RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer
Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide

RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam - The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide
Copyright © 2009 Notice of rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.

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This self-study exam preparation guide for the RHCE RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam contains everything you need to test yourself and pass the Exam. Including all the exam topics, covered indepth and insider secrets, complete explanations of all RHCE subjects, test tricks and tips, over 250 highly realistic sample questions, and exercises designed to strengthen understanding of the RHCE concepts and prepare you for exam success on the first attempt are provided.
Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a "Thank You" letter? This book includes new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering numerous sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus information available nowhere else, this book will help you pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam on your FIRST try. Buy this. Read it. And Pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam. This book provides a laser sharp focus on all the exam objectives with a cohesive, concise, yet comprehensive coverage of all the topics included in the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Lab Exam. It includes over 250 questions modeled after the real exam with answers and an Exam Quick Prep feature which recaps all the important points for the last hour preparation before taking the exam. Covers all RH302 exam topics, including: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Hardware installation and configuration The boot process Linux filesystem administration Package management and Kickstart User and group administration System administration tools Kernel services and configuration Apache and Squid Network file sharing services (NFS, FTP, and Samba) Domain Name System (DNS) E-mail (servers and clients) Extended Internet Services Daemon (xinetd), the Secure package, and DHCP The X Window System Firewalls, SELinux, and troubleshooting

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................. 16 1..................................................................................1.......................................................... 25 2.................................................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer ......................................................................... 14 1.......................................................Using DVD.....................................2................4..................................................................................................... 15 1..........................................................Configuring Grub ..................................2................................................Graphical utilities ............................Overview.............................................Configuring Hardware ...............................................1.......1................................................................................................ 16 1...3..... 14 1.................................................................................................................Installation ...........2....5 Contents RHCE ....... 1 Installation and Hardware Configuration .....Using Hard Disk ...................... 26 2............................................................................................................................ 18 1.................The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide .2.......3..................................................... 25 2............ 29 .Kickstart File ......3............................................. 29 2..Grub .........................................3...........4..............................The Boot Process .......................2................./etc/inittab file ........... 20 2..............................1.............................................................................................2....................................... 14 1..................................................... 15 1.................... 19 1..............................................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam ........................................................................... 1 Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE ..........................2................1...........................Use of Kickstart file .......................................................................................... 25 2. 14 1....................................................................2.......................................1..............Overview ......................................................Using Network ....................Grub configuration file ................1...................3..3............................................2...... 27 2................................Starting init ...Creating Kickstart file .....................................................................2...........................................

................3......................Unmounting a filesystem................................................................... 40 3. 41 3......................Using Graphical utilities ..........1............................. 40 3.................................................................. 40 3............................ 33 2................2................................................................ 49 3...........4.................RAID disks ......................................Filesystem Administration .....................................................................................................................................................................................................4........................................... 42 3.....................runlevel.................................................................................................................................2...................................3....................................5....................................................................................................................... 43 3.....................................................................4..3......................................2..3..........2.3...........................................7........................2..............1..3........ 52 3..........................................3............ 46 3...........1..........Overview ..1....Disabling swap space .....................5.....Initializing System...............................3.................. 48 3...............................................................................Mounting a filesystem..............................................................................................................................................Checking and Repairing a filesystem .5.............Creating RAID device .................2........................................................................................................................................................2...........................................................Filesystem Information .Checking status of automount ................................. 47 3....................................2........6...1......................5............. 48 3...../etc/mtab ..Creating Swap space .....Enabling swap space.Searching for badblocks ............./etc/fstab file ............................................. 52 3. 44 3.........................................6............... 43 3.....................................1..................... 39 3.................. 50 3......................................................Automatically mounting a filesystem ............................................... 34 2..........................................Using command chkconfig ........Creating a filesystem ....................................................................................4................ 54 ....6 2........ 52 3..................................Logical Volume Group .......................................... 37 2..................................4...................................

.................................................. 73 5..............3........... 58 4.....................Using rpm ......Adding New Group ................................1..... 54 3................... 64 4........................................................................................................................................................Remove a volume group ..........Creating A Logical Volume Group .. 57 3.............................................................................................. 72 5........................................................................................................................2.........................4.....................2...................................................................................................Changing user password .......................... 77 ........................... 72 5......5.........................7......................................7.........................5........................................................................7 3....Package Management ........User and Group Administration ....................................................1.................................Remove a logical volume .......Overview ..............................................................Using User Manager .......................................Space Usage ......................................6.......................... 59 4............Using yum ..................... 58 3.7....................................Deleting user account ...................................1.............6...........................................Remove a physical volume ..............Group Administration ...................................................................5...........................................Package Manager ................ 73 5......................................................................... 65 5.Using make ................................................3..............................Overview.... 66 5.....7.............................................................7...........2.......... 73 5..........Deleting group....................System Administration ........1.............Logical volume management utility ..................................................................................................3.........7...............Modifying group information ......................................................................................... 73 5................. 66 5......Modifying user account ........................................................................ 59 4....5............4........ 76 5............................................................................. 66 5............................................................................................................................................................................................ 59 4................................................................................................5............................................................ 76 6. 58 3....................4.....................................................................................5.............................................................Creating User Account .............. 73 5...............1............................................2.........3........................................................................ 62 4...........................................................

.......................................................................Modules Loaded into Kernel ....................................2................ 84 6.......................................... 89 7...........2........................................../etc/sudoers file ............4.....3..........................................................................................................Kernel Services and Configuration ..................... 79 6.................................................................................2.....2.......................................2......................................... 82 6....................................................................4..............2....................................................3............................................................................Log information...................1..............Inserting module into kernel ......................................................................................................Process and Kernel Information ............................................................ 90 7.............4........................................2....Overview ..........Using top .........2........1.................................................................................Using modprobe command ........5.... 77 6....................... 84 6.........................2....................................2................ 89 7.3.....2..............1................................Monitoring System performance .................................................................... 78 6.....1... 90 ...............Using the su ....................8 6......................................................................................3........................................................................ 79 6.............................................2..................................................................................Administrative commands .......3...................................... 87 7....................4............................................. 87 7.............3..................................................................................The ps command ........................................................................4.............................................2.....Removing module from kernel ..... 90 7.......................Changing owner and group ................................ 86 7................Overview..Using System Monitor ................................................ 87 7......................... 78 6...................................Changing priority of process..... 81 6...... 89 7........................................................................4.................................................1........... 78 6............3....1..............kernel Modules ........... 82 6........................2..................................................Other commands ................................................Getting Administration Rights .................................The su command......................... 88 7.....

...........Main Configuration file .................................................................................... 111 9..........................................................................................................3.........................Using cron .......................5..Using at ........................................................................2..................... 99 8.......... 101 8..... 99 8............................................................................................................Starting Apache ..................................................................................... 112 9... 112 9....3..................3................. 101 8....................2.....................................................Web Server ................Log File and Cache directory section ...........................................4...1..................1.................................................................2......3................3...................................................... 111 9.2.......................................................................Global Environment Configuration .........4..........................2.......................................................................Cache size options......3............................ 96 7........................... 97 8.............................................Virtual hosts section .............. 111 9.................3.....................................................2.......................1................................................. 113 ................................................2............Using dmesg ......................Main server section ........................................................ 99 8.........................................9 7............2..Configuring Squid .......................HTTP Server Configuration ............... 93 7............. 106 9............Network options ...........................3..........................Syslogd ... 103 8...........................................................................................................Automating Tasks -......................Overview.2.......... 112 9................................................................................ 92 7..............4.....................Neighbor selection algorithm option ..................................4................................................................................................................................................. 93 7...............................................................................4......1................................Using batch command ...............Squid Server ... 91 7....................................... 105 8...2........... 111 9..Overview .............3....................................................1....................................4...................3.....................................................................................Access control section .........................................................................................................................................4........

................................. 117 10................................ 122 11........................................................................Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration ..........................................................................................1.........................1......5......... 122 11................2.................................................................. 128 12..........................4..................................................................... 114 9...................................4..................................................................................................Configuring vsftpd ..............................ftp command prompt ......................................................................................6..Accessing the NFS directory ..................................................................Options format.....FTP Server ............... 128 12.....NFS Server Configuration......................................................................................................................................1..................................................................NFS Server ............................................................................5........................................................................................Administrative parameters .......................................................................2.................10 9.............................. 122 11....... 117 10.................................... 119 10.Squid Daemon ........ 120 10..................................................... 133 13...........4...................................Starting vsftd......................................4..............Checking the service ................................3............ 126 11........................................................ 128 12............................. 128 12.....................................LDAP Server ..........................2..............1..................3................1..........6............................................................. 118 10.. 114 9................................................................................Samba Server ..............Format of hostname ........1......................................overview ......................................................................... 116 10.................................................................................................................................................. 116 10................Cache Manager ...............................................................................................................................................................Overview ........................................ 133 .......Samba configuration file ............................................................................ 130 12.............................................................................................................. 127 12........................................................................................................2.............................................................................4.......................................................... 127 11...............3.............................................2...........................Starting NFS service..3........3.............................................................3...........................................Sharing Folders ................................................................... 122 11..........................Samba Server Configuration ..................................... 131 13.....................Starting Samba service .................... 116 10...........................................Overview ............................................Using nfsstat ..... 115 10....Overview ............

......................................................2...............4................................................... 143 16..............................NIS server..................................................................Starting Named daemon ...................................................4..................................................................................1................... 139 15................................................... 140 16.........2..................................................................2................................................Starting the ldap ..................................................2........................... 147 ..................................Overview ........................................................................................................4.................................................... 135 14........................................1............/etc/mail ...Starting the DHCP server....................Configuring NIS ........Working of DHCP server....Mail Services .................DNS server ...................................... 139 15....... 140 15.......3...............................................................................................................................................................................................................1...........................................5...................11 13..................................................NIS database .................................................. 135 14........... 139 15...................................................DHCP Server ............................................... 137 14..2..........................5.................................................................. 146 17................................................Configuration file ......................................2..............Starting NIS server ..............................................................4....................................................... 136 14......................................................................Overview .......................................................................................... 143 16......................................................................DHCP client..................3......................................................................4....................... 143 16................................................Overview ..................................................2.......... 135 14.............................................................................5....................... 145 17........................................1....................................................................................... 139 15...................................1............................................................1...................... 140 15.......................Important files ...........................................................................Staring NIS server ....... 146 17.....................................BIND Configuration GUI ................................... 137 14.Setting NIS domain name ..............................1........................................................... 133 13...........................................................Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 146 17.............. 143 16..............................Starting ypbind service ...................................... 135 14....................................................................................................3...............Overview ....................................................................................................3.........Mapping Information ...........................Sendmail...... 137 14.............. 137 14...................

..................Configuration file ................Network Security..............Postfix ...... 152 17........... 153 17../etc/hosts....................Mailbox ........................................................ 157 18.................................1..12 17...................... 153 17.. 156 18..........................................................................5............................3..........................................................allow............................................................................1............................................Switching MTA ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................4................................................................db files ............................. 151 17......................Configuration file . 151 17.....................................................................................................The daemon xinetd ..................Dovecot ....... 155 18............2.......Checking Sendmail Server ........................Actions taken by server on a mail .................... 156 18...............Starting Dovecot ..................3.........4...3....5....1..................1....../var/spool/postfix ...................3........................................3..................................................................................3............................................... 150 17..................3.........................................................Using TCP wrappers......... 150 17................................................................... 149 17.............5................ 148 17............................2....... 153 18............3.......................................................................3...... 156 18....................1..................................2...........................................................2.................... 155 18.................................4.................................................................................................................Important Files ..................................Configuration files ................Starting postfix server . 149 17..............................5.......2....................Log files ................5.......................................................2............Overview .....................2................./etc/hosts.................... 147 17................. 159 ............................................4..................................................................... 152 17........................................Security Level Configuration ....................................................Generating the .............................................3...........................................3..................... 155 18......... 152 17..........................................................................2.....................................deny ..............................................2........4....

.......................................... 160 19...........d .......................SELinux ....5....................................................................................................3.................................................. 164 ......................................13 18.................../etc/pam...Command Reference .......................................2............................................................................................ 162 19.............................................................................. 160 19.................................................................................Command Reference .................................2.......................................2...... 163 Over 250 Exam Preparation Questions ........................ 159 19....................................................................................................1............................................SELinux administration ......1.........................PAM ...................................................................... 160 19.............PAM and SELinux ............................................................ 162 19....

New version of Fedora Core Linux is released every six months.2.2.1. Choose partition scheme (options are automatic partition or manual partition) . Fedora Core Linux is an open source project of Red Hat.14 INSTALLATION AND HARDWARE CONFIGURATION 1.use whole hard disk. Choose the languages system should support. User can either choose for new install or upgrade an existing installation.Configure the sound card. The steps of the installation process are z z z z The DVD media is checked Choose language to use during installation process.use current Linux partitions.Using DVD To begin installation using the DVD place the DVD media in the DVD drive of the computer and set the BIOS to boot from DVD drive.1. z z z z z z z z z z z Choose the software packages to install. . Enter the root password.Overview Red Hat Enterprise Linux is one of the major commercial Linux distributions available in market . Choose the time zone in which system is. The user had to accept the License terms. Set the firewall options. Select the packages.Configure the firewall. The installation process can be broadly divided into many parts depending on the method used for installation z z z DVD Network Hard Disk 1.Installation Anaconda is the default installer in Red Hat Linux.and custom partition) If custom partition option is chosen create at least one / partition and swap partition (for single boot system) and create a / partition. Choose keyboard layout. After installation is complete remove the DVD media from DVD drive. Configure the network device.swap partition and one /boot partition (for dual boot system) Install the grub bootloader on MBR. Choose partitioning (options are use free space on hard disk. 1. Choose install type.

15 Then the user is prompted for user name and password on the login screen. 1. In case of NFS server the directory containing the installation files should be made accessible. Choose Red Hat Installation on the Grub menu to begin the install process. These files are needed to boot the installation process. GRUB is installed as the bootloader in Red Hat by default.3. The following entry is added in the /boot/grub/grub.2. .7) means that /boot partition exists on eighth partition of first hard disk.conf file to achieve the purpose title Red Hat-Installation root (hd0.Using Network For the network installation the installation files should be copied to the computer which will act as install server.7) kernel /vmlinuz initrd /initrd. After above steps reboot the computer. In case of FTP server copy the files to directory /var/ftp/pub.Using Hard Disk For installation from hard disk it is assumed that Red hat Linux is already running on the computer. 1. In case of web server or HTTP server the files need to be copied in the directory /var/www/html. Then copy the vmlinuz and initrd files of the DVD media in /boot directory. To boot the installation process the boot loader should be informed about the files copied in the /boot directory.2.2. In the hard disk install copy all the files of the DVD in a partition drive which is not used during the new installation.img root(hd0.

Creating Kickstart file User has a choice to use graphical utility to create kickstart file or open a text editor and write the commands.3.Kickstart File After successful installation of Red Hat Linux a kickstart file /root/anaconda-ks.cfg is created based on the options chosen by the user during the installation process.1.UTF-8 keyboard us xconfig --startxonboot network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp rootpw --iscrypted firewall --enabled --port=22:tcp authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5 selinux --enforcing timezone bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="rhgb quiet" . 1.3. 1.3.1.1. At the boot prompt enter the command askmethod :boot linux askmethod This lets the user to select the Installation Method.16 Note : when using the installation from Network or Hard disk choose the option INSTALL OR UPGRADE in text mode on the first screen of the Installation process.Text File install cdrom lang en_US. 1.

The network command is used to configure the network. [root@localhost ~]# system-config-kickstart .1.17 The install option denotes new installation and upgrade option will denote upgrade of an existing system.Graphical utility Open Terminal and type the command system-config-kickstart to start the kickstart configurator. option disable means firewall disabled.hard drive are other options which can be used for NFS. firewall command sets the firewall label. In above case it configures the Ethernet interface. Fourth line chooses the keyboard layout.FTP. 1. z z z z For FTP method use option url –url give the ftp url name for HTTP method use option url –url give http url name for hard drive use option harddrive –dir=/give directory path –partition=give partition for NFS method use option nfs –server=servername –dir=directory name Third line sets the installation language to be used during installation .FTP.HTTP. cdrom shows the install method used. rootpw denotes the root password.HTTP.-enforcing.2. NFS.3. The xconfig is used to configure the monitor and video card.--permissive.-disable timezone is used to select the timezone of the user. selinux is used to set the security enhanced linux the options are .and hard disk install methods. bootloader command is used to set the partition where the default bootloader grub is installed. option –enable means firewall is enabled.

1.Use of Kickstart file It is used to automate the installation process.cfg') Kickstart from FTP. NFS mount options .2. Kickstart via harddrive (dev = 'hda1'.3. on network or on Local hard drive use above commands on the :boot prompt during the installation Kickstart from CDROM Kickstart from a file (path = 'fd0/ks. To use kickstart installation use following steps z z z create a kickstart file copy the kickstart file on cdrom. for example) ks=cdrom: ks=file:<path> ks=ftp://<path> ks=hd:<dev> ks=http://<path> Kickstart from HTTP.18 The user can use the graphical interface to choose the options and the kickstart file will be generated automatically. ks=nfs(:options):<path> Kickstart from NFS.

The command kudzu can be run to detect and configure the changed hardware on a system. kudzu is run every time a Red Hat box is rebooted.Configuring Hardware The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf contains the listing of installed hardware.4. 1. Below is the format of the /etc/sysconfig/hwconf file class: CDROM bus: SCSI detached: 0 device: scd0 desc: "HL-DT-ST CD-RW GCE-8526B" host: 1 id: 0 channel: 0 lun: 0 class: VIDEO bus: PCI detached: 0 driver: i2c-i810 desc: "Intel Corporation 82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE Chipset Integrated Graphics Device" video.xdriver: i810 .19 are optional. It checks the file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf for the hardware installed and matches the data with the current hardware.

1. 1.For keyboard layout Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-keyboard .1. kudzu can be started in two modes z z safe probe mode no safe probe mode safe probe mode disables serial port probing.20 vendorId: 8086 deviceId: 2562 subVendorId: 8086 subDeviceId: 2562 pciType: 1 pcidom: 0 pcibus: 0 pcidev: 2 pcifn: 0 The first entry is for a CDROM drive attached with the system and second is for the VIDEO card attached with the system.DDC monitor probing.1.PS/2 probing.4.4.Graphical utilities 1. It then updates the data in /etc/sysconfig/hwconf. If any hardware is added or removed then it configures the added one and unconfigures the removed one. To enable no safe probe mode on startup enter the line SAFE=no in the file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu.

4.1.1.Color depth under the setting tab configure the monitor type and video card under tab hardware tab Use dual type tab for second monitor type and video card.2. 1. 1.For sound card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-soundcard .4.21 The user can select the keyboard layout and press OK .3.For monitor and video card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-display z z z User can set the Resolution.

22 This utility can be used to check the proper working of soundcard and reload the audio drivers and rewriting the configuration files.1.4. 1.4.For network devices Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-network or [root@localhost pub]# neat .

5. DNS tab is used to configure system's hostname and primary. Any network device can be selected and activated.secondary and tertiary dns IP addresses and dns search path.For printer Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-printer . IPSec tab is used to configure IPSec tunnel and host to host connections.1.23 This utility is used to configure the network devices. 1. z z z z z On devices tab all network devices detected by Red Hat Linux are listed.4. Hosts tab is used to specify static computer host name to IP address mapping. On hardware tab the network hardware physically attached with computer and detected by Red Hat Linux can be configured.

1. 1.4.6.24 This utility is used to add new printer or configure printers.For date and time Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-date or [root@localhost pub]# system-config-time .

25 z z z date & time tab is used to set the current date and time. Grub boots the operating system chosen by the user on the grub menu. network time protocol tab is used to synchronize system's clock with remote time server using network time protocol time zone tab is used to select the time zone in which the system lies.1. z z z z Checking of MBR (Master boot record) by BIOS.Grub Grub is default bootloader if Red Hat Linux is installed in the system.THE BOOT PROCESS 2. Loading the bootloader in MBR.2. Every operating system displayed on the grub menu has its listing in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub.conf. .Overview The boot process can be divided into many steps. 2. The grub menu lists the operating systems which are installed on the system. When a system is booted the user sees the grub menu. Grub is able to boot non Linux operating system like Windows also. Choosing Operating system to boot on bootloader menu. Booting the Operating System 2.

2. root (hd0.6.1.0) .conf generated by anaconda # # Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file # NOTICE: You have a /boot partition.xpm. This means that # # # # all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/.Grub configuration file Let the system have two operating system installed windows and Fedora Linux then the contents of the grub configuration file is # grub.26 2.img #boot=/dev/sda default=0 timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0.fc7 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet initrd /initrd-2.6.gz hiddenmenu title Fedora-Linux root (hd0.7) kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/sda11 initrd /initrd-version.3194.3194.fc7.21-1.7) kernel /vmlinuz-2.g. e.7)/grub/splash.img title Windows rootnoverify (hd0.21-1.

The rootnoverify (hd0. E. If user chooses fedora Linux on menu then the bootloader sees /dev/sda8 partition of the first hard disk (root (hd0. The option timeout=5 means that the user will have to make choice in 5 seconds on the grub menu. In the above file the default operating system that will boot is Fedora. The option chainloader +1 means that grub will call the other boot loader to boot the operating system.g.27 chainloader +1 The title is used to set the display name on the grub menu corresponding to the operating system. z z By editing the configuration file using text editors by using Boot Configuration . kernel indicates the kernel which is loaded. The option default=0 means that if user makes no choice then the first operating system in the file will be booted.2. If the user chooses the windows option then the windows operating system is booted. The kernel gives the control to the init process which is called father of all processes. If the user makes no choice in 5 seconds then the default operating system will boot. 2.0) means that grub will not mount the partition. The initrd denotes the initial RAM disk boot image. The ro option on the kernel line means that the partition is to be mounted read only. on grub menu Fedora-Linux Windows is displayed.7) means the files needed to boot the operating system is present on the eighth partition of the first hard disk.Configuring Grub There are two ways to configure the grub bootloader.2.

2. If the user chooses 5 seconds then grub will wait for 5 seconds for user to make a choice after that it will boot the default operating system.and emacs. 2.2.2.2. It also helps the user to choose the timeout period in seconds.28 2.2.2. 2. The MD5-encrypted password for grub can be generated using the command [root@localhost ~]# man grub-md5-crypt . gedit . After making the changes the grub has to be restarted to make the changes take place.Editing /boot/grub/grub.conf using Text editors The configuration file can be edited using any of the text editors like vi.3. This option is also available during the installation of Red Hat Linux.1.Password Protecting Grub Grub can also be password protected.By using Boot Configuration To start the boot configuration graphical utility type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-boot The utility helps to chose default operating system which will be booted in case user has not made any choice within the time period on the grub menu.2.

If the entry initdefault is not mentioned in the file then the user has to enter the runlevel values in the console for the boot process to proceed.1.1. init looks to the file /etc/inittab and runs the script in the file /etc/inittab. initdefault An initdefault entry specifies the runlevel .The runlevel field of sysinit. boot. process specifies the process to be executed. The init process has the pid (process identification number each and every process running on the system has a unique number assigned to them known as PID) of 1.2.29 in terminal.Starting init init is the father of all processes. An entry in the inittab file has the following format: id:runlevel:action:process z z z z id is the unique identifier./etc/inittab file This file describes which processes are started at boot up and during normal boot process (for different run levels different numbers of processes are started). init Action respawn Description The process is restarted using the process for this action. 2. runlevel is the value between 0. The init process looks for the entry initdefault in the file /etc/inittab. The kernel starts the init process after mounting basic filesystems during the boot process.3.4.3. After entering the command the user is prompted to enter the password and then to verify the password user has to reenter the password. and bootwait entries are ignored. 2. The process will be started once when the specified runlevel is entered and init will wait wait for its termination.3. The entry initdefault indicates the default runlevel with which system needs to be started up.5 and 6 (some more values are available but not used). Action describes the action to be taken by init.

init will prompt for runlevel on console. ctrlaltdel If the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard together then the init responds by shutting down the system or rebooting (depending on the process set) powerfail This action denotes that power failure has occurred and init takes the action depending upon the process set for this action Powerokwait If the powerfail action has occurred and the process mentioned for the powerfail action is to shutdown after 2 minutes then this action comes into picture if the power is restored before 2 minutes then the process for this action takes place. Below is a sample /etc/inittab file.30 entered after system boot. The process field is ignored. sysinit The process will be executed during system boot. # # inittab # # # Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 . . Lines beginning with ‘#’ are comments.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) This file describes how the INIT process should set up the system in a certain run-level. The runlevel field is ignored. If none exists.

assume we have a few minutes # of power left. of course.d/rc 2 l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.Single user mode # 2 .Full multiuser mode # 4 .unused # 5 .d/rc 0 l1:1:wait:/etc/rc.reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:5:initdefault: # System initialization.31 # 1 . si::sysinit:/etc/rc. if you do not have networking) # 3 . # This does. assume you have powered installed and your .d/rc 3 l4:4:wait:/etc/rc. without NFS (The same as 3.Multiuser.d/rc 5 l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.sysinit l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 1 l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc.d/rc 6 # Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now # When our UPS tells us power has failed.d/rc 4 l5:5:wait:/etc/rc. Schedule a shutdown for 2 minutes from now.X11 # 6 .

d/rc 5 denotes that the process /etc/rc. cancel it.d/rc5 will be executed for the runlevel 5 and init will wait until the process is not completed. pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure. . Shutdown Canceled" # Run gettys in standard runlevels 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1 2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2 3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3 4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4 5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5 6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6 # Run xdm in runlevel 5 x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon The line id:5:initdefault: sets the action to initdefault and the runlevel is 5. The line si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc.d/rc.sysinit is executed. pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored.sysinit is executed for every runlevel for the action sysinit the process /etc/rc. System Shutting Down" # If power was restored before the shutdown kicked in.32 # UPS connected and working correctly. The line ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now denotes that if the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys then the system reboots after three seconds. The line 5:5:wait:/etc/rc.

Many users can login into the system. Network services like NFS/NIS/Xinetd are not available. No graphical tools are available. 1 Single user mode. 2 Multiuser mode.runlevel A runlevel is a software configuration of the system which allows only a selected group of processes to exist. Thus graphic interface is available in runlevel 5. The graphics mode is also available as . runlevel 0 Description It is used to halt the system. The graphical tools are not available as the X server is not running.33 The line pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure. System Shutting Down" denotes that if power failure occurs then the powerfail action takes place and the system is scheduled to wait for two minutes before shutting down.3.3. It should not be used in initdefault. Shutdown Canceled" denotes that if the power resumes before two minutes then cancel the shutdown of the system. The network services are available but the graphics mode is not available 4 5 Not used Multiuser mode. 2. The line pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored. All the network services are available. The line x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon denotes that the X11 server is started in case of runlevel 5. 3 Multiuser mode.

It is a shell script which performs many functions like z z z z z z z z sets the hostname of the system checks SELinux status sets the system clock Initializes hardware Configures kernel parameters Mounts the filesystems Configures the hardware Starts and enables the swap space 2.d/rc4.Initializing System The script /etc/rc.8.a. 2. Other runlevels like 7.sysinit is run once at the boot time.34 the X11 is running. The runlevels 0.c are also available but are not used.d/rc0.d /etc/rc.d/rc1.b.9.1 and 6 are reserved. runlevel 0 1 2 3 4 directory /etc/rc.d /etc/rc.3.d/rc2. This is not good choice for initdefault. A good choice for the initdefault entry 6 All the process is terminated and the system is rebooted.4.d/rc3.d /etc/rc.4.d /etc/rc.Starting Services The services which will be started for a run level depends on the files contained in the directory of that runlevel.1.3.d .

35 5 6 /etc/rc. All the programs (files of run level directories) whose name begin with S starts the service and name begin with K kills or stops the service. Name of all the programs either begins with S or K followed by 2 digits (0-9) and after that name of the service.3.d contains the run level scripts.3. It contains two files S10network and S56Xinetd then the service S10network is run first. the directory /etc/rc. Bring up/down networking .4.2.d/rc6.Naming convention of files in runlevel directories The files in the runlevel directories have special naming convention.d.3.d/init.d are to be run depends on the contents of the directory corresponding to the runlevels.d /etc/rc.d The directory contains the scripts of all the runlevels.Format of scripts in /etc/rc.4.g. #! /bin/bash # # network # # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 # description: Activates/Deactivates all network interfaces configured to \ # start at boot time. 2. E.d contains files for runlevel 5. Thus for a run level which scripts of the directory /etc/rc. Below is the sample file to start the network service.d/init.d/rc5. The two digits determine the order in which the services will run.d/init. The concept of deciding the order in which the scripts will run remains the same for the files with name beginning with K.d All programs in the directories of the above runlevel are symbolic link to programs in the directory /etc/rc.d/rc5. 2.d/init. The directory /etc/rc.

3. In the runlevel 5 directory /etc/rc.3.d a file with name K90network will exist as network service stops with the priority 90 in runlevel 1.4.6. 2.d a file with name S10network will exist (as network service starts for run level 5 with the priority 10 and in the runlevel directory /etc/rc.5. 2.5.4. 5 denote that the current runlevel is 5.4.Changing runlevels To change the current runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# telinit n The letter n should be replaced by the values 0. The init process kills or starts the processes necessary to switch to that runlevel in above case it will do it for runlevel 5.4.3.3.d/rc1.36 # ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provides: $network ### END INIT INFO The line # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 sets the script to start in the runlevels 2.4 and 5 with the priority or order 10 and in case of all other runlevels it stops the service with the order or priority 90.Determining current and previous runlevel To determine current and previous runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# runlevel N5 The letter N denotes that there is no previous runlevel (that is runlevel has not been changed).3.6 that is Use telinit 5 to switch to runlevel 5.4.Configuring services for a runlevel . 2.d/rc5.1.2.

There are two methods to reorganize the services and view the information about the services in a runlevel.3. 2. 2.37 User can decide the services which should run in a runlevel and which should not run in a run level.2.5. 2.Adding a new service To add new service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --add new-service-name The new-service-name should have a start or kill entry in each of the runlevel.3.Disable a service . 2. [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name on The service service-name is enabled for that runlevel.3.5. 2.Using command chkconfig The command chkconfig can used to view the information about every service in a runlevel and start or stop them.5.3.3.Enable a service To enable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level).3. It can also be used to add a new service or delete a new service as well.1.4.5.5.Deleting a new service To delete service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --del new-service-name The service new-service-name is deleted from the chkconfig management and all the links in the runlevel directories are also removed. User can also see the status of each service in each runlevel.

3.Starting a service To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name start The service service-name is started in that runlevel. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start . 2.1.5.3.5.7. 2. and 6.6.5.38 To disable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level) [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name off The service service-name is disabled for that runlevel. 2.3.3. For example [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The service httpd is enabled in the runlevels 2.4 and 5 and disabled in 0.5.List status of a service To list status of a service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list service-name The status of the service service-name is displayed for all runlevel.List status of all services To list status of all service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list The status of all the services is displayed for all runlevel.

39 Starting httpd: The service httpd is started.8.add a service and delete a service.Stopping a service [ OK ] To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name stop The service service-name is stopped in that runlevel.3.5.4. stop a service. 2.Using Graphical utilities [ OK ] The service configuration utility can be used to edit a runlevel. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd stop Stopping httpd: The service httpd is stopped. It can be used to start a service. To start the service configuration use the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# serviceconf or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-services . 2.

1. Let the / partition and /usr partition are mounted on /dev/sda5 and /dev/sda6 partitions then the sub directories and files below the /usr are stored in the /dev/sda6 partition. The / filesystem is on top of the hierarchy. It has journaling feature that improves recovery from crashes.Filesystem Information /bin – it contains commands to be used by common users.Overview Red Hat Linux uses the ext3 filesystem. After making any changes it need to be saved using the save option on the graphic tool. The filesystems are organized in a hierarchy.stop or restart the service.40 User can check the box on the left of the service and then clicks to start. All the filesystems which don't have separate partition are stored in the partition of / filesystem.FILESYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 3. If a disk partition is mounted on a filesystem then all the sub directories and files below that mount point are stored on that partition. . 3. All other filesystems are contained in it in form of subdirectories. 3.2.

and directories of FTP. processes running on the system./etc/fstab file the /proc filesystem contains system information and information directory is same as that of process PID. data used by services like /var – it contains log files of different services. /sbin – it contains administrative commands. applications.41 /boot – it contains bootable Linux kernel and bootloader /dev – it contains files representing device of the system. The name of the sub 3.1.mode=620 defaults defaults defaults 00 12 12 12 12 00 00 00 00 11 LABEL=/home1 /home LABEL=/boot1 tmpfs devpts sysfs proc /boot /dev/shm tmpfs /dev/pts /sys /proc devpts sysfs proc LABEL=SWAP-sda13 swap swap . /usr – contains user and administrative commands. The process information is kept into a sub The file contains information about the filesystems. Web server. /proc – The /proc filesystem is virtual file system. It about the directory of the /proc. This means that is not mounted on any disk partiotion. user configuration files.2. The sample /etc/fstab file is LABEL=/1 LABEL=/opt1 LABEL=/usr1 / /opt /usr ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults gid=5. and documentation. /etc – it contains configuration file.

The difference is /etc/fstab contains the static information about the filesystems while /etc/mtab contains the dynamic information about the filesystem. auto. The third column denotes the filesystem type. suid. The filesystem with the option noauto in the fourth field are not mounted during boot time.2. async All I/O to the file system should be done asynchronously.and async. dev./etc/mtab To view the filesystems which are actually used by a running Linux system type the command mount in terminal or view the contents of the /etc/mtab file. The second column represents the mount point in the filesystem. The fourth column contains the options used while mounting the filesystem during the system boot using the mount command. rw means in read write mode. auto means automatically mounted at boot time. The filesystem types ext3. exec means allow execution of executable files. 3. exec. nouser a non root user cannot mount the filesystem.2. The sample /etc/mtab file is below /dev/sda11 proc sysfs / /proc /sys ext3 proc sysfs rw rw rw 00 00 00 .tmpfs are not associated with any partition of hard disk. suid Allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect.sysfs. dev Interpret character or block special devices on the file system. The defaults option mounts the filesystem with following options of mount rw.42 The first column represents the device name representing the filesystem.swap are associated with a device that is Partition of hard disk but the filesystems with type proc. nouser.

Second column contains the filesystem mounted. Rests of the columns are same as that of the /etc/fstab file. The standard format of mount command is mount -t filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name If a user wants to mount cdrom media in directory /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/cdrom /home/movies If a user wants to mount windows partition /dev/sda4 on /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount -t vfat /dev/sda4 /home/movies 3.2.43 devpts /dev/sda12 /dev/pts /opt devpts ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 tmpfs rw.4.on-which-the-device-was-mounted .2. 3.Unmounting a filesystem To unmount a filesystem use the following command umount directory-name.mode=620 0 0 rw rw rw rw rw 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 /dev/sda10 /usr /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs none sunrpc /home /boot /dev/shm /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs rpc_pipefs rw First column contains the disk partition which is mounted.3.Mounting a filesystem To mount a filesystem mount command is used.gid=5.

rewritable Cd s.2. mke2fs . For example files are being copied from mounted directory /home/movies then below command will unmount the directory when file copy is over.rewritable DVDs and hard disk partitions. mkfs -t ext2 mkfs. A device can be floppy disks. mke2fs .ext3. The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be created. root@localhost ~]#umount -l /home/movies To force unmounting of a directory use the below command root@localhost ~]#umount -f /home/movies 3. mkfs -t ext3 .44 To unmount the /dev/sda4 use the following command root@localhost ~]#umount /home/movies To unmount a device when the device is no longer in use (at the time when the command is issued the device is in use so the command waits for the device). The format of the command is mkfs -t filesystem-type device-name For example if ext3 filesystem is to be created on the re writable CD device then the command will be mkfs -t ext3 /dev/cdrom mkfs command is front end to the commands which are actually invoked to carry out the work of creating the filesystems on the device. Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked.5.Creating a filesystem A filesystem can be created on a device. mkfs command is used to create the filesystems on a device. filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 mkfs.ext2 .

45 vfat mkfs. The configuration file contains the default parameters while creating the ext2 and ext3 filesystems.mkdosfs.dir_index blocksize = 4096 inode_ratio = 8192 [fs_types] small = { blocksize = 1024 inode_ratio = 4096 } floppy = { blocksize = 1024 } news = { inode_ratio = 4096 . Below is the sample /etc/mke2fs file [defaults] base_features=sparse_super. mkfs -t xfs mkswap The commands mke2fs uses the configuration file /etc/mke2fs.resize_inode.mkfs.ntfs.xfs .mkfs -t ntfs mkfs.vfat .conf.msdos ntfs xfs swap mkfs. mkfs -t vfat.filetype.

Creating Swap space mkswap command is used to create a swap area on a device or file. 267 MB/s This creates a file named swap in the /home directory of size 10 MB. 0. The fs_types section defines the default parameters which should be used for a specific filesystems for example for the floppy the blocksize is set to 1024. The default parameters can be overridden from the command line. The file should be created using the following commands [root@localhost ~]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/swap bs=1000000 10+0 records in 10+0 records out 10000000 bytes (10 MB) copied.0373886 s. 3.The ls -l swap command below shows the file permissions attached with the swap file created.46 } largefile = { inode_ratio = 1048576 } largefile4 = { inode_ratio = 4194304 } The defaults section of the file defines the default parameters used by the mke2fs.write or execute it.3. If the system has less swap area and no partition device can be used as swap area or user is not willing to do that then a swap area can also be created on a file. It is data file (the output of the command file swap will return data as output). count=10 . The chmod command is used to change the file permissions of swap to 0 so that no one has the right to read.

This file can be used to see whether the swap area thus enables is used by the system or not. To check the contents of the /proc/swaps enter the below command on terminal [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 /home/swap Type partition file Size Used Priority -1 -2 819272 4 9756 0 The listing shows two swap areas on the system /dev/sda13 which is hard disk partition and /home/swap which is file. size = 9994 kB 3.1. The format of the swapon command is swapon device-name For example to enable the swap space created on the swap file above use the command [root@localhost home]# swapon swap The file /proc/swaps shows the swap space area of the system.47 [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap -rw-r--r-.Enabling swap space The swap space created cannot be used by the system unless it is enabled using the swapon command.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap Create swap space on the file swap [root@localhost home]# mkswap swap Setting up swapspace version 1. .3.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap [root@localhost home]# chmod 0 swap [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap ---------.

Checking and Repairing a filesystem The fsck command is used to check the linux filesystem and optionally repair it.ext3.fsck -t ntfs fsck. The format of the command swapoff is swapoff device-name To disable the swap area created on the file swap in above case use the command [root@localhost home]# swapoff swap Now to check whether the swap file is disabled view the contents of the file /proc/swaps [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 Type partition Size Used Priority 819272 4 -1 3.ext2 .Disabling swap space To disable a swap area use the command swapoff. The general format of the fsck command is fsck -t filesystem-type device-name If no device-name is specified on the command line then the command checks the filesystem in order they are mentioned in the /etc/fstab file. The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be checked.fsck.msdos fsck.48 3. fsck -t ext2 fsck.2.4.vfat .ntfs. Filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 vfat ntfs xfs fsck.3. fsck -t xfs .xfs . The fsck command is the front end to the commands which are invoked for different filesystem types. fsck -t vfat. Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked. fsck -t ext3 fsck.

So. The badblocks command should not be run with the -w option as badblocks searches for the presence of badblocks on the device by writing a pattern on every block of the device which erases the data on the device.fsck canceled by user request 128 .Shared library error The exit code returned when multiple file systems are checked is bit-wise OR of the exit codes for each file system that is checked.File system errors corrected 2 .System should be rebooted 4 . The -n option is read only mode so no data is written on the device block and hence the data is not erased.1.Searching for badblocks The command badblocks searches for the badblocks on a device. Those devices or filesystem should be checked for badblocks using the badblocks command without any option or with the -n option.4.No errors 1 .Usage or syntax error 32 .File system errors left uncorrected 8 . 3.Operational error 16 .49 fsck command returns the following exit codes 0 .the filesystems which have data should not be checked with badblocks using the -w option. To protect data and check for badblocks use the below command badblocks device-name or badblocks -n device-name To erase the data and check for the badblocks use the below command badblocks -w device-name .

The autofs service controls the operation of the automount daemons. It reads the file /etc/auto. When a system boots then the autofs service runs with the option start and when the system is shutting down the autofs service runs with the option stop.d directory. Below is the sample /etc/auto. Each mount points found is mounted by automount and a thread is also started by automount to manage the mount point.50 3.master file. This automatic mounting of filesystem is due to the autofs service which runs when the system boots. The users don’t have to run the mount command to mount the filesystems like /home. # # Note that if there are entries for /net or /misc (as # above) in the included master map any keys that are the . The autofs service lies in the /etc/rc.misc /net -hosts # # Include central master map if it can be found using # nsswitch sources./usr etc.Automatically mounting a filesystem When a system is booted the filesystems are automatically mounted.master file # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # For details of the format look at autofs(5). # Sample auto.5. # /misc /etc/auto.master and finds the mount points on system.d/init. automount mounts a mount point when the mount point is accessed and deactivates it when it is no longer used.

master In the above file the lines starting with # are comments.51 # same will not be seen as the first read key seen takes # precedence. The line cd -fstype=iso9660.org:/pub/linux :/dev/hda1 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/sdc1 :/dev/hdd #removable In the above file the line starting with # are comments.misc for the mount points.example.misc tells the daemon automount to look into the file /etc/auto.ro.intr -fstype=ext2 -fstype=auto -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 ftp.nosuid.ro. # +auto. The sample /etc/auto.nodev :/dev/cdrom # the following entries are samples to pique your imagination #linux #boot #floppy #floppy #e2floppy #jaz -ro.nosuid.nodev :/dev/cdrom .misc file is # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # Details may be found in the autofs(5) manpage cd -fstype=iso9660.soft. The line /misc /etc/auto.

But journaling feature is not sufficient to handle all the cases for example if one of the partition is damaged then the files cannot be recovered..52 Causes the automount to mount the /dev/cdrom device when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive and change the directory to the /dev/cdrom. 3.1.RAID disks Linux uses the ext3 filesystem type which has journaling feature. 3. Journaling feature means that it helps to recover from crashes and brings the filesystem into a consistent state. RAID4.1.d/autofs status automount (pid 2157) is running. Linux supports LINEAR md devices. RAID10.. 3.6. 3.6. RAID0 (striping). If user comments this line the /dev/cdrom drive will not be automatically mounted when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive.Checking status of automount To check whether automount is running in the system or not type the following command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# /etc/rc. RAID5.d/init. Journaling feature of the filesystem enables it to recover from such kind of crashes. This allows multiple devices to be combined into a single device to hold a single filesystem. RAID devices are virtual devices created from two or more real block devices. Linux Software RAID devices are implemented through the md (Multiple Devices) device driver.1.5. If power failure occurs when a system is running and it shutdowns immediately (not a graceful shutdown that is the system shuts down before user can shutdown using the shutdown -h now command or from the graphic panel choosing the shutdown option) leaves the filesystem in a inconsistent state.During installation . RAID6.1. Currently.Creating RAID device The RAID devices can be created during installation and after installation. RAID1 (mirroring).6. RAID disks are used to improve disk performance and minimize the chance of data loss.

Using mdadm command To create the RAID device use the mdadm command. enables. To create a raid device /dev/md0 of level 1 using the hard disks /dev/sda0. assembles and monitors the raid devices. 1. The value of n2 is equal to the number of physical devices which forms the raid device /dev/md0./dev/sda1.-level=n1 . This creates the raid devices. On that panel select create a software raid partition button. viewed using the mdadm command after the installation. filesystem type.-create raid-device-name .2. 4. The hard-disk-device name is name of the devices separated by spaces. 3.1. Create the partition with software raid as the filesystem type from the raid options panel select create a raid device button Enter the mount point. The format of the mdadm command for creating raid devices is mdadm . raid device.53 During installation of Red Hat Linux the RAID devices can be created using the disk druid partition manager. 5./dev/sda2 use the following command mdadm . The raid devices information can be monitored. raid level information on the raid device panel.6. It creates. The various format of the mdadm command are mdadm raid-device-name -f hard-disk-device-name .-level=1 .-create /dev/md0 . The raid device name will be /dev/md0 if the first raid device is being created and so on.6.-raid devices=3 /dev/sda0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 3. z z z z z On the disk druid menu selecting the raid button launches the raid options panel. The values of n1 can be 0. Raid array means the physical devices which together makes a logical raid device.Other uses of mdadm The mdadm can be used to mark a device of a raid array to be marked as failed. and 10. mdadm command is all purpose command for raid devices.3. 6. remove it from the raid array or add it to raid array.-raid devices=n2 hard-disk-device-name n1 is a number which denotes the raid level of the raid device.1.

The command used for the purpose is given below mdadm . 3.7.Creating A Logical Volume Group To create a Logical volume group at first physical volume is initialized. To remove the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -a hard-disk-device-name is used to add the device as a spare. To add the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda2 3.6. To mark the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example as failure the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -r hard-disk-device-name is used to remove the device.Logical Volume Group Logical volume group support is provided in Red Hat Linux.-details raid-device-name 3.4. The format of pvcreate command is pvcreate hard-disk-partition-name To initialize the partition /dev/sda5 of the hard disk run the command [root@localhost ~]# pvcreate /dev/sda5 .54 to mark the device as failed.1. The pvcreate command is used to initialize the partition for use by logical volume utilities.Information about a raid device The mdadm command is also used to see the detailed information about an active raid device.1.7.

The format of command vgcreate and vgextend is vgcreate volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 ….......... To create the new volume group my_vol_grp for the /dev/sda5 of the above example use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgcreate my_vol_grp /dev/sda5 Volume group "my_vol_grp" successfully created To view the attributes of the volume group created use the command vgdisplay...Volume group --VG Name System ID Format Metadata Areas lvm2 1 my_vol_grp Metadata Sequence No 1 VG Access VG Status read/write resizable . The format of the command vgdisplay is vgdisplay volume-group-name For example to view the attributes of the volume group my_vol_grp use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgdisplay my_vol_grp --.55 Physical volume "/dev/sda5" successfully created Then add the physical volume thus created to the new volume group using the command vgcreate or added to an existing volume group using the command vgextend.... vgextend volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 .

To create the logical volume group on the my_vol_grp volume group created earlier use the command [root@localhost dev]# lvcreate -L 9.77 GB 3I5EmB-es47-Deqz-hN9w-eUaK-u1i6-tMSCoW To create a new logical volume in the volume group the command lvcreate is used.77 GB 4. In the second case space on which the logical group is to be created is given as the total space expressed in MB. The format of the command lvcreate is lvcreate -l %VG or %FREE volume-group-name lvcreate -L G or M or K volume-group-name In the first case the space on which the logical group is to be created is expressed as the percentage of the total space of the volume group or the percentage of the total space of the free space.00 MB 2500 0/0 2500 / 9. KB (G means GB. GB. M means MB and K means KB).56 MAX LV Cur LV Open LV Max PV Cur PV Act PV VG Size PE Size Total PE Alloc PE / Size Free PE / Size VG UUID 0 0 0 0 1 1 9.7G my_vol_grp .

To display the information about the logical volume thus created use the lvdisplay command. To check the logical volume created view the contents of the directory /dev/my_vol_grp.57 Rounding up size to full physical extent 9.2.7.70 GB 2484 1 inherit 0 Read ahead sectors Block device 253:0 3. [root@localhost dev]# lvdisplay /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 --. The format is lvremove /dev/volume-group/logical-volume-name .70 GB Logical volume "lvol0" created The above commands create the logical volume successfully. It will contain an entry lvol0.Logical volume --LV Name VG Name LV UUID LV Write Access LV Status # open LV Size Current LE Segments Allocation /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 my_vol_grp CaD0Bp-Czo8-fCbu-QXi5-d0I1-LHS3-TwJvVw read/write available 0 9.Remove a logical volume The lvremove command is used for this purpose.

3.5. To remove all the logical volumes in a volume group use lvremove /dev/volume-group 3. vgremove volume-group-name 3. viewing and editing the information about the volume group and logical volume. To invoke the Logical Volume Management utility run the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-lvm .7.4.Remove a physical volume The command pvremove is used for this purpose.58 To remove logical volume logical-volume-name.Logical volume management utility Red Hat offers graphical utility to achieve all the functions performed above like creating a volume group.7. creating a logical volume.7.Remove a volume group The command vgremove is used for this purpose. removing volume group and logical volume. pvremove physical-volume 3.

Overview A good operating system should allow the user to install and update software with ease.2. 4. and graphical utilities. The uninitialized entries are the normal partitions of the hard disks and the volume group shows the volume group created for example this window shows the volume group my_vol_grp and within the volume group the logical volume lvol0 is listed. Red Hat offers the luxury of maintaining the package in a simple and efficient way.1.conf and the configuration files in the directory /etc/yum.d. .59 In the above utility the left hand panel shows the volume groups and the uninitialized entries. 4.Modified) is used to install and update the software packages in rpm format from software repositories on the web.Using yum yum (Yellow Dog Updater . rpm.conf. There are many options available to the user yum. The yum uses the configuration file /etc/yum. User can use the buttons edit properties to edit the properties of the logical volume.PACKAGE MANAGEMENT 4.

repos. keepcache options value if 0 causes the headers and cache files to be deleted after successful installation and value 1 retains the files.d.60 The yum command checks the configuration files and searches the locations mentioned in the configuration files for the package which is needed to be updated or installed by yum. The option gpgcheck if 1 forces yum to check the gpg keys of the packages and if 0 the gpg keys are not checked. Each file represents the location of the packages. The log file where yum writes the log information.conf is [main] cachedir=/var/cache/yum keepcache=0 debuglevel=2 logfile=/var/log/yum. The format of sample configuration file /etc/yum.d contain the location on the web which yum searches for the packages.repos. The files in the directory /etc/yum.ls .log exactarch=1 obsoletes=1 gpgcheck=1 plugins=1 metadata_expire=1800 cachedir mentions the directory which yum uses as the cache memory that is storage for storing temporary file. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost etc]# cd yum.

repo livna-testing.61 fedora-development. The file will be in the below form [fedora] name=Software-Server baseurl=give the http address of the server mirrorlist=give address of the mirror location enabled=1 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=location of the gpg key file.repo fedora-updates-testing.repo Each file corresponds to a software repository on web.repo fedora.repo fedora-updates.repocp livna-devel.repo fedora.repocp fedora-updates. The yum command takes a number of inputs.repo livna. The general format of the command is yum option package-name In case of some options yum don't need package name so the format becomes yum option Option install update Description Installs a package Updates a package usage yum install package-name yum update package-name yum check-update check-update Checks whether an update is available for the packages installed in the system .

-F rpm -F package-name Upgrade a previously installed package. If the in- .Using rpm A lot number of Red Hat software exists in rpm format. The rpm command can be used to install. verify. Option Usage -i -U description rpm – i package-name Install a package rpm -U package-name Updates package already installed on the system. If any previous version of package is not installed then the package is installed. upgrade. It is very easy to install the rpm software packages by using the rpm command. and uninstall the rpm software.62 remove Removes the package and any dependent package from the system yum remove package-name erase Same as remove Same as remove 4. -e rpm -e package-name Erases a package from system -q rpm -q package-name Queries about a package -V rpm -V package-name Verify an installed package against its original software package.3.

fc7 . -vv.5-12. If the rpm command is to be used with two options then use this form usually the option -v.63 stalled package matches with original software package then there is no output. key ID 4f2a6fd2 python-2. -v rpm -v Prints verbose information -vv rpm -vv Prints lots of verbose information -h rpm -h Prints # marks during the package processing using rpm. 50 # are printed when 100% processing is done. and -h is used with the other options. The format is [root@localhost rpm]# rpm -qvv python D: opening db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages joinenv D: opening db index D: locked db index D: opening db index D: opening db index /var/lib/rpm/Packages rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Name rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys rdonly mode=0x0 D: read h# 1353 Header sanity check: OK D: ========== DSA pubkey id b44269d0 4f2a6fd2 (h#1353) D: read h# 741 Header V3 DSA signature: OK.

The two commands can be combined into one command tar xvfz realplay.Using make The software packages are available in the tar. The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc. The configuration file . The packages need to be uncompressed and then the source code is to be build using the.tar.tar and then use the command tar xvf realplay. In above case it queries the database to get the information about the python rpm package.gz extension use the commands gunzip realplay.4. tgz. If the software is installed it prints the information about the software.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user level rpm configuration file.tar. make and make install commands. To uncompress the packages with tar.gz. The option -q and -vv are used together.gz .bz2 format. It also uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system.tar generates directory realplay.64 D: closed db index D: closed db index D: closed db index /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: closed db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: May free Score board((nil)) In above example rpm queries the rpm database to find out whether the python software is installed. 4.gz This forms realplay. and tar. /configure.

It searches the software repositories which have been defined in the yum configuration files.tar. To invoke the Package Manager enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost redhat]# system-config-packages . If the source code is in tar. The command make install installs the package on the system./configure command configures the package for the platform of the system.65 generates directory realplay.bz2 It forms the directory realplay. 4. The make command makes the package for the system.Package Manager package manager is a graphical utility which gathers the information about the packages available over the web for update and installation./configure make make install The .tar After uncompressing the package change the working directory of the terminal to the directory realplay Now to install the package run the commands .bz2 format then use the command bzip2 -d realplay.5.

USER AND GROUP ADMINISTRATION 5.Overview Linux is a multi user operating system. On the search tab user can search for a package and on the list tab the user gets the listing of all the package.2. User account can also be created after installation. 5. 5. Each user belongs to a group account.1. It is also used to update default values used while creating a new user. available package. and installed package depending upon the option box chosen by the user. During installation root user account has to be created (root user is administrator of the system).66 On the browse tab user can browse for the packages available over the web in different categories. One more user account is asked to create (user may choose to create the account or skip). If the changes are applied then the packages are downloaded from web and are installed. Group account can also be created after installation.Creating User Account The useradd command is used to create a new user. After choosing for the packages which need to be installed the user can decide to apply the changes made on the panel. The general format of the useradd command is useradd options user-name .

defs for the default values to be used while creating the user. MAIL_DIR takes #precedence.67 useradd -D options useradd -D The first form is used to create a new user while the second form is used to override the default options used while creating a new user. useradd reads the file /etc/login. The sample /etc/login. To view the default values enter the following command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/bash SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes Simplest form of useradd command is useradd user-name If this command is run useradd creates the user account by using the default values.or name of file. # QMAIL_DIR is for Qmail . The third form is used to view the default values which will be used while creating a user account. If you _do_ define both.defs file is # *REQUIRED* #Directory where mailboxes reside. relative to the # home directory.

# # # # PASS_MAX_DAYS 99999 PASS_MIN_DAYS 0 PASS_MIN_LEN 5 PASS_WARN_AGE 7 # # Min/max values for automatic uid selection in useradd # UID_MIN UID_MAX # # Min/max values for automatic gid selection in groupadd 500 60000 PASS_MIN_DAYS Minimum number of days allowed #between password changes.mail # Password aging controls: # #PASS_MAX_DAYS Maximum number of days a password may #be used. . PASS_WARN_AGE Number of days warning given before a #password expires.68 # #QMAIL_DIR MAIL_DIR #MAIL_FILE Maildir /var/spool/mail . PASS_MIN_LEN Minimum acceptable password length.

# It should remove any at/cron/print jobs etc. . If not specified. # the permission mask will be initialized to 022. UMASK 077 # This enables userdel to remove user groups if no members exist. # USERGROUPS_ENAB yes # Use MD5 or DES to encrypt password? Red Hat use MD5 by #default.69 # GID_MIN GID_MAX # # If defined. we do. This option is overridden with the -m flag #on # useradd command line. # CREATE_HOME yes 500 60000 # The permission mask is initialized to this value. # #USERDEL_CMD /usr/sbin/userdel_local # # If useradd should create home directories for users by default # On RH systems. this command is run when removing a user. owned by # the user to be removed (passed as the first argument).

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MD5_CRYPT_ENAB yes So if a user is created with the command [root@localhost ~]# useradd user1 Then a directory user1 is created in /home, shell is /bin/bash, mailbox lies in /var/spool/mail directory and the contents of the /etc/skel directory is copied in the /home/user1 directory. /etc/skel contains the login and application startup scripts. The contents of the /etc/skel are viewed using ls -la command. [root@localhost skel]# ls -la total 80 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 2009-01-13 22:20 . drwxr-xr-x 138 root root 12288 2009-01-13 22:53 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 33 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_logout -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 176 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_profile -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 124 2007-02-12 20:48 .bashrc -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 500 2007-05-23 19:45 .emacs drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:21 .kde drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:08 .xemacs -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 658 2007-03-06 01:54 .zshrc .bash_logout,.bash_profile,and .bashrc contains the user specific options and aliases which is used by the bash shell each time the bash shell starts up..kde contains the kde desktop application options. The .bashrc file can be used by user to customize user's shell environment. The sample .bashrc file is # .bashrc # Source global definitions

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if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then . /etc/bashrc fi # User specific aliases and functions If the file /etc/bashrc exists then the file is executed./etc/bashrc contains the global options to the bash shell. The options in /etc/bashrc apply to all users using bash shell. The values in /etc/bashrc can be overridden using the .bashrc file. Much information needed to create user account is taken from the file /etc/profile. It sets the hostname, histsize of the shell, shell environment variables like PATH,USER,LOGNAME,and INPUTRC etc. The /etc/profile file also looks in the directory /etc/profile.d for the files which contain aliases and environment variables for use by the user. General format The default values used while creating a user account can be overridden by passing those values from shell. The format of useradd command is useradd -c “comment” -d home directory path -g group name -p password -s shell -u userid [root@localhost ~]# useradd -c "new user" -d /home/user2 -g user1 -s /bin/csh user2 When a user account is created an entry corresponding to the user name for example user1,user2 is created in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow file. An entry is also added when a new group is created for example user1. Below is the content of /etc/passwd filesystem user1:x:502:502::/home/user1:/bin/bash user2:x:503:502:new user:/home/user2:/bin/csh /etc/shadow file contains the user name and the encrypted password of the user. The entry of /etc/group file is user1:x:502: Changing default values

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The command useradd -D -b home directory name -s shell -g group can be used to change the default values used while creating new user account. Below command is used to change the shell to /bin/tcsh from /bin/bash [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D -s /bin/tcsh [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/tcsh SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes
5.3.Modifying user account

usermod command is used to modify the user information. The general format of usermod command is usermod -c “comment” -d home-directory-name -g group-name -l login-name -s shell -u user-id
5.4.Deleting user account

userdel command is used to delete the user account. userdel user-name this deletes the entry corresponding to the user name from /etc/passwd file and /etc/shadow. To delete the home directory along with the account following command is used userdel -r user-name

73 5.5.Group Administration

5.5.1.Adding New Group groupadd command is used to add new group. If no options are specified on the command line default values are used. The format of groupadd command is groupadd -g group-id groupadd-r option Second command is used to add administrative groups. Administrative group and users have ids below 500.The file /etc/gshadow is used to store the group's password. 5.5.2.Modifying group information groupmod command is used to modify existing group information. groupmod -g new-group-id -n new-group-name. 5.5.3.Deleting group groupdel command is used to delete group. It deleted the entry of group from the files like /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
5.6.Using User Manager

The user manager utility is used to perform all the tasks discussed above using the graphical interface. To invoke the user manager utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-users

To modify existing user information click on the user name and then use the properties button. The below panel is generated.74 It can be used to add .modify and delete user and group information. The information can be edited on the below panel and changes can be saved. .

The below window is thrown and the information of new user can be entered. .75 To create a new user. click on the add user button.

Space Usage The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a directory. 5.7.M(megabytes). The password needs to be entered twice.Changing user password The password of user can be changed by entering the command passwd.6. The command prompts for root user's password and then for the new password.76 5. passwd user-name if the user-name is not mentioned then it is assumed that user wants to change root user's password. . The size of files contained in a subfolder is also displayed .and G (gigabyte) form. The format of the command is du folder-name if the option -h is used the command displays the size of files and subfolders in K (kilobytes).1.

Overview The root user is can perform all the tasks on the system. . [root@localhost ~]# df Filesystem /dev/sda11 /dev/sda12 /dev/sda10 /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on 9920592 2390424 7018100 26% / 4956284 141220 4559232 4% /opt 9920592 4643932 4764592 50% /usr 16479668 384520 15244508 3% /home 101086 383428 18499 77368 20% /boot 0 383428 0% /dev/shm 6.xemacs 44K /home/user1 The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem. During installation the root account is must to create.kde 8.1. The root user is administrator account on Red Hat Linux.kde/Autostart 12K /home/user1/.0K /home/user1/.0K /home/user1/. The format of the command is df filesystem If the filesystem option is not used on command line then df displays the amount of space available in all the mounted filesystems of the system.SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 6.77 [root@localhost ~]# du -h /home/user1 8.

Getting Administration Rights 6.1. 6.2.78 6.2. Below is the sample /etc/passwd file root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin .The su command The su command is used to change the user id and group id of the user issuing the command to that of user mentioned on the su command./sbin/nologin refuses login from the user. Outside that terminal he won't have the privilege of user1). If he enters the password correctly then he gets the privilege of root user else he won't get the privilege. The user accounts are listed in the file /etc/passwd.Using the su Using the su command a user can also get privilege of root user but the user will be prompted for the root user's password.2.2. The user id and group id of the root user is 0. Te user and group ids below 500 are reserved for the administrative users. The format of the su command is su – user-name If user2 has entered this command in terminal then he will have the privilege of user-name (he can perform all actions which user1 can perform using the terminal in which he entered the above command. There are some administrative accounts which are automatically created by Linux but the user accounts cannot be used to log into the system as they are defined with the /sbin/nologin.

/sbin/parted..and mail are defined with /sbin/nologin so those user accounts cannot be used to login into system. /sbin/iwconfig./sbin and /usr/sbin directory The directory /sbin and /usr/sbin contain administrative commands. The root user must be created on a Linux machine and all other user accounts in above sample are automatically created. 6. /sbin/dhclient.2. /sbin/chkconfig ## Updating the locate database Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/sbin/updatedb ## Storage Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk./etc/sudoers file The file /etc/sudoers file defines group of similar command under an alias name.4.lp.adm.daemon.1. /usr/bin/yum ## Services Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service. Only root user can use the commands . /bin/ping. /sbin/iptables.. The privilege can be granted by the root user only. /sbin/sfdisk. 6.79 The users bin. /usr/bin/rfcomm. /usr/bin/net.2. /bin/umount .3.2.3. /sbin/mii-tool ## Installation and management of software Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm. /sbin/partprobe. /sbin/ifconfig. /usr/bin/up2date. ## Networking Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route. /usr/bin/wvdial.Administrative commands 6.Other uses must have given privilege to use those commands. /bin/mount. For example ## Command Aliases ## These are groups of related commands.

/sbin/sfdisk. /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom ## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system # %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now . software. DRIVERS ## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands # %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Same thing without a password # %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL ## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the ## cdrom as root # %users ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom. ## service management apps and more. ## Allow root to run any commands anywhere root ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking./bin/umount. Since normal users can not use commands in /sbin directory that is why mount command is in /bin directory./bin/mount. SERVICES. The explanation is any user can use mount command to view the filesystems currently mounted on the system but only root can use it to mount a filesystem. In above case the command mount is in directory /bin. # %sys ALL = NETWORKING. STORAGE is defined for the commands /sbin/fdisk. DELEGATING. STORAGE. SOFTWARE. Then in the file /etc/sudoers different groups are defined with different levels of privilege. LOCATE.80 At first command aliases are defined in the /etc/sudoers file. PROCESSES.

81 The file /etc/sudoers should be edited using the /sbin/visudo command.bin.bin. The general format of the command is chown owner:group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner. The format of the command is . Now the user jack can use the command rpm to install any software prefixing the command rpm with sudo for example sudo rpm -i vlc 6.jack adm:x:4:root.daemon sys:x:3:root. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens..daemon The entry jack is made in /etc/group file.3. Then open the file /etc/group and add the user jack on line corresponding to the group sys root:x:0:root bin:x:1:root. The chgrp command is used to change the group of a file.adm.Changing owner and group The chown command is used to change the owner or/and group of a file.bin. Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. Suppose a user jack is to be given the privilege of group sys then uncomment the line #%sys using the /sbin/visudo command.adm.daemon daemon:x:2:root.

Monitoring System performance 6. . The system administration can be divided into several parts z z z z z z Managing user accounts (creating.deleting.4. To start the system monitor utility follow these steps on desktop go to system--> then go to administration-->then click on System Monitor.Using System Monitor The system information can be viewed using the System Monitor utility.modifying user and group accounts) (discussed before) managing services to be run in a runlevel (discussed before) Updating existing software and installing new software (discussed before) Monitoring system performance Automating tasks Managing and tuning kernel 6.4.1.82 chgrp group-name file-name changes the group of file-name to group.

On the preferences window the user can choose the time interval after which the information is to be refreshed. . Kill Process. The user can click on a process and then can end process by clicking on the End Process button. A user can also choose which information he/she wants to see for the processes using the Edit->preferences option of the menu . Using the filesystems tab the filesystems currently mounted on the system are displayed. and also change the priority of the process. End Process. Using the Edit menu option the user can Start Process. Using the view menu option user can choose the option to see only processes started by him (his process) or all process or active processes on the system.83 On the processes tab the user can see the listing of all the processes of the system at that moment. View Process.

no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number ). The top command gives various information about the system z z z z z z number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes.84 6.4.percent CPU usage.Other commands There are several commands available in Linux which can be used to view the system information.Using top The top utility is started by typing the top command in the terminal window.% memory usage. no of processes active.3.4.1. The priority of the process.3. .2. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system. no of processes sleeping. 6. the command used for invoking the process. 6.Using w command The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them.4.

04s 0. 0.Using uptime The uptime command is used to show the time for which system is running. 0. 2 users.2.-----cpu-----si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st 0 0 0 218808 20736 258632 0 0 144 38 114 435 7 1 89 2 0 Under the proc heading it displays the no of processes waiting for run time (under r sub heading). load average: 0.21. [root@localhost ~]# uptime 23:17:44 up 32 min. under swap heading amount of memory swapped in from disk(si) and amount of memory swapped out(so).10.3.no of processes in sleep(under sub heading b). Under the memory heading it displays amount of virtual memory used(swpd).85 [root@localhost ~]# w 23:17:20 up 32 min. cache memory. 0.03s 0. load average: 0. 2 users.free memory.0 LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT 22:48 10:07 0.3.--system-.0 pts/1 :0. Under the CPU heading the CPU related information.19.22. 0. Under the io heading blocks received from block devices(bi).00s w 6. .19 USER TTY FROM root root pts/0 :0.blocks sent to block devices(bo). [root@localhost ~]# vmstat procs --memory----. Load average of the system and number of users logged on the system currently.4.3.4.Using vmstat The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics.19 6.---swap-r b swpd free buff cache -io---.00s find /home 23:08 1. buffer memory.00s 0.

4. [root@localhost ~]# free total Mem: 766860 used 550340 266068 0 free 216520 500792 shared 0 buffers 22476 cached 261796 -/+ buffers/cache: Swap: 819272 819272 6. 6.4.Using free It gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system.Using kill The kill command is used to end a process.3. .3.4.Log information The user can see the log information of the system using the System Log viewer .The system log viewer is launched from desktop using SYSTEM-->ADMINISTRATION-->SYSTEM LOG. The format of the kill command is kill -s signal-name pid z z z if the pid is 0 then all process in current process are signaled.5.4.86 6. If the pid is 1 then processes with pid >1 re signaled if pid is > 1 then the process with that id is signaled.

6.3194.2. For example the file /var/log/boot. The content of the directory is [root@localhost 2.kernel Modules All the modules configured into the kernel are located in the directory /lib/modules/*/.KERNEL SERVICES AND CONFIGURATION 7.21-1.1. Clicking on the cron entry on left displays the log information about the jobs scheduled using the cron utility on the right panel of the above utility. 7. The hardware drivers are installed to interface with the hardware. The drivers can be inserted.deleted. 7. The log information about the cups can be seen by expanding the tree under the cups entry on the left panel of the utility.fc7]# ls build modules. The * is replaced by the output of uname -r command.and the information about the drivers can be viewed.networking modules.Overview Linux kernel is heart of Linux operating system. The hardware drivers are maintained as the modules of the kernel.log contains the log information of boot time.87 On the left hand side the list of log files is displayed.symbols . User can click on the name of files to view the log information.dep modules.

fc7/kernel/drivers/char/drm/i915.88 extra modules.ieee1394map modules.1.seriomap weak-updates The kernel subdirectory of the above output contains the drivers currently part of the kernel. The file/proc/module contains the listing of modules currently loaded into the kernel. [root@localhost ~]# lsmod Module i915 drm Size Used by 25793 3 78037 4 i915 7745 1 ipt_MASQUERADE iptable_nat nf_nat 11461 1 22125 2 ipt_MASQUERADE.ofmap kernel modules.usbmap source modules. For example to view information about the driver i915 of above case use the command [root@localhost ~]# modinfo i915 filename: license: /lib/modules/2.2.libata modules.3194.6. The file modules.Modules Loaded into Kernel To view the modules currently loaded into the kernel use the command lsmod.ko GPL and additional rights description: Intel Graphics .networking contains the name of the drivers for the network devices. 7.21-1.iptable_nat The modinfo command can be used to view information about any of the loaded module into the kernel.pcimap modules.isapnpmap modules.ccwmap modules.alias modules.scsi updates modules.inputmap modules.

2. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. 7.Inserting module into kernel Sometimes a user might need to install a hardware device if the hardware driver is not part of the kernel.and remove a module from the kernel.2. 9274BE575209BE18EC18D84 drm 7. The format of the command is rmmod module-name 7.3.ko /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1.4. The module dependencies are listed into the modules.dep file located in the directory /lib/modules/uname -r/. Let module2 is module dependent on module1 then if the command modprobe module1 is executed then the modules module1 and module2 both are inserted as the module2 is dependent on module1. If module2 is dependent on module1 then the file contents will be /lib/modules/*/kernel/crypto/module2.ko . The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel.89 author: srcversion: depends: Tungsten Graphics.Removing module from kernel The rmmod command is used to remove a module from the kernel. The user has to insert the driver module into the kernel.Using modprobe command The modprobe command can be used to insert a module into kernel . Inc.2.2.ko: /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1. The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command.

3. There are many options available for the ps command. The command ps aux is used to display all the processes currently running on the system. The modprobe command looks in the directory /lib/modules/*/ and also for the configuration file /etc/modprobe.3. The option options define the options which will be used when the module is inserted into the kernel.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe.The ps command The ps command is all purpose command to get information about the processes running on the system. The format of the renice command is renice priority -p pid of process -u user-name -g group-id .Changing priority of process The renice command is used to change the priority of the running process. The dependent module is on left side and the independent module is on the right side of the semicolon. The sample modprobe.3. The command modprobe -r module-name is used to remove the modules from the kernel.1. In above case if the command modprobe binfmt-0000 is run then the command /bin/true is executed.90 : In above example the modules module1 and module2 are listed using fully qualified path name.Process and Kernel Information 7. 7.conf file is alias eth0 via-rhine options snd-intel8x0 index=0 install binfmt-0000 /bin/true The option alias defines an alternate name eth0 for the via-rhine. The install option is used to run the commands defined after the module name.2. But if the command insmod is used then the module1 is only inserted.d. 7.

After the execution the kernel ring buffer gets clear now if the command dmesg is run again then there will be no output..d]# dmesg -c Linux version 2....redhat..6....fedora.2 20070502 (Red Hat 4..1..com) (gcc version 4..3194. If the value of level is 1 then the serious error messages are only printed. ..Using dmesg It is used to examine and print the boot up message..fc7 (kojibuilder@xenbuilder4.21-1.....1...3...91 If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes and if issued for group then the process priority of all processes owned by the group is changed and if issued for process id then the process priority is changed.. The user can use the command to capture the messages. [root@localhost modprobe. .....2-12)) #1 SMP Wed May 23 22:35:01 EDT 2007 BIOS-provided physical RAM map: sanitize start sanitize end copy_e820_map() start: 0000000000000000 size: 000000000009fc00 end: 000000000009fc00 type: 1 . The format of the command is dmesg -c -n level The -c option clears the kernel ring buffer after printing -n option sets the level of messages which will be printed.. is the output of command.. 7.phx..3.. .

# Logging much else clutters up the screen.none.conf. uucp.* /var/log/boot.none.news. # Don't log private authentication messages! *. The syslogd and klogd comprises the sysklogd package.crit # Save boot messages also to boot. #kern. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog. authpriv.none.conf file # Log all kernel messages to the console.4.92 7.* /dev/console # Log anything (except mail) of level info or higher.* /var/log/cron -/var/log/maillog # Everybody gets emergency messages *. syslogd supports the system logging. Below is the sample /etc/syslog.info.mail.log local7.3.log /var/log/spooler . The file defines the files where different system messages will be written.cron.* /var/log/secure /var/log/messages # Log all the mail messages in one place.authpriv.news. mail.Syslogd The syslogd supports the system logging as well as kernel message trapping.none # The authpriv file has restricted access.emerg * # Save news errors of level crit and higher in a special file.* # Log cron stuff cron.

93 # # INN # news. The root user can use the at command.=crit news. The /etc/at.pid. The file /etc/at. The process id(PID) of the klogd daemon is defined in the file /var/run/klogd.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command. The /etc/at.notice In the above file /var/log/secure file is defined to contain the authorization and security related messages.and cron facilities are used to schedule a job at a specified time.allow file is first checked for the user name who can use the at command if the file is not present then the file /etc/at.notice /var/log/news/news.crit /var/log/news/news.deny is checked to see the users who cannot use the at command. If .4.4. There are two files which determine which users can use the at command. The cron job messages are logged in the file /var/log/cron The file name can be changed by the root user if root wants to log the information into different file. If the file is not present then klogd uses a system call to obtain kernel messages. 7. The klogd captures the kernel messages. The at command cannot be used by all the users.batch.err /var/log/news/news.Using at The at command is used to schedule a job at a time and the atd daemon runs the job scheduled by the at command. The at. The source for the kernel message is the /proc/kmsg file. For example the PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) related messages are logged in this file. 7.Automating Tasks -- A user can schedule to run a job at a specified time.=err news.1. The klogd daemon always runs on a running system and traps any messages which kernel generates.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command.

and the jobs with b on right are in batch queue.1. The jobs which are listed have an on right are in at queue. The sample format of the /etc/at.Using at prompt .deny is jack mark The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespace in the user name.4.2.using pipe A list of command can be scheduled using pipe for example [root@localhost ~]# ls -la | at now+5min job 1 at Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 to schedule a number of commands write each command separated by semicolons.allow or /etc/at. The at -l command is used to list all the scheduled jobs(if root user runs this command then scheduled job of all users is displayed).4.1. the jobs which have = on right are jobs currently executing.94 both the files are not present then only root user can run the at command. 7. [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 4 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root Fri Jan 16 23:03:00 2009 a root at -m sends mail to the user when the job completes even if the job has no output.1. The command at time-specification is used to schedule the job at that time.if invoked by other users the scheduled job of only that user is displayed. The three ways in which jobs can be scheduled are 7.

The contents of the file(commands in the file name is executed at time specification). 7. Same as at -l atrm – command is used to delete a scheduled job. The format is atrm jobid to delete the job 4 in below case use the command at -l gives listing of all scheduled jobs.95 The at prompt is presented to the user if at time-specification is entered for example [root@localhost ~]# at now+20min at> ps at> du at> <EOT> press CTRL+D to come out of at prompt. atq – The atq command is used to list the scheduled job.1.3. [root@localhost ~]# at -l 4 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:46:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root use atrm to delete job 4. In above example ps and du both are scheduled.4. .Using file The at -f filename time-specification command is used to give the command using the file filename.

The sample file for the commands scheduled using the batch command is #!/bin/sh # atrun uid=0 gid=0 # mail root 0 . The batch command invokes the at command prompt [root@localhost ~]# batch at> df at> du at> <EOT> job 5 at Fri Jan 16 22:58:00 2009 The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at.The batch scheduled job is run by the atd daemon. 7.Using batch command The batch command is used to schedule a job.4.8. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled. The job runs when the load average of the system is below . [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root The outputs of the commands are mailed to the owner of the job after successful completion of the job.2.96 [root@localhost ~]# atrm 4 the command atq gives listing of all scheduled jobs.

. The users can be given access to cron using two files.using an empty one crontab: installing new crontab The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory.. The /etc/cron.deny lists the user names which are not allowed to access the cron facility. [root@localhost at]# crontab -e no crontab for root . The /etc/cron. export SHELL ..localdomain.. The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file.allow file is used to list the users who can use the cron facility.97 umask 22 SSH_AGENT_PID=2866..... The format of the file is 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local . export HOSTNAME DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID=.4... df du 7.deny file is searched.allow file is first searched by the cron facility if the file does not exists then the /etc/cron./etc/cron..cron file . If both files don't exists then only root user can use cron facility.Using cron The cron facility is also used to schedule the jobs...... export SSH_AGENT_PID HOSTNAME=localhost.. ..3. The crontab jobs are executed by the cron daemon.. A text editor can be used to create a file-name. export DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID SHELL=/bin/bash. The name of the file is same as the name of the user.. The root user can access cron facility......

98 z z z z z z z The first field is minute (0-59) second field is hour (0-23) third field is day of month(0-31) fourth field is month (0-12).Jan.Tue format is also used.4. [root@localhost cron]# crontab -r [root@localhost cron]# crontab -l no crontab for root 7.mar./etc/crontab The file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file.daily .hourly 02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.1. [root@localhost at]# crontab -l 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local The crontab -r command is used to delete the crontab jobs. The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file. The sample /etc/crontab file is SHELL=/bin/bash PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root HOME=/ # run-parts 01 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.Mon. fifth field is day of week(0-7). The command crontab -l is used to list all the crontab jobs.3. After the time fields the command field follows.Feb.Apr format is also used.Sun.0 and 7 both are used for Sunday The field value * in the fields denotes all possible value.

The mail is done to root user (MAILTO parameter).1.weekly 42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron./etc/cron. 8.-list option is used to check whether the Apache web server is enabled or not [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The httpd service (the daemon corresponding to the Apache web server) is enable in runlevel 2. 8.2.and /etc/cron.4.Overview The web server accepts the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol(HTTP) requests and sends a response to the client. If the service is not enabled then the command chkconfig httpd on is used.monthly The environment of the sub shell is set using this file.daily.hourly. If the service is enabled in a runlevel use the command service httpd start to start the Apache Web Server.weekly. The apache web server is the most widely used web server. The apache web server source code is freely downloadable. The runparts define the time when the scripts in the directories /etc/cron.99 22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron.Starting Apache The user should check whether the Apache web server is enabled in the runlevel or not.monthly are executed by the cron daemon. /etc/cron.WEB SERVER 8. [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start Starting httpd: [ OK ] After starting the service check the working of Apache web server by typing the address http://localhost .and 5.3. The SHELL parameter sets the shell to /bin/bash. The chkconfig .

. The logs directory is symbolic link to /var/log/httpd directory which contains the httpd log information .. The conf. The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd. The directory contains main configuration file. [root@localhost httpd]# ls -l total 36 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:01 conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:29 conf.Perl.and PHP)./var/run The conf directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd.d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 2009-01-06 16:15 logs -> .database(Mysql) and the authorization modules.conf. sub directories and symbolic links to other directories./var/log/httpd drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:20 modsecurity.100 in the address bar of the Mozilla Firefox (web browser)..../usr/lib/httpd/modules lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 2009-01-06 16:15 run -> .d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 27 2009-01-06 16:15 modules -> ./../.d contains the configuration files relating to the languages( like Python./.

1. # Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out. z z z Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole.pid file which contains the PID of httpd daemon. http policy. The modules directory is symbolic link to the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory which contains the library files for the Apache web server. and protocols related. 8. error. The file is divided into three parts.3.d directory. and log files are kept.Main Configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.101 the modsecurity directory contains files relating to the security. The run directory contains the symbolic link to /var/run directory which contains the httpd.conf file is main configuration file for Apache web server.3. Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites # finding out what major optional modules you are running ServerTokens OS This hides the additional subcomponent modules from the remote sites. ServerRoot "/etc/httpd" The server root names the main directory where all the server information is kept. Configuration parameters for the main server (not virtual hosts but these parameters also set default values for all virtual hosts) Settings for virtual hosts. # ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's # configuration. 8. The additional subcomponent configuration files reside in the /etc/httpd/conf. .Global Environment Configuration In the global environment configuration section the following attributes are set # Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents # we are running.

# Load config files from the config directory "/etc/httpd/conf.102 # Timeout 120 The server will wait for 120 secs for a response and after that the connection will timeout.so The LoadModule loads the modules from the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory (the directory /etc/httpd/modules is a symbolic link to above directory). # Include conf. User apache Group apache .conf Loads the additional component support component files from the /etc/httpd/conf.so LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file.so LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest.and Mysql etc.d".Perl.d directory. # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support # LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic.The port number can be changed to any port number by the user. # Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or # ports.d/*.Python. in addition to the default Listen 80 In this case apache listens to port number 80. The directory contains the configuration files for PHP.

For example if you create an index. The email address can be edited if user wants so.3. # AccessFileName .The user can set this to his/her user-name and group-name.2. where problems with the server should be # e-mailed.103 The httpd server runs under the user apache and group apache. but # symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations. # DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your # documents.htaccess # .html file and kept it in this directory and open the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index. # AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory # for additional configuration directives. By default.Main server section # ServerAdmin: Your address. ServerAdmin root@localhost In case of any information server wants to give then the information is send to the email address mentioned in the directive ServerAdmin. 8. all requests are taken from this directory. # DocumentRoot "/var/www/html" This is the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server.html file will be displayed. See also the AllowOverride # directive. The user account apache and the group account apache are automatically created (user don't create the accounts).

# LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.ht"> Order allow. # Proxy Server directives. crit.htpasswd files from being # viewed by Web clients. The contents of htaccess file should not be visible to the clients who are accessing the server (people who are using web browser to view contents or pages on the server). error. # <Files ~ "^\. In above case the warning messages will be logged in the file.deny Deny from all </Files> The . info. Uncomment the following lines to # enable the proxy server: # <IfModule mod_proxy. # Possible values include: debug. warn.104 # The following lines prevent .c> ProxyRequests On .htaccess file is used to control access to the directory. # LogLevel warn The loglevel defines the messages which are to be logged.htaccess and . notice.htaccess file won't give anything). # alert. The line Deny from all sets the access level that no user can be able to see the file . emerg.htaccess (the address in the web browser address bar corresponding to the .

Virtual hosts section # .html for more details.apache.3. 8. The permission level set for the proxy server in above case is the access is denied from all except .example.c> CacheEnable disk / CacheRoot "/var/cache/mod_proxy" </IfModule> # If the following lines are uncommented then the apache web server servers as a cache server. In the above example if the Proxy Requests directive is OFF then apache will act as a cache server.example. The root directory for the cached files is /var/cache/mod_proxy.3. # <IfModule mod_disk_cache.allow Deny from all Allow from .2/mod/mod_cache. # # To enable a cache of proxied content.com </Proxy> The apache web server acts as proxy server if the above lines are uncommented. uncomment the following lines.org/docs/2. # See http://httpd.105 # <Proxy *> Order deny.com.

example.com is fetched.example. # #NameVirtualHost *:80 # <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.4. So if a user requests a document in the domain ServerName then the documents or files from the directory /www/docs/dummy-host. To invoke the utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost conf]# system-config-httpd .com. 8.com ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.com ServerName dummy-host. Each and every apache directive can be used within the VirtualHost.com-error_log CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example.example.example.example.com DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host.106 # Use name-based virtual hosting.com-access_log common </VirtualHost> The virtual host section is used to configure virtual hosting which supports more than one domain using a single web server system.example. In the following example the ServerName is set to dummy-host.HTTP Server Configuration The HTTP Server Configuration is used to configure the HTTP server.

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The main tab is used to configure the server name and web master email address to add the ip address click on the add button.

The new address and the port can be added on the panel displayed. The user can choose to listen to all address option . Use the virtual host tab to configure the virtual host.

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The add button is used to add a new virtual host and the edit button is used to edit the properties of the virtual host highlighted on the left part of panel. the delete option can be used to delete the virtual host. If the user choose to edit the properties of a virtual host the below panel is displayed

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The user can use the tabs on top of the panel to configure the options. The general properties like virtual host name ,document root directory, web master email address can be configured on the general tab. The server tab on the main panel is used to configure the server lock file location, core directory where all the configuration files of the server will be kept, and the location of the pid file. The user and group under which the apache server is running can also be edited.

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The performance tab is used to configure the parameters which help in improve the performance of the apache web server. Parameters like connection timeout period ,maximum number of requests per connection are set here. These options are impact the performance of the apache web server.

http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client requests.Network options Under the network options the user can define the socket addresses.Configuring Squid The directory /etc/squid contains the configuration files for squid server.Overview It is high performance proxy caching server for web clients with supporting HTTP.SQUID SERVER 9.111 9.1.conf. 9.2.and Gopher data objects. The main configuration file for the squid server is /etc/squid/squid. The squid configuration file is divided into sections 9. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks. Squid consists of a main server program squid.1.2. The socket address can be defined in three forms: z z port alone hostname with port .FTP.

log cache. For example #Default: cache_mem 8 MB This sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use).112 z IP address with port # Squid normally listens to port 3128 http_port 3128 9. The cache dir /var/spool/squid contains the following files [root@localhost squid]# ls access.2.Log File and Cache directory section This section defines the directory which will be used as a cache directory.Neighbor selection algorithm option Under this section the user define the mapping of rules for the requests and neighbor which will be called if a request obeys the rule. 9.and negative cache objects(recent failed requests). 9.out store. For example hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ? means that when the URL consists of certain string of characters then the original server handles the request.hot objects(objects that are used often).3.2.log squid. #Default: cache_dir ufs /var/spool/squid This section also defines the format of the squid log files.4.2.Cache size options This section defines the options which control the cache size and swap memory used to handle the objects.log .2.

pid.2.0 acl manager proto cache_object acl localhost src 127.conf file acl all src 0.0.0.255. 9.0.0.1/255.255 acl to_localhost dst 127.0/0.0.0. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file below is the example of acl tags from /etc/squid/squid.Access control section This section defines the access control.5. By default no outside client is allowed to access the contents.0.0. The acl tag is used to define access control.0/8 acl SSL_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 80 acl Safe_ports port 21 acl Safe_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 70 acl Safe_ports port 210 # http # ftp # https # gopher # wais acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535 # unregistered ports acl Safe_ports port 280 acl Safe_ports port 488 acl Safe_ports port 591 acl Safe_ports port 777 # http-mgmt # gss-http # filemaker # multiling http acl CONNECT method CONNECT .255.113 The squid pid is stored in the file /var/run/squid.

Cache Manager The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs. The configuration file controls which servers will be managed by the cache manager. #Default: cache_mgr root Above line define that root user is mailed in case the cache dies.114 the first line gives name all to all the addresses.the user receiving mails in case cache dies etc. This entry can be edited to add more number of clients who can access the content. 9.3.conf.cgi script # . http_access allow localhost http_access deny all the above lines define that the localhost can only access the http content all others are denied. The manager can access the contents as defined by the second line. The next lines define different ports with a name for example port 443 with name SSL_ports.2. 9.6. The configuration file for cache manager is /etc/squid/cachemgr. The localhost name is given to the loopback interface. #Default: cache_effective_user squid The above line define that the effective user of the squid is squid user.Administrative parameters The administrative parameter defines the user under which squid will run . # This file controls which servers may be managed by # the cachemgr. Squid is an administrative user account created automatically.

The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://server-name/cgibin/cachemgr. SQUID_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT=100 . # # hostname is matched using shell filename matching.4.Squid Daemon The squid daemon receives the configuration information from the squid daemon configuration file /etc/sysconfig/squid. 9. localhost In the above example the localhost server is managed by the cache manager. :* or :any matches # any port on the target server.115 # The file consists of one server per line on the format # hostname:port description # # Specifying :port is optional.cgi. If not specified then # the default proxy port is assumed. allowing # * and other shell wildcards. Should not be necessary # most of the time. If you most likely will not to have an # internet connection when you start squid. The sample format of the file is # default squid options # -D disables initial dns checks. uncomment this SQUID_OPTS="-D" # Time to wait for Squid to shut down when asked.

[ OK ] [ OK ] if the squid daemon is not running then use /etc/init. Alternatively the command [root@localhost squid]# squid -k reconfigure causes the squid to read the configuration file again. The access to files is defined by rules set at the server machine.NFS SERVER 10.116 After making changes in the configuration file restart the squid daemon if the squid daemon is already running using the command [root@localhost squid]# /etc/init.1. The files are accessible by some computers on the intranet of the organization. Starting squid: .Overview In organizations it is common that the files are kept at one server.d/squid restart Stopping squid: . NFS is example of a file server. 10.2.Starting NFS service To start the NFS service enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# service nfs start Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] .d/squid start command. 10.

The format of the entry is hostname1 hostname2 hostname1 hostname2 165.? can also be used.117 10.3.com but if the access should be restricted to computers with first name of 5 characters use files ?????.255.1.example. 10. The format of the /etc/exports file entry is directory-name host-name(options) #comments directory name is the name of the directory which is shared with other computers on network.1.Format of hostname Multiple hostnames or lp address can be entered separated by blank.123. ? matches any one character and * matches any number of character.example. The combination of lp address and hostname can also be used.255. The options define security levels that is who can access and which users can access the directory. For example to give access to mynis group add entry .com should be allowed access to directory files then enter the entry files *.1/255. One directory entry is done on one line. 192.0 The wildcard characters *.3.12.com The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group.Sharing Folders The file /etc/exports contain the name of the folders which are to be shared.168. So for example if all the computers in the domain example. The NIS group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the NIS group name.87 All the hosts from a particular network can also be entered using the ip address/net mask format. The host names are the computers which have right to access the files.

root_squash – this option maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid.com(async. async – It responds to the request before the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk). all_squash – map uid and gid of all users to anonymous uid and gid.rw.3. The other option is ro which allows read operation only. The sync option means server will respond to the request after the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk) so there is no chance of inconsistency. Other option is no_all_squash which causes no mapping to be done.ro. The second entry makes the directory /home/user1 accessible to computers with five letter name in domain example.root_squash) In the first entry the directory /home/vishnu is made accessible by each computer (indicated by *) and options sync.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used.all_squash) /home/user1 ?????.118 @mynis 10.ro. no_root_squash – the root user of client is treated as the root user of the server as well ( the uid/gid of root is not mapped to the anonymous uid and gid).rw.secure and all_squash is used.secure.insecure.2.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid.example.So this option improves performance but increases chance of inconsistencies .com with options async.insecure. . Below is the sample /etc/exports file /home/vishnu *(sync.Options format The valid options used in the /etc/exports file are secure – the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534. rw – the clients can read the files on NFS volume and also write on the directory .and root_squash.

Accessing the NFS directory [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] The NFS directory needs to be mounted before it can be accessed. To mount the NFS directory the mount command can be used. z z z z -a option is used to export all directories -u option is used to unexport one or more directories. [root@localhost ~]# exportfs -a -v exporting ?????.example. For example to access the /home/vishnu directory enter the below command in the terminal .4.119 The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service.com:/home/user1 exporting *:/home/vishnu The exportfs -a -v command is used to export all directories listed in the /etc/export file and print verbose output. -r reexport the directories -v verbose mode produces output or use the below command [root@localhost nfs]# service nfs restart Shutting down NFS mountd: Shutting down NFS daemon: Shutting down NFS quotas: Shutting down NFS services: Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: 10.

120 [root@localhost nfs]# mount localhost:/home/vishnu /mnt/win This mounts the /home/vishnu directory on /mnt/win directory of the same system. It is invoked using the below command [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-nfs It lists the two directories which are exported.NFS Server Configuration The NFS server configuration utility can be used to create the /etc/exports file using the graphical interface. To add a new directory for export click on the add button. User can also edit the properties of the directories already exported by selecting the .net Then restart the autofs service. For example to access the directory /home/vishnu the below command is used cd /net/localhost 10. The autofs facility can also be used to mount the NFS shared directories on demand.master /net /etc/auto. To mount the NFS directories using the autofs use the following step add the below line in the /etc/auto.5.

The above panel is also displayed if the user wants to share a new directory (by clicking on the add button) but that time the panel will not contain any previous value.121 directory in the directory listing and click on the properties button. The server settings can also be edited by clicking on the server settings button The user can enter the port numbers in the text boxes of the panel to force NFS daemon for using these ports. The below panel is displayed which can be used to edit the options which are used to share the directory /home/vishnu. .

/proc/net/rpc/nfs -.anongid=65534) 11.anongid=65534) /home/vishnu *(ro.1.anonuid=65534.etab. The files xtab. /proc/mounts -.root_squash.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS client statistics.mapping=identity.sync.insecure. 11.Using nfsstat The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity. Windows operating system uses the SMB(Session Message Block) protocol for sharing files and printers.no _subtree_check.122 10.root_squash. The sample etab file is /home/user1 ?????. It uses following files to present the output in user readable format z z z z z z z /proc/net/rpc/nfsd -.anonuid=65534.2. use nfsstat -s to display server side information use nfsstat -c for client side information use nfsstat -n for NFS statistics use nfsstat -r for rpc statistics The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory.hide.mapping=identity. To invoke the samba server configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-samba .secure_ locks.6.secure_locks.acl.all_squash.wdelay.procfs-based interface to the mounted filesystems.acl.SAMBA SERVER 11.Samba Server Configuration The samba server configuration utility is used to configure the samba server on the system.Overview samba is used if the network connected with the system comprising of the computers running the windows operating system.wdelay.nocrossmnt.hide.and rmtab files contain the information about the exported files.async.nocrossmnt.com(rw.no_all_squash.insecure.example.no_subtree_check.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS server statistics.

encrypt password and guest account. On the security tab the enter the following information the authentication mode. Set the value of the option to below values .123 The panel can be used to configure the server settings. The below panel is displayed. To edit the server setting click on the preferences menu and then to the server settings drop down choice.kerberos realm. On the basic tab enter the work group name and the description of the work group. the authentication server.and new samba share. samba users .

The passwords for the users are also entered on this panel. After entering the user-name and password click on the add share button to display the below panel . Click on the new user button to display the below panel On the above panel enter the UNIX user name and windows user name (the UNIX user name and the windows user name are usually same).124 On the preferences menu list the samba user tab invokes the Samba Users panel which helps to add new samba users.

The share can be made accessible to samba users (by checking the check box) or can be allowed to everyone by clicking on the option box allow access to everyone.The writable option and visible option lets the user choose whether the clients can write to the directory (writable option) and whether it is visible(visible). If the visible is not checked then the share won't be visible.125 On the basic tab of create samba share the directory which is to be shared is entered. On the access tab user can define who can access the share. Enter the values and click on OK. The share name for the directory is entered which can be any valid name and a description is added (you may write here anything).If writable in not checked then the client can't write on the share. The below panel displays the samba share created using the above procedure and values displayed in the example panels .

The /etc/samba/smb. To add the above /home/user1 directory to the share the below content is to be added in the /etc/samba/smb. .3. browseable = yes valid users = vishnu In above entry the user1 is the name of the share comment is the description added and writable option means the client have write access to the share and the users who can access the share are listed using the valid user’s entry. The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of the samba users.126 11.conf configuration file [user1] comment = user1 home directory path = /home/user1 writeable = yes . The path of the shared directory is mentioned in the path entry.conf is the main configuration file of the samba server.Samba configuration file The /etc/samba directory contains the configuration files for the samba server.

25-2.4.0. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu The left hand side denotes the UNIX user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name.Checking the service To check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be use the below command [root@localhost samba]# smbclient -L localhost Password: Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3.1.127 The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users.fc7] Sharename --------user1 IPC$ ---Disk IPC Type Comment ------user1 home directory IPC Service (demo sama server) Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3.Starting Samba service Use the below command to start the samba service.25-2.fc7] Server --------Comment ------- .0. 11.4. service smb start 11.

conf. 12. . The main configuration file for the vsftpd is /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.Starting vsftd Enter the below command to start the vsftpd service if it is not running [root@localhost ~]# service vsftpd start Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: 12.3. The users can connect to the FTP server and upload.Overview File Transfer Protocol is standard method of sharing files over the Internet. The vsftp is name given to Very Secured File Transfer Protocol.conf file is # Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware . The command can be used to check the working of the samba server and the samba share. The sample vsftpd.1. The command displays all the shared directories on the system and also the workgroup created on the system.Configuring vsftpd [ OK ] The directory /etc/vsftpd contains the configuration and other options file for the vsftpd.128 LOCALHOST Workgroup --------MYGROUP demo sama server Master ------- when asked for password press the ENTER or RETURN key of the keyboard to login as anonymous user. 12. download files from the FTP server. anonymous_enable=YES # # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.allowed by default if you #comment this out).FTP SERVER 12.2.

The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. # Activate logging of uploads/downloads. local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server. connect_from_port_20=YES # xferlog_enable directive is set to YES logs information about the upload and download events. xferlog_enable=YES # # Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 #(ftp-data). pam_service_name=vsftpd userlist_enable=YES the pam_service_name denotes the name of the service for the Pluggable Authentication Module. All the administrative users are listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list root bin . if set to NO then anonymous user login is not allowed. userlist_enable is set to YES then vsftp don't allow users listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list to login through ftp. connect_from_port_20 if set to yes then port 20 is used for transfer of data by ftp.129 local_enable=YES # the parameter anonymous_enable is when set to YES then the anonymous user login is allowed by the ftp server.

The file lists the user names who are not allowed to login through ftp.ftp command prompt To start the ftp command prompt enter the below command [root@localhost log]# ftp ftp> ftp supports lot of commands like . The file /var/log/vsftpd.4.log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server. 12. The user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers are administrative users (they are same set of users as the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file).130 daemon adm lp sync shutdown halt mail news uucp operator games nobody The vsftpd pam also looks for the user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers.

Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration The Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility is used to configure the vsftpd daemon. 12. To invoke the utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-vsftpd .lists the content of a directory on remote computer. bye – closes current connection and exits ftp. lcd – to change to a directory on local system mkdir – to create a directory on remote system rename – rename a file or directory on remote computer get – copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system mget – same as get but multiple files at once put – copy a file from current directory on local system to current directory on remote system mput – same as put but multiple files at once. cd – used to change directory on remote computer.131 open hostname or ip address – connect to the computer identified by hostname or ip address close – close a connections pwd – shows name of current working directory on remote computer.5. ls -.

The information which will be logged can also be defined. On the access control tab the user can define whether the local users should be able to login into the ftp server and the file which is to be used to ban users from accessing the ftp server for example the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file contain the list of the administrative user who should not be allowed to access the ftp server. on Users tab the way system users and the anonymous users will access the ftp server is defined. On network tab the user can define the network options.whether to run in standalone mode or not(in standalone mode vsftpd listens to the port it don't run under inetd or xinetd). The users can view the directory list if or not can also be controlled. The anonymous user behavior and the system users behavior is set differently so as to provide better grain of control On the directory option the file access options are set. It also defines the port on which the ftp server listens. File names which match a user defined criteria can be made inaccessible and invisible to the clients. . The active connection options and the passive connection options as well. On logging tab the user can provide the files which will be used for logging the standard logging file is /var/log/vsftpd.132 On the general tab user can specify options like enable upload and download of files .log. Under server control tab user can start or stop the server view the log files.

13. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost openldap]# ls -l total 24 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-02-20 02:25 cacerts -rw-r--r-. BASE dc=example. 13. It is used to create directories of information that can be shared among client applications over a network. The sample ldap.LDAP SERVER 13.1 root root 246 2007-02-20 02:25 ldap.example.conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:17 schema The file ldap.conf(5) for details # This file should be world readable but not world writable.conf is the main configuration file for the ldap.133 Maximum number of clients connecting through a single source .Configuration The main directory of the ldap is /etc/openldap. The directory contains the configuration files and schema files for the ldap.com ldap://ldap-master.example.overview LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.1. dc=com URI ldap://ldap.2.conf file is # # LDAP Defaults # # See ldap.com:666 SIZELIMIT TIMELIMIT 12 15 .

schema samba. SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched.schema The default schema can be used by the user or edited by the user to create the directory information of his/her own.conf file for the syntax change.schema use include /etc/openldap/schema/samba.schema nis.and finding.ldif and save the file. For example to include the samba. The time limit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request.searching. The various schema files are z z z z cosine. TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request. The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap. After editing the configuration file user can start creating the directories using any of the ldap schemas. The structure used to create directories is the LDAP Data Interchange Format(LDIF). This is the default. The schema directory contains the schema files. . URI specifies the uri of the ldap server to which the ldap library will attach. DEREF options specifies the way an alias is dereferenced. The port can also be specified on the URI directive.conf using the include directive. The value of deref directive is never the alias is never dereferenced. The server name can be specified or the ip address of the server can be specified. To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.134 DEREF never The BASE directive is used to set the set the distinguished name in the ldap format using the dc=value format. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search. The other values of the DEREF options is always.schema.schema inetorgperson. Create a directory entry with the extension .

ldapmodify command is used to modify the entries of the ldap server.2. The formats of the commands are domainname domain-name-of-system nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system the below command sets the NIS domain name of the system to localdomain [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain The commands if used without any options give the nis domain name of the system . The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned. z z z z ldapadd -a command adds a new entry to the ldap directory. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.Overview Network Information Service (NIS) was created by Sun Microsystems.or nisdomainname.135 To add the contents of the ldif file created to the ldap directory the command ldapadd is used. 13. The time of search or the time within which the ldap server should respond is defined in the TIMELIMIT option.Setting NIS domain name The command domainname .and ypdomainname are used to set the NIS domain name of the system. The computers which access the database information (maps) of the server are referred as NIS domain.conf.1.3. ldapdelte command is used to delete an entry from the ldap server.NIS SERVER 14. It is used to create an central information database which is kept at a server system and other computers on the network access the information.Starting the ldap Use the below command to start the ldap service service ldap start 14. 14. ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters.

3. The sample /etc/yp. 14.conf.136 [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# nisdomainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# ypdomainname localdomain The NIS domain name of the system is lost when the computer is rebooted. .Configuring NIS The main configuration file of the NIS server is /etc/yp.ypbind configuration file # Valid entries are # domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST # # # domain NISDOMAIN broadcast # # # domain NISDOMAIN slp # # # ypserver HOSTNAME Query local SLP server for ypserver supporting NISDOMAIN Use broadcast on the local net for domain NISDOMAIN Use server HOSTNAME for the domain NISDOMAIN.conf .conf file is # /etc/yp.

5. The configuration file is read by the ypbind daemon.Staring NIS server To start the NIS server daemon enter the below command in terminal service ypserv start 14.Starting ypbind service The ypbind service handles requests for information from the NIS server.2.Mapping Information The /etc/nsswitch. The sample /etc/nsswitch file is # Legal entries are: # .1. # broadcast # # # If no server for the default domain is specified or none of them is reachable.4.4.137 # # # Use server HOSTNAME for the local domain. The IP-address of server must be listed in /etc/hosts. 14. The entry domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST defines the NIS domain name and the NIS server name of the system.4.Starting NIS server 14.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files by a client system. try a broadcast call to find a server. To start the ypbind service enter the below command service ypbind start 14.

The file names which should not be shard in commented out.255.conf file. also called YP Use DNS (Domain Name Service) Use the local files Use the local database (.0.0 10.and group on them and if the files are not found on the system then after that they will search for the files on nisplus domain.138 # # # # # # # # nisplus or nis+ nis or yp dns files db compat hesiod Use NIS+ (NIS version 3) Use NIS (NIS version 2).16 can access the NIS sever information.db) files Use NIS on compat mode Use Hesiod for user lookups Stop searching if not found so far [NOTFOUND=return] the above list defines the valid entries which can be added in the /etc/nsswitch.0. Next the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server. passwd: files nisplus nis shadow: files nisplus nis group: files nisplus nis In the above example the client computers will search the files passwd.0.16 so all the computers on the network 10. The clients’ computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file.255.shadow.0. The format of the entry in the /var/yp/securenets file is netmask network example 255. .

netmask.Starting the DHCP server To check the status of the dhcp server run the above command in the terminal chkconfig –list dhcpd if the service is not running then enable the service by issuing the command chkconfig dhcpd on after enabling the user can run the dhcpd service using the command service dhcpd start . The format of the file is ip address of network:file-name for which access is defined:security:mangle{:field} the field is optional. DHCP server is used to assign the ip address.1.NIS database The NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is created by using the ypinit command.1.DHCP SERVER 15. 15. The server then provides the requested information to the clients 15.netmask.2.DNS server and other information to the computers in its network. 14. The client computers will have to select that they want to use the DHCP server for the information like ip address. This file can be used to set rules that define which host computers can access which files.Overview DHCP stands for the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.139 The finer grain of control can be implemented using the file /etc/ypserv.and DNS server.5. The security can have values as none(to allow access).port(to allow access from port below 1024).deny(denying access) the mangle field is having the value yes or no.conf.

leases contains information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server.5.conf 15.Working of DHCP server The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.conf.140 15. On the client computer if a user enters the command ifconfig -a then corresponding to the Ethernet interface which was assigned ip address using the dhcp server the user will be the ip address mentioned in the file /etc/dhcpd.leases.4. 15. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network. The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign a ip address to a computer on its network. To invoke the Network Configuration window enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# neat or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-network .DHCP client The DHCP client can be configured using the utility Network Configuration.Configuration file The configuration file for the DHCP server is /etc/dhcpd.3.

141 To configure a device to obtain the ipaddress. This will throw a Ethernet device panel to the user. On the below Ethernet device panel choose the general tab . click on the edit button. Choose the device listing. In the above example the device eth0 is chosen (Ethernet interface eth0).dns server information and other information needed for connecting to the internet from the dhcp server follow this steps.

After making the changes the user should restart the network using the below command service network start The dhclient is used to get the information from the dhcp server. The process id (PID) of the dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient) is stored in the file /var/run/dhclient.conf for configuration parameters). .142 Then to set up a dhcp client click on the option box Automatically obtain ip address settings with and in the drop down menu items choose dhcp. The dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient at boot time if the client is configured to obtain the ip address from the dhcp server at boot time else invoked when the activate button of the network configuration utility is clicked after selecting the Ethernet interface) gets the ip address information from the dhcp server it first checks the configuration file /etc/dhclient. User can also choose to obtain the DNS server information using dhcp by clicking on the check box Automatically obtain DNS information from provider.pid.

It is used to translate the host names into ip address and also ip address into the host names. 16.3.DNS SERVER 16.BIND Configuration GUI The BIND Configuration GUI is used to configure the DNS server on a Red Hat Box.Overview The DNS stands for Domain Name System. To invoke the BIND Configuration GUI enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-bind .1. It also contains information about each domain and organization of domain into zones.-list named if the service is not running then enable the service using the command chkconfig named on to start the service named use the command /etc/init.143 16.Starting Named daemon The status of the named daemon can be checked by the command chkconfig .d/named start or service named start 16.2. In Red Hat the DNS service is implemented using the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND).

To add a new DNS server click on the New button to add a new server. After editing the values the changes can be saved using the save button of the main panel. This displays a panel on which user can enter the value. After clicking on the new tab a drop down list is displayed on which the user can choose the object which he/she wants to set the value. The properties of an existing DNS server can be edit by selecting the server in the drop down list and then clicking the object on the drop down list. The objects which are displayed in the drop down list are z z z z z z z z Zone View Access Control List Security key Server Controls Logging DNSSEC Trusted keys The user can enter the value of the parameter by clicking on the object. The values can be edited on the displayed panel. In the current case the DNS server is selected. .144 The properties button is clicked after selecting the object in the listing panel.

named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named. The important action defined elements are acl – access control list used as acl “description “ { ip address }. the central directory request may come .Important files The named daemon configuration file is /etc/named. ON the BIND Configuration GUI the DNS server is selected on the list and clicking on the the outside. The lines marked by /* */.conf.conf file the syntax of the file can be checked using the command named-checkconf by default it checks the file /etc/named.and # are marked as comment lines.txt The path and the description of the files can also be viewed using the utility BIND Configuration GUI.145 To delete a listing use the delete button on the panel and selecting the object in the drop down list.4. The directory /var/named directory is the zone file directory of the named service. The dump file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/cache_dumb. server – to describe the server logging – logging facility definitions options – various options like view – the value can be inside and outside for a DNS server the from the private network(inside) or from Zone – to describe the zone information After editing the /etc/named.pid.conf for syntax.conf file. The statistics file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/named_stats.// . The pid of the named daemon is stored in the file /var/run/named. 16.db. The statements in this file are enclosed in braces and are terminated by semicolon.

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properties button displays the location on which the important files are kept and also the description of the files.

Command whois

Description Searches for the availability of the domain name. Format is whois domain-name.

host

It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. Format is

dig

It is used to query the DNS server and display information returned by the DNS server. It is often used to troubleshoot the DNS server.

17.MAIL SERVICES
17.1.Overview

There are three parts of message transfer
z z z

MTA – Mail Transfer Agent MDA – Mail Delivery Agent MUA – Mail User Agent

MTA's are also referred as the mail server. The sendmail and postfix are examples of the mail server.
17.2.Sendmail

To start the sendmail server type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# service sendmail start

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17.2.1./etc/mail The /etc/mail is the core directory of the sendmail. The files which are contained in the directory are /etc/mail are divided into following category 17.2.1.1.configuration file The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc. The file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail, location of the log files and database files. 17.2.1.2.Domain name mapping file The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. 17.2.1.3.Access file The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmail will accept mail for delivery or relay. 17.2.1.4.Virtual server files The file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. 17.2.1.5.Virtual users file The file /etc/mail/virtusertable defines the actions which sendmail should take after receiving mail from the trusted users and hosts. Apart from this files the directory /etc/mail also contains the .db files which are database files corresponding to the files described above for example access.db. 17.2.2.Generating the .db files To generate the .db files use the following approaches /etc/init.d/sendmail reload or

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/etc/init.d/sendmail restart in above case the database files are automatically created as the sendmail is restarted or the configuration files are reloaded when the reload option is used. But this case doesn’t work if user doesn’t want to stop or reload the sendmail server. Then the second approach is used Use the below command sequence to create .db files for all the configuration file cd /etc/mail make all if the user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access.db replace the filename access.db with the .db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.db makes the file virtusertable.db. 17.2.3.Checking Sendmail Server The sendmail server responds to requests on the port 25. To check whether the server is working or not type the command [root@localhost mail]# telnet localhost 25 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. 220 localhost.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8.14.1/8.14.1; Sun, 18 Jan 2009 17:55:26 +0530 ^] user can enter help command to see the sendmail commands he/she can use.

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help 214-2.0.0 This is sendmail 214-2.0.0 Topics: 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA RSET NOOP QUIT HELP VRFY EXPN VERB ETRN DSN STARTTLS AUTH

214-2.0.0 For more info use "HELP <topic>". 17.2.4.Important Files 17.2.4.1./var/spool/mail The directory contains files corresponding to the user names that are using sendmail. These files contain the incoming messages received and processed by the sendmail. 17.2.4.2./var/spool/mail/statistics This file contains the collected statistics about the sendmail. 17.2.4.3./var/spool/mqueue This directory keeps the outgoing messages temporarily .the outgoing messages are kept until they are send. 17.2.4.4.Log files The sendmail log information is maintained in three files /var/log/maillog,/var/log/maillog.1,and /var/log/maillog.2. The log files contain different level of information. The file /var/log/maillog.2 contains the detailed log information. An entry is made for each mail been send by the server or received by the server. 17.2.5.Actions taken by server on a mail There are four actions which the server can take

1 17.3. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected.Postfix RELAY RELAY RELAY It is a mail transfer agent that is mail server.. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected. The second command adds the postfix server to run level which the user is currently logged on.Starting postfix server The postfix server is not added in any run level by default (sendmail is generally there).150 RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail. Connect:localhost.0. The directory /etc/postfix contain the main configuration files and access related files used by the postfix server.3.0. To enable the postfix server enter the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig postfix on . but is not referenced in any runlevel (run 'chkconfig --add postfix') [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --add postfix the first command shows that postfix is not in any runlevel.. The options are used in the /etc/mail/access file. For example # by default we allow relaying from localhost. 17.localdomain Connect:localhost Connect:127. This options are used to configure the actions of a sendmail server. So to add the postfix server use the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --list postfix service postfix supports chkconfig. ERROR:user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message.1.

Script file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-scripts file is a shell script which executes the postfix administrative commands.Daemon Configuration file The file /etc/postfix/master. The incoming mail of the users processed by the postfix server is kept in the file.3.1.3. 17.Configuration file The /etc/postfix/main. [ OK ] .3.3.cf.2. mailbox.Post install file The file /etc/postfix/post-install is a shell script which performs the post installation configuration of the postfix server.2.postfix queues and locations to be used for logging.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process.3. 17.2.2.2.3. The files act as mailbox.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server.Mailbox The directory /var/spool/mail contains files corresponding to the user name of each user having access to the postfix mail server.3.4.Permissions file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server.2. For example for a user named jack the mailbox will be /var/spool/mail/jack. It defines the hostnames and domain names . Access file – the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server. 17. 17. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main. 17.default which is exact copy of the main.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.151 to start the postfix server use the below command [root@localhost postfix]# service postfix start Starting postfix: 17.cf.3.

4. To switch between the mail services from desktop perform following actions System Tools --> Mail Transport Agent Switcher. The /var/lib/alternatives directory contains file mta which lists other mail servers. 17.152 17./var/spool/postfix The directory contains a list of directories to temporarily store the mails.ls active corrupt deferred hold bounce defer flush maildrop private saved public trace incoming pid In above example the directory /var/spool/postfix contains the sub directories incoming to temporarily store the incoming mails which have not been delivered yet. [root@localhost mail]# cd /var/spool/postfix.3.2.4. Bounce to temporarily store the bounced mails.3.and /var/log/maillog.1.Switching MTA On a Red Hat Linux box the sendmail and postfix both the servers are installed but the sendmail is used as the default MTA. The file /var/log/maillog.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix server. ./var/log/maillog. The alternatives services and the default services are defined in the directory /var/lib/alternatives directory and the /etc/alternatives directory. 17. In the window displayed choose the postfix as the alternate mail server.Log files The log information about the postfix server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog. The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives display the default services configured on the system.5. The postfix server is treated as an alternative service to the sendmail server. The directory contain the entry mta-sendmail this makes sendmail as the default mail server.

17.IMAP stands for Internet message Access Protocol and POP3 stands for Post Office Protocol.5.Starting Dovecot To enable the dovecot service use the command chkconfig dovecot on and to start the dovecot service use the command service dovecot start 17. 17.The sample format of the /etc/dovecot.conf file is # Base directory where to store runtime data.conf. It replaces the sendmail components and uses the postfix components but the location of the mailbox and the log files remain same in both the services.2. base_dir = /var/run/dovecot/ .Dovecot The dovecot is used to configure the IMAP and POP3. [root@localhost alternatives]# service postfix start Starting postfix: [ OK ] The postfix server takes the mail transport agent work in place of sendmail.153 Then use the following commands to stop the sendmail server and start the postfix server.1.Configuration file The main configuration file for the dovecot service is /etc/dovecot. The user sending mail and receiving mail don’t see any difference as there is change only in the transport agent.5.5. [root@localhost alternatives]# service sendmail stop Shutting down sm-client: Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] [ OK ] the default sendmail server s stopped and the below command is used to start the postfix server.The mailboxes of sendmail and postfix are one single file so the above protocols are used to access the mails.

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base_dir option sets the location where dovecot will store the run time data. The base_dir will contain the file master.pid file which contains the PID of the dovecot service. protocols = imap imaps pop3 pop3s protocols option sets the protocols which the dovecot listens. Above example sets the dovecot to listen imap,imaps,pop3 ,and pop3s protocols. # specify different ports for IMAP/POP3. For example: protocol imap { listen = *:10143 ssl_listen = *:10943 .. } the above part sets the port for the imap. Different ports are used for different protocols. # Log file to use for error messages, instead of sending them to syslog .# /dev/stderr can be used to log into stderr. log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log # Log file to use for informational and debug messages. # Default is the same as log_path. info_log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log The log_path and the info_log_path sets the log file paths where the dovecot will log the informational messages and error messages. # Maximum number of running mail processes. When this limit is reached, # new users aren't allowed to log in. max_mail_processes = 1024

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max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously

18.NETWORK SECURITY
18.1.Overview

Network security is becoming a vital and challenging task. If a system is connected with network then the administrator should pay considerable attention to network security.
18.2.The daemon xinetd

The daemon xinetd is started when the system boots and listens on lot of ports corresponding to the services configured in the configuration file of the xinetd daemon /etc/xinetd.conf. The directory /etc/xinetd.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. These services are called on demand services and can be seen using the command [root@localhost xinetd.d]# system-config-services

or by viewing the contents of the directory /etc/xinetd.d [root@localhost ~]# cd /etc/xinetd.d;ls chargen-dgram daytime-dgram discard-stream rsync time-dgram

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chargen-stream daytime-stream echo-dgram tcpmux-server time-stream cvs dgram echo-stream tftp

discard-

Each file correspond to a service which xinetd automatically starts when connection is made to that port. This on demand services should not be accessible by everyone. The access can be made selective by the use of TCP wrappers.
18.3.Using TCP wrappers

The tcpd (tcp wrapper daemon) program can be set up to monitor incoming requests for xinetd services or in other words the services which xinetd supports and also services that have one to one mapping onto executable files. If tcp wrapper is used then if a client makes connection at a port for services like finger,talk,telnet,and rsh ( xinetd service) then at first tcp wrapper daemon determines whether the connection will be allowed or refused. If the connection is allowed then the corresponding service is invoked to listen at the port. The tcpd authenticates the client using the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. 18.3.1./etc/hosts.allow It contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. This file is first scanned by tcpd. 18.3.2./etc/hosts.deny Iit contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts.allow file. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. Format of the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny are same. The keyword ALL is specified for all clients. For example in.telnetd: .example.com fingerd: ALL the connection for the telnet is allowed for clients from domain example.com and connection for the finger is allowed for all the clients.

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The service daemon is listed on the left if two service daemons are to be listed then the daemons are separated by comma (,) character. The semicolon acts as a separator between the daemon names and the address part. If multiple address is to be mentioned then the addresses are separated by comma. The ALL flag enables user to make the files as restrictive as it can be made. This enhances security.
18.4.Security Level Configuration

The Security Level Configuration utility is used to set the security level of the system. To invoke the Security Level Configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-securitylevel

On the Firewall Options tab the user can set the firewall is enabled or disabled. The trusted services are allowed to pass through the firewall. On the other ports the user can add the trusted ports by clicking on the Add button clicking on the Add button displays the below panel

After making the changes click on apply and then OK.after entering the value press ok. This allows user to add more complex rules and also customize the fire- wall. The user can browse and upload the file containing the user defined rules. .158 On the add port panel the user can enter the port and also the protocol (tcp and udp). The user can click on the Advanced options tab to add a file containing iptable rules in the iptables save format.

# Save current firewall rules on restart.5. In above example the modules ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp are loaded.Command Reference Command iptables -A Description To append a security rule in current iptable rule iptables -D iptables -R iptables -I iptables -L Delete a rule Replace a rule Insert a rule List all rules . The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility.1. # Value: yes|no. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to.159 18. load additional iptables modules. The sample /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config file is IPTABLES_MODULES="ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp" The directive IPTABLES_MODULES defines the modules which are loaded. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. IPTABLES_SAVE_ON_RESTART="no" If the value is yes then the rules are saved to the file /etc/sysconfig/iptables. default: no # Saves all firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables if firewall gets # restarted.4.Configuration files There are two configuration files /etc/sysconfig/iptables and /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config. 18.

d The files in the directory /etc/pam.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam.0 auth include system-auth system-auth system-auth account include password include the first line is a comment.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.password. PAM is a system of libraries that handle the authentication tasks of applications (services) on the system.PAM PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication module. The configuration file /etc/pam.authentiction. 19. .and session.d is used for configuring PAM.1.PAM AND SELINUX 19./etc/pam. For example the file passwd in the above directory contains the following line #%PAM-1. The second line contains the rule for the PAM.d are present.path module-argument The type in above case is auth.conf or the files in the directory /etc/pam.160 iptables-save Save rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file. PAM allows four types account. 19.2. The contents of the file /etc/pam. The format of the next lines are or rule lines are type control module.

Required – means that pam will return failure if this PAM modules returns failure. The configuration file is passwd as an argument. Contents of file system-auth auth auth auth auth required pam_env. Optional – the success and failure of this module is not important on the overall return value (success or failure) of PAM.so in the above file the pam modules are called for verification of a user for the service passwd.so uid >= 500 quiet pam_deny. authentication(auth) – the authentication type prompts the user for a password and if the user provides it then he/she can access the service. .so sufficient pam_unix. Session –this type is used to perform the jobs (like logging) before a user access a service or after a user access a service. let three modules are called and if this module returns false then the resultant will be false but pam will call all the modules which are to be called for the process. Include – this module includes all lines given in the configuration file of a specific type. Sufficient – means that PAM returns success if this module returns success and other PAM modules will not be called which are to be called for the process. time and other parameters. Password – the password type is used to update the user information like changing user password. The system-auth is the module path. The valid values for the control are include.so nullok try_first_pass requisite required pam_succeed_if.161 Account – the account type defines access to a service based on the availability of resource.required. The system-auth module resides in the current directory.sufficient.and optional. The module is important if it is the only module for the service.

19.162 The PAM modules reside in the directory /lib/security. It is flexible access control architecture and provides support for the role based access control and multilevel security. Disable-.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled.1. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues instead of enforcement.2.2. 19.SELinux administration The SELinux administration utility is used to configure the SELinux. The contents of the file are (for the above configuration of SELinux administration) warning . Three values are allowed enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced. The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux. To invoke the SELinux administration enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost selinux]# system-config-selinux The user can set the value of SELinux enforcing mode.SELinux SELinux stands for the Security Enhanced Linux.

.Command Reference Command semanage Description Mapping Linux user names to SELinux user identities.remove. # SELINUX= can take one of these three values: # # # enforcing . interface and hosts and file context mapping. disabled .Full SELinux protection.SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing. permissive .SELinux security policy is enforced. SELINUX=disabled # SELINUXTYPE= type of policy in use.163 # This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.3.list selinux policy modules. strict .Only targeted network daemons are protected. chcat Change file or users SELinux security category chcon Change the security context of each file to context semodule Used to install.SELinux is fully disabled. security context mapping for network port. SELINUXTYPE=targeted 19. Possible values are: # # targeted .

/root/install-log. 3. 2. bootloader .-enforcing c.log Answer – b Explanation -. /root/anaconda-ks. He wants to set the SELinux policy during installation to enforcing. selinux = enforce Answer – b 4./root/anaconda-ks. After an installation a user wants to see the log information of the installation process. Which command is entered on the anaconda boot prompt to install using the kickstart file located on the website http://kickstart-file/install/linux. grub . bootloader . Which is default installer of Red Hat Enterprise Linux? a. redhatinstaller d.-location=hd0 Answer – a 5. grub Answer – a Explanation – disk druid is the default partition manager for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux. grub .com? .cfg b. anaconda b. /root/anaconda.log c. /root/install.164 O V E R 2 5 0 E X A M P R E PA R AT I O N Q U E S T I O N S 1. Which line should he add in the Kickstart file? a. Grub is the default bootloader for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux and anaconda is default installer.cfg is the Kickstart file created after successful installation of Red Hat and /root/install. Which file the user should refer? a.-default d. selinux .log is default log file. selinux .-enforcing b.-location=mbr c. set selinux .info d.-location=hd0 d. A user wants to use Kickstart file for installing Red Hat Linux. disk druid c.-location=mbr b. Which line should be added in the Kickstart file to install the bootloader in the Master Boot Record (MBR)? a.

/usr b. 1 b. Answer – d Explanation – SAFE=no denotes that kudzu starts in no safe probing mode and anything other than no means that it is started in the safe mode. DISK DRUID is the default partition manager in Red Hat Linux. How many modes can kudzu operate? a. 9. swap c.com Answer – d Explanation – The anaconda boot prompt is denoted by: boot. LILO c. Anything other than no can be used on the left hand side of the assignment.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux.com c. Which two partitions are necessary for Red Hat Linux installation? a.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. :boot ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux. 2 c. LILO is also bootloader but nowadays it is not used as default bootloader. You want to start the kudzu in safe probe mode. swap Answer -. ANACONDA Answer – a Explanation – GRUB is the default bootloader of Red Hat Linux.com b. So it is mandatory to make a / partition. 6. DISK DRUID d.165 a. SAFE=YES c. SAFE=no b. /. All other partitions can lie within the / partition. GRUB b. 3 d. SAFE=? d. What will you add in the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu? a. :anaconda ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux. :boot ks . :anaconda ks . /boot. /home.d Explanation – The / filesystem is root of the Linux file system structure. The swap partition is . 8.com d. 4 Answer – 2 Explanation – kudzu can operate in two modes x safe probe mode x no safe probe mode 7. /. /home d. Which of the following is the default Red Hat Linux bootloader? a.

You have computer 256 MB RAM .conf Answer – c Explanation -./etc/X11/xorg. mouse. system-config-network b. system-config-net c./etc/modprobe.conf b.conf lists the hardware like monitor./etc/X11/xorg. 400 MB Answer – c Explanation – For good performance of the system the swap space area should be double of the physical RAM attached with the System.conf./etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth0 lists the network device detected if there are more than one network device present then /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth1 lists the second network device detected and so on. neat d. /etc/modprobe. /var c. The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf is not present on the system. system-config-neat Answer – a. 256 MB b.conf. 11. 512 MB d. 12.conf. /usr d. 13. 128 MB c. /etc b./etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* d.conf is module configuration file /etc/X11/xorg.166 also necessary as Linux uses swap partition as extension of main memory. 10. /etc/modprobe. Which filesystem contains the configuration files? a. keyboard which are configured for X.What is the size of swap space for good performance of the system? a. /mnt Answer – a . What command is used to invoke the Network Configuration utility? a. Which files will kudzu query to find out the devices already configure? a. c Explanation – system-config-network and neat both the commands can be used to invoke the Network Configuration utility. /etc/modprobe. /etc/sysconfig/lasthwconf c.

no file contains that information b. /boot c. You want to see the options you have chosen during the installation process. upgrade option in line 1 of kickstart file. You want to upgrade a system using the kickstart file. Answer – b Explanation – install option is used in the first line of kickstart file to show fresh install and upgrade option is used in the first line to show upgrade of a previous installation.167 14. /home/anaconda-ks. 15./proc is pseudo filesystem which contains information about the processes running on the system. system-config-date is used to set date only. No both are same b. yes both are different Answer – a . c.cfg c.cfg is the default kickstart file created by anaconda based on the options chosen during installation.cfg d. update option in line 1 of kickstart file. /root/anaconda-ks. c. Your friend used systemconfig-time for the same purpose. system-config-time is used to set time only. 17. d. /root/anaconda-ks Answer – b Explanation -. d. 16. /proc d. /root b. /sys Answer – c Explanation -. b. You want to see the information about the processes running on your system. Which filesystem will you use to get the information? a. upgrade option in line 5 of kickstart file. Which option will you use in kickstart file? a./root/anaconda-ks. You have installed Red Hat Linux in your box. Is there any difference? a.You used system-config-date to set the date of your system. update option in line 5 of kickstart file. Which file should you look for? a.

timeout=10 secs c.6. d.6.168 18.-10 Answer – a Explanation – The timeout=10 parameter is allowed in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. You want to boot your Red Hat Linux operating system using kernel2. 19. boot /kernel-2. Don’t mount the partition within braces of rootnoverify option. You have grub bootloader installed on your system. 0) option is used in case there is another operating system installed along with Red Hat Linux.14. What changes should be made in the grub configuration file? a. Which command will you use in grub configuration file? a. kernel /kernel-2. grub d. timeout=10 b. inittab c.conf. init b. For example if windows is installed along with Red Hat then grub should not try to mount the partition on which windows is installed. Which process has the PID of 1? a.6.14 b. don’t verify the / partition b.14 Answer – a 21. kernel /vmlinuz-2. Don’t verify the first sector of hard disk. main Answer – a . mount the partition indicated within the rootnoverify option.6.6.14 d. boot /vmlinuz-2. timeout . 20. You want to boot the default operating system if user did not make a choice for 10 seconds. What is meaning of the option rootnoverify (hd0. 0) in the grub configuration file? a. timeout=10 s d. Answer – b Explanation – The rootnoverify (hd0. c.14 c.

A runlevel script has the line #chkconfig 345 25 75. 4. During boot process kernel gives control to the init process. You want to reboot your system if a user presses CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard during the boot process. Since 1 is less than 8 so S111USERDEF is run first. The system reboots in a loop d. and 5 the multiuser mode is active. S111USERDEF b. /etc/rc.d/rcv. 22. The entry captures the CTRL+ALT+DELETE key sequence and the command shutdown –r now is executed. . /etc/rc. Can’t be determined.d d. The digits are compared from left to right taking one digit at a time.5 c. Answer – a Explanation – The numeric digits i. Which of the two services will start first? a. At same time d. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –h now in /etc/inittab file d. 5 and the start priority is 25 and the stop priority is 75. 25.it is called father of all processes.d b.d/rc. It is a comment b.d Answer – a 26.d/rc5. Write a shell script for that and keep it in root directory c.e. 23. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3. What is the meaning of this line? a.5d c. A user created two scripts S111USERDEF and S85USERDEP which are executed during boot time. Multiuser mode booting b. The system comes to halt Answer –c Explanation – In runlevel 0 the system comes to halt and in runlevel 2.d/r5.4. It cannot be done Answer – a Explanation – The init process looks the /etc/inittab file for the processing to be done. 3. What should you do? a. 111 and 85 decide the order of run. What will happen if runlevel is set to 6? a.169 Explanation – The init process have the PID of 1. S85USERDEP c. /etc/rc. /etc/rc. Multiuser with networking mode c. Which directories contain the boot time scripts for the run level 5? a. 24. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –r now in /etc/inittab file b.

The current runlevel of the system is N. Which command will you use to do so? a. Which command is used to get the previous run level of a system? a. init d. chkconfig service-name enable Answer -. service httpd on Answer – a . disable a service and lists the status of a service or services. Previous runlevel of the system was N b. chgrunlevel Answer – a 30. The httpd service is enabled in the runlevel 5 but it is not running. 31. 28. How will the problem resolve? a. c. chkconfig httpd on d. prevrun Answer – a Explanation – the runlevel command is used to get the current run level and the previous runlevel of a system. runlevel c. The line gives an error Answer –c 27. enable service-name c. Which command is used to change the current run level? a. lastrunlevel d. prevrunlevel c. The runlevel of the system was never changed from 5 so the previous runlevel is displayed as N. chkconfig httpd start c. runlevel b. Answer – d 29. service httpd start b. chkconfig service-name on d. runlevel service-name on b. What does it mean? a. telinit b. The previous runlevel of the system was 5 d.c Explanation – the chkconfig command is used to enable a service. The output of the runlevel command is N 5.170 d. You want to enable a service service-name for current run level (run level 5).

d/init. /proc Answer – d Explanation – The proc filesystem is virtual filesystem (it is not mounted on a disk partition) which contains the process and system information. Using chkconfig –list c. Which file contains the static information about the filesystem? a. serviceconf.d 35. /etc/mtab b. 34.all b.d Answer – b Explanation – The directory /etc/rc. Which directory contains the run level scripts of all the runlevel? a.d/all. How will you view the status of all the services in all the runlevel? a. system-config-services c. /etc/fstab c. Which filesystem is not mounted on disk partition? a. Using chkconfig all b.d/init.d/init.d contain symbolic links to the scripts of directory /etc/rc.d contains all the runlevel scripts and the directories /etc/rc. Using chkconfig list Answer – b Explanation – the chkconfig –list gives the listing of all the services in different run levels with the status of services as on or off.d/rc. None of these Answer – c 33. /etc b. /etc/rc. Which command is used to start the service configuration utility? a. 36.d/rcall.d d. system-config-services d. 32.171 Explanation – the service httpd needs to be started for that the service httpd start command is used.d c. /usr d. /home c. /etc/ftab . /etc/rc. /etc/rc. Using chkconfig –all d.d/rc*. serviceconf b. /etc/rc.

The user wants to access files kept in the /dev/sda6 partition with the vfat filesystem type. mount –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win c. 39. Which filesystem contains the information about the filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. /etc/fstab b. fdisk –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win d. fdisk –m c. mount vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win b.172 d. /etc/mstab Answer – b Explanation – The file /etc/fstab contains mount point. Which command is used to see the listing of filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. filesystem type. 40. What should he/she do? a. and other options. A user wants don’t want to mount the /home partition automatically at boot time./etc/mtab contains the information about the filesystem currently used by a running system. /etc/mstab d. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab c. Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/mtab d. mount –t vfat /mnt/win /dev/sda6 Answer – b Explanation – The mount command has the form mount –t filesystem-type source partition target partition . mount Answer – d Explanation – fdisk command is used for creating new partition and view all the partitions of the hard disk. A system has windows and Red Hat Linux installed on it. What should he do? a. Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab b. 37. fdisk -l b. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/mstab Answer –a Explanation – At boot time the /etc/fstab file is scanned for information about the filesystem to be mounted. /etc/mtab c. 38. If noauto option is used the filesystem is not automatically mounted. mount –t d. /etc/ftab Answer – b Explanation -.

2MB c. Your system has a swap partition on /dev/sda3 and another swap partition on /dev/sda5. None of above Answer – b 43. cat /proc/swaps b.vfat /dev/cdrom c. /etc/mkfs/mke2fs. 44. mkfs -t vfat /dev/cdrom b. The command is wrong Answer – b Explanation – The bs option denotes the blocksize and count denotes the number of that.vfat. 20MB b.How will you decide which swap partition is active? a. mkfs. 41. mkswap d. A file is created using the below command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/demo bs=1000000 count=2. /etc/mke2fs.conf b. swapon Answer – c 45.conf c. Both of above d. fdisk –l c.conf d. None of above Answer – c Explanation – The mkfs –t vfat is frontend of the command mkfs. Which configuration file is used while creating ext3 filesystem on a partition using the mke2fs command? a. createswap b. cat /proc/swap d.173 to mount a source filesystem on target directory. None of above Answer – a Explanation -. Which command is used to create a swap filesystem on a device or file? a. 2GB d.What is the size of the file /home/demo? a. Which command is used to create vfat filesystem on a re writable CDROM? a. /etc/ext3. So the size of the file is 1000000 * 2 = 2 MB. 42. mkfs c./proc/swaps contain the entries .

d/init. badblocks Answer – d 47.-create /dev/md0 . /etc/autofs.conf b.-create /dev/md0 . 48. How will you check the status of the automount daemon? a. /dev/sda2? a.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 b.conf c. /etc/autofs.d/autofs . fsck b.-level= should be used. mdadm .d/init. The contents of the file can be viewed using cat command. Which configuration file does /etc/rc. /etc/auto.d/automount status d. mdadm .-level=5 devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 Answer – a Explanation – In second option . 46. 49.d/autofs status c. No problem b. Data on the device will be erased c.d/init. Which command is used to create a raid device of level 5 using devices /dev/sda1. /etc/rc.d/init. Data on device will not be erased d.-level 5 . Which command is used to check a device for badblocks? a.-raid . /etc/rc. /etc/init. mkfs c.master d.-raid devices= /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 d. chkfs d. mdadm . -w is invalid option to badblocks command Answer – b Explanation – The data is not deleted if the badblocks command is used without option or with –n option.-create /dev/md0 .-create /dev/md1 . /etc/auto.master Answer –c 50. What will be the problem? a. /etc/rc. mdadm ./etc/rc.-level=5 .-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 c. A user ran command badblocks -w on a device containing important data files.-status Answer –b Explanation -.d/autofs controls the operation of the automount daemon.d/autofs status b.d/autofs use? a.174 of the entire active swap space of the system. In the third option .d/init.-level=5 .

Physical volume b. System-config-lv b. /sys/vol_grp Answer – b Explanation – The directory /dev/vol_grp contains lvol0 entry corresponding to the logical volume lvol0. vgcreate b. System-config-lvm c. mdadm device-name –r raid-device-name c. vgextend c. Which directory contains entry for the logical volume group lvol0 created by a user in the volume group vol_grp? a. Which file and directory yum does look for information about the software . System-config-logman d. Which command is used to create volume group? a. mdadm –r raid-device-name device-name d. 53. volgrpcr d. Volume group c.175 devices=n where n is no of devices is missing. In fourth option . No directory has the entry b. There is no such utility Answer – b 55.-raid is missing from . None of them d. 51. /dev/vol_grp c.-raid devices. 54. mdadm –r device-name raid-device-name Answer – a 52. How will you remove one of the devices from the raid device? a. pvcreate Answer – a Explanation – vgcreate is used to create a new volume group and vgextend is used to extend an existing volume group. /home/vol_grp d. A raid device contains four devices. Which command is used to invoke the Logical Volume Management utility? a. 56. Which of the following should be created first before creating the Logical volume? a. mdadm raid-device-name –r device-name b. Both of them Answer – d Explanation –Physical volume is to be initialized first and then the volume group is to be created before creating Logical volume.

/etc/yum.log. Both of them d.conf file c. Yellow updater modified d. What is the importance of option gpgcheck=1 in /etc/yum.conf. global b.conf. /etc/yum.conf and then looks for the files in the directory /etc/yum. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before update only Answer – a Explanation – Usually the gpgkeys are installed before adding any software repository.d 57. If the gpgkey option is 1 then the packages are checked for the gpgkeys before installing or updating the packages. Sytem. 59. How can user decide whether the install was successful or failure? a. system Answer – b Explanation – The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc. User can use the file to decide the install was successful or failure. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install or update b.system. Yellow software updater modified Answer – a 58.conf file? a.176 repositories? a. The gpgkeys of packages are not checked before install or update c. What are the levels of rpm configuration file? a. The status of yum commands execution will be logged there. User.d c. Looking at /etc/yum. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install only d. Looking at /etc/yum. 60.global d.d directory d. What is full form of yum? a.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user . None of them Answer – c Explanation – it looks for the configuration file /etc/yum.global c.conf. A user ran yum command to install a package. User. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system. User. He can’t decide b. The configuration file . Looking at /var/log/yum.conf b. Then he went for a cup of coffee.log Answer – d Explanation – The log file of the yum command is /var/log/yum. The install completed before his return. Yellow umbrella c. Yellow dog updater modified b.

Where does the rpm package information kept? a. yum install package-name . rpm –ivvh d. No use rpm-q d. 64. rpm –U installs a package if it is not installed previously b.177 level rpm configuration file. There is no way to check vendor’s statement. /var/log/rpm/* c. rpm –iF Answer – c Explanation – the options -v (verbose information). 65. What is the difference between rpm –U and rpm –F commands? a. A user used the command rpm –U package-name to install the package packagename which is not previously installed on the system. Is the command correct? a. rpm –Ueh c. 62. rpm –F installs a package if it is not installed previously c. and e. U and e. /var/lib/rpm/db/* d. No it is used for update only Answer –b Explanation – The command rpm –U is used to upgrade a previously installed package and if the package is not installed in the system then it installs the package. rpm –q package-name d.-vv (verbose lots of information) and h (prints hash marks are rpm options which can be used with other options. F are mutually exclusive. Which is a valid rpm command? a. No use rpm -v b. /var/lib/rpmdb/* Answer – a Explanation – The rpm command uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information. The options i. /var/lib/rpm/* b. How will you check vendor’s statement? a. Using system monitor c. Your software vendor informed you that package-name. Both command do same function d. None of the above Answer – a Explanation – The command rpm –U updates a previously installed package but installs a new package and the command rpm –F updates a previously installed package but does not installs a new package.e. b. Yes c. 61. 63.rpm has been installed in your machine. rpm –ieh b.

Using tar xvf b.gz file but xvf uncompress a .tar file but xvf uncompress a .tar. bzip2 is used to uncompress . system-config-manage c. What is the difference between the commands tar xvf and tar xvfz? a. You have downloaded a package in tar. xvfz is verbose mode of command xvf Answer – c 68. Package Admin d.bzip2 –c is used to create . bzip2 –d uncompress a tar.tar file c. xvfz compresses a . No difference b. What does command bzip2 does? a.tar file d. xvfz uncompress a . How will you uncompress the file? a. Package manage Answer – a 70. 69.bz2 file c. Which command is used to invoke a Package Manager? a.tar format and then the command tar xvf is used to uncompress the tar file.gz format. Using bzip2 followed by tar xvf Answer – b Explanation – gunzip uncompressed the tar. Package management c.178 Answer – c Explanation – rpm –q package-name queries the rpm package database and finds out information about the package-name. 67. bzip2 –d creates a tar. system-config-package b. Using gunzip followed by tar xvf c. system-config-packages d. Package manager b.bz2 file b.bz2 file and –d option is used to uncompress a . Answer – a Explanation – bzip2 command is used to create and decompress a bz2 file.yum install is used to install the package packagename. Which utility is used to manage packages on a Red Hat box? a.zip file d. bzip2 is used to compress a file to . Using tar xvf followed by gunzip d.gz file into . 66.system monitor is used to view system information. system-config-manages Answer – c .zip format.bz2 file.

/etc/login. What action should be taken by him? a. Which file does define the default values to be used while creating the user account? a.179 71. Which file does contain global options to the bash shell? a.What line will you add in the file /etc/login. You want to create a user account john. MAIL_BOX=/var/temp c. A user wants to override the default values used for bash shell. MAIL_JOHN=/var/temp d. 76. /etc/bash. 73. Creating a . Creating a .bashrc file in home directory of user b. /etc/bashrc Answer – d 72. Which directory contains the initial login and startup scripts? a.bash file in home directory of user c.bashrc file in the home directory of the user is used to override the default values used for bash shell. Editing the /etc/bashrc file. /etc/skel b.What is the significance of it? .conf d.bashrc file in home directory of user Answer – a Explanation – The . /etc/bash b. MAIL_DIR=/var/temp b. 75. /etc/login. /etc/login. 74. /etc/login d. Creating a .defs c. /etc/user. MAIL_CONFIG=/var/temp Answer – a Explanation – The line MAIL_DIR is used to denote the directory where mailbox of a user will reside.defs b.conf Answer – b Explanation – The file contains the default values to be used while creating a user account.The content of /etc/skel is copied to the home directory of user when the user account is created. The mail box of john should lie in the directory /var/temp. /etc/userdefs d. d.defs? a.conf c. /etc/initial Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/bashrc. The default values can be overridden on the command line. A user Matt have a user id of 400./etc/skel directory contains the initial login and a startup scripts.defs c.

useradd –D –s /bin/bash new-user d. If the –r option is not used then the home directory of the user is not deleted. /etc/pass c. User Configuration Answer – a Explanation –User Manager is used to create. 78. 81. User id 400 is of root user b. usermod –D –s /bin/bash Answer – a Explanation – usermod command is used to modify the user information. User Admin d. userdel –r /home/user1 user1 Answer – b Explanation – The command userdel –r user1 is used to delete the account of a user along with his/her home directory. 79. The file/etc/passwd contains information about the user but at the place of passwd x character is written. What command will the system administrator execute? a. User Administrator c. /etc/passwd b. A user cannot have user id 400 c. None of these Answer – d Explanation – The file /etc/shadow contains the user login name and encrypted password. He wants the bash shell. So matt is an administrative user. Which graphical utility is used to manage users? a. /etc/password d.What should be his approach? a. usermod –s /bin/bash c.180 a. userdel –r user1 c. User Manger b. Answer – c Explanation – User id less than 500 are reserved for the administrative users. A new user is working on the /bin/tcsh shell. usermod –s /bin/bash new-user b. 80. d. Which file does contain the password of user? a. and modify user and group information. userdel –h /home/user1 user1 d. Which command is used to invoke user Manager Utility? . userdel user1 b. System Administrator wants to delete the account of user user1 along with the home directory of the user user1. Matt is an administrative user. 77. delete. Matt is a non administrative user.

su root d. system-config-usr c. /etc/gpasswd b. grppasswd c. Which file does contain the information about the groups in a system? a. 83. space /home/jack d.181 a.The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem. du /home/user d. df /home Answer – b Explanation -. If the command passwd is used alone it means the password of root user is to be changed. 85. df /home/user Answer – c Explanation – The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a . passwd root b. Ask jack about the disk space usage b. Which command is used to change the password of the root user? a. df /home/jack c. gpasswd d. su – c. grpasswd b. What should he do? a. /etc/group d. system-config-user b. /etc/groups Answer – d 84. Check each file size and subdirectory size b. The system administrator wants to see the disk space used up by user Jack. A user wants to list the space used up by files and subdirectories of his home directory. system-config-usrs Answer – c 82. What sh0uld he do? a. It means the password of user user-name is to be changed. system-config-users d. Which command is used to change password of a group? a. Ask the system administrator c. gpassword Answer – c 86. passwd Answer – d Explanation – The format of passwd command id passwd user-name. /etc/passwd c.

Will root has to enter the user’s password? a. Using geditsudo Answer – c Explanation – the visudo command is used to edit the /etc/sudoers file. The group of the file will change to that of group’s Answer – a Explanation -. Using gedit b. If root don’t enter user-name’s password then he won’t be able to execute user-name’s files d. No as it is different terminal session he won’t have root privilege in this session.chown owner: group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner. Will the command execute successfully? a. No the shell will prompt for password of user-name but root can choose not to enter the password c. Using visudo d. A user Vishnu is member of group demo. Nothing b. The group demo is defined with the privilege of command shutdown –h now in /etc/sudoers file. Yes he will have to use visudo shutdown –h now Answer – c Explanation – The commands should be prefixed by the sudo command. Yes he has to enter the root password d. No he can’t use the command directly c. The user and group of the file will change to that of user’s c. No shell won’t prompt for user-name’s password Answer – d 89.182 directory 87. Does Vishnu have privilege to run the command shutdown –h now? a. . 90. What will happen ? a. A root user used the command su – user-name where user-name is a non administrative user. He then opened a new terminal and ran command to mount a filesystem. Answer – d 88. The user of the file will change to that of user’s d. How will you edit /etc/sudoers file? a. Yes root user will have to enter user’s password b. A user entered the command chown : file-name. No su – command don’t give root privilege b. Yes he will have to use sudo shutdown –h now d. Using vi c. A user ran su – command in a terminal (terminal1) and got privilege of root user. 91. Yes he can use shutdown –h now b. Yes c.

Users c. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system. He gets an error b. gives the amount of free and used memory of a filesystem Answer – c 96. Which command shows the virtual memory statistics of a system? a. All d. System administrator wants to see the users currently logged into the system and the processes run by them. gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system d. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens.183 Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. .What will be the impact of the command? a. Frees RAM memory b. A user issues a command kill 0. All of these Answer – b Explanation -. Iostat b. Vmstat c. Which command will help the system administrator? a. 93. Frees swap memory c. None of these Answer – a Explanation – The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them. Virtual d. b. What does free command do? a. Nothing happens Answer – a Explanation – The user don’t have privilege to change the file permissions of root user so he gets an error. A user issues the chown user-name-group-name file-name command on a file filename which belongs to the root user. 92. All process with pid >0 are re signaled. The owner of the file will change c. Gives an error c. all processes in current process are signaled.The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics 95. Process with pid 0 is re signaled d. W b. What will happen? a. 94. The group of the file will change d.

System Log Viewer d. /sys/uptime d. Which utility is used to see system log information? a. no of processes sleeping. the command used for invoking the process. Boot process have pid of 0 d. System Administration d. Yes init process have pid of 0 c. percent CPU usage. Log Configuration Answer – c 99. process information? a. memory and swap information. Log Manager b. A process pid can be set to 0 using renice command Answer – a Explanation – The lowest pid that a process can have is 1 which is pid of init process ( init is called father of all processes). SystemManager Answer – a 100. It don’t use any file Answer – a Explanation – The uptime command uses the file /proc/uptime for the information and formats them in user readable format. May a process have pid of 0? a. network usage information Answer – d Explanation -. no of processes active.no other process can have pid of 1 or lower than that. 98. System Information c. no of processes active. no of processes sleeping.184 Answer – d 97. network information. /proc/uptime b. Which file does the command uptime use to present the output? a. Which of the following information does top command not give? a. no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number). % memory usage. System Log Manager c. load average of the system c. . No process can have pid of 0 b. /proc/sys/uptime c. total number of processes. no of zombie processes d. number of users currently logged on b. Which utility is used to view various system information like CPU usage. 101. System Monitor b.The top command gives various information about the system number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes.

Which command is used to print the processor type of a system? a.14 c. Which file contains the list of currently loaded modules in the kernel? a. Both of them Answer – a Explanation – The SIGKILL is used to signal a process. lsmod modulename d. /proc/mod d. A user wants to see the filename of a module currently loaded into the kernel.6. 106. uname -r b. no such file is there Answer – b Explanation – The lsmod command is also used to list the modules currently loaded into kernel. file name should be given from sysin d. /proc/module b. 103.uname -a prints all the information about the system. It is a command c. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name .185 102. 104. lists all the modules of kernel2. It is a signal used with kill command generally b. modprobe modulename Answer – a Explanation –modinfo gives the details of a module loaded into the kernel. what should he do? a. For example kill –SIGKILL 5009 command gives the signal SIGKILL to process with pid 5009. none of the above Answer –c Explanation -. 105. A user issues command insmod -. What is SIGKILL? a.The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel. /proc/modules c.What will happen? a. The file /proc/modules also contain the same information. None of above d. uname -p d. uname -n c.the command uname is used to print various system information. Error will occur b. modinfo modulename b. uname -k Answer – c Explanation -. infomod modulename c.

nice b.If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes . What will happen? a. renice c. The command renice 5 -u Jack is issued. insmod b. What command does administrator use? a. Modprobe -a b. modprobe -b c. none of them c. /etc/modprobe. 107. modinfo Answer – b Explanation -. no change in priority d.d. Which command is used to remove a module from the kernel? a.insmod loads only the module mentioned on the command line. rmmod d. process priority of all processes belonging to user is changed to 5 c. priority d.conf b. On business requirement your client wants to run the process A (already running on the system) with increased priority.d d.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe.186 if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. modprobe -r d. modprobe -d Answer – c 109. The module A is dependent on module B. 108. modprobe c. Error occurs no pid mentioned b. 110. both of them Answer – d Explanation – modprobe looks for the configuration file /etc/modprobe. schedule Answer – b 111. /etc/modprobe. Which configuration file and directory does modprobe command refer? a. priority 5 not allowed Answer – b Explanation -.The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command. which command should be used to load the module A into kernel? a.

kernel messages displayed c. none of the above Answer – a 114. /var/klogd. Which configuration file does syslogd use? a. Which file should he/she edit? a.pid d. /etc/syslog. System administrator wants to allow the user Mac to access the at facility. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written. /etc/syslog d. Which file does contain the pid of klogd daemon? a. In which file is cron utility log the messages? a. 113. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog.pid c. /var/run/klogd Answer –a 117. so dmesg command prints no output. /etc/syslog d.log d. /var/log/cron b.allow a.conf Answer --d 115.conf. /var/run/klog. /etc/sysconfig/syslog. What system administrator does? Add name on mac in /etc/at. /etc/syslog.conf Answer – d Explanation – syslogd supports the system logging.pid b. /var/log/cron.log c. A user issues two commands back to back dmesg -c dmesg What will be the output of second command? a. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b.187 112. /var/run/klogd. .conf c. No output b. error d. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. 116. A user wants to log the boot messages in the file /var/log/boot. help options displayed for dmesg Answer – a Explanation – dmesg when used with the -c option clears the kernel ring buffer.conf c. /var/log/cron/cron. /etc/sysconfig/syslog.

atq Answer – c Explanation -. In which directory the jobs scheduled by the batch command spooled? a. jack:jill c. If the /etc/at. don't add name on mac in /etc/at. Which command is used to list all the scheduled jobs? a. All the users of system b.The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at. only root user d. jill Answer – d Explanation -.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command. no user of the system c. /var/spool/at. at -l b. both of them d.spool d.188 b.atq the atq command is used to list the scheduled job. Jack.The file /etc/at. jack e. any of the above Answer – a Explanation -. Which users can use the at facility? a.jill d.deny are not present. System administrator allows users Jack and Jill to use at facility.deny d. jack.The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespaces between the username (on a line). On a system the files /etc/at. /var/spool/at b. Same as at -l.allow and /etc/at.jill b. 118.spool Answer – a Explanation -. /var/spool/batch. Add name on mac in /etc/at c. 121. error condition Answer – c 120. /var/spool/batch c.allow? a. none of them c. what will be content of file /etc/at. Which command is used to create a crontab file? .deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. 119. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled. 122.

.pid c. service httpd on d. /usr/lib/httpd/modules b.pid b. crontab -l b. /var/run/http d. /var/run/httpd. /lib/httpd/modules d.conf. Which command is used to start the Apache web server? a. Which file does contain the pid of the httpd daemon? a. /var/run/httpd Answer – b 126. service http start b. /etc/cron c.d Answer – c Explanation -. The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file. The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory. service httpd start c. /lib/httpd/module Answer – b 127. /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Which file does contain the configuration information about the httpd server? a.conf d. service http on Answer – b 125.conf b. /etc/httpd. none of the above d.189 a. The conf sub directory of /etc/httpd directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd. 123. crontab -k Answer – b Explanation -. 124.conf Answer – c Explanation -. /etc/httpd/conf c.The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file. /usr/lib/httpd/module c. crontab -e c. Which directory contains the library modules for the httpd server? a. /etc/crontab b. /etc/cron. The name of the file is same as the name of the user. crontab -d d.The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd. /var/run/http. /etc/httpd/conf. Which file is system crontab file? a.the file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file.

What will be the impact? a. system-config-https d. system-config-httpconf Answer – a 133. b. error. HTTP Configuration d. Answer – d 130. nothing d. Which is the graphical utility for httpd server configuration? a. ServerRoot is not a directive. HTTPD Server Configuration b.conf? a.190 128. and log files are kept will be /etc/demo. and PHP). The conf. What is the content of /etc/httpd/conf. Configuration parameters for the main server c. The DocumentRoot directive of main apache web server configuration file is set to “/home/demo”. no changes d. The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration. What are the sections of Apache web server main configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Configuration file related to Apache client b. Where the users need to put the html files to be served by the server in response of client request? . HTTPD Configuration Answer – b 132. Error value c.d contains the configuration files relating to the languages (like Python. HTTP Server Configuration c. Settings for virtual hosts. All of the above Answer –d 131.conf file the user set the directive ServerRoot “/etc/demo”. Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole. b. and log files are kept 129. database (Mysql) and the authorization modules. load libraries related to Apache server c. system-config-httpd b. Perl. system-config-http c. Answer – a Explanation – ServerRoot directive defines The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration.d directory? a. In the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. d. error. Which command invokes the HTTP Server Configuration utility? a.

log Answer --a 136. What are the two main programs consisting Squid server? a. crit. and emerg are possible value of LogLevel directive. alert. none of them Answer – a Explanation – DocumentRoot defines the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server.html file and kept it in this directory and opened the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index.conf d. On which port does squid listen by default for http? .conf Answer – c 138. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks. /var/log/httpd. Which is the main configuration file for squid server? a.dnssrv b. both of them d.191 a.conf c. squid.squid consists of a main server program squid. error. squid.dsnserver d.squiddemo Answer – c Explanation -. Warn b. /etc/squid/squidd. notice. 137. /var/www/html c. warn.conf b. For example if you create an index. /etc/squid/squid.html file will be displayed.dns c. /etc/squid. squid. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. squid. /var/log/http d. 135. /var/log/apache c. What are the possible values of LogLevel directive in Apache web server main configuration file? a. /var/log/httpd b. Which directory does contain the log information about the httpd server? a. /etc/squid/sqd. none of them d. 134. /home/demo b.debug info. debug c.

conf b.192 a. objects which moved out d. What do you mean by in transit objects in terms of squid server? a. httpd_port 4000 b. In what forms does http_port socket address be defined in the squid server main configuration file? a. objects never used c. 141. and IP address with port.The socket address can be defined in three forms: port alone. objects not in use d. 413 d. objects used very often Answer –d 143. 80 c. hostname with port c. What are hot objects in connection with squid server? a. An administrator wants to change the default http port that squid listen to 4000.conf c. objects that are in use Answer –d 142.conf . RAM_mem of /etc/squid/squid. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. port 4000 c. hostname with port. ram_mem of /etc/squid/squid. cache_mem of /etc/squid/squid.http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client 140. none of them d. http_port 4000 Answer – d Explanation -. Objects in use b. How will you set the RAM memory used to handle the in transit and hot objects of squid server? a. 3128 b. httpport 4000 d. Port alone b. objects very complex c.What should he/she do in main squid configuration file? a. 3120 Answer – a 139. Objects used often b.

yes it can be d. and negative cache objects (recent failed requests). An administrator writes the below line in main squid server http_access allow 192.56.65 can access the http content. gives name acl to all the addresses d. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file 147. what does it refer? a.56.0/0.168. /var/run/squid c.pid Answer – a 146. /var/run/squid/squid. No all not allowed b. 192. Which is the default cache directory for the squid server? a. hot objects (objects that are used often). Can the line http_access deny all be added in the /etc/squid/squid.193 d.0 of main squid server configuration file? a. Wrong format c. ip address should be with netmask Answer – a Explanation – http_access define which clients can access the squid server for http contents. mem_ram of /etc/squid/squid. 144. Which file does contain the pid of the squid server? a.pid b. allow is invalid d.The acl tag is used to define access control.conf file? a. /var/run/squidd. gives name all to all the addresses b. no http_access is not allowed Answer – c . /var/spool/squid/cache b.pid d. 148. no deny is not allowed c. /var/spool/cache d.0.168.65.conf Answer – a Explanation – cache_mem sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use). /var/run/squid. /var/spool/squid/cachedir Answer – b 145. gives name all to no address c.0.0.0. What is the meaning of the line acl all src 0. gives name src to all the addresses Answer – a Explanation -. /var/spool/squid c. b.

conf b. /etc/squid/cache. Using system-config-cache d.d/squid.conf is configuration file for squid server.conf b. /etc/squid/squid. /etc/sysconfig/squid. /etc/cachemgr. Squid b. all of them Answer – a 150. 154.cgi. /etc/squid/cachemgr. it is daemon process name of squid server.conf c. nothing d. using http://server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr. Answer – a 151. root c.conf d. 153. /etc/sysconfig/squid. squiduser d. /etc/sysconfig/squid Answer – d Explanation -. The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs. Under which user does squid server run? a. What is cache manager? a. Which is the configuration file for the squid daemon? a. 149. Used to see amount of cache space used by a process c. What does the line SQUID_OPTS="-D" in the squid daemon configuration file mean? Squid can be started without having internet connection load default values from configuration file a.conf d. b. b. all of the above Answer – b Explanation -. Which is the configuration file for the cache manager? a.conf Answer – c 152. How is the cache manager invoked? a.194 Explanation – line means the http content is denied for all the clients.cgi. Cache-manager command b. /etc/squid/cachemanager. c./etc/sysconfig/squid is configuration file for squid daemon and /etc/squid/squid.conf c. .The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://servername/cgi-bin/cachemgr.

squid -k configure c.The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group. Service squidd restart b. none of above Answer – d Explanation -.d/squid restart d. An administrator wants to add a NIS group NISGRP in /etc/exports file? Which of the following is true? a. Which command is used to restart the squid daemon? a. service nfsd on Answer – b 158.the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. What does the option secure mean in case of /etc/exports file? a. use #NISGRP Answer – c Explanation -. use PAM c. /etc/init. Invalid option b. service nfs start c. use SELinux d. Not possible b. Service nfsd start b. service sqd restart c.195 c.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used. all of above Answer – a Explanation -. use @NISGRP d. 159. runs squid in safe mode d. squid -k reconfigure b. An administrator wants to add host1 and host2 in /etc/exports file corresponding to . squid configure Answer – a 156. Which command does make squid to reread the configuration file? a. The nis group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the nis group name. service nfd start d. 160. service squid reload Answer – c 157. use NISGRP c.-D option disables initial dns checks so squid can be started without having internet connection 155. Which command is used to start the NFS services? a. squid reconfigure d.

161.com c. NFS Configuration b. 163.196 the directory /home/user. don't allow client root user to login c. none of above Answer – b Explanation -.host2 b. host1:host2 c. maps client root user to NFS server root user d. NFS Server Administration Answer – b . The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534. What is meaning of option root_squash in the file /etc/exports? a. Which command is used to export all directories listed in the file /etc/exports? a. host1 host2 d.Multiple hostnames or Ip address can be entered separated by blank. maps the root user of client to anonymous user Answer – d Explanation -. Which of the following is valid entry? a. all of above Answer – c Explanation -. 164.example. exportsf Answer – b Explanation -.com b.myhost.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid. myhost. The combination of ip address and hostname can also be used. New. both of above d. Host1.maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid.* character matches any number of characters in a domain name that is * matches for myhost (of option b) but not of option a as in option a there was new.myhost (means new belonging to domain myhost) 162. NFS Server Manager d.example. Which graphical utility is used to create the /etc/exports file? a. export d.com entry in the file /etc/exports.The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service. Maps root user to client to user jack's account b. Which of the below address match the entry? a. A system administrator has made *. NFS Server Configuration c. Exports b.example. exportfs c.

log Answer – a Explanation -.The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory. /var/spool/nfs d. b. Which utility is used to configure samba server? a. both of them d. the directory is unmounted c. system-config-nfs c. . The files xtab. Samba configuration d. etab. /var/log/nfs/nfs. Which command is used to invoke the NFS server configuration utility? a. Which directory does contain information about the exported directory using the NFS? a. System-config-nfsd b. The directory is mounted b. /var/log/nfs c. nfsstat -s b. and rmtab files which contain the information about the exported files. Smaba Server configuration b. nfstat Answer – a Explanation -. /var/lib/nfs b. Smaba configuration Answer – b 170. Which command is used to invoke the Samba Server Configuration utility? System-config-samba system-config-smb system-config-sambad a. Which command is used to display server side NFS information? a. Samba Server configuration c. What operation is performed before user accesses a NFS directory? a. no operation is done d. 169. nfsstat -c c. c. system should be rebooted Answer – a Explanation – before accessing a NFS directory the directory should be mounted using mount command or using autofs 167.197 165. nfs d.The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity 168. none of them Answer – b 166.

none of them Answer – c Explanation – the command is used to check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be. /etc/samba. smb status c. The Unix username and windows user name of Jack are same (it is Jack). Which command is used to start the samba server? a. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu the left hand side denotes the Unix user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name.conf d. Which of the following is main configuration file of samba server? a. /etc/samba/smb. Which command is used to view the samba server status information? a. 174. /etc/samba/smbusrs d. /etc/samba/sambausers Answer – a 173.The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users. . smbstatus b. /etc/samba/smbusers b. Which file does contain the name of the all samba users? a. smbclient -L d. /etc/smb.what should be the format of entry in samba user file? a. service samba start c. An administrator wants to add a user Jack as samba user.conf Answer – c 172. Service smbd start b. system-config-smbd Answer – a 171. jack=jack b. /etc/smbusers c.conf c. service smb start d. /etc/samba/samba. jack:jack Answer – a Explanation -.conf b. user=jack c. service sambad start Answer – c 175. user:jack d.198 d.

local_usr=YES d. /etc/ftpd/vsftpd.jack john:jack john .conf d. /etc/vsftpd/vsftp. service vftpd start Answer – c 177. All users b.local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server. which of the following lines is to be added in the ftp server configuration file? a.conf Answer – d 178.conf b. service vsftpd start d.199 176. service ftpd start c. 179. no users c. users in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list d. Which command is used to start the ftp server? a. b. Which users are allowed to login into ftp? a. Which is the main configuration file for the vsftpd server? a. users not in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list Answer – c Explanation -. In the main configuration file of ftp server the directive userlist_enable=NO is used. d. local_users=YES c. An administrator wants the local users to use the ftp service. a.conf c.The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. An administrator wants to list the names of two users John and Jack in /etc/vsftpd/user_list file. 180. jack john. Service ftp start b. local_enable=YES Answer – d Explanation -. jack Answer – d Explanation – the users should be listed one in a line. c. /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. Which of the following is valid entry? John. local_user=YES b. /etc/ftp/vsftpd.

sftp c.conf d. Which is the main configuration file for the LDAP server? a.conf c. /etc/openldap/ldap. Which command is used to invoke the Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility? a. Very Secure FTP Configuration c. What is the significance of the sizelimit option in the main configuration file of . ftpd Answer –c 184. put c. Which graphical utility is used to configure the ftp server? a. 182. A user wants to copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system. /etc/ldap/openldap. System-config-vsftp b.a 185. vsftp b. /var/log/vsftp. system-config-ftpd d. copy d. Which ftp command should he/she use? a. both of them d. VSFTP daemon Configuration d.200 181. system-config-vsftpd Answer –d 186.conf b.conf Answer – a 187. Get b. none of them Answer – d Explanation --The file /var/log/vsftpd. Which files contain the logging information about the ftp server? a. /etc/ldap/ldap. Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration b. /etc/openldap/openldap. Which command invokes the ftp command prompt? a. /var/log/xferlogd c.log b. paste Answer – a 183.log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server. VSFTPD Configuration Answer -. ftp d. system-config-ftp c.

SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched. ldif c. Memory size limit b. A user makes changes in the file /etc/openldap/ldap. Add the schema in /etc/openldap/ldap. Maximum time taken by ldap to answer a search request b. What is the significance of the timelimit option in the main configuration file of ldap? a.conf. ldaf d. 189. number of concurrent processes d.201 ldap? a. ad schema in /etc/openldap/openldap.LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) 190. make Answer – c 192. He/she wants to check . A user created a file which contains the directories of information he/she wants to add into an ldap server.conf using the include directive. nothing is to be done c. specifies the limit of results returned Answer – d Explanation -. The timelimit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request. Ldap b.TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request. Maximum time taken by ldap to add a entry d. Before using a schema to create ldap directory information what a user should do? a. Copy b. include d. use c.conf? a.conf b. 188. Minimum time taken by ldap to answer a search request c. make the schema file Answer – a Explanation -. Which directive is used to include a schema in the file /etc/openldap/ldap. 191. the number of records in ldap c. ldfa Answer – b Explanation -. What should be file extension? a.conf d. none of above Answer – a Explanation -. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search.To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.

yes using slapd -t c. Which directory does contain the default ldap schema file? a. Which command is used to start the NIS server? service ypserver start service yp start a.conf c. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.Ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters. ldapsearch d. /etc/openldap/ldap/schema/ b. /etc/openldap/schemaldap Answer – c 195. Which is the main configuration file for NIS server? a. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned. nisdomainname c.conf file for the syntax change.conf b. . or nisdomainname. and ypdomainname is used to set the NIS domain name of the system 196. No he can't do this using any command b. domainname b. ldap b.conf d.The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap. /etc/ldap/schema/ c. yes using ldap -t d. ypdomainname d. ldap -s c. b. all of these Answer – d Explanation -. /etc/openldap/schema/ d. which command is used to set the nis domain name of a system? a. 193. yes using ldcheck Answer – b Explanation -. Can he/she do this? a. ldapsrch Answer – c Explanation -. /etc/yp.conf. /etc/yp/yp. 194.conf Answer – d 197. Which command is used to search for an entry in the ldap directory? a.The command domainname. /etc/nis. /etc/nis/yp.202 whether he/she made any syntax error.

/var/yp/access. /var/yp/securenets c. The files /etc/passwd and /etc/group are being shared by the NIS server. Which file does contain the entry for the client computers with access to NIS server? a.conf b. ypdata c.conf? a.The /etc/nsswitch. What are the valid values of security field in file /etc/ypserv.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files 199. port c. service ypserv start d. None b. Make in /var/yp directory Answer – b Explanation -. Makefile in /var/nis directory d. yp b. /etc/nsswitch. Which command is used to create a NIS database? a. ypinit d.The security can have values as none (to allow access).the NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is . deny d. Which file contains the name of the files being shared by the NIS server? a. ypserv Answer – c Explanation -. The file names which should not be shard in commented out.conf Answer – a Explanation -.conf c. all of these Answer – d Explanation -. /etc/nwitch.The client’s computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file.the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server.conf d. deny (denying access) 202. /var/yp/secure Answer – b Explanation -. Which file is used to map NIS? a.203 c. Makefile in /var/yp directory c. 200. port (to allow access from port below 1024). /var/yp/securenet b.conf d. /etc/nswitch. service ypd start Answer – c 198. 201. /etc/nisswitch. Sharefile in /var/yp directory b.

206. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network. How can administrator decide number of client’s assigned address using the DHCP server? a. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.leases. /etc/dhcpd. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.pid. /etc/dhcp/dhcpd. chkconfig dhcpd on c. /etc/dhcpd/dhcpd.conf d. all of there d. /var/run/dhcplient. 203. What does the file /etc/dhcpd. none of these Answer – c 208.conf Answer – c 205.204 created by using the ypinit command. chkconfig dhcp on Answer –b 204.conf b.conf contain? Answer -.count c. chkconfig dhcpd start b. /var/run/dhpclient.num d.pid. d. Which file does contain the process id of the dhcp client? a. Answer – b . using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. 207.The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign an ip address to a computer on its network. Which graphical utility is used to configure the dhcp client? a. Using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. b. neat c. System-config-network b. Which command is used to enable the dhcp server? a.The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.leases b. Which of the following is dhcp server configuration file? a. chkconfig dhcpd enable d. /var/run/dhcpclient.stat Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/dhcp.conf c.leases contain information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server. c.pid. /var/run/dhclient.pid.

BIND Configuration c. /etc/init.d/name start d. To define access control list b.conf d.conf b. BIND Server Configuration Answer –a 212. /etc/named/name.conf? a.conf c. Which is the main configuration file for the named daemon? a. system-config-named c. /etc/init.conf. service bind start b.205 209. 215. /etc/dhpclient.conf d. Which graphical utility is used to configure the DNS server? a. BIND Configuration GUI b. system-config-bind d. to define performance option c. system-config-name b. /etc/dhclient. What is the function of acl directive in the file /etc/named. Which command does check file for syntax error? . BIND Server Configuration GUI d. /etc/dhcpdclient.conf Answer – d 210. /etc/named. /etc/dhcplient.acl – access control list used as acl “description “{ip address}. none of the above Answer – a Explanation -. to define server pid d. Which command is used to invoke BIND Configuration GUI? a.conf c. Which configuration file does dhcp client use? a. An administrator made changes to file /etc/named. service name start Answer – b 211.d/named start c. Which command is used to start the named server? a. system-config-dns Answer – c 213.conf Answer – c 214. /etc/name.conf b. /etc/named/named.

checkconf c. Format is host host-name host ip address 220. domainchk d. named-checkzone b.db /var/named/data/named_dumb. Which command is used to check the syntax of the zone files? a. you have chosen a domain name for your system. checkzonenamed d. 217. Which file is dump file for the named daemon? /var/named/data/cache_dumb. gethost d.Named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named. who b.txt /var/named/data/named_stats /var/named/data/named_stats. namedcheckconf Answer – a 216.txt Answer – c 218. zonecheck Answer – a Explanation -. How can you get the hostname of your system from ip address? a. Named-checkconf b.206 a. b. checkfile d. none of these Answer – a Explanation -. c. domaincheck Answer – b Explanation – whois command is used to search for the availability of domain name format whois domain-name 219. checkzone c. Which file does contain the statistics of named daemon? /var/named/data/named_statistics.db /var/named/data/dumb. . How can you check the availability of domain name? a. whois c. hostname c. host b.txt /var/named/data/stats.db a.conf file.It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa.

The domain name of your system changed from oldone to newone. /etc/mail/access b. What will you do? a. The file /etc/mail/sendmail.deny c. define domain names in /etc/mail/virtual Answer – b Explanation -.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail. /etc/mail/access.cf b. both of them d.allow d. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. /etc/mail/access.db file.The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmal will accept mail for delivery or relay. 224.The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the sendmail server? a. /etc/mail/sendmail. What should the administrator do? a. After changing the /etc/mail/access file a user wants to create the access. You want to configure the sendmail server to handle two domain names. use command domainname c. 225.cf. /var/named/data/cache_dumb Answer – a 221. /etc/mail/security Answer – a Explanation -.The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. 223. Which of the following files are configuration files for the sendmail server? a. Domain name mapping in file /etc/domain b.mc c. define domain names in /etc/mail/local-host-name c.mc. Can't be done b. none of above Answer – c Explanation -. define domain names in /etc/mail/domain-name d.207 d. What command does server the purpose? . 222. /etc/mail/sendmail.the file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. location of the log files and database files. domain name mapping in file /etc/mail/domaintable d. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail.

226. RELAY b. /etc/postfix/postfix. create access d.cf Answer – a Explanation -. mailbox.mc c.default which is exact copy of the main. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected. /etc/postfix/main. create access. What actions does sendmail do on a mail? a. /var/spool/mail/stat c.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access. 229.db makes the file virtusertable.conf /etc/postfix/master.cf. Which is the postfix daemon configuration file? /etc/postfix/master. Make access.cf b. /var/spool/mail/statistic Answer – a 228.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server. /etc/postfix/post. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main. /etc/postfix/main. none of them Answer – c Explanation -.There are four actions which the sendmail server can take RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail.conf a.cf. postfix queues and locations to be used for logging. 227. make access c.db Answer – a Explanation -. both of them d.Which file does contain collected statistics from sendmail? a.cf /etc/postfix/postfix.The user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .db b.db with the . DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected. It defines the hostnames and domain names. ERROR: user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message. b. /var/spool/mail/stats d.db. . REJECT c.cf /etc/postfix/daemon.db replace the filename access.208 a. d. Which is the main configuration file for postfix server? a.the /etc/postfix/main. c. /var/spool/mail/statistics b.cf d.

Which directory does contain the default services configured on the system? a.allow d. /etc/alternative b. all of above Answer – d Explanation -. b. /etc/postfix/security Answer – a Explanation -.1 c. /etc/postfix/postfix-files b.2 d. /var/log/maillog. c. 230. .the log information about the postfix and sendmail server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog. 233. /etc/service/alternatives Answer –b Explanation -. /var/log/maillog.deny c. /etc/postfix/access b.and /var/log/maillog.The file /etc/postfix/master.the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server. /etc/services/alternatives d. Which files does contain the sendmail and postfix server log information? a. /etc/postfix/access. /etc/postfix/permit-files c. 232.2.209 Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/postfix/permission-files Answer –a Explanation -.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix and sendmail server.1./var/log/maillog. The file /var/log/maillog. /etc/postfix/postfix-file d. /etc/postfix/access.the file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server. Which file does contain the alternative mail services? /var/lib/alternatives /var/lib/alternatives/mta /var/lib/alternative/mta a. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the postfix server? a. /etc/alternatives c.The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives displays the default services configured on the system 234. Which file does contain the directory and file permission set by postfix? a. /var/log/maillog b. 231.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process.

/etc/xinetd. /etc/xine. mail_processes Answer – a Explanation -.cf c. main_dir d. /etc/dovecot. base_run c.conf Answer – a 236.210 d.conf c. /etc/xinetd/xinetd. 238. /etc/xinetd. base_dir Answer – d Explanation – base_dir defines Base directory where to store runtime data 237.a . /etc/xinet.conf b. Which directive of dovecot configuration file does set the directory path containing run time data? a.conf Answer – d 239. /etc/xinetd c. /var/lib/alternatives/mta-alternate Answer – b 235. /etc/xinetd. /etc/dovecot.conf d. run_dir b. /etc/dovecot. Which is the main configuration file for the dovecot services? a. /etc/dovecot/dovecot. Which configuration file does xinetd use? a. Which directive of dovecot configuration defines maximum number of running mail processes? a. max_mail_processes b.max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously. /etc/xinetd.conf b.d/services Answer -. Which directory does contain the files corresponding to the services supported by xinetd? a. max_mail_run_processes d.mc d.d b. max_run_mail_processes c.d/service d.

allow – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. both of these d. security Level Configurations c. . 241./etc/hosts. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility. /etc/sysconfig/iptable b.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. 240.allow file. /etc/sysconfig/ipchain Answer – b Explanation -. B. system-config-securelevel d. What is the significance of ALL in /etc/hosts.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. No b. and C. /etc/sysconfig/ipchains d. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. /etc/sysconfig/iptables c.deny – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection.allow and c in /etc/hosts. Administrator wants to allow A and B for xinetd services (with tcp wrappers). Which graphical utility is used to configure security level of a system? a.Is the configuration right? a. These services are called on demand services. security Configuration b. security Level Configuration d. system-config-securitylevel Answer – d 244.The client A is listed in file /etc/hosts. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts. /etc/hosts. There are three clients A. Which command is used to invoke security level configuration? a.211 Explanation -. system-config-security b. security Level Manager Answer – c 243. Which file contains the current security level settings? a. yes Answer – b Explanation -. none of these Answer – a 242.deny. all is specified for all services c.The directory /etc/xinetd. deny? a. system-config-level c. All is specified to denote all clients b. This file is first scanned by tcpd. allow and /etc/hosts.

password c. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config b. /etc/pam/pam.The contents of the file /etc/pam. password. Which directory does contain the PAM modules? /lib/security a. none of them d. authentiction.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to. iptables -S Answer – a 247. /etc/pam. 248.PAM allows four types account. /etc/pam. iptables-load c. The files in the directory /etc/conf. and optional.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam. required. both of them Answer – c Explanation -. both of them d. mandate b. 249.d/pam d. /etc/sysconfig/iptable-config Answer – a Explanation -. and session. 246. 250. Which file does configure the modules needed for NAT filtering? a.d Answer – d Explanation -. Which command is used to save the rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file? a. Where will the configuration file for PAM find? a.conf file is absent on a system. Which of the following account types does PAM allow? a.The valid values for the control are include. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers. /etc/pam. auth b. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-nat c. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-filter d. . iptables-kernel d. What are the valid control types for a PAM configuration file? a. sufficient.d/conf c.212 245.d b. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. iptables-save b. The /etc/pam.d are present. load additional iptables modules. done c.

/etc/sysconfig/seladm d. SELinux configurations c. Which graphical utility is used for SELinux configuration? a. Disable-. system-config-SELinux d. SELinux manager Answer – c 252. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. Which configuration file does SELinux use? a. /etc/sysconfig/selinux b.conf b. /etc/sysconfig/selad c. SELinux configuration b. enforcing c. /etc/PAM Answer – a 251. 254. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. Which command is used to invoke the SELinux administration utility? a. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues warning instead of enforcement. /etc/sysconfig/selinux.mc c.The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux . Which file does SELinux Administration utility change? a. disable d. What of the following is valid SELinux enforcing mode? a. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. permissive b. SELinux administration d. system-config-selinux b. system-config-SElinux c. /etc/sysconfig/selinux Answer – d 255. /lib/PAM c. /lib/security/PAM d. system-config-se Answer – a 253.enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced.cf d. /etc/sysconfig/seladmin Answer – a Explanation -.213 b.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled.

161. 193 actions System Tools 152 address 61.conf 198 etc/sysconfig/selinux 213 etc/syslog. 194 anaconda 14. 195.log 112 account system-auth 160 user jack's 196 acl 113. 116-17. 134 ALT 30.conf 202 filesystem 183 ftpd 200 gpassword 181 hd0 164 kickstart-file/install/linux.conf 210 etc/yp.conf 199 etc/xinetd. 150-1. 204-5. 99. 164-5.conf 205 etc/openldap/schemaldap 202 etc/PAM 213 etc/samba/sambausers 198 etc/smb.log squid. 151.conf 187 etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. 193 access control list 145. 193-4. 130 Administrative group 73 administrator 66. 205 acl tag 113. 105. 122. 103-4. 196 anonymous user behavior 132 answer 3. 125-6. 172 access tab user 125 access. 169 amount 85-6. 208 AccessFileName 103 access. 183. 205 access control section 9. 156. 196 anonuid 122 Anonymous login 127 anonymous uid 118. 132. 103.out store. 204 lp 117 adm 78-9.conf 205 etc/dhcp. 201 command xvf 178 dev/sda2 174 device-name raid-device-name 175 dumb 207 error condition 188 etc/autofs. 207. 198-9. 145. 129. 138-9.conf 200 etc/name. 155. 211 assigned 140. 153. 193.db 147-8.master 174 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cachemgr. 81. 167 anaconda boot prompt 164-5 anaconda ks 165 anongid 118. 79. 211 AGE 68 AGENT 97 Alias SERVICES 79 aliases 70-1. 134. 119-20. 32. 140.com 165 . 26. 115.conf 210 etc/groups 181 etc/ldap/openldap. 113 Access file 147.conf 194 etc/dhclient. 204. 191. 192-3. 122. 135.214 INDEX* A access 97. 113-14.conf 204 etc/dovecot/dovecot. 107.log cache. 203. 208-9 [4] access control 113.

190 Apache web server 99.log 191 var/run/httpd 189 var/run/klogd 187 var/run/squidd. 188 atrm 95-6 attributes 55. 51 autofs 50-1. 189 apache web server process 101. 212 auto 42. 110. 67. 210 bash 70 bash shell 70-1.pid 193 var/spool/mail/statistic 208 var/spool/squid/cachedir 193 apache 102. 91.215 lib/httpd/module 189 modified 176 namedcheckconf 206 paste 200 renice command 184 schedule 186 security Level Manager 211 service name start 205 service sambad start 198 service squid reload 195 service vftpd start 199 service ypd start 203 squid configure 195 system-config-dns 205 system-config-httpconf 190 system-config-manages 178 system-config-se 213 system-config-securitylevel 211 system-config-smbd 198 system-config-usrs 181 system-config-vsftpd 200 var/log/httpd. 167-8 boot configuration 27-8 . 97-9. 197 autofs status 174 automount 6. 51. 191. 85 blocksize 45-6. 174 base 45. 49. 25-9. 174 B badblocks 6. 133-4. 174. 105-6 configuration apache configuration file httpd. 78. 96 bi 19. 122 atq 94-6. 160-1. 180 bin/bash new-user 180 bin/mount 79-80 bin/tcsh 72 bin/true 90 bin/umount 79-80 Block device 57.conf 100. 190 async 42. 72. 70. 173 bo 85 book 3. 189-91 apache web server configuration directory 100. 160-1. 165. 212 file system-auth 161 authentication 111. 101. 149. 101 auth 102. 50. 52 automount daemons 50. 153-4. 41. 85 bin/bash 35. 179-80 bashrc 70 batch 93. 5 boot 14-15. 189 apache server 109. 118.

82-3. 169. 150. 170 choice 16. 156. 127-8. 72. 41. 26 boot process 3. 80 CDROM media 52 change 36. 170. 131. 27-8. 211 web 104. 144-5. single 14 boot time 34-5. 163. 186. 104. 93-8. 187 button 107-8. 119-20. 192-4. 157 bzip2 178 C ca 31. 192-3 cache directory 112 default 193 cache directory section 9. 174 batch 96. 91. 5. 86-91. 194 Cache-manager command 194 cache server 105 cache size 112. 123-5. 90. 42. 120-1. 114. 186. 139-40. 188 badblocks 49. 46. 196 subnet masks of 156. 83. 142. 121. 171 chkconfig command 170 chkconfig dhcpd 204 chkconfig service-name 37-8. 169. 87. 84.216 boot directory 15 boot/grub/grub. 202-7 [29] administrative 8. 112 cache files 60 cache manager 10. 64-5. 118. 54-8. 111 Cmnd 79 columns 42-3 comma 157 command 20-4. 153. 157 client computers 118. 196. 18 boot system.conf 25. 188 . 28. 164-5 bootloader command 17 broadcast 136-7 browse tab user 66 buffer 86. 43-4. 173-4 cd 120. 170-5. 125. 34. 168 click 40. 125-6. 99. 152. 169. 87. 27. 144-5. 204 root user of 118. 180-90. 121. 99. 204. 112. 164-5 default 25. 90 Changing runlevels 36 chgrunlevel 170 chkconfig 35-8. 193 cachedir 60 case 81. 195. 87. 52. 113-14. 207. 195200. 25. 192 change directory 131 change root user's password 76 Changing priority of process 8. 203 client side information 122 client system 137 clients 3. 142. 78. 75. 142. 76-81. 211 [1] dhcp 142. 169 cache 105. 47-8. 41. 172 bootloader 15-16. 123. 81. 183 cat 47-8. 79. 141. 132-3. 25. 36-40. 138-40. 131. 155 cdrom 16-19. 181-3. 184 normal 29 boot process kernel 169 boot prompt 16. 142. 151 atq 95. 158 user information 74 clicking 83. 114-15. 168 boot ks 165 boot partition 14-15. 29.

143 command chkconfig dhcpd 139 command chkconfig dovecot 153 command chkconfig httpd 99 command chown 182 command crontab 98 command dd 173 command dhclient 142 command dmesg 91 . 185 install 64 ldapsearch 135.217 bzip2 178 chgrp 81 chmod 46 chown 81 chown user-name-group-name file-name df 77. 184 uptime 85 useradd 66-7. 67. 174 command badblocks device-name 49 command badblocks searches 49 command bzip2 65. 186 rmmod 89 sbin/visudo 81 sudo 182 swap 46 swapon 47 top 84. 178 command chkconfig 37. 90 purpose 53. 196 fdisk 172 filename time-specification 95 following 46. 204 yum 60-1. 71 userdel 72 usermod 72. 153 free 183 fsck 48-9 groupadd 73 groupdel 73 groupmod 73 insmod 89. 202 lsmod 185 lvdisplay 57 lvremove 57 mdadm 53-4 mke2fs 173 mkfs 44 mkswap 46 modinfo 88 modprobe 89-90. 181 dmesg 187 exportfs 119. 52. 183 whois 206 183 ypinit 139. 90 pvcreate 54 renice 90-1. 72. 176 command aliases 79-80 command askmethod 16 command atq 96 command badblocks 49. 180 visudo 182 vmstat 85. 186 network 17 nfsstat 122. 197 ps 8.

147-8. 159-61. 189-90. 202 command swapoff 48 command system-config-kickstart 17 command tar xvf 178 command tar xvfz realplay. 138-40. 128. 177 command sequence 148 command service dhcpd start 139 command service dovecot start 153 command service httpd start 99 command service network start 142 command service ypbind start 137 command sets 135 command shutdown 169. 143. 181 command prompts 76. 73. 205 . 194-5. 140. 159. 45. 166. 212-13 [19] Configuration GUI 11. 186-7. 169 computers 14-15. 202. 133-5. 116-18. 165-6. 133. 135-6. 145. 211 httpd server 190 post installation 151 samba 197 server's 190 configuration directives 103 Configuration directives for Apache web server process 190 configuration file cd 148 configuration file restart 116 configuration files 11-12. 27-8.gz 64 commands mke2fs uses 45 commands tar xvf 178 comment 71-2. 23. 102. 207 command don W  command execute 182 command field 98 command file swap 46 command ifconfig 140 command insmod 90 command kudzu 19 command ldapadd 135 command line 46. 190. 77. 126-8. 173. 200. 160. 59-60.218 command domainname 135. 176. 212 conf directory 100 config directory 102 configuration 8-9. 122. 182 command slapd 134. 204 remote 131 conf 100. 186 command lsmod 88 command lvcreate 56 command mdadm 53 command mkfs. 96 command ps 90 command pvremove 58 Command Reference 13.insmod loads 186 commands gunzip realplay. 41.tar. 80 command passwd 76. 101. 11. 163 command renice 186 command root@localhost 44 command rpm 81. 101. 131. 179. 207-8. 162. 64. 205.gz 64 command umount directory-name 43 command uname 185 command useradd 72 command userdel 180 command vgcreate 55 command vgdisplay 55 command vgextend 55 command vgremove 58 command. 48.vfat 173 command modprobe 90 command mount 42.tar.

41-2 dev/cdrom 43-4. 147 cpu 85 CPU usage 84. 177. 168 default parameters 45-6 default runlevel 29-30 default values 66-7. 19 Configuring NIS 11. 81. 208 dc 133-4 default installer 14. 207 days 68 db 138 db files 12. 162. 190 database files 147-8. 109-10. 189 configuration parameters 142. 169 ctrlaltdel 30-2. 23. 52 Creating Kickstart 5. 194. 205-6 tcp wrapper 156 daemon Configuration 10. 17. 123. 150. 155 data files 46. 131. 147-8. 157 cron 97-9. 131. 204-5 [5] configure command configures 65 configure IPSec tunnel 23 configure printers 24 configure samba server 197 configure security level 211 configure system's hostname 23 Configuring Grub 5. 169. 152 dev 18. 150. 195 connection 102. 136 Configuring services 36 Configuring Squid 9. 212 copy 15. 72 deref 134 DEREF options 134 desc 19 description 29. 200-1 core directory 109. 190 configuration configure 14. 128-9. 145-6. 147. 32. 100. 207 defaults 41. 141. 19-20. 106-7. 189 crontab jobs 97-8 CTRL 30. 16 Creating User Account 7. 101.219 configuration information 115. 153. 92 control 27. 161. 169 D daemon 78-9. 51-2. 184 crashes 40. 164 default operating system 27-8. 205 desktop 82. 131. 179. 174 database 64. 192. 61-2. 200 Daemon Configuration 151 daemon process name 194 daemon xinetd 12. 99. 27 Configuring Hardware 5. 143. 79. 27. 173 . 155-6. 159. 33. 45 deflate/module 89 Deleting user account 7. 130. 163. 64-5. 66 cron facility 93. 125-6. 112. 104. 122-3. 211 internet 115. 35. 97 crontab 97-8. 187 named 143. 131. 91. 131. 145. 71-3. 86. 189 klogd 93. 128 connect 118. 110. 111 Configuring vsftpd 10. 194-5 conntrack 159 console 29-30.

171 disk druid 164-5 display 57. 77. 106. 200 etc/alternatives 152 etc/httpd 189 schema 134 target 173 var/lib/alternatives 152 var/named 145. 190-1 domain 106. 209-12 [25] base 153. 40-1. 190 directory user 70 directory yum 175 disk 85. 173-5 multiple 52 physical 53 device listing 141 device name 42 device-name 48-9. 105. 141. 49. 90. 166. 48 devpts 41. 99-104. 139-40. 174 dev/sda4 43 dev/sda5 40. 161. 206 var/nis 203 var/yp 203 directory entry 117. 45. 143-6. 167. 1967. 127. 153-4. 156 . 46. 52-4. 204 difference 42. 42-3. 181 display server side information 122 display server side NFS information 197 dmesg 91. 204 DHCP server 11. 188-91. 125-6. 77 dev/sda0 53 dev/sda1 53.com 117-18. 59-60. 210 directory realplay 64-5 directory realplay. 43 df 77. 133-4. 34-6. 44. 187 DNS server 11. 210 current 131.tar 65 directory tree 101. 139. 160. 174 dev/my 57 dev/sda 26. 153. 96-7.220 dev/fd0 51 dev/md0 53-4. 174 dev/sda2 53-4. 140 dhcp server 139-42. 205 dns server information 141 DNS server information 142 DNS service 143 DocumentRoot 103. 210 DIR 67-8. 117-21. 47-8. 134 directory files 117 directory information 134 directory list 132 directory listing 121 directory name 17. 131. 169 dir 17. 118. 149-52. 124. 175-7. 175 filesystem-type 44. 171. 177-8 digits 35. 41-2. 127. 173 dev/sda6 172 dev/vol 175 device 19. 179 directory 15. 117 directory-name host-name 117 directory option 132 directory path 17. 181 dhcp 139. 54-5. 143 domain example. 142 DHCP client 11.

196 etc/exports file 118-20. 182 editing 27-8. 144-5. 205 etc/inittab 29 etc/login. 117-18. 143. 187-8 etc/at. 134. 83.conf 90. 99. 166. 175. 114. 109 ENAB 69-70 entry 15. 37.deny 93-4. 151. 208 etc/mail/local-host-name 147. 179 etc/mail 11. 188 etc/auto. 206-8 domain NISDOMAIN 136 domain ServerName 106 domainname domain-name-of-system 135 don W   dovecot 12. 138. 186 etc/modprobe. 206 DVD 14-15 DVD drive 14 DVD media 14-15 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 139 Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) 102 E edit 39.daily 98-9 etc/demo 190 etc/dhcpd. 135. 179 email address. 196. 204 etc/exports 117. web master 107. 101. 154 etc/alternatives 209 etc/at. 189-90 etc/httpd/conf/httpd. 108. 199 entry initdefault 29 entry mta-sendmail 152 environment 96. 207 etc/mail/sendmail.allow 94. 87-8 drm 88-9 DSO (Dynamic Shared Object) 102 dual boot system 14 dumb.deny 12. 196. 207 Domain Name Service 138 Domain Name System 111.db 145. 195-6 etc/fstab 42. 156. 29. 189 etc/httpd/conf 101-2. 195. 20. 156. 174. 71-3. 138. 190-1. 183.allow 12.conf 140. 201-3 [2] valid 136. 173. 150. 169. 147-8. 153-4 dovecot configuration 210 down list 144-5 drivers 19. 188 customize user's shell 70 EOT 95-6 error 49. 171-2 etc/ftab 171-2 etc/gshadow 73 etc/hosts 137. 123. 149. 50-1. 144.conf 189-90 etc/init 116. 211 etc/hosts. 147-8. 208 error Answer 170 error messages 91.221 domain name mapping 147. 186 . 207 etc/modprobe 90.cf 147. 126.deny command lists 93. 120-1. 59. 104.mc 147. 143. 211 etc/hosts. 211 etc/httpd 100-1. 191 domain names 146-7. 188 etc/at.misc 50-1 etc/bashrc 71 etc/cron. 207 etc/mail/sendmail.defs 67. 185-7. 58. 80.

44-5.cf 151. 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159. 176 Ethernet device panel 141 Ethernet interface 17. 34-6. 173 ext3 rw 42-3 F facility 187-8 failure 54. 210-11 etc/yp.conf 134-5. 196 export HOSTNAME DESKTOP 97 exported directory 122. 169. 180-1. 117-19. 200-2 etc/openldap/openldap. 161. 212 etc/sysconfig/selinux 162.conf 136 etc/yum. 72 Explanation 164-213 export 119. 156 exec 42 execution.conf 145.222 etc/mstab 172 etc/mtab 6. 52. 174 etc/samba directory 126 etc/service/alternatives 209 etc/services/alternatives 209 etc/skel 67. 199 etc/X11 32-3. yum commands 176 exit codes 49 expire 60.conf 111. 51 ext3 41.conf 200-1 etc/pam 13.cf 151. 166 etc/xinetd 155. 187 etc/vsftpd/ftpusers 130 etc/vsftpd/user 129-30. 205 etc/nsswitch. 63. 208 etc/postfix/master. 184 fc7 26. 122. 203 etc/postfix/main. 29.conf 187 etc/syslog 187 etc/syslog. 50. 48. 171-2 etc/named. 132. 179 etc/squid/squid. 48 filesystem types 42 ext3 filesystem type 52 ext3 filesystems 40. 67. 140. 169. 197 exportfs 119. 213 etc/sysconfig/squid 115. 87-8. 72. 127 fdisk 172-3 Fedora Core Linux 14 . 203 etc/openldap/ldap. 194 etc/sysconfig/syslog 187 etc/sysconfig/syslog.conf 160. 171. 179 etc/skel directory 70. 208-9 etc/postfix/permission-files 209 etc/postfix/permit-files 209 etc/postfix/postfix-files 151.com 105. 209 etc/profile 71 etc/rc 31-2. 176 father 27. 42. 91. 44.conf 59-60.conf 92. 212 etc/pam. 166 etc/sysconfig/ipchains 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables 159. 70. 142 exam 3 exam topics 3 example. 160. 191-4 etc/sudoers 80-1 etc/sysconfig/hwconf 19-20. 196 ext2 44-5.conf 137. 212 etc/passwd 71. 78.

81 etc/hosts. 171-6. 43. 41. 198 etc/shadow 71 etc/squid/squid.conf 138 etc/openldap/ldap. 207 etc/mke2fs 45 etc/mtab 42 etc/named. 190 etc/inittab 5. 139 fourth 42. 145-7.allow 97 etc/cron. 129-34. 79-80. 202 etc/pam.conf configuration 126 etc/samba/smbusers 126-7. 182 . 95.defs 67 etc/mail/access 147. 150. 78-81. 185 filename access. 17890.deny 97 etc/crontab 98. multiple 49 filename 47-8. 49 virtual 41 file system errors 49 file systems. 188-9 dhcp server configuration 204 domain name mapping 147 dovecot configuration 210 download 128 dump 145. 182-3 file modules.223 field 98. 189 etc/dovecot.db 148.misc 51 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cron. 179 boot/grub/grub. 172 file group 81. 172 etc/group 71. 176 etc/samba/smb. 138.db 207 apache web server configuration 190 authpriv 92 bash 179 bashrc 70-1. 132. 211 etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf 134. 98. 182-3 file permissions 46. 183 file swap 47-8 file system 42. 29-30. 209 etc/postfix/postfix-scripts 151 etc/profile 71 etc/rpmrc configuration 64. 101-4. 206 etc/nsswitch 137 etc/nsswitch. 46-8. 87.allow 156. 203 file owner 81.conf 193 etc/sudoers 8. 93. 115-18.conf 145. 92-9.conf 101. 88.conf 153 etc/export 119 etc/fstab 6. 198-201. 149-52.master 50 etc/auto. 137-40. 34-6. 208 files 29-30. 169 etc/login.networking 88 file names 67.conf 212 etc/passwd 72 etc/postfix/access 151. 206 entry 117 etc/at. 185. 203-13 [20] access.allow 93 etc/auto. 155-64. 48.conf 15 bz2 178 cached 105 change 163 component support component 102 configu-ration 92 crontab 97.

149 index.dep 89 multiple 131 named daemon configuration 145 pid 109 postfix daemon configuration 208 proc/kmsg 93 rmtab 122. 208 modules. 192 squid daemon configuration 115.bz2 178 tar. 194 squid server configuration 193 standard logging 132 sub-component configuration 101 swap 46-8 tar 178 tar.master 50 sample configuration 60 sample etab 122 sample ldap. 200 var/yp/securenets 138.gz 178 temporary 60 using 95. 156 execute user-namex201fs 182 exported 122. 203 ypbind configuration 136 yum configuration 65 zip 178 zone 145. 126 samba user 198 sample 35. 204 var/log/secure 93 var/log/xferlog 130. 197 samba configuration 10.conf 92 etc/yp.html 103.pid 154 file-name.cron 97 ftp server configuration 199 global configuration 64. 191 initrd 15 inittab 29 ldif 135 library 101 list 130.224 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159 etc/syslog.pid 101 important 11-12. 176 gpg key 61 htaccess 104 htpasswd 104 httpd.conf 176 executable 42. 132. 197 file master. 128 single 153 special 92 squid configuration 111.conf 128 script 151 sharing 122. 96 sample auto.conf 136 etc/yum.conf 133 sample modprobe.conf 90 sample vsftpd. 206 files he/she 103. 191 files nisplus nis shadow 138 files passwd 138 .cf 151. 199 load config 102 local 138 main. 145-6.

59. 69. 211. 213 group 8. 208 format 10. 51 following commands cd 148. 199-200 FTP server 128 ftp service 199 G GB 56 gid 41. 129-30. 14. 168 grub configuration file 5. 27-8 gunzip 178 H halt 30. 190. 81. 80. 65. 41. 19. 25-6. 174 fstype 51 ftp 18. 91. 48-50. 168 grub menu 15. 48. 181-2 basic 29 df 77 mounted 77. 181-3 logical 56 new 7. 35. 83. 17-18. 72-3. 180. 172 filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name 43 filesystems 6. 109. 138. 20. 82 Group Administration 7. 196 Global Environment Configuration 9. 130. 16-17. 122 proc 41. 157. 15. 58-9. 117. 33. 176 graphical tools 33 graphical utility 5. 40-4. 204-5. 164-5. 73 grp 55-7. 40 filesystem mount command 43 filesystem option 77 filesystem type 42. 199-200 FTP 3. 169 . 132. 34. 76-8. 180 group-name 72. 71-3. 78. 60-1. 111 ftp command 200 ftp command prompt 10. 46. 52. 200 ftp server 129-30. 73 group accounts 66. 196.bz2 64-5 value 134 Fri 94-6 fs 45-6 fsck 48-9. 96. 175 grub 5. 146. 118. 165-7. 53-7. 71. 103 group sys root 81 groupadd 68. 53. 159. 29. 16-17. 89-91. 43. 130. 77. 171 pseudo 167 single 52 vfat 173 filesystems tab 83 finger 156 firewall 3. 171-2.225 files S10network 35 files xtab 122. 79-82. 27-8. 47-8. 25. 67. 197 Filesystem Administration 6 Filesystem Information 6. 50-1. 138-9. 101 gpgcheck 60-1 gpgkeys 61. 159 firewall command sets 17 firewall rules 159 floppy 45-6. 25. 184-5 [17] tar. 200. 73 group administration group apache 102-3 group demo 182 group ids 78 group information 73-4.

14-17. 16. 190-1 home directory 46. 181 home/demo 173. 179-81 his/her 180 home directory name 72 home-directory-name 72 home directory of user 179 home directory path 71 home/jack 181 home/movies 43-4 home/swap 47 home/user 70-1. 161. 50. 29. 168. 172 hard-disk-device name 53 hard-disk-device-name 53-4 hard-disk-partition 55 vgcreate volume-group-name 55 vgextend volume-group-name 55 hard disk partitions 42. 206 virtual 107-8 host names 117. 192. 151. 65. 69. 163-4. 126-7. 212 system-auth password 160 inconsistencies 118 index closed db 64 opening db 63 info 92. 192. 169. 131. 154 infomod modulename 185 information he/she 83. 47 hardware 19-20. 201. 112 home 41. 77. 170-1. 167 Installation and Hardware Configuration 5 installation files 15 . 53-4. 195-6. 35. 89-90. 23. 196 home/vishnu 118-22 home/vishnu directory 119-20 host 19. 86. 52-3. 122. 59. 34 initrd 15. 65-6. 164. 72. 31. 89 hd0 15. 69-70. 160. 52. 118-19. 27. 176-8. 168 he/she 144. 134. 97 grp System 55 IfModule mod 104-5 imap 153-4 include 50. 212 install server 15 installation 5. 29. 71. 26-7 inode 45-6 Inserting module 8. 61-2. 67. 72. 36. 172. 60. 168. 34. 201 information server 103 init 29-30. 42. 160-1. 143 hostname 10. 208 htaccess 103-4 HTTPD Configuration Answer 190 httpd server 103. 77. 176. 191 HTTPD Server Configuration 190 httpd service 99. 203. 31-4 initialize 54 Initializing System 6. 146. 87. 77. 170 I id 19. 164. 171. 50. 165. 89 install 14. 206. 67. 196. 184 INIT process 30 initdefault 29. 32. 44.226 hard disk 14-16. 180-1. 115. 117. 59. 81. 126. 79. 146. 166 Hardware Configuration 5 hardware drivers 87. 64. 184 init process 27. 174. 137-8. 26-7. 104. 201-2 sendmail commands 148 hierarchy 40. 98. 189. 34.

176 level directories 35 level rpm configuration file 177 lib/modules 87-90 lib/modules/uname 89 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 133 . 139-40. 186. 201 LEN 68 letter 36 level 29. 17. 212 iso9660 51 J jack 81. 166. 185 Kernel Services and Configuration 8 kernel subdirectory 88 keyboard 16. 32. ns 159 ip address 131. 187 kernel Modules 8. 87-91. 18. 90 kernel/lib/zlib 89 kernel messages 92-3. 29. 133-5. 169 gpg 60 Kickstart 18 kickstart configurator 17 kickstart file 5. 53. 212 iptables modules 159. 169-71. 211 IPC 127 IPC Service 127 ipt 88 iptables 158-9. 94. 204-6 list of 156. 201-2 LDAP Data Interchange Format 134. 193. 165 L LABEL 26. 164. 199 journaling feature 40. 134. 30. 18. 160. 93-7. 41 languages system 14 largefile 46 lastrunlevel 170 ldap 11. 145-6. 196. 164. 161. procfs-based 122 ip. 16. 52 K KB 56 kde 70 kernel 8. 201 ldap directory 135. 80. 142-3.conf 133 ldapsearch 202 ldif 134. 167 kickstart-file/install/linux. 202 ldap directory information 201 ldap server 134-5. 91. 26-7. 34-8. 93.com 164-5 Kickstart Kill Process 83 klogd 92-3 ko 89 ks 18 kudzu 19-20. 188 john 179. 167 interface. 201 ldap service service ldap start 135 ldap. 212 kernel/crypto/module 89 Kernel Information 8. 151. 169 keyboard layout 14. 149-50. 20-1 keys 30. 174. 198-9 jill 188 jobs 87.227 installation process 14-16. 185-7. 50-1. 168. 15. 87. 181. 188. 128.

187 Log Configuration Answer 184 Log File and Cache directory section 9. 151. default partition 164-5 maps 91. 149-50. 153. 207-8 locks 122 log 78. 164. 120. 150 Mail Transport Agent Switcher 152 mail transport agent work 153 Mail User Agent 146 mailbox 12. 70. 78-9. 170-1. 112 log files 12. 203 manager. 111. 171-2 load average 84-5. 132. 130 lrwxrwxrwx 100 ls 46-7. 114. 150. 131. 87. 101. 196 automounter 50-1 . 99. 198-202. 152-4. 153-4. 132. 70. 94. 148. 92-3. 176. 85. 112. 84. 127-8. 153. 95-6. 104. 199 list root 129 list service-name 38 list status 38 listing 19. 149. 128. 133. 109. 56 Logical volume group support 54 login 33. 60. 151. 152. 147. 152. 48 list of users 129. 94. 209 mail transfer agent 146. 164. 209 logging 92. 60-1. 94-5. 200 local system mget 131 local system mkdir 131 localdomain 135-6 localhost 99. 87. 133. 161. 183-4 LoadModule auth 102 local system 131. 67-8.228 LILO 165 line. 100. 207 default 152 mail server request 150. 60. 67. 41. 199 [5] list of commands 44. 50-1. 100. 103. 25. 78-9. 132. 147. 97-8. 188. 152. 86-7. 210 mail root 96 mail server 146-7. 191. 199 links. 185. 191 entry domain Localdomain server 137 location 16. 72. 175 Logical Volume Group 6-7. 56-9. 47. 150-1. 205. 66. 54. 126. 179. 208 logical volume 7. 106. 208 mail server sendmal 207 mail services 11. 131-2. 190-2. 25. 160. 190. 207 default 164 log information 8. 152. 126. 196. 66. 52. 199 anonymous user 129 initial 179 LogLevel 104. 87. 138. 207-10 incoming 151-2 mail processes 155. 140. 70. 207-10 Makefile 138. 130. 88. 129. 97-8. 146-7. 100-3 Linux 15. 103. 143. 147. 208 main configuration file 100-1. 152-5. 136. 168 linux file system structure 165 linux filesystem 48 list 38. 114-15. 151. 150. 83. 154. following 104-5. 149. 128. 92. 128-30. 96. 135. 78. 191 logout 70 logs directory 100 lp 78-9. 129. 179. 87. symbolic 35. 152 lsmod modulename 185 lvcreate 56 lvremove 57-8 M mac 187-8 mail 12. 60.

52. 212 authorization 100. 73 Modifying user account 7. 42-3. 208 outgoing 149 Min/max values 68 minutes 30-1.symbols 87 modules. 80. 168.system 178 monitor type 21 Monitoring System performance 8. 164 MBR (Master Boot Record) 14. 190 command modprobe 89 driver 89.list selinux policy 163 system-auth 161 modules directory 101 Modules Loaded 8. 166. 102. 50 Multiuser 31. 185 remove. 166 package package-name. 50. 166. 182 mount command 42-3. 210 Maximum number of running mail processes 154 MB 46. 183-4 messages 91. 185-6.229 master 50 MASQUERADE 88 Master Boot Record (MBR) 14. 119-20. 25. 185-6 modinfo modulename 185 modprobe 186 modprobe modulename 185 modsecurity directory 101 module modules/mod 102 module name 90 module-name 90 modules 87-90. 173-4 mnt/cdrom 80 mnt/win 120. 53. 46 mkfs 44-5. 172-3. 187. 112. 25. 165 graphics 33 multiuser 31. 33. 164 matt 180 max 154-5. 104. 50. 80. 197 mount-options-separated-by-comma 50-1 mount point 40. 63. 210 MAX 68-9 maximum number of mail processes 155.usbmap kernel modules. 192-3 members 69. 169 safe probe 20. 191. 88 modules module 89-90 modules. 42. 56. 29. 80. 82 mount 27. 172 mnt/win directory 120 modes 20. 172 mounted directory 44 mounting 6. 175 mem 112. 93. 150. 165 Modifying group information 7.networking modules. 166. 182 memory 85. 100. 50. 72 modinfo 88. 169 Multiuser mode booting 169 MYGROUP 127-8 . 49. 164 MD5 69-70 mdadm 53-4. 33 misc 50-1 mke2fs 44. 41-3. 111. 53. 42-3. 21. 156. 159. 119. 173 mbr 16. 185 loaded 88. 161.inputmap 88 monitor 17. 172. 174-5 mdadm device-name 175 mdadm raid-device-name 53-4.

94. 134. 184. 68. 114.230 Mysql 100. 120. 212 neat 22. 166. 104. 204 O objects 112-13. 202 nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system 135 NISGRP 195 noauto option 172 nocrossmnt 122 nodaemon 32-3 nodev 51 nosuid 51 notauto option 172 nouser 42 ntfs 45. 35-6. 139. 204 net 50. 128-9. 69. 87-8. 94. 147. 85. 201-2. 17-18. 138-40. 111. 97. 120. 203 files nisplus 138 NIS database 11. 192-3 hot 112. 91. 121 NFS directory 10. 118. 71. 118 order 35-6. 166 network devices 14. 96. 137-8. 142. 184. 193 network 16-18. 203 NIS domain name 11. 88. 197 nis 135. 204. 48 number 29. 169 organizations 116. 116. 132 network port 163 network security 12. 202 NIS group 117. 197 NFS Configuration 196 NFS daemon 119. 53. 101. 119-20. 196. 166. 102. 133. 122. 41. 61-2. 126. 104-5. 192-3 transit 112. 197 NFS server root user 196 NFS service 116. 179 . 144-5. 122. 196 NFS server configuration utility 120. 88. 117. 198-9 [3] Naming convention of files 35 nat 88 NAT filtering 159. 192-3 operation 50. 48. 166 network information 184 Network Information Service 135 network options 9. 63. 187. 201 overridden 46. 143 OS 127 output 46. 135-7. 140. 195 NIS server 11. 120 netbios 159 netmask 139. 196. 22-3. 193. 173. 119. 114. 174. 197 NFS server 15. 197 option url 17 options format 10. 93. 117. 207 network access 135 Network Configuration 140. 119. 61. 202-3 NIS server information 138. 31. 122. 155. 187-9. 190 N name 35. 197 NFS Server Administration Answer 196 NFS Server Configuration 10. 131. 79-80 NFS 3. 195-6 nfsstat 122. 170. 117. 136-9. 203 NIS server name 137 NIS version 138 nisdomainname 135-6. 119. 135. 53. 103. 155 network usage information 184 networking 31.

190 permission mask 69 PHP 100. 195. 93. 111-12. 32-3 prefdm 32-3 prevrunlevel 170 printers 23-4. 180-1 passwd user-name 76 passwd command id 181 password 15. 102. 161. 78. 74. 177 yum install 61. 212 panel 53. 177 package-name queries 178 package-name. 65. 174 proc 41-2. 191-2. 171 . 212 password of user 76. 98. 71. 150-3. 96. 175 pid 29. 43. 167.231 owner 81. 129. 165. 52 Power Restored 32-3 powerfail 30. 190 physical volume 7. 86. 168. 181-2.yum install 178 package package-name 177 package processing 63 packages 3. 126. 176-8 gpgkeys of 176 installed 62. 47-8. 154-8. 182-3 probing 20 problem 103. 32-3. 160-1. 157 PASS 68 passwd 138. 186 privilege 78-81. 166 Perl 100. 154 performance 110. 157 partition 14. 182-3 P Package management and Kickstart 3 Package Manager 7. 171 filesystem-type source 172 pass 3. 129 pop3 153-4 port 16. 102. 27. 144-5. 114-15. 83-4. 76. 58. 171-3 dev/sda6 40. 71. 154. 52. 209 list postfix service 150 postfix mail server 151 postfix server 150-3. 212 configuring 160 PAM configuration file 212 PAM modules 161-2. 54-5. 139. 47-8. 107-9. 5. 84. 97. 155. 145. 59-62. 33 powerokwait 30. 14. 40. 90. 17. 170. 80. 132. 28-9. 193 pipe 94 Pluggable Authentication Module 93. 68. 107. 102. 121. 134. 127. 123-5. 124. 161. 32-3 powerfail action 30. 121. 66. 211 port panel 158 postfix 12. 178 package name 61 package-name 62. 203 port number 102. 118. 64-6. 59. 146. 52-4. 148. 118. 142. 145. 66. 85. 177 software 14. 183-7. 168-9. 122 Prints 63 priority 36. 62-4 istration xf0b7 3 pam 129. 208-9 postfix server log information 209 power 30-2 power failure 30. 121. 189. 180 path 18. 172 disk 40.

5 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam 3. 112. 184 process PID 41 process priority 91. 69. 89-90. 5 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 14. 90-1. 58-9. 171 rc1 34. 171. 142. 183-6. 186 remove user groups 69 . 36. 167-9. 53-4. 204 process identification number 29. 136. 90 process id 91. 169 rc. 158 proxy 104-5 ps 20. 35-6. 182 properties 59. 153-4. 53-4. 210 active 83 concurrent 201 postfix daemon 151. 194. 165. 164 Red Hat Linux 14. 184 zombie 84. 174-5 RAID devices 52-3 raid devices information 53 RAID disks 6. 94-5. 95 pts 85 Python 100. 91. 93. 52 raid level information 53 raid options panel 53 ram 192-3 RAM memory 84. 168 Red Hat Certified Engineer 3. 209 proxy 114. 64. 156.232 proc/modules 185 proc/swaps 47-8. 36 rc5 32. 25. 146 protocols 101. 83-6. 62. 120. 146 R raid 174-5 RAID 52 raid array 53 raid device name 53 raid-device-name 53-4. 164. 143. 122. 69. 23. 102. 175. 191 programs 35. 80. 184 processes tab 83 profile 70 program dnsserver 111. 195 Red Hat 14-15. 172 relay 147. 62. 77. 175 raid-device-name device-name 175 raid devices 53-4. 186 processes 8. 208 remote system mput 131 remote system rename 131 remove 7. 121. 28. 150. 27. 16. 29-30. 161. 194 running 90 total number of 84. 57-8. 108-9. 191 prompt 30. 84. 144. 57 reconfigure 116. 32-4.sysinit 31-2 read/write 55. 184. 168. 190 Q QMAIL 67-8 queries 62. 184 process pid 90. 169. 173 proc/uptime 184 Process and Kernel Information 8. 192-3 ratio 45-6 rc 31-2. 144 properties button 74. 207-8 RELAY 150. 154-5. 41.

140 [8] root@localhost alternatives 153 root@localhost cron 98 root@localhost dev 55-7 root@localhost home 47-8 root@localhost mail 148. 70-3. 210 rw 42. 171 runlevel service-name 170 runlevel values 29 running mail processes 154. 82. 170 standard 32 runlevel command 170 runlevel directories 35-7 runlevel field 29-30 runlevel scripts 169. 212 iptable 158-9 runlevel 6. 43-4. 122.233 Removing module 8. 36-9. 78 root@localhost 17. 78. 176-7 rpm configuration file 176 user level 64 rpm format 59. 135-6. 5 RH systems 69 RHCE 3. 85. 94-9. 100. 59. 89 respawn 29. 46. 77-9. 5 ro 51. 60.log 164 root password 14. 197 samba server status information 198 samba users 123-6. 142. 118. 198 list of 127. 93-8. 164. 122. 159-60. 127 Samba Server Configuration 10. 122 root@localhost postfix 150-1 root@localhost pub 20-4 root@localhost squid 112. 99. 182 root user's password 76. 168 rootnoverify option 168 rpm 7. 169-71 previous 36. 120. 17. 181-2. 133 root run-parts 98-9 root user 42. 97. 93-4. 62-3. 54. 58. 122 S Samba 3. 62 rpm package information 177 storing 64. 118. 99. 150. 169 document 109 root/install-log. 66. 159. 167 root directory 105. 182 root privilege 182 root root 47. 188 maps 196 maps client 196 privilege of 78. 32-9. 165. 177 rules 112. 122 root 15. 195 service nfs 119 service sqd 195 service squidd 195 restarting 119. 32-3 restart 40. 70. 194 root/anaconda-ks. 167. 118. 29-30. 152 root@localhost nfs 119-20. 77. 67. 85-8.cfg 16. 114. 198 . 180-3. 28. 52. 26-7. 196 RH 3. 116 rootnoverify 26-7. 118.info 164 root/install. 177-8 rpm command 62-3 valid 177 rpm command uses 64. 80-1.

207-8 [6] demo sama 127-8 high performance proxy caching 111 proxy 104-5 samba 10.com 106 ServerRoot 101. 201 search tab user 66 seconds 27-8. 34-6. 208 sendmail 11. 144-5. 211 Security Level Configuration 12. 204-5. 115 sample questions 3 sbin 41. 118. 163-4 SELinux 3. 33. 80. 159. 207-9 default 153 sendmail server type 146 sendmail uses 147. 162. 128. 207 server 3. 201 section 9. 203 security Configuration 211 security level 117. 41-2. 139. 65-6. 201-2. 67. 157. 103. 134-5. 190. 138. 134-5. 211 security Level Configurations 211 selinux 17. 201 schema files 133-4. 134. 99.example. 137. 162-3. 103 server system 135 single web 106 ServerAdmin root@localhost 103 servername 17 ServerName 106 ServerName dummy-host. 213 SELinux configurations 213 SELinux manager Answer 213 SELinux policies 162. 93. 159. 15. 148-50. 157. 169. 213 SELinux user identities 163 Selinuxtype 163 sender 150. 78-9. 106. 45. 98 sbin directory 80 sbin/fdisk 79-80 sbin/nologin 78-9 sbin/service 79 sbin/sfdisk 79-80 sbin/shutdown 31-3. 201 default ldap 202 scripts 29. 152-3. 146. 114-16. 93-4. 105. 98. 70. 15. 168. 152-3. 96-7 scheduled jobs 94-6. 32. 136-7. 147-8. 13. 118. 127. 126. 169 schedule 31. 207-9 mail server 147 sendmail log information 149 sendmail restart 148 sendmail server 12.cgi 194 server root names 101 server section 9. 206 search request 134. 191 Server Configuration 9. 101. 112-13 global environment configuration 101 security 17. 50-1. 101. 12. 92. 134 server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr. 122. 190. 150. 101-4. 78-9. 157. 213 SELinux administration 13. 146-50. 188 schema 133. 195. 159 sample format 94. 164. 198 web 9. 139-40. 213 SELinux configuration file 162. 205 Server Configuration Answer 205 server HOSTNAME 136-7 server information 101 server mirrorlist 61 server name 107. 190 . 99. 171 search 60. 41.234 sample 30.

52. 32. 145. 201 Smaba configuration Answer 197 Smaba Server configuration 197 socket 111. 195 service nfsd 195 service nfsd start 195 service passwd 161 service postfix start 153 service S10network 35 service samba start 198 service sendmail start 146 service service-name 37-9. 189 service httpd stop 39 service management apps 80 service-name 170 service nfd start 195 service nfs start 116. 78. 182 shell script 34. 189 service httpd start 38. 210-12 alternatives 152 autofs 50. 153 SIGKILL 185 signal 185 Single user mode 31. 115.235 service daemons 157 service ftp start 199 service ftpd start 199 service httpd 38-9. 199. 156-7. 199 service yp start 202 service ypserv start 203 terminal 137 service ypserver start 202 serviceconf 39. 130. 98-9. 152-3. 27. 181 SIZELIMIT 133-4. 154. 192 software 64. 134-5. 70-2. 120 default 152. 127. 169-71. 125. 139. 155-6. 212 set 14. 65. 189. 170-1. 128 shared directories 120. 125-7. subdirectory 181 size of files 76. 132. 176 . 198 samba 123. 151. 210 managing 82 net-work 35 network 33. 205. 201-2 [20] set initdefault 30-1 share 121. 25. 128 shell 67. 99. 211 ypbind 137 services Answer 210 session 160-1. 17. 33 size. 143. 129-30. 99. 182 Shutdown Canceled 32-3 Shutting 119. 129. 160-1. 61. 198 sharing 3 trusted 157 xinetd 156. 36 new 37 samba 127. 80. 126. 30. 34-41. 101. 171 services 10. 198 service smbd start 198 service vsftpd start 128. 79-82. 175 software configuration 33 software repositories 59. 79-80. 209 dhcpd 139 dovecot 153-4. 103-4. 170 service service-name start 38 service service-name stop 39 service smb start 127. 169 shutdown 30-3. 182. 170-1. 21.

137 Starting postfix. 137 startup 20. 56. 194-5 squid log files 112 squid reconfigure 195 squid restart 116. 191-2. 64-6. 181 amount of 77. 77-80. 116. 189. 167 sysfs 41-2 sysinit 29-32 syslogd 9. 198-9. 183 status 37-8. 196-8 [21] . 181 total 56 squash 118. 191 squid daemon 10. 132. 114-16. 172-4. 130. 187 system 25-6. 135-8. 206 sys 41. 153. 111. 122. 92. 143. 127 Starting Services 34 Starting squid 116 Starting vsftd 10. 134-5. 150 Starting Samba 10. 97 statistics kernel NFS client 122 kernel NFS server 122 virtual memory 85. 205 [10] Start Process 83 start squid 115 Starting Apache 9. 139. 28. 29-30. 127-8. 127-8. 143. 194-5 server program 111.236 source code 64-5 source filesystem 173 space 53. 196 squid 3. 34. 191-4 squid start 116 squid user 114 squiduser 194 start 17. 173 swap space 6. 1836. 165 swap area 46-8 swap filesystem 173 swap partition 14. 33-4. 99 Starting init 5. 99. 85-6. 82. 47. 148. 119 Starting NFS quotas 116. 153 network service 36 service sendmail 153 storage 60. 111-12. 116. 174. 61-2. 35-40. 46-7. 176-7. 119 Starting NFS services 10. 122. 79-80 subdirectories 40. 128 Starting ypbind service 11. 170-1. 115-16. 119 Starting NIS server 11. 176 stop 35-7. 99 Starting Dovecot 12. 195 squid server 9. 29 Starting Named 11. 181 subtree 122 success 161 suid 42 Sun Microsystems 135 swap 41-2. 143 Starting NFS daemon 116. 166 swpd 85 sync 78. 137. 119 Starting NFS mountd 116. 45-7. 153 Starting httpd 39. 165. 166-70. 39-40. service postfix start 151 Starting postfix server 12. 118. 181 subfolders 76. 49-50. 130 synchronize system's clock 25 syntax 145. 82-6. 80-1. 91. 76.

204 system-config-nfs 120. 183. 187 System Monitor 82. 178 system-config-printer 23 system-config-samba 122. 42. 171 system-config-smb 197 system-config-soundcard 21 system-config-time 24. 50. 187-8. 197 system-config-sambad 197 system-config-securelevel 211 system-config-security 211 system-config-securitylevel 157 system-config-selinux 162. 23. 175 system-config-manage 178 system-config-name 205 system-config-neat 166 system-config-net 166 system-config-network 22.uname 185 system initialization 31 System Log 86 system log information 184 System Log Manager 184 system log viewer 86. 167 system-config-display 21 system-config-ftp 200 system-config-ftpd 200 system-config-httpd 106. 141. 211 . 125 samba user 124 tab user 132 server control 132 tar xvf 178 tcpd 156. 197 System-config-nfsd 197 system-config-packages 65. 205 system-config-boot 28 system-config-date 24. 155 system clock 34 system-config-bind 143.237 system administration 7. 181 system-config-usr 181 System-config-vsftp 200 system-config-vsftpd 131 system crontab file 98. 166. 190 system-config-https 190 system-config-keyboard 20 system-config-kickstart 17 system-config-level 211 System-config-logman 175 System-config-lv 175 system-config-lvm 58. 144 basic 123. 167 system-config-users 73. 140. 155. 196 system administrator execute 180 system-auth 160-1 system boots 30. 184 system reboots 32. 184 system logging 92. 189 system information. 107. 109. 169 system users 132 system users behavior 132 SystemManager 184 T tab 21. 184 system administrator 180-1. 213 system-config-SElinux 213 system-config-SELinux 213 system-config-services 39. 82.

70. 69-71. 149 type 17. 115. 127. 179-91. 16-17. 176-7 upgrade 14. 104-5. 78-80. 178 xvf 178 unconfigures 20 uninitialized entries 59 Unix 127 Unix user name 198 UNIX user name 124. 139-42. 129-30. 158 UPS 31-2 uptime command uses 184 URI 133-4 url 17. 101-2. 93-5. 24-5. 97 time 19. 75. 157-8. 161. 59. 62. 102-4. 183 time-specification 94-5 TIMELIMIT 133-4. 196 ban 132 bin/bash 71 bin/csh 71 common 40 configuration file 134 effective 114 etc/passwd filesystem 71 ldap directories 134. 132. 115. 80 unmounting 6. 132. 101. 150-1. 170 telnet 156 text editors 16. 206-9 [31] administrative 78. 47-8. 174-7. 115. 161. 177 upgrade option 17. 132. 127 Unix username 198 unmount 43-4. 112 usage 49. 27-8. 168 timezone 16-17 tmpfs 41-3 topics 3. 148. 180 normal 80 password 29 trusted 147 useradd 70 userdel 180 valid 126 user accesses 161. 132. 167 upload 128-9. 180 anonymous 128. 44. 66-7. 199 menu option 83 modifying 82 multi 66 new 66-7. 27-30. 99. 169. 196 umount 44 uname 87. 198-201. 160-1. 201 timeout 26.238 Te user 78 telinit 36. 154. 45. 61. 61-2 Use NIS 138 user 14-18. 197 user account apache 103 . 93-4. 128 uncompress 64. 163 processor 185 running Linux system 42 U uid 68. 118. 83-7. 167. 65-6. 185 uncomment 81. 201 local 128-9. 52. 135. 124-30. 91. 84-5. 71. 121. 43-4 update option 167 updates 20.

administrative 182 user V  user V HQWU\ YDOLG  user V SDVVZRUG  . 97. 199 directive 199 usermod 72. 76. 72. 161. 130. 179 administrative 114 installation root 66 new 72 User Admin 180 User Administrator 180 User and Group Administration 7 user apache 102-3 user applications 41 user button 75 new 124 User Configuration 180 user doesn W  user don W  user id 78. 93-4. 161 user requests 49. 151. changing 7. 149. 182 his/her 103 useradd options 66 user names 15. 90. 179-80 user-id 72 user information 72. 74. 180 useradd command line 69 useradd user-name 67 userdel 69. 78. 198 user login name 180 user lookups 138 user Mac 187 User Manager 180 user Manager Utility 180 User Manger 180 user Matt 179 user-name 72. 124. 78-9. 71-2. 71-2. 180 userdel user-name 72 USERGROUPS 69 userid 71 userlist 129. 180 username 188 users don W  users group 80 users Jack 188 users John 199 users localhost 80 users SELinux security cate-gory 163 users tab 132 user. 180 user issues 183. 76. 71-2.Will root. 187 user issues command insmod 185 user jack 81 user Jack 181. 188 user-name V SDVVZRUG  user password.239 user account john 179 user accounts 66-7. 106 user set 190 user squid 114 USER TTY 85 user user 180 user user-name 181 user Vishnu 182 user yum 59 user1 126 useradd 67-9.

96 Using chkconfig 171 Using command chkconfig 6. 177 var/lib/rpm/Name 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Packages 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys 63-4 var/log/cron 92-3. 77. 89 Using system-config-cache 194 Using system monitor 177 Using System Monitor 8. 162-3. 149. 131. 149. 197 var/lib/rpm 64. 177 Very Secure 10. 87. 45. 28. 171 system monitor 82 user manager 73 utility Answer 175 utility Network Configuration 140 V values 29. 60. 200 vfat 43. 69. 187 var/log/dovecot. 209 var/log/vsftpd. 171. 159. 139. 199 usr/lib/httpd/modules 189 usr/lib/httpd/modules directory 101-2 usr/local 97-8 usr/sbin directory 79 utility 22-4. 200 network configuration 142 samba server configuration 122 service configuration 39.log 130. 21 View Process 83 Virtual server files 147 Virtual users file 147 VirtualHost 106 vishnu 126-7. 198 samba user 127. 37 Using mdadm command 53 Using modprobe command 8. 144-5. 50. 175 video card 17. 73 usr 40-1. 82 Using tar xvf 178 Using User Manager 7. 132. 197 daemon Configuration 131. 36. 151 var/spool/mail directory 70 var/spool/mail/stats 208 var/spool/postfix 12. 178. 53. 131. 176 var/named/data/cache 145. 91.240 Using batch command 9. 206-7 var/run directory 101 var/spool/at 96.log 60. 193 var/temp 179 var/yp/securenets 203 vendor V VWDWHPHQW  verbose information 63.leases 140. 78.log 154 var/log/httpd directory 100 var/log/maillog 92. 145. 182. 204 var/lib/nfs directory 122. 152. 48. 198 vmlinuz 15 vol 55-7. 59 . 191 [4] var/cache/mod 105 var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. 200 var/log/yum. 123. 188 var/spool/cron directory 97. 134. 175 vgextend 55. 172-3 vfat filesystem type 172 vgcreate 55. 59. 189 var/spool/mail 68. 98. 152 var/spool/squid 112. 71. 106. 165-6. 184. 125.

200 VSFTP daemon Configuration 200 vsftpd 128 VSFTPD Configuration Answer 200 vsftpd service 128 vsftpd userlist 129 vv 63-4. 48 xinetd 3. 27. 172 windows user name 124. 55-6.example. 20. 144 st 144 xferlog 129 xfs 45. 34. 58-9. 155-6. 168. 191 wheel 80 Window System 3 windows 25. 152. 177 W warn 68. 65-6 web browser 100. 86. 59. 53. 23. 132. 210-11 xorg.conf 166 Y yp 138. 25. 176 yum uses 59-60 Z zombie processes usage detail zone file directory 145 184 . 98. 82. 202 ypserver HOSTNAME 136 yum 59-60. 27. 198 won W  workgroup 128 writable option 125-6 www/docs/dummy-host. 103-4. 122. 84. 104. 75. 119. 175 vsftp 128-9.com 106 X xconfig 16-17 -18. 127.241 volume group 7. 122. 191 wdelay 122 web 59-61. 203 ypdomainname 135-6.

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