /etc/group are being shared by the NIS server. /etc/nisswitch. What are the valid values of security field in file /etc/ypserv. Which file does contain the entry for the client computers with access to NIS server? a. deny (denying access) 202. /etc/nsswitch. ypdata c. port (to allow access from port below 1024). /etc/nswitch.conf d. Which file contains the name of the files being shared by the NIS server? a.conf Answer – a Explanation -. /var/yp/access. deny d. service ypd start Answer – c 198. ypserv Answer – c Explanation -. yp b.conf? a. Makefile in /var/nis directory d. The file names which should not be shard in commented out. all of these Answer – d Explanation -.The security can have values as none (to allow access). Sharefile in /var/yp directory b. ypinit d. /var/yp/securenet b.conf b. Make in /var/yp directory Answer – b Explanation -.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files 199. Makefile in /var/yp directory c.conf d. 200. Which file is used to map NIS? a. port c. /etc/nwitch. 201. service ypserv start d.The /etc/nsswitch.the NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is .conf c.the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server. Which command is used to create a NIS database? a. /var/yp/secure Answer – b Explanation -.203 c.The client’s computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file. None b. /var/yp/securenets c.

leases b.pid. chkconfig dhcp on Answer –b 204. /etc/dhcpd. c. none of these Answer – c 208. Which file does contain the process id of the dhcp client? a. 203. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. /var/run/dhpclient. 206.conf b. 207. How can administrator decide number of client’s assigned address using the DHCP server? a.pid.leases.num d. /etc/dhcp/dhcpd. Answer – b . using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign an ip address to a computer on its network. System-config-network b. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network.count c.pid. /var/run/dhclient. chkconfig dhcpd start b. What does the file /etc/dhcpd. neat c. Which of the following is dhcp server configuration file? a. b. /etc/dhcp. /var/run/dhcpclient. /var/run/dhcplient. Which command is used to enable the dhcp server? a. chkconfig dhcpd enable d.leases contain information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server. chkconfig dhcpd on c. Which graphical utility is used to configure the dhcp client? a.conf d. Using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.conf c. all of there d.The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.conf contain? Answer -.conf Answer – c 205. /etc/dhcpd/dhcpd. d. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.pid.stat Answer – a Explanation -.204 created by using the ypinit command.

conf c. Which configuration file does dhcp client use? a.conf Answer – c 214. service name start Answer – b 211. /etc/dhpclient. /etc/init.acl – access control list used as acl “description “{ip address}. system-config-dns Answer – c 213.conf b. /etc/name. to define performance option c. /etc/dhcpdclient. /etc/init.205 209. Which command does check file for syntax error? . BIND Server Configuration Answer –a 212. /etc/dhclient.conf d.conf Answer – d 210.conf c. BIND Configuration c. Which is the main configuration file for the named daemon? a. 215. to define server pid d. /etc/dhcplient. /etc/named/named. /etc/named. BIND Server Configuration GUI d.d/name start d. To define access control list b.conf? a. BIND Configuration GUI b.conf b. What is the function of acl directive in the file /etc/named. system-config-bind d.conf d. service bind start b. system-config-named c.d/named start c. Which command is used to start the named server? a. system-config-name b. none of the above Answer – a Explanation -.conf. An administrator made changes to file /etc/named. /etc/named/name. Which command is used to invoke BIND Configuration GUI? a. Which graphical utility is used to configure the DNS server? a.

zonecheck Answer – a Explanation -. .conf file. Named-checkconf b.txt Answer – c 218.db /var/named/data/named_dumb.Named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named. Which file does contain the statistics of named daemon? /var/named/data/named_statistics. host b. hostname c. b. namedcheckconf Answer – a 216.db a. How can you get the hostname of your system from ip address? a. Which file is dump file for the named daemon? /var/named/data/cache_dumb. How can you check the availability of domain name? a. Which command is used to check the syntax of the zone files? a. 217. checkzonenamed d. you have chosen a domain name for your system. who b.206 a. domainchk d. Format is host host-name host ip address 220.txt /var/named/data/stats. named-checkzone b. none of these Answer – a Explanation -.It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa.db /var/named/data/dumb.txt /var/named/data/named_stats /var/named/data/named_stats. gethost d. checkfile d. whois c. c. domaincheck Answer – b Explanation – whois command is used to search for the availability of domain name format whois domain-name 219. checkzone c. checkconf c.

Which of the following files are configuration files for the sendmail server? a. The domain name of your system changed from oldone to newone.deny c. /etc/mail/security Answer – a Explanation -. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail. define domain names in /etc/mail/local-host-name c. 222. location of the log files and database files.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail. define domain names in /etc/mail/domain-name d.The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. What command does server the purpose? .cf. both of them d. none of them Answer – c Explanation -.the file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. define domain names in /etc/mail/virtual Answer – b Explanation -. Domain name mapping in file /etc/domain b. You want to configure the sendmail server to handle two domain names.allow d.mc c. /etc/mail/access. Can't be done b. After changing the /etc/mail/access file a user wants to create the access. What should the administrator do? a.The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the sendmail server? a. 225.mc. /etc/mail/sendmail. 223. /etc/mail/access b. none of above Answer – c Explanation -.The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmal will accept mail for delivery or relay. What will you do? a.cf b. /var/named/data/cache_dumb Answer – a 221. /etc/mail/sendmail.207 d. 224. use command domainname c.db file. domain name mapping in file /etc/mail/domaintable d. The file /etc/mail/sendmail. /etc/mail/access.

What actions does sendmail do on a mail? a.db. both of them d. /etc/postfix/post. /var/spool/mail/statistics b. /var/spool/mail/statistic Answer – a 228. b. /etc/postfix/postfix.cf /etc/postfix/daemon. none of them Answer – c Explanation -.the /etc/postfix/main.db Answer – a Explanation -. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected. /etc/postfix/main.cf. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main.db b. Make access. postfix queues and locations to be used for logging. /var/spool/mail/stats d. mailbox.The user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .db makes the file virtusertable. 226.Which file does contain collected statistics from sendmail? a. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected.cf d.db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.cf /etc/postfix/postfix.conf /etc/postfix/master. ERROR: user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message. It defines the hostnames and domain names. d.default which is exact copy of the main.mc c.208 a.cf b. create access. Which is the main configuration file for postfix server? a. REJECT c. create access d.cf. /var/spool/mail/stat c.db with the . . make access c.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access. 227. Which is the postfix daemon configuration file? /etc/postfix/master. c. /etc/postfix/main.There are four actions which the sendmail server can take RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail. 229. RELAY b.cf Answer – a Explanation -.db replace the filename access.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server.conf a.

/etc/postfix/postfix-file d. /etc/service/alternatives Answer –b Explanation -. /etc/postfix/access.2 d. /etc/postfix/security Answer – a Explanation -.the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server. /etc/alternative b. /etc/postfix/permit-files c.the file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server. 231.1 c. /etc/alternatives c. Which files does contain the sendmail and postfix server log information? a.The file /etc/postfix/master.1.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix and sendmail server.The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives displays the default services configured on the system 234. Which file does contain the directory and file permission set by postfix? a. all of above Answer – d Explanation -. Which file does contain the alternative mail services? /var/lib/alternatives /var/lib/alternatives/mta /var/lib/alternative/mta a. /etc/postfix/access b.deny c. b. /etc/services/alternatives d. c./var/log/maillog.209 Answer – a Explanation -. 230. . /etc/postfix/postfix-files b.and /var/log/maillog. /var/log/maillog. Which directory does contain the default services configured on the system? a.the log information about the postfix and sendmail server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog. The file /var/log/maillog. 233.2. 232. /var/log/maillog b.allow d. /var/log/maillog. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the postfix server? a. /etc/postfix/access. /etc/postfix/permission-files Answer –a Explanation -.

Which is the main configuration file for the dovecot services? a. /etc/xine. /etc/xinetd. /etc/xinetd.210 d. /etc/xinetd/xinetd. /etc/dovecot. /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf Answer – d 239. main_dir d.mc d. max_mail_processes b.d b.conf b. mail_processes Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/dovecot. max_run_mail_processes c. /etc/xinetd c.d/service d. run_dir b.conf c. 238. /etc/dovecot. /etc/xinetd.conf d. /etc/xinet. base_run c. Which directive of dovecot configuration defines maximum number of running mail processes? a.d/services Answer -.max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously. /var/lib/alternatives/mta-alternate Answer – b 235. base_dir Answer – d Explanation – base_dir defines Base directory where to store runtime data 237.a .conf b. Which configuration file does xinetd use? a.cf c. Which directive of dovecot configuration file does set the directory path containing run time data? a. /etc/xinetd. max_mail_run_processes d.conf Answer – a 236. Which directory does contain the files corresponding to the services supported by xinetd? a.

both of these d.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. These services are called on demand services. security Level Configurations c.allow and c in /etc/hosts. All is specified to denote all clients b.deny – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. system-config-securelevel d. 241. 240. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts. deny? a. system-config-securitylevel Answer – d 244. /etc/sysconfig/ipchain Answer – b Explanation -.The directory /etc/xinetd. allow and /etc/hosts. none of these Answer – a 242. B. What is the significance of ALL in /etc/hosts.Is the configuration right? a. yes Answer – b Explanation -.allow file. Which command is used to invoke security level configuration? a. Which graphical utility is used to configure security level of a system? a. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility. /etc/sysconfig/iptables c. system-config-level c. There are three clients A. Which file contains the current security level settings? a. No b. security Level Manager Answer – c 243. .211 Explanation -. Administrator wants to allow A and B for xinetd services (with tcp wrappers).The client A is listed in file /etc/hosts. /etc/hosts./etc/hosts. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. system-config-security b. security Level Configuration d.deny. /etc/sysconfig/iptable b. /etc/sysconfig/ipchains d.allow – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. This file is first scanned by tcpd.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. all is specified for all services c. and C. security Configuration b.

212 245.conf file is absent on a system.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam. iptables -S Answer – a 247. and session. /etc/sysconfig/iptable-config Answer – a Explanation -. authentiction. 250. The /etc/pam. password c. both of them Answer – c Explanation -.d/pam d. none of them d. /etc/pam. mandate b. Which command is used to save the rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file? a.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.d b. 249.The contents of the file /etc/pam. /etc/pam. Where will the configuration file for PAM find? a. 248. both of them d. sufficient. password. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-nat c. The files in the directory /etc/conf. Which of the following account types does PAM allow? a. iptables-load c. auth b. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-filter d.d Answer – d Explanation -. 246. Which directory does contain the PAM modules? /lib/security a.d are present. . load additional iptables modules. What are the valid control types for a PAM configuration file? a. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. iptables-kernel d. Which file does configure the modules needed for NAT filtering? a. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config b. iptables-save b. done c. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers.PAM allows four types account.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to.d/conf c. /etc/pam/pam.The valid values for the control are include. required. and optional. /etc/pam.

all of them Answer – d Explanation -. What of the following is valid SELinux enforcing mode? a.enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced. Which graphical utility is used for SELinux configuration? a. /etc/sysconfig/selad c. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues warning instead of enforcement. Which configuration file does SELinux use? a. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. /etc/sysconfig/selinux b. system-config-SELinux d. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. SELinux configuration b.mc c.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled.cf d. Which file does SELinux Administration utility change? a. /etc/sysconfig/seladm d. disable d.conf b. /lib/security/PAM d.213 b. system-config-SElinux c. system-config-se Answer – a 253. enforcing c. 254. SELinux administration d. /etc/sysconfig/seladmin Answer – a Explanation -. SELinux manager Answer – c 252. SELinux configurations c. Disable-. permissive b. system-config-selinux b. /lib/PAM c.The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux . /etc/PAM Answer – a 251. Which command is used to invoke the SELinux administration utility? a. /etc/sysconfig/selinux Answer – d 255.

107. 99. 155.conf 205 etc/dhcp. 167 anaconda boot prompt 164-5 anaconda ks 165 anongid 118. 161. 105. 138-9. 196 anonuid 122 Anonymous login 127 anonymous uid 118.214 INDEX* A access 97. 81.log cache. 164-5. 130 Administrative group 73 administrator 66. 113-14. 153. 193 actions System Tools 152 address 61. 192-3.conf 199 etc/xinetd.log 112 account system-auth 160 user jack's 196 acl 113. 204.conf 204 etc/dovecot/dovecot. 119-20.com 165 . 129. 103. 113 Access file 147. 183. 79. 191. 198-9. 140. 193.db 147-8. 32. 150-1. 211 assigned 140. 204 lp 117 adm 78-9. 172 access tab user 125 access. 169 amount 85-6.conf 200 etc/name. 208 AccessFileName 103 access. 193-4. 134. 26. 204-5.conf 210 etc/groups 181 etc/ldap/openldap. 116-17. 134 ALT 30. 194 anaconda 14. 132. 195.conf 202 filesystem 183 ftpd 200 gpassword 181 hd0 164 kickstart-file/install/linux.out store. 203.log squid. 208-9 [4] access control 113. 103-4. 135. 156. 115. 193 access control list 145. 205 access control section 9.conf 210 etc/yp. 196 anonymous user behavior 132 answer 3. 205 acl tag 113. 207.conf 194 etc/dhclient.conf 187 etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. 125-6. 122. 122.master 174 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cachemgr. 201 command xvf 178 dev/sda2 174 device-name raid-device-name 175 dumb 207 error condition 188 etc/autofs.conf 205 etc/openldap/schemaldap 202 etc/PAM 213 etc/samba/sambausers 198 etc/smb. 145. 211 AGE 68 AGENT 97 Alias SERVICES 79 aliases 70-1. 151.conf 198 etc/sysconfig/selinux 213 etc/syslog.

190 Apache web server 99. 101 auth 102. 101.pid 193 var/spool/mail/statistic 208 var/spool/squid/cachedir 193 apache 102. 72. 67. 173 bo 85 book 3. 51 autofs 50-1. 188 atrm 95-6 attributes 55. 5 boot 14-15.log 191 var/run/httpd 189 var/run/klogd 187 var/run/squidd. 85 bin/bash 35.215 lib/httpd/module 189 modified 176 namedcheckconf 206 paste 200 renice command 184 schedule 186 security Level Manager 211 service name start 205 service sambad start 198 service squid reload 195 service vftpd start 199 service ypd start 203 squid configure 195 system-config-dns 205 system-config-httpconf 190 system-config-manages 178 system-config-se 213 system-config-securitylevel 211 system-config-smbd 198 system-config-usrs 181 system-config-vsftpd 200 var/log/httpd. 189 apache web server process 101. 97-9. 25-9.conf 100. 50. 174 B badblocks 6. 96 bi 19. 174. 160-1. 190 async 42. 180 bin/bash new-user 180 bin/mount 79-80 bin/tcsh 72 bin/true 90 bin/umount 79-80 Block device 57. 174 base 45. 191. 197 autofs status 174 automount 6. 118. 49. 212 auto 42. 153-4. 51. 189 apache server 109. 179-80 bashrc 70 batch 93. 85 blocksize 45-6. 210 bash 70 bash shell 70-1. 52 automount daemons 50. 41. 189-91 apache web server configuration directory 100. 105-6 configuration apache configuration file httpd. 78. 122 atq 94-6. 149. 70. 165. 160-1. 167-8 boot configuration 27-8 . 91. 212 file system-auth 161 authentication 111. 133-4. 110.

76-81. 18 boot system. 157 bzip2 178 C ca 31. 121. 188 badblocks 49. 112. 123-5. 153. 169. 169. 173-4 cd 120. 123. 86-91. 27-8. 114. 211 [1] dhcp 142. 211 web 104. 139-40. 142. 25. 203 client side information 122 client system 137 clients 3. 187 button 107-8. 80 CDROM media 52 change 36. 5. 46. 112 cache files 60 cache manager 10. 195200. 47-8. 34. 169 cache 105. 194 Cache-manager command 194 cache server 105 cache size 112. 142.216 boot directory 15 boot/grub/grub. 90 Changing runlevels 36 chgrunlevel 170 chkconfig 35-8. 132-3. 151 atq 95. 192-3 cache directory 112 default 193 cache directory section 9. 170-5. 158 user information 74 clicking 83. 99. 41. 81. 186. 131. 64-5. 83. 204. 113-14. 78. 131. 169. 196. 174 batch 96. 171 chkconfig command 170 chkconfig dhcpd 204 chkconfig service-name 37-8. 207. 192-4. 142. 184 normal 29 boot process kernel 169 boot prompt 16. 193 cachedir 60 case 81. 180-90. 202-7 [29] administrative 8. 192 change directory 131 change root user's password 76 Changing priority of process 8. 196 subnet masks of 156. 127-8. single 14 boot time 34-5. 43-4. 84. 152. 104. 119-20. 186. 181-3. 204 root user of 118. 75. 25. 170. 195. 87. 90. 54-8. 26 boot process 3. 87. 144-5. 150. 168 click 40. 144-5. 52. 120-1. 125-6. 36-40. 183 cat 47-8. 172 bootloader 15-16. 156. 91. 118. 27. 93-8. 168 boot ks 165 boot partition 14-15. 79. 114-15. 164-5 bootloader command 17 broadcast 136-7 browse tab user 66 buffer 86.conf 25. 155 cdrom 16-19. 28. 41. 29. 121. 164-5 default 25. 87. 99. 157 client computers 118. 142. 138-40. 111 Cmnd 79 columns 42-3 comma 157 command 20-4. 141. 72. 125. 163. 188 . 82-3. 170 choice 16. 42.

90 purpose 53.217 bzip2 178 chgrp 81 chmod 46 chown 81 chown user-name-group-name file-name df 77. 196 fdisk 172 filename time-specification 95 following 46. 67. 178 command chkconfig 37. 153 free 183 fsck 48-9 groupadd 73 groupdel 73 groupmod 73 insmod 89. 202 lsmod 185 lvdisplay 57 lvremove 57 mdadm 53-4 mke2fs 173 mkfs 44 mkswap 46 modinfo 88 modprobe 89-90. 90 pvcreate 54 renice 90-1. 183 whois 206 183 ypinit 139. 174 command badblocks device-name 49 command badblocks searches 49 command bzip2 65. 71 userdel 72 usermod 72. 52. 197 ps 8. 176 command aliases 79-80 command askmethod 16 command atq 96 command badblocks 49. 184 uptime 85 useradd 66-7. 72. 186 rmmod 89 sbin/visudo 81 sudo 182 swap 46 swapon 47 top 84. 204 yum 60-1. 185 install 64 ldapsearch 135. 180 visudo 182 vmstat 85. 181 dmesg 187 exportfs 119. 143 command chkconfig dhcpd 139 command chkconfig dovecot 153 command chkconfig httpd 99 command chown 182 command crontab 98 command dd 173 command dhclient 142 command dmesg 91 . 186 network 17 nfsstat 122.

212 conf directory 100 config directory 102 configuration 8-9. 133. 173. 101. 211 httpd server 190 post installation 151 samba 197 server's 190 configuration directives 103 Configuration directives for Apache web server process 190 configuration file cd 148 configuration file restart 116 configuration files 11-12. 73. 181 command prompts 76. 186-7. 11.insmod loads 186 commands gunzip realplay. 159-61. 128. 186 command lsmod 88 command lvcreate 56 command mdadm 53 command mkfs. 126-8. 204 remote 131 conf 100. 64. 190. 96 command ps 90 command pvremove 58 Command Reference 13. 194-5. 165-6. 122. 169 computers 14-15. 41. 189-90. 27-8. 202 command swapoff 48 command system-config-kickstart 17 command tar xvf 178 command tar xvfz realplay. 212-13 [19] Configuration GUI 11. 131. 207-8. 202. 77. 101. 102. 163 command renice 186 command root@localhost 44 command rpm 81. 59-60. 145. 207 command don W  command execute 182 command field 98 command file swap 46 command ifconfig 140 command insmod 90 command kudzu 19 command ldapadd 135 command line 46.vfat 173 command modprobe 90 command mount 42.tar. 133-5. 177 command sequence 148 command service dhcpd start 139 command service dovecot start 153 command service httpd start 99 command service network start 142 command service ypbind start 137 command sets 135 command shutdown 169. 162. 135-6. 166. 23. 147-8. 140.tar. 179.gz 64 commands mke2fs uses 45 commands tar xvf 178 comment 71-2. 45. 200. 143. 205. 205 . 176. 138-40. 80 command passwd 76. 116-18. 159.218 command domainname 135. 182 command slapd 134. 160.gz 64 command umount directory-name 43 command uname 185 command useradd 72 command userdel 180 command vgcreate 55 command vgdisplay 55 command vgextend 55 command vgremove 58 command. 48.

162. 86. 179. 17. 92 control 27. 200 Daemon Configuration 151 daemon process name 194 daemon xinetd 12. 72 deref 134 DEREF options 134 desc 19 description 29. 147. 131. 128-9. 23. 147-8. 169 D daemon 78-9. 161. 16 Creating User Account 7. 128 connect 118. 189 configuration parameters 142. 52 Creating Kickstart 5. 208 dc 133-4 default installer 14. 91. 190 configuration configure 14. 184 crashes 40. 106-7. 125-6. 101. 110. 200-1 core directory 109. 189 crontab jobs 97-8 CTRL 30. 205-6 tcp wrapper 156 daemon Configuration 10. 155-6. 152 dev 18. 27 Configuring Hardware 5. 153. 163. 150. 104. 150. 27. 19 Configuring NIS 11. 189 klogd 93. 32. 97 crontab 97-8. 147 cpu 85 CPU usage 84. 194-5 conntrack 159 console 29-30. 131. 136 Configuring services 36 Configuring Squid 9. 143. 61-2. 51-2. 190 database files 147-8. 79. 173 . 112. 131. 164 default operating system 27-8. 207 defaults 41. 122-3. 71-3. 187 named 143. 159. 212 copy 15. 100. 157 cron 97-9. 45 deflate/module 89 Deleting user account 7. 211 internet 115. 177. 204-5 [5] configure command configures 65 configure IPSec tunnel 23 configure printers 24 configure samba server 197 configure security level 211 configure system's hostname 23 Configuring Grub 5. 155 data files 46. 109-10. 131. 130. 33. 207 days 68 db 138 db files 12. 81. 64-5. 169 ctrlaltdel 30-2. 195 connection 102. 145-6. 19-20. 99. 35. 131. 194. 66 cron facility 93. 168 default parameters 45-6 default runlevel 29-30 default values 66-7. 141. 123. 145. 174 database 64.219 configuration information 115. 111 Configuring vsftpd 10. 169. 192. 41-2 dev/cdrom 43-4. 205 desktop 82.

175-7. 117-21. 143-6. 173-5 multiple 52 physical 53 device listing 141 device name 42 device-name 48-9. 179 directory 15. 171 disk druid 164-5 display 57. 47-8. 43 df 77. 133-4. 177-8 digits 35. 210 directory realplay 64-5 directory realplay. 181 display server side information 122 display server side NFS information 197 dmesg 91. 166. 124. 153-4. 173 dev/sda6 172 dev/vol 175 device 19. 181 dhcp 139. 90. 54-5. 127. 160. 204 difference 42. 140 dhcp server 139-42. 48 devpts 41. 134 directory files 117 directory information 134 directory list 132 directory listing 121 directory name 17. 131. 187 DNS server 11. 127. 34-6. 117 directory-name host-name 117 directory option 132 directory path 17. 171. 77 dev/sda0 53 dev/sda1 53. 118. 99-104. 149-52. 125-6. 46.220 dev/fd0 51 dev/md0 53-4. 106. 42-3. 161. 77. 139. 49. 209-12 [25] base 153. 44. 167.com 117-18. 174 dev/my 57 dev/sda 26. 40-1. 105. 143 domain example. 169 dir 17. 52-4. 156 . 206 var/nis 203 var/yp 203 directory entry 117. 141. 204 DHCP server 11. 139-40. 96-7. 200 etc/alternatives 152 etc/httpd 189 schema 134 target 173 var/lib/alternatives 152 var/named 145. 153.tar 65 directory tree 101. 175 filesystem-type 44. 174 dev/sda2 53-4. 174 dev/sda4 43 dev/sda5 40. 59-60. 210 DIR 67-8. 142 DHCP client 11. 205 dns server information 141 DNS server information 142 DNS service 143 DocumentRoot 103. 188-91. 1967. 45. 41-2. 190 directory user 70 directory yum 175 disk 85. 210 current 131. 190-1 domain 106.

156. 104.cf 147. 195-6 etc/fstab 42. 199 entry initdefault 29 entry mta-sendmail 152 environment 96. 71-3. 191 domain names 146-7. 138. 196. 183. 208 error Answer 170 error messages 91.deny 12. 179 etc/mail 11.221 domain name mapping 147.daily 98-9 etc/demo 190 etc/dhcpd. 186 etc/modprobe. 143. 87-8 drm 88-9 DSO (Dynamic Shared Object) 102 dual boot system 14 dumb. 206 DVD 14-15 DVD drive 14 DVD media 14-15 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 139 Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) 102 E edit 39. 99. 211 etc/hosts. 144. 207 etc/mail/sendmail. 58. 83.conf 189-90 etc/init 116. 114. 101. 187-8 etc/at. 150. 171-2 etc/ftab 171-2 etc/gshadow 73 etc/hosts 137. 208 etc/mail/local-host-name 147.db 145. 123.allow 12. 166.conf 90.deny command lists 93. 207 etc/mail/sendmail. 204 etc/exports 117. 196. 144-5.misc 50-1 etc/bashrc 71 etc/cron. 109 ENAB 69-70 entry 15. 188 etc/auto. 147-8. 80. 186 .allow 94. 189 etc/httpd/conf 101-2. 211 etc/httpd 100-1. 138. 190-1. 207 etc/modprobe 90. 188 customize user's shell 70 EOT 95-6 error 49. 126. 175. 185-7. 143. 207 Domain Name Service 138 Domain Name System 111. 211 etc/hosts. 147-8. 117-18. 20. 201-3 [2] valid 136. 169. web master 107.mc 147. 151. 108. 153-4 dovecot configuration 210 down list 144-5 drivers 19. 134.conf 140. 156. 37. 50-1. 189-90 etc/httpd/conf/httpd. 149.deny 93-4.defs 67. 120-1. 179 email address. 29. 59. 173. 182 editing 27-8. 205 etc/inittab 29 etc/login. 135. 174. 196 etc/exports file 118-20. 154 etc/alternatives 209 etc/at. 195. 188 etc/at. 206-8 domain NISDOMAIN 136 domain ServerName 106 domainname domain-name-of-system 135 don W   dovecot 12.

176 father 27. 210-11 etc/yp. 50. 169. 117-19. 200-2 etc/openldap/openldap.conf 145. 160. 72. 173 ext3 rw 42-3 F facility 187-8 failure 54. 52. 51 ext3 41. 194 etc/sysconfig/syslog 187 etc/sysconfig/syslog.conf 92. 187 etc/vsftpd/ftpusers 130 etc/vsftpd/user 129-30.conf 134-5. 179 etc/skel directory 70. 196 export HOSTNAME DESKTOP 97 exported directory 122. 197 exportfs 119. 67. 174 etc/samba directory 126 etc/service/alternatives 209 etc/services/alternatives 209 etc/skel 67.conf 137. 166 etc/xinetd 155. 205 etc/nsswitch. 44-5. 48 filesystem types 42 ext3 filesystem type 52 ext3 filesystems 40. 34-6. yum commands 176 exit codes 49 expire 60. 199 etc/X11 32-3. 212 etc/sysconfig/selinux 162.222 etc/mstab 172 etc/mtab 6. 171-2 etc/named. 208-9 etc/postfix/permission-files 209 etc/postfix/permit-files 209 etc/postfix/postfix-files 151. 203 etc/openldap/ldap. 196 ext2 44-5. 127 fdisk 172-3 Fedora Core Linux 14 . 166 etc/sysconfig/ipchains 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables 159.conf 59-60. 184 fc7 26. 212 etc/pam. 171. 87-8.cf 151. 169.conf 136 etc/yum. 179 etc/squid/squid. 132. 161. 203 etc/postfix/main. 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159.com 105. 213 etc/sysconfig/squid 115.conf 111. 78.conf 200-1 etc/pam 13. 42. 208 etc/postfix/master. 180-1. 209 etc/profile 71 etc/rc 31-2. 140. 63. 191-4 etc/sudoers 80-1 etc/sysconfig/hwconf 19-20. 156 exec 42 execution. 48. 91. 70. 29. 44. 122.cf 151. 142 exam 3 exam topics 3 example.conf 187 etc/syslog 187 etc/syslog.conf 160. 72 Explanation 164-213 export 119. 212 etc/passwd 71. 176 Ethernet device panel 141 Ethernet interface 17.

132. 188-9 dhcp server configuration 204 domain name mapping 147 dovecot configuration 210 download 128 dump 145. 43. 41. 176 etc/samba/smb. 49 virtual 41 file system errors 49 file systems. 46-8. 185. 98.conf 15 bz2 178 cached 105 change 163 component support component 102 configu-ration 92 crontab 97.conf 101. 145-7. 208 files 29-30. 29-30. 17890. 79-80.allow 97 etc/cron. 172 file group 81.conf 138 etc/openldap/ldap. 211 etc/httpd/conf/httpd. 207 etc/mke2fs 45 etc/mtab 42 etc/named.master 50 etc/auto. 209 etc/postfix/postfix-scripts 151 etc/profile 71 etc/rpmrc configuration 64. 202 etc/pam. 92-9. 115-18. 198-201. 149-52. 139 fourth 42. 150. 93.misc 51 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cron. 185 filename access. 203 file owner 81. 169 etc/login. 183 file swap 47-8 file system 42.networking 88 file names 67. 182-3 file permissions 46. 182-3 file modules.223 field 98. 190 etc/inittab 5.conf 134. 137-40. 172 etc/group 71. 203-13 [20] access. 206 entry 117 etc/at.conf 153 etc/export 119 etc/fstab 6. 34-6.conf 193 etc/sudoers 8. 198 etc/shadow 71 etc/squid/squid. 87.db 148. 206 etc/nsswitch 137 etc/nsswitch. 95. 101-4. 88.conf 212 etc/passwd 72 etc/postfix/access 151. 81 etc/hosts. 179 boot/grub/grub.deny 97 etc/crontab 98. 78-81.defs 67 etc/mail/access 147.db 207 apache web server configuration 190 authpriv 92 bash 179 bashrc 70-1. 155-64.allow 156.conf configuration 126 etc/samba/smbusers 126-7.allow 93 etc/auto. 129-34. 171-6. 182 . 138. multiple 49 filename 47-8. 189 etc/dovecot. 48.conf 145.

conf 128 script 151 sharing 122. 191 files nisplus nis shadow 138 files passwd 138 . 194 squid server configuration 193 standard logging 132 sub-component configuration 101 swap 46-8 tar 178 tar. 204 var/log/secure 93 var/log/xferlog 130.cf 151.conf 90 sample vsftpd. 156 execute user-namex201fs 182 exported 122. 191 initrd 15 inittab 29 ldif 135 library 101 list 130.dep 89 multiple 131 named daemon configuration 145 pid 109 postfix daemon configuration 208 proc/kmsg 93 rmtab 122.pid 101 important 11-12. 197 file master. 203 ypbind configuration 136 yum configuration 65 zip 178 zone 145. 197 samba configuration 10.cron 97 ftp server configuration 199 global configuration 64. 192 squid daemon configuration 115.gz 178 temporary 60 using 95. 206 files he/she 103. 149 index.224 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159 etc/syslog. 199 load config 102 local 138 main.conf 136 etc/yum. 128 single 153 special 92 squid configuration 111.html 103. 126 samba user 198 sample 35. 200 var/yp/securenets 138. 96 sample auto.conf 133 sample modprobe. 132.conf 92 etc/yp.conf 176 executable 42.master 50 sample configuration 60 sample etab 122 sample ldap.bz2 178 tar. 145-6. 208 modules.pid 154 file-name. 176 gpg key 61 htaccess 104 htpasswd 104 httpd.

164-5. 69. 83. 171-2. 169 . 171 pseudo 167 single 52 vfat 173 filesystems tab 83 finger 156 firewall 3. 27-8. 71-3. 25. 53-7. 184-5 [17] tar. 89-91. 196. 204-5. 208 format 10. 65. 146. 96. 172 filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name 43 filesystems 6. 25-6. 196 Global Environment Configuration 9. 176 graphical tools 33 graphical utility 5. 82 Group Administration 7. 138. 101 gpgcheck 60-1 gpgkeys 61. 165-7. 77. 71. 213 group 8. 181-3 logical 56 new 7. 81. 35. 34. 159 firewall command sets 17 firewall rules 159 floppy 45-6. 157. 15. 73 grp 55-7. 20. 53. 159. 130. 29. 175 grub 5. 33. 180. 200 ftp server 129-30. 16-17. 40-4. 168 grub menu 15. 50-1. 48-50. 138-9. 80. 199-200 FTP 3. 103 group sys root 81 groupadd 68. 19. 14. 76-8. 211. 67. 47-8. 118. 48. 16-17. 109. 200. 117. 180 group-name 72. 43.225 files S10network 35 files xtab 122. 60-1. 190. 27-8 gunzip 178 H halt 30. 132. 199-200 FTP server 128 ftp service 199 G GB 56 gid 41. 25.bz2 64-5 value 134 Fri 94-6 fs 45-6 fsck 48-9. 197 Filesystem Administration 6 Filesystem Information 6. 181-2 basic 29 df 77 mounted 77. 129-30. 72-3. 91. 73 group accounts 66. 130. 78. 174 fstype 51 ftp 18. 58-9. 59. 52. 17-18. 46. 51 following commands cd 148. 122 proc 41. 79-82. 73 group administration group apache 102-3 group demo 182 group ids 78 group information 73-4. 168 grub configuration file 5. 111 ftp command 200 ftp command prompt 10. 41. 40 filesystem mount command 43 filesystem option 77 filesystem type 42.

104. 170 I id 19. 201. 89-90. 146. 126-7. 69. 34 initrd 15. 89 hd0 15. 34. 184 INIT process 30 initdefault 29. 137-8. 184 init process 27. 27. 14-17. 122. 165. 179-81 his/her 180 home directory name 72 home-directory-name 72 home directory of user 179 home directory path 71 home/jack 181 home/movies 43-4 home/swap 47 home/user 70-1. 118-19. 71. 59. 172. 212 system-auth password 160 inconsistencies 118 index closed db 64 opening db 63 info 92. 69-70. 143 hostname 10. 36. 160. 26-7 inode 45-6 Inserting module 8. 65-6. 23. 72. 201 information server 103 init 29-30. 72. 146. 53-4.226 hard disk 14-16. 64. 29. 134. 203. 52. 172 hard-disk-device name 53 hard-disk-device-name 53-4 hard-disk-partition 55 vgcreate volume-group-name 55 vgextend volume-group-name 55 hard disk partitions 42. 16. 32. 44. 191 HTTPD Server Configuration 190 httpd service 99. 151. 77. 29. 170-1. 42. 192. 112 home 41. 65. 131. 206. 208 htaccess 103-4 HTTPD Configuration Answer 190 httpd server 103. 164. 190-1 home directory 46. 26-7. 31-4 initialize 54 Initializing System 6. 174. 181 home/demo 173. 192. 154 infomod modulename 185 information he/she 83. 50. 189. 97 grp System 55 IfModule mod 104-5 imap 153-4 include 50. 67. 206 virtual 107-8 host names 117. 50. 201-2 sendmail commands 148 hierarchy 40. 34. 167 Installation and Hardware Configuration 5 installation files 15 . 31. 196. 89 install 14. 169. 180-1. 77. 47 hardware 19-20. 168 he/she 144. 171. 195-6. 117. 98. 164. 52-3. 87. 79. 115. 35. 176. 161. 196 home/vishnu 118-22 home/vishnu directory 119-20 host 19. 61-2. 163-4. 67. 59. 81. 176-8. 160-1. 212 install server 15 installation 5. 166 Hardware Configuration 5 hardware drivers 87. 168. 60. 126. 168. 77. 86.

133-5. 186. 149-50. 187 kernel Modules 8. 50-1. 193. 53. 160. 15. 164. 204-6 list of 156. 188. 166. 212 iso9660 51 J jack 81. 26-7. 128. 176 level directories 35 level rpm configuration file 177 lib/modules 87-90 lib/modules/uname 89 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 133 . 167 interface. 134. 139-40. 174. 201-2 LDAP Data Interchange Format 134. 16.com 164-5 Kickstart Kill Process 83 klogd 92-3 ko 89 ks 18 kudzu 19-20. 30. 198-9 jill 188 jobs 87. 188 john 179. 169-71. 151. 212 kernel/crypto/module 89 Kernel Information 8. 145-6. 80. 201 ldap directory 135. 202 ldap directory information 201 ldap server 134-5. 165 L LABEL 26. 52 K KB 56 kde 70 kernel 8. 161.227 installation process 14-16. 34-8. 32. procfs-based 122 ip. 212 iptables modules 159. 87. 94. 17. 201 ldap service service ldap start 135 ldap. 18. 168. 167 kickstart-file/install/linux. 87-91. 18. 41 languages system 14 largefile 46 lastrunlevel 170 ldap 11. 181. 201 LEN 68 letter 36 level 29. 185-7. ns 159 ip address 131. 169 gpg 60 Kickstart 18 kickstart configurator 17 kickstart file 5. 20-1 keys 30. 211 IPC 127 IPC Service 127 ipt 88 iptables 158-9. 93-7. 29. 199 journaling feature 40. 90 kernel/lib/zlib 89 kernel messages 92-3. 169 keyboard layout 14. 142-3. 93.conf 133 ldapsearch 202 ldif 134. 164. 196. 91. 185 Kernel Services and Configuration 8 kernel subdirectory 88 keyboard 16.

47. 190. 143. 103. 50-1. 72. 152-5. 126. 104. 127-8. 152 lsmod modulename 185 lvcreate 56 lvremove 57-8 M mac 187-8 mail 12. 149-50. 152. 56 Logical volume group support 54 login 33. 191 logout 70 logs directory 100 lp 78-9. 135. 210 mail root 96 mail server 146-7. 126. 87. 149. 25. 130 lrwxrwxrwx 100 ls 46-7. 196 automounter 50-1 . 152. 70. 160. 100. 205. 132. 67. 78-9. 150. 97-8. 200 local system mget 131 local system mkdir 131 localdomain 135-6 localhost 99. 185. 153. 109. 67-8. 83. 190-2. 96. 179. 60-1. 60. 151. 175 Logical Volume Group 6-7. 207 default 152 mail server request 150. 41. 92-3. 94. 106. 87. 161. 150 Mail Transport Agent Switcher 152 mail transport agent work 153 Mail User Agent 146 mailbox 12. 179. 152-4. 209 mail transfer agent 146. 164. 128-30. 120. 87.228 LILO 165 line. 97-8. 112. 207-10 incoming 151-2 mail processes 155. 151. 140. 92. 78. 199 list root 129 list service-name 38 list status 38 listing 19. 60. 150. 153-4. 128. 147. 207 default 164 log information 8. 147. 207-8 locks 122 log 78. 149. 66. 128. 48 list of users 129. 94-5. 114-15. 196. 170-1. 111. 114. 70. default partition 164-5 maps 91. 84. 129. 209 logging 92. 208 main configuration file 100-1. 60. 176. 150-1. 191. following 104-5. 183-4 LoadModule auth 102 local system 131. 131. 103. 133. 112 log files 12. 151. 86-7. 207-10 Makefile 138. 66. 208 logical volume 7. 188. 148. 152. 146-7. 171-2 load average 84-5. 154. 56-9. 25. 132. 101. 95-6. 164. 99. 88. 199 [5] list of commands 44. 130. 191 entry domain Localdomain server 137 location 16. 153. 138. 199 links. 70. 199 anonymous user 129 initial 179 LogLevel 104. 187 Log Configuration Answer 184 Log File and Cache directory section 9. 208 mail server sendmal 207 mail services 11. 203 manager. 100-3 Linux 15. 100. 168 linux file system structure 165 linux filesystem 48 list 38. 54. 129. 198-202. 131-2. 52. symbolic 35. 147. 132. 136. 78-9. 94. 85. 87. 152. 133.

175 mem 112. 185-6.inputmap 88 monitor 17. 50. 80. 50. 52. 166. 182 memory 85. 41-3. 185 remove. 80. 172-3.229 master 50 MASQUERADE 88 Master Boot Record (MBR) 14. 88 modules module 89-90 modules. 82 mount 27. 166.list selinux policy 163 system-auth 161 modules directory 101 Modules Loaded 8. 173-4 mnt/cdrom 80 mnt/win 120. 190 command modprobe 89 driver 89. 182 mount command 42-3. 165 graphics 33 multiuser 31. 119.symbols 87 modules. 50. 63.usbmap kernel modules. 168. 172. 191. 161. 169 safe probe 20. 111. 93. 159. 42. 172 mounted directory 44 mounting 6. 80.networking modules. 192-3 members 69. 25. 150.system 178 monitor type 21 Monitoring System performance 8. 46 mkfs 44-5. 49. 56. 210 MAX 68-9 maximum number of mail processes 155. 33 misc 50-1 mke2fs 44. 164 MBR (Master Boot Record) 14. 169 Multiuser mode booting 169 MYGROUP 127-8 . 53. 187. 183-4 messages 91. 164 matt 180 max 154-5. 50 Multiuser 31. 102. 53. 42-3. 166. 156. 104. 166 package package-name. 33. 208 outgoing 149 Min/max values 68 minutes 30-1. 100. 165 Modifying group information 7. 185 loaded 88. 29. 172 mnt/win directory 120 modes 20. 174-5 mdadm device-name 175 mdadm raid-device-name 53-4. 197 mount-options-separated-by-comma 50-1 mount point 40. 21. 72 modinfo 88. 185-6 modinfo modulename 185 modprobe 186 modprobe modulename 185 modsecurity directory 101 module modules/mod 102 module name 90 module-name 90 modules 87-90. 164 MD5 69-70 mdadm 53-4. 119-20. 112. 212 authorization 100. 42-3. 210 Maximum number of running mail processes 154 MB 46. 25. 173 mbr 16. 73 Modifying user account 7.

202 nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system 135 NISGRP 195 noauto option 172 nocrossmnt 122 nodaemon 32-3 nodev 51 nosuid 51 notauto option 172 nouser 42 ntfs 45. 119. 143 OS 127 output 46. 116. 120. 134. 22-3. 69. 128-9. 203 NIS domain name 11. 102. 121 NFS directory 10. 93. 68. 119. 204. 120. 103. 63. 114. 195-6 nfsstat 122. 111. 133. 96. 94. 85. 192-3 transit 112. 155 network usage information 184 networking 31. 101. 202-3 NIS server information 138. 196 NFS server configuration utility 120. 140. 41. 166 network information 184 Network Information Service 135 network options 9. 91. 195 NIS server 11. 94. 126. 187. 170. 48 number 29. 203 files nisplus 138 NIS database 11. 173. 135-7. 142. 197 option url 17 options format 10. 187-9. 104-5. 122. 147. 122. 53.230 Mysql 100. 201-2. 97. 61-2. 104. 212 neat 22. 197 NFS server root user 196 NFS service 116. 202 NIS group 117. 179 . 119. 204 net 50. 197 NFS Server Administration Answer 196 NFS Server Configuration 10. 71. 197 NFS server 15. 166. 117. 135. 138-40. 144-5. 184. 118. 204 O objects 112-13. 207 network access 135 Network Configuration 140. 122. 190 N name 35. 196. 119-20. 136-9. 174. 139. 192-3 hot 112. 169 organizations 116. 114. 35-6. 31. 131. 196. 132 network port 163 network security 12. 87-8. 88. 166. 155. 17-18. 48. 201 overridden 46. 192-3 operation 50. 137-8. 61. 117. 53. 120 netbios 159 netmask 139. 197 nis 135. 117. 118 order 35-6. 193. 184. 203 NIS server name 137 NIS version 138 nisdomainname 135-6. 193 network 16-18. 79-80 NFS 3. 198-9 [3] Naming convention of files 35 nat 88 NAT filtering 159. 197 NFS Configuration 196 NFS daemon 119. 166 network devices 14. 88.

121. 146. 212 panel 53. 167. 76. 177 package-name queries 178 package-name. 157 partition 14. 212 password of user 76. 98. 171 . 52-4. 121. 32-3 prefdm 32-3 prevrunlevel 170 printers 23-4. 145. 122 Prints 63 priority 36. 27. 190 physical volume 7. 32-3. 114-15. 66. 145. 144-5. 148. 126. 132. 172 disk 40. 71. 134. 170. 176-8 gpgkeys of 176 installed 62. 33 powerokwait 30. 171 filesystem-type source 172 pass 3. 64-6. 190 permission mask 69 PHP 100. 85. 150-3. 52 Power Restored 32-3 powerfail 30. 28-9. 139. 157 PASS 68 passwd 138. 107-9. 90. 186 privilege 78-81. 209 list postfix service 150 postfix mail server 151 postfix server 150-3. 129 pop3 153-4 port 16. 182-3 probing 20 problem 103. 47-8. 154-8. 189. 58. 123-5. 97. 17. 84. 43. 195. 78. 127. 154 performance 110. 180-1 passwd user-name 76 passwd command id 181 password 15. 175 pid 29. 178 package name 61 package-name 62. 124. 65. 47-8. 102. 168. 59. 5. 80. 208-9 postfix server log information 209 power 30-2 power failure 30. 181-2. 129. 193 pipe 94 Pluggable Authentication Module 93. 93. 68. 155. 168-9.yum install 178 package package-name 177 package processing 63 packages 3. 171-3 dev/sda6 40. 14. 71. 32-3 powerfail action 30. 182-3 P Package management and Kickstart 3 Package Manager 7. 107. 118. 203 port number 102. 54-5. 142. 111-12. 83-4. 86. 161.231 owner 81. 121. 160-1. 166 Perl 100. 118. 161. 154. 177 software 14. 59-62. 165. 74. 174 proc 41-2. 211 port panel 158 postfix 12. 183-7. 177 yum install 61. 96. 102. 62-4 istration xf0b7 3 pam 129. 40. 212 configuring 160 PAM configuration file 212 PAM modules 161-2. 66. 52. 180 path 18. 102. 191-2.

184 processes tab 83 profile 70 program dnsserver 111. 112. 120. 52 raid level information 53 raid options panel 53 ram 192-3 RAM memory 84. 102. 36 rc5 32. 53-4. 41. 171. 93. 90 process id 91. 164 Red Hat Linux 14. 165. 108-9. 210 active 83 concurrent 201 postfix daemon 151. 121. 25. 171 rc1 34. 173 proc/uptime 184 Process and Kernel Information 8. 184 zombie 84. 172 relay 147. 69. 153-4. 142. 209 proxy 114. 80. 190 Q QMAIL 67-8 queries 62. 168. 208 remote system mput 131 remote system rename 131 remove 7. 174-5 RAID devices 52-3 raid devices information 53 RAID disks 6. 192-3 ratio 45-6 rc 31-2.sysinit 31-2 read/write 55. 186 remove user groups 69 . 16. 27. 69. 53-4. 191 programs 35. 28.232 proc/modules 185 proc/swaps 47-8. 186 processes 8. 83-6. 91. 194. 204 process identification number 29. 144. 143. 29-30. 62. 167-9. 95 pts 85 Python 100. 23. 90-1. 184 process pid 90. 89-90. 5 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 14. 156. 136. 175 raid-device-name device-name 175 raid devices 53-4. 194 running 90 total number of 84. 169 rc. 57-8. 182 properties 59. 35-6. 168 Red Hat Certified Engineer 3. 58-9. 191 prompt 30. 161. 84. 62. 64. 32-4. 94-5. 57 reconfigure 116. 184. 175. 158 proxy 104-5 ps 20. 146 protocols 101. 5 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam 3. 183-6. 150. 36. 207-8 RELAY 150. 122. 144 properties button 74. 184 process PID 41 process priority 91. 154-5. 195 Red Hat 14-15. 77. 146 R raid 174-5 RAID 52 raid array 53 raid device name 53 raid-device-name 53-4. 164. 169.

182 root user's password 76. 150. 89 respawn 29. 114. 122 root 15. 198 list of 127. 165. 164. 159. 122 root@localhost postfix 150-1 root@localhost pub 20-4 root@localhost squid 112. 133 root run-parts 98-9 root user 42. 168 rootnoverify option 168 rpm 7. 181-2. 94-9. 58. 152 root@localhost nfs 119-20. 122. 32-3 restart 40. 77. 67. 122 S Samba 3. 28. 36-9. 198 . 97. 99. 82. 167 root directory 105. 59. 177-8 rpm command 62-3 valid 177 rpm command uses 64. 29-30. 66. 210 rw 42. 212 iptable 158-9 runlevel 6. 43-4. 60. 93-8. 118. 140 [8] root@localhost alternatives 153 root@localhost cron 98 root@localhost dev 55-7 root@localhost home 47-8 root@localhost mail 148. 78 root@localhost 17. 100. 176-7 rpm configuration file 176 user level 64 rpm format 59. 196 RH 3. 194 root/anaconda-ks. 188 maps 196 maps client 196 privilege of 78. 170 standard 32 runlevel command 170 runlevel directories 35-7 runlevel field 29-30 runlevel scripts 169. 99. 77-9. 80-1. 169 document 109 root/install-log. 122. 169-71 previous 36.info 164 root/install. 5 RH systems 69 RHCE 3. 171 runlevel service-name 170 runlevel values 29 running mail processes 154. 182 root privilege 182 root root 47. 177 rules 112. 85-8. 78. 70. 62-3. 85. 159-60.cfg 16. 167. 54. 135-6. 116 rootnoverify 26-7. 5 ro 51. 118. 52. 197 samba server status information 198 samba users 123-6. 120.233 Removing module 8. 46. 17.log 164 root password 14. 118. 70-3. 180-3. 32-9. 26-7. 127 Samba Server Configuration 10. 195 service nfs 119 service sqd 195 service squidd 195 restarting 119. 62 rpm package information 177 storing 64. 118. 142. 93-4.

15. 138. 139.cgi 194 server root names 101 server section 9. 106. 112-13 global environment configuration 101 security 17. 15.234 sample 30. 98 sbin directory 80 sbin/fdisk 79-80 sbin/nologin 78-9 sbin/service 79 sbin/sfdisk 79-80 sbin/shutdown 31-3. 201 section 9. 137. 201-2. 134 server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr. 207-9 default 153 sendmail server type 146 sendmail uses 147. 99. 139-40. 33. 126. 190 . 205 Server Configuration Answer 205 server HOSTNAME 136-7 server information 101 server mirrorlist 61 server name 107. 168. 204-5. 105. 92. 169. 67. 190. 101-4.example. 114-16. 163-4 SELinux 3. 136-7. 93. 78-9. 103. 159. 98. 190. 152-3. 45. 211 security Level Configurations 211 selinux 17. 134-5. 159 sample format 94. 207 server 3. 146-50. 213 SELinux configurations 213 SELinux manager Answer 213 SELinux policies 162. 188 schema 133. 207-8 [6] demo sama 127-8 high performance proxy caching 111 proxy 104-5 samba 10. 70. 146. 152-3. 99. 195. 191 Server Configuration 9. 103 server system 135 single web 106 ServerAdmin root@localhost 103 servername 17 ServerName 106 ServerName dummy-host. 128. 213 SELinux user identities 163 Selinuxtype 163 sender 150. 41-2. 147-8. 157. 50-1. 150. 148-50. 171 search 60. 127. 78-9. 101. 207-9 mail server 147 sendmail log information 149 sendmail restart 148 sendmail server 12. 201 search tab user 66 seconds 27-8. 93-4. 115 sample questions 3 sbin 41. 201 default ldap 202 scripts 29. 169 schedule 31. 157. 164. 206 search request 134. 134. 34-6. 213 SELinux configuration file 162. 118. 159. 208 sendmail 11. 162-3. 32.com 106 ServerRoot 101. 211 Security Level Configuration 12. 157. 118. 198 web 9. 134-5. 12. 80. 203 security Configuration 211 security level 117. 65-6. 201 schema files 133-4. 213 SELinux administration 13. 162. 96-7 scheduled jobs 94-6. 122. 101. 144-5. 13. 41.

154. 25. 129-30. 170-1. 98-9. 80. 21. 198 sharing 3 trusted 157 xinetd 156. 128 shell 67. 79-82. 99. 101. 36 new 37 samba 127. 156-7. 52. 210-12 alternatives 152 autofs 50. 103-4. 198 samba 123. 115. 182 shell script 34. 171 services 10. 70-2. 132. 130. 125-7. 128 shared directories 120. 201 Smaba configuration Answer 197 Smaba Server configuration 197 socket 111. 198 service smbd start 198 service vsftpd start 128. 170-1. 30. 170 service service-name start 38 service service-name stop 39 service smb start 127. 175 software configuration 33 software repositories 59. 78. 181 SIZELIMIT 133-4. 192 software 64. 210 managing 82 net-work 35 network 33. 153 SIGKILL 185 signal 185 Single user mode 31. 199 service yp start 202 service ypserv start 203 terminal 137 service ypserver start 202 serviceconf 39. subdirectory 181 size of files 76. 182 Shutdown Canceled 32-3 Shutting 119. 143. 199. 145. 160-1. 126. 169 shutdown 30-3. 139. 211 ypbind 137 services Answer 210 session 160-1. 189. 120 default 152. 79-80. 209 dhcpd 139 dovecot 153-4. 17. 201-2 [20] set initdefault 30-1 share 121. 189 service httpd stop 39 service management apps 80 service-name 170 service nfd start 195 service nfs start 116. 176 . 151. 99. 189 service httpd start 38. 125. 169-71. 65. 34-41. 212 set 14. 205. 152-3. 195 service nfsd 195 service nfsd start 195 service passwd 161 service postfix start 153 service S10network 35 service samba start 198 service sendmail start 146 service service-name 37-9. 127. 155-6. 32. 33 size. 134-5. 61. 182. 129. 27.235 service daemons 157 service ftp start 199 service ftpd start 199 service httpd 38-9.

189. 191 squid daemon 10. 130. 150 Starting Samba 10. 137 Starting postfix. 170-1. 82-6. 122. 91. 135-8. 148. 181 subtree 122 success 161 suid 42 Sun Microsystems 135 swap 41-2. 181 total 56 squash 118. 198-9. 119 Starting NFS quotas 116. 153. 39-40. 64-6. 139. 76. 176-7. 181 subfolders 76. 92. 143 Starting NFS daemon 116. 115-16. 181 amount of 77. 29 Starting Named 11. 111. service postfix start 151 Starting postfix server 12. 119 Starting NIS server 11. 45-7. 206 sys 41. 127 Starting Services 34 Starting squid 116 Starting vsftd 10. 122. 127-8. 143. 114-16. 79-80 subdirectories 40. 49-50. 137. 111-12. 33-4. 191-4 squid start 116 squid user 114 squiduser 194 start 17. 77-80. 128 Starting ypbind service 11. 194-5 server program 111. 127-8. 134-5. 61-2. 143. 34. 35-40. 99. 97 statistics kernel NFS client 122 kernel NFS server 122 virtual memory 85. 118. 167 sysfs 41-2 sysinit 29-32 syslogd 9. 28. 165. 82. 99 Starting init 5. 174.236 source code 64-5 source filesystem 173 space 53. 29-30. 119 Starting NFS mountd 116. 130 synchronize system's clock 25 syntax 145. 194-5 squid log files 112 squid reconfigure 195 squid restart 116. 205 [10] Start Process 83 start squid 115 Starting Apache 9. 132. 1836. 187 system 25-6. 166-70. 119 Starting NFS services 10. 196 squid 3. 153 network service 36 service sendmail 153 storage 60. 173 swap space 6. 165 swap area 46-8 swap filesystem 173 swap partition 14. 191-2. 116. 153 Starting httpd 39. 183 status 37-8. 166 swpd 85 sync 78. 176 stop 35-7. 56. 85-6. 80-1. 196-8 [21] . 46-7. 99 Starting Dovecot 12. 116. 137 startup 20. 47. 195 squid server 9. 172-4.

184 system administrator 180-1. 187 System Monitor 82. 167 system-config-users 73. 82. 190 system-config-https 190 system-config-keyboard 20 system-config-kickstart 17 system-config-level 211 System-config-logman 175 System-config-lv 175 system-config-lvm 58. 141. 140. 23. 175 system-config-manage 178 system-config-name 205 system-config-neat 166 system-config-net 166 system-config-network 22.uname 185 system initialization 31 System Log 86 system log information 184 System Log Manager 184 system log viewer 86. 183. 166. 144 basic 123. 211 . 205 system-config-boot 28 system-config-date 24. 178 system-config-printer 23 system-config-samba 122. 187-8. 213 system-config-SElinux 213 system-config-SELinux 213 system-config-services 39. 50. 171 system-config-smb 197 system-config-soundcard 21 system-config-time 24. 167 system-config-display 21 system-config-ftp 200 system-config-ftpd 200 system-config-httpd 106. 189 system information. 181 system-config-usr 181 System-config-vsftp 200 system-config-vsftpd 131 system crontab file 98. 109. 155. 184 system logging 92. 107. 197 system-config-sambad 197 system-config-securelevel 211 system-config-security 211 system-config-securitylevel 157 system-config-selinux 162. 169 system users 132 system users behavior 132 SystemManager 184 T tab 21. 197 System-config-nfsd 197 system-config-packages 65. 125 samba user 124 tab user 132 server control 132 tar xvf 178 tcpd 156. 196 system administrator execute 180 system-auth 160-1 system boots 30. 184 system reboots 32.237 system administration 7. 155 system clock 34 system-config-bind 143. 42. 204 system-config-nfs 120.

132. 179-91. 78-80. 118. 45. 27-30. 84-5. 148. 154. 99. 132. 124-30. 70. 176-7 upgrade 14. 197 user account apache 103 . 62. 16-17. 150-1. 66-7. 169. 97 time 19. 157-8. 206-9 [31] administrative 78. 135. 115. 91. 47-8. 167. 199 menu option 83 modifying 82 multi 66 new 66-7. 174-7. 44. 198-201. 168 timezone 16-17 tmpfs 41-3 topics 3. 61. 132. 93-5. 127 Unix username 198 unmount 43-4. 52. 65-6. 185 uncomment 81. 101-2. 102-4. 75. 71. 129-30. 161. 101. 158 UPS 31-2 uptime command uses 184 URI 133-4 url 17. 161. 196 ban 132 bin/bash 71 bin/csh 71 common 40 configuration file 134 effective 114 etc/passwd filesystem 71 ldap directories 134. 69-71. 201 local 128-9. 61-2 Use NIS 138 user 14-18. 80 unmounting 6. 132. 59. 104-5. 128 uncompress 64. 163 processor 185 running Linux system 42 U uid 68. 83-7. 180 normal 80 password 29 trusted 147 useradd 70 userdel 180 valid 126 user accesses 161. 121. 183 time-specification 94-5 TIMELIMIT 133-4. 196 umount 44 uname 87. 43-4 update option 167 updates 20. 139-42. 160-1. 93-4. 201 timeout 26. 170 telnet 156 text editors 16. 177 upgrade option 17. 112 usage 49. 115. 24-5. 27-8.238 Te user 78 telinit 36. 180 anonymous 128. 127. 149 type 17. 115. 167 upload 128-9. 178 xvf 178 unconfigures 20 uninitialized entries 59 Unix 127 Unix user name 198 UNIX user name 124.

161 user requests 49. 124. 188 user-name V SDVVZRUG  user password. 72. 71-2. 71-2. 106 user set 190 user squid 114 USER TTY 85 user user 180 user user-name 181 user Vishnu 182 user yum 59 user1 126 useradd 67-9.239 user account john 179 user accounts 66-7. 198 user login name 180 user lookups 138 user Mac 187 User Manager 180 user Manager Utility 180 User Manger 180 user Matt 179 user-name 72. 180 user issues 183. 161. changing 7. administrative 182 user V  user V HQWU\ YDOLG  user V SDVVZRUG  . 187 user issues command insmod 185 user jack 81 user Jack 181. 78. 71-2.Will root. 74. 76. 180 username 188 users don W  users group 80 users Jack 188 users John 199 users localhost 80 users SELinux security cate-gory 163 users tab 132 user. 130. 93-4. 180 userdel user-name 72 USERGROUPS 69 userid 71 userlist 129. 90. 151. 179 administrative 114 installation root 66 new 72 User Admin 180 User Administrator 180 User and Group Administration 7 user apache 102-3 user applications 41 user button 75 new 124 User Configuration 180 user doesn W  user don W  user id 78. 78-9. 149. 199 directive 199 usermod 72. 179-80 user-id 72 user information 72. 180 useradd command line 69 useradd user-name 67 userdel 69. 182 his/her 103 useradd options 66 user names 15. 76. 97.

184. 200 vfat 43. 77. 36. 59. 91. 175 video card 17.log 154 var/log/httpd directory 100 var/log/maillog 92. 96 Using chkconfig 171 Using command chkconfig 6. 37 Using mdadm command 53 Using modprobe command 8.leases 140. 87. 98.240 Using batch command 9. 71. 171. 162-3. 193 var/temp 179 var/yp/securenets 203 vendor V VWDWHPHQW  verbose information 63. 73 usr 40-1. 177 Very Secure 10. 171 system monitor 82 user manager 73 utility Answer 175 utility Network Configuration 140 V values 29. 191 [4] var/cache/mod 105 var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. 209 var/log/vsftpd. 78.log 130. 187 var/log/dovecot. 132. 176 var/named/data/cache 145. 197 var/lib/rpm 64.log 60. 189 var/spool/mail 68. 145. 188 var/spool/cron directory 97. 131. 165-6. 152. 60. 206-7 var/run directory 101 var/spool/at 96. 204 var/lib/nfs directory 122. 28. 48. 198 vmlinuz 15 vol 55-7. 151 var/spool/mail directory 70 var/spool/mail/stats 208 var/spool/postfix 12. 69. 149. 177 var/lib/rpm/Name 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Packages 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys 63-4 var/log/cron 92-3. 152 var/spool/squid 112. 149. 106. 21 View Process 83 Virtual server files 147 Virtual users file 147 VirtualHost 106 vishnu 126-7. 175 vgextend 55. 198 samba user 127. 139. 59 . 125. 159. 82 Using tar xvf 178 Using User Manager 7. 200 network configuration 142 samba server configuration 122 service configuration 39. 45. 144-5. 197 daemon Configuration 131. 182. 178. 199 usr/lib/httpd/modules 189 usr/lib/httpd/modules directory 101-2 usr/local 97-8 usr/sbin directory 79 utility 22-4. 53. 134. 50. 172-3 vfat filesystem type 172 vgcreate 55. 200 var/log/yum. 123. 89 Using system-config-cache 194 Using system monitor 177 Using System Monitor 8. 131.

203 ypdomainname 135-6.241 volume group 7. 59. 103-4. 144 st 144 xferlog 129 xfs 45. 27. 20. 86. 152. 75. 168. 25. 200 VSFTP daemon Configuration 200 vsftpd 128 VSFTPD Configuration Answer 200 vsftpd service 128 vsftpd userlist 129 vv 63-4. 155-6.com 106 X xconfig 16-17 -18. 34. 198 won W  workgroup 128 writable option 125-6 www/docs/dummy-host. 202 ypserver HOSTNAME 136 yum 59-60. 55-6. 27. 48 xinetd 3. 58-9. 104. 191 wheel 80 Window System 3 windows 25. 210-11 xorg. 172 windows user name 124.conf 166 Y yp 138. 53. 177 W warn 68. 176 yum uses 59-60 Z zombie processes usage detail zone file directory 145 184 . 191 wdelay 122 web 59-61. 122. 119. 84. 132. 98. 127.example. 82. 23. 65-6 web browser 100. 122. 175 vsftp 128-9.

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