RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer
Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide

RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam - The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide
Copyright © 2009 Notice of rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.

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This self-study exam preparation guide for the RHCE RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam contains everything you need to test yourself and pass the Exam. Including all the exam topics, covered indepth and insider secrets, complete explanations of all RHCE subjects, test tricks and tips, over 250 highly realistic sample questions, and exercises designed to strengthen understanding of the RHCE concepts and prepare you for exam success on the first attempt are provided.
Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a "Thank You" letter? This book includes new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering numerous sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus information available nowhere else, this book will help you pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam on your FIRST try. Buy this. Read it. And Pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam. This book provides a laser sharp focus on all the exam objectives with a cohesive, concise, yet comprehensive coverage of all the topics included in the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Lab Exam. It includes over 250 questions modeled after the real exam with answers and an Exam Quick Prep feature which recaps all the important points for the last hour preparation before taking the exam. Covers all RH302 exam topics, including: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Hardware installation and configuration The boot process Linux filesystem administration Package management and Kickstart User and group administration System administration tools Kernel services and configuration Apache and Squid Network file sharing services (NFS, FTP, and Samba) Domain Name System (DNS) E-mail (servers and clients) Extended Internet Services Daemon (xinetd), the Secure package, and DHCP The X Window System Firewalls, SELinux, and troubleshooting

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....... 29 2..... 18 1....................................1..Using Hard Disk .3.................................................................................................The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide ....................1........5 Contents RHCE ........1..........2................................................................................. 1 Installation and Hardware Configuration ..........Configuring Grub .....................................................2.....................Starting init ........ 16 1............................Use of Kickstart file ..........................Overview......................................................................................... 25 2....Creating Kickstart file ..........................The Boot Process ................................................... 29 .......................................................................2.......................Using Network ........................................Grub configuration file ......................1................................ 14 1... 19 1..............................................................................................................................................................................4................................2................................................ 20 2...... 25 2........................................................ 14 1..... 25 2..........................................2....................................................................................................................................2.....1..........................................................................................................Grub ................Configuring Hardware ............ 14 1......................................./etc/inittab file .......3........................ 27 2... 14 1............................................................................ 26 2............................. 15 1.................................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer ..........................1................................................................................................................................3........3.....Kickstart File ............. 15 1..................3...................Installation .............. 16 1.............................................................................3...............................2.........................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam .............................................Overview .........................................................................................Graphical utilities .....................................4..................1.....................2.............................................................................................................. 1 Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE ...2......................2.....................Using DVD..........

.......RAID disks ...4.......................................Creating a filesystem ...3............... 39 3............. 37 2...............5........4................2.............................Using Graphical utilities .............................................................1.............2................................................................................................................................................../etc/mtab .................6 2................ 44 3....................................4......Mounting a filesystem..........................Checking status of automount ...... 43 3................Unmounting a filesystem............1......................................................................................................................................................4.3......................2............................................................................................ 42 3.............................................. 52 3.................................................................. 52 3....................................2....... 47 3............... 48 3...Creating RAID device ..............................1..................1.Using command chkconfig ........................5............................... 54 ............................................................................. 34 2....6.......3.......... 33 2..................................................................................................................................... 41 3.............................. 49 3........................................2........................ 46 3............................................4.............Logical Volume Group ..5......................................................Disabling swap space ....runlevel............3..........3...........1..........1.............................................2........................................................................................................2...............................Overview ...................5............ 40 3....................................7...................Creating Swap space ........................................... 40 3...............................Filesystem Administration .......................................................................................................................................2................3.......... 43 3...........................................Searching for badblocks .................. 50 3....3............../etc/fstab file ............................... 40 3..........6...........................................3...............................................Filesystem Information .Automatically mounting a filesystem ....................................................................................................................................Enabling swap space. 48 3............................................................................................Initializing System..........................................Checking and Repairing a filesystem ...................... 52 3................

............1......................... 58 4............7...................Using rpm .................................................................................................................................Remove a volume group ...................5...................3..............................................................................................................................Package Manager ...............................................1............. 57 3............. 64 4....... 77 ................. 76 6.................................... 73 5.................................................................................. 73 5..................... 73 5...................4.1....Deleting user account ............................................................................................................................Remove a physical volume ....................7............................................................System Administration .................................1..............................................Changing user password ...Creating A Logical Volume Group .......Modifying group information ............................................................................................................ 58 3.........................................................................................Package Management ..3.............................................2............. 59 4................User and Group Administration .............5...............................................5...................3...........................................7...........Adding New Group ........................................................4............................................................ 62 4......................... 73 5...............5..............................................................................................Overview ........................................................................................................................6......................................... 59 4...........2...Modifying user account ...............................................................................7 3. 66 5.......Creating User Account ......................................... 65 5........................................................................................Space Usage .............................................Using yum ..........................4...Deleting group...1.......................................................Group Administration ..................................................... 66 5..........5............. 73 5........Remove a logical volume ....................... 72 5...................................................................................5............................................................. 58 3.. 76 5..........................2................................................................7.........3.............Using User Manager ............................................... 72 5...............................................................2...................................7..... 66 5.........................................6.Logical volume management utility ........................................................... 54 3............................................................................. 59 4.................7.................Overview.....................................................................Using make ......

..................... 79 6...........................................1........... 87 7...........4...............Changing owner and group ..................... 78 6.............2............................................................................................................. 77 6...............................................4......................................... 82 6......................................2... 78 6....................Inserting module into kernel .............Using modprobe command ............ 90 .....................................Other commands ..............3...............................3.....................Administrative commands ..Kernel Services and Configuration ............kernel Modules ....................... 82 6...................................................................Overview............................................. 81 6.................5...............................3. 89 7......... 90 7..........................Monitoring System performance ...............Using the su ................................................The su command........... 90 7.................................1............................ 79 6.......... 88 7........2.................................................................................1...2...................................................................................... 84 6......................................................................................Removing module from kernel .................................................................................................................4..4............ 86 7............................................3.......................2.... 87 7................. 78 6.....................................................................................8 6.............. 89 7............................. 87 7.........................................................................1..............................................................................Process and Kernel Information .............................................1....Using System Monitor ..............................................................................1.........4............................................2.............................3................................................2..................................Modules Loaded into Kernel .................... 84 6.................2.............2.................................2.................................................................................Getting Administration Rights ..........2............................Overview ......................2.................................2..........................................The ps command ...........2....Changing priority of process../etc/sudoers file .............................4.......................................... 89 7........Using top ...................................................................3.........................Log information...........................3..............................................................................

................................................................................Network options ..... 103 8........Using dmesg .......................Using cron ...............Squid Server ..................................3.................................................................. 91 7............Configuring Squid ........................Overview..........................................4.....Overview .......4.....................................................................4......3..........................................................2..................................2...........................3...............................3..Log File and Cache directory section ..........................................1.........3.......Neighbor selection algorithm option ...............................................Main Configuration file .....................4....................................2............................ 99 8.......4................................................................Automating Tasks -.............................2........Cache size options....................................................................................................................... 111 9............2................. 105 8............................................................................................................................Web Server ...................... 101 8..........................................................................3.........................................................................................................................3...Starting Apache ............................................................................... 111 9...............4.......... 112 9.........................3... 106 9...... 92 7......... 99 8......................................4....9 7....................5.................................................... 112 9...................................................................HTTP Server Configuration ...........2........ 96 7.......2..............................................................Main server section .............................................................................................. 97 8.......................Global Environment Configuration ..Syslogd ...............................1............................................. 112 9........................................1............... 111 9............ 93 7............................................................................................................Virtual hosts section .....................................................................................................................................2..1....................................Using at ...3....... 99 8.......... 111 9................................... 101 8........................................... 93 7...........................Using batch command .......................3.................................................... 113 ..2............................................................................2..........Access control section ......1.........................

.....................................................................................5.......ftp command prompt ...........Sharing Folders ..................................3................. 128 12...................................................... 114 9.................................................................................. 114 9.......................1.............................2...........Options format..............Starting Samba service ...................................3..............................................................3............................................................................. 116 10.......................................................................................... 133 ........ 128 12....................................................................................................................................................Overview ..................................................4.................... 116 10.............Configuring vsftpd ............................................ 120 10........................................... 130 12..................................... 128 12...........Overview .......................... 122 11........ 133 13............... 117 10.........................................................................................................................NFS Server ... 126 11....................5...................................6...................................................................................LDAP Server ..........................................................Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration ................ 119 10.................................... 118 10......................................................Starting vsftd................................................................................................4.................................... 122 11.................................................10 9..4......Samba Server Configuration ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................Checking the service ....1.....................................4..............................Starting NFS service.................1...................................... 131 13.. 122 11.............................................................................Accessing the NFS directory .2..........................4.........overview ......................................................................................................................................................................2............2............................................................... 128 12.............................................................. 117 10..........NFS Server Configuration.................................6................................................................. 127 12.2................................Samba Server ................3...................................Cache Manager ...................................1................................................................................................................................................................................................FTP Server ..............................3.................. 115 10.................................................Overview ...Squid Daemon ......................... 122 11............Using nfsstat ...........................1..............3........................... 127 11......................1.................... 116 10..............................................................................................................Administrative parameters ......Format of hostname ..........Samba configuration file .............................................

...................................... 140 15....... 135 14....................................................3..............................1...............................4............................................................................................... 139 15......Overview ...........................................Starting NIS server ................................................................................................................................................................. 143 16................................................................... 135 14..............................Starting ypbind service ............................................ 135 14............ 137 14.......................................................................Starting the DHCP server....2............................................................................................................................................................................................... 139 15..............................................................................1......3.................Configuration file ...................Staring NIS server ................................................2.........................NIS database ............................Configuring NIS ..... 136 14.....1.................Mail Services .. 143 16...........................BIND Configuration GUI ............Setting NIS domain name ............................................................../etc/mail .....................................................................4................................................2...... 133 13.........................................................................................................................4..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11 13.............................................................................................................................3.......................... 143 16..1............... 139 15....................3......... 146 17.............................................. 140 16....................... 137 14.......................................................................................................................................................................... 140 15...1.............................Sendmail... 135 14................. 146 17................................................................................................... 137 14...............................Overview ..........................................................Configuration ....... 145 17............................................................................ 137 14.4.........................................................................................2.................. 139 15...4..............5.......... 143 16............................... 147 ...........................2..........................................2...........................................................................................Important files ............. 146 17............................................Overview ................................NIS server............2...........................Starting the ldap ...........................................................................................Starting Named daemon .....................Mapping Information .........................................DHCP client................................................................................................1..............1................5....5.....................Working of DHCP server................................................................DNS server ..................................Overview ......DHCP Server ..........................................

........................5......2....Postfix ...................................... 153 17................................................Starting Dovecot ................................................................Using TCP wrappers....5......................................... 150 17......................................................................................../etc/hosts.................................... 151 17....3......................1...................................2............................3...3.............................................................3...Actions taken by server on a mail .3......................................................Important Files ................................................. 148 17................................................................................3........................................ 151 17......................................... 149 17.......Log files ..Configuration files .........................................................3................................................ 152 17..................................................................5..Configuration file .Configuration file ................................................................ 153 18.........................................2............Overview ........2......................deny .............................2....................................2.....................Mailbox ............ 155 18... 155 18..5. 155 18........................................4.................................................Network Security................................. 156 18.2.................... 159 ..................The daemon xinetd ........................................................................................Security Level Configuration .....................1.........................................................................................5...................................................../etc/hosts........ 152 17................ 152 17....1............................allow...................db files ..............4........................................Starting postfix server ................Switching MTA ................................4........................................3.................4................./var/spool/postfix .............................4............................................................................. 156 18............................................................... 149 17.................................................................................................................................12 17.......3................Checking Sendmail Server ............1............Generating the .............................3................................................... 156 18............. 147 17.....................Dovecot .2............................1.......................................................................................2......... 150 17......................................... 157 18..................................................................................3............. 153 17............

.........................PAM and SELinux .../etc/pam.............................13 18........................................... 163 Over 250 Exam Preparation Questions ..................................1... 164 .............................................. 160 19...........................3........................................................................... 162 19................................................................... 159 19........................................................................................................................................................................................................2........................................................1..............................................................PAM ........ 160 19........Command Reference .................................. 160 19......... 162 19.SELinux administration .....................................................SELinux ....Command Reference ................................................................5......................................................................................2......................2...........d ..................................

swap partition and one /boot partition (for dual boot system) Install the grub bootloader on MBR. Enter the root password. Choose the time zone in which system is. Choose install type. The steps of the installation process are z z z z The DVD media is checked Choose language to use during installation process. . Configure the network device.1. Select the packages.2. 1.1.Configure the firewall.and custom partition) If custom partition option is chosen create at least one / partition and swap partition (for single boot system) and create a / partition.Configure the sound card.2.Installation Anaconda is the default installer in Red Hat Linux.14 INSTALLATION AND HARDWARE CONFIGURATION 1. Choose keyboard layout. User can either choose for new install or upgrade an existing installation.Using DVD To begin installation using the DVD place the DVD media in the DVD drive of the computer and set the BIOS to boot from DVD drive. z z z z z z z z z z z Choose the software packages to install.Overview Red Hat Enterprise Linux is one of the major commercial Linux distributions available in market . After installation is complete remove the DVD media from DVD drive. Choose partitioning (options are use free space on hard disk. Fedora Core Linux is an open source project of Red Hat. The installation process can be broadly divided into many parts depending on the method used for installation z z z DVD Network Hard Disk 1. Set the firewall options. Choose the languages system should support.use current Linux partitions. Choose partition scheme (options are automatic partition or manual partition) . The user had to accept the License terms.use whole hard disk. New version of Fedora Core Linux is released every six months.

GRUB is installed as the bootloader in Red Hat by default. . In case of NFS server the directory containing the installation files should be made accessible.conf file to achieve the purpose title Red Hat-Installation root (hd0. These files are needed to boot the installation process.Using Network For the network installation the installation files should be copied to the computer which will act as install server.Using Hard Disk For installation from hard disk it is assumed that Red hat Linux is already running on the computer.7) kernel /vmlinuz initrd /initrd.img root(hd0. The following entry is added in the /boot/grub/grub. After above steps reboot the computer.2. In case of FTP server copy the files to directory /var/ftp/pub.15 Then the user is prompted for user name and password on the login screen. Then copy the vmlinuz and initrd files of the DVD media in /boot directory.2.3.2. 1. Choose Red Hat Installation on the Grub menu to begin the install process.7) means that /boot partition exists on eighth partition of first hard disk. To boot the installation process the boot loader should be informed about the files copied in the /boot directory. 1. In case of web server or HTTP server the files need to be copied in the directory /var/www/html. In the hard disk install copy all the files of the DVD in a partition drive which is not used during the new installation.

1. At the boot prompt enter the command askmethod :boot linux askmethod This lets the user to select the Installation Method.3. 1.16 Note : when using the installation from Network or Hard disk choose the option INSTALL OR UPGRADE in text mode on the first screen of the Installation process.UTF-8 keyboard us xconfig --startxonboot network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp rootpw --iscrypted firewall --enabled --port=22:tcp authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5 selinux --enforcing timezone bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="rhgb quiet" .Kickstart File After successful installation of Red Hat Linux a kickstart file /root/anaconda-ks.cfg is created based on the options chosen by the user during the installation process.1.1. 1.3.3.1.Text File install cdrom lang en_US.Creating Kickstart file User has a choice to use graphical utility to create kickstart file or open a text editor and write the commands.

NFS. cdrom shows the install method used.17 The install option denotes new installation and upgrade option will denote upgrade of an existing system. option disable means firewall disabled. selinux is used to set the security enhanced linux the options are .-enforcing.--permissive.FTP. bootloader command is used to set the partition where the default bootloader grub is installed. 1. rootpw denotes the root password.and hard disk install methods. firewall command sets the firewall label.1.FTP.HTTP. option –enable means firewall is enabled.Graphical utility Open Terminal and type the command system-config-kickstart to start the kickstart configurator. The xconfig is used to configure the monitor and video card. z z z z For FTP method use option url –url give the ftp url name for HTTP method use option url –url give http url name for hard drive use option harddrive –dir=/give directory path –partition=give partition for NFS method use option nfs –server=servername –dir=directory name Third line sets the installation language to be used during installation .2. The network command is used to configure the network. Fourth line chooses the keyboard layout.3.-disable timezone is used to select the timezone of the user.hard drive are other options which can be used for NFS. [root@localhost ~]# system-config-kickstart .HTTP. In above case it configures the Ethernet interface.

cfg') Kickstart from FTP. 1.3.2. To use kickstart installation use following steps z z z create a kickstart file copy the kickstart file on cdrom. on network or on Local hard drive use above commands on the :boot prompt during the installation Kickstart from CDROM Kickstart from a file (path = 'fd0/ks. NFS mount options . for example) ks=cdrom: ks=file:<path> ks=ftp://<path> ks=hd:<dev> ks=http://<path> Kickstart from HTTP. Kickstart via harddrive (dev = 'hda1'.18 The user can use the graphical interface to choose the options and the kickstart file will be generated automatically. ks=nfs(:options):<path> Kickstart from NFS.Use of Kickstart file It is used to automate the installation process.

The command kudzu can be run to detect and configure the changed hardware on a system.xdriver: i810 .19 are optional.Configuring Hardware The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf contains the listing of installed hardware.4. kudzu is run every time a Red Hat box is rebooted. Below is the format of the /etc/sysconfig/hwconf file class: CDROM bus: SCSI detached: 0 device: scd0 desc: "HL-DT-ST CD-RW GCE-8526B" host: 1 id: 0 channel: 0 lun: 0 class: VIDEO bus: PCI detached: 0 driver: i2c-i810 desc: "Intel Corporation 82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE Chipset Integrated Graphics Device" video. 1. It checks the file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf for the hardware installed and matches the data with the current hardware.

1.20 vendorId: 8086 deviceId: 2562 subVendorId: 8086 subDeviceId: 2562 pciType: 1 pcidom: 0 pcibus: 0 pcidev: 2 pcifn: 0 The first entry is for a CDROM drive attached with the system and second is for the VIDEO card attached with the system. kudzu can be started in two modes z z safe probe mode no safe probe mode safe probe mode disables serial port probing.Graphical utilities 1.4.1.For keyboard layout Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-keyboard . To enable no safe probe mode on startup enter the line SAFE=no in the file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu.PS/2 probing. It then updates the data in /etc/sysconfig/hwconf. If any hardware is added or removed then it configures the added one and unconfigures the removed one.4.1. 1.DDC monitor probing.

1.4.21 The user can select the keyboard layout and press OK .1.Color depth under the setting tab configure the monitor type and video card under tab hardware tab Use dual type tab for second monitor type and video card.4.For monitor and video card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-display z z z User can set the Resolution. 1. 1.2.3.For sound card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-soundcard .

1.For network devices Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-network or [root@localhost pub]# neat . 1.4.4.22 This utility can be used to check the proper working of soundcard and reload the audio drivers and rewriting the configuration files.

5.1. 1. Hosts tab is used to specify static computer host name to IP address mapping. IPSec tab is used to configure IPSec tunnel and host to host connections.For printer Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-printer .4.secondary and tertiary dns IP addresses and dns search path. On hardware tab the network hardware physically attached with computer and detected by Red Hat Linux can be configured. z z z z z On devices tab all network devices detected by Red Hat Linux are listed. DNS tab is used to configure system's hostname and primary. Any network device can be selected and activated.23 This utility is used to configure the network devices.

For date and time Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-date or [root@localhost pub]# system-config-time .1.4.6. 1.24 This utility is used to add new printer or configure printers.

Choosing Operating system to boot on bootloader menu.Grub Grub is default bootloader if Red Hat Linux is installed in the system. Booting the Operating System 2. Grub is able to boot non Linux operating system like Windows also. Every operating system displayed on the grub menu has its listing in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. 2. When a system is booted the user sees the grub menu.1. network time protocol tab is used to synchronize system's clock with remote time server using network time protocol time zone tab is used to select the time zone in which the system lies.THE BOOT PROCESS 2.conf.25 z z z date & time tab is used to set the current date and time.2. Loading the bootloader in MBR. .Overview The boot process can be divided into many steps. The grub menu lists the operating systems which are installed on the system. z z z z Checking of MBR (Master boot record) by BIOS. Grub boots the operating system chosen by the user on the grub menu.

0) .21-1.6.img title Windows rootnoverify (hd0.img #boot=/dev/sda default=0 timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0.2.fc7.xpm.7) kernel /vmlinuz-2.fc7 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet initrd /initrd-2. root (hd0.g.Grub configuration file Let the system have two operating system installed windows and Fedora Linux then the contents of the grub configuration file is # grub.1. e.26 2.21-1.gz hiddenmenu title Fedora-Linux root (hd0.3194.6.conf generated by anaconda # # Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file # NOTICE: You have a /boot partition.3194.7) kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/sda11 initrd /initrd-version.7)/grub/splash. This means that # # # # all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/.

In the above file the default operating system that will boot is Fedora. The initrd denotes the initial RAM disk boot image.7) means the files needed to boot the operating system is present on the eighth partition of the first hard disk. The option chainloader +1 means that grub will call the other boot loader to boot the operating system. 2. If user chooses fedora Linux on menu then the bootloader sees /dev/sda8 partition of the first hard disk (root (hd0. The rootnoverify (hd0.27 chainloader +1 The title is used to set the display name on the grub menu corresponding to the operating system. The option default=0 means that if user makes no choice then the first operating system in the file will be booted. The kernel gives the control to the init process which is called father of all processes. The option timeout=5 means that the user will have to make choice in 5 seconds on the grub menu. If the user chooses the windows option then the windows operating system is booted. E.g. z z By editing the configuration file using text editors by using Boot Configuration .0) means that grub will not mount the partition.2.2. kernel indicates the kernel which is loaded. The ro option on the kernel line means that the partition is to be mounted read only.Configuring Grub There are two ways to configure the grub bootloader. on grub menu Fedora-Linux Windows is displayed. If the user makes no choice in 5 seconds then the default operating system will boot.

By using Boot Configuration To start the boot configuration graphical utility type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-boot The utility helps to chose default operating system which will be booted in case user has not made any choice within the time period on the grub menu.Editing /boot/grub/grub. It also helps the user to choose the timeout period in seconds.2.28 2.2.1.conf using Text editors The configuration file can be edited using any of the text editors like vi.2. If the user chooses 5 seconds then grub will wait for 5 seconds for user to make a choice after that it will boot the default operating system.Password Protecting Grub Grub can also be password protected. The MD5-encrypted password for grub can be generated using the command [root@localhost ~]# man grub-md5-crypt .2.and emacs. After making the changes the grub has to be restarted to make the changes take place. gedit . 2. 2.2.2.2.3. This option is also available during the installation of Red Hat Linux.

process specifies the process to be executed. initdefault An initdefault entry specifies the runlevel .3. 2. boot.29 in terminal.4. and bootwait entries are ignored.Starting init init is the father of all processes.1.3. The init process looks for the entry initdefault in the file /etc/inittab. runlevel is the value between 0.5 and 6 (some more values are available but not used). 2. An entry in the inittab file has the following format: id:runlevel:action:process z z z z id is the unique identifier. The entry initdefault indicates the default runlevel with which system needs to be started up. The kernel starts the init process after mounting basic filesystems during the boot process.3. Action describes the action to be taken by init.2. After entering the command the user is prompted to enter the password and then to verify the password user has to reenter the password. The process will be started once when the specified runlevel is entered and init will wait wait for its termination.The runlevel field of sysinit./etc/inittab file This file describes which processes are started at boot up and during normal boot process (for different run levels different numbers of processes are started).1. If the entry initdefault is not mentioned in the file then the user has to enter the runlevel values in the console for the boot process to proceed. init looks to the file /etc/inittab and runs the script in the file /etc/inittab. init Action respawn Description The process is restarted using the process for this action. The init process has the pid (process identification number each and every process running on the system has a unique number assigned to them known as PID) of 1.

The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 . If none exists. Below is a sample /etc/inittab file. # # inittab # # # Default runlevel. Lines beginning with ‘#’ are comments. sysinit The process will be executed during system boot. . The process field is ignored.30 entered after system boot.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) This file describes how the INIT process should set up the system in a certain run-level. ctrlaltdel If the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard together then the init responds by shutting down the system or rebooting (depending on the process set) powerfail This action denotes that power failure has occurred and init takes the action depending upon the process set for this action Powerokwait If the powerfail action has occurred and the process mentioned for the powerfail action is to shutdown after 2 minutes then this action comes into picture if the power is restored before 2 minutes then the process for this action takes place. The runlevel field is ignored. init will prompt for runlevel on console.

d/rc 2 l3:3:wait:/etc/rc. assume we have a few minutes # of power left.Single user mode # 2 .sysinit l0:0:wait:/etc/rc. Schedule a shutdown for 2 minutes from now. without NFS (The same as 3.31 # 1 .Full multiuser mode # 4 . of course.Multiuser.d/rc 3 l4:4:wait:/etc/rc.X11 # 6 .reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:5:initdefault: # System initialization. si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc 4 l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 1 l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.unused # 5 . assume you have powered installed and your .d/rc 0 l1:1:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5 l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc. # This does.d/rc 6 # Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now # When our UPS tells us power has failed. if you do not have networking) # 3 .

The line 5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit is executed for every runlevel for the action sysinit the process /etc/rc. . pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure.d/rc5 will be executed for the runlevel 5 and init will wait until the process is not completed. Shutdown Canceled" # Run gettys in standard runlevels 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1 2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2 3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3 4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4 5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5 6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6 # Run xdm in runlevel 5 x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon The line id:5:initdefault: sets the action to initdefault and the runlevel is 5.d/rc. The line ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now denotes that if the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys then the system reboots after three seconds.sysinit is executed.d/rc 5 denotes that the process /etc/rc.32 # UPS connected and working correctly. pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored. cancel it. The line si::sysinit:/etc/rc. System Shutting Down" # If power was restored before the shutdown kicked in.

Many users can login into the system. 3 Multiuser mode. The graphical tools are not available as the X server is not running. 2. No graphical tools are available. Network services like NFS/NIS/Xinetd are not available. The network services are available but the graphics mode is not available 4 5 Not used Multiuser mode. It should not be used in initdefault. Shutdown Canceled" denotes that if the power resumes before two minutes then cancel the shutdown of the system. The line x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon denotes that the X11 server is started in case of runlevel 5. 1 Single user mode.33 The line pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure. Thus graphic interface is available in runlevel 5.3. System Shutting Down" denotes that if power failure occurs then the powerfail action takes place and the system is scheduled to wait for two minutes before shutting down. runlevel 0 Description It is used to halt the system. The graphics mode is also available as . 2 Multiuser mode.runlevel A runlevel is a software configuration of the system which allows only a selected group of processes to exist. The line pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored. All the network services are available.3.

runlevel 0 1 2 3 4 directory /etc/rc.a. Other runlevels like 7. The runlevels 0.8.d /etc/rc.d/rc2.1.1 and 6 are reserved.sysinit is run once at the boot time.d /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/rc3. A good choice for the initdefault entry 6 All the process is terminated and the system is rebooted. This is not good choice for initdefault.c are also available but are not used.d .d/rc4.3.3.Initializing System The script /etc/rc.d/rc0.4.d /etc/rc. It is a shell script which performs many functions like z z z z z z z z sets the hostname of the system checks SELinux status sets the system clock Initializes hardware Configures kernel parameters Mounts the filesystems Configures the hardware Starts and enables the swap space 2.b.34 the X11 is running.d /etc/rc.Starting Services The services which will be started for a run level depends on the files contained in the directory of that runlevel.9. 2.4.

Bring up/down networking .d The directory contains the scripts of all the runlevels.3. #! /bin/bash # # network # # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 # description: Activates/Deactivates all network interfaces configured to \ # start at boot time.d/init.d contains the run level scripts. 2.d/init. The concept of deciding the order in which the scripts will run remains the same for the files with name beginning with K. 2. The directory /etc/rc.d All programs in the directories of the above runlevel are symbolic link to programs in the directory /etc/rc.d/init.4. All the programs (files of run level directories) whose name begin with S starts the service and name begin with K kills or stops the service. Below is the sample file to start the network service.2.d contains files for runlevel 5. E.d/rc5.4.d/init.d /etc/rc. It contains two files S10network and S56Xinetd then the service S10network is run first. Name of all the programs either begins with S or K followed by 2 digits (0-9) and after that name of the service.35 5 6 /etc/rc.d/rc5.3. Thus for a run level which scripts of the directory /etc/rc.g. The two digits determine the order in which the services will run.Naming convention of files in runlevel directories The files in the runlevel directories have special naming convention. the directory /etc/rc.3.d.d are to be run depends on the contents of the directory corresponding to the runlevels.d/rc6.Format of scripts in /etc/rc.

3.4.36 # ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provides: $network ### END INIT INFO The line # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 sets the script to start in the runlevels 2.4.5.Configuring services for a runlevel . 2.4.d/rc5.2. 5 denote that the current runlevel is 5.1. In the runlevel 5 directory /etc/rc.3.3. 2.Determining current and previous runlevel To determine current and previous runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# runlevel N5 The letter N denotes that there is no previous runlevel (that is runlevel has not been changed). The init process kills or starts the processes necessary to switch to that runlevel in above case it will do it for runlevel 5.4.3.d a file with name S10network will exist (as network service starts for run level 5 with the priority 10 and in the runlevel directory /etc/rc. 2.d a file with name K90network will exist as network service stops with the priority 90 in runlevel 1.Changing runlevels To change the current runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# telinit n The letter n should be replaced by the values 0.d/rc1.3.4 and 5 with the priority or order 10 and in case of all other runlevels it stops the service with the order or priority 90.5.6 that is Use telinit 5 to switch to runlevel 5.4.6.

3.5.Disable a service .5.5. User can also see the status of each service in each runlevel.3.5. [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name on The service service-name is enabled for that runlevel.Deleting a new service To delete service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --del new-service-name The service new-service-name is deleted from the chkconfig management and all the links in the runlevel directories are also removed.Enable a service To enable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level).Adding a new service To add new service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --add new-service-name The new-service-name should have a start or kill entry in each of the runlevel. There are two methods to reorganize the services and view the information about the services in a runlevel.1. 2. It can also be used to add a new service or delete a new service as well.3.2.3.5. 2.Using command chkconfig The command chkconfig can used to view the information about every service in a runlevel and start or stop them. 2.37 User can decide the services which should run in a runlevel and which should not run in a run level.3. 2. 2.4.3.

7. 2.List status of all services To list status of all service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list The status of all the services is displayed for all runlevel.5.List status of a service To list status of a service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list service-name The status of the service service-name is displayed for all runlevel. 2.Starting a service To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name start The service service-name is started in that runlevel.3.3.3.4 and 5 and disabled in 0. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start .5. For example [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The service httpd is enabled in the runlevels 2. 2.1.38 To disable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level) [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name off The service service-name is disabled for that runlevel.3.5. and 6.6.5.

4.add a service and delete a service. 2. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd stop Stopping httpd: The service httpd is stopped.39 Starting httpd: The service httpd is started. 2.8. It can be used to start a service.Using Graphical utilities [ OK ] The service configuration utility can be used to edit a runlevel.5. To start the service configuration use the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# serviceconf or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-services .Stopping a service [ OK ] To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name stop The service service-name is stopped in that runlevel. stop a service.3.

The / filesystem is on top of the hierarchy. 3. All the filesystems which don't have separate partition are stored in the partition of / filesystem. After making any changes it need to be saved using the save option on the graphic tool. If a disk partition is mounted on a filesystem then all the sub directories and files below that mount point are stored on that partition. Let the / partition and /usr partition are mounted on /dev/sda5 and /dev/sda6 partitions then the sub directories and files below the /usr are stored in the /dev/sda6 partition.Overview Red Hat Linux uses the ext3 filesystem. .Filesystem Information /bin – it contains commands to be used by common users. The filesystems are organized in a hierarchy. It has journaling feature that improves recovery from crashes. All other filesystems are contained in it in form of subdirectories.FILESYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 3. 3.1.2.40 User can check the box on the left of the service and then clicks to start.stop or restart the service.

1. /sbin – it contains administrative commands. Web server./etc/fstab file the /proc filesystem contains system information and information directory is same as that of process PID. processes running on the system. /proc – The /proc filesystem is virtual file system.41 /boot – it contains bootable Linux kernel and bootloader /dev – it contains files representing device of the system. data used by services like /var – it contains log files of different services. This means that is not mounted on any disk partiotion. and documentation. and directories of FTP. applications. /usr – contains user and administrative commands. The name of the sub 3. The sample /etc/fstab file is LABEL=/1 LABEL=/opt1 LABEL=/usr1 / /opt /usr ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults gid=5.mode=620 defaults defaults defaults 00 12 12 12 12 00 00 00 00 11 LABEL=/home1 /home LABEL=/boot1 tmpfs devpts sysfs proc /boot /dev/shm tmpfs /dev/pts /sys /proc devpts sysfs proc LABEL=SWAP-sda13 swap swap . /etc – it contains configuration file. The process information is kept into a sub The file contains information about the filesystems. user configuration files.2. It about the directory of the /proc.

The fourth column contains the options used while mounting the filesystem during the system boot using the mount command. The filesystem with the option noauto in the fourth field are not mounted during boot time. exec means allow execution of executable files. The defaults option mounts the filesystem with following options of mount rw. The sample /etc/mtab file is below /dev/sda11 proc sysfs / /proc /sys ext3 proc sysfs rw rw rw 00 00 00 . nouser. The second column represents the mount point in the filesystem. The difference is /etc/fstab contains the static information about the filesystems while /etc/mtab contains the dynamic information about the filesystem.swap are associated with a device that is Partition of hard disk but the filesystems with type proc. 3.2. nouser a non root user cannot mount the filesystem.42 The first column represents the device name representing the filesystem. auto means automatically mounted at boot time.2./etc/mtab To view the filesystems which are actually used by a running Linux system type the command mount in terminal or view the contents of the /etc/mtab file. suid Allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect. rw means in read write mode.and async.tmpfs are not associated with any partition of hard disk. dev. suid. async All I/O to the file system should be done asynchronously. The filesystem types ext3.sysfs. auto. The third column denotes the filesystem type. dev Interpret character or block special devices on the file system. exec.

The standard format of mount command is mount -t filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name If a user wants to mount cdrom media in directory /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/cdrom /home/movies If a user wants to mount windows partition /dev/sda4 on /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount -t vfat /dev/sda4 /home/movies 3.on-which-the-device-was-mounted .Mounting a filesystem To mount a filesystem mount command is used.2. Second column contains the filesystem mounted. Rests of the columns are same as that of the /etc/fstab file.43 devpts /dev/sda12 /dev/pts /opt devpts ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 tmpfs rw.4.mode=620 0 0 rw rw rw rw rw 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 /dev/sda10 /usr /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs none sunrpc /home /boot /dev/shm /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs rpc_pipefs rw First column contains the disk partition which is mounted.Unmounting a filesystem To unmount a filesystem use the following command umount directory-name.gid=5.2.3. 3.

The format of the command is mkfs -t filesystem-type device-name For example if ext3 filesystem is to be created on the re writable CD device then the command will be mkfs -t ext3 /dev/cdrom mkfs command is front end to the commands which are actually invoked to carry out the work of creating the filesystems on the device.Creating a filesystem A filesystem can be created on a device.ext3. For example files are being copied from mounted directory /home/movies then below command will unmount the directory when file copy is over. A device can be floppy disks.44 To unmount the /dev/sda4 use the following command root@localhost ~]#umount /home/movies To unmount a device when the device is no longer in use (at the time when the command is issued the device is in use so the command waits for the device). root@localhost ~]#umount -l /home/movies To force unmounting of a directory use the below command root@localhost ~]#umount -f /home/movies 3.rewritable Cd s.2. mkfs -t ext3 . mkfs -t ext2 mkfs.5. mke2fs .rewritable DVDs and hard disk partitions. filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 mkfs. mkfs command is used to create the filesystems on a device. mke2fs . The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be created.ext2 . Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked.

vfat . Below is the sample /etc/mke2fs file [defaults] base_features=sparse_super.msdos ntfs xfs swap mkfs.conf.mkfs. mkfs -t vfat.ntfs.45 vfat mkfs.dir_index blocksize = 4096 inode_ratio = 8192 [fs_types] small = { blocksize = 1024 inode_ratio = 4096 } floppy = { blocksize = 1024 } news = { inode_ratio = 4096 .mkdosfs.resize_inode.filetype.xfs . mkfs -t xfs mkswap The commands mke2fs uses the configuration file /etc/mke2fs. The configuration file contains the default parameters while creating the ext2 and ext3 filesystems.mkfs -t ntfs mkfs.

Creating Swap space mkswap command is used to create a swap area on a device or file.0373886 s. The default parameters can be overridden from the command line. The file should be created using the following commands [root@localhost ~]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/swap bs=1000000 10+0 records in 10+0 records out 10000000 bytes (10 MB) copied. If the system has less swap area and no partition device can be used as swap area or user is not willing to do that then a swap area can also be created on a file. 0.The ls -l swap command below shows the file permissions attached with the swap file created. 3.write or execute it. The chmod command is used to change the file permissions of swap to 0 so that no one has the right to read. 267 MB/s This creates a file named swap in the /home directory of size 10 MB. The fs_types section defines the default parameters which should be used for a specific filesystems for example for the floppy the blocksize is set to 1024.3. count=10 . It is data file (the output of the command file swap will return data as output).46 } largefile = { inode_ratio = 1048576 } largefile4 = { inode_ratio = 4194304 } The defaults section of the file defines the default parameters used by the mke2fs.

This file can be used to see whether the swap area thus enables is used by the system or not. The format of the swapon command is swapon device-name For example to enable the swap space created on the swap file above use the command [root@localhost home]# swapon swap The file /proc/swaps shows the swap space area of the system.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap Create swap space on the file swap [root@localhost home]# mkswap swap Setting up swapspace version 1.1.Enabling swap space The swap space created cannot be used by the system unless it is enabled using the swapon command. To check the contents of the /proc/swaps enter the below command on terminal [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 /home/swap Type partition file Size Used Priority -1 -2 819272 4 9756 0 The listing shows two swap areas on the system /dev/sda13 which is hard disk partition and /home/swap which is file. size = 9994 kB 3.3.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap [root@localhost home]# chmod 0 swap [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap ---------. .47 [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap -rw-r--r-.

fsck -t ext2 fsck.msdos fsck.fsck.Checking and Repairing a filesystem The fsck command is used to check the linux filesystem and optionally repair it.4.Disabling swap space To disable a swap area use the command swapoff.48 3. The general format of the fsck command is fsck -t filesystem-type device-name If no device-name is specified on the command line then the command checks the filesystem in order they are mentioned in the /etc/fstab file.fsck -t ntfs fsck.ext3.vfat . The format of the command swapoff is swapoff device-name To disable the swap area created on the file swap in above case use the command [root@localhost home]# swapoff swap Now to check whether the swap file is disabled view the contents of the file /proc/swaps [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 Type partition Size Used Priority 819272 4 -1 3.2.ext2 .ntfs. fsck -t ext3 fsck. Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked. fsck -t vfat.xfs . Filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 vfat ntfs xfs fsck. The fsck command is the front end to the commands which are invoked for different filesystem types. The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be checked. fsck -t xfs .3.

No errors 1 .fsck canceled by user request 128 . 3.the filesystems which have data should not be checked with badblocks using the -w option.Usage or syntax error 32 .File system errors left uncorrected 8 . The badblocks command should not be run with the -w option as badblocks searches for the presence of badblocks on the device by writing a pattern on every block of the device which erases the data on the device.Searching for badblocks The command badblocks searches for the badblocks on a device.Shared library error The exit code returned when multiple file systems are checked is bit-wise OR of the exit codes for each file system that is checked.1.4.Operational error 16 .File system errors corrected 2 . The -n option is read only mode so no data is written on the device block and hence the data is not erased. Those devices or filesystem should be checked for badblocks using the badblocks command without any option or with the -n option. So. To protect data and check for badblocks use the below command badblocks device-name or badblocks -n device-name To erase the data and check for the badblocks use the below command badblocks -w device-name .System should be rebooted 4 .49 fsck command returns the following exit codes 0 .

5.d/init.master and finds the mount points on system. When a system boots then the autofs service runs with the option start and when the system is shutting down the autofs service runs with the option stop./usr etc. The autofs service lies in the /etc/rc. # Sample auto.Automatically mounting a filesystem When a system is booted the filesystems are automatically mounted. The users don’t have to run the mount command to mount the filesystems like /home. It reads the file /etc/auto.50 3. # /misc /etc/auto. This automatic mounting of filesystem is due to the autofs service which runs when the system boots. Each mount points found is mounted by automount and a thread is also started by automount to manage the mount point.master file. automount mounts a mount point when the mount point is accessed and deactivates it when it is no longer used.d directory.master file # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # For details of the format look at autofs(5). # # Note that if there are entries for /net or /misc (as # above) in the included master map any keys that are the . Below is the sample /etc/auto. The autofs service controls the operation of the automount daemons.misc /net -hosts # # Include central master map if it can be found using # nsswitch sources.

The sample /etc/auto.org:/pub/linux :/dev/hda1 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/sdc1 :/dev/hdd #removable In the above file the line starting with # are comments.example.nosuid.51 # same will not be seen as the first read key seen takes # precedence.nodev :/dev/cdrom .soft.ro. The line cd -fstype=iso9660.master In the above file the lines starting with # are comments.nosuid.intr -fstype=ext2 -fstype=auto -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 ftp.misc file is # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # Details may be found in the autofs(5) manpage cd -fstype=iso9660.nodev :/dev/cdrom # the following entries are samples to pique your imagination #linux #boot #floppy #floppy #e2floppy #jaz -ro.misc tells the daemon automount to look into the file /etc/auto.ro. # +auto.misc for the mount points. The line /misc /etc/auto.

If user comments this line the /dev/cdrom drive will not be automatically mounted when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive. Journaling feature means that it helps to recover from crashes and brings the filesystem into a consistent state.1. This allows multiple devices to be combined into a single device to hold a single filesystem.5. RAID5. If power failure occurs when a system is running and it shutdowns immediately (not a graceful shutdown that is the system shuts down before user can shutdown using the shutdown -h now command or from the graphic panel choosing the shutdown option) leaves the filesystem in a inconsistent state. 3.. RAID1 (mirroring). RAID10.6. Journaling feature of the filesystem enables it to recover from such kind of crashes. But journaling feature is not sufficient to handle all the cases for example if one of the partition is damaged then the files cannot be recovered. Linux supports LINEAR md devices.Creating RAID device The RAID devices can be created during installation and after installation.. 3.d/autofs status automount (pid 2157) is running. RAID4. RAID6. Linux Software RAID devices are implemented through the md (Multiple Devices) device driver. 3.d/init. RAID devices are virtual devices created from two or more real block devices. RAID disks are used to improve disk performance and minimize the chance of data loss.52 Causes the automount to mount the /dev/cdrom device when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive and change the directory to the /dev/cdrom.RAID disks Linux uses the ext3 filesystem type which has journaling feature.6.Checking status of automount To check whether automount is running in the system or not type the following command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# /etc/rc.1.1. RAID0 (striping). 3.During installation . Currently.1.6.

The value of n2 is equal to the number of physical devices which forms the raid device /dev/md0. enables. remove it from the raid array or add it to raid array.-raid devices=3 /dev/sda0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 3. 3.Using mdadm command To create the RAID device use the mdadm command. 5. To create a raid device /dev/md0 of level 1 using the hard disks /dev/sda0.-create /dev/md0 . On that panel select create a software raid partition button. filesystem type. assembles and monitors the raid devices.6. Create the partition with software raid as the filesystem type from the raid options panel select create a raid device button Enter the mount point. raid device. 1. and 10.-level=n1 . mdadm command is all purpose command for raid devices.2. z z z z z On the disk druid menu selecting the raid button launches the raid options panel. Raid array means the physical devices which together makes a logical raid device.-level=1 . The raid devices information can be monitored.53 During installation of Red Hat Linux the RAID devices can be created using the disk druid partition manager. The hard-disk-device name is name of the devices separated by spaces. The values of n1 can be 0./dev/sda2 use the following command mdadm . raid level information on the raid device panel.1. The format of the mdadm command for creating raid devices is mdadm . It creates./dev/sda1. The raid device name will be /dev/md0 if the first raid device is being created and so on.-raid devices=n2 hard-disk-device-name n1 is a number which denotes the raid level of the raid device. This creates the raid devices.3.Other uses of mdadm The mdadm can be used to mark a device of a raid array to be marked as failed. viewed using the mdadm command after the installation. 4.1. The various format of the mdadm command are mdadm raid-device-name -f hard-disk-device-name .6.-create raid-device-name . 6.

4.7.Creating A Logical Volume Group To create a Logical volume group at first physical volume is initialized.-details raid-device-name 3.1.1. The command used for the purpose is given below mdadm . The pvcreate command is used to initialize the partition for use by logical volume utilities.Information about a raid device The mdadm command is also used to see the detailed information about an active raid device. To mark the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example as failure the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -r hard-disk-device-name is used to remove the device. To remove the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -a hard-disk-device-name is used to add the device as a spare. The format of pvcreate command is pvcreate hard-disk-partition-name To initialize the partition /dev/sda5 of the hard disk run the command [root@localhost ~]# pvcreate /dev/sda5 . To add the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda2 3.7.Logical Volume Group Logical volume group support is provided in Red Hat Linux.54 to mark the device as failed. 3.6.

. To create the new volume group my_vol_grp for the /dev/sda5 of the above example use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgcreate my_vol_grp /dev/sda5 Volume group "my_vol_grp" successfully created To view the attributes of the volume group created use the command vgdisplay..55 Physical volume "/dev/sda5" successfully created Then add the physical volume thus created to the new volume group using the command vgcreate or added to an existing volume group using the command vgextend.. vgextend volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 ...Volume group --VG Name System ID Format Metadata Areas lvm2 1 my_vol_grp Metadata Sequence No 1 VG Access VG Status read/write resizable ....... The format of the command vgdisplay is vgdisplay volume-group-name For example to view the attributes of the volume group my_vol_grp use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgdisplay my_vol_grp --.. The format of command vgcreate and vgextend is vgcreate volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 …...

77 GB 4. In the second case space on which the logical group is to be created is given as the total space expressed in MB. The format of the command lvcreate is lvcreate -l %VG or %FREE volume-group-name lvcreate -L G or M or K volume-group-name In the first case the space on which the logical group is to be created is expressed as the percentage of the total space of the volume group or the percentage of the total space of the free space.00 MB 2500 0/0 2500 / 9.77 GB 3I5EmB-es47-Deqz-hN9w-eUaK-u1i6-tMSCoW To create a new logical volume in the volume group the command lvcreate is used. To create the logical volume group on the my_vol_grp volume group created earlier use the command [root@localhost dev]# lvcreate -L 9.56 MAX LV Cur LV Open LV Max PV Cur PV Act PV VG Size PE Size Total PE Alloc PE / Size Free PE / Size VG UUID 0 0 0 0 1 1 9. GB.7G my_vol_grp . M means MB and K means KB). KB (G means GB.

[root@localhost dev]# lvdisplay /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 --.57 Rounding up size to full physical extent 9.Logical volume --LV Name VG Name LV UUID LV Write Access LV Status # open LV Size Current LE Segments Allocation /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 my_vol_grp CaD0Bp-Czo8-fCbu-QXi5-d0I1-LHS3-TwJvVw read/write available 0 9.7.Remove a logical volume The lvremove command is used for this purpose.2. The format is lvremove /dev/volume-group/logical-volume-name . To display the information about the logical volume thus created use the lvdisplay command. It will contain an entry lvol0.70 GB Logical volume "lvol0" created The above commands create the logical volume successfully. To check the logical volume created view the contents of the directory /dev/my_vol_grp.70 GB 2484 1 inherit 0 Read ahead sectors Block device 253:0 3.

3. To remove all the logical volumes in a volume group use lvremove /dev/volume-group 3.7.Remove a volume group The command vgremove is used for this purpose. viewing and editing the information about the volume group and logical volume.Logical volume management utility Red Hat offers graphical utility to achieve all the functions performed above like creating a volume group. creating a logical volume.Remove a physical volume The command pvremove is used for this purpose.4.58 To remove logical volume logical-volume-name.5.7. removing volume group and logical volume. pvremove physical-volume 3. To invoke the Logical Volume Management utility run the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-lvm . vgremove volume-group-name 3.7.

Modified) is used to install and update the software packages in rpm format from software repositories on the web. 4.d. Red Hat offers the luxury of maintaining the package in a simple and efficient way. There are many options available to the user yum. The uninitialized entries are the normal partitions of the hard disks and the volume group shows the volume group created for example this window shows the volume group my_vol_grp and within the volume group the logical volume lvol0 is listed. 4. .conf.2.PACKAGE MANAGEMENT 4.conf and the configuration files in the directory /etc/yum. User can use the buttons edit properties to edit the properties of the logical volume.59 In the above utility the left hand panel shows the volume groups and the uninitialized entries. and graphical utilities. The yum uses the configuration file /etc/yum.1.Using yum yum (Yellow Dog Updater .Overview A good operating system should allow the user to install and update software with ease. rpm.

keepcache options value if 0 causes the headers and cache files to be deleted after successful installation and value 1 retains the files. The format of sample configuration file /etc/yum.log exactarch=1 obsoletes=1 gpgcheck=1 plugins=1 metadata_expire=1800 cachedir mentions the directory which yum uses as the cache memory that is storage for storing temporary file.d.60 The yum command checks the configuration files and searches the locations mentioned in the configuration files for the package which is needed to be updated or installed by yum. The files in the directory /etc/yum.repos.conf is [main] cachedir=/var/cache/yum keepcache=0 debuglevel=2 logfile=/var/log/yum.ls . The log file where yum writes the log information. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost etc]# cd yum. Each file represents the location of the packages. The option gpgcheck if 1 forces yum to check the gpg keys of the packages and if 0 the gpg keys are not checked.repos.d contain the location on the web which yum searches for the packages.

The file will be in the below form [fedora] name=Software-Server baseurl=give the http address of the server mirrorlist=give address of the mirror location enabled=1 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=location of the gpg key file.repo fedora-updates-testing. The general format of the command is yum option package-name In case of some options yum don't need package name so the format becomes yum option Option install update Description Installs a package Updates a package usage yum install package-name yum update package-name yum check-update check-update Checks whether an update is available for the packages installed in the system .repo livna.repocp livna-devel.61 fedora-development. The yum command takes a number of inputs.repo livna-testing.repo fedora.repo Each file corresponds to a software repository on web.repo fedora.repo fedora-updates.repocp fedora-updates.

-F rpm -F package-name Upgrade a previously installed package.Using rpm A lot number of Red Hat software exists in rpm format. If any previous version of package is not installed then the package is installed. and uninstall the rpm software. The rpm command can be used to install. -e rpm -e package-name Erases a package from system -q rpm -q package-name Queries about a package -V rpm -V package-name Verify an installed package against its original software package. Option Usage -i -U description rpm – i package-name Install a package rpm -U package-name Updates package already installed on the system. verify.62 remove Removes the package and any dependent package from the system yum remove package-name erase Same as remove Same as remove 4. If the in- . It is very easy to install the rpm software packages by using the rpm command. upgrade.3.

63 stalled package matches with original software package then there is no output. The format is [root@localhost rpm]# rpm -qvv python D: opening db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages joinenv D: opening db index D: locked db index D: opening db index D: opening db index /var/lib/rpm/Packages rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Name rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys rdonly mode=0x0 D: read h# 1353 Header sanity check: OK D: ========== DSA pubkey id b44269d0 4f2a6fd2 (h#1353) D: read h# 741 Header V3 DSA signature: OK. -v rpm -v Prints verbose information -vv rpm -vv Prints lots of verbose information -h rpm -h Prints # marks during the package processing using rpm. key ID 4f2a6fd2 python-2. and -h is used with the other options.5-12. If the rpm command is to be used with two options then use this form usually the option -v. -vv.fc7 . 50 # are printed when 100% processing is done.

4. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system.tar. The option -q and -vv are used together. tgz. The two commands can be combined into one command tar xvfz realplay.gz . If the software is installed it prints the information about the software.bz2 format. In above case it queries the database to get the information about the python rpm package. 4.gz. To uncompress the packages with tar.tar.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user level rpm configuration file. The packages need to be uncompressed and then the source code is to be build using the.gz extension use the commands gunzip realplay. and tar. It also uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information. The configuration file .tar and then use the command tar xvf realplay.gz This forms realplay.Using make The software packages are available in the tar.64 D: closed db index D: closed db index D: closed db index /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: closed db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: May free Score board((nil)) In above example rpm queries the rpm database to find out whether the python software is installed. /configure. make and make install commands.tar generates directory realplay. The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc.

4. The command make install installs the package on the system.bz2 It forms the directory realplay. To invoke the Package Manager enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost redhat]# system-config-packages .bz2 format then use the command bzip2 -d realplay.tar After uncompressing the package change the working directory of the terminal to the directory realplay Now to install the package run the commands ./configure make make install The . If the source code is in tar.tar.Package Manager package manager is a graphical utility which gathers the information about the packages available over the web for update and installation.65 generates directory realplay. The make command makes the package for the system. It searches the software repositories which have been defined in the yum configuration files.5./configure command configures the package for the platform of the system.

66 On the browse tab user can browse for the packages available over the web in different categories. available package.Creating User Account The useradd command is used to create a new user. After choosing for the packages which need to be installed the user can decide to apply the changes made on the panel. The general format of the useradd command is useradd options user-name .USER AND GROUP ADMINISTRATION 5.2. On the search tab user can search for a package and on the list tab the user gets the listing of all the package. Group account can also be created after installation.1.Overview Linux is a multi user operating system. 5. If the changes are applied then the packages are downloaded from web and are installed. and installed package depending upon the option box chosen by the user. It is also used to update default values used while creating a new user. One more user account is asked to create (user may choose to create the account or skip). Each user belongs to a group account. User account can also be created after installation. 5. During installation root user account has to be created (root user is administrator of the system).

The third form is used to view the default values which will be used while creating a user account. To view the default values enter the following command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/bash SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes Simplest form of useradd command is useradd user-name If this command is run useradd creates the user account by using the default values. relative to the # home directory.defs for the default values to be used while creating the user. useradd reads the file /etc/login. # QMAIL_DIR is for Qmail .or name of file. MAIL_DIR takes #precedence. The sample /etc/login.67 useradd -D options useradd -D The first form is used to create a new user while the second form is used to override the default options used while creating a new user. If you _do_ define both.defs file is # *REQUIRED* #Directory where mailboxes reside.

PASS_MIN_LEN Minimum acceptable password length. # # # # PASS_MAX_DAYS 99999 PASS_MIN_DAYS 0 PASS_MIN_LEN 5 PASS_WARN_AGE 7 # # Min/max values for automatic uid selection in useradd # UID_MIN UID_MAX # # Min/max values for automatic gid selection in groupadd 500 60000 PASS_MIN_DAYS Minimum number of days allowed #between password changes.68 # #QMAIL_DIR MAIL_DIR #MAIL_FILE Maildir /var/spool/mail . . PASS_WARN_AGE Number of days warning given before a #password expires.mail # Password aging controls: # #PASS_MAX_DAYS Maximum number of days a password may #be used.

UMASK 077 # This enables userdel to remove user groups if no members exist. . owned by # the user to be removed (passed as the first argument). # the permission mask will be initialized to 022.69 # GID_MIN GID_MAX # # If defined. This option is overridden with the -m flag #on # useradd command line. If not specified. this command is run when removing a user. we do. # CREATE_HOME yes 500 60000 # The permission mask is initialized to this value. # #USERDEL_CMD /usr/sbin/userdel_local # # If useradd should create home directories for users by default # On RH systems. # It should remove any at/cron/print jobs etc. # USERGROUPS_ENAB yes # Use MD5 or DES to encrypt password? Red Hat use MD5 by #default.

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MD5_CRYPT_ENAB yes So if a user is created with the command [root@localhost ~]# useradd user1 Then a directory user1 is created in /home, shell is /bin/bash, mailbox lies in /var/spool/mail directory and the contents of the /etc/skel directory is copied in the /home/user1 directory. /etc/skel contains the login and application startup scripts. The contents of the /etc/skel are viewed using ls -la command. [root@localhost skel]# ls -la total 80 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 2009-01-13 22:20 . drwxr-xr-x 138 root root 12288 2009-01-13 22:53 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 33 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_logout -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 176 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_profile -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 124 2007-02-12 20:48 .bashrc -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 500 2007-05-23 19:45 .emacs drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:21 .kde drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:08 .xemacs -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 658 2007-03-06 01:54 .zshrc .bash_logout,.bash_profile,and .bashrc contains the user specific options and aliases which is used by the bash shell each time the bash shell starts up..kde contains the kde desktop application options. The .bashrc file can be used by user to customize user's shell environment. The sample .bashrc file is # .bashrc # Source global definitions

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if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then . /etc/bashrc fi # User specific aliases and functions If the file /etc/bashrc exists then the file is executed./etc/bashrc contains the global options to the bash shell. The options in /etc/bashrc apply to all users using bash shell. The values in /etc/bashrc can be overridden using the .bashrc file. Much information needed to create user account is taken from the file /etc/profile. It sets the hostname, histsize of the shell, shell environment variables like PATH,USER,LOGNAME,and INPUTRC etc. The /etc/profile file also looks in the directory /etc/profile.d for the files which contain aliases and environment variables for use by the user. General format The default values used while creating a user account can be overridden by passing those values from shell. The format of useradd command is useradd -c “comment” -d home directory path -g group name -p password -s shell -u userid [root@localhost ~]# useradd -c "new user" -d /home/user2 -g user1 -s /bin/csh user2 When a user account is created an entry corresponding to the user name for example user1,user2 is created in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow file. An entry is also added when a new group is created for example user1. Below is the content of /etc/passwd filesystem user1:x:502:502::/home/user1:/bin/bash user2:x:503:502:new user:/home/user2:/bin/csh /etc/shadow file contains the user name and the encrypted password of the user. The entry of /etc/group file is user1:x:502: Changing default values

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The command useradd -D -b home directory name -s shell -g group can be used to change the default values used while creating new user account. Below command is used to change the shell to /bin/tcsh from /bin/bash [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D -s /bin/tcsh [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/tcsh SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes
5.3.Modifying user account

usermod command is used to modify the user information. The general format of usermod command is usermod -c “comment” -d home-directory-name -g group-name -l login-name -s shell -u user-id
5.4.Deleting user account

userdel command is used to delete the user account. userdel user-name this deletes the entry corresponding to the user name from /etc/passwd file and /etc/shadow. To delete the home directory along with the account following command is used userdel -r user-name

73 5.5.Group Administration

5.5.1.Adding New Group groupadd command is used to add new group. If no options are specified on the command line default values are used. The format of groupadd command is groupadd -g group-id groupadd-r option Second command is used to add administrative groups. Administrative group and users have ids below 500.The file /etc/gshadow is used to store the group's password. 5.5.2.Modifying group information groupmod command is used to modify existing group information. groupmod -g new-group-id -n new-group-name. 5.5.3.Deleting group groupdel command is used to delete group. It deleted the entry of group from the files like /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
5.6.Using User Manager

The user manager utility is used to perform all the tasks discussed above using the graphical interface. To invoke the user manager utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-users

74 It can be used to add . The information can be edited on the below panel and changes can be saved.modify and delete user and group information. The below panel is generated. . To modify existing user information click on the user name and then use the properties button.

click on the add user button. The below window is thrown and the information of new user can be entered. .75 To create a new user.

Changing user password The password of user can be changed by entering the command passwd.and G (gigabyte) form.76 5. passwd user-name if the user-name is not mentioned then it is assumed that user wants to change root user's password. The size of files contained in a subfolder is also displayed .1.Space Usage The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a directory.6. . 5. The command prompts for root user's password and then for the new password.7.M(megabytes). The format of the command is du folder-name if the option -h is used the command displays the size of files and subfolders in K (kilobytes). The password needs to be entered twice.

SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 6. During installation the root account is must to create. The format of the command is df filesystem If the filesystem option is not used on command line then df displays the amount of space available in all the mounted filesystems of the system.kde 8.kde/Autostart 12K /home/user1/. .77 [root@localhost ~]# du -h /home/user1 8. [root@localhost ~]# df Filesystem /dev/sda11 /dev/sda12 /dev/sda10 /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on 9920592 2390424 7018100 26% / 4956284 141220 4559232 4% /opt 9920592 4643932 4764592 50% /usr 16479668 384520 15244508 3% /home 101086 383428 18499 77368 20% /boot 0 383428 0% /dev/shm 6.0K /home/user1/. The root user is administrator account on Red Hat Linux.xemacs 44K /home/user1 The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem.1.0K /home/user1/.Overview The root user is can perform all the tasks on the system.

2. Outside that terminal he won't have the privilege of user1)./sbin/nologin refuses login from the user. There are some administrative accounts which are automatically created by Linux but the user accounts cannot be used to log into the system as they are defined with the /sbin/nologin.Using the su Using the su command a user can also get privilege of root user but the user will be prompted for the root user's password.1.78 6. The format of the su command is su – user-name If user2 has entered this command in terminal then he will have the privilege of user-name (he can perform all actions which user1 can perform using the terminal in which he entered the above command. If he enters the password correctly then he gets the privilege of root user else he won't get the privilege.2.2. The user id and group id of the root user is 0.2. 6.The su command The su command is used to change the user id and group id of the user issuing the command to that of user mentioned on the su command.Getting Administration Rights 6. Te user and group ids below 500 are reserved for the administrative users. The user accounts are listed in the file /etc/passwd. Below is the sample /etc/passwd file root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin .

/sbin/iptables. /sbin/iwconfig. /usr/bin/wvdial. /usr/bin/net. The privilege can be granted by the root user only.adm.Other uses must have given privilege to use those commands. /sbin/sfdisk./sbin and /usr/sbin directory The directory /sbin and /usr/sbin contain administrative commands. Only root user can use the commands .2. /sbin/ifconfig.4. /sbin/parted. /sbin/mii-tool ## Installation and management of software Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm.79 The users bin. ## Networking Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route.Administrative commands 6.and mail are defined with /sbin/nologin so those user accounts cannot be used to login into system./etc/sudoers file The file /etc/sudoers file defines group of similar command under an alias name. /sbin/partprobe.. /usr/bin/rfcomm.2. For example ## Command Aliases ## These are groups of related commands. 6.lp. /sbin/dhclient. 6. /sbin/chkconfig ## Updating the locate database Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/sbin/updatedb ## Storage Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk.3.1. The root user must be created on a Linux machine and all other user accounts in above sample are automatically created. /bin/mount.2.daemon.3. /bin/ping.. /usr/bin/yum ## Services Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service. /bin/umount . /usr/bin/up2date.

Then in the file /etc/sudoers different groups are defined with different levels of privilege. software. SOFTWARE. ## service management apps and more.80 At first command aliases are defined in the /etc/sudoers file. PROCESSES. DRIVERS ## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands # %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Same thing without a password # %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL ## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the ## cdrom as root # %users ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom./sbin/sfdisk. ## Allow root to run any commands anywhere root ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking./bin/umount. The explanation is any user can use mount command to view the filesystems currently mounted on the system but only root can use it to mount a filesystem. # %sys ALL = NETWORKING./bin/mount. LOCATE. Since normal users can not use commands in /sbin directory that is why mount command is in /bin directory. STORAGE. /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom ## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system # %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now . In above case the command mount is in directory /bin. STORAGE is defined for the commands /sbin/fdisk. SERVICES. DELEGATING.

daemon The entry jack is made in /etc/group file.adm. The format of the command is .jack adm:x:4:root.bin.3. Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group.bin. Now the user jack can use the command rpm to install any software prefixing the command rpm with sudo for example sudo rpm -i vlc 6. The general format of the command is chown owner:group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner.adm.daemon daemon:x:2:root. Suppose a user jack is to be given the privilege of group sys then uncomment the line #%sys using the /sbin/visudo command.bin. Then open the file /etc/group and add the user jack on line corresponding to the group sys root:x:0:root bin:x:1:root.daemon sys:x:3:root.81 The file /etc/sudoers should be edited using the /sbin/visudo command.Changing owner and group The chown command is used to change the owner or/and group of a file. The chgrp command is used to change the group of a file. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens..

.Using System Monitor The system information can be viewed using the System Monitor utility.1.82 chgrp group-name file-name changes the group of file-name to group.Monitoring System performance 6.4.deleting. The system administration can be divided into several parts z z z z z z Managing user accounts (creating.modifying user and group accounts) (discussed before) managing services to be run in a runlevel (discussed before) Updating existing software and installing new software (discussed before) Monitoring system performance Automating tasks Managing and tuning kernel 6. To start the system monitor utility follow these steps on desktop go to system--> then go to administration-->then click on System Monitor.4.

and also change the priority of the process. . Using the filesystems tab the filesystems currently mounted on the system are displayed.83 On the processes tab the user can see the listing of all the processes of the system at that moment. The user can click on a process and then can end process by clicking on the End Process button. A user can also choose which information he/she wants to see for the processes using the Edit->preferences option of the menu . On the preferences window the user can choose the time interval after which the information is to be refreshed. View Process. Using the Edit menu option the user can Start Process. End Process. Using the view menu option user can choose the option to see only processes started by him (his process) or all process or active processes on the system. Kill Process.

6. 6. The priority of the process. The top command gives various information about the system z z z z z z number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes. no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number ). the command used for invoking the process.Using w command The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them. no of processes active.3.4.3.4.2.Using top The top utility is started by typing the top command in the terminal window. . no of processes sleeping.% memory usage.Other commands There are several commands available in Linux which can be used to view the system information.1. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system.percent CPU usage.84 6.4.

Under the CPU heading the CPU related information.---swap-r b swpd free buff cache -io---. [root@localhost ~]# uptime 23:17:44 up 32 min. Under the io heading blocks received from block devices(bi).Using uptime The uptime command is used to show the time for which system is running. buffer memory. load average: 0. Under the memory heading it displays amount of virtual memory used(swpd). 0.00s w 6.free memory.19. 0.3.19 6.19 USER TTY FROM root root pts/0 :0. load average: 0. under swap heading amount of memory swapped in from disk(si) and amount of memory swapped out(so). cache memory.no of processes in sleep(under sub heading b).-----cpu-----si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st 0 0 0 218808 20736 258632 0 0 144 38 114 435 7 1 89 2 0 Under the proc heading it displays the no of processes waiting for run time (under r sub heading).00s 0.00s find /home 23:08 1.--system-. 0.blocks sent to block devices(bo).21. 2 users.Using vmstat The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics. [root@localhost ~]# vmstat procs --memory----.03s 0.22. .04s 0.85 [root@localhost ~]# w 23:17:20 up 32 min.2. 0.3.4.0 LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT 22:48 10:07 0. Load average of the system and number of users logged on the system currently.3.4.0 pts/1 :0. 2 users.10.

3.4. The format of the kill command is kill -s signal-name pid z z z if the pid is 0 then all process in current process are signaled.Using kill The kill command is used to end a process. [root@localhost ~]# free total Mem: 766860 used 550340 266068 0 free 216520 500792 shared 0 buffers 22476 cached 261796 -/+ buffers/cache: Swap: 819272 819272 6. If the pid is 1 then processes with pid >1 re signaled if pid is > 1 then the process with that id is signaled. 6.The system log viewer is launched from desktop using SYSTEM-->ADMINISTRATION-->SYSTEM LOG.3.86 6.4.Using free It gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system.4. .5.Log information The user can see the log information of the system using the System Log viewer .4.

networking modules.87 On the left hand side the list of log files is displayed. For example the file /var/log/boot.fc7]# ls build modules. Clicking on the cron entry on left displays the log information about the jobs scheduled using the cron utility on the right panel of the above utility.3194. The drivers can be inserted.kernel Modules All the modules configured into the kernel are located in the directory /lib/modules/*/. The content of the directory is [root@localhost 2. 7. The * is replaced by the output of uname -r command.deleted.6. 7.21-1.symbols .Overview Linux kernel is heart of Linux operating system. User can click on the name of files to view the log information.2. The hardware drivers are installed to interface with the hardware.KERNEL SERVICES AND CONFIGURATION 7. The hardware drivers are maintained as the modules of the kernel.dep modules. The log information about the cups can be seen by expanding the tree under the cups entry on the left panel of the utility.and the information about the drivers can be viewed.1.log contains the log information of boot time.

networking contains the name of the drivers for the network devices.2.1.pcimap modules.isapnpmap modules. 7.iptable_nat The modinfo command can be used to view information about any of the loaded module into the kernel.usbmap source modules.inputmap modules.ofmap kernel modules. The file modules.ko GPL and additional rights description: Intel Graphics .6.scsi updates modules.ccwmap modules.fc7/kernel/drivers/char/drm/i915.libata modules.21-1.ieee1394map modules.alias modules. For example to view information about the driver i915 of above case use the command [root@localhost ~]# modinfo i915 filename: license: /lib/modules/2.88 extra modules. The file/proc/module contains the listing of modules currently loaded into the kernel.3194.Modules Loaded into Kernel To view the modules currently loaded into the kernel use the command lsmod.seriomap weak-updates The kernel subdirectory of the above output contains the drivers currently part of the kernel. [root@localhost ~]# lsmod Module i915 drm Size Used by 25793 3 78037 4 i915 7745 1 ipt_MASQUERADE iptable_nat nf_nat 11461 1 22125 2 ipt_MASQUERADE.

ko /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1. Let module2 is module dependent on module1 then if the command modprobe module1 is executed then the modules module1 and module2 both are inserted as the module2 is dependent on module1.Inserting module into kernel Sometimes a user might need to install a hardware device if the hardware driver is not part of the kernel. 7. 9274BE575209BE18EC18D84 drm 7.and remove a module from the kernel.2. Inc. The module dependencies are listed into the modules.Using modprobe command The modprobe command can be used to insert a module into kernel .4.dep file located in the directory /lib/modules/uname -r/.ko . The user has to insert the driver module into the kernel. The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command.2. The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel.Removing module from kernel The rmmod command is used to remove a module from the kernel. The format of the command is rmmod module-name 7.3. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. If module2 is dependent on module1 then the file contents will be /lib/modules/*/kernel/crypto/module2.2.89 author: srcversion: depends: Tungsten Graphics.2.ko: /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1.

conf file is alias eth0 via-rhine options snd-intel8x0 index=0 install binfmt-0000 /bin/true The option alias defines an alternate name eth0 for the via-rhine.3. The dependent module is on left side and the independent module is on the right side of the semicolon. The sample modprobe.2.The ps command The ps command is all purpose command to get information about the processes running on the system.3. 7.1. The install option is used to run the commands defined after the module name.3.Changing priority of process The renice command is used to change the priority of the running process. But if the command insmod is used then the module1 is only inserted.d.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe. The command modprobe -r module-name is used to remove the modules from the kernel. The modprobe command looks in the directory /lib/modules/*/ and also for the configuration file /etc/modprobe. The format of the renice command is renice priority -p pid of process -u user-name -g group-id . In above case if the command modprobe binfmt-0000 is run then the command /bin/true is executed.90 : In above example the modules module1 and module2 are listed using fully qualified path name. There are many options available for the ps command. 7. The command ps aux is used to display all the processes currently running on the system.Process and Kernel Information 7. The option options define the options which will be used when the module is inserted into the kernel.

.......fc7 (kojibuilder@xenbuilder4.com) (gcc version 4.. The format of the command is dmesg -c -n level The -c option clears the kernel ring buffer after printing -n option sets the level of messages which will be printed. ..1.. [root@localhost modprobe.2 20070502 (Red Hat 4.91 If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes and if issued for group then the process priority of all processes owned by the group is changed and if issued for process id then the process priority is changed.Using dmesg It is used to examine and print the boot up message.redhat..21-1.... If the value of level is 1 then the serious error messages are only printed. After the execution the kernel ring buffer gets clear now if the command dmesg is run again then there will be no output... The user can use the command to capture the messages..3194.phx......fedora..1.. 7..2-12)) #1 SMP Wed May 23 22:35:01 EDT 2007 BIOS-provided physical RAM map: sanitize start sanitize end copy_e820_map() start: 0000000000000000 size: 000000000009fc00 end: 000000000009fc00 type: 1 ... .d]# dmesg -c Linux version 2.. is the output of command..3..6..3.

authpriv.* /dev/console # Log anything (except mail) of level info or higher. uucp.Syslogd The syslogd supports the system logging as well as kernel message trapping.conf.none # The authpriv file has restricted access.none.info. syslogd supports the system logging. mail.92 7.* /var/log/boot.log local7. The syslogd and klogd comprises the sysklogd package.conf file # Log all kernel messages to the console.* /var/log/secure /var/log/messages # Log all the mail messages in one place. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog.news.3.none.crit # Save boot messages also to boot. #kern.cron. # Logging much else clutters up the screen.4.none. Below is the sample /etc/syslog.* /var/log/cron -/var/log/maillog # Everybody gets emergency messages *.news.log /var/log/spooler . authpriv.mail.emerg * # Save news errors of level crit and higher in a special file.* # Log cron stuff cron. # Don't log private authentication messages! *.

If . The /etc/at. The at command cannot be used by all the users.and cron facilities are used to schedule a job at a specified time. For example the PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) related messages are logged in this file. 7.notice /var/log/news/news.Using at The at command is used to schedule a job at a time and the atd daemon runs the job scheduled by the at command.Automating Tasks -- A user can schedule to run a job at a specified time. The /etc/at.4.4. The at.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. The cron job messages are logged in the file /var/log/cron The file name can be changed by the root user if root wants to log the information into different file. If the file is not present then klogd uses a system call to obtain kernel messages. The source for the kernel message is the /proc/kmsg file.1. The klogd captures the kernel messages. The process id(PID) of the klogd daemon is defined in the file /var/run/klogd.allow file is first checked for the user name who can use the at command if the file is not present then the file /etc/at. There are two files which determine which users can use the at command.=err news.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command.deny is checked to see the users who cannot use the at command.=crit news.err /var/log/news/news.notice In the above file /var/log/secure file is defined to contain the authorization and security related messages.pid. 7.93 # # INN # news. The klogd daemon always runs on a running system and traps any messages which kernel generates.crit /var/log/news/news.batch. The root user can use the at command. The file /etc/at.

The jobs which are listed have an on right are in at queue. and the jobs with b on right are in batch queue.94 both the files are not present then only root user can run the at command.deny is jack mark The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespace in the user name.4. The sample format of the /etc/at. The command at time-specification is used to schedule the job at that time.4. 7. the jobs which have = on right are jobs currently executing.using pipe A list of command can be scheduled using pipe for example [root@localhost ~]# ls -la | at now+5min job 1 at Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 to schedule a number of commands write each command separated by semicolons.allow or /etc/at.1. [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 4 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root Fri Jan 16 23:03:00 2009 a root at -m sends mail to the user when the job completes even if the job has no output.if invoked by other users the scheduled job of only that user is displayed. The three ways in which jobs can be scheduled are 7. The at -l command is used to list all the scheduled jobs(if root user runs this command then scheduled job of all users is displayed).Using at prompt .2.1.1.

95 The at prompt is presented to the user if at time-specification is entered for example [root@localhost ~]# at now+20min at> ps at> du at> <EOT> press CTRL+D to come out of at prompt.1. The contents of the file(commands in the file name is executed at time specification). Same as at -l atrm – command is used to delete a scheduled job. 7.4. [root@localhost ~]# at -l 4 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:46:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root use atrm to delete job 4.3. In above example ps and du both are scheduled.Using file The at -f filename time-specification command is used to give the command using the file filename. . The format is atrm jobid to delete the job 4 in below case use the command at -l gives listing of all scheduled jobs. atq – The atq command is used to list the scheduled job.

[root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root The outputs of the commands are mailed to the owner of the job after successful completion of the job.The batch scheduled job is run by the atd daemon. The batch command invokes the at command prompt [root@localhost ~]# batch at> df at> du at> <EOT> job 5 at Fri Jan 16 22:58:00 2009 The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at.2. 7.8.96 [root@localhost ~]# atrm 4 the command atq gives listing of all scheduled jobs.4. The sample file for the commands scheduled using the batch command is #!/bin/sh # atrun uid=0 gid=0 # mail root 0 . The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled. The job runs when the load average of the system is below .Using batch command The batch command is used to schedule a job.

The root user can access cron facility.. The name of the file is same as the name of the user.. export SHELL . The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file... export SSH_AGENT_PID HOSTNAME=localhost... export HOSTNAME DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID=. If both files don't exists then only root user can use cron facility../etc/cron.deny file is searched.97 umask 22 SSH_AGENT_PID=2866....4. The crontab jobs are executed by the cron daemon..localdomain..allow file is first searched by the cron facility if the file does not exists then the /etc/cron. export DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID SHELL=/bin/bash.. The users can be given access to cron using two files.. .Using cron The cron facility is also used to schedule the jobs. A text editor can be used to create a file-name.... [root@localhost at]# crontab -e no crontab for root .cron file .. The format of the file is 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local ..allow file is used to list the users who can use the cron facility. The /etc/cron. The /etc/cron...3.using an empty one crontab: installing new crontab The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory... df du 7.deny lists the user names which are not allowed to access the cron facility...

[root@localhost at]# crontab -l 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local The crontab -r command is used to delete the crontab jobs.Mon.Jan. After the time fields the command field follows. The sample /etc/crontab file is SHELL=/bin/bash PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root HOME=/ # run-parts 01 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron. [root@localhost cron]# crontab -r [root@localhost cron]# crontab -l no crontab for root 7.hourly 02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron. fifth field is day of week(0-7).3./etc/crontab The file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file.Apr format is also used.daily .98 z z z z z z z The first field is minute (0-59) second field is hour (0-23) third field is day of month(0-31) fourth field is month (0-12). The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file.Feb.4.Tue format is also used. The command crontab -l is used to list all the crontab jobs.0 and 7 both are used for Sunday The field value * in the fields denotes all possible value.mar.1.Sun.

If the service is not enabled then the command chkconfig httpd on is used.4.99 22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron.and 5.daily. The mail is done to root user (MAILTO parameter).monthly The environment of the sub shell is set using this file. 8.Starting Apache The user should check whether the Apache web server is enabled in the runlevel or not. The apache web server is the most widely used web server.monthly are executed by the cron daemon.-list option is used to check whether the Apache web server is enabled or not [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The httpd service (the daemon corresponding to the Apache web server) is enable in runlevel 2.Overview The web server accepts the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol(HTTP) requests and sends a response to the client. The SHELL parameter sets the shell to /bin/bash. The apache web server source code is freely downloadable.2.weekly. The runparts define the time when the scripts in the directories /etc/cron. [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start Starting httpd: [ OK ] After starting the service check the working of Apache web server by typing the address http://localhost .and /etc/cron./etc/cron.3.1.weekly 42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron.WEB SERVER 8. /etc/cron. If the service is enabled in a runlevel use the command service httpd start to start the Apache Web Server. 8. The chkconfig .hourly.

. The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd..d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 2009-01-06 16:15 logs -> .d contains the configuration files relating to the languages( like Python..conf.../. The logs directory is symbolic link to /var/log/httpd directory which contains the httpd log information ./var/log/httpd drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:20 modsecurity.100 in the address bar of the Mozilla Firefox (web browser)./var/run The conf directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd. The directory contains main configuration file./usr/lib/httpd/modules lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 2009-01-06 16:15 run -> . sub directories and symbolic links to other directories.and PHP).. [root@localhost httpd]# ls -l total 36 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:01 conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:29 conf./.database(Mysql) and the authorization modules./.d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 27 2009-01-06 16:15 modules -> . The conf.Perl.

Main Configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. ServerRoot "/etc/httpd" The server root names the main directory where all the server information is kept.d directory. Configuration parameters for the main server (not virtual hosts but these parameters also set default values for all virtual hosts) Settings for virtual hosts. Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites # finding out what major optional modules you are running ServerTokens OS This hides the additional subcomponent modules from the remote sites.1. The file is divided into three parts.pid file which contains the PID of httpd daemon. The run directory contains the symbolic link to /var/run directory which contains the httpd.101 the modsecurity directory contains files relating to the security.Global Environment Configuration In the global environment configuration section the following attributes are set # Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents # we are running. http policy. 8. . # Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out. and log files are kept. The additional subcomponent configuration files reside in the /etc/httpd/conf. # ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's # configuration.conf file is main configuration file for Apache web server. z z z Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole. and protocols related.3. 8.3. The modules directory is symbolic link to the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory which contains the library files for the Apache web server. error.

d". The directory contains the configuration files for PHP.Perl.so LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest.The port number can be changed to any port number by the user.and Mysql etc. # Include conf. User apache Group apache .Python.d directory.102 # Timeout 120 The server will wait for 120 secs for a response and after that the connection will timeout. # Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or # ports.conf Loads the additional component support component files from the /etc/httpd/conf. # Load config files from the config directory "/etc/httpd/conf. in addition to the default Listen 80 In this case apache listens to port number 80.d/*.so The LoadModule loads the modules from the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory (the directory /etc/httpd/modules is a symbolic link to above directory). # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support # LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic.so LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file.

The user can set this to his/her user-name and group-name. # AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory # for additional configuration directives. # DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your # documents. The user account apache and the group account apache are automatically created (user don't create the accounts). 8. all requests are taken from this directory. ServerAdmin root@localhost In case of any information server wants to give then the information is send to the email address mentioned in the directive ServerAdmin. # DocumentRoot "/var/www/html" This is the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server. but # symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations. The email address can be edited if user wants so.Main server section # ServerAdmin: Your address. See also the AllowOverride # directive.html file and kept it in this directory and open the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index.html file will be displayed. By default. For example if you create an index.htaccess # . where problems with the server should be # e-mailed.2.3.103 The httpd server runs under the user apache and group apache. # AccessFileName .

notice. info. # <Files ~ "^\. The contents of htaccess file should not be visible to the clients who are accessing the server (people who are using web browser to view contents or pages on the server). The line Deny from all sets the access level that no user can be able to see the file .htpasswd files from being # viewed by Web clients. # alert. # LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.deny Deny from all </Files> The . warn.htaccess file won't give anything). # Proxy Server directives. In above case the warning messages will be logged in the file. Uncomment the following lines to # enable the proxy server: # <IfModule mod_proxy. crit.htaccess (the address in the web browser address bar corresponding to the .ht"> Order allow.htaccess file is used to control access to the directory.c> ProxyRequests On . # LogLevel warn The loglevel defines the messages which are to be logged. # Possible values include: debug.104 # The following lines prevent . emerg. error.htaccess and .

html for more details.allow Deny from all Allow from .org/docs/2.105 # <Proxy *> Order deny. In the above example if the Proxy Requests directive is OFF then apache will act as a cache server. # <IfModule mod_disk_cache. # # To enable a cache of proxied content.2/mod/mod_cache.apache.3. # See http://httpd.com.com </Proxy> The apache web server acts as proxy server if the above lines are uncommented. The permission level set for the proxy server in above case is the access is denied from all except .example. uncomment the following lines. The root directory for the cached files is /var/cache/mod_proxy.c> CacheEnable disk / CacheRoot "/var/cache/mod_proxy" </IfModule> # If the following lines are uncommented then the apache web server servers as a cache server.example.3. 8.Virtual hosts section # .

# #NameVirtualHost *:80 # <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host. To invoke the utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost conf]# system-config-httpd . In the following example the ServerName is set to dummy-host.4.example.example.example.com DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host.com. 8.com ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.com-error_log CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example.HTTP Server Configuration The HTTP Server Configuration is used to configure the HTTP server. So if a user requests a document in the domain ServerName then the documents or files from the directory /www/docs/dummy-host.106 # Use name-based virtual hosting. Each and every apache directive can be used within the VirtualHost.example.example.com ServerName dummy-host.com-access_log common </VirtualHost> The virtual host section is used to configure virtual hosting which supports more than one domain using a single web server system.com is fetched.example.

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The main tab is used to configure the server name and web master email address to add the ip address click on the add button.

The new address and the port can be added on the panel displayed. The user can choose to listen to all address option . Use the virtual host tab to configure the virtual host.

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The add button is used to add a new virtual host and the edit button is used to edit the properties of the virtual host highlighted on the left part of panel. the delete option can be used to delete the virtual host. If the user choose to edit the properties of a virtual host the below panel is displayed

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The user can use the tabs on top of the panel to configure the options. The general properties like virtual host name ,document root directory, web master email address can be configured on the general tab. The server tab on the main panel is used to configure the server lock file location, core directory where all the configuration files of the server will be kept, and the location of the pid file. The user and group under which the apache server is running can also be edited.

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The performance tab is used to configure the parameters which help in improve the performance of the apache web server. Parameters like connection timeout period ,maximum number of requests per connection are set here. These options are impact the performance of the apache web server.

9. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks.1.conf.111 9.Configuring Squid The directory /etc/squid contains the configuration files for squid server.Overview It is high performance proxy caching server for web clients with supporting HTTP.2. The main configuration file for the squid server is /etc/squid/squid.SQUID SERVER 9.and Gopher data objects. http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client requests.2.Network options Under the network options the user can define the socket addresses. The socket address can be defined in three forms: z z port alone hostname with port . Squid consists of a main server program squid.FTP. The squid configuration file is divided into sections 9.1.

4.out store.Log File and Cache directory section This section defines the directory which will be used as a cache directory.112 z IP address with port # Squid normally listens to port 3128 http_port 3128 9.2.log cache. For example #Default: cache_mem 8 MB This sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use).log . The cache dir /var/spool/squid contains the following files [root@localhost squid]# ls access.Neighbor selection algorithm option Under this section the user define the mapping of rules for the requests and neighbor which will be called if a request obeys the rule. #Default: cache_dir ufs /var/spool/squid This section also defines the format of the squid log files. For example hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ? means that when the URL consists of certain string of characters then the original server handles the request.Cache size options This section defines the options which control the cache size and swap memory used to handle the objects. 9.2.log squid.3.and negative cache objects(recent failed requests).2.2.hot objects(objects that are used often). 9.

0.0.255.0/8 acl SSL_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 80 acl Safe_ports port 21 acl Safe_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 70 acl Safe_ports port 210 # http # ftp # https # gopher # wais acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535 # unregistered ports acl Safe_ports port 280 acl Safe_ports port 488 acl Safe_ports port 591 acl Safe_ports port 777 # http-mgmt # gss-http # filemaker # multiling http acl CONNECT method CONNECT .pid.0/0.0.113 The squid pid is stored in the file /var/run/squid.0.1/255.0. 9.conf file acl all src 0.2.Access control section This section defines the access control.0. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file below is the example of acl tags from /etc/squid/squid.0.5.0. The acl tag is used to define access control.0 acl manager proto cache_object acl localhost src 127.255 acl to_localhost dst 127.255. By default no outside client is allowed to access the contents.

The manager can access the contents as defined by the second line. This entry can be edited to add more number of clients who can access the content. http_access allow localhost http_access deny all the above lines define that the localhost can only access the http content all others are denied.114 the first line gives name all to all the addresses. #Default: cache_effective_user squid The above line define that the effective user of the squid is squid user. The next lines define different ports with a name for example port 443 with name SSL_ports. # This file controls which servers may be managed by # the cachemgr. The configuration file for cache manager is /etc/squid/cachemgr. 9.3.6. The localhost name is given to the loopback interface. 9.cgi script # .Cache Manager The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs. Squid is an administrative user account created automatically. #Default: cache_mgr root Above line define that root user is mailed in case the cache dies. The configuration file controls which servers will be managed by the cache manager.Administrative parameters The administrative parameter defines the user under which squid will run .the user receiving mails in case cache dies etc.2.conf.

4. allowing # * and other shell wildcards. # # hostname is matched using shell filename matching. SQUID_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT=100 .cgi. The sample format of the file is # default squid options # -D disables initial dns checks. :* or :any matches # any port on the target server.115 # The file consists of one server per line on the format # hostname:port description # # Specifying :port is optional. localhost In the above example the localhost server is managed by the cache manager. uncomment this SQUID_OPTS="-D" # Time to wait for Squid to shut down when asked. Should not be necessary # most of the time.Squid Daemon The squid daemon receives the configuration information from the squid daemon configuration file /etc/sysconfig/squid. The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://server-name/cgibin/cachemgr. If not specified then # the default proxy port is assumed. If you most likely will not to have an # internet connection when you start squid. 9.

10.NFS SERVER 10. Starting squid: . Alternatively the command [root@localhost squid]# squid -k reconfigure causes the squid to read the configuration file again.Overview In organizations it is common that the files are kept at one server.1.d/squid restart Stopping squid: .d/squid start command.116 After making changes in the configuration file restart the squid daemon if the squid daemon is already running using the command [root@localhost squid]# /etc/init. The files are accessible by some computers on the intranet of the organization.Starting NFS service To start the NFS service enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# service nfs start Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] . [ OK ] [ OK ] if the squid daemon is not running then use /etc/init. The access to files is defined by rules set at the server machine.2. 10. NFS is example of a file server.

The format of the /etc/exports file entry is directory-name host-name(options) #comments directory name is the name of the directory which is shared with other computers on network.Format of hostname Multiple hostnames or lp address can be entered separated by blank.3. 10.com The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group. ? matches any one character and * matches any number of character.com but if the access should be restricted to computers with first name of 5 characters use files ?????.example.255. The host names are the computers which have right to access the files.1.? can also be used. One directory entry is done on one line.example. 192.3.123. The NIS group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the NIS group name. For example to give access to mynis group add entry . So for example if all the computers in the domain example.117 10.1. The combination of lp address and hostname can also be used.255.1/255.Sharing Folders The file /etc/exports contain the name of the folders which are to be shared.com should be allowed access to directory files then enter the entry files *. The options define security levels that is who can access and which users can access the directory.168.87 All the hosts from a particular network can also be entered using the ip address/net mask format.12.0 The wildcard characters *. The format of the entry is hostname1 hostname2 hostname1 hostname2 165.

example.insecure.com with options async.secure and all_squash is used. .Options format The valid options used in the /etc/exports file are secure – the client computer should connect using the port below 1024.So this option improves performance but increases chance of inconsistencies . Below is the sample /etc/exports file /home/vishnu *(sync. Other option is no_all_squash which causes no mapping to be done.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used.3.118 @mynis 10.all_squash) /home/user1 ?????.2.rw.and root_squash. The second entry makes the directory /home/user1 accessible to computers with five letter name in domain example. no_root_squash – the root user of client is treated as the root user of the server as well ( the uid/gid of root is not mapped to the anonymous uid and gid).secure.insecure.ro.com(async. root_squash – this option maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid.root_squash) In the first entry the directory /home/vishnu is made accessible by each computer (indicated by *) and options sync. all_squash – map uid and gid of all users to anonymous uid and gid.ro. rw – the clients can read the files on NFS volume and also write on the directory . The other option is ro which allows read operation only.rw. The sync option means server will respond to the request after the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk) so there is no chance of inconsistency. async – It responds to the request before the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk). The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid.

example. To mount the NFS directory the mount command can be used. -r reexport the directories -v verbose mode produces output or use the below command [root@localhost nfs]# service nfs restart Shutting down NFS mountd: Shutting down NFS daemon: Shutting down NFS quotas: Shutting down NFS services: Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: 10.4. z z z z -a option is used to export all directories -u option is used to unexport one or more directories.com:/home/user1 exporting *:/home/vishnu The exportfs -a -v command is used to export all directories listed in the /etc/export file and print verbose output.119 The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service. [root@localhost ~]# exportfs -a -v exporting ?????.Accessing the NFS directory [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] The NFS directory needs to be mounted before it can be accessed. For example to access the /home/vishnu directory enter the below command in the terminal .

120 [root@localhost nfs]# mount localhost:/home/vishnu /mnt/win This mounts the /home/vishnu directory on /mnt/win directory of the same system.NFS Server Configuration The NFS server configuration utility can be used to create the /etc/exports file using the graphical interface. To add a new directory for export click on the add button. User can also edit the properties of the directories already exported by selecting the .5. It is invoked using the below command [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-nfs It lists the two directories which are exported. The autofs facility can also be used to mount the NFS shared directories on demand.net Then restart the autofs service. For example to access the directory /home/vishnu the below command is used cd /net/localhost 10.master /net /etc/auto. To mount the NFS directories using the autofs use the following step add the below line in the /etc/auto.

The above panel is also displayed if the user wants to share a new directory (by clicking on the add button) but that time the panel will not contain any previous value. . The below panel is displayed which can be used to edit the options which are used to share the directory /home/vishnu.121 directory in the directory listing and click on the properties button. The server settings can also be edited by clicking on the server settings button The user can enter the port numbers in the text boxes of the panel to force NFS daemon for using these ports.

Using nfsstat The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity.all_squash.SAMBA SERVER 11.122 10.acl.async.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS server statistics.procfs-based interface to the mounted filesystems.hide.no_all_squash.mapping=identity.wdelay.anongid=65534) /home/vishnu *(ro.6.sync.anonuid=65534.etab.secure_locks. /proc/net/rpc/nfs -.insecure. use nfsstat -s to display server side information use nfsstat -c for client side information use nfsstat -n for NFS statistics use nfsstat -r for rpc statistics The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory.no _subtree_check. Windows operating system uses the SMB(Session Message Block) protocol for sharing files and printers.Overview samba is used if the network connected with the system comprising of the computers running the windows operating system.anonuid=65534. The files xtab.hide.root_squash. 11. It uses following files to present the output in user readable format z z z z z z z /proc/net/rpc/nfsd -.and rmtab files contain the information about the exported files.Samba Server Configuration The samba server configuration utility is used to configure the samba server on the system. To invoke the samba server configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-samba .com(rw.nocrossmnt.insecure.nocrossmnt.mapping=identity.example. The sample etab file is /home/user1 ?????.2. /proc/mounts -.no_subtree_check.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS client statistics.wdelay.anongid=65534) 11.secure_ locks.1.acl.root_squash.

kerberos realm.and new samba share. Set the value of the option to below values . The below panel is displayed. On the basic tab enter the work group name and the description of the work group. encrypt password and guest account. samba users . the authentication server. On the security tab the enter the following information the authentication mode.123 The panel can be used to configure the server settings. To edit the server setting click on the preferences menu and then to the server settings drop down choice.

Click on the new user button to display the below panel On the above panel enter the UNIX user name and windows user name (the UNIX user name and the windows user name are usually same). The passwords for the users are also entered on this panel.124 On the preferences menu list the samba user tab invokes the Samba Users panel which helps to add new samba users. After entering the user-name and password click on the add share button to display the below panel .

125 On the basic tab of create samba share the directory which is to be shared is entered. Enter the values and click on OK. The below panel displays the samba share created using the above procedure and values displayed in the example panels . On the access tab user can define who can access the share. If the visible is not checked then the share won't be visible.The writable option and visible option lets the user choose whether the clients can write to the directory (writable option) and whether it is visible(visible). The share can be made accessible to samba users (by checking the check box) or can be allowed to everyone by clicking on the option box allow access to everyone.If writable in not checked then the client can't write on the share. The share name for the directory is entered which can be any valid name and a description is added (you may write here anything).

The /etc/samba/smb.Samba configuration file The /etc/samba directory contains the configuration files for the samba server. To add the above /home/user1 directory to the share the below content is to be added in the /etc/samba/smb.3. The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of the samba users.126 11. The path of the shared directory is mentioned in the path entry.conf is the main configuration file of the samba server. .conf configuration file [user1] comment = user1 home directory path = /home/user1 writeable = yes . browseable = yes valid users = vishnu In above entry the user1 is the name of the share comment is the description added and writable option means the client have write access to the share and the users who can access the share are listed using the valid user’s entry.

0.Checking the service To check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be use the below command [root@localhost samba]# smbclient -L localhost Password: Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3.25-2.4. service smb start 11.Starting Samba service Use the below command to start the samba service. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu The left hand side denotes the UNIX user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name.127 The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users.fc7] Server --------Comment ------- .4.25-2.fc7] Sharename --------user1 IPC$ ---Disk IPC Type Comment ------user1 home directory IPC Service (demo sama server) Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3. 11.0.1.

128 LOCALHOST Workgroup --------MYGROUP demo sama server Master ------- when asked for password press the ENTER or RETURN key of the keyboard to login as anonymous user.3.conf file is # Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware .Starting vsftd Enter the below command to start the vsftpd service if it is not running [root@localhost ~]# service vsftpd start Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: 12.1.Configuring vsftpd [ OK ] The directory /etc/vsftpd contains the configuration and other options file for the vsftpd. The command displays all the shared directories on the system and also the workgroup created on the system. 12.Overview File Transfer Protocol is standard method of sharing files over the Internet. The sample vsftpd.allowed by default if you #comment this out).2.FTP SERVER 12. The vsftp is name given to Very Secured File Transfer Protocol. 12.conf. download files from the FTP server. The command can be used to check the working of the samba server and the samba share. . anonymous_enable=YES # # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in. The main configuration file for the vsftpd is /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. The users can connect to the FTP server and upload.

# Activate logging of uploads/downloads. userlist_enable is set to YES then vsftp don't allow users listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list to login through ftp. connect_from_port_20=YES # xferlog_enable directive is set to YES logs information about the upload and download events. xferlog_enable=YES # # Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 #(ftp-data). pam_service_name=vsftpd userlist_enable=YES the pam_service_name denotes the name of the service for the Pluggable Authentication Module. The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO.129 local_enable=YES # the parameter anonymous_enable is when set to YES then the anonymous user login is allowed by the ftp server. connect_from_port_20 if set to yes then port 20 is used for transfer of data by ftp. All the administrative users are listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list root bin . if set to NO then anonymous user login is not allowed. local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server.

130 daemon adm lp sync shutdown halt mail news uucp operator games nobody The vsftpd pam also looks for the user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers. 12. The file lists the user names who are not allowed to login through ftp. The file /var/log/vsftpd.ftp command prompt To start the ftp command prompt enter the below command [root@localhost log]# ftp ftp> ftp supports lot of commands like . The user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers are administrative users (they are same set of users as the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file).log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server.4.

12. bye – closes current connection and exits ftp. ls -.131 open hostname or ip address – connect to the computer identified by hostname or ip address close – close a connections pwd – shows name of current working directory on remote computer. cd – used to change directory on remote computer.Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration The Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility is used to configure the vsftpd daemon. To invoke the utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-vsftpd . lcd – to change to a directory on local system mkdir – to create a directory on remote system rename – rename a file or directory on remote computer get – copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system mget – same as get but multiple files at once put – copy a file from current directory on local system to current directory on remote system mput – same as put but multiple files at once.5.lists the content of a directory on remote computer.

Under server control tab user can start or stop the server view the log files.log. The users can view the directory list if or not can also be controlled. On network tab the user can define the network options. File names which match a user defined criteria can be made inaccessible and invisible to the clients. On logging tab the user can provide the files which will be used for logging the standard logging file is /var/log/vsftpd. on Users tab the way system users and the anonymous users will access the ftp server is defined. The active connection options and the passive connection options as well. The information which will be logged can also be defined. On the access control tab the user can define whether the local users should be able to login into the ftp server and the file which is to be used to ban users from accessing the ftp server for example the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file contain the list of the administrative user who should not be allowed to access the ftp server. The anonymous user behavior and the system users behavior is set differently so as to provide better grain of control On the directory option the file access options are set. .whether to run in standalone mode or not(in standalone mode vsftpd listens to the port it don't run under inetd or xinetd). It also defines the port on which the ftp server listens.132 On the general tab user can specify options like enable upload and download of files .

example.1.overview LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. The sample ldap. The directory contains the configuration files and schema files for the ldap.2.conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:17 schema The file ldap.com:666 SIZELIMIT TIMELIMIT 12 15 .conf file is # # LDAP Defaults # # See ldap. dc=com URI ldap://ldap. BASE dc=example.example.conf(5) for details # This file should be world readable but not world writable. 13.LDAP SERVER 13. 13.Configuration The main directory of the ldap is /etc/openldap.1 root root 246 2007-02-20 02:25 ldap.133 Maximum number of clients connecting through a single source .conf is the main configuration file for the ldap.com ldap://ldap-master. It is used to create directories of information that can be shared among client applications over a network. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost openldap]# ls -l total 24 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-02-20 02:25 cacerts -rw-r--r-.

conf file for the syntax change. After editing the configuration file user can start creating the directories using any of the ldap schemas. The port can also be specified on the URI directive. The other values of the DEREF options is always. The value of deref directive is never the alias is never dereferenced.and finding.schema samba.conf using the include directive.schema use include /etc/openldap/schema/samba. Create a directory entry with the extension . For example to include the samba.searching. TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request.schema The default schema can be used by the user or edited by the user to create the directory information of his/her own.ldif and save the file. The schema directory contains the schema files. This is the default. The time limit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request.schema. SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched.schema nis. DEREF options specifies the way an alias is dereferenced. The structure used to create directories is the LDAP Data Interchange Format(LDIF). URI specifies the uri of the ldap server to which the ldap library will attach. The server name can be specified or the ip address of the server can be specified.134 DEREF never The BASE directive is used to set the set the distinguished name in the ldap format using the dc=value format. The various schema files are z z z z cosine. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search. To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.schema inetorgperson. . The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap.

Setting NIS domain name The command domainname .135 To add the contents of the ldif file created to the ldap directory the command ldapadd is used. ldapdelte command is used to delete an entry from the ldap server.or nisdomainname. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.Starting the ldap Use the below command to start the ldap service service ldap start 14.and ypdomainname are used to set the NIS domain name of the system. The computers which access the database information (maps) of the server are referred as NIS domain.conf.Overview Network Information Service (NIS) was created by Sun Microsystems.2. The time of search or the time within which the ldap server should respond is defined in the TIMELIMIT option. It is used to create an central information database which is kept at a server system and other computers on the network access the information. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned.1. ldapmodify command is used to modify the entries of the ldap server. 14.NIS SERVER 14. z z z z ldapadd -a command adds a new entry to the ldap directory. ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters.3. 13. The formats of the commands are domainname domain-name-of-system nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system the below command sets the NIS domain name of the system to localdomain [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain The commands if used without any options give the nis domain name of the system .

14. The sample /etc/yp.Configuring NIS The main configuration file of the NIS server is /etc/yp.conf .conf.3.136 [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# nisdomainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# ypdomainname localdomain The NIS domain name of the system is lost when the computer is rebooted.ypbind configuration file # Valid entries are # domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST # # # domain NISDOMAIN broadcast # # # domain NISDOMAIN slp # # # ypserver HOSTNAME Query local SLP server for ypserver supporting NISDOMAIN Use broadcast on the local net for domain NISDOMAIN Use server HOSTNAME for the domain NISDOMAIN.conf file is # /etc/yp. .

The IP-address of server must be listed in /etc/hosts.137 # # # Use server HOSTNAME for the local domain. The entry domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST defines the NIS domain name and the NIS server name of the system. The sample /etc/nsswitch file is # Legal entries are: # . The configuration file is read by the ypbind daemon. To start the ypbind service enter the below command service ypbind start 14.Staring NIS server To start the NIS server daemon enter the below command in terminal service ypserv start 14.4.2.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files by a client system.4.1.5.4.Mapping Information The /etc/nsswitch. try a broadcast call to find a server. 14.Starting ypbind service The ypbind service handles requests for information from the NIS server. # broadcast # # # If no server for the default domain is specified or none of them is reachable.Starting NIS server 14.

and group on them and if the files are not found on the system then after that they will search for the files on nisplus domain. passwd: files nisplus nis shadow: files nisplus nis group: files nisplus nis In the above example the client computers will search the files passwd. Next the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server. The clients’ computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file.0.db) files Use NIS on compat mode Use Hesiod for user lookups Stop searching if not found so far [NOTFOUND=return] the above list defines the valid entries which can be added in the /etc/nsswitch.255.0. also called YP Use DNS (Domain Name Service) Use the local files Use the local database (.255.138 # # # # # # # # nisplus or nis+ nis or yp dns files db compat hesiod Use NIS+ (NIS version 3) Use NIS (NIS version 2). The format of the entry in the /var/yp/securenets file is netmask network example 255.0.conf file.0.16 can access the NIS sever information. . The file names which should not be shard in commented out.0 10.16 so all the computers on the network 10.shadow.

port(to allow access from port below 1024).DHCP SERVER 15. The server then provides the requested information to the clients 15.5.netmask.netmask.NIS database The NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is created by using the ypinit command.and DNS server.deny(denying access) the mangle field is having the value yes or no.1.Starting the DHCP server To check the status of the dhcp server run the above command in the terminal chkconfig –list dhcpd if the service is not running then enable the service by issuing the command chkconfig dhcpd on after enabling the user can run the dhcpd service using the command service dhcpd start .2. This file can be used to set rules that define which host computers can access which files. DHCP server is used to assign the ip address. 14.139 The finer grain of control can be implemented using the file /etc/ypserv. The security can have values as none(to allow access).Overview DHCP stands for the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.conf.DNS server and other information to the computers in its network. 15. The format of the file is ip address of network:file-name for which access is defined:security:mangle{:field} the field is optional.1. The client computers will have to select that they want to use the DHCP server for the information like ip address.

For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. On the client computer if a user enters the command ifconfig -a then corresponding to the Ethernet interface which was assigned ip address using the dhcp server the user will be the ip address mentioned in the file /etc/dhcpd.conf 15. To invoke the Network Configuration window enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# neat or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-network .leases contains information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server. 15.Working of DHCP server The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.DHCP client The DHCP client can be configured using the utility Network Configuration.leases.4.conf.5.140 15.3.Configuration file The configuration file for the DHCP server is /etc/dhcpd. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network. The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign a ip address to a computer on its network.

Choose the device listing. On the below Ethernet device panel choose the general tab . click on the edit button.141 To configure a device to obtain the ipaddress. This will throw a Ethernet device panel to the user. In the above example the device eth0 is chosen (Ethernet interface eth0).dns server information and other information needed for connecting to the internet from the dhcp server follow this steps.

142 Then to set up a dhcp client click on the option box Automatically obtain ip address settings with and in the drop down menu items choose dhcp.conf for configuration parameters).pid. User can also choose to obtain the DNS server information using dhcp by clicking on the check box Automatically obtain DNS information from provider. . After making the changes the user should restart the network using the below command service network start The dhclient is used to get the information from the dhcp server. The dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient at boot time if the client is configured to obtain the ip address from the dhcp server at boot time else invoked when the activate button of the network configuration utility is clicked after selecting the Ethernet interface) gets the ip address information from the dhcp server it first checks the configuration file /etc/dhclient. The process id (PID) of the dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient) is stored in the file /var/run/dhclient.

143 16.3. To invoke the BIND Configuration GUI enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-bind .Starting Named daemon The status of the named daemon can be checked by the command chkconfig . It is used to translate the host names into ip address and also ip address into the host names.2.DNS SERVER 16. In Red Hat the DNS service is implemented using the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND).Overview The DNS stands for Domain Name System.d/named start or service named start 16. It also contains information about each domain and organization of domain into zones.1.BIND Configuration GUI The BIND Configuration GUI is used to configure the DNS server on a Red Hat Box.-list named if the service is not running then enable the service using the command chkconfig named on to start the service named use the command /etc/init. 16.

. In the current case the DNS server is selected. The values can be edited on the displayed panel.144 The properties button is clicked after selecting the object in the listing panel. After editing the values the changes can be saved using the save button of the main panel. To add a new DNS server click on the New button to add a new server. This displays a panel on which user can enter the value. The properties of an existing DNS server can be edit by selecting the server in the drop down list and then clicking the object on the drop down list. The objects which are displayed in the drop down list are z z z z z z z z Zone View Access Control List Security key Server Controls Logging DNSSEC Trusted keys The user can enter the value of the parameter by clicking on the object. After clicking on the new tab a drop down list is displayed on which the user can choose the object which he/she wants to set the value.

The directory /var/named directory is the zone file directory of the named service. The important action defined elements are acl – access control list used as acl “description “ { ip address }.pid. 16. The lines marked by /* */.145 To delete a listing use the delete button on the panel and selecting the object in the drop down list.conf file the syntax of the file can be checked using the command named-checkconf by default it checks the file /etc/named.txt The path and the description of the files can also be viewed using the utility BIND Configuration GUI.conf. named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named. The pid of the named daemon is stored in the file /var/run/named.conf for syntax. ON the BIND Configuration GUI the DNS server is selected on the list and clicking on the the outside.4.Important files The named daemon configuration file is /etc/named. the central directory request may come . The statistics file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/named_stats.// .and # are marked as comment lines. The dump file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/cache_dumb. server – to describe the server logging – logging facility definitions options – various options like view – the value can be inside and outside for a DNS server the from the private network(inside) or from Zone – to describe the zone information After editing the /etc/named.db. The statements in this file are enclosed in braces and are terminated by semicolon.conf file.

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properties button displays the location on which the important files are kept and also the description of the files.

Command whois

Description Searches for the availability of the domain name. Format is whois domain-name.

host

It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. Format is

dig

It is used to query the DNS server and display information returned by the DNS server. It is often used to troubleshoot the DNS server.

17.MAIL SERVICES
17.1.Overview

There are three parts of message transfer
z z z

MTA – Mail Transfer Agent MDA – Mail Delivery Agent MUA – Mail User Agent

MTA's are also referred as the mail server. The sendmail and postfix are examples of the mail server.
17.2.Sendmail

To start the sendmail server type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# service sendmail start

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17.2.1./etc/mail The /etc/mail is the core directory of the sendmail. The files which are contained in the directory are /etc/mail are divided into following category 17.2.1.1.configuration file The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc. The file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail, location of the log files and database files. 17.2.1.2.Domain name mapping file The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. 17.2.1.3.Access file The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmail will accept mail for delivery or relay. 17.2.1.4.Virtual server files The file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. 17.2.1.5.Virtual users file The file /etc/mail/virtusertable defines the actions which sendmail should take after receiving mail from the trusted users and hosts. Apart from this files the directory /etc/mail also contains the .db files which are database files corresponding to the files described above for example access.db. 17.2.2.Generating the .db files To generate the .db files use the following approaches /etc/init.d/sendmail reload or

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/etc/init.d/sendmail restart in above case the database files are automatically created as the sendmail is restarted or the configuration files are reloaded when the reload option is used. But this case doesn’t work if user doesn’t want to stop or reload the sendmail server. Then the second approach is used Use the below command sequence to create .db files for all the configuration file cd /etc/mail make all if the user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access.db replace the filename access.db with the .db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.db makes the file virtusertable.db. 17.2.3.Checking Sendmail Server The sendmail server responds to requests on the port 25. To check whether the server is working or not type the command [root@localhost mail]# telnet localhost 25 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. 220 localhost.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8.14.1/8.14.1; Sun, 18 Jan 2009 17:55:26 +0530 ^] user can enter help command to see the sendmail commands he/she can use.

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help 214-2.0.0 This is sendmail 214-2.0.0 Topics: 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA RSET NOOP QUIT HELP VRFY EXPN VERB ETRN DSN STARTTLS AUTH

214-2.0.0 For more info use "HELP <topic>". 17.2.4.Important Files 17.2.4.1./var/spool/mail The directory contains files corresponding to the user names that are using sendmail. These files contain the incoming messages received and processed by the sendmail. 17.2.4.2./var/spool/mail/statistics This file contains the collected statistics about the sendmail. 17.2.4.3./var/spool/mqueue This directory keeps the outgoing messages temporarily .the outgoing messages are kept until they are send. 17.2.4.4.Log files The sendmail log information is maintained in three files /var/log/maillog,/var/log/maillog.1,and /var/log/maillog.2. The log files contain different level of information. The file /var/log/maillog.2 contains the detailed log information. An entry is made for each mail been send by the server or received by the server. 17.2.5.Actions taken by server on a mail There are four actions which the server can take

but is not referenced in any runlevel (run 'chkconfig --add postfix') [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --add postfix the first command shows that postfix is not in any runlevel.1. To enable the postfix server enter the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig postfix on . REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected. 17.0. This options are used to configure the actions of a sendmail server. ERROR:user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message. Connect:localhost. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected.0.Postfix RELAY RELAY RELAY It is a mail transfer agent that is mail server.3..Starting postfix server The postfix server is not added in any run level by default (sendmail is generally there). So to add the postfix server use the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --list postfix service postfix supports chkconfig. The second command adds the postfix server to run level which the user is currently logged on.150 RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail. For example # by default we allow relaying from localhost.3. The options are used in the /etc/mail/access file.1 17. The directory /etc/postfix contain the main configuration files and access related files used by the postfix server.localdomain Connect:localhost Connect:127..

17.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.4. 17.Script file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-scripts file is a shell script which executes the postfix administrative commands. The files act as mailbox.cf.Daemon Configuration file The file /etc/postfix/master. [ OK ] .cf.2. Access file – the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server.default which is exact copy of the main.Post install file The file /etc/postfix/post-install is a shell script which performs the post installation configuration of the postfix server.3. It defines the hostnames and domain names .cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main. 17. The incoming mail of the users processed by the postfix server is kept in the file.3. 17.3.Configuration file The /etc/postfix/main.2.3.3.Mailbox The directory /var/spool/mail contains files corresponding to the user name of each user having access to the postfix mail server.2. 17.3.3.1.2.3.2.151 to start the postfix server use the below command [root@localhost postfix]# service postfix start Starting postfix: 17. mailbox.2. For example for a user named jack the mailbox will be /var/spool/mail/jack.postfix queues and locations to be used for logging.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process.Permissions file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server.

3.1. 17. The /var/lib/alternatives directory contains file mta which lists other mail servers.152 17./var/spool/postfix The directory contains a list of directories to temporarily store the mails.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix server.3.5. In the window displayed choose the postfix as the alternate mail server.ls active corrupt deferred hold bounce defer flush maildrop private saved public trace incoming pid In above example the directory /var/spool/postfix contains the sub directories incoming to temporarily store the incoming mails which have not been delivered yet.4. [root@localhost mail]# cd /var/spool/postfix. The alternatives services and the default services are defined in the directory /var/lib/alternatives directory and the /etc/alternatives directory.4. 17. The file /var/log/maillog.Switching MTA On a Red Hat Linux box the sendmail and postfix both the servers are installed but the sendmail is used as the default MTA. To switch between the mail services from desktop perform following actions System Tools --> Mail Transport Agent Switcher. The postfix server is treated as an alternative service to the sendmail server./var/log/maillog.and /var/log/maillog. .Log files The log information about the postfix server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog. The directory contain the entry mta-sendmail this makes sendmail as the default mail server.2. The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives display the default services configured on the system. Bounce to temporarily store the bounced mails.

[root@localhost alternatives]# service sendmail stop Shutting down sm-client: Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] [ OK ] the default sendmail server s stopped and the below command is used to start the postfix server.Configuration file The main configuration file for the dovecot service is /etc/dovecot.5.IMAP stands for Internet message Access Protocol and POP3 stands for Post Office Protocol.The sample format of the /etc/dovecot.Dovecot The dovecot is used to configure the IMAP and POP3.5.1. [root@localhost alternatives]# service postfix start Starting postfix: [ OK ] The postfix server takes the mail transport agent work in place of sendmail. 17.conf.5.Starting Dovecot To enable the dovecot service use the command chkconfig dovecot on and to start the dovecot service use the command service dovecot start 17. It replaces the sendmail components and uses the postfix components but the location of the mailbox and the log files remain same in both the services.conf file is # Base directory where to store runtime data.2.The mailboxes of sendmail and postfix are one single file so the above protocols are used to access the mails. base_dir = /var/run/dovecot/ .153 Then use the following commands to stop the sendmail server and start the postfix server. The user sending mail and receiving mail don’t see any difference as there is change only in the transport agent. 17.

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base_dir option sets the location where dovecot will store the run time data. The base_dir will contain the file master.pid file which contains the PID of the dovecot service. protocols = imap imaps pop3 pop3s protocols option sets the protocols which the dovecot listens. Above example sets the dovecot to listen imap,imaps,pop3 ,and pop3s protocols. # specify different ports for IMAP/POP3. For example: protocol imap { listen = *:10143 ssl_listen = *:10943 .. } the above part sets the port for the imap. Different ports are used for different protocols. # Log file to use for error messages, instead of sending them to syslog .# /dev/stderr can be used to log into stderr. log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log # Log file to use for informational and debug messages. # Default is the same as log_path. info_log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log The log_path and the info_log_path sets the log file paths where the dovecot will log the informational messages and error messages. # Maximum number of running mail processes. When this limit is reached, # new users aren't allowed to log in. max_mail_processes = 1024

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max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously

18.NETWORK SECURITY
18.1.Overview

Network security is becoming a vital and challenging task. If a system is connected with network then the administrator should pay considerable attention to network security.
18.2.The daemon xinetd

The daemon xinetd is started when the system boots and listens on lot of ports corresponding to the services configured in the configuration file of the xinetd daemon /etc/xinetd.conf. The directory /etc/xinetd.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. These services are called on demand services and can be seen using the command [root@localhost xinetd.d]# system-config-services

or by viewing the contents of the directory /etc/xinetd.d [root@localhost ~]# cd /etc/xinetd.d;ls chargen-dgram daytime-dgram discard-stream rsync time-dgram

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chargen-stream daytime-stream echo-dgram tcpmux-server time-stream cvs dgram echo-stream tftp

discard-

Each file correspond to a service which xinetd automatically starts when connection is made to that port. This on demand services should not be accessible by everyone. The access can be made selective by the use of TCP wrappers.
18.3.Using TCP wrappers

The tcpd (tcp wrapper daemon) program can be set up to monitor incoming requests for xinetd services or in other words the services which xinetd supports and also services that have one to one mapping onto executable files. If tcp wrapper is used then if a client makes connection at a port for services like finger,talk,telnet,and rsh ( xinetd service) then at first tcp wrapper daemon determines whether the connection will be allowed or refused. If the connection is allowed then the corresponding service is invoked to listen at the port. The tcpd authenticates the client using the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. 18.3.1./etc/hosts.allow It contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. This file is first scanned by tcpd. 18.3.2./etc/hosts.deny Iit contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts.allow file. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. Format of the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny are same. The keyword ALL is specified for all clients. For example in.telnetd: .example.com fingerd: ALL the connection for the telnet is allowed for clients from domain example.com and connection for the finger is allowed for all the clients.

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The service daemon is listed on the left if two service daemons are to be listed then the daemons are separated by comma (,) character. The semicolon acts as a separator between the daemon names and the address part. If multiple address is to be mentioned then the addresses are separated by comma. The ALL flag enables user to make the files as restrictive as it can be made. This enhances security.
18.4.Security Level Configuration

The Security Level Configuration utility is used to set the security level of the system. To invoke the Security Level Configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-securitylevel

On the Firewall Options tab the user can set the firewall is enabled or disabled. The trusted services are allowed to pass through the firewall. On the other ports the user can add the trusted ports by clicking on the Add button clicking on the Add button displays the below panel

after entering the value press ok. This allows user to add more complex rules and also customize the fire- wall. The user can browse and upload the file containing the user defined rules. After making the changes click on apply and then OK. .158 On the add port panel the user can enter the port and also the protocol (tcp and udp). The user can click on the Advanced options tab to add a file containing iptable rules in the iptables save format.

18. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. default: no # Saves all firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables if firewall gets # restarted. In above example the modules ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp are loaded.Configuration files There are two configuration files /etc/sysconfig/iptables and /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config. # Save current firewall rules on restart. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers.5. The sample /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config file is IPTABLES_MODULES="ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp" The directive IPTABLES_MODULES defines the modules which are loaded. load additional iptables modules. # Value: yes|no.Command Reference Command iptables -A Description To append a security rule in current iptable rule iptables -D iptables -R iptables -I iptables -L Delete a rule Replace a rule Insert a rule List all rules . The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to.159 18. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility.4.1. IPTABLES_SAVE_ON_RESTART="no" If the value is yes then the rules are saved to the file /etc/sysconfig/iptables.

d are present./etc/pam. 19.160 iptables-save Save rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file. The second line contains the rule for the PAM.and session.PAM AND SELINUX 19.path module-argument The type in above case is auth. 19. The format of the next lines are or rule lines are type control module. For example the file passwd in the above directory contains the following line #%PAM-1.authentiction.d is used for configuring PAM.0 auth include system-auth system-auth system-auth account include password include the first line is a comment.PAM PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication module.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam.conf or the files in the directory /etc/pam.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.1. The contents of the file /etc/pam.password. The configuration file /etc/pam. PAM is a system of libraries that handle the authentication tasks of applications (services) on the system. .2.d The files in the directory /etc/pam. PAM allows four types account.

The system-auth is the module path.required. Session –this type is used to perform the jobs (like logging) before a user access a service or after a user access a service.so sufficient pam_unix. Required – means that pam will return failure if this PAM modules returns failure.sufficient. The configuration file is passwd as an argument. Contents of file system-auth auth auth auth auth required pam_env.161 Account – the account type defines access to a service based on the availability of resource.so in the above file the pam modules are called for verification of a user for the service passwd. The valid values for the control are include. The system-auth module resides in the current directory.so uid >= 500 quiet pam_deny. Sufficient – means that PAM returns success if this module returns success and other PAM modules will not be called which are to be called for the process.so nullok try_first_pass requisite required pam_succeed_if. The module is important if it is the only module for the service. let three modules are called and if this module returns false then the resultant will be false but pam will call all the modules which are to be called for the process. time and other parameters. Optional – the success and failure of this module is not important on the overall return value (success or failure) of PAM. . Password – the password type is used to update the user information like changing user password.and optional. authentication(auth) – the authentication type prompts the user for a password and if the user provides it then he/she can access the service. Include – this module includes all lines given in the configuration file of a specific type.

The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux. It is flexible access control architecture and provides support for the role based access control and multilevel security. 19. To invoke the SELinux administration enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost selinux]# system-config-selinux The user can set the value of SELinux enforcing mode.1.SELinux SELinux stands for the Security Enhanced Linux. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues instead of enforcement. 19.162 The PAM modules reside in the directory /lib/security.2. Disable-.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled. The contents of the file are (for the above configuration of SELinux administration) warning . Three values are allowed enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced.2.SELinux administration The SELinux administration utility is used to configure the SELinux.

.SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.Full SELinux protection.SELinux security policy is enforced. disabled . Possible values are: # # targeted . strict . interface and hosts and file context mapping. # SELINUX= can take one of these three values: # # # enforcing . security context mapping for network port.list selinux policy modules. SELINUXTYPE=targeted 19.163 # This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.remove.Only targeted network daemons are protected.SELinux is fully disabled.3.Command Reference Command semanage Description Mapping Linux user names to SELinux user identities. SELINUX=disabled # SELINUXTYPE= type of policy in use. permissive . chcat Change file or users SELinux security category chcon Change the security context of each file to context semodule Used to install.

-enforcing c. Which line should he add in the Kickstart file? a.164 O V E R 2 5 0 E X A M P R E PA R AT I O N Q U E S T I O N S 1.info d.cfg b. Which file the user should refer? a. grub Answer – a Explanation – disk druid is the default partition manager for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux.log is default log file. /root/anaconda.-enforcing b.-location=mbr b. He wants to set the SELinux policy during installation to enforcing.-location=hd0 Answer – a 5. 3. A user wants to use Kickstart file for installing Red Hat Linux.log Answer – b Explanation -. /root/install./root/anaconda-ks. redhatinstaller d. Grub is the default bootloader for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux and anaconda is default installer.-location=hd0 d. grub .com? . selinux . disk druid c.-default d. bootloader . /root/install-log. bootloader . anaconda b.cfg is the Kickstart file created after successful installation of Red Hat and /root/install. Which line should be added in the Kickstart file to install the bootloader in the Master Boot Record (MBR)? a. grub . Which is default installer of Red Hat Enterprise Linux? a. /root/anaconda-ks. selinux = enforce Answer – b 4. selinux . Which command is entered on the anaconda boot prompt to install using the kickstart file located on the website http://kickstart-file/install/linux.log c. set selinux . 2. After an installation a user wants to see the log information of the installation process.-location=mbr c.

SAFE=no b. :anaconda ks . 6. Answer – d Explanation – SAFE=no denotes that kudzu starts in no safe probing mode and anything other than no means that it is started in the safe mode. So it is mandatory to make a / partition. /. 1 b. DISK DRUID d. Which of the following is the default Red Hat Linux bootloader? a. How many modes can kudzu operate? a. SAFE=YES c.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. Anything other than no can be used on the left hand side of the assignment. :boot ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux.com d.165 a. /. SAFE=? d. All other partitions can lie within the / partition. LILO is also bootloader but nowadays it is not used as default bootloader.com b. DISK DRUID is the default partition manager in Red Hat Linux. 9. ANACONDA Answer – a Explanation – GRUB is the default bootloader of Red Hat Linux. 8. 3 d. You want to start the kudzu in safe probe mode. Which two partitions are necessary for Red Hat Linux installation? a. :anaconda ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux.com Answer – d Explanation – The anaconda boot prompt is denoted by: boot. swap Answer -.d Explanation – The / filesystem is root of the Linux file system structure. The swap partition is . swap c. /usr b. :boot ks . /home d.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. /boot. 2 c. /home. 4 Answer – 2 Explanation – kudzu can operate in two modes x safe probe mode x no safe probe mode 7. GRUB b. LILO c. What will you add in the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu? a.com c.

/etc/X11/xorg./etc/X11/xorg.conf Answer – c Explanation -./etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth0 lists the network device detected if there are more than one network device present then /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth1 lists the second network device detected and so on.conf b. 13. 11. /etc/modprobe. What command is used to invoke the Network Configuration utility? a. /etc/modprobe.conf lists the hardware like monitor. /var c. system-config-neat Answer – a.What is the size of swap space for good performance of the system? a. neat d.conf. 128 MB c. 256 MB b. 400 MB Answer – c Explanation – For good performance of the system the swap space area should be double of the physical RAM attached with the System. c Explanation – system-config-network and neat both the commands can be used to invoke the Network Configuration utility./etc/modprobe. Which filesystem contains the configuration files? a. keyboard which are configured for X. 10. The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf is not present on the system. 512 MB d./etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* d. system-config-net c.166 also necessary as Linux uses swap partition as extension of main memory. system-config-network b. /usr d. /etc b. /etc/modprobe.conf.conf.conf is module configuration file /etc/X11/xorg. You have computer 256 MB RAM . 12. /etc/sysconfig/lasthwconf c. mouse. Which files will kudzu query to find out the devices already configure? a. /mnt Answer – a .

system-config-date is used to set date only. 17. Answer – b Explanation – install option is used in the first line of kickstart file to show fresh install and upgrade option is used in the first line to show upgrade of a previous installation. update option in line 1 of kickstart file. You want to upgrade a system using the kickstart file. system-config-time is used to set time only. yes both are different Answer – a . b. Which option will you use in kickstart file? a. You want to see the options you have chosen during the installation process.cfg c. /root/anaconda-ks. /proc d. No both are same b. /root/anaconda-ks Answer – b Explanation -. /root b. d. /home/anaconda-ks. /boot c. upgrade option in line 5 of kickstart file. /sys Answer – c Explanation -. Your friend used systemconfig-time for the same purpose. 16. 15./proc is pseudo filesystem which contains information about the processes running on the system. d./root/anaconda-ks. update option in line 5 of kickstart file. c.167 14. no file contains that information b. Is there any difference? a. You want to see the information about the processes running on your system.cfg d.You used system-config-date to set the date of your system. c. Which file should you look for? a.cfg is the default kickstart file created by anaconda based on the options chosen during installation. Which filesystem will you use to get the information? a. You have installed Red Hat Linux in your box. upgrade option in line 1 of kickstart file.

Don’t mount the partition within braces of rootnoverify option. Which command will you use in grub configuration file? a.6.6. init b. What changes should be made in the grub configuration file? a.6.14 b. kernel /kernel-2. boot /kernel-2. c. For example if windows is installed along with Red Hat then grub should not try to mount the partition on which windows is installed. You want to boot your Red Hat Linux operating system using kernel2.14 Answer – a 21. timeout=10 b.14 c. grub d.14.6.-10 Answer – a Explanation – The timeout=10 parameter is allowed in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. d. timeout=10 secs c. inittab c.conf. 20. timeout . don’t verify the / partition b. 0) in the grub configuration file? a. timeout=10 s d. main Answer – a . 19. mount the partition indicated within the rootnoverify option.14 d. kernel /vmlinuz-2.6. boot /vmlinuz-2. What is meaning of the option rootnoverify (hd0. Answer – b Explanation – The rootnoverify (hd0.168 18. 0) option is used in case there is another operating system installed along with Red Hat Linux. You have grub bootloader installed on your system. Don’t verify the first sector of hard disk. Which process has the PID of 1? a. You want to boot the default operating system if user did not make a choice for 10 seconds.

Answer – a Explanation – The numeric digits i. 4. 24.it is called father of all processes. The entry captures the CTRL+ALT+DELETE key sequence and the command shutdown –r now is executed. What will happen if runlevel is set to 6? a.5d c. It cannot be done Answer – a Explanation – The init process looks the /etc/inittab file for the processing to be done. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –h now in /etc/inittab file d. 5 and the start priority is 25 and the stop priority is 75. S111USERDEF b. 25. What is the meaning of this line? a. 111 and 85 decide the order of run. Since 1 is less than 8 so S111USERDEF is run first. You want to reboot your system if a user presses CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard during the boot process. A user created two scripts S111USERDEF and S85USERDEP which are executed during boot time. Multiuser mode booting b.d d.d/rcv. During boot process kernel gives control to the init process. The system comes to halt Answer –c Explanation – In runlevel 0 the system comes to halt and in runlevel 2.169 Explanation – The init process have the PID of 1.d b. and 5 the multiuser mode is active. It is a comment b. 3.d/r5. Can’t be determined. What should you do? a. The system reboots in a loop d. Multiuser with networking mode c. /etc/rc. At same time d. S85USERDEP c. /etc/rc. /etc/rc. Which directories contain the boot time scripts for the run level 5? a. Write a shell script for that and keep it in root directory c. 23. /etc/rc. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –r now in /etc/inittab file b.d/rc5. 22.d Answer – a 26.d/rc.e.5 c. A runlevel script has the line #chkconfig 345 25 75. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3. The digits are compared from left to right taking one digit at a time. Which of the two services will start first? a. . It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3.4.

Which command will you use to do so? a. enable service-name c. chkconfig service-name enable Answer -. prevrunlevel c. init d. You want to enable a service service-name for current run level (run level 5). Answer – d 29. runlevel service-name on b. chgrunlevel Answer – a 30. The output of the runlevel command is N 5. Which command is used to change the current run level? a. 31. How will the problem resolve? a. telinit b. 28. The line gives an error Answer –c 27. The runlevel of the system was never changed from 5 so the previous runlevel is displayed as N. runlevel c. Previous runlevel of the system was N b. chkconfig service-name on d. prevrun Answer – a Explanation – the runlevel command is used to get the current run level and the previous runlevel of a system. The current runlevel of the system is N.170 d. runlevel b. chkconfig httpd on d. chkconfig httpd start c. lastrunlevel d. c.c Explanation – the chkconfig command is used to enable a service. The httpd service is enabled in the runlevel 5 but it is not running. Which command is used to get the previous run level of a system? a. The previous runlevel of the system was 5 d. service httpd start b. service httpd on Answer – a . disable a service and lists the status of a service or services. What does it mean? a.

d/init. Using chkconfig –all d. Using chkconfig list Answer – b Explanation – the chkconfig –list gives the listing of all the services in different run levels with the status of services as on or off.all b. /proc Answer – d Explanation – The proc filesystem is virtual filesystem (it is not mounted on a disk partition) which contains the process and system information. Which filesystem is not mounted on disk partition? a. /etc/fstab c. /etc/mtab b. Which command is used to start the service configuration utility? a.d/rc*. Using chkconfig all b. Which file contains the static information about the filesystem? a. 32. system-config-services c.d c. serviceconf. /etc/rc. /etc/rc. 34.d/rcall. None of these Answer – c 33.d/init.d contain symbolic links to the scripts of directory /etc/rc.d Answer – b Explanation – The directory /etc/rc. /etc/rc.d 35. Using chkconfig –list c. serviceconf b.d/all. /etc/rc.d/init.171 Explanation – the service httpd needs to be started for that the service httpd start command is used. /etc/ftab . system-config-services d. /usr d. Which directory contains the run level scripts of all the runlevel? a.d contains all the runlevel scripts and the directories /etc/rc. 36. /etc b.d/rc. How will you view the status of all the services in all the runlevel? a.d d. /home c.

Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/mtab d. What should he do? a.172 d. 40. and other options. filesystem type. mount vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win b. /etc/mstab Answer – b Explanation – The file /etc/fstab contains mount point. /etc/mtab c. Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab b. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/mstab Answer –a Explanation – At boot time the /etc/fstab file is scanned for information about the filesystem to be mounted. If noauto option is used the filesystem is not automatically mounted. mount –t vfat /mnt/win /dev/sda6 Answer – b Explanation – The mount command has the form mount –t filesystem-type source partition target partition . Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab c. Which filesystem contains the information about the filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. 39. /etc/ftab Answer – b Explanation -. /etc/fstab b. 37. mount –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win c./etc/mtab contains the information about the filesystem currently used by a running system. A system has windows and Red Hat Linux installed on it. /etc/mstab d. The user wants to access files kept in the /dev/sda6 partition with the vfat filesystem type. fdisk –m c. mount Answer – d Explanation – fdisk command is used for creating new partition and view all the partitions of the hard disk. mount –t d. Which command is used to see the listing of filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. A user wants don’t want to mount the /home partition automatically at boot time. fdisk -l b. 38. What should he/she do? a. fdisk –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win d.

Which command is used to create a swap filesystem on a device or file? a. /etc/mke2fs. fdisk –l c./proc/swaps contain the entries .What is the size of the file /home/demo? a. 20MB b. Your system has a swap partition on /dev/sda3 and another swap partition on /dev/sda5.vfat /dev/cdrom c. 44. createswap b. 2MB c. cat /proc/swaps b. None of above Answer – b 43. So the size of the file is 1000000 * 2 = 2 MB. 2GB d. mkfs c.conf c. Which command is used to create vfat filesystem on a re writable CDROM? a.conf b. mkfs.vfat. None of above Answer – c Explanation – The mkfs –t vfat is frontend of the command mkfs. /etc/ext3. None of above Answer – a Explanation -. The command is wrong Answer – b Explanation – The bs option denotes the blocksize and count denotes the number of that. mkswap d. 41. 42. swapon Answer – c 45. Which configuration file is used while creating ext3 filesystem on a partition using the mke2fs command? a. Both of above d. mkfs -t vfat /dev/cdrom b. A file is created using the below command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/demo bs=1000000 count=2. /etc/mkfs/mke2fs.conf d.173 to mount a source filesystem on target directory. cat /proc/swap d.How will you decide which swap partition is active? a.

mdadm . /etc/auto.d/autofs status b. A user ran command badblocks -w on a device containing important data files. mdadm .master Answer –c 50.d/init. /etc/rc. /etc/auto.-level=5 .-status Answer –b Explanation -.-raid devices= /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 d. 48.d/init. /dev/sda2? a. mkfs c./etc/rc. Which command is used to create a raid device of level 5 using devices /dev/sda1. Which command is used to check a device for badblocks? a. In the third option . /etc/rc.conf b. Data on the device will be erased c. How will you check the status of the automount daemon? a.d/autofs . fsck b.master d.-create /dev/md0 . /etc/autofs.conf c.d/autofs controls the operation of the automount daemon.-create /dev/md0 .d/autofs status c. Which configuration file does /etc/rc. -w is invalid option to badblocks command Answer – b Explanation – The data is not deleted if the badblocks command is used without option or with –n option. mdadm .d/init. 49. chkfs d.d/init. 46.174 of the entire active swap space of the system.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 b. Data on device will not be erased d.-level=5 devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 Answer – a Explanation – In second option . /etc/autofs.d/init. The contents of the file can be viewed using cat command.-raid . mdadm .-level 5 .-level= should be used. /etc/init.-level=5 . No problem b.-create /dev/md0 . badblocks Answer – d 47.-create /dev/md1 .d/autofs use? a. /etc/rc.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 c.d/automount status d. What will be the problem? a.

Volume group c. There is no such utility Answer – b 55. No directory has the entry b. /home/vol_grp d. A raid device contains four devices. /dev/vol_grp c.-raid is missing from . Physical volume b. mdadm –r device-name raid-device-name Answer – a 52. System-config-logman d. 54. vgcreate b. mdadm –r raid-device-name device-name d.-raid devices. In fourth option . mdadm raid-device-name –r device-name b. Which file and directory yum does look for information about the software . Which command is used to invoke the Logical Volume Management utility? a. /sys/vol_grp Answer – b Explanation – The directory /dev/vol_grp contains lvol0 entry corresponding to the logical volume lvol0.175 devices=n where n is no of devices is missing. vgextend c. Which of the following should be created first before creating the Logical volume? a. None of them d. pvcreate Answer – a Explanation – vgcreate is used to create a new volume group and vgextend is used to extend an existing volume group. Which directory contains entry for the logical volume group lvol0 created by a user in the volume group vol_grp? a. 51. System-config-lv b. How will you remove one of the devices from the raid device? a. 53. volgrpcr d. System-config-lvm c. mdadm device-name –r raid-device-name c. Which command is used to create volume group? a. 56. Both of them Answer – d Explanation –Physical volume is to be initialized first and then the volume group is to be created before creating Logical volume.

User. The gpgkeys of packages are not checked before install or update c.log. Yellow software updater modified Answer – a 58. Both of them d. Yellow updater modified d. 59.conf. Sytem. /etc/yum. A user ran yum command to install a package.global c. global b.global d. Looking at /etc/yum.conf file c.conf and then looks for the files in the directory /etc/yum. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install only d.log Answer – d Explanation – The log file of the yum command is /var/log/yum. 60.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user .d c.176 repositories? a. User can use the file to decide the install was successful or failure.conf file? a. Looking at /var/log/yum. The install completed before his return.system.conf b. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install or update b. Looking at /etc/yum.conf. What is full form of yum? a. None of them Answer – c Explanation – it looks for the configuration file /etc/yum. What is the importance of option gpgcheck=1 in /etc/yum. /etc/yum. If the gpgkey option is 1 then the packages are checked for the gpgkeys before installing or updating the packages. The status of yum commands execution will be logged there. He can’t decide b.d directory d. Yellow dog updater modified b. system Answer – b Explanation – The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system. How can user decide whether the install was successful or failure? a. User.d 57. The configuration file . Then he went for a cup of coffee.conf. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before update only Answer – a Explanation – Usually the gpgkeys are installed before adding any software repository. What are the levels of rpm configuration file? a. Yellow umbrella c. User.

rpm –F installs a package if it is not installed previously c. How will you check vendor’s statement? a. 65. Both command do same function d. No use rpm -v b. What is the difference between rpm –U and rpm –F commands? a. 62. 64.rpm has been installed in your machine. U and e. 63. yum install package-name . Using system monitor c.e. 61. /var/lib/rpm/db/* d. /var/lib/rpmdb/* Answer – a Explanation – The rpm command uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information. None of the above Answer – a Explanation – The command rpm –U updates a previously installed package but installs a new package and the command rpm –F updates a previously installed package but does not installs a new package. /var/log/rpm/* c. There is no way to check vendor’s statement. b. rpm –iF Answer – c Explanation – the options -v (verbose information). rpm –U installs a package if it is not installed previously b. Your software vendor informed you that package-name. Is the command correct? a. The options i. Which is a valid rpm command? a. Where does the rpm package information kept? a. Yes c. F are mutually exclusive. No it is used for update only Answer –b Explanation – The command rpm –U is used to upgrade a previously installed package and if the package is not installed in the system then it installs the package. and e. A user used the command rpm –U package-name to install the package packagename which is not previously installed on the system. rpm –ieh b. rpm –Ueh c. No use rpm-q d. /var/lib/rpm/* b.-vv (verbose lots of information) and h (prints hash marks are rpm options which can be used with other options. rpm –ivvh d. rpm –q package-name d.177 level rpm configuration file.

bz2 file b. Using bzip2 followed by tar xvf Answer – b Explanation – gunzip uncompressed the tar. No difference b. system-config-manage c.system monitor is used to view system information.178 Answer – c Explanation – rpm –q package-name queries the rpm package database and finds out information about the package-name. You have downloaded a package in tar.yum install is used to install the package packagename. bzip2 is used to uncompress .bz2 file c.bz2 file and –d option is used to uncompress a . Package manager b. xvfz compresses a . Package manage Answer – a 70.zip format.bz2 file. bzip2 –d uncompress a tar. Package management c. What does command bzip2 does? a. Which command is used to invoke a Package Manager? a. system-config-manages Answer – c . xvfz is verbose mode of command xvf Answer – c 68. Package Admin d.tar format and then the command tar xvf is used to uncompress the tar file. system-config-package b.tar.tar file d.zip file d. What is the difference between the commands tar xvf and tar xvfz? a.tar file but xvf uncompress a . bzip2 is used to compress a file to . Which utility is used to manage packages on a Red Hat box? a. Using gunzip followed by tar xvf c. 67.tar file c. bzip2 –d creates a tar.gz format. xvfz uncompress a .gz file but xvf uncompress a . Using tar xvf followed by gunzip d. 69.bzip2 –c is used to create . Answer – a Explanation – bzip2 command is used to create and decompress a bz2 file. 66.gz file into . How will you uncompress the file? a. Using tar xvf b. system-config-packages d.

/etc/login. What action should be taken by him? a. Editing the /etc/bashrc file. MAIL_JOHN=/var/temp d.conf c.bashrc file in home directory of user Answer – a Explanation – The . /etc/bash.conf d. MAIL_BOX=/var/temp c. A user Matt have a user id of 400. The default values can be overridden on the command line. The mail box of john should lie in the directory /var/temp. Creating a . /etc/initial Answer – a Explanation -.The content of /etc/skel is copied to the home directory of user when the user account is created. Creating a .bash file in home directory of user c.defs c. /etc/bashrc. 75. 74. /etc/login d. 76./etc/skel directory contains the initial login and a startup scripts. MAIL_CONFIG=/var/temp Answer – a Explanation – The line MAIL_DIR is used to denote the directory where mailbox of a user will reside. /etc/user. /etc/userdefs d. You want to create a user account john.bashrc file in home directory of user b. Which file does define the default values to be used while creating the user account? a.179 71. MAIL_DIR=/var/temp b. /etc/bashrc Answer – d 72. Creating a .defs? a.defs b. d.bashrc file in the home directory of the user is used to override the default values used for bash shell. Which file does contain global options to the bash shell? a. Which directory contains the initial login and startup scripts? a. /etc/skel b. 73. A user wants to override the default values used for bash shell.What is the significance of it? . /etc/login.defs c. /etc/login.What line will you add in the file /etc/login. /etc/bash b.conf Answer – b Explanation – The file contains the default values to be used while creating a user account.

User Administrator c. User Manger b. 77. Which file does contain the password of user? a. d. /etc/passwd b. delete. /etc/pass c. usermod –D –s /bin/bash Answer – a Explanation – usermod command is used to modify the user information. User Admin d.What should be his approach? a. /etc/password d. Matt is an administrative user. userdel user1 b. 78. User Configuration Answer – a Explanation –User Manager is used to create. A user cannot have user id 400 c. He wants the bash shell. 81. System Administrator wants to delete the account of user user1 along with the home directory of the user user1. and modify user and group information. useradd –D –s /bin/bash new-user d. So matt is an administrative user. usermod –s /bin/bash new-user b. User id 400 is of root user b. userdel –r /home/user1 user1 Answer – b Explanation – The command userdel –r user1 is used to delete the account of a user along with his/her home directory. What command will the system administrator execute? a. Which graphical utility is used to manage users? a. A new user is working on the /bin/tcsh shell. 80.180 a. Which command is used to invoke user Manager Utility? . Answer – c Explanation – User id less than 500 are reserved for the administrative users. The file/etc/passwd contains information about the user but at the place of passwd x character is written. If the –r option is not used then the home directory of the user is not deleted. None of these Answer – d Explanation – The file /etc/shadow contains the user login name and encrypted password. 79. usermod –s /bin/bash c. Matt is a non administrative user. userdel –h /home/user1 user1 d. userdel –r user1 c.

space /home/jack d. system-config-user b. Which command is used to change the password of the root user? a. system-config-usr c. grppasswd c. du /home/user d. Which command is used to change password of a group? a. df /home/jack c. /etc/group d. /etc/passwd c. 83. passwd root b. su root d. gpasswd d. gpassword Answer – c 86. df /home/user Answer – c Explanation – The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a . The system administrator wants to see the disk space used up by user Jack. passwd Answer – d Explanation – The format of passwd command id passwd user-name. system-config-users d. What sh0uld he do? a. Ask the system administrator c. 85. What should he do? a. It means the password of user user-name is to be changed.The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem. su – c. A user wants to list the space used up by files and subdirectories of his home directory. grpasswd b. system-config-usrs Answer – c 82. If the command passwd is used alone it means the password of root user is to be changed. Check each file size and subdirectory size b. Which file does contain the information about the groups in a system? a.181 a. Ask jack about the disk space usage b. /etc/gpasswd b. df /home Answer – b Explanation -. /etc/groups Answer – d 84.

Yes he has to enter the root password d. A user ran su – command in a terminal (terminal1) and got privilege of root user. 90. Using vi c. No he can’t use the command directly c.182 directory 87. No shell won’t prompt for user-name’s password Answer – d 89. Using geditsudo Answer – c Explanation – the visudo command is used to edit the /etc/sudoers file. The group demo is defined with the privilege of command shutdown –h now in /etc/sudoers file. Yes root user will have to enter user’s password b. The user of the file will change to that of user’s d. Yes he will have to use visudo shutdown –h now Answer – c Explanation – The commands should be prefixed by the sudo command.Will root has to enter the user’s password? a. The user and group of the file will change to that of user’s c. Answer – d 88. Yes c. The group of the file will change to that of group’s Answer – a Explanation -. A user entered the command chown : file-name. A root user used the command su – user-name where user-name is a non administrative user. No su – command don’t give root privilege b. A user Vishnu is member of group demo. 91. Yes he can use shutdown –h now b. What will happen ? a. If root don’t enter user-name’s password then he won’t be able to execute user-name’s files d. Does Vishnu have privilege to run the command shutdown –h now? a. No as it is different terminal session he won’t have root privilege in this session. Using visudo d. . He then opened a new terminal and ran command to mount a filesystem. Nothing b. Using gedit b. Yes he will have to use sudo shutdown –h now d. Will the command execute successfully? a. No the shell will prompt for password of user-name but root can choose not to enter the password c.chown owner: group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner. How will you edit /etc/sudoers file? a.

System administrator wants to see the users currently logged into the system and the processes run by them. What will happen? a. 93. All of these Answer – b Explanation -. None of these Answer – a Explanation – The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them. The owner of the file will change c. Which command will help the system administrator? a. All process with pid >0 are re signaled. W b. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens. A user issues a command kill 0. 94. Frees RAM memory b. Nothing happens Answer – a Explanation – The user don’t have privilege to change the file permissions of root user so he gets an error.The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics 95. gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system d. Iostat b. Virtual d. b. What does free command do? a. Users c.What will be the impact of the command? a. Process with pid 0 is re signaled d.183 Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. A user issues the chown user-name-group-name file-name command on a file filename which belongs to the root user. Which command shows the virtual memory statistics of a system? a. He gets an error b. . 92. all processes in current process are signaled. gives the amount of free and used memory of a filesystem Answer – c 96. Frees swap memory c. Gives an error c. All d. Vmstat c. The group of the file will change d. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system.

no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number). Boot process have pid of 0 d. % memory usage. 101.The top command gives various information about the system number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes. SystemManager Answer – a 100. Which of the following information does top command not give? a. Which file does the command uptime use to present the output? a. Which utility is used to view various system information like CPU usage.184 Answer – d 97. Log Manager b. . System Information c. Log Configuration Answer – c 99. no of processes active. /proc/uptime b. the command used for invoking the process. It don’t use any file Answer – a Explanation – The uptime command uses the file /proc/uptime for the information and formats them in user readable format. network information. 98. /sys/uptime d. no of zombie processes d. System Log Manager c.no other process can have pid of 1 or lower than that. System Monitor b. Which utility is used to see system log information? a. no of processes sleeping. network usage information Answer – d Explanation -. load average of the system c. number of users currently logged on b. A process pid can be set to 0 using renice command Answer – a Explanation – The lowest pid that a process can have is 1 which is pid of init process ( init is called father of all processes). System Log Viewer d. percent CPU usage. process information? a. no of processes active. no of processes sleeping. /proc/sys/uptime c. System Administration d. total number of processes. Yes init process have pid of 0 c. May a process have pid of 0? a. No process can have pid of 0 b. memory and swap information.

185 102. uname -n c.the command uname is used to print various system information. What is SIGKILL? a. 106. Error will occur b.6. /proc/mod d.The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel. infomod modulename c. lsmod modulename d.What will happen? a. none of the above Answer –c Explanation -. A user wants to see the filename of a module currently loaded into the kernel. The file /proc/modules also contain the same information. None of above d. modprobe modulename Answer – a Explanation –modinfo gives the details of a module loaded into the kernel. uname -r b. lists all the modules of kernel2. 105. file name should be given from sysin d. 104. what should he do? a. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name . A user issues command insmod -. For example kill –SIGKILL 5009 command gives the signal SIGKILL to process with pid 5009. uname -k Answer – c Explanation -.14 c. Which file contains the list of currently loaded modules in the kernel? a. modinfo modulename b. uname -p d. Which command is used to print the processor type of a system? a. /proc/modules c. Both of them Answer – a Explanation – The SIGKILL is used to signal a process. 103. It is a command c. /proc/module b. no such file is there Answer – b Explanation – The lsmod command is also used to list the modules currently loaded into kernel. It is a signal used with kill command generally b.uname -a prints all the information about the system.

modinfo Answer – b Explanation -.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe. none of them c. priority d. Which configuration file and directory does modprobe command refer? a. 107.conf b. modprobe -d Answer – c 109. The command renice 5 -u Jack is issued. /etc/modprobe. The module A is dependent on module B. which command should be used to load the module A into kernel? a. priority 5 not allowed Answer – b Explanation -.d. insmod b. What command does administrator use? a. modprobe c. On business requirement your client wants to run the process A (already running on the system) with increased priority. Error occurs no pid mentioned b.insmod loads only the module mentioned on the command line. renice c. Which command is used to remove a module from the kernel? a. both of them Answer – d Explanation – modprobe looks for the configuration file /etc/modprobe. nice b.186 if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. What will happen? a. /etc/modprobe.If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes . 108. process priority of all processes belonging to user is changed to 5 c.d d. 110.The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command. modprobe -r d. Modprobe -a b. modprobe -b c. schedule Answer – b 111. rmmod d. no change in priority d.

log d.log c. /etc/syslog d. In which file is cron utility log the messages? a. /etc/sysconfig/syslog. error d.conf.pid b.conf c.pid d. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. 116. A user issues two commands back to back dmesg -c dmesg What will be the output of second command? a.conf Answer – d Explanation – syslogd supports the system logging. System administrator wants to allow the user Mac to access the at facility. so dmesg command prints no output. /var/log/cron/cron.allow a.187 112. none of the above Answer – a 114. What system administrator does? Add name on mac in /etc/at. kernel messages displayed c. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written.conf Answer --d 115. /etc/syslog d. /var/run/klogd Answer –a 117. /var/log/cron.conf c. /var/log/cron b. Which file does contain the pid of klogd daemon? a. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog. /etc/sysconfig/syslog. /var/run/klogd. Which configuration file does syslogd use? a. /var/klogd. No output b.pid c. /etc/syslog. 113. /etc/syslog. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. Which file should he/she edit? a. . help options displayed for dmesg Answer – a Explanation – dmesg when used with the -c option clears the kernel ring buffer. /var/run/klog. A user wants to log the boot messages in the file /var/log/boot.

jack:jill c.deny d. no user of the system c. 121.spool Answer – a Explanation -. jack e. what will be content of file /etc/at. Same as at -l. 122.The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at.spool d. System administrator allows users Jack and Jill to use at facility. Which command is used to list all the scheduled jobs? a. both of them d. none of them c. Jack.jill d.jill b.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. only root user d. All the users of system b. jack. at -l b. 118.The file /etc/at. 119.deny are not present. Which command is used to create a crontab file? . don't add name on mac in /etc/at. error condition Answer – c 120.188 b. /var/spool/batch. jill Answer – d Explanation -. any of the above Answer – a Explanation -.allow? a. On a system the files /etc/at.atq the atq command is used to list the scheduled job. Add name on mac in /etc/at c.The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespaces between the username (on a line). atq Answer – c Explanation -. Which users can use the at facility? a. If the /etc/at. /var/spool/batch c. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled. In which directory the jobs scheduled by the batch command spooled? a. /var/spool/at b. /var/spool/at.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command.allow and /etc/at.

/etc/httpd/conf. crontab -k Answer – b Explanation -. /var/run/http. crontab -e c. none of the above d. /etc/cron. crontab -d d. /var/run/httpd. The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory.the file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file. service http on Answer – b 125. The name of the file is same as the name of the user. /lib/httpd/modules d.The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd. /usr/lib/httpd/module c. . Which file does contain the configuration information about the httpd server? a. Which directory contains the library modules for the httpd server? a.conf Answer – c Explanation -.The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file.conf. Which file is system crontab file? a. /var/run/httpd Answer – b 126. /etc/httpd.conf b. /etc/cron c. 123.pid c. crontab -l b.189 a.pid b. /etc/crontab b. 124.d Answer – c Explanation -. The conf sub directory of /etc/httpd directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd. service http start b. /etc/httpd/conf c. service httpd start c. /lib/httpd/module Answer – b 127. /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. service httpd on d. Which file does contain the pid of the httpd daemon? a.conf d. Which command is used to start the Apache web server? a. The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file. /usr/lib/httpd/modules b. /var/run/http d.

Which command invokes the HTTP Server Configuration utility? a. What is the content of /etc/httpd/conf. Error value c. HTTPD Configuration Answer – b 132. Configuration parameters for the main server c. Settings for virtual hosts. Answer – d 130. and log files are kept 129. and log files are kept will be /etc/demo.conf? a. What are the sections of Apache web server main configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Perl. Where the users need to put the html files to be served by the server in response of client request? . Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole. system-config-httpd b. nothing d. The DocumentRoot directive of main apache web server configuration file is set to “/home/demo”. and PHP). load libraries related to Apache server c. system-config-http c. The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration. system-config-httpconf Answer – a 133. HTTPD Server Configuration b.d contains the configuration files relating to the languages (like Python. d. All of the above Answer –d 131. Which is the graphical utility for httpd server configuration? a.d directory? a. What will be the impact? a. HTTP Server Configuration c. Configuration file related to Apache client b. b. no changes d. b.conf file the user set the directive ServerRoot “/etc/demo”. system-config-https d. error. database (Mysql) and the authorization modules. HTTP Configuration d. error. The conf.190 128. ServerRoot is not a directive. In the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Answer – a Explanation – ServerRoot directive defines The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration.

conf c.html file will be displayed. 135. squid.dns c. What are the possible values of LogLevel directive in Apache web server main configuration file? a. none of them d. all of them Answer – d Explanation -.log Answer --a 136. Which directory does contain the log information about the httpd server? a. none of them Answer – a Explanation – DocumentRoot defines the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server. /etc/squid. /home/demo b. /var/log/http d. alert. warn.html file and kept it in this directory and opened the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index. Warn b. /etc/squid/sqd.conf b. crit. debug c. and emerg are possible value of LogLevel directive. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks. Which is the main configuration file for squid server? a.squiddemo Answer – c Explanation -. /var/log/httpd. What are the two main programs consisting Squid server? a.debug info. squid.conf d. both of them d. /var/log/httpd b. squid.191 a. squid. For example if you create an index.dsnserver d.squid consists of a main server program squid.dnssrv b. notice. /etc/squid/squid. /etc/squid/squidd. On which port does squid listen by default for http? . 137. /var/log/apache c.conf Answer – c 138. /var/www/html c. error. 134.

port 4000 c.192 a. httpport 4000 d.conf . How will you set the RAM memory used to handle the in transit and hot objects of squid server? a. 141.What should he/she do in main squid configuration file? a.http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client 140. objects very complex c. httpd_port 4000 b. In what forms does http_port socket address be defined in the squid server main configuration file? a. http_port 4000 Answer – d Explanation -. objects not in use d. and IP address with port. An administrator wants to change the default http port that squid listen to 4000.The socket address can be defined in three forms: port alone. Port alone b.conf c. objects used very often Answer –d 143. What are hot objects in connection with squid server? a. 413 d. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. objects which moved out d. objects that are in use Answer –d 142. objects never used c. 80 c. ram_mem of /etc/squid/squid. RAM_mem of /etc/squid/squid.conf b. What do you mean by in transit objects in terms of squid server? a. none of them d. Objects in use b. hostname with port c. 3120 Answer – a 139. cache_mem of /etc/squid/squid. Objects used often b. 3128 b. hostname with port.

An administrator writes the below line in main squid server http_access allow 192.0. /var/spool/cache d. 192.The acl tag is used to define access control. gives name all to no address c. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file 147. 144. /var/spool/squid/cachedir Answer – b 145.0 of main squid server configuration file? a. what does it refer? a.193 d. Can the line http_access deny all be added in the /etc/squid/squid. gives name all to all the addresses b. No all not allowed b.168. gives name src to all the addresses Answer – a Explanation -. hot objects (objects that are used often). /var/run/squid. What is the meaning of the line acl all src 0.0/0. and negative cache objects (recent failed requests).0. Which file does contain the pid of the squid server? a.168. no deny is not allowed c.conf file? a.56. /var/spool/squid/cache b.0. /var/run/squid c.0. yes it can be d. Which is the default cache directory for the squid server? a. ip address should be with netmask Answer – a Explanation – http_access define which clients can access the squid server for http contents. mem_ram of /etc/squid/squid. b. gives name acl to all the addresses d. /var/run/squidd.pid Answer – a 146.65.pid d. no http_access is not allowed Answer – c . allow is invalid d. 148. /var/spool/squid c.56.conf Answer – a Explanation – cache_mem sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use). Wrong format c. /var/run/squid/squid.pid b.65 can access the http content.

conf b. How is the cache manager invoked? a. c.The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://servername/cgi-bin/cachemgr.conf c. /etc/sysconfig/squid Answer – d Explanation -. /etc/sysconfig/squid. The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs.conf b. 154. using http://server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr./etc/sysconfig/squid is configuration file for squid daemon and /etc/squid/squid. nothing d.194 Explanation – line means the http content is denied for all the clients. b. Cache-manager command b. /etc/squid/cachemanager. 149. b. all of the above Answer – b Explanation -. squiduser d. Using system-config-cache d.conf d. Under which user does squid server run? a. /etc/squid/cachemgr. it is daemon process name of squid server.conf Answer – c 152. all of them Answer – a 150. /etc/squid/cache. What does the line SQUID_OPTS="-D" in the squid daemon configuration file mean? Squid can be started without having internet connection load default values from configuration file a.d/squid. Which is the configuration file for the squid daemon? a. /etc/squid/squid. What is cache manager? a. Which is the configuration file for the cache manager? a. Answer – a 151. .cgi.cgi. /etc/cachemgr. root c. /etc/sysconfig/squid.conf d.conf c. 153. Squid b. Used to see amount of cache space used by a process c.conf is configuration file for squid server.

service squid reload Answer – c 157. service nfsd on Answer – b 158. Which command is used to start the NFS services? a. all of above Answer – a Explanation -.d/squid restart d. 159. service nfs start c. Which command does make squid to reread the configuration file? a. squid -k reconfigure b. Which command is used to restart the squid daemon? a.-D option disables initial dns checks so squid can be started without having internet connection 155. use SELinux d. service sqd restart c.the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. squid configure Answer – a 156. Service nfsd start b. none of above Answer – d Explanation -. Not possible b. Service squidd restart b. runs squid in safe mode d. use NISGRP c.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used.The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group. use #NISGRP Answer – c Explanation -. squid -k configure c. 160. /etc/init. Invalid option b. squid reconfigure d.195 c. An administrator wants to add a NIS group NISGRP in /etc/exports file? Which of the following is true? a. What does the option secure mean in case of /etc/exports file? a. use @NISGRP d. The nis group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the nis group name. use PAM c. service nfd start d. An administrator wants to add host1 and host2 in /etc/exports file corresponding to .

example. Exports b. NFS Configuration b. The combination of ip address and hostname can also be used. exportfs c. myhost. NFS Server Configuration c. 163. What is meaning of option root_squash in the file /etc/exports? a. host1 host2 d. NFS Server Administration Answer – b . don't allow client root user to login c.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid.196 the directory /home/user. both of above d. 164. 161. Which command is used to export all directories listed in the file /etc/exports? a. maps the root user of client to anonymous user Answer – d Explanation -. none of above Answer – b Explanation -. host1:host2 c.* character matches any number of characters in a domain name that is * matches for myhost (of option b) but not of option a as in option a there was new.com c.myhost (means new belonging to domain myhost) 162.example.example.maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid.The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service. export d. Which graphical utility is used to create the /etc/exports file? a.com b. NFS Server Manager d. Which of the below address match the entry? a. Host1.com entry in the file /etc/exports.Multiple hostnames or Ip address can be entered separated by blank. exportsf Answer – b Explanation -. all of above Answer – c Explanation -. New. A system administrator has made *.host2 b. Maps root user to client to user jack's account b. maps client root user to NFS server root user d. Which of the following is valid entry? a.myhost. The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534.

system should be rebooted Answer – a Explanation – before accessing a NFS directory the directory should be mounted using mount command or using autofs 167. Samba Server configuration c. /var/spool/nfs d. The directory is mounted b. What operation is performed before user accesses a NFS directory? a. both of them d. Which command is used to invoke the NFS server configuration utility? a. Smaba Server configuration b. Which utility is used to configure samba server? a. Which command is used to display server side NFS information? a. no operation is done d. /var/log/nfs c. system-config-nfs c. The files xtab. the directory is unmounted c. nfsstat -c c. Which directory does contain information about the exported directory using the NFS? a. nfs d. Smaba configuration Answer – b 170. and rmtab files which contain the information about the exported files. b. Which command is used to invoke the Samba Server Configuration utility? System-config-samba system-config-smb system-config-sambad a. nfsstat -s b. Samba configuration d. nfstat Answer – a Explanation -. System-config-nfsd b.log Answer – a Explanation -. . c. etab. 169.The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory. /var/lib/nfs b. /var/log/nfs/nfs.The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity 168. none of them Answer – b 166.197 165.

/etc/samba/smbusers b.conf c. . 174.conf d. /etc/smb. user=jack c. /etc/samba/smb. /etc/samba/smbusrs d. /etc/samba/sambausers Answer – a 173. service sambad start Answer – c 175. /etc/samba. jack:jack Answer – a Explanation -. service samba start c. smbclient -L d. Which file does contain the name of the all samba users? a. system-config-smbd Answer – a 171. user:jack d. Which command is used to start the samba server? a.conf b.what should be the format of entry in samba user file? a. An administrator wants to add a user Jack as samba user. none of them Answer – c Explanation – the command is used to check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be. Service smbd start b. service smb start d. /etc/smbusers c.198 d.The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users. smb status c. The Unix username and windows user name of Jack are same (it is Jack). To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu the left hand side denotes the Unix user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name. smbstatus b.conf Answer – c 172. Which command is used to view the samba server status information? a. Which of the following is main configuration file of samba server? a. /etc/samba/samba. jack=jack b.

local_enable=YES Answer – d Explanation -.conf b. service vftpd start Answer – c 177. jack john.jack john:jack john .conf d. users not in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list Answer – c Explanation -. d. local_users=YES c. local_usr=YES d. service vsftpd start d. local_user=YES b. An administrator wants the local users to use the ftp service. jack Answer – d Explanation – the users should be listed one in a line.conf Answer – d 178.conf c. 180. /etc/vsftpd/vsftp. 179.The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. An administrator wants to list the names of two users John and Jack in /etc/vsftpd/user_list file. All users b. c.local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server. Which command is used to start the ftp server? a. Which of the following is valid entry? John. Service ftp start b. Which is the main configuration file for the vsftpd server? a. which of the following lines is to be added in the ftp server configuration file? a. a. Which users are allowed to login into ftp? a.199 176. In the main configuration file of ftp server the directive userlist_enable=NO is used. no users c. service ftpd start c. b. /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. /etc/ftp/vsftpd. /etc/ftpd/vsftpd. users in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list d.

ftp d. Which is the main configuration file for the LDAP server? a. copy d. VSFTP daemon Configuration d. Which ftp command should he/she use? a. Which command invokes the ftp command prompt? a. paste Answer – a 183.log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server. System-config-vsftp b. Which files contain the logging information about the ftp server? a.log b. none of them Answer – d Explanation --The file /var/log/vsftpd. put c. /etc/ldap/ldap. VSFTPD Configuration Answer -. /etc/openldap/ldap.conf Answer – a 187. /var/log/vsftp. Which command is used to invoke the Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility? a. Very Secure FTP Configuration c.conf c.a 185. /var/log/xferlogd c. /etc/openldap/openldap. 182. system-config-ftp c. /etc/ldap/openldap.conf b. system-config-ftpd d. Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration b. Get b. ftpd Answer –c 184. sftp c. A user wants to copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system. What is the significance of the sizelimit option in the main configuration file of . system-config-vsftpd Answer –d 186. both of them d. Which graphical utility is used to configure the ftp server? a.conf d. vsftp b.200 181.

The timelimit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request. A user makes changes in the file /etc/openldap/ldap. number of concurrent processes d. What should be file extension? a. include d. make Answer – c 192.conf b. specifies the limit of results returned Answer – d Explanation -. Before using a schema to create ldap directory information what a user should do? a.TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request. Maximum time taken by ldap to add a entry d. use c.conf? a. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search. ldif c. ldaf d.conf using the include directive. the number of records in ldap c. ldfa Answer – b Explanation -. ad schema in /etc/openldap/openldap. 189. Add the schema in /etc/openldap/ldap. What is the significance of the timelimit option in the main configuration file of ldap? a.LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) 190. Minimum time taken by ldap to answer a search request c. 188. Memory size limit b. A user created a file which contains the directories of information he/she wants to add into an ldap server. Which directive is used to include a schema in the file /etc/openldap/ldap.To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. none of above Answer – a Explanation -. He/she wants to check . Copy b.201 ldap? a. 191.SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched. make the schema file Answer – a Explanation -.conf d.conf. Maximum time taken by ldap to answer a search request b. nothing is to be done c. Ldap b.

conf. /etc/ldap/schema/ c.conf file for the syntax change. b. 193. Which directory does contain the default ldap schema file? a. /etc/yp/yp.The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap.202 whether he/she made any syntax error. yes using ldap -t d. /etc/openldap/schema/ d. /etc/nis. Which command is used to search for an entry in the ldap directory? a. yes using ldcheck Answer – b Explanation -. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.Ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters.conf b. or nisdomainname. ldap b. /etc/openldap/schemaldap Answer – c 195. 194. which command is used to set the nis domain name of a system? a. /etc/yp. ldapsrch Answer – c Explanation -.conf c. ldap -s c. Can he/she do this? a. ypdomainname d. ldapsearch d.conf Answer – d 197. Which command is used to start the NIS server? service ypserver start service yp start a. Which is the main configuration file for NIS server? a. yes using slapd -t c. domainname b. all of these Answer – d Explanation -. No he can't do this using any command b. /etc/openldap/ldap/schema/ b. /etc/nis/yp. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned. . and ypdomainname is used to set the NIS domain name of the system 196.The command domainname.conf d. nisdomainname c.

Make in /var/yp directory Answer – b Explanation -. 201. Which command is used to create a NIS database? a.The client’s computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files 199. Makefile in /var/yp directory c.The /etc/nsswitch. Sharefile in /var/yp directory b. port c.conf d. /etc/nsswitch. ypdata c. Which file is used to map NIS? a. service ypserv start d. /etc/nwitch.conf b. /var/yp/securenets c. /etc/nswitch. What are the valid values of security field in file /etc/ypserv. all of these Answer – d Explanation -. ypserv Answer – c Explanation -. The file names which should not be shard in commented out.conf d. yp b. Which file does contain the entry for the client computers with access to NIS server? a. /var/yp/securenet b. Which file contains the name of the files being shared by the NIS server? a.The security can have values as none (to allow access). service ypd start Answer – c 198. port (to allow access from port below 1024). deny d. /var/yp/secure Answer – b Explanation -.conf? a.203 c. deny (denying access) 202.the NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is . Makefile in /var/nis directory d.the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server. /var/yp/access. 200. None b. The files /etc/passwd and /etc/group are being shared by the NIS server.conf Answer – a Explanation -.conf c. /etc/nisswitch. ypinit d.

using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. /etc/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases.The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign an ip address to a computer on its network. chkconfig dhcpd on c.conf d.conf b. Answer – b .204 created by using the ypinit command. neat c. /etc/dhcpd. 203. /etc/dhcp/dhcpd. Using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.conf contain? Answer -.stat Answer – a Explanation -. b.num d. chkconfig dhcp on Answer –b 204.pid. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. 206. How can administrator decide number of client’s assigned address using the DHCP server? a. d.leases contain information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server. What does the file /etc/dhcpd. 207. System-config-network b.conf c. Which graphical utility is used to configure the dhcp client? a. all of there d. c.The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. /var/run/dhpclient.pid. chkconfig dhcpd enable d. Which command is used to enable the dhcp server? a.pid.leases b.conf Answer – c 205. /var/run/dhcplient. Which file does contain the process id of the dhcp client? a. /var/run/dhclient. none of these Answer – c 208. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. Which of the following is dhcp server configuration file? a. /var/run/dhcpclient.count c.pid. chkconfig dhcpd start b. /etc/dhcp.

/etc/named/name. system-config-bind d.conf? a. /etc/dhclient. /etc/dhcplient. to define server pid d. Which command is used to start the named server? a. BIND Server Configuration Answer –a 212. BIND Configuration c. /etc/name.conf c. system-config-name b.conf b. Which configuration file does dhcp client use? a.conf d.conf. Which command is used to invoke BIND Configuration GUI? a.conf b. An administrator made changes to file /etc/named. service bind start b. BIND Server Configuration GUI d. system-config-dns Answer – c 213.205 209. Which command does check file for syntax error? . system-config-named c.conf Answer – d 210.d/name start d. to define performance option c.acl – access control list used as acl “description “{ip address}.d/named start c. Which is the main configuration file for the named daemon? a. /etc/dhcpdclient.conf Answer – c 214. none of the above Answer – a Explanation -. Which graphical utility is used to configure the DNS server? a. /etc/init. 215. /etc/named. /etc/init. What is the function of acl directive in the file /etc/named. service name start Answer – b 211.conf c. BIND Configuration GUI b. /etc/dhpclient. /etc/named/named. To define access control list b.conf d.

named-checkzone b.Named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named. Named-checkconf b.db /var/named/data/dumb.db a. How can you check the availability of domain name? a. Which file does contain the statistics of named daemon? /var/named/data/named_statistics. host b. checkconf c.txt /var/named/data/stats. none of these Answer – a Explanation -.It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. .db /var/named/data/named_dumb. whois c.txt /var/named/data/named_stats /var/named/data/named_stats. checkzonenamed d. 217.txt Answer – c 218. Format is host host-name host ip address 220. namedcheckconf Answer – a 216. hostname c.206 a. checkzone c. domaincheck Answer – b Explanation – whois command is used to search for the availability of domain name format whois domain-name 219. Which command is used to check the syntax of the zone files? a. gethost d.conf file. you have chosen a domain name for your system. Which file is dump file for the named daemon? /var/named/data/cache_dumb. c. checkfile d. How can you get the hostname of your system from ip address? a. b. who b. domainchk d. zonecheck Answer – a Explanation -.

What will you do? a. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the sendmail server? a. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail. 223. The file /etc/mail/sendmail.the file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. You want to configure the sendmail server to handle two domain names. /var/named/data/cache_dumb Answer – a 221. both of them d. /etc/mail/security Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/mail/access. 222. Domain name mapping in file /etc/domain b.cf. Which of the following files are configuration files for the sendmail server? a. The domain name of your system changed from oldone to newone. define domain names in /etc/mail/domain-name d.allow d.cf b. use command domainname c. Can't be done b. define domain names in /etc/mail/virtual Answer – b Explanation -.mc c.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. none of above Answer – c Explanation -.mc.The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail. define domain names in /etc/mail/local-host-name c.The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. What command does server the purpose? . /etc/mail/sendmail. 225. After changing the /etc/mail/access file a user wants to create the access. /etc/mail/access b.The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmal will accept mail for delivery or relay. domain name mapping in file /etc/mail/domaintable d. What should the administrator do? a. location of the log files and database files.db file. /etc/mail/sendmail. 224. /etc/mail/access.deny c.207 d.

db with the .db replace the filename access. c.db. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main.db file you want to create for example make virtusertable. make access c.conf /etc/postfix/master.cf b. ERROR: user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message. /etc/postfix/main. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected.208 a.cf. /etc/postfix/postfix. /var/spool/mail/stat c.db b.There are four actions which the sendmail server can take RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail. both of them d. Which is the main configuration file for postfix server? a. /etc/postfix/main. RELAY b.Which file does contain collected statistics from sendmail? a.cf Answer – a Explanation -.default which is exact copy of the main. 229. /var/spool/mail/statistics b. d. postfix queues and locations to be used for logging. 226.cf.The user wants to make the individual configuration files into the . create access.cf d.cf /etc/postfix/postfix. b. Which is the postfix daemon configuration file? /etc/postfix/master. .cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server. mailbox.the /etc/postfix/main. What actions does sendmail do on a mail? a. 227. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. /etc/postfix/post.conf a. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected.db Answer – a Explanation -. REJECT c.mc c. /var/spool/mail/statistic Answer – a 228.db makes the file virtusertable.db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access. create access d. Make access. /var/spool/mail/stats d.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.cf /etc/postfix/daemon. It defines the hostnames and domain names.

and /var/log/maillog.2 d. /etc/postfix/permit-files c. 232. /var/log/maillog b./var/log/maillog. /etc/postfix/postfix-file d.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process. The file /var/log/maillog. /etc/postfix/postfix-files b.209 Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/service/alternatives Answer –b Explanation -. /etc/services/alternatives d.the log information about the postfix and sendmail server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog.The file /etc/postfix/master.The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives displays the default services configured on the system 234.1. /etc/postfix/access. /etc/alternative b. /etc/postfix/access b. /etc/postfix/security Answer – a Explanation -. /var/log/maillog. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the postfix server? a. Which file does contain the directory and file permission set by postfix? a. /etc/postfix/access. 230. 233. all of above Answer – d Explanation -.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix and sendmail server. Which files does contain the sendmail and postfix server log information? a. /etc/postfix/permission-files Answer –a Explanation -.deny c. Which directory does contain the default services configured on the system? a.1 c.allow d.2. 231. b. Which file does contain the alternative mail services? /var/lib/alternatives /var/lib/alternatives/mta /var/lib/alternative/mta a. c. . /var/log/maillog.the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server.the file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server. /etc/alternatives c.

base_run c. /etc/xinetd.conf b. /etc/dovecot. /etc/xine.d b. max_run_mail_processes c.conf c.cf c. Which directive of dovecot configuration file does set the directory path containing run time data? a. Which directory does contain the files corresponding to the services supported by xinetd? a.210 d.mc d.d/service d. /etc/xinetd. /etc/dovecot. Which configuration file does xinetd use? a.max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously. run_dir b. /etc/xinetd c. base_dir Answer – d Explanation – base_dir defines Base directory where to store runtime data 237.conf Answer – a 236. /etc/xinetd. /etc/dovecot. max_mail_processes b. /etc/xinet. Which directive of dovecot configuration defines maximum number of running mail processes? a. max_mail_run_processes d.conf Answer – d 239. /etc/dovecot/dovecot. 238. /var/lib/alternatives/mta-alternate Answer – b 235. /etc/xinetd/xinetd. main_dir d.d/services Answer -. mail_processes Answer – a Explanation -. Which is the main configuration file for the dovecot services? a.conf b.a .conf d. /etc/xinetd.

This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts. and C.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. security Level Configuration d.211 Explanation -./etc/hosts. allow and /etc/hosts. Administrator wants to allow A and B for xinetd services (with tcp wrappers).allow and c in /etc/hosts. /etc/sysconfig/ipchains d. none of these Answer – a 242. security Level Configurations c.allow file.The client A is listed in file /etc/hosts. security Configuration b.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. . 241. system-config-security b. All is specified to denote all clients b. What is the significance of ALL in /etc/hosts.allow – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. /etc/sysconfig/ipchain Answer – b Explanation -. /etc/hosts. These services are called on demand services. yes Answer – b Explanation -. 240. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility. B.The directory /etc/xinetd. system-config-securelevel d. No b. Which file contains the current security level settings? a. /etc/sysconfig/iptable b. Which graphical utility is used to configure security level of a system? a. all is specified for all services c. Which command is used to invoke security level configuration? a. There are three clients A.Is the configuration right? a. system-config-securitylevel Answer – d 244. This file is first scanned by tcpd. deny? a. /etc/sysconfig/iptables c.deny – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. system-config-level c. security Level Manager Answer – c 243. both of these d.deny.

Which command is used to save the rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file? a. done c. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config b. and session. Which file does configure the modules needed for NAT filtering? a. mandate b.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to. password. Where will the configuration file for PAM find? a. /etc/pam. iptables-kernel d. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. What are the valid control types for a PAM configuration file? a.d/pam d. 249. The files in the directory /etc/conf.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.d/conf c. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers. both of them d.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam. and optional. Which of the following account types does PAM allow? a. password c.The contents of the file /etc/pam. /etc/pam. 248. iptables-save b. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-nat c.conf file is absent on a system. 250. The /etc/pam. authentiction. auth b. sufficient. /etc/sysconfig/iptable-config Answer – a Explanation -. 246. iptables-load c.d are present. /etc/pam.The valid values for the control are include. iptables -S Answer – a 247. Which directory does contain the PAM modules? /lib/security a. . /etc/pam/pam. both of them Answer – c Explanation -. none of them d.d b. required.d Answer – d Explanation -. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-filter d.PAM allows four types account.212 245. load additional iptables modules.

enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. Which configuration file does SELinux use? a. /lib/PAM c.mc c.213 b. system-config-se Answer – a 253. SELinux manager Answer – c 252. SELinux configuration b.conf b. /lib/security/PAM d. disable d. permissive b. SELinux configurations c. What of the following is valid SELinux enforcing mode? a. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. Disable-. /etc/sysconfig/selad c. Which command is used to invoke the SELinux administration utility? a. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues warning instead of enforcement. /etc/sysconfig/seladm d. Which graphical utility is used for SELinux configuration? a. enforcing c.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled.The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux . /etc/sysconfig/seladmin Answer – a Explanation -. Which file does SELinux Administration utility change? a. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. 254. /etc/sysconfig/selinux Answer – d 255.cf d. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. /etc/sysconfig/selinux b. SELinux administration d. /etc/PAM Answer – a 251. system-config-SElinux c. system-config-SELinux d. system-config-selinux b.

193. 107.conf 194 etc/dhclient. 196 anonymous user behavior 132 answer 3. 119-20. 134 ALT 30. 192-3. 103-4. 140.log cache. 105. 138-9. 204-5. 81.log 112 account system-auth 160 user jack's 196 acl 113. 153. 183.conf 198 etc/sysconfig/selinux 213 etc/syslog.conf 187 etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf 205 etc/openldap/schemaldap 202 etc/PAM 213 etc/samba/sambausers 198 etc/smb.out store. 103.db 147-8. 191.conf 210 etc/groups 181 etc/ldap/openldap. 155. 204. 132.conf 199 etc/xinetd.conf 210 etc/yp. 156. 172 access tab user 125 access. 113-14. 208-9 [4] access control 113.log squid. 113 Access file 147. 151. 198-9. 193 access control list 145. 194 anaconda 14. 129.master 174 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cachemgr. 161.conf 202 filesystem 183 ftpd 200 gpassword 181 hd0 164 kickstart-file/install/linux. 32. 26. 205 access control section 9. 99. 79.com 165 . 196 anonuid 122 Anonymous login 127 anonymous uid 118. 134. 125-6. 164-5. 204 lp 117 adm 78-9. 205 acl tag 113. 130 Administrative group 73 administrator 66. 208 AccessFileName 103 access. 167 anaconda boot prompt 164-5 anaconda ks 165 anongid 118. 201 command xvf 178 dev/sda2 174 device-name raid-device-name 175 dumb 207 error condition 188 etc/autofs. 169 amount 85-6. 195. 193 actions System Tools 152 address 61. 116-17. 145.conf 200 etc/name. 135. 193-4. 122. 122. 115. 203.214 INDEX* A access 97.conf 204 etc/dovecot/dovecot. 211 assigned 140. 207. 150-1.conf 205 etc/dhcp. 211 AGE 68 AGENT 97 Alias SERVICES 79 aliases 70-1.

160-1. 173 bo 85 book 3. 191.conf 100. 67. 190 Apache web server 99. 97-9. 189 apache web server process 101. 50. 153-4. 189-91 apache web server configuration directory 100. 212 file system-auth 161 authentication 111. 70. 118. 133-4. 85 blocksize 45-6. 179-80 bashrc 70 batch 93.215 lib/httpd/module 189 modified 176 namedcheckconf 206 paste 200 renice command 184 schedule 186 security Level Manager 211 service name start 205 service sambad start 198 service squid reload 195 service vftpd start 199 service ypd start 203 squid configure 195 system-config-dns 205 system-config-httpconf 190 system-config-manages 178 system-config-se 213 system-config-securitylevel 211 system-config-smbd 198 system-config-usrs 181 system-config-vsftpd 200 var/log/httpd. 174 B badblocks 6. 41. 188 atrm 95-6 attributes 55. 165. 174 base 45. 101 auth 102. 149. 180 bin/bash new-user 180 bin/mount 79-80 bin/tcsh 72 bin/true 90 bin/umount 79-80 Block device 57. 210 bash 70 bash shell 70-1. 160-1. 167-8 boot configuration 27-8 . 122 atq 94-6. 52 automount daemons 50. 51. 105-6 configuration apache configuration file httpd. 189 apache server 109. 174. 25-9.log 191 var/run/httpd 189 var/run/klogd 187 var/run/squidd. 49. 197 autofs status 174 automount 6. 101. 51 autofs 50-1. 78. 110. 85 bin/bash 35. 96 bi 19.pid 193 var/spool/mail/statistic 208 var/spool/squid/cachedir 193 apache 102. 5 boot 14-15. 91. 212 auto 42. 190 async 42. 72.

82-3. 79. 188 . 104. 194 Cache-manager command 194 cache server 105 cache size 112. 204. 123. 144-5. 151 atq 95. 5. 18 boot system. 43-4. 156. 195. 172 bootloader 15-16. 150. 173-4 cd 120. 211 [1] dhcp 142. 90. 25. 87. 164-5 bootloader command 17 broadcast 136-7 browse tab user 66 buffer 86. 120-1. 158 user information 74 clicking 83. 183 cat 47-8. 26 boot process 3. 64-5. 54-8. 138-40. 141. 36-40. 76-81. 87. 86-91. 118. 169 cache 105. 87. 125. 207. 188 badblocks 49. single 14 boot time 34-5. 169. 142. 90 Changing runlevels 36 chgrunlevel 170 chkconfig 35-8. 131. 29. 99. 169.216 boot directory 15 boot/grub/grub. 114. 170-5. 75. 196 subnet masks of 156. 192-4. 174 batch 96. 157 client computers 118. 181-3. 142. 186. 169. 131. 125-6. 99. 80 CDROM media 52 change 36. 27. 81. 204 root user of 118. 157 bzip2 178 C ca 31. 211 web 104. 121. 203 client side information 122 client system 137 clients 3. 41. 52. 47-8. 202-7 [29] administrative 8. 93-8. 28. 186. 112. 25. 195200. 152. 170. 78. 196. 163. 155 cdrom 16-19. 119-20. 46.conf 25. 113-14. 34. 91. 153. 41. 187 button 107-8. 111 Cmnd 79 columns 42-3 comma 157 command 20-4. 72. 192-3 cache directory 112 default 193 cache directory section 9. 139-40. 192 change directory 131 change root user's password 76 Changing priority of process 8. 168 boot ks 165 boot partition 14-15. 168 click 40. 142. 114-15. 127-8. 42. 132-3. 27-8. 112 cache files 60 cache manager 10. 170 choice 16. 184 normal 29 boot process kernel 169 boot prompt 16. 193 cachedir 60 case 81. 144-5. 171 chkconfig command 170 chkconfig dhcpd 204 chkconfig service-name 37-8. 84. 142. 121. 180-90. 164-5 default 25. 83. 123-5.

217 bzip2 178 chgrp 81 chmod 46 chown 81 chown user-name-group-name file-name df 77. 52. 153 free 183 fsck 48-9 groupadd 73 groupdel 73 groupmod 73 insmod 89. 185 install 64 ldapsearch 135. 174 command badblocks device-name 49 command badblocks searches 49 command bzip2 65. 197 ps 8. 183 whois 206 183 ypinit 139. 176 command aliases 79-80 command askmethod 16 command atq 96 command badblocks 49. 178 command chkconfig 37. 196 fdisk 172 filename time-specification 95 following 46. 67. 71 userdel 72 usermod 72. 186 network 17 nfsstat 122. 180 visudo 182 vmstat 85. 90 purpose 53. 186 rmmod 89 sbin/visudo 81 sudo 182 swap 46 swapon 47 top 84. 204 yum 60-1. 143 command chkconfig dhcpd 139 command chkconfig dovecot 153 command chkconfig httpd 99 command chown 182 command crontab 98 command dd 173 command dhclient 142 command dmesg 91 . 202 lsmod 185 lvdisplay 57 lvremove 57 mdadm 53-4 mke2fs 173 mkfs 44 mkswap 46 modinfo 88 modprobe 89-90. 184 uptime 85 useradd 66-7. 90 pvcreate 54 renice 90-1. 72. 181 dmesg 187 exportfs 119.

101. 189-90. 190. 202 command swapoff 48 command system-config-kickstart 17 command tar xvf 178 command tar xvfz realplay. 181 command prompts 76. 204 remote 131 conf 100. 128. 162. 186-7. 135-6.gz 64 command umount directory-name 43 command uname 185 command useradd 72 command userdel 180 command vgcreate 55 command vgdisplay 55 command vgextend 55 command vgremove 58 command. 211 httpd server 190 post installation 151 samba 197 server's 190 configuration directives 103 Configuration directives for Apache web server process 190 configuration file cd 148 configuration file restart 116 configuration files 11-12. 45.tar. 147-8. 145.gz 64 commands mke2fs uses 45 commands tar xvf 178 comment 71-2. 122.tar. 207 command don W  command execute 182 command field 98 command file swap 46 command ifconfig 140 command insmod 90 command kudzu 19 command ldapadd 135 command line 46. 59-60. 27-8.vfat 173 command modprobe 90 command mount 42. 133. 179. 186 command lsmod 88 command lvcreate 56 command mdadm 53 command mkfs. 116-18. 182 command slapd 134. 159-61. 205 . 202. 96 command ps 90 command pvremove 58 Command Reference 13. 131. 159. 169 computers 14-15. 133-5. 41. 207-8. 194-5. 64. 163 command renice 186 command root@localhost 44 command rpm 81. 143. 73. 176. 138-40. 166. 23. 212-13 [19] Configuration GUI 11. 165-6. 140. 200. 11. 212 conf directory 100 config directory 102 configuration 8-9. 77. 126-8.218 command domainname 135. 160. 48. 102. 177 command sequence 148 command service dhcpd start 139 command service dovecot start 153 command service httpd start 99 command service network start 142 command service ypbind start 137 command sets 135 command shutdown 169. 80 command passwd 76.insmod loads 186 commands gunzip realplay. 205. 101. 173.

79. 157 cron 97-9. 131. 173 . 99. 192. 169 ctrlaltdel 30-2. 110. 179. 130. 207 defaults 41. 143. 72 deref 134 DEREF options 134 desc 19 description 29. 104. 169 D daemon 78-9. 131. 150. 23. 123. 159. 211 internet 115. 106-7. 189 configuration parameters 142. 101. 41-2 dev/cdrom 43-4. 32. 161. 189 klogd 93. 128 connect 118. 61-2. 153. 45 deflate/module 89 Deleting user account 7. 64-5. 205-6 tcp wrapper 156 daemon Configuration 10. 19 Configuring NIS 11. 92 control 27. 190 database files 147-8. 86. 91. 131. 131.219 configuration information 115. 66 cron facility 93. 189 crontab jobs 97-8 CTRL 30. 150. 194-5 conntrack 159 console 29-30. 109-10. 147-8. 190 configuration configure 14. 152 dev 18. 200 Daemon Configuration 151 daemon process name 194 daemon xinetd 12. 163. 169. 155 data files 46. 200-1 core directory 109. 162. 27 Configuring Hardware 5. 27. 128-9. 177. 141. 125-6. 164 default operating system 27-8. 147. 184 crashes 40. 205 desktop 82. 195 connection 102. 145. 100. 168 default parameters 45-6 default runlevel 29-30 default values 66-7. 81. 112. 71-3. 33. 136 Configuring services 36 Configuring Squid 9. 187 named 143. 52 Creating Kickstart 5. 155-6. 207 days 68 db 138 db files 12. 212 copy 15. 17. 131. 145-6. 194. 19-20. 16 Creating User Account 7. 35. 122-3. 204-5 [5] configure command configures 65 configure IPSec tunnel 23 configure printers 24 configure samba server 197 configure security level 211 configure system's hostname 23 Configuring Grub 5. 51-2. 208 dc 133-4 default installer 14. 111 Configuring vsftpd 10. 97 crontab 97-8. 174 database 64. 147 cpu 85 CPU usage 84.

139.com 117-18. 43 df 77. 190-1 domain 106. 161. 204 DHCP server 11. 160. 153-4. 34-6. 124. 143-6. 47-8. 105. 210 directory realplay 64-5 directory realplay. 205 dns server information 141 DNS server information 142 DNS service 143 DocumentRoot 103. 41-2. 49.tar 65 directory tree 101. 90. 117-21. 96-7. 188-91. 174 dev/my 57 dev/sda 26. 190 directory user 70 directory yum 175 disk 85. 1967. 167. 40-1. 179 directory 15. 143 domain example. 166. 127. 131. 118. 46. 153. 174 dev/sda4 43 dev/sda5 40. 140 dhcp server 139-42. 209-12 [25] base 153. 204 difference 42. 99-104. 142 DHCP client 11. 127. 187 DNS server 11. 149-52. 48 devpts 41. 59-60. 117 directory-name host-name 117 directory option 132 directory path 17. 52-4. 175-7. 139-40.220 dev/fd0 51 dev/md0 53-4. 169 dir 17. 206 var/nis 203 var/yp 203 directory entry 117. 42-3. 54-5. 125-6. 210 current 131. 133-4. 141. 171 disk druid 164-5 display 57. 181 dhcp 139. 106. 77. 44. 171. 45. 175 filesystem-type 44. 173-5 multiple 52 physical 53 device listing 141 device name 42 device-name 48-9. 134 directory files 117 directory information 134 directory list 132 directory listing 121 directory name 17. 173 dev/sda6 172 dev/vol 175 device 19. 77 dev/sda0 53 dev/sda1 53. 200 etc/alternatives 152 etc/httpd 189 schema 134 target 173 var/lib/alternatives 152 var/named 145. 181 display server side information 122 display server side NFS information 197 dmesg 91. 156 . 210 DIR 67-8. 177-8 digits 35. 174 dev/sda2 53-4.

208 error Answer 170 error messages 91. 83.deny 12. 135. 143. 101.conf 140. 195.221 domain name mapping 147. 156. 154 etc/alternatives 209 etc/at. 147-8. 211 etc/httpd 100-1. 206-8 domain NISDOMAIN 136 domain ServerName 106 domainname domain-name-of-system 135 don W   dovecot 12. 175. 189 etc/httpd/conf 101-2. 120-1. 126. 150. 189-90 etc/httpd/conf/httpd. 59. 187-8 etc/at. 201-3 [2] valid 136. 169. 207 etc/modprobe 90. 204 etc/exports 117.conf 189-90 etc/init 116. 182 editing 27-8. 191 domain names 146-7.allow 94. 205 etc/inittab 29 etc/login. 134. 196 etc/exports file 118-20. 104. 144-5. 196. 29. 185-7.allow 12.conf 90. 149. 50-1. 20. 190-1. 195-6 etc/fstab 42. 153-4 dovecot configuration 210 down list 144-5 drivers 19.defs 67. 123.misc 50-1 etc/bashrc 71 etc/cron. web master 107. 147-8. 183. 188 customize user's shell 70 EOT 95-6 error 49. 188 etc/auto. 196. 179 etc/mail 11. 199 entry initdefault 29 entry mta-sendmail 152 environment 96. 80. 206 DVD 14-15 DVD drive 14 DVD media 14-15 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 139 Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) 102 E edit 39. 174. 207 etc/mail/sendmail. 171-2 etc/ftab 171-2 etc/gshadow 73 etc/hosts 137. 207 etc/mail/sendmail. 138. 37.mc 147. 188 etc/at.cf 147. 211 etc/hosts. 114. 156. 87-8 drm 88-9 DSO (Dynamic Shared Object) 102 dual boot system 14 dumb. 109 ENAB 69-70 entry 15. 207 Domain Name Service 138 Domain Name System 111. 179 email address. 166. 186 etc/modprobe. 208 etc/mail/local-host-name 147. 58. 138. 151. 117-18. 211 etc/hosts. 99.db 145.daily 98-9 etc/demo 190 etc/dhcpd.deny command lists 93. 143. 173. 144. 186 . 108.deny 93-4. 71-3.

87-8. 52. 160.conf 111. 67. 208 etc/postfix/master. 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159. 179 etc/skel directory 70. 44. 91.conf 160. 203 etc/openldap/ldap. 205 etc/nsswitch. 140. 176 Ethernet device panel 141 Ethernet interface 17.conf 59-60. 166 etc/sysconfig/ipchains 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables 159. 171. 169. 199 etc/X11 32-3. 197 exportfs 119. 156 exec 42 execution. 171-2 etc/named. 213 etc/sysconfig/squid 115. 72. 122. 29. 44-5. 176 father 27.cf 151. 208-9 etc/postfix/permission-files 209 etc/postfix/permit-files 209 etc/postfix/postfix-files 151.conf 136 etc/yum. 179 etc/squid/squid. 50. 51 ext3 41. 200-2 etc/openldap/openldap. 212 etc/pam. 191-4 etc/sudoers 80-1 etc/sysconfig/hwconf 19-20.conf 145. 78.conf 92. 173 ext3 rw 42-3 F facility 187-8 failure 54. 210-11 etc/yp. 212 etc/passwd 71. 42. 34-6.222 etc/mstab 172 etc/mtab 6. yum commands 176 exit codes 49 expire 60. 161. 63. 166 etc/xinetd 155. 184 fc7 26. 48 filesystem types 42 ext3 filesystem type 52 ext3 filesystems 40. 209 etc/profile 71 etc/rc 31-2. 187 etc/vsftpd/ftpusers 130 etc/vsftpd/user 129-30. 180-1.conf 187 etc/syslog 187 etc/syslog. 194 etc/sysconfig/syslog 187 etc/sysconfig/syslog. 169. 132.conf 200-1 etc/pam 13.cf 151. 203 etc/postfix/main. 117-19.conf 134-5. 72 Explanation 164-213 export 119. 196 ext2 44-5.conf 137.com 105. 70. 142 exam 3 exam topics 3 example. 127 fdisk 172-3 Fedora Core Linux 14 . 174 etc/samba directory 126 etc/service/alternatives 209 etc/services/alternatives 209 etc/skel 67. 212 etc/sysconfig/selinux 162. 196 export HOSTNAME DESKTOP 97 exported directory 122. 48.

190 etc/inittab 5.conf 101. 172 file group 81. 169 etc/login. 155-64. 88. 145-7. 129-34. 34-6. 189 etc/dovecot.networking 88 file names 67. 98. 139 fourth 42.allow 93 etc/auto. 188-9 dhcp server configuration 204 domain name mapping 147 dovecot configuration 210 download 128 dump 145. 183 file swap 47-8 file system 42. 171-6. multiple 49 filename 47-8. 46-8. 182-3 file modules. 93.misc 51 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cron. 29-30. 79-80. 182 . 209 etc/postfix/postfix-scripts 151 etc/profile 71 etc/rpmrc configuration 64.conf 15 bz2 178 cached 105 change 163 component support component 102 configu-ration 92 crontab 97.conf 153 etc/export 119 etc/fstab 6. 49 virtual 41 file system errors 49 file systems. 176 etc/samba/smb.conf 145. 179 boot/grub/grub. 87. 206 entry 117 etc/at. 43. 150. 78-81. 138. 182-3 file permissions 46.db 148. 208 files 29-30. 198 etc/shadow 71 etc/squid/squid.defs 67 etc/mail/access 147. 17890. 101-4.deny 97 etc/crontab 98. 203 file owner 81. 137-40.conf 138 etc/openldap/ldap. 202 etc/pam. 41. 203-13 [20] access.conf 134.conf 212 etc/passwd 72 etc/postfix/access 151. 185.conf configuration 126 etc/samba/smbusers 126-7. 115-18.223 field 98.db 207 apache web server configuration 190 authpriv 92 bash 179 bashrc 70-1. 206 etc/nsswitch 137 etc/nsswitch. 132. 81 etc/hosts.allow 97 etc/cron.allow 156. 172 etc/group 71. 92-9. 48.conf 193 etc/sudoers 8. 211 etc/httpd/conf/httpd. 95. 198-201.master 50 etc/auto. 149-52. 185 filename access. 207 etc/mke2fs 45 etc/mtab 42 etc/named.

204 var/log/secure 93 var/log/xferlog 130.pid 101 important 11-12. 194 squid server configuration 193 standard logging 132 sub-component configuration 101 swap 46-8 tar 178 tar. 149 index. 132.224 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159 etc/syslog. 200 var/yp/securenets 138.pid 154 file-name. 156 execute user-namex201fs 182 exported 122. 206 files he/she 103. 96 sample auto. 197 file master.conf 92 etc/yp.conf 133 sample modprobe.cf 151. 197 samba configuration 10. 176 gpg key 61 htaccess 104 htpasswd 104 httpd. 191 files nisplus nis shadow 138 files passwd 138 .gz 178 temporary 60 using 95. 208 modules.bz2 178 tar. 126 samba user 198 sample 35. 203 ypbind configuration 136 yum configuration 65 zip 178 zone 145.conf 90 sample vsftpd.conf 136 etc/yum.conf 176 executable 42. 199 load config 102 local 138 main. 128 single 153 special 92 squid configuration 111.cron 97 ftp server configuration 199 global configuration 64.html 103.dep 89 multiple 131 named daemon configuration 145 pid 109 postfix daemon configuration 208 proc/kmsg 93 rmtab 122.conf 128 script 151 sharing 122. 145-6.master 50 sample configuration 60 sample etab 122 sample ldap. 191 initrd 15 inittab 29 ldif 135 library 101 list 130. 192 squid daemon configuration 115.

73 group administration group apache 102-3 group demo 182 group ids 78 group information 73-4. 53-7. 181-2 basic 29 df 77 mounted 77. 130. 48-50. 34. 58-9. 208 format 10. 190. 184-5 [17] tar. 180. 60-1. 118. 199-200 FTP 3. 204-5. 51 following commands cd 148. 29. 122 proc 41. 69. 65. 71-3. 159. 200. 14. 164-5. 16-17. 171 pseudo 167 single 52 vfat 173 filesystems tab 83 finger 156 firewall 3. 138. 47-8. 175 grub 5. 78. 176 graphical tools 33 graphical utility 5. 109. 168 grub menu 15. 130. 157. 73 grp 55-7. 59. 169 .225 files S10network 35 files xtab 122. 15. 27-8. 117. 25-6. 35. 73 group accounts 66. 41. 165-7. 159 firewall command sets 17 firewall rules 159 floppy 45-6. 101 gpgcheck 60-1 gpgkeys 61. 168 grub configuration file 5. 213 group 8. 103 group sys root 81 groupadd 68. 80. 16-17. 196. 211. 53. 27-8 gunzip 178 H halt 30. 43. 67. 96. 129-30. 83. 25. 17-18. 20. 82 Group Administration 7. 77. 46. 172 filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name 43 filesystems 6. 132. 40 filesystem mount command 43 filesystem option 77 filesystem type 42. 180 group-name 72.bz2 64-5 value 134 Fri 94-6 fs 45-6 fsck 48-9. 196 Global Environment Configuration 9. 89-91. 76-8. 79-82. 19. 48. 33. 50-1. 52. 40-4. 181-3 logical 56 new 7. 111 ftp command 200 ftp command prompt 10. 197 Filesystem Administration 6 Filesystem Information 6. 200 ftp server 129-30. 81. 71. 171-2. 91. 138-9. 146. 199-200 FTP server 128 ftp service 199 G GB 56 gid 41. 174 fstype 51 ftp 18. 25. 72-3.

143 hostname 10. 86. 208 htaccess 103-4 HTTPD Configuration Answer 190 httpd server 103. 59. 151. 14-17. 81. 89 hd0 15. 172 hard-disk-device name 53 hard-disk-device-name 53-4 hard-disk-partition 55 vgcreate volume-group-name 55 vgextend volume-group-name 55 hard disk partitions 42. 174. 87. 71. 122. 181 home/demo 173. 189. 146. 29. 72. 67. 184 init process 27. 184 INIT process 30 initdefault 29. 29. 31-4 initialize 54 Initializing System 6. 42. 126-7. 131. 170-1. 26-7 inode 45-6 Inserting module 8. 180-1. 212 install server 15 installation 5. 179-81 his/her 180 home directory name 72 home-directory-name 72 home directory of user 179 home directory path 71 home/jack 181 home/movies 43-4 home/swap 47 home/user 70-1. 27. 176-8. 168. 60. 160. 50. 126. 195-6. 161. 171. 44. 201. 167 Installation and Hardware Configuration 5 installation files 15 . 67. 64. 191 HTTPD Server Configuration 190 httpd service 99. 31. 98. 176. 196. 32. 192. 201 information server 103 init 29-30. 35. 53-4. 61-2. 134. 47 hardware 19-20. 168 he/she 144. 36. 52. 59. 69. 65-6.226 hard disk 14-16. 50. 77. 137-8. 79. 201-2 sendmail commands 148 hierarchy 40. 168. 77. 169. 170 I id 19. 206 virtual 107-8 host names 117. 69-70. 206. 77. 97 grp System 55 IfModule mod 104-5 imap 153-4 include 50. 203. 172. 89-90. 164. 165. 72. 52-3. 104. 112 home 41. 34. 166 Hardware Configuration 5 hardware drivers 87. 117. 192. 34 initrd 15. 212 system-auth password 160 inconsistencies 118 index closed db 64 opening db 63 info 92. 89 install 14. 65. 34. 160-1. 16. 146. 196 home/vishnu 118-22 home/vishnu directory 119-20 host 19. 190-1 home directory 46. 163-4. 23. 26-7. 118-19. 164. 154 infomod modulename 185 information he/she 83. 115.

212 kernel/crypto/module 89 Kernel Information 8. 50-1. 90 kernel/lib/zlib 89 kernel messages 92-3. 18. 169-71. 201-2 LDAP Data Interchange Format 134. 188 john 179. 142-3. 91. 201 LEN 68 letter 36 level 29. 204-6 list of 156. 211 IPC 127 IPC Service 127 ipt 88 iptables 158-9. 196. 41 languages system 14 largefile 46 lastrunlevel 170 ldap 11. 29. 212 iptables modules 159. 34-8. 166. 93-7. 187 kernel Modules 8.227 installation process 14-16. 199 journaling feature 40. 52 K KB 56 kde 70 kernel 8. 202 ldap directory information 201 ldap server 134-5. 181. 193. 164. 133-5. 167 kickstart-file/install/linux. 80. 198-9 jill 188 jobs 87. 134. ns 159 ip address 131. 32. 169 gpg 60 Kickstart 18 kickstart configurator 17 kickstart file 5. 185-7. 93. 17. 160. 165 L LABEL 26. 212 iso9660 51 J jack 81. 87-91. 185 Kernel Services and Configuration 8 kernel subdirectory 88 keyboard 16. 139-40. 30. 186. 149-50. 201 ldap directory 135. 128. 151. 87. 168. procfs-based 122 ip. 145-6. 167 interface. 15. 169 keyboard layout 14. 161. 26-7. 53.conf 133 ldapsearch 202 ldif 134. 20-1 keys 30. 174. 94. 16.com 164-5 Kickstart Kill Process 83 klogd 92-3 ko 89 ks 18 kudzu 19-20. 201 ldap service service ldap start 135 ldap. 188. 164. 18. 176 level directories 35 level rpm configuration file 177 lib/modules 87-90 lib/modules/uname 89 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 133 .

94-5. 86-7. 95-6. 151. 66. 136. 198-202. 187 Log Configuration Answer 184 Log File and Cache directory section 9. 154. 147. 183-4 LoadModule auth 102 local system 131. default partition 164-5 maps 91. 176. 66. 25. 103. 188. 52. 96. 111. 190. 164. 153-4. 97-8. 208 mail server sendmal 207 mail services 11. 100-3 Linux 15. 150-1. 100. 78-9. 149-50. 50-1. 70. 152. 191. 133. 170-1. 199 links. 151. 25. following 104-5. 109. 191 logout 70 logs directory 100 lp 78-9. 199 list root 129 list service-name 38 list status 38 listing 19. 199 anonymous user 129 initial 179 LogLevel 104. 87. 94. 190-2. 83. 87. 120. 179. 152. 205. 85. 104. 88. 210 mail root 96 mail server 146-7. 128. 56-9. 135. 56 Logical volume group support 54 login 33. 185. 208 main configuration file 100-1. 114. 130. 94. 60. 150. 151. 131-2. 101. 209 mail transfer agent 146. 72. 203 manager. 103. 147. 207-10 Makefile 138. 152 lsmod modulename 185 lvcreate 56 lvremove 57-8 M mac 187-8 mail 12. 160.228 LILO 165 line. 92-3. 70. 153. 41. 97-8. 128. 148. 149. 54. 131. 161. 171-2 load average 84-5. 128-30. 84. 127-8. 130 lrwxrwxrwx 100 ls 46-7. 87. 149. 60. 152-4. 138. 70. 179. 200 local system mget 131 local system mkdir 131 localdomain 135-6 localhost 99. 48 list of users 129. 140. 168 linux file system structure 165 linux filesystem 48 list 38. 199 [5] list of commands 44. 114-15. 78-9. 164. 143. 207 default 164 log information 8. 106. 126. 150 Mail Transport Agent Switcher 152 mail transport agent work 153 Mail User Agent 146 mailbox 12. symbolic 35. 209 logging 92. 60. 153. 208 logical volume 7. 152. 196. 129. 207 default 152 mail server request 150. 152-5. 132. 152. 60-1. 196 automounter 50-1 . 99. 47. 100. 146-7. 78. 191 entry domain Localdomain server 137 location 16. 133. 129. 207-10 incoming 151-2 mail processes 155. 67. 67-8. 147. 207-8 locks 122 log 78. 112. 132. 126. 112 log files 12. 175 Logical Volume Group 6-7. 87. 132. 150. 92.

165 graphics 33 multiuser 31. 182 mount command 42-3. 175 mem 112. 111. 63. 173 mbr 16. 166 package package-name. 185 remove. 185-6. 119-20.networking modules. 42. 173-4 mnt/cdrom 80 mnt/win 120.list selinux policy 163 system-auth 161 modules directory 101 Modules Loaded 8. 165 Modifying group information 7. 187. 25. 53. 210 Maximum number of running mail processes 154 MB 46. 159. 80. 93.229 master 50 MASQUERADE 88 Master Boot Record (MBR) 14. 185 loaded 88. 42-3. 33 misc 50-1 mke2fs 44. 112. 164 MD5 69-70 mdadm 53-4. 190 command modprobe 89 driver 89.inputmap 88 monitor 17.symbols 87 modules. 208 outgoing 149 Min/max values 68 minutes 30-1. 21. 172. 80. 168. 119. 104. 172 mounted directory 44 mounting 6. 41-3. 197 mount-options-separated-by-comma 50-1 mount point 40. 172 mnt/win directory 120 modes 20. 166. 72 modinfo 88. 80. 185-6 modinfo modulename 185 modprobe 186 modprobe modulename 185 modsecurity directory 101 module modules/mod 102 module name 90 module-name 90 modules 87-90.usbmap kernel modules. 73 Modifying user account 7. 210 MAX 68-9 maximum number of mail processes 155. 192-3 members 69. 46 mkfs 44-5. 50. 182 memory 85. 191. 100. 212 authorization 100. 50. 50. 166. 164 MBR (Master Boot Record) 14. 161. 25. 29. 50 Multiuser 31. 102. 88 modules module 89-90 modules. 53. 169 Multiuser mode booting 169 MYGROUP 127-8 . 33. 82 mount 27. 52. 174-5 mdadm device-name 175 mdadm raid-device-name 53-4. 56. 169 safe probe 20.system 178 monitor type 21 Monitoring System performance 8. 166. 42-3. 49. 172-3. 164 matt 180 max 154-5. 150. 156. 183-4 messages 91.

196. 170. 101. 79-80 NFS 3. 35-6. 61. 142. 131. 143 OS 127 output 46. 147. 122. 197 NFS Server Administration Answer 196 NFS Server Configuration 10. 119-20. 63. 202 nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system 135 NISGRP 195 noauto option 172 nocrossmnt 122 nodaemon 32-3 nodev 51 nosuid 51 notauto option 172 nouser 42 ntfs 45. 88. 31. 197 nis 135. 93. 187-9. 128-9. 155. 137-8. 184. 121 NFS directory 10. 195 NIS server 11. 102. 68. 179 . 197 NFS server root user 196 NFS service 116. 166 network information 184 Network Information Service 135 network options 9. 133. 192-3 transit 112. 169 organizations 116. 204 net 50. 174. 195-6 nfsstat 122. 197 option url 17 options format 10. 87-8. 114. 104. 41. 135-7. 97. 196 NFS server configuration utility 120. 134. 114. 22-3. 71. 94. 94. 202 NIS group 117. 136-9. 126. 48. 119. 192-3 operation 50. 138-40. 193. 139. 120. 118. 132 network port 163 network security 12. 207 network access 135 Network Configuration 140. 204. 196. 85. 120. 103. 17-18. 53. 192-3 hot 112. 203 NIS server name 137 NIS version 138 nisdomainname 135-6. 140. 69. 122. 197 NFS Configuration 196 NFS daemon 119. 116. 119. 111. 135. 96. 117. 198-9 [3] Naming convention of files 35 nat 88 NAT filtering 159. 88. 144-5. 61-2. 166. 201 overridden 46. 155 network usage information 184 networking 31. 166 network devices 14. 202-3 NIS server information 138. 193 network 16-18. 212 neat 22. 166. 118 order 35-6. 190 N name 35. 204 O objects 112-13.230 Mysql 100. 53. 48 number 29. 203 files nisplus 138 NIS database 11. 122. 197 NFS server 15. 120 netbios 159 netmask 139. 117. 187. 201-2. 119. 184. 203 NIS domain name 11. 173. 104-5. 91. 117.

129 pop3 153-4 port 16. 66. 28-9. 111-12. 126. 171 . 195. 62-4 istration xf0b7 3 pam 129. 74. 182-3 probing 20 problem 103. 85. 32-3 powerfail action 30. 157 partition 14. 148. 203 port number 102. 64-6. 122 Prints 63 priority 36. 107. 32-3. 78. 102. 193 pipe 94 Pluggable Authentication Module 93. 165. 83-4. 84. 168. 52. 127. 180 path 18. 139. 189. 43. 180-1 passwd user-name 76 passwd command id 181 password 15. 52-4. 160-1. 118. 208-9 postfix server log information 209 power 30-2 power failure 30. 190 physical volume 7. 98. 68. 154. 102. 59. 76. 52 Power Restored 32-3 powerfail 30. 212 panel 53. 71. 183-7. 171-3 dev/sda6 40. 142. 157 PASS 68 passwd 138. 177 package-name queries 178 package-name. 121. 191-2. 186 privilege 78-81. 155. 161. 66. 178 package name 61 package-name 62. 33 powerokwait 30. 32-3 prefdm 32-3 prevrunlevel 170 printers 23-4. 129. 150-3. 107-9. 118. 17. 65. 170. 154-8. 166 Perl 100.yum install 178 package package-name 177 package processing 63 packages 3. 167. 47-8. 172 disk 40. 86. 5. 211 port panel 158 postfix 12. 145.231 owner 81. 27. 59-62. 123-5. 171 filesystem-type source 172 pass 3. 161. 132. 175 pid 29. 176-8 gpgkeys of 176 installed 62. 124. 114-15. 177 yum install 61. 174 proc 41-2. 209 list postfix service 150 postfix mail server 151 postfix server 150-3. 93. 134. 47-8. 14. 96. 58. 212 configuring 160 PAM configuration file 212 PAM modules 161-2. 80. 168-9. 121. 40. 102. 181-2. 146. 177 software 14. 212 password of user 76. 182-3 P Package management and Kickstart 3 Package Manager 7. 90. 144-5. 97. 190 permission mask 69 PHP 100. 71. 145. 121. 54-5. 154 performance 110.

158 proxy 104-5 ps 20. 194 running 90 total number of 84. 5 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam 3. 184 processes tab 83 profile 70 program dnsserver 111. 95 pts 85 Python 100. 83-6. 207-8 RELAY 150. 210 active 83 concurrent 201 postfix daemon 151. 108-9. 53-4. 165. 143. 172 relay 147. 146 protocols 101. 191 prompt 30. 161. 77. 32-4. 136. 90-1. 175. 156.232 proc/modules 185 proc/swaps 47-8. 204 process identification number 29. 64. 186 remove user groups 69 . 16. 90 process id 91. 167-9. 184 process PID 41 process priority 91. 53-4. 69. 25. 183-6. 28. 169 rc. 69. 62. 121. 84. 52 raid level information 53 raid options panel 53 ram 192-3 RAM memory 84. 168. 57-8. 80. 146 R raid 174-5 RAID 52 raid array 53 raid device name 53 raid-device-name 53-4. 35-6. 62. 112. 41. 190 Q QMAIL 67-8 queries 62. 154-5. 209 proxy 114. 171 rc1 34. 174-5 RAID devices 52-3 raid devices information 53 RAID disks 6. 168 Red Hat Certified Engineer 3. 122. 191 programs 35. 5 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 14. 150. 102. 142. 192-3 ratio 45-6 rc 31-2. 94-5. 36. 120. 186 processes 8. 89-90. 208 remote system mput 131 remote system rename 131 remove 7. 184 zombie 84. 57 reconfigure 116. 184 process pid 90. 171. 91. 169. 144. 93.sysinit 31-2 read/write 55. 164. 58-9. 194. 195 Red Hat 14-15. 153-4. 182 properties 59. 36 rc5 32. 27. 29-30. 184. 175 raid-device-name device-name 175 raid devices 53-4. 23. 164 Red Hat Linux 14. 144 properties button 74. 173 proc/uptime 184 Process and Kernel Information 8.

5 ro 51. 188 maps 196 maps client 196 privilege of 78. 29-30. 114. 194 root/anaconda-ks. 169 document 109 root/install-log. 60. 58. 32-9. 165. 159-60. 198 . 116 rootnoverify 26-7. 122 root@localhost postfix 150-1 root@localhost pub 20-4 root@localhost squid 112. 78. 66. 46. 122. 127 Samba Server Configuration 10.233 Removing module 8. 54. 85-8. 78 root@localhost 17. 67. 195 service nfs 119 service sqd 195 service squidd 195 restarting 119. 99. 164. 167 root directory 105. 62-3. 70. 122 root 15. 142. 196 RH 3.cfg 16. 170 standard 32 runlevel command 170 runlevel directories 35-7 runlevel field 29-30 runlevel scripts 169. 97. 159. 77-9. 182 root user's password 76. 169-71 previous 36. 118. 150. 122. 52. 36-9. 122 S Samba 3. 43-4. 177-8 rpm command 62-3 valid 177 rpm command uses 64. 17. 5 RH systems 69 RHCE 3. 197 samba server status information 198 samba users 123-6. 118. 62 rpm package information 177 storing 64. 89 respawn 29. 168 rootnoverify option 168 rpm 7. 32-3 restart 40. 176-7 rpm configuration file 176 user level 64 rpm format 59. 118. 118. 85. 198 list of 127. 182 root privilege 182 root root 47. 93-4. 70-3. 167. 135-6. 59.info 164 root/install.log 164 root password 14. 212 iptable 158-9 runlevel 6. 171 runlevel service-name 170 runlevel values 29 running mail processes 154. 93-8. 94-9. 26-7. 82. 140 [8] root@localhost alternatives 153 root@localhost cron 98 root@localhost dev 55-7 root@localhost home 47-8 root@localhost mail 148. 180-3. 181-2. 210 rw 42. 99. 133 root run-parts 98-9 root user 42. 100. 152 root@localhost nfs 119-20. 177 rules 112. 28. 77. 80-1. 120.

201 section 9. 213 SELinux user identities 163 Selinuxtype 163 sender 150. 134-5. 207 server 3. 144-5. 201 default ldap 202 scripts 29. 171 search 60.cgi 194 server root names 101 server section 9. 122. 206 search request 134. 118. 213 SELinux configuration file 162. 157. 98 sbin directory 80 sbin/fdisk 79-80 sbin/nologin 78-9 sbin/service 79 sbin/sfdisk 79-80 sbin/shutdown 31-3. 205 Server Configuration Answer 205 server HOSTNAME 136-7 server information 101 server mirrorlist 61 server name 107. 162-3. 169. 148-50. 13. 67. 157. 105. 136-7. 159 sample format 94. 204-5. 137. 213 SELinux configurations 213 SELinux manager Answer 213 SELinux policies 162. 99. 96-7 scheduled jobs 94-6. 45. 213 SELinux administration 13. 134. 118. 201-2. 101. 41-2. 92. 207-8 [6] demo sama 127-8 high performance proxy caching 111 proxy 104-5 samba 10. 211 Security Level Configuration 12. 106. 50-1. 163-4 SELinux 3. 78-9. 101. 208 sendmail 11. 103. 134-5. 207-9 default 153 sendmail server type 146 sendmail uses 147. 150. 152-3. 211 security Level Configurations 211 selinux 17. 114-16. 32. 188 schema 133. 159. 203 security Configuration 211 security level 117. 127. 134 server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr.com 106 ServerRoot 101. 70. 33. 139-40. 128. 93-4. 190 .example. 146-50. 12. 159. 201 search tab user 66 seconds 27-8. 168. 80. 146. 169 schedule 31. 15. 164. 101-4. 201 schema files 133-4. 41. 195. 198 web 9. 93. 103 server system 135 single web 106 ServerAdmin root@localhost 103 servername 17 ServerName 106 ServerName dummy-host. 147-8. 190. 207-9 mail server 147 sendmail log information 149 sendmail restart 148 sendmail server 12. 162. 112-13 global environment configuration 101 security 17. 126. 15. 34-6. 190. 191 Server Configuration 9. 65-6. 115 sample questions 3 sbin 41. 139. 138. 157. 152-3.234 sample 30. 98. 99. 78-9.

176 . 201 Smaba configuration Answer 197 Smaba Server configuration 197 socket 111. 199 service yp start 202 service ypserv start 203 terminal 137 service ypserver start 202 serviceconf 39. 199. 145. 32. 170-1. 130. 61. 156-7. 205. 153 SIGKILL 185 signal 185 Single user mode 31. 80. 198 sharing 3 trusted 157 xinetd 156. 103-4. 169-71. 170-1. 210 managing 82 net-work 35 network 33. 132. 101. 125-7. 209 dhcpd 139 dovecot 153-4. 27. 98-9. 25. 160-1. 34-41. 192 software 64. 175 software configuration 33 software repositories 59. 169 shutdown 30-3. 120 default 152. 210-12 alternatives 152 autofs 50. 125. 211 ypbind 137 services Answer 210 session 160-1. 21. 201-2 [20] set initdefault 30-1 share 121. 181 SIZELIMIT 133-4. 171 services 10. 154. 33 size. 189. 30. 182 Shutdown Canceled 32-3 Shutting 119. 182 shell script 34. 170 service service-name start 38 service service-name stop 39 service smb start 127. 182. 115. 17. 139. 128 shell 67. 134-5. 99. 143. 198 service smbd start 198 service vsftpd start 128. 128 shared directories 120. 195 service nfsd 195 service nfsd start 195 service passwd 161 service postfix start 153 service S10network 35 service samba start 198 service sendmail start 146 service service-name 37-9. 78. 126. 99. 152-3.235 service daemons 157 service ftp start 199 service ftpd start 199 service httpd 38-9. 129-30. 127. 189 service httpd stop 39 service management apps 80 service-name 170 service nfd start 195 service nfs start 116. 151. 79-82. 79-80. 212 set 14. 155-6. 65. 189 service httpd start 38. 129. 52. subdirectory 181 size of files 76. 198 samba 123. 70-2. 36 new 37 samba 127.

206 sys 41. 137 startup 20. 127 Starting Services 34 Starting squid 116 Starting vsftd 10. 134-5. 91. 198-9. 187 system 25-6. 205 [10] Start Process 83 start squid 115 Starting Apache 9. service postfix start 151 Starting postfix server 12. 132. 116. 39-40. 119 Starting NFS quotas 116. 181 total 56 squash 118. 114-16. 181 subfolders 76. 29 Starting Named 11. 194-5 squid log files 112 squid reconfigure 195 squid restart 116. 139. 77-80. 166 swpd 85 sync 78. 119 Starting NFS services 10. 118. 135-8. 56. 47. 82-6. 166-70. 111. 153. 153 network service 36 service sendmail 153 storage 60. 195 squid server 9. 85-6. 29-30. 99. 28. 196 squid 3. 97 statistics kernel NFS client 122 kernel NFS server 122 virtual memory 85. 49-50. 191-2. 181 amount of 77. 80-1. 137 Starting postfix. 191 squid daemon 10. 1836. 167 sysfs 41-2 sysinit 29-32 syslogd 9. 191-4 squid start 116 squid user 114 squiduser 194 start 17. 116. 115-16. 174. 92. 127-8. 173 swap space 6. 33-4. 64-6. 130. 99 Starting Dovecot 12. 61-2. 170-1. 189. 122.236 source code 64-5 source filesystem 173 space 53. 183 status 37-8. 143. 82. 143 Starting NFS daemon 116. 127-8. 196-8 [21] . 194-5 server program 111. 153 Starting httpd 39. 46-7. 148. 181 subtree 122 success 161 suid 42 Sun Microsystems 135 swap 41-2. 130 synchronize system's clock 25 syntax 145. 165 swap area 46-8 swap filesystem 173 swap partition 14. 119 Starting NIS server 11. 34. 119 Starting NFS mountd 116. 122. 165. 45-7. 137. 35-40. 111-12. 143. 176-7. 99 Starting init 5. 150 Starting Samba 10. 176 stop 35-7. 172-4. 79-80 subdirectories 40. 128 Starting ypbind service 11. 76.

187-8. 213 system-config-SElinux 213 system-config-SELinux 213 system-config-services 39. 184 system reboots 32. 50. 155 system clock 34 system-config-bind 143. 166. 169 system users 132 system users behavior 132 SystemManager 184 T tab 21. 82. 141. 184 system logging 92. 189 system information. 183. 196 system administrator execute 180 system-auth 160-1 system boots 30. 178 system-config-printer 23 system-config-samba 122. 187 System Monitor 82. 23.237 system administration 7. 125 samba user 124 tab user 132 server control 132 tar xvf 178 tcpd 156. 155. 190 system-config-https 190 system-config-keyboard 20 system-config-kickstart 17 system-config-level 211 System-config-logman 175 System-config-lv 175 system-config-lvm 58. 42. 204 system-config-nfs 120. 171 system-config-smb 197 system-config-soundcard 21 system-config-time 24. 181 system-config-usr 181 System-config-vsftp 200 system-config-vsftpd 131 system crontab file 98. 109. 197 System-config-nfsd 197 system-config-packages 65. 144 basic 123. 184 system administrator 180-1. 175 system-config-manage 178 system-config-name 205 system-config-neat 166 system-config-net 166 system-config-network 22. 140. 167 system-config-display 21 system-config-ftp 200 system-config-ftpd 200 system-config-httpd 106. 197 system-config-sambad 197 system-config-securelevel 211 system-config-security 211 system-config-securitylevel 157 system-config-selinux 162. 211 . 107.uname 185 system initialization 31 System Log 86 system log information 184 System Log Manager 184 system log viewer 86. 167 system-config-users 73. 205 system-config-boot 28 system-config-date 24.

66-7. 44. 61-2 Use NIS 138 user 14-18. 104-5. 27-30. 139-42. 115. 157-8. 71. 148. 180 anonymous 128. 206-9 [31] administrative 78. 135. 158 UPS 31-2 uptime command uses 184 URI 133-4 url 17. 197 user account apache 103 . 83-7. 97 time 19. 52. 161. 170 telnet 156 text editors 16. 149 type 17. 201 local 128-9. 112 usage 49.238 Te user 78 telinit 36. 174-7. 132. 59. 177 upgrade option 17. 65-6. 124-30. 121. 176-7 upgrade 14. 163 processor 185 running Linux system 42 U uid 68. 70. 78-80. 160-1. 183 time-specification 94-5 TIMELIMIT 133-4. 179-91. 69-71. 45. 128 uncompress 64. 168 timezone 16-17 tmpfs 41-3 topics 3. 198-201. 24-5. 61. 199 menu option 83 modifying 82 multi 66 new 66-7. 132. 180 normal 80 password 29 trusted 147 useradd 70 userdel 180 valid 126 user accesses 161. 102-4. 99. 178 xvf 178 unconfigures 20 uninitialized entries 59 Unix 127 Unix user name 198 UNIX user name 124. 101. 27-8. 150-1. 161. 62. 196 ban 132 bin/bash 71 bin/csh 71 common 40 configuration file 134 effective 114 etc/passwd filesystem 71 ldap directories 134. 129-30. 75. 115. 132. 84-5. 167. 101-2. 93-4. 169. 47-8. 80 unmounting 6. 115. 127 Unix username 198 unmount 43-4. 127. 132. 43-4 update option 167 updates 20. 201 timeout 26. 167 upload 128-9. 91. 16-17. 154. 185 uncomment 81. 118. 196 umount 44 uname 87. 93-5.

130.239 user account john 179 user accounts 66-7. 182 his/her 103 useradd options 66 user names 15. 71-2. 180 useradd command line 69 useradd user-name 67 userdel 69. 187 user issues command insmod 185 user jack 81 user Jack 181. 198 user login name 180 user lookups 138 user Mac 187 User Manager 180 user Manager Utility 180 User Manger 180 user Matt 179 user-name 72. 72. 151. 179 administrative 114 installation root 66 new 72 User Admin 180 User Administrator 180 User and Group Administration 7 user apache 102-3 user applications 41 user button 75 new 124 User Configuration 180 user doesn W  user don W  user id 78. 71-2. 149. 180 user issues 183. 180 userdel user-name 72 USERGROUPS 69 userid 71 userlist 129. 161 user requests 49. 97. 199 directive 199 usermod 72. changing 7. 106 user set 190 user squid 114 USER TTY 85 user user 180 user user-name 181 user Vishnu 182 user yum 59 user1 126 useradd 67-9. 179-80 user-id 72 user information 72. 188 user-name V SDVVZRUG  user password. 76. 180 username 188 users don W  users group 80 users Jack 188 users John 199 users localhost 80 users SELinux security cate-gory 163 users tab 132 user.Will root. 93-4. administrative 182 user V  user V HQWU\ YDOLG  user V SDVVZRUG  . 78. 78-9. 124. 161. 74. 76. 90. 71-2.

139. 209 var/log/vsftpd. 198 vmlinuz 15 vol 55-7. 198 samba user 127. 132. 131. 87. 73 usr 40-1. 60. 176 var/named/data/cache 145. 145. 125. 134. 200 vfat 43. 178. 187 var/log/dovecot. 106. 175 video card 17. 199 usr/lib/httpd/modules 189 usr/lib/httpd/modules directory 101-2 usr/local 97-8 usr/sbin directory 79 utility 22-4. 182. 45. 197 daemon Configuration 131. 144-5. 50. 36. 159. 89 Using system-config-cache 194 Using system monitor 177 Using System Monitor 8.log 60. 165-6. 177 var/lib/rpm/Name 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Packages 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys 63-4 var/log/cron 92-3. 37 Using mdadm command 53 Using modprobe command 8. 48. 78. 21 View Process 83 Virtual server files 147 Virtual users file 147 VirtualHost 106 vishnu 126-7. 191 [4] var/cache/mod 105 var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.log 154 var/log/httpd directory 100 var/log/maillog 92.leases 140. 71. 175 vgextend 55. 149. 172-3 vfat filesystem type 172 vgcreate 55. 151 var/spool/mail directory 70 var/spool/mail/stats 208 var/spool/postfix 12. 59 . 162-3. 98. 177 Very Secure 10. 184.240 Using batch command 9. 53. 123. 96 Using chkconfig 171 Using command chkconfig 6. 193 var/temp 179 var/yp/securenets 203 vendor V VWDWHPHQW  verbose information 63. 152 var/spool/squid 112. 77. 82 Using tar xvf 178 Using User Manager 7. 152. 69. 204 var/lib/nfs directory 122. 200 var/log/yum. 59. 171 system monitor 82 user manager 73 utility Answer 175 utility Network Configuration 140 V values 29. 91. 189 var/spool/mail 68.log 130. 188 var/spool/cron directory 97. 28. 197 var/lib/rpm 64. 149. 171. 200 network configuration 142 samba server configuration 122 service configuration 39. 206-7 var/run directory 101 var/spool/at 96. 131.

82.example. 155-6. 86. 168. 132. 104. 55-6. 23. 191 wheel 80 Window System 3 windows 25. 65-6 web browser 100. 122. 172 windows user name 124. 202 ypserver HOSTNAME 136 yum 59-60. 34. 103-4. 25. 152. 84. 75. 144 st 144 xferlog 129 xfs 45. 20. 176 yum uses 59-60 Z zombie processes usage detail zone file directory 145 184 . 27. 191 wdelay 122 web 59-61. 48 xinetd 3. 198 won W  workgroup 128 writable option 125-6 www/docs/dummy-host.conf 166 Y yp 138. 175 vsftp 128-9. 210-11 xorg. 122. 127.241 volume group 7.com 106 X xconfig 16-17 -18. 203 ypdomainname 135-6. 53. 119. 58-9. 27. 177 W warn 68. 98. 200 VSFTP daemon Configuration 200 vsftpd 128 VSFTPD Configuration Answer 200 vsftpd service 128 vsftpd userlist 129 vv 63-4. 59.

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