RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer
Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide

RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam - The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide
Copyright © 2009 Notice of rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.

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This self-study exam preparation guide for the RHCE RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam contains everything you need to test yourself and pass the Exam. Including all the exam topics, covered indepth and insider secrets, complete explanations of all RHCE subjects, test tricks and tips, over 250 highly realistic sample questions, and exercises designed to strengthen understanding of the RHCE concepts and prepare you for exam success on the first attempt are provided.
Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a "Thank You" letter? This book includes new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering numerous sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus information available nowhere else, this book will help you pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam on your FIRST try. Buy this. Read it. And Pass the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam. This book provides a laser sharp focus on all the exam objectives with a cohesive, concise, yet comprehensive coverage of all the topics included in the RHCE - RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Lab Exam. It includes over 250 questions modeled after the real exam with answers and an Exam Quick Prep feature which recaps all the important points for the last hour preparation before taking the exam. Covers all RH302 exam topics, including: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Hardware installation and configuration The boot process Linux filesystem administration Package management and Kickstart User and group administration System administration tools Kernel services and configuration Apache and Squid Network file sharing services (NFS, FTP, and Samba) Domain Name System (DNS) E-mail (servers and clients) Extended Internet Services Daemon (xinetd), the Secure package, and DHCP The X Window System Firewalls, SELinux, and troubleshooting

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.................................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer ...................Overview....................................2....2.............1....Configuring Hardware ................................ 1 Installation and Hardware Configuration ..............................................................Grub ............ 14 1....................................2. 26 2.........................Kickstart File ...........................................Configuring Grub ................................................................................................................3.....Installation ..........................................3................................ 16 1.Use of Kickstart file ......................................1.................................................................................................................. 25 2......The Boot Process ................................................................................................. 25 2.....2........................1......... 14 1........................Graphical utilities ................................................2...2.3......................Using Hard Disk .............................................4.......................................... 29 2...........................3..........Using Network ..3.......................................................................... 15 1...Overview .....The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide .......................................................................................................................................... 16 1...............4.................../etc/inittab file .......................................3........2........ 1 Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the RHCE .....2...........1. 15 1..............................................................RH302 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam ..........................................................................Using DVD................................................................2..................................................Starting init ............................................................................................................................................ 19 1........................................................................... 14 1........................................... 14 1................................................5 Contents RHCE ... 25 2.....................................1......Grub configuration file ....................................................1......... 29 ........................ 27 2....Creating Kickstart file .......................................................................... 20 2............................................................................................ 18 1..........2...................................................1..............................................................................................

................................................... 41 3......................3....2.................. 47 3..........................................................4.............1........7..........................................................................................................................................5...1........Filesystem Information ...................................................................................... 37 2....................................... 46 3................................Using Graphical utilities ............ 33 2...................................................................................................................1.....Disabling swap space ............................................................./etc/mtab ......................................................... 52 3................................RAID disks ........................2...................2...../etc/fstab file ........................................................... 48 3.............Unmounting a filesystem..............................3.......3...............................Checking and Repairing a filesystem ...................................................................Searching for badblocks .........3..4......................................................... 43 3............... 42 3........................................................5...................... 34 2... 52 3.................................................5......................... 40 3....................Using command chkconfig ...............................Logical Volume Group ..........................................................1........................................3............3............ 44 3........................................6...........4................runlevel......................................................................2...................................................................1............................................Enabling swap space......... 52 3.......... 48 3........... 40 3.....Filesystem Administration ....................................2....................................................................................1........................................................6 2....................Checking status of automount .2...3.........................................Overview ...........................................................2................................... 39 3................................4.. 50 3.............................................Initializing System........................................4.................Creating Swap space .......6..Creating RAID device ................................3................................................. 43 3........... 40 3... 49 3......................................Automatically mounting a filesystem .Creating a filesystem ........................................................... 54 ...................5..............................................................................................Mounting a filesystem................................2..................

.. 62 4........ 73 5.................................1......Using rpm ...... 59 4.............................................................2................Using make .........7 3.................................................................................................4...........................................Using yum .. 73 5...............................................6.......................................7..........2....2........................................5............4..............System Administration ................................................................... 72 5.........................................................................................................7..........7......................................................................................................................Adding New Group ....5............................6...................... 72 5........... 76 5.............................................. 73 5............... 66 5......1.......1...................7........................................5.........................................2...............................Package Manager .................................. 59 4.....Modifying user account ................................................................................... 58 3............................................................. 66 5...Remove a volume group ............................................................................................ 73 5................................................................................................................ 65 5....................................................................................................................... 66 5.............Overview . 54 3.........Remove a logical volume ............................. 76 6............................Modifying group information .............................Creating User Account ......1.Using User Manager .............................Deleting group..................................Logical volume management utility .................................. 77 ....Changing user password ....Deleting user account ....1..............................5.................................. 64 4......Remove a physical volume ..............................................................................5........................................................4.................Space Usage ..................................................................................5.............................................................. 58 3...................................................................................................... 59 4.............................Package Management ........................................................................3................. 73 5....User and Group Administration .......................................................................3........... 58 4.............................7.........................................3.................................................................................................7...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Overview..................................Group Administration ...........3....................... 57 3....Creating A Logical Volume Group .....

..................................................................................................................2.Inserting module into kernel .........Overview .................................................4.....Monitoring System performance ................................................................................................................................... 86 7.. 90 ..........................3....................1........................Using top ............. 84 6............................... 78 6..... 89 7...........Process and Kernel Information ..........................................................................................................Other commands ...............................................................................4......................... 82 6.....2.................... 78 6..........Modules Loaded into Kernel ..Changing owner and group ........3.........................2..4..................... 84 6...........................................................2.......................Log information.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2..............2........................... 89 7.2.1.............................................................Using System Monitor ..2..................................................... 79 6.......................................................................... 90 7....... 87 7...3....................................1........ 77 6............... 88 7.............2................................. 81 6.........................1..................kernel Modules ...........................................................................................Removing module from kernel ......................................................................................................................................................................................2.....Using modprobe command ...Overview....................Administrative commands .............5..The ps command ....Kernel Services and Configuration .................................................................................................................../etc/sudoers file ............................. 90 7...........................................4.......................1.... 87 7.................................................... 89 7.....Changing priority of process.......................................................................1.3...3.........................8 6..........4....................... 82 6..........2.. 87 7.........................................................................Using the su ..2....................................3.................2............................. 79 6.. 78 6.................................Getting Administration Rights .............................2.............................................4.......................................................................3...The su command......

....................................3......Overview.................................................................4....Web Server ..............1.........Virtual hosts section ....................................2........2................................ 113 ..............9 7....................................................Overview ....................................................1.3.....3....................4.................2.................................................... 91 7......3.................................................... 111 9.....Network options ........ 106 9...............................................................................2..............................4.......................................Log File and Cache directory section ....3............................. 93 7...5................................. 111 9................................................... 105 8.............. 112 9..............................................................................................................................3.............................2................................2................Squid Server ............................Main server section .....................Automating Tasks -............Configuring Squid ..................HTTP Server Configuration .............. 96 7.......................................................................................................................1.................................... 112 9.Using at ..............................................................................................................................................................................................Syslogd .....................Using cron ......................................................... 111 9...3......................Neighbor selection algorithm option ...Cache size options................4..........................1............ 97 8.................. 99 8...........................................Global Environment Configuration ....................................................................2.... 93 7.........................4..................................................2................................................................................................................3.................... 111 9...............2.........Using batch command ....4..........................Access control section .................................. 112 9...... 92 7...................................................Starting Apache .......................................................... 103 8............................................ 101 8.......................................................................................................Using dmesg ............... 99 8...........1..................................................................................................................................................4...............................2....3..3..... 101 8..................................................... 99 8..........Main Configuration file .....................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................................................Cache Manager ... 115 10.......................................................................overview ............................ 116 10............FTP Server ............................................................. 128 12...... 117 10............................................................................. 133 13.............Overview .. 122 11.....................Squid Daemon .....................................................3......................................................Overview ..............................Samba configuration file ...............................................Samba Server .................... 133 ....................................................1............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3............................ 114 9...............................NFS Server ...................6........................ 127 11...............................................................................................................................Administrative parameters ............4..................1...................2..................1.......LDAP Server ..... 120 10....................................................................................................................................3..........4......................2...................................Options format................................ 126 11.... 116 10.......................... 127 12..........Starting Samba service .........................................................................1.......................................................3...............................................................................................................................................................................................................4........................................... 131 13..................... 128 12............................Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration ......................NFS Server Configuration..Using nfsstat ................... 128 12...................1....Sharing Folders ............ 130 12....4....................................Format of hostname .......................................... 122 11................... 114 9............................Configuring vsftpd ........................5................................................................................................Starting vsftd.... 119 10...........2..... 118 10..........................Starting NFS service.....Accessing the NFS directory .........................................................................................................................................................................4.............................................. 117 10....................................10 9.Overview ............Checking the service ...............................................................................1......................................................... 128 12...................................................ftp command prompt .........5.............................................................3...............Samba Server Configuration ..............................................6...............2............... 122 11.................................................................................... 122 11............................................... 116 10.................................2...............................................................................3........

.........................................................1..............2..................................................3................................................................. 139 15...5....................................... 143 16...........3........ 139 15.....................................................................................................................3.....................................................3..................... 135 14................................................................................Configuration file ..........................................NIS server.......................................Sendmail...................................................................................................................................................................4..................... 135 14............................................../etc/mail ..............................................................Starting Named daemon ..1...............Overview ...............................................11 13................... 137 14.......................................................................................Overview ..........Overview ................................................... 136 14............................Setting NIS domain name ....................2....................... 139 15. 133 13.......... 146 17..........................................2............ 137 14.................Starting the DHCP server....... 140 15..... 143 16.............................................................................................................. 137 14...................... 147 .......................Staring NIS server ......................Starting the ldap ...................4.................................................................................................................................... 140 15......................................................................................................................4................................. 140 16............................BIND Configuration GUI ........Important files ................. 143 16..............................................DHCP Server .........2................................................ 146 17.........................1.......................... 143 16.............Mail Services ...................................................................................................................................................................................Working of DHCP server................................Starting NIS server .......................DNS server ..................................................4.....................................................5.........................................................................................................................2............................... 135 14..........................2.........................................1....................................................................................................... 137 14.............................................Mapping Information .2....................... 145 17...............1...........4...... 146 17..........................................................5...............................................................................................NIS database ........................ 139 15...............................................................Configuring NIS ...........................................................................................................................................Starting ypbind service .......... 135 14..............DHCP client..............Overview ..........Configuration ....................................................................................1.................................................................................1........................

.............4....................................... 155 18................................................................................ 149 17............. 150 17................................db files ............................................................................ 153 18...................................................... 153 17..............................................................................................................3......................................................3.........................................5............3.................................4.......................Configuration file .................Postfix .........................................3...............Checking Sendmail Server .................................... 151 17............................................2..... 149 17............. 155 18..1...........................................The daemon xinetd ....Security Level Configuration .. 155 18...........Actions taken by server on a mail ........deny ...................Dovecot ...... 156 18................................allow. 148 17.................................................................2.......................... 151 17.......... 156 18.................................... 152 17.......................1.................Network Security.................................................................... 157 18..4...............2..............................4.................................. 152 17...../etc/hosts....................................5..................Mailbox ..2........./var/spool/postfix ..............................................1........Starting Dovecot ..............................................1...............................Using TCP wrappers......................................... 156 18.................2...............3......................4....................................................................Overview .Generating the ................................ 159 ..............................................12 17. 152 17................................1..........................................5........................................5.............Switching MTA ..................................../etc/hosts.......................Starting postfix server ..................................................2............................................ 147 17..................................5............2.....Important Files ..............................3...3....................................................... 150 17..Configuration files ...................................................2.....................................3............................3.......Log files ....................................................................................................................................3.......................3.....................................................................Configuration file ...................................................................................................... 153 17..........................................................................2..........

................./etc/pam...........................................................2...................Command Reference ..................................................... 162 19......... 160 19.......................................................................SELinux administration .....................................................................................................2...................................13 18....................................2............................................Command Reference ....................1...................................................................................................................5..................................... 160 19.........3....................................................................................................... 163 Over 250 Exam Preparation Questions ..............................................................................SELinux .....PAM .................... 159 19..................... 160 19.................1............................. 162 19............................................................d .................PAM and SELinux .......... 164 ...................

1. .14 INSTALLATION AND HARDWARE CONFIGURATION 1. Select the packages. Choose partition scheme (options are automatic partition or manual partition) . Choose install type. The user had to accept the License terms.2. The steps of the installation process are z z z z The DVD media is checked Choose language to use during installation process.swap partition and one /boot partition (for dual boot system) Install the grub bootloader on MBR. Fedora Core Linux is an open source project of Red Hat. New version of Fedora Core Linux is released every six months.Using DVD To begin installation using the DVD place the DVD media in the DVD drive of the computer and set the BIOS to boot from DVD drive. Choose keyboard layout. User can either choose for new install or upgrade an existing installation.1. Choose the languages system should support.Configure the firewall.Configure the sound card.Installation Anaconda is the default installer in Red Hat Linux. Enter the root password.use current Linux partitions. Set the firewall options. The installation process can be broadly divided into many parts depending on the method used for installation z z z DVD Network Hard Disk 1.and custom partition) If custom partition option is chosen create at least one / partition and swap partition (for single boot system) and create a / partition. Configure the network device. Choose the time zone in which system is.2. After installation is complete remove the DVD media from DVD drive. z z z z z z z z z z z Choose the software packages to install. Choose partitioning (options are use free space on hard disk. 1.use whole hard disk.Overview Red Hat Enterprise Linux is one of the major commercial Linux distributions available in market .

conf file to achieve the purpose title Red Hat-Installation root (hd0.2. Then copy the vmlinuz and initrd files of the DVD media in /boot directory. Choose Red Hat Installation on the Grub menu to begin the install process. .Using Network For the network installation the installation files should be copied to the computer which will act as install server.3. 1. In case of FTP server copy the files to directory /var/ftp/pub. In case of web server or HTTP server the files need to be copied in the directory /var/www/html. GRUB is installed as the bootloader in Red Hat by default.Using Hard Disk For installation from hard disk it is assumed that Red hat Linux is already running on the computer. The following entry is added in the /boot/grub/grub.7) means that /boot partition exists on eighth partition of first hard disk. In case of NFS server the directory containing the installation files should be made accessible. After above steps reboot the computer. These files are needed to boot the installation process. 1. In the hard disk install copy all the files of the DVD in a partition drive which is not used during the new installation.15 Then the user is prompted for user name and password on the login screen.7) kernel /vmlinuz initrd /initrd. To boot the installation process the boot loader should be informed about the files copied in the /boot directory.2.img root(hd0.2.

Creating Kickstart file User has a choice to use graphical utility to create kickstart file or open a text editor and write the commands. 1. 1. 1.3.1.1.UTF-8 keyboard us xconfig --startxonboot network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp rootpw --iscrypted firewall --enabled --port=22:tcp authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5 selinux --enforcing timezone bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="rhgb quiet" .cfg is created based on the options chosen by the user during the installation process.3.3.Kickstart File After successful installation of Red Hat Linux a kickstart file /root/anaconda-ks. At the boot prompt enter the command askmethod :boot linux askmethod This lets the user to select the Installation Method.Text File install cdrom lang en_US.1.16 Note : when using the installation from Network or Hard disk choose the option INSTALL OR UPGRADE in text mode on the first screen of the Installation process.

HTTP.FTP. selinux is used to set the security enhanced linux the options are .Graphical utility Open Terminal and type the command system-config-kickstart to start the kickstart configurator. The network command is used to configure the network.hard drive are other options which can be used for NFS.and hard disk install methods. In above case it configures the Ethernet interface. cdrom shows the install method used.HTTP. [root@localhost ~]# system-config-kickstart .-enforcing. NFS.17 The install option denotes new installation and upgrade option will denote upgrade of an existing system. The xconfig is used to configure the monitor and video card. option disable means firewall disabled.--permissive. 1.FTP.-disable timezone is used to select the timezone of the user. Fourth line chooses the keyboard layout. z z z z For FTP method use option url –url give the ftp url name for HTTP method use option url –url give http url name for hard drive use option harddrive –dir=/give directory path –partition=give partition for NFS method use option nfs –server=servername –dir=directory name Third line sets the installation language to be used during installation .1.3.2. rootpw denotes the root password. bootloader command is used to set the partition where the default bootloader grub is installed. firewall command sets the firewall label. option –enable means firewall is enabled.

Kickstart via harddrive (dev = 'hda1'.Use of Kickstart file It is used to automate the installation process. 1. on network or on Local hard drive use above commands on the :boot prompt during the installation Kickstart from CDROM Kickstart from a file (path = 'fd0/ks.18 The user can use the graphical interface to choose the options and the kickstart file will be generated automatically. To use kickstart installation use following steps z z z create a kickstart file copy the kickstart file on cdrom. ks=nfs(:options):<path> Kickstart from NFS.cfg') Kickstart from FTP. for example) ks=cdrom: ks=file:<path> ks=ftp://<path> ks=hd:<dev> ks=http://<path> Kickstart from HTTP.3.2. NFS mount options .

4.xdriver: i810 .Configuring Hardware The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf contains the listing of installed hardware. Below is the format of the /etc/sysconfig/hwconf file class: CDROM bus: SCSI detached: 0 device: scd0 desc: "HL-DT-ST CD-RW GCE-8526B" host: 1 id: 0 channel: 0 lun: 0 class: VIDEO bus: PCI detached: 0 driver: i2c-i810 desc: "Intel Corporation 82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE Chipset Integrated Graphics Device" video. kudzu is run every time a Red Hat box is rebooted. It checks the file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf for the hardware installed and matches the data with the current hardware. The command kudzu can be run to detect and configure the changed hardware on a system. 1.19 are optional.

1. If any hardware is added or removed then it configures the added one and unconfigures the removed one. 1. It then updates the data in /etc/sysconfig/hwconf. To enable no safe probe mode on startup enter the line SAFE=no in the file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu.1.DDC monitor probing.PS/2 probing.4.1.Graphical utilities 1.20 vendorId: 8086 deviceId: 2562 subVendorId: 8086 subDeviceId: 2562 pciType: 1 pcidom: 0 pcibus: 0 pcidev: 2 pcifn: 0 The first entry is for a CDROM drive attached with the system and second is for the VIDEO card attached with the system.For keyboard layout Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-keyboard . kudzu can be started in two modes z z safe probe mode no safe probe mode safe probe mode disables serial port probing.4.

1.4. 1.For monitor and video card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-display z z z User can set the Resolution.For sound card Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-soundcard .3.Color depth under the setting tab configure the monitor type and video card under tab hardware tab Use dual type tab for second monitor type and video card.4.2.1. 1.21 The user can select the keyboard layout and press OK .

1.4.1.4.For network devices Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-network or [root@localhost pub]# neat .22 This utility can be used to check the proper working of soundcard and reload the audio drivers and rewriting the configuration files.

Any network device can be selected and activated. z z z z z On devices tab all network devices detected by Red Hat Linux are listed. Hosts tab is used to specify static computer host name to IP address mapping.1.For printer Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-printer .secondary and tertiary dns IP addresses and dns search path.4. On hardware tab the network hardware physically attached with computer and detected by Red Hat Linux can be configured. IPSec tab is used to configure IPSec tunnel and host to host connections. 1.5. DNS tab is used to configure system's hostname and primary.23 This utility is used to configure the network devices.

1.1.4.For date and time Enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost pub]# system-config-date or [root@localhost pub]# system-config-time .24 This utility is used to add new printer or configure printers.6.

25 z z z date & time tab is used to set the current date and time.Grub Grub is default bootloader if Red Hat Linux is installed in the system.1. Loading the bootloader in MBR. z z z z Checking of MBR (Master boot record) by BIOS. . When a system is booted the user sees the grub menu. 2. The grub menu lists the operating systems which are installed on the system. network time protocol tab is used to synchronize system's clock with remote time server using network time protocol time zone tab is used to select the time zone in which the system lies. Every operating system displayed on the grub menu has its listing in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. Grub is able to boot non Linux operating system like Windows also.conf. Booting the Operating System 2. Choosing Operating system to boot on bootloader menu.Overview The boot process can be divided into many steps.2.THE BOOT PROCESS 2. Grub boots the operating system chosen by the user on the grub menu.

fc7 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet initrd /initrd-2.6.0) .gz hiddenmenu title Fedora-Linux root (hd0.xpm.Grub configuration file Let the system have two operating system installed windows and Fedora Linux then the contents of the grub configuration file is # grub. e.21-1. This means that # # # # all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/.3194.26 2.7)/grub/splash.1.6. root (hd0.3194.img #boot=/dev/sda default=0 timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0.7) kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/sda11 initrd /initrd-version.img title Windows rootnoverify (hd0.21-1.fc7.g.7) kernel /vmlinuz-2.conf generated by anaconda # # Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file # NOTICE: You have a /boot partition.2.

In the above file the default operating system that will boot is Fedora. kernel indicates the kernel which is loaded. on grub menu Fedora-Linux Windows is displayed. z z By editing the configuration file using text editors by using Boot Configuration . If the user chooses the windows option then the windows operating system is booted. The initrd denotes the initial RAM disk boot image.2. The option timeout=5 means that the user will have to make choice in 5 seconds on the grub menu. The option chainloader +1 means that grub will call the other boot loader to boot the operating system.Configuring Grub There are two ways to configure the grub bootloader. If the user makes no choice in 5 seconds then the default operating system will boot. The rootnoverify (hd0. The option default=0 means that if user makes no choice then the first operating system in the file will be booted. The ro option on the kernel line means that the partition is to be mounted read only.2. 2. E.27 chainloader +1 The title is used to set the display name on the grub menu corresponding to the operating system.7) means the files needed to boot the operating system is present on the eighth partition of the first hard disk.g. The kernel gives the control to the init process which is called father of all processes. If user chooses fedora Linux on menu then the bootloader sees /dev/sda8 partition of the first hard disk (root (hd0.0) means that grub will not mount the partition.

2. gedit .2.Editing /boot/grub/grub.2.and emacs. After making the changes the grub has to be restarted to make the changes take place.28 2. This option is also available during the installation of Red Hat Linux.conf using Text editors The configuration file can be edited using any of the text editors like vi. 2.2. It also helps the user to choose the timeout period in seconds.1.2.2.3. If the user chooses 5 seconds then grub will wait for 5 seconds for user to make a choice after that it will boot the default operating system. The MD5-encrypted password for grub can be generated using the command [root@localhost ~]# man grub-md5-crypt .Password Protecting Grub Grub can also be password protected.2. 2.By using Boot Configuration To start the boot configuration graphical utility type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-boot The utility helps to chose default operating system which will be booted in case user has not made any choice within the time period on the grub menu.

Action describes the action to be taken by init. If the entry initdefault is not mentioned in the file then the user has to enter the runlevel values in the console for the boot process to proceed. process specifies the process to be executed.5 and 6 (some more values are available but not used).1. init Action respawn Description The process is restarted using the process for this action. The process will be started once when the specified runlevel is entered and init will wait wait for its termination. runlevel is the value between 0.4.3.3.The runlevel field of sysinit. The init process has the pid (process identification number each and every process running on the system has a unique number assigned to them known as PID) of 1./etc/inittab file This file describes which processes are started at boot up and during normal boot process (for different run levels different numbers of processes are started). An entry in the inittab file has the following format: id:runlevel:action:process z z z z id is the unique identifier.2. 2. boot.Starting init init is the father of all processes. After entering the command the user is prompted to enter the password and then to verify the password user has to reenter the password. initdefault An initdefault entry specifies the runlevel .3. The entry initdefault indicates the default runlevel with which system needs to be started up. 2. and bootwait entries are ignored. init looks to the file /etc/inittab and runs the script in the file /etc/inittab. The init process looks for the entry initdefault in the file /etc/inittab.1.29 in terminal. The kernel starts the init process after mounting basic filesystems during the boot process.

# # inittab # # # Default runlevel. init will prompt for runlevel on console. If none exists. .30 entered after system boot.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) This file describes how the INIT process should set up the system in a certain run-level. ctrlaltdel If the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard together then the init responds by shutting down the system or rebooting (depending on the process set) powerfail This action denotes that power failure has occurred and init takes the action depending upon the process set for this action Powerokwait If the powerfail action has occurred and the process mentioned for the powerfail action is to shutdown after 2 minutes then this action comes into picture if the power is restored before 2 minutes then the process for this action takes place. sysinit The process will be executed during system boot. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 . The runlevel field is ignored. Lines beginning with ‘#’ are comments. Below is a sample /etc/inittab file. The process field is ignored.

sysinit l0:0:wait:/etc/rc. Schedule a shutdown for 2 minutes from now.d/rc 0 l1:1:wait:/etc/rc. si::sysinit:/etc/rc.Full multiuser mode # 4 .d/rc 5 l6:6:wait:/etc/rc. without NFS (The same as 3. assume we have a few minutes # of power left.X11 # 6 . assume you have powered installed and your .d/rc 2 l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.unused # 5 . # This does.d/rc 4 l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.Multiuser.d/rc 3 l4:4:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 6 # Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now # When our UPS tells us power has failed.d/rc 1 l2:2:wait:/etc/rc. if you do not have networking) # 3 .31 # 1 .Single user mode # 2 .reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:5:initdefault: # System initialization. of course.d/rc.

.d/rc 5 denotes that the process /etc/rc.sysinit is executed for every runlevel for the action sysinit the process /etc/rc.d/rc. The line ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now denotes that if the user presses the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys then the system reboots after three seconds. pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored. cancel it.d/rc. The line 5:5:wait:/etc/rc.32 # UPS connected and working correctly.d/rc5 will be executed for the runlevel 5 and init will wait until the process is not completed. System Shutting Down" # If power was restored before the shutdown kicked in. Shutdown Canceled" # Run gettys in standard runlevels 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1 2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2 3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3 4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4 5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5 6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6 # Run xdm in runlevel 5 x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon The line id:5:initdefault: sets the action to initdefault and the runlevel is 5.sysinit is executed. The line si::sysinit:/etc/rc. pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure.

3. Many users can login into the system.runlevel A runlevel is a software configuration of the system which allows only a selected group of processes to exist. 3 Multiuser mode.33 The line pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure. runlevel 0 Description It is used to halt the system. The network services are available but the graphics mode is not available 4 5 Not used Multiuser mode. The graphics mode is also available as . The line x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm -nodaemon denotes that the X11 server is started in case of runlevel 5. Shutdown Canceled" denotes that if the power resumes before two minutes then cancel the shutdown of the system. All the network services are available. The graphical tools are not available as the X server is not running. System Shutting Down" denotes that if power failure occurs then the powerfail action takes place and the system is scheduled to wait for two minutes before shutting down. It should not be used in initdefault. 2 Multiuser mode. 1 Single user mode.3. No graphical tools are available. 2. The line pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored. Thus graphic interface is available in runlevel 5. Network services like NFS/NIS/Xinetd are not available.

Other runlevels like 7.3. A good choice for the initdefault entry 6 All the process is terminated and the system is rebooted.d/rc4.d .1 and 6 are reserved.3.34 the X11 is running.9.4. The runlevels 0.d /etc/rc.b.d /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/rc2.sysinit is run once at the boot time. This is not good choice for initdefault.Starting Services The services which will be started for a run level depends on the files contained in the directory of that runlevel. 2. runlevel 0 1 2 3 4 directory /etc/rc.a.4.1.d /etc/rc.Initializing System The script /etc/rc.d/rc0.8.d/rc1.c are also available but are not used.d /etc/rc. It is a shell script which performs many functions like z z z z z z z z sets the hostname of the system checks SELinux status sets the system clock Initializes hardware Configures kernel parameters Mounts the filesystems Configures the hardware Starts and enables the swap space 2.

d are to be run depends on the contents of the directory corresponding to the runlevels.g.d/rc6. The concept of deciding the order in which the scripts will run remains the same for the files with name beginning with K. Name of all the programs either begins with S or K followed by 2 digits (0-9) and after that name of the service.35 5 6 /etc/rc.d. It contains two files S10network and S56Xinetd then the service S10network is run first.d/init. The directory /etc/rc.Format of scripts in /etc/rc. the directory /etc/rc. #! /bin/bash # # network # # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 # description: Activates/Deactivates all network interfaces configured to \ # start at boot time.d/rc5.4.3.d The directory contains the scripts of all the runlevels. The two digits determine the order in which the services will run.3.d/init. Below is the sample file to start the network service. E.4.d contains files for runlevel 5.d contains the run level scripts. 2. Thus for a run level which scripts of the directory /etc/rc. All the programs (files of run level directories) whose name begin with S starts the service and name begin with K kills or stops the service.Naming convention of files in runlevel directories The files in the runlevel directories have special naming convention.d/rc5.3. 2.d/init.d /etc/rc.2.d/init. Bring up/down networking .d All programs in the directories of the above runlevel are symbolic link to programs in the directory /etc/rc.

4.2. 2.36 # ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provides: $network ### END INIT INFO The line # chkconfig: 2345 10 90 sets the script to start in the runlevels 2.6.3.4.4. 5 denote that the current runlevel is 5.d/rc5. The init process kills or starts the processes necessary to switch to that runlevel in above case it will do it for runlevel 5.3.5.3. In the runlevel 5 directory /etc/rc.3. 2.6 that is Use telinit 5 to switch to runlevel 5.d a file with name S10network will exist (as network service starts for run level 5 with the priority 10 and in the runlevel directory /etc/rc.5. 2.4 and 5 with the priority or order 10 and in case of all other runlevels it stops the service with the order or priority 90.d a file with name K90network will exist as network service stops with the priority 90 in runlevel 1.d/rc1.4.1.4.3.Configuring services for a runlevel .Determining current and previous runlevel To determine current and previous runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# runlevel N5 The letter N denotes that there is no previous runlevel (that is runlevel has not been changed).Changing runlevels To change the current runlevel use the below command [root@localhost ~]# telinit n The letter n should be replaced by the values 0.

2.Deleting a new service To delete service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --del new-service-name The service new-service-name is deleted from the chkconfig management and all the links in the runlevel directories are also removed. 2.4. 2.37 User can decide the services which should run in a runlevel and which should not run in a run level.Using command chkconfig The command chkconfig can used to view the information about every service in a runlevel and start or stop them.3. 2.3.2.3.Adding a new service To add new service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --add new-service-name The new-service-name should have a start or kill entry in each of the runlevel. [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name on The service service-name is enabled for that runlevel.5. User can also see the status of each service in each runlevel.5. It can also be used to add a new service or delete a new service as well. 2.3.3. There are two methods to reorganize the services and view the information about the services in a runlevel.5.3.1.Enable a service To enable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level).Disable a service .5.5.

3.3.List status of a service To list status of a service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list service-name The status of the service service-name is displayed for all runlevel.6.4 and 5 and disabled in 0. 2. 2.3.1.Starting a service To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name start The service service-name is started in that runlevel. 2.3.5.List status of all services To list status of all service in runlevels enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig –list The status of all the services is displayed for all runlevel. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start .7.38 To disable a service in a runlevel enter below command in terminal (while working in that run level) [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig service-name off The service service-name is disabled for that runlevel.5.5. For example [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The service httpd is enabled in the runlevels 2.5. and 6.

4.Using Graphical utilities [ OK ] The service configuration utility can be used to edit a runlevel.5. It can be used to start a service. To start the service configuration use the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# serviceconf or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-services .3.8.39 Starting httpd: The service httpd is started. For example [root@localhost ~]# service httpd stop Stopping httpd: The service httpd is stopped. 2.Stopping a service [ OK ] To start a service enter below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# service service-name stop The service service-name is stopped in that runlevel.add a service and delete a service. 2. stop a service.

stop or restart the service.FILESYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 3.Filesystem Information /bin – it contains commands to be used by common users. If a disk partition is mounted on a filesystem then all the sub directories and files below that mount point are stored on that partition. .1.Overview Red Hat Linux uses the ext3 filesystem.40 User can check the box on the left of the service and then clicks to start.2. The / filesystem is on top of the hierarchy. After making any changes it need to be saved using the save option on the graphic tool. It has journaling feature that improves recovery from crashes. The filesystems are organized in a hierarchy. 3. All other filesystems are contained in it in form of subdirectories. Let the / partition and /usr partition are mounted on /dev/sda5 and /dev/sda6 partitions then the sub directories and files below the /usr are stored in the /dev/sda6 partition. All the filesystems which don't have separate partition are stored in the partition of / filesystem. 3.

41 /boot – it contains bootable Linux kernel and bootloader /dev – it contains files representing device of the system. /etc – it contains configuration file. It about the directory of the /proc. and documentation.1. and directories of FTP. data used by services like /var – it contains log files of different services. /proc – The /proc filesystem is virtual file system. The name of the sub 3. Web server.2./etc/fstab file the /proc filesystem contains system information and information directory is same as that of process PID.mode=620 defaults defaults defaults 00 12 12 12 12 00 00 00 00 11 LABEL=/home1 /home LABEL=/boot1 tmpfs devpts sysfs proc /boot /dev/shm tmpfs /dev/pts /sys /proc devpts sysfs proc LABEL=SWAP-sda13 swap swap . /sbin – it contains administrative commands. The process information is kept into a sub The file contains information about the filesystems. The sample /etc/fstab file is LABEL=/1 LABEL=/opt1 LABEL=/usr1 / /opt /usr ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults defaults gid=5. processes running on the system. user configuration files. /usr – contains user and administrative commands. applications. This means that is not mounted on any disk partiotion.

The filesystem types ext3. suid. The defaults option mounts the filesystem with following options of mount rw. dev. The filesystem with the option noauto in the fourth field are not mounted during boot time. The third column denotes the filesystem type.42 The first column represents the device name representing the filesystem. The second column represents the mount point in the filesystem. exec. suid Allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect. The difference is /etc/fstab contains the static information about the filesystems while /etc/mtab contains the dynamic information about the filesystem. dev Interpret character or block special devices on the file system. The fourth column contains the options used while mounting the filesystem during the system boot using the mount command. nouser. nouser a non root user cannot mount the filesystem. The sample /etc/mtab file is below /dev/sda11 proc sysfs / /proc /sys ext3 proc sysfs rw rw rw 00 00 00 .sysfs.2. exec means allow execution of executable files. async All I/O to the file system should be done asynchronously.swap are associated with a device that is Partition of hard disk but the filesystems with type proc.2. rw means in read write mode.and async. auto means automatically mounted at boot time. 3./etc/mtab To view the filesystems which are actually used by a running Linux system type the command mount in terminal or view the contents of the /etc/mtab file. auto.tmpfs are not associated with any partition of hard disk.

Mounting a filesystem To mount a filesystem mount command is used.2.on-which-the-device-was-mounted .mode=620 0 0 rw rw rw rw rw 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 /dev/sda10 /usr /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs none sunrpc /home /boot /dev/shm /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs rpc_pipefs rw First column contains the disk partition which is mounted.3.Unmounting a filesystem To unmount a filesystem use the following command umount directory-name. 3.gid=5.43 devpts /dev/sda12 /dev/pts /opt devpts ext3 ext3 ext3 ext3 tmpfs rw. The standard format of mount command is mount -t filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name If a user wants to mount cdrom media in directory /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/cdrom /home/movies If a user wants to mount windows partition /dev/sda4 on /home/movie then issue the command [root@localhost ~]# mount -t vfat /dev/sda4 /home/movies 3. Second column contains the filesystem mounted.2.4. Rests of the columns are same as that of the /etc/fstab file.

5.rewritable DVDs and hard disk partitions. mkfs -t ext2 mkfs. A device can be floppy disks. mkfs command is used to create the filesystems on a device. mke2fs . Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked.ext3. For example files are being copied from mounted directory /home/movies then below command will unmount the directory when file copy is over. mkfs -t ext3 . The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be created. filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 mkfs.Creating a filesystem A filesystem can be created on a device.44 To unmount the /dev/sda4 use the following command root@localhost ~]#umount /home/movies To unmount a device when the device is no longer in use (at the time when the command is issued the device is in use so the command waits for the device).rewritable Cd s.ext2 . root@localhost ~]#umount -l /home/movies To force unmounting of a directory use the below command root@localhost ~]#umount -f /home/movies 3.2. mke2fs . The format of the command is mkfs -t filesystem-type device-name For example if ext3 filesystem is to be created on the re writable CD device then the command will be mkfs -t ext3 /dev/cdrom mkfs command is front end to the commands which are actually invoked to carry out the work of creating the filesystems on the device.

xfs .msdos ntfs xfs swap mkfs.filetype.ntfs. The configuration file contains the default parameters while creating the ext2 and ext3 filesystems.mkdosfs.resize_inode.mkfs.mkfs -t ntfs mkfs. mkfs -t vfat.conf. Below is the sample /etc/mke2fs file [defaults] base_features=sparse_super. mkfs -t xfs mkswap The commands mke2fs uses the configuration file /etc/mke2fs.dir_index blocksize = 4096 inode_ratio = 8192 [fs_types] small = { blocksize = 1024 inode_ratio = 4096 } floppy = { blocksize = 1024 } news = { inode_ratio = 4096 .45 vfat mkfs.vfat .

0373886 s. count=10 . The fs_types section defines the default parameters which should be used for a specific filesystems for example for the floppy the blocksize is set to 1024.46 } largefile = { inode_ratio = 1048576 } largefile4 = { inode_ratio = 4194304 } The defaults section of the file defines the default parameters used by the mke2fs.The ls -l swap command below shows the file permissions attached with the swap file created. 3. 0. The chmod command is used to change the file permissions of swap to 0 so that no one has the right to read. 267 MB/s This creates a file named swap in the /home directory of size 10 MB. It is data file (the output of the command file swap will return data as output). If the system has less swap area and no partition device can be used as swap area or user is not willing to do that then a swap area can also be created on a file.3.Creating Swap space mkswap command is used to create a swap area on a device or file.write or execute it. The default parameters can be overridden from the command line. The file should be created using the following commands [root@localhost ~]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/swap bs=1000000 10+0 records in 10+0 records out 10000000 bytes (10 MB) copied.

Enabling swap space The swap space created cannot be used by the system unless it is enabled using the swapon command. The format of the swapon command is swapon device-name For example to enable the swap space created on the swap file above use the command [root@localhost home]# swapon swap The file /proc/swaps shows the swap space area of the system.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap [root@localhost home]# chmod 0 swap [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap ---------.47 [root@localhost home]# ls -l swap -rw-r--r-. . size = 9994 kB 3. This file can be used to see whether the swap area thus enables is used by the system or not.1.3.1 root root 10000000 2009-01-11 13:28 swap Create swap space on the file swap [root@localhost home]# mkswap swap Setting up swapspace version 1. To check the contents of the /proc/swaps enter the below command on terminal [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 /home/swap Type partition file Size Used Priority -1 -2 819272 4 9756 0 The listing shows two swap areas on the system /dev/sda13 which is hard disk partition and /home/swap which is file.

ext2 .3.vfat . Below is the list of commands and filesystems for which the commands will be invoked. The format of the command swapoff is swapoff device-name To disable the swap area created on the file swap in above case use the command [root@localhost home]# swapoff swap Now to check whether the swap file is disabled view the contents of the file /proc/swaps [root@localhost home]# cat /proc/swaps Filename /dev/sda13 Type partition Size Used Priority 819272 4 -1 3.Checking and Repairing a filesystem The fsck command is used to check the linux filesystem and optionally repair it.Disabling swap space To disable a swap area use the command swapoff.ntfs.msdos fsck. Filesystem Commands used ext2 ext3 vfat ntfs xfs fsck.ext3.2.4. fsck -t ext2 fsck. The fsck command is the front end to the commands which are invoked for different filesystem types. fsck -t ext3 fsck.48 3.xfs . The command which will be invoked depends on the filesystem which is to be checked.fsck -t ntfs fsck. fsck -t vfat.fsck. fsck -t xfs . The general format of the fsck command is fsck -t filesystem-type device-name If no device-name is specified on the command line then the command checks the filesystem in order they are mentioned in the /etc/fstab file.

1.No errors 1 .the filesystems which have data should not be checked with badblocks using the -w option.fsck canceled by user request 128 .File system errors corrected 2 . So.Operational error 16 . To protect data and check for badblocks use the below command badblocks device-name or badblocks -n device-name To erase the data and check for the badblocks use the below command badblocks -w device-name .4. Those devices or filesystem should be checked for badblocks using the badblocks command without any option or with the -n option. The -n option is read only mode so no data is written on the device block and hence the data is not erased. The badblocks command should not be run with the -w option as badblocks searches for the presence of badblocks on the device by writing a pattern on every block of the device which erases the data on the device.Usage or syntax error 32 . 3.File system errors left uncorrected 8 .Searching for badblocks The command badblocks searches for the badblocks on a device.49 fsck command returns the following exit codes 0 .Shared library error The exit code returned when multiple file systems are checked is bit-wise OR of the exit codes for each file system that is checked.System should be rebooted 4 .

master file # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # For details of the format look at autofs(5). This automatic mounting of filesystem is due to the autofs service which runs when the system boots. # Sample auto.5.master and finds the mount points on system.d directory.Automatically mounting a filesystem When a system is booted the filesystems are automatically mounted.50 3.master file. It reads the file /etc/auto. automount mounts a mount point when the mount point is accessed and deactivates it when it is no longer used. # /misc /etc/auto. The users don’t have to run the mount command to mount the filesystems like /home. When a system boots then the autofs service runs with the option start and when the system is shutting down the autofs service runs with the option stop.misc /net -hosts # # Include central master map if it can be found using # nsswitch sources. Below is the sample /etc/auto.d/init./usr etc. # # Note that if there are entries for /net or /misc (as # above) in the included master map any keys that are the . The autofs service lies in the /etc/rc. The autofs service controls the operation of the automount daemons. Each mount points found is mounted by automount and a thread is also started by automount to manage the mount point.

misc tells the daemon automount to look into the file /etc/auto.misc for the mount points.intr -fstype=ext2 -fstype=auto -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 -fstype=ext2 ftp. # +auto. The sample /etc/auto.example. The line /misc /etc/auto. The line cd -fstype=iso9660.master In the above file the lines starting with # are comments.nodev :/dev/cdrom # the following entries are samples to pique your imagination #linux #boot #floppy #floppy #e2floppy #jaz -ro.misc file is # This is an automounter map and it has the following format # key [ -mount-options-separated-by-comma ] location # Details may be found in the autofs(5) manpage cd -fstype=iso9660.ro.ro.nosuid.51 # same will not be seen as the first read key seen takes # precedence.soft.nodev :/dev/cdrom .nosuid.org:/pub/linux :/dev/hda1 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/fd0 :/dev/sdc1 :/dev/hdd #removable In the above file the line starting with # are comments.

6. RAID6. 3.Creating RAID device The RAID devices can be created during installation and after installation. If user comments this line the /dev/cdrom drive will not be automatically mounted when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive.52 Causes the automount to mount the /dev/cdrom device when a CDROM media is inserted into the drive and change the directory to the /dev/cdrom. If power failure occurs when a system is running and it shutdowns immediately (not a graceful shutdown that is the system shuts down before user can shutdown using the shutdown -h now command or from the graphic panel choosing the shutdown option) leaves the filesystem in a inconsistent state.1. RAID1 (mirroring)..d/init.d/autofs status automount (pid 2157) is running.RAID disks Linux uses the ext3 filesystem type which has journaling feature. This allows multiple devices to be combined into a single device to hold a single filesystem.1.6. Currently. RAID disks are used to improve disk performance and minimize the chance of data loss.1. RAID0 (striping). 3.. RAID10. 3.6. RAID5.During installation .1. But journaling feature is not sufficient to handle all the cases for example if one of the partition is damaged then the files cannot be recovered. RAID4. Journaling feature of the filesystem enables it to recover from such kind of crashes. Linux supports LINEAR md devices.Checking status of automount To check whether automount is running in the system or not type the following command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# /etc/rc. 3.5. RAID devices are virtual devices created from two or more real block devices. Journaling feature means that it helps to recover from crashes and brings the filesystem into a consistent state. Linux Software RAID devices are implemented through the md (Multiple Devices) device driver.

-level=n1 . It creates.-level=1 . and 10. The values of n1 can be 0.1. filesystem type.-raid devices=3 /dev/sda0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 3. The format of the mdadm command for creating raid devices is mdadm .3. Raid array means the physical devices which together makes a logical raid device. The hard-disk-device name is name of the devices separated by spaces./dev/sda1. assembles and monitors the raid devices. 1. mdadm command is all purpose command for raid devices.-raid devices=n2 hard-disk-device-name n1 is a number which denotes the raid level of the raid device. remove it from the raid array or add it to raid array. The various format of the mdadm command are mdadm raid-device-name -f hard-disk-device-name . raid device.1. raid level information on the raid device panel. 3. viewed using the mdadm command after the installation. This creates the raid devices. 4.-create raid-device-name .Other uses of mdadm The mdadm can be used to mark a device of a raid array to be marked as failed./dev/sda2 use the following command mdadm .53 During installation of Red Hat Linux the RAID devices can be created using the disk druid partition manager.6.6. The raid device name will be /dev/md0 if the first raid device is being created and so on. On that panel select create a software raid partition button. enables.Using mdadm command To create the RAID device use the mdadm command.2.-create /dev/md0 . Create the partition with software raid as the filesystem type from the raid options panel select create a raid device button Enter the mount point. To create a raid device /dev/md0 of level 1 using the hard disks /dev/sda0. The raid devices information can be monitored. 5. z z z z z On the disk druid menu selecting the raid button launches the raid options panel. The value of n2 is equal to the number of physical devices which forms the raid device /dev/md0. 6.

-details raid-device-name 3.4. To add the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda2 3. 3.Creating A Logical Volume Group To create a Logical volume group at first physical volume is initialized.7. The command used for the purpose is given below mdadm . To remove the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -a hard-disk-device-name is used to add the device as a spare. The pvcreate command is used to initialize the partition for use by logical volume utilities.7. The format of pvcreate command is pvcreate hard-disk-partition-name To initialize the partition /dev/sda5 of the hard disk run the command [root@localhost ~]# pvcreate /dev/sda5 .1.6.Logical Volume Group Logical volume group support is provided in Red Hat Linux.Information about a raid device The mdadm command is also used to see the detailed information about an active raid device.1.54 to mark the device as failed. To mark the device /dev/sda2 of the raid device /dev/md0 of the above example as failure the command used is mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda2 mdadm raid-device-name -r hard-disk-device-name is used to remove the device.

..55 Physical volume "/dev/sda5" successfully created Then add the physical volume thus created to the new volume group using the command vgcreate or added to an existing volume group using the command vgextend... The format of command vgcreate and vgextend is vgcreate volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 ….. To create the new volume group my_vol_grp for the /dev/sda5 of the above example use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgcreate my_vol_grp /dev/sda5 Volume group "my_vol_grp" successfully created To view the attributes of the volume group created use the command vgdisplay......Volume group --VG Name System ID Format Metadata Areas lvm2 1 my_vol_grp Metadata Sequence No 1 VG Access VG Status read/write resizable . vgextend volume-group-name hard-disk-partition1 hard-disk-partition2 ..... The format of the command vgdisplay is vgdisplay volume-group-name For example to view the attributes of the volume group my_vol_grp use the command [root@localhost dev]# vgdisplay my_vol_grp --.

M means MB and K means KB). The format of the command lvcreate is lvcreate -l %VG or %FREE volume-group-name lvcreate -L G or M or K volume-group-name In the first case the space on which the logical group is to be created is expressed as the percentage of the total space of the volume group or the percentage of the total space of the free space. GB. KB (G means GB. To create the logical volume group on the my_vol_grp volume group created earlier use the command [root@localhost dev]# lvcreate -L 9.7G my_vol_grp .77 GB 3I5EmB-es47-Deqz-hN9w-eUaK-u1i6-tMSCoW To create a new logical volume in the volume group the command lvcreate is used. In the second case space on which the logical group is to be created is given as the total space expressed in MB.00 MB 2500 0/0 2500 / 9.77 GB 4.56 MAX LV Cur LV Open LV Max PV Cur PV Act PV VG Size PE Size Total PE Alloc PE / Size Free PE / Size VG UUID 0 0 0 0 1 1 9.

57 Rounding up size to full physical extent 9.Logical volume --LV Name VG Name LV UUID LV Write Access LV Status # open LV Size Current LE Segments Allocation /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 my_vol_grp CaD0Bp-Czo8-fCbu-QXi5-d0I1-LHS3-TwJvVw read/write available 0 9.2.70 GB Logical volume "lvol0" created The above commands create the logical volume successfully. To check the logical volume created view the contents of the directory /dev/my_vol_grp. To display the information about the logical volume thus created use the lvdisplay command. It will contain an entry lvol0. [root@localhost dev]# lvdisplay /dev/my_vol_grp/lvol0 --.70 GB 2484 1 inherit 0 Read ahead sectors Block device 253:0 3.Remove a logical volume The lvremove command is used for this purpose.7. The format is lvremove /dev/volume-group/logical-volume-name .

Remove a volume group The command vgremove is used for this purpose. pvremove physical-volume 3. removing volume group and logical volume. vgremove volume-group-name 3.58 To remove logical volume logical-volume-name. To invoke the Logical Volume Management utility run the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-lvm .5. To remove all the logical volumes in a volume group use lvremove /dev/volume-group 3.7.4. viewing and editing the information about the volume group and logical volume.7. creating a logical volume.3.Logical volume management utility Red Hat offers graphical utility to achieve all the functions performed above like creating a volume group.7.Remove a physical volume The command pvremove is used for this purpose.

The yum uses the configuration file /etc/yum. 4. User can use the buttons edit properties to edit the properties of the logical volume. and graphical utilities.PACKAGE MANAGEMENT 4.conf.d. rpm. . There are many options available to the user yum.2.conf and the configuration files in the directory /etc/yum.Modified) is used to install and update the software packages in rpm format from software repositories on the web. Red Hat offers the luxury of maintaining the package in a simple and efficient way.59 In the above utility the left hand panel shows the volume groups and the uninitialized entries.1.Using yum yum (Yellow Dog Updater . The uninitialized entries are the normal partitions of the hard disks and the volume group shows the volume group created for example this window shows the volume group my_vol_grp and within the volume group the logical volume lvol0 is listed. 4.Overview A good operating system should allow the user to install and update software with ease.

60 The yum command checks the configuration files and searches the locations mentioned in the configuration files for the package which is needed to be updated or installed by yum.d. Each file represents the location of the packages.repos. The contents of the directory are [root@localhost etc]# cd yum. The files in the directory /etc/yum. keepcache options value if 0 causes the headers and cache files to be deleted after successful installation and value 1 retains the files.log exactarch=1 obsoletes=1 gpgcheck=1 plugins=1 metadata_expire=1800 cachedir mentions the directory which yum uses as the cache memory that is storage for storing temporary file. The format of sample configuration file /etc/yum.ls .d contain the location on the web which yum searches for the packages. The option gpgcheck if 1 forces yum to check the gpg keys of the packages and if 0 the gpg keys are not checked. The log file where yum writes the log information.conf is [main] cachedir=/var/cache/yum keepcache=0 debuglevel=2 logfile=/var/log/yum.repos.

The yum command takes a number of inputs.repo fedora.repo fedora.repocp fedora-updates. The file will be in the below form [fedora] name=Software-Server baseurl=give the http address of the server mirrorlist=give address of the mirror location enabled=1 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=location of the gpg key file.repo fedora-updates.repo fedora-updates-testing.61 fedora-development.repo Each file corresponds to a software repository on web.repo livna-testing.repo livna. The general format of the command is yum option package-name In case of some options yum don't need package name so the format becomes yum option Option install update Description Installs a package Updates a package usage yum install package-name yum update package-name yum check-update check-update Checks whether an update is available for the packages installed in the system .repocp livna-devel.

upgrade.Using rpm A lot number of Red Hat software exists in rpm format. verify. and uninstall the rpm software. It is very easy to install the rpm software packages by using the rpm command. Option Usage -i -U description rpm – i package-name Install a package rpm -U package-name Updates package already installed on the system. The rpm command can be used to install.3. If the in- . -F rpm -F package-name Upgrade a previously installed package. -e rpm -e package-name Erases a package from system -q rpm -q package-name Queries about a package -V rpm -V package-name Verify an installed package against its original software package. If any previous version of package is not installed then the package is installed.62 remove Removes the package and any dependent package from the system yum remove package-name erase Same as remove Same as remove 4.

63 stalled package matches with original software package then there is no output. The format is [root@localhost rpm]# rpm -qvv python D: opening db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages joinenv D: opening db index D: locked db index D: opening db index D: opening db index /var/lib/rpm/Packages rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Name rdonly mode=0x0 /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys rdonly mode=0x0 D: read h# 1353 Header sanity check: OK D: ========== DSA pubkey id b44269d0 4f2a6fd2 (h#1353) D: read h# 741 Header V3 DSA signature: OK.5-12. key ID 4f2a6fd2 python-2. If the rpm command is to be used with two options then use this form usually the option -v.fc7 . 50 # are printed when 100% processing is done. and -h is used with the other options. -vv. -v rpm -v Prints verbose information -vv rpm -vv Prints lots of verbose information -h rpm -h Prints # marks during the package processing using rpm.

It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system. 4.64 D: closed db index D: closed db index D: closed db index /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: closed db environment /var/lib/rpm/Packages D: May free Score board((nil)) In above example rpm queries the rpm database to find out whether the python software is installed.gz . /configure. It also uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information.gz. tgz.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user level rpm configuration file. The packages need to be uncompressed and then the source code is to be build using the. To uncompress the packages with tar. and tar.bz2 format.Using make The software packages are available in the tar. The two commands can be combined into one command tar xvfz realplay. The option -q and -vv are used together. In above case it queries the database to get the information about the python rpm package. If the software is installed it prints the information about the software.tar generates directory realplay.tar and then use the command tar xvf realplay.tar. The configuration file .gz This forms realplay.4.tar. make and make install commands.gz extension use the commands gunzip realplay. The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc.

65 generates directory realplay. 4. It searches the software repositories which have been defined in the yum configuration files.bz2 format then use the command bzip2 -d realplay.tar After uncompressing the package change the working directory of the terminal to the directory realplay Now to install the package run the commands .tar.5./configure make make install The . The command make install installs the package on the system. To invoke the Package Manager enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost redhat]# system-config-packages . If the source code is in tar. The make command makes the package for the system.Package Manager package manager is a graphical utility which gathers the information about the packages available over the web for update and installation./configure command configures the package for the platform of the system.bz2 It forms the directory realplay.

Group account can also be created after installation. User account can also be created after installation. After choosing for the packages which need to be installed the user can decide to apply the changes made on the panel.Overview Linux is a multi user operating system. One more user account is asked to create (user may choose to create the account or skip). During installation root user account has to be created (root user is administrator of the system). The general format of the useradd command is useradd options user-name . and installed package depending upon the option box chosen by the user. 5. available package. On the search tab user can search for a package and on the list tab the user gets the listing of all the package.USER AND GROUP ADMINISTRATION 5.Creating User Account The useradd command is used to create a new user.66 On the browse tab user can browse for the packages available over the web in different categories. Each user belongs to a group account.2. If the changes are applied then the packages are downloaded from web and are installed.1. 5. It is also used to update default values used while creating a new user.

To view the default values enter the following command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/bash SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes Simplest form of useradd command is useradd user-name If this command is run useradd creates the user account by using the default values. The third form is used to view the default values which will be used while creating a user account. # QMAIL_DIR is for Qmail . MAIL_DIR takes #precedence.defs for the default values to be used while creating the user. relative to the # home directory. If you _do_ define both.67 useradd -D options useradd -D The first form is used to create a new user while the second form is used to override the default options used while creating a new user. useradd reads the file /etc/login.or name of file.defs file is # *REQUIRED* #Directory where mailboxes reside. The sample /etc/login.

.mail # Password aging controls: # #PASS_MAX_DAYS Maximum number of days a password may #be used. # # # # PASS_MAX_DAYS 99999 PASS_MIN_DAYS 0 PASS_MIN_LEN 5 PASS_WARN_AGE 7 # # Min/max values for automatic uid selection in useradd # UID_MIN UID_MAX # # Min/max values for automatic gid selection in groupadd 500 60000 PASS_MIN_DAYS Minimum number of days allowed #between password changes. PASS_MIN_LEN Minimum acceptable password length. PASS_WARN_AGE Number of days warning given before a #password expires.68 # #QMAIL_DIR MAIL_DIR #MAIL_FILE Maildir /var/spool/mail .

# It should remove any at/cron/print jobs etc. UMASK 077 # This enables userdel to remove user groups if no members exist. # USERGROUPS_ENAB yes # Use MD5 or DES to encrypt password? Red Hat use MD5 by #default. this command is run when removing a user. # the permission mask will be initialized to 022. . This option is overridden with the -m flag #on # useradd command line. # #USERDEL_CMD /usr/sbin/userdel_local # # If useradd should create home directories for users by default # On RH systems. owned by # the user to be removed (passed as the first argument).69 # GID_MIN GID_MAX # # If defined. # CREATE_HOME yes 500 60000 # The permission mask is initialized to this value. If not specified. we do.

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MD5_CRYPT_ENAB yes So if a user is created with the command [root@localhost ~]# useradd user1 Then a directory user1 is created in /home, shell is /bin/bash, mailbox lies in /var/spool/mail directory and the contents of the /etc/skel directory is copied in the /home/user1 directory. /etc/skel contains the login and application startup scripts. The contents of the /etc/skel are viewed using ls -la command. [root@localhost skel]# ls -la total 80 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 2009-01-13 22:20 . drwxr-xr-x 138 root root 12288 2009-01-13 22:53 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 33 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_logout -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 176 2007-02-12 20:48 .bash_profile -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 124 2007-02-12 20:48 .bashrc -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 500 2007-05-23 19:45 .emacs drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:21 .kde drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:08 .xemacs -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 658 2007-03-06 01:54 .zshrc .bash_logout,.bash_profile,and .bashrc contains the user specific options and aliases which is used by the bash shell each time the bash shell starts up..kde contains the kde desktop application options. The .bashrc file can be used by user to customize user's shell environment. The sample .bashrc file is # .bashrc # Source global definitions

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if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then . /etc/bashrc fi # User specific aliases and functions If the file /etc/bashrc exists then the file is executed./etc/bashrc contains the global options to the bash shell. The options in /etc/bashrc apply to all users using bash shell. The values in /etc/bashrc can be overridden using the .bashrc file. Much information needed to create user account is taken from the file /etc/profile. It sets the hostname, histsize of the shell, shell environment variables like PATH,USER,LOGNAME,and INPUTRC etc. The /etc/profile file also looks in the directory /etc/profile.d for the files which contain aliases and environment variables for use by the user. General format The default values used while creating a user account can be overridden by passing those values from shell. The format of useradd command is useradd -c “comment” -d home directory path -g group name -p password -s shell -u userid [root@localhost ~]# useradd -c "new user" -d /home/user2 -g user1 -s /bin/csh user2 When a user account is created an entry corresponding to the user name for example user1,user2 is created in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow file. An entry is also added when a new group is created for example user1. Below is the content of /etc/passwd filesystem user1:x:502:502::/home/user1:/bin/bash user2:x:503:502:new user:/home/user2:/bin/csh /etc/shadow file contains the user name and the encrypted password of the user. The entry of /etc/group file is user1:x:502: Changing default values

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The command useradd -D -b home directory name -s shell -g group can be used to change the default values used while creating new user account. Below command is used to change the shell to /bin/tcsh from /bin/bash [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D -s /bin/tcsh [root@localhost ~]# useradd -D GROUP=100 HOME=/home INACTIVE=-1 EXPIRE= SHELL=/bin/tcsh SKEL=/etc/skel CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes
5.3.Modifying user account

usermod command is used to modify the user information. The general format of usermod command is usermod -c “comment” -d home-directory-name -g group-name -l login-name -s shell -u user-id
5.4.Deleting user account

userdel command is used to delete the user account. userdel user-name this deletes the entry corresponding to the user name from /etc/passwd file and /etc/shadow. To delete the home directory along with the account following command is used userdel -r user-name

73 5.5.Group Administration

5.5.1.Adding New Group groupadd command is used to add new group. If no options are specified on the command line default values are used. The format of groupadd command is groupadd -g group-id groupadd-r option Second command is used to add administrative groups. Administrative group and users have ids below 500.The file /etc/gshadow is used to store the group's password. 5.5.2.Modifying group information groupmod command is used to modify existing group information. groupmod -g new-group-id -n new-group-name. 5.5.3.Deleting group groupdel command is used to delete group. It deleted the entry of group from the files like /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
5.6.Using User Manager

The user manager utility is used to perform all the tasks discussed above using the graphical interface. To invoke the user manager utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-users

To modify existing user information click on the user name and then use the properties button. The information can be edited on the below panel and changes can be saved.74 It can be used to add . The below panel is generated. .modify and delete user and group information.

75 To create a new user. click on the add user button. . The below window is thrown and the information of new user can be entered.

76 5.1.and G (gigabyte) form.6. The password needs to be entered twice.7. 5. The size of files contained in a subfolder is also displayed .Space Usage The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a directory. The command prompts for root user's password and then for the new password. passwd user-name if the user-name is not mentioned then it is assumed that user wants to change root user's password. .M(megabytes). The format of the command is du folder-name if the option -h is used the command displays the size of files and subfolders in K (kilobytes).Changing user password The password of user can be changed by entering the command passwd.

. [root@localhost ~]# df Filesystem /dev/sda11 /dev/sda12 /dev/sda10 /dev/sda9 /dev/sda8 tmpfs 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on 9920592 2390424 7018100 26% / 4956284 141220 4559232 4% /opt 9920592 4643932 4764592 50% /usr 16479668 384520 15244508 3% /home 101086 383428 18499 77368 20% /boot 0 383428 0% /dev/shm 6. During installation the root account is must to create.0K /home/user1/. The format of the command is df filesystem If the filesystem option is not used on command line then df displays the amount of space available in all the mounted filesystems of the system.xemacs 44K /home/user1 The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem.77 [root@localhost ~]# du -h /home/user1 8. The root user is administrator account on Red Hat Linux.kde 8.kde/Autostart 12K /home/user1/.Overview The root user is can perform all the tasks on the system.0K /home/user1/.SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 6.1.

1.2.2.Getting Administration Rights 6.2. 6. Te user and group ids below 500 are reserved for the administrative users. The format of the su command is su – user-name If user2 has entered this command in terminal then he will have the privilege of user-name (he can perform all actions which user1 can perform using the terminal in which he entered the above command. Below is the sample /etc/passwd file root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin . Outside that terminal he won't have the privilege of user1).2. There are some administrative accounts which are automatically created by Linux but the user accounts cannot be used to log into the system as they are defined with the /sbin/nologin. The user accounts are listed in the file /etc/passwd.The su command The su command is used to change the user id and group id of the user issuing the command to that of user mentioned on the su command. The user id and group id of the root user is 0.Using the su Using the su command a user can also get privilege of root user but the user will be prompted for the root user's password. If he enters the password correctly then he gets the privilege of root user else he won't get the privilege./sbin/nologin refuses login from the user.78 6.

The privilege can be granted by the root user only.2. 6.1. The root user must be created on a Linux machine and all other user accounts in above sample are automatically created. /usr/bin/wvdial. /usr/bin/rfcomm.. 6./etc/sudoers file The file /etc/sudoers file defines group of similar command under an alias name. ## Networking Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route. /sbin/iptables.and mail are defined with /sbin/nologin so those user accounts cannot be used to login into system.Administrative commands 6./sbin and /usr/sbin directory The directory /sbin and /usr/sbin contain administrative commands. /sbin/mii-tool ## Installation and management of software Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm.lp. /sbin/dhclient.2. /bin/umount .3. /sbin/parted. /usr/bin/up2date. /sbin/sfdisk.79 The users bin. /usr/bin/net. /bin/mount.3. Only root user can use the commands . /sbin/iwconfig. /sbin/partprobe.. /sbin/ifconfig.adm. /bin/ping. /usr/bin/yum ## Services Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service.daemon. For example ## Command Aliases ## These are groups of related commands.Other uses must have given privilege to use those commands.4. /sbin/chkconfig ## Updating the locate database Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/sbin/updatedb ## Storage Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk.2.

SOFTWARE./sbin/sfdisk. SERVICES. DRIVERS ## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands # %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Same thing without a password # %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL ## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the ## cdrom as root # %users ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom. Then in the file /etc/sudoers different groups are defined with different levels of privilege. ## Allow root to run any commands anywhere root ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking. The explanation is any user can use mount command to view the filesystems currently mounted on the system but only root can use it to mount a filesystem./bin/umount. STORAGE is defined for the commands /sbin/fdisk. In above case the command mount is in directory /bin. /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom ## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system # %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now . ## service management apps and more. # %sys ALL = NETWORKING./bin/mount. STORAGE. software. PROCESSES. DELEGATING. LOCATE.80 At first command aliases are defined in the /etc/sudoers file. Since normal users can not use commands in /sbin directory that is why mount command is in /bin directory.

daemon The entry jack is made in /etc/group file.Changing owner and group The chown command is used to change the owner or/and group of a file. The chgrp command is used to change the group of a file. Now the user jack can use the command rpm to install any software prefixing the command rpm with sudo for example sudo rpm -i vlc 6. Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens..bin.daemon daemon:x:2:root.adm. The general format of the command is chown owner:group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner.bin. Then open the file /etc/group and add the user jack on line corresponding to the group sys root:x:0:root bin:x:1:root.3.daemon sys:x:3:root.adm.81 The file /etc/sudoers should be edited using the /sbin/visudo command.bin. The format of the command is . Suppose a user jack is to be given the privilege of group sys then uncomment the line #%sys using the /sbin/visudo command.jack adm:x:4:root.

The system administration can be divided into several parts z z z z z z Managing user accounts (creating.Monitoring System performance 6.1.Using System Monitor The system information can be viewed using the System Monitor utility.modifying user and group accounts) (discussed before) managing services to be run in a runlevel (discussed before) Updating existing software and installing new software (discussed before) Monitoring system performance Automating tasks Managing and tuning kernel 6. .4.deleting.82 chgrp group-name file-name changes the group of file-name to group. To start the system monitor utility follow these steps on desktop go to system--> then go to administration-->then click on System Monitor.4.

Using the Edit menu option the user can Start Process. Kill Process. Using the filesystems tab the filesystems currently mounted on the system are displayed. Using the view menu option user can choose the option to see only processes started by him (his process) or all process or active processes on the system. A user can also choose which information he/she wants to see for the processes using the Edit->preferences option of the menu . The user can click on a process and then can end process by clicking on the End Process button. End Process. On the preferences window the user can choose the time interval after which the information is to be refreshed. . and also change the priority of the process.83 On the processes tab the user can see the listing of all the processes of the system at that moment. View Process.

2.Using w command The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them.percent CPU usage. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system. no of processes active.84 6.% memory usage.Other commands There are several commands available in Linux which can be used to view the system information.3.3. the command used for invoking the process. no of processes sleeping. 6.4.4. . no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number ).4. The priority of the process. The top command gives various information about the system z z z z z z number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes. 6.Using top The top utility is started by typing the top command in the terminal window.1.

10.04s 0.03s 0.free memory.blocks sent to block devices(bo).22.00s w 6. load average: 0.Using uptime The uptime command is used to show the time for which system is running. Load average of the system and number of users logged on the system currently.85 [root@localhost ~]# w 23:17:20 up 32 min.4. 0. cache memory.no of processes in sleep(under sub heading b). 0.-----cpu-----si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st 0 0 0 218808 20736 258632 0 0 144 38 114 435 7 1 89 2 0 Under the proc heading it displays the no of processes waiting for run time (under r sub heading).4. load average: 0.---swap-r b swpd free buff cache -io---.2. Under the memory heading it displays amount of virtual memory used(swpd). 0.Using vmstat The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics.--system-. under swap heading amount of memory swapped in from disk(si) and amount of memory swapped out(so).19.19 6. 0.0 LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT 22:48 10:07 0.19 USER TTY FROM root root pts/0 :0.3. buffer memory. [root@localhost ~]# uptime 23:17:44 up 32 min. Under the io heading blocks received from block devices(bi).3. Under the CPU heading the CPU related information. 2 users. . 2 users.00s 0.00s find /home 23:08 1. [root@localhost ~]# vmstat procs --memory----.3.21.0 pts/1 :0.

If the pid is 1 then processes with pid >1 re signaled if pid is > 1 then the process with that id is signaled.4.86 6. The format of the kill command is kill -s signal-name pid z z z if the pid is 0 then all process in current process are signaled.4.The system log viewer is launched from desktop using SYSTEM-->ADMINISTRATION-->SYSTEM LOG.5.4.3.Log information The user can see the log information of the system using the System Log viewer . [root@localhost ~]# free total Mem: 766860 used 550340 266068 0 free 216520 500792 shared 0 buffers 22476 cached 261796 -/+ buffers/cache: Swap: 819272 819272 6.Using kill The kill command is used to end a process.Using free It gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system. .4.3. 6.

For example the file /var/log/boot. The * is replaced by the output of uname -r command. Clicking on the cron entry on left displays the log information about the jobs scheduled using the cron utility on the right panel of the above utility.87 On the left hand side the list of log files is displayed. The hardware drivers are maintained as the modules of the kernel. The hardware drivers are installed to interface with the hardware.1.21-1.kernel Modules All the modules configured into the kernel are located in the directory /lib/modules/*/.log contains the log information of boot time. User can click on the name of files to view the log information. The drivers can be inserted.networking modules. The log information about the cups can be seen by expanding the tree under the cups entry on the left panel of the utility. 7.6.Overview Linux kernel is heart of Linux operating system.deleted.fc7]# ls build modules.KERNEL SERVICES AND CONFIGURATION 7.2. 7.symbols .and the information about the drivers can be viewed. The content of the directory is [root@localhost 2.3194.dep modules.

fc7/kernel/drivers/char/drm/i915. The file/proc/module contains the listing of modules currently loaded into the kernel.ko GPL and additional rights description: Intel Graphics .ccwmap modules.libata modules.ofmap kernel modules.seriomap weak-updates The kernel subdirectory of the above output contains the drivers currently part of the kernel. [root@localhost ~]# lsmod Module i915 drm Size Used by 25793 3 78037 4 i915 7745 1 ipt_MASQUERADE iptable_nat nf_nat 11461 1 22125 2 ipt_MASQUERADE. For example to view information about the driver i915 of above case use the command [root@localhost ~]# modinfo i915 filename: license: /lib/modules/2.ieee1394map modules.inputmap modules.21-1.3194.iptable_nat The modinfo command can be used to view information about any of the loaded module into the kernel.1. 7.usbmap source modules.2.isapnpmap modules.Modules Loaded into Kernel To view the modules currently loaded into the kernel use the command lsmod.88 extra modules.scsi updates modules.alias modules. The file modules.networking contains the name of the drivers for the network devices.pcimap modules.6.

The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command.and remove a module from the kernel. 7.2.89 author: srcversion: depends: Tungsten Graphics.ko: /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1. Inc.2.4.2. The format of the command is rmmod module-name 7. If module2 is dependent on module1 then the file contents will be /lib/modules/*/kernel/crypto/module2.ko /lib/modules/*/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/module1.Removing module from kernel The rmmod command is used to remove a module from the kernel.dep file located in the directory /lib/modules/uname -r/. Let module2 is module dependent on module1 then if the command modprobe module1 is executed then the modules module1 and module2 both are inserted as the module2 is dependent on module1.Using modprobe command The modprobe command can be used to insert a module into kernel .ko . The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel.2. The module dependencies are listed into the modules.Inserting module into kernel Sometimes a user might need to install a hardware device if the hardware driver is not part of the kernel. 9274BE575209BE18EC18D84 drm 7. The user has to insert the driver module into the kernel.3.

3.The ps command The ps command is all purpose command to get information about the processes running on the system. The sample modprobe.1. But if the command insmod is used then the module1 is only inserted.2.conf file is alias eth0 via-rhine options snd-intel8x0 index=0 install binfmt-0000 /bin/true The option alias defines an alternate name eth0 for the via-rhine. The option options define the options which will be used when the module is inserted into the kernel.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe. The format of the renice command is renice priority -p pid of process -u user-name -g group-id . The dependent module is on left side and the independent module is on the right side of the semicolon. The command modprobe -r module-name is used to remove the modules from the kernel. 7. 7. The install option is used to run the commands defined after the module name. In above case if the command modprobe binfmt-0000 is run then the command /bin/true is executed.3. The modprobe command looks in the directory /lib/modules/*/ and also for the configuration file /etc/modprobe.d.3.Changing priority of process The renice command is used to change the priority of the running process. There are many options available for the ps command.90 : In above example the modules module1 and module2 are listed using fully qualified path name. The command ps aux is used to display all the processes currently running on the system.Process and Kernel Information 7.

. ...91 If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes and if issued for group then the process priority of all processes owned by the group is changed and if issued for process id then the process priority is changed.redhat.Using dmesg It is used to examine and print the boot up message.21-1... The format of the command is dmesg -c -n level The -c option clears the kernel ring buffer after printing -n option sets the level of messages which will be printed....... 7.3194..d]# dmesg -c Linux version 2. is the output of command...2 20070502 (Red Hat 4. If the value of level is 1 then the serious error messages are only printed.. The user can use the command to capture the messages..6.3.phx. ..3..1.com) (gcc version 4. After the execution the kernel ring buffer gets clear now if the command dmesg is run again then there will be no output. ...1.... [root@localhost modprobe...fc7 (kojibuilder@xenbuilder4..2-12)) #1 SMP Wed May 23 22:35:01 EDT 2007 BIOS-provided physical RAM map: sanitize start sanitize end copy_e820_map() start: 0000000000000000 size: 000000000009fc00 end: 000000000009fc00 type: 1 ..fedora....

uucp.authpriv.news.log /var/log/spooler .* /dev/console # Log anything (except mail) of level info or higher. mail.conf.mail.* /var/log/cron -/var/log/maillog # Everybody gets emergency messages *.3.none # The authpriv file has restricted access.log local7.crit # Save boot messages also to boot.news. # Don't log private authentication messages! *. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog.92 7.emerg * # Save news errors of level crit and higher in a special file.cron.none.Syslogd The syslogd supports the system logging as well as kernel message trapping.info. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written. Below is the sample /etc/syslog. syslogd supports the system logging. #kern. The syslogd and klogd comprises the sysklogd package.4.none.conf file # Log all kernel messages to the console. # Logging much else clutters up the screen.* /var/log/secure /var/log/messages # Log all the mail messages in one place. authpriv.* /var/log/boot.* # Log cron stuff cron.none.

The cron job messages are logged in the file /var/log/cron The file name can be changed by the root user if root wants to log the information into different file.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. The at command cannot be used by all the users. The source for the kernel message is the /proc/kmsg file.pid.and cron facilities are used to schedule a job at a specified time.=err news.notice /var/log/news/news.batch. The file /etc/at.err /var/log/news/news.1.4.4. If the file is not present then klogd uses a system call to obtain kernel messages.crit /var/log/news/news. The /etc/at.Automating Tasks -- A user can schedule to run a job at a specified time. The /etc/at.deny is checked to see the users who cannot use the at command. The process id(PID) of the klogd daemon is defined in the file /var/run/klogd. The root user can use the at command.Using at The at command is used to schedule a job at a time and the atd daemon runs the job scheduled by the at command.93 # # INN # news. The klogd daemon always runs on a running system and traps any messages which kernel generates. 7. 7. There are two files which determine which users can use the at command. The at.=crit news.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command. The klogd captures the kernel messages. If .notice In the above file /var/log/secure file is defined to contain the authorization and security related messages.allow file is first checked for the user name who can use the at command if the file is not present then the file /etc/at. For example the PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) related messages are logged in this file.

and the jobs with b on right are in batch queue.1.allow or /etc/at. The jobs which are listed have an on right are in at queue.4. The at -l command is used to list all the scheduled jobs(if root user runs this command then scheduled job of all users is displayed). [root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 4 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root Fri Jan 16 23:03:00 2009 a root at -m sends mail to the user when the job completes even if the job has no output.94 both the files are not present then only root user can run the at command. The sample format of the /etc/at.deny is jack mark The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespace in the user name. The three ways in which jobs can be scheduled are 7. 7.1.2. the jobs which have = on right are jobs currently executing.Using at prompt .1.4.using pipe A list of command can be scheduled using pipe for example [root@localhost ~]# ls -la | at now+5min job 1 at Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 to schedule a number of commands write each command separated by semicolons.if invoked by other users the scheduled job of only that user is displayed. The command at time-specification is used to schedule the job at that time.

The contents of the file(commands in the file name is executed at time specification). [root@localhost ~]# at -l 4 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:46:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root use atrm to delete job 4.1.3. atq – The atq command is used to list the scheduled job.Using file The at -f filename time-specification command is used to give the command using the file filename. The format is atrm jobid to delete the job 4 in below case use the command at -l gives listing of all scheduled jobs. Same as at -l atrm – command is used to delete a scheduled job.4. In above example ps and du both are scheduled.95 The at prompt is presented to the user if at time-specification is entered for example [root@localhost ~]# at now+20min at> ps at> du at> <EOT> press CTRL+D to come out of at prompt. . 7.

[root@localhost ~]# atq 3 2 1 Fri Jan 16 22:44:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:49:00 2009 a root Fri Jan 16 22:39:00 2009 = root The outputs of the commands are mailed to the owner of the job after successful completion of the job.Using batch command The batch command is used to schedule a job. The job runs when the load average of the system is below .96 [root@localhost ~]# atrm 4 the command atq gives listing of all scheduled jobs. The sample file for the commands scheduled using the batch command is #!/bin/sh # atrun uid=0 gid=0 # mail root 0 . 7. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled.2.8.4.The batch scheduled job is run by the atd daemon. The batch command invokes the at command prompt [root@localhost ~]# batch at> df at> du at> <EOT> job 5 at Fri Jan 16 22:58:00 2009 The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at.

... The /etc/cron... export DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID SHELL=/bin/bash.. The /etc/cron..4...97 umask 22 SSH_AGENT_PID=2866. df du 7...deny file is searched.allow file is used to list the users who can use the cron facility... export HOSTNAME DESKTOP_STARTUP_ID=... If both files don't exists then only root user can use cron facility./etc/cron.. export SHELL ..using an empty one crontab: installing new crontab The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory.localdomain...3. export SSH_AGENT_PID HOSTNAME=localhost.cron file .deny lists the user names which are not allowed to access the cron facility... [root@localhost at]# crontab -e no crontab for root .Using cron The cron facility is also used to schedule the jobs. The format of the file is 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local . The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file.. The name of the file is same as the name of the user.. The root user can access cron facility.allow file is first searched by the cron facility if the file does not exists then the /etc/cron. The crontab jobs are executed by the cron daemon. The users can be given access to cron using two files. A text editor can be used to create a file-name. ...

Jan. The command crontab -l is used to list all the crontab jobs. After the time fields the command field follows. [root@localhost cron]# crontab -r [root@localhost cron]# crontab -l no crontab for root 7.daily . [root@localhost at]# crontab -l 5 23 * * * ls -la /usr/local The crontab -r command is used to delete the crontab jobs. The sample /etc/crontab file is SHELL=/bin/bash PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root HOME=/ # run-parts 01 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.mar. fifth field is day of week(0-7). The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file.Mon.0 and 7 both are used for Sunday The field value * in the fields denotes all possible value.Sun.3./etc/crontab The file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file.Tue format is also used.hourly 02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.4.Apr format is also used.Feb.98 z z z z z z z The first field is minute (0-59) second field is hour (0-23) third field is day of month(0-31) fourth field is month (0-12).1.

/etc/cron.monthly are executed by the cron daemon. 8.and 5.weekly.Starting Apache The user should check whether the Apache web server is enabled in the runlevel or not.and /etc/cron. The mail is done to root user (MAILTO parameter).-list option is used to check whether the Apache web server is enabled or not [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off The httpd service (the daemon corresponding to the Apache web server) is enable in runlevel 2. The chkconfig . /etc/cron.99 22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron.4. 8. If the service is enabled in a runlevel use the command service httpd start to start the Apache Web Server.monthly The environment of the sub shell is set using this file. The apache web server is the most widely used web server. The runparts define the time when the scripts in the directories /etc/cron.2.daily. The SHELL parameter sets the shell to /bin/bash.3. [root@localhost ~]# service httpd start Starting httpd: [ OK ] After starting the service check the working of Apache web server by typing the address http://localhost .Overview The web server accepts the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol(HTTP) requests and sends a response to the client.weekly 42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron.WEB SERVER 8.hourly. If the service is not enabled then the command chkconfig httpd on is used.1. The apache web server source code is freely downloadable.

/..100 in the address bar of the Mozilla Firefox (web browser)..d contains the configuration files relating to the languages( like Python.d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 2009-01-06 16:15 logs -> .conf.Perl./usr/lib/httpd/modules lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 2009-01-06 16:15 run -> .d lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 27 2009-01-06 16:15 modules -> ././.. The conf./var/log/httpd drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:20 modsecurity. The logs directory is symbolic link to /var/log/httpd directory which contains the httpd log information . The directory contains main configuration file..database(Mysql) and the authorization modules. sub directories and symbolic links to other directories. [root@localhost httpd]# ls -l total 36 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:01 conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-17 10:29 conf. The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd.and PHP).../var/run The conf directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd.

The modules directory is symbolic link to the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory which contains the library files for the Apache web server.conf file is main configuration file for Apache web server. The run directory contains the symbolic link to /var/run directory which contains the httpd. and protocols related. ServerRoot "/etc/httpd" The server root names the main directory where all the server information is kept. Configuration parameters for the main server (not virtual hosts but these parameters also set default values for all virtual hosts) Settings for virtual hosts. Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites # finding out what major optional modules you are running ServerTokens OS This hides the additional subcomponent modules from the remote sites.Main Configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.101 the modsecurity directory contains files relating to the security. error. The additional subcomponent configuration files reside in the /etc/httpd/conf. z z z Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole.d directory. # ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's # configuration.3. # Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out. 8.1. .pid file which contains the PID of httpd daemon. The file is divided into three parts. http policy. 8. and log files are kept.Global Environment Configuration In the global environment configuration section the following attributes are set # Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents # we are running.3.

d directory.conf Loads the additional component support component files from the /etc/httpd/conf.so LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file. in addition to the default Listen 80 In this case apache listens to port number 80. # Include conf.Perl. User apache Group apache .Python. The directory contains the configuration files for PHP.and Mysql etc. # Load config files from the config directory "/etc/httpd/conf.102 # Timeout 120 The server will wait for 120 secs for a response and after that the connection will timeout.so The LoadModule loads the modules from the /usr/lib/httpd/modules directory (the directory /etc/httpd/modules is a symbolic link to above directory). # Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or # ports. # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support # LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic.The port number can be changed to any port number by the user.d/*.d".so LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest.

html file and kept it in this directory and open the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index. 8.The user can set this to his/her user-name and group-name. See also the AllowOverride # directive. where problems with the server should be # e-mailed. # AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory # for additional configuration directives. For example if you create an index. ServerAdmin root@localhost In case of any information server wants to give then the information is send to the email address mentioned in the directive ServerAdmin.103 The httpd server runs under the user apache and group apache.Main server section # ServerAdmin: Your address.htaccess # .html file will be displayed. By default.3. The user account apache and the group account apache are automatically created (user don't create the accounts). # DocumentRoot "/var/www/html" This is the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server. The email address can be edited if user wants so. # AccessFileName .2. # DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your # documents. all requests are taken from this directory. but # symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.

emerg.ht"> Order allow. info. notice.htpasswd files from being # viewed by Web clients. # alert.htaccess file won't give anything). warn.c> ProxyRequests On .htaccess file is used to control access to the directory. error. The line Deny from all sets the access level that no user can be able to see the file . crit.104 # The following lines prevent . # Proxy Server directives. # LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log. # <Files ~ "^\. Uncomment the following lines to # enable the proxy server: # <IfModule mod_proxy. The contents of htaccess file should not be visible to the clients who are accessing the server (people who are using web browser to view contents or pages on the server). # LogLevel warn The loglevel defines the messages which are to be logged.htaccess (the address in the web browser address bar corresponding to the . In above case the warning messages will be logged in the file.htaccess and .deny Deny from all </Files> The . # Possible values include: debug.

apache. uncomment the following lines. # See http://httpd.org/docs/2. In the above example if the Proxy Requests directive is OFF then apache will act as a cache server. # # To enable a cache of proxied content.3.allow Deny from all Allow from . 8.com. The permission level set for the proxy server in above case is the access is denied from all except . # <IfModule mod_disk_cache.Virtual hosts section # .com </Proxy> The apache web server acts as proxy server if the above lines are uncommented.example.html for more details.example. The root directory for the cached files is /var/cache/mod_proxy.c> CacheEnable disk / CacheRoot "/var/cache/mod_proxy" </IfModule> # If the following lines are uncommented then the apache web server servers as a cache server.3.2/mod/mod_cache.105 # <Proxy *> Order deny.

So if a user requests a document in the domain ServerName then the documents or files from the directory /www/docs/dummy-host.com DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host.example. Each and every apache directive can be used within the VirtualHost.106 # Use name-based virtual hosting.example.com ServerName dummy-host.4.com-access_log common </VirtualHost> The virtual host section is used to configure virtual hosting which supports more than one domain using a single web server system.com is fetched.com ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.example. To invoke the utility enter the below command in terminal [root@localhost conf]# system-config-httpd . 8.example.HTTP Server Configuration The HTTP Server Configuration is used to configure the HTTP server. In the following example the ServerName is set to dummy-host. # #NameVirtualHost *:80 # <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.example.com-error_log CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example.com.example.

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The main tab is used to configure the server name and web master email address to add the ip address click on the add button.

The new address and the port can be added on the panel displayed. The user can choose to listen to all address option . Use the virtual host tab to configure the virtual host.

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The add button is used to add a new virtual host and the edit button is used to edit the properties of the virtual host highlighted on the left part of panel. the delete option can be used to delete the virtual host. If the user choose to edit the properties of a virtual host the below panel is displayed

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The user can use the tabs on top of the panel to configure the options. The general properties like virtual host name ,document root directory, web master email address can be configured on the general tab. The server tab on the main panel is used to configure the server lock file location, core directory where all the configuration files of the server will be kept, and the location of the pid file. The user and group under which the apache server is running can also be edited.

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The performance tab is used to configure the parameters which help in improve the performance of the apache web server. Parameters like connection timeout period ,maximum number of requests per connection are set here. These options are impact the performance of the apache web server.

Overview It is high performance proxy caching server for web clients with supporting HTTP.2. http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client requests. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks.FTP.Configuring Squid The directory /etc/squid contains the configuration files for squid server.Network options Under the network options the user can define the socket addresses.and Gopher data objects. 9. The socket address can be defined in three forms: z z port alone hostname with port . The squid configuration file is divided into sections 9.2.SQUID SERVER 9.1. The main configuration file for the squid server is /etc/squid/squid. Squid consists of a main server program squid.1.conf.111 9.

2.and negative cache objects(recent failed requests). 9.2.3.log cache.4. The cache dir /var/spool/squid contains the following files [root@localhost squid]# ls access.out store.log . #Default: cache_dir ufs /var/spool/squid This section also defines the format of the squid log files.Cache size options This section defines the options which control the cache size and swap memory used to handle the objects. For example #Default: cache_mem 8 MB This sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use).log squid.2.Neighbor selection algorithm option Under this section the user define the mapping of rules for the requests and neighbor which will be called if a request obeys the rule.2. For example hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ? means that when the URL consists of certain string of characters then the original server handles the request.Log File and Cache directory section This section defines the directory which will be used as a cache directory.112 z IP address with port # Squid normally listens to port 3128 http_port 3128 9.hot objects(objects that are used often). 9.

113 The squid pid is stored in the file /var/run/squid.pid.0.0/0.1/255.0.0.0/8 acl SSL_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 80 acl Safe_ports port 21 acl Safe_ports port 443 acl Safe_ports port 70 acl Safe_ports port 210 # http # ftp # https # gopher # wais acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535 # unregistered ports acl Safe_ports port 280 acl Safe_ports port 488 acl Safe_ports port 591 acl Safe_ports port 777 # http-mgmt # gss-http # filemaker # multiling http acl CONNECT method CONNECT .0 acl manager proto cache_object acl localhost src 127.0.Access control section This section defines the access control. 9.0. The acl tag is used to define access control. By default no outside client is allowed to access the contents. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file below is the example of acl tags from /etc/squid/squid.255.0.0.255 acl to_localhost dst 127.0.5.conf file acl all src 0.255.2.

The next lines define different ports with a name for example port 443 with name SSL_ports. This entry can be edited to add more number of clients who can access the content. The configuration file for cache manager is /etc/squid/cachemgr. http_access allow localhost http_access deny all the above lines define that the localhost can only access the http content all others are denied. #Default: cache_mgr root Above line define that root user is mailed in case the cache dies. Squid is an administrative user account created automatically.114 the first line gives name all to all the addresses.Administrative parameters The administrative parameter defines the user under which squid will run . The localhost name is given to the loopback interface.3.6.cgi script # .2.the user receiving mails in case cache dies etc.Cache Manager The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs. #Default: cache_effective_user squid The above line define that the effective user of the squid is squid user.conf. The configuration file controls which servers will be managed by the cache manager. The manager can access the contents as defined by the second line. # This file controls which servers may be managed by # the cachemgr. 9. 9.

SQUID_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT=100 .4.cgi. uncomment this SQUID_OPTS="-D" # Time to wait for Squid to shut down when asked. Should not be necessary # most of the time. :* or :any matches # any port on the target server. If you most likely will not to have an # internet connection when you start squid. 9. localhost In the above example the localhost server is managed by the cache manager.Squid Daemon The squid daemon receives the configuration information from the squid daemon configuration file /etc/sysconfig/squid. allowing # * and other shell wildcards. The sample format of the file is # default squid options # -D disables initial dns checks. The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://server-name/cgibin/cachemgr. If not specified then # the default proxy port is assumed.115 # The file consists of one server per line on the format # hostname:port description # # Specifying :port is optional. # # hostname is matched using shell filename matching.

1. NFS is example of a file server.116 After making changes in the configuration file restart the squid daemon if the squid daemon is already running using the command [root@localhost squid]# /etc/init. The files are accessible by some computers on the intranet of the organization. [ OK ] [ OK ] if the squid daemon is not running then use /etc/init. 10. The access to files is defined by rules set at the server machine.d/squid start command. 10. Alternatively the command [root@localhost squid]# squid -k reconfigure causes the squid to read the configuration file again.2.Starting NFS service To start the NFS service enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# service nfs start Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] .NFS SERVER 10.d/squid restart Stopping squid: .Overview In organizations it is common that the files are kept at one server. Starting squid: .

123. The combination of lp address and hostname can also be used.com should be allowed access to directory files then enter the entry files *.? can also be used. The options define security levels that is who can access and which users can access the directory.1/255. One directory entry is done on one line. So for example if all the computers in the domain example.1.0 The wildcard characters *.3. The NIS group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the NIS group name.168.example.3. 10.117 10. The format of the /etc/exports file entry is directory-name host-name(options) #comments directory name is the name of the directory which is shared with other computers on network. The format of the entry is hostname1 hostname2 hostname1 hostname2 165.com The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group.255.12.example.Sharing Folders The file /etc/exports contain the name of the folders which are to be shared.1. 192. ? matches any one character and * matches any number of character. The host names are the computers which have right to access the files.Format of hostname Multiple hostnames or lp address can be entered separated by blank.87 All the hosts from a particular network can also be entered using the ip address/net mask format.255.com but if the access should be restricted to computers with first name of 5 characters use files ?????. For example to give access to mynis group add entry .

insecure.rw.com(async. Other option is no_all_squash which causes no mapping to be done.all_squash) /home/user1 ?????.2.ro. The second entry makes the directory /home/user1 accessible to computers with five letter name in domain example. The other option is ro which allows read operation only. .insecure. no_root_squash – the root user of client is treated as the root user of the server as well ( the uid/gid of root is not mapped to the anonymous uid and gid). The sync option means server will respond to the request after the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk) so there is no chance of inconsistency.118 @mynis 10.example. async – It responds to the request before the changes made by the request are made permanent (that is changes are written to disk).if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used.secure. The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534. all_squash – map uid and gid of all users to anonymous uid and gid.Options format The valid options used in the /etc/exports file are secure – the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. Below is the sample /etc/exports file /home/vishnu *(sync.ro.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid. rw – the clients can read the files on NFS volume and also write on the directory .root_squash) In the first entry the directory /home/vishnu is made accessible by each computer (indicated by *) and options sync. root_squash – this option maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid.3.and root_squash.rw.secure and all_squash is used.So this option improves performance but increases chance of inconsistencies .com with options async.

For example to access the /home/vishnu directory enter the below command in the terminal .119 The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service. [root@localhost ~]# exportfs -a -v exporting ?????.example.Accessing the NFS directory [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] [ OK ] The NFS directory needs to be mounted before it can be accessed.com:/home/user1 exporting *:/home/vishnu The exportfs -a -v command is used to export all directories listed in the /etc/export file and print verbose output. To mount the NFS directory the mount command can be used. z z z z -a option is used to export all directories -u option is used to unexport one or more directories. -r reexport the directories -v verbose mode produces output or use the below command [root@localhost nfs]# service nfs restart Shutting down NFS mountd: Shutting down NFS daemon: Shutting down NFS quotas: Shutting down NFS services: Starting NFS services: Starting NFS quotas: Starting NFS daemon: Starting NFS mountd: 10.4.

To mount the NFS directories using the autofs use the following step add the below line in the /etc/auto.120 [root@localhost nfs]# mount localhost:/home/vishnu /mnt/win This mounts the /home/vishnu directory on /mnt/win directory of the same system.net Then restart the autofs service. The autofs facility can also be used to mount the NFS shared directories on demand. User can also edit the properties of the directories already exported by selecting the .NFS Server Configuration The NFS server configuration utility can be used to create the /etc/exports file using the graphical interface.master /net /etc/auto. It is invoked using the below command [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-nfs It lists the two directories which are exported. For example to access the directory /home/vishnu the below command is used cd /net/localhost 10.5. To add a new directory for export click on the add button.

The below panel is displayed which can be used to edit the options which are used to share the directory /home/vishnu. The server settings can also be edited by clicking on the server settings button The user can enter the port numbers in the text boxes of the panel to force NFS daemon for using these ports.121 directory in the directory listing and click on the properties button. The above panel is also displayed if the user wants to share a new directory (by clicking on the add button) but that time the panel will not contain any previous value. .

sync.wdelay.6.hide. To invoke the samba server configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost nfs]# system-config-samba .procfs-based interface to the mounted filesystems.nocrossmnt. 11.no_all_squash.no_subtree_check.nocrossmnt.all_squash.root_squash.async.com(rw.Using nfsstat The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity.etab.mapping=identity.SAMBA SERVER 11. The sample etab file is /home/user1 ?????.Samba Server Configuration The samba server configuration utility is used to configure the samba server on the system.anonuid=65534.acl.root_squash. The files xtab.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS client statistics.wdelay.122 10.acl.1. /proc/mounts -. /proc/net/rpc/nfs -.anonuid=65534.secure_locks.procfs-based interface to kernel NFS server statistics.secure_ locks.and rmtab files contain the information about the exported files.Overview samba is used if the network connected with the system comprising of the computers running the windows operating system.insecure.2.anongid=65534) 11.mapping=identity.anongid=65534) /home/vishnu *(ro.example. Windows operating system uses the SMB(Session Message Block) protocol for sharing files and printers.hide. use nfsstat -s to display server side information use nfsstat -c for client side information use nfsstat -n for NFS statistics use nfsstat -r for rpc statistics The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory.no _subtree_check. It uses following files to present the output in user readable format z z z z z z z /proc/net/rpc/nfsd -.insecure.

samba users . encrypt password and guest account. On the security tab the enter the following information the authentication mode. the authentication server. Set the value of the option to below values . On the basic tab enter the work group name and the description of the work group. The below panel is displayed.123 The panel can be used to configure the server settings.and new samba share. To edit the server setting click on the preferences menu and then to the server settings drop down choice.kerberos realm.

The passwords for the users are also entered on this panel. After entering the user-name and password click on the add share button to display the below panel .124 On the preferences menu list the samba user tab invokes the Samba Users panel which helps to add new samba users. Click on the new user button to display the below panel On the above panel enter the UNIX user name and windows user name (the UNIX user name and the windows user name are usually same).

Enter the values and click on OK. The below panel displays the samba share created using the above procedure and values displayed in the example panels . The share can be made accessible to samba users (by checking the check box) or can be allowed to everyone by clicking on the option box allow access to everyone.125 On the basic tab of create samba share the directory which is to be shared is entered.The writable option and visible option lets the user choose whether the clients can write to the directory (writable option) and whether it is visible(visible). The share name for the directory is entered which can be any valid name and a description is added (you may write here anything). On the access tab user can define who can access the share. If the visible is not checked then the share won't be visible.If writable in not checked then the client can't write on the share.

conf is the main configuration file of the samba server.Samba configuration file The /etc/samba directory contains the configuration files for the samba server. The /etc/samba/smb.conf configuration file [user1] comment = user1 home directory path = /home/user1 writeable = yes .126 11. The path of the shared directory is mentioned in the path entry. To add the above /home/user1 directory to the share the below content is to be added in the /etc/samba/smb. . The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of the samba users. browseable = yes valid users = vishnu In above entry the user1 is the name of the share comment is the description added and writable option means the client have write access to the share and the users who can access the share are listed using the valid user’s entry.3.

127 The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users.Checking the service To check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be use the below command [root@localhost samba]# smbclient -L localhost Password: Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu The left hand side denotes the UNIX user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name.1.25-2.fc7] Sharename --------user1 IPC$ ---Disk IPC Type Comment ------user1 home directory IPC Service (demo sama server) Anonymous login successful Domain=[MYGROUP] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 3.0. service smb start 11.Starting Samba service Use the below command to start the samba service.4.25-2.fc7] Server --------Comment ------- .0. 11.4.

. anonymous_enable=YES # # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.Starting vsftd Enter the below command to start the vsftpd service if it is not running [root@localhost ~]# service vsftpd start Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: 12.Overview File Transfer Protocol is standard method of sharing files over the Internet.128 LOCALHOST Workgroup --------MYGROUP demo sama server Master ------- when asked for password press the ENTER or RETURN key of the keyboard to login as anonymous user.Configuring vsftpd [ OK ] The directory /etc/vsftpd contains the configuration and other options file for the vsftpd. The vsftp is name given to Very Secured File Transfer Protocol.1.FTP SERVER 12. The main configuration file for the vsftpd is /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf.allowed by default if you #comment this out).conf file is # Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware .2. The command can be used to check the working of the samba server and the samba share. The users can connect to the FTP server and upload. The command displays all the shared directories on the system and also the workgroup created on the system. 12. download files from the FTP server. The sample vsftpd.3. 12.

129 local_enable=YES # the parameter anonymous_enable is when set to YES then the anonymous user login is allowed by the ftp server. if set to NO then anonymous user login is not allowed. connect_from_port_20 if set to yes then port 20 is used for transfer of data by ftp. The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. pam_service_name=vsftpd userlist_enable=YES the pam_service_name denotes the name of the service for the Pluggable Authentication Module. All the administrative users are listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list root bin . userlist_enable is set to YES then vsftp don't allow users listed in the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list to login through ftp. xferlog_enable=YES # # Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 #(ftp-data). connect_from_port_20=YES # xferlog_enable directive is set to YES logs information about the upload and download events. # Activate logging of uploads/downloads. local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server.

log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server.130 daemon adm lp sync shutdown halt mail news uucp operator games nobody The vsftpd pam also looks for the user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers. The user names in the file /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers are administrative users (they are same set of users as the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file).ftp command prompt To start the ftp command prompt enter the below command [root@localhost log]# ftp ftp> ftp supports lot of commands like . 12.4. The file lists the user names who are not allowed to login through ftp. The file /var/log/vsftpd.

lcd – to change to a directory on local system mkdir – to create a directory on remote system rename – rename a file or directory on remote computer get – copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system mget – same as get but multiple files at once put – copy a file from current directory on local system to current directory on remote system mput – same as put but multiple files at once. To invoke the utility enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-vsftpd . ls -. cd – used to change directory on remote computer.Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration The Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility is used to configure the vsftpd daemon.5. 12. bye – closes current connection and exits ftp.lists the content of a directory on remote computer.131 open hostname or ip address – connect to the computer identified by hostname or ip address close – close a connections pwd – shows name of current working directory on remote computer.

On logging tab the user can provide the files which will be used for logging the standard logging file is /var/log/vsftpd. The anonymous user behavior and the system users behavior is set differently so as to provide better grain of control On the directory option the file access options are set. . on Users tab the way system users and the anonymous users will access the ftp server is defined. Under server control tab user can start or stop the server view the log files.132 On the general tab user can specify options like enable upload and download of files .log. On the access control tab the user can define whether the local users should be able to login into the ftp server and the file which is to be used to ban users from accessing the ftp server for example the /etc/vsftpd/user_list file contain the list of the administrative user who should not be allowed to access the ftp server. The active connection options and the passive connection options as well.whether to run in standalone mode or not(in standalone mode vsftpd listens to the port it don't run under inetd or xinetd). It also defines the port on which the ftp server listens. The information which will be logged can also be defined. On network tab the user can define the network options. File names which match a user defined criteria can be made inaccessible and invisible to the clients. The users can view the directory list if or not can also be controlled.

The contents of the directory are [root@localhost openldap]# ls -l total 24 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-02-20 02:25 cacerts -rw-r--r-.com:666 SIZELIMIT TIMELIMIT 12 15 . BASE dc=example.conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-01-06 16:17 schema The file ldap. The sample ldap. 13.2.Configuration The main directory of the ldap is /etc/openldap. It is used to create directories of information that can be shared among client applications over a network.1 root root 246 2007-02-20 02:25 ldap. 13.LDAP SERVER 13. dc=com URI ldap://ldap.133 Maximum number of clients connecting through a single source .com ldap://ldap-master.conf is the main configuration file for the ldap.conf file is # # LDAP Defaults # # See ldap.conf(5) for details # This file should be world readable but not world writable.1.example.example. The directory contains the configuration files and schema files for the ldap.overview LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

DEREF options specifies the way an alias is dereferenced.searching. The schema directory contains the schema files. SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched.schema samba.schema. This is the default. The other values of the DEREF options is always. The server name can be specified or the ip address of the server can be specified.schema The default schema can be used by the user or edited by the user to create the directory information of his/her own. URI specifies the uri of the ldap server to which the ldap library will attach. The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap. TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request. The various schema files are z z z z cosine. . After editing the configuration file user can start creating the directories using any of the ldap schemas. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search.schema use include /etc/openldap/schema/samba.conf using the include directive. The value of deref directive is never the alias is never dereferenced.134 DEREF never The BASE directive is used to set the set the distinguished name in the ldap format using the dc=value format. The port can also be specified on the URI directive.ldif and save the file.and finding. For example to include the samba. Create a directory entry with the extension .schema nis. To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.conf file for the syntax change. The time limit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request.schema inetorgperson. The structure used to create directories is the LDAP Data Interchange Format(LDIF).

conf. ldapdelte command is used to delete an entry from the ldap server.and ypdomainname are used to set the NIS domain name of the system. The computers which access the database information (maps) of the server are referred as NIS domain.or nisdomainname.Starting the ldap Use the below command to start the ldap service service ldap start 14. It is used to create an central information database which is kept at a server system and other computers on the network access the information.Setting NIS domain name The command domainname . The formats of the commands are domainname domain-name-of-system nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system the below command sets the NIS domain name of the system to localdomain [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain The commands if used without any options give the nis domain name of the system . The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. The time of search or the time within which the ldap server should respond is defined in the TIMELIMIT option. 13.NIS SERVER 14. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned.1. z z z z ldapadd -a command adds a new entry to the ldap directory. ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters.Overview Network Information Service (NIS) was created by Sun Microsystems.135 To add the contents of the ldif file created to the ldap directory the command ldapadd is used.2. 14. ldapmodify command is used to modify the entries of the ldap server.3.

conf file is # /etc/yp. The sample /etc/yp.conf.conf . . 14.ypbind configuration file # Valid entries are # domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST # # # domain NISDOMAIN broadcast # # # domain NISDOMAIN slp # # # ypserver HOSTNAME Query local SLP server for ypserver supporting NISDOMAIN Use broadcast on the local net for domain NISDOMAIN Use server HOSTNAME for the domain NISDOMAIN.136 [root@localhost ~]# domainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# nisdomainname localdomain [root@localhost ~]# ypdomainname localdomain The NIS domain name of the system is lost when the computer is rebooted.Configuring NIS The main configuration file of the NIS server is /etc/yp.3.

4.Starting ypbind service The ypbind service handles requests for information from the NIS server.2.Mapping Information The /etc/nsswitch. The sample /etc/nsswitch file is # Legal entries are: # .137 # # # Use server HOSTNAME for the local domain.1.Staring NIS server To start the NIS server daemon enter the below command in terminal service ypserv start 14. try a broadcast call to find a server.5. 14.4. # broadcast # # # If no server for the default domain is specified or none of them is reachable.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files by a client system. To start the ypbind service enter the below command service ypbind start 14.Starting NIS server 14.4. The entry domain LOCALDOMAIN server LOCALHOST defines the NIS domain name and the NIS server name of the system. The IP-address of server must be listed in /etc/hosts. The configuration file is read by the ypbind daemon.

0.conf file.255. Next the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server.255. .16 so all the computers on the network 10.0 10.138 # # # # # # # # nisplus or nis+ nis or yp dns files db compat hesiod Use NIS+ (NIS version 3) Use NIS (NIS version 2). passwd: files nisplus nis shadow: files nisplus nis group: files nisplus nis In the above example the client computers will search the files passwd.0. The clients’ computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file.and group on them and if the files are not found on the system then after that they will search for the files on nisplus domain.16 can access the NIS sever information. The file names which should not be shard in commented out.0. also called YP Use DNS (Domain Name Service) Use the local files Use the local database (.db) files Use NIS on compat mode Use Hesiod for user lookups Stop searching if not found so far [NOTFOUND=return] the above list defines the valid entries which can be added in the /etc/nsswitch. The format of the entry in the /var/yp/securenets file is netmask network example 255.0.shadow.

conf. 15. 14.and DNS server.netmask.Starting the DHCP server To check the status of the dhcp server run the above command in the terminal chkconfig –list dhcpd if the service is not running then enable the service by issuing the command chkconfig dhcpd on after enabling the user can run the dhcpd service using the command service dhcpd start . The security can have values as none(to allow access).NIS database The NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is created by using the ypinit command. DHCP server is used to assign the ip address.port(to allow access from port below 1024).5.DHCP SERVER 15.139 The finer grain of control can be implemented using the file /etc/ypserv. The client computers will have to select that they want to use the DHCP server for the information like ip address.Overview DHCP stands for the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.1.deny(denying access) the mangle field is having the value yes or no. This file can be used to set rules that define which host computers can access which files.2.1. The server then provides the requested information to the clients 15. The format of the file is ip address of network:file-name for which access is defined:security:mangle{:field} the field is optional.DNS server and other information to the computers in its network.netmask.

3.4.leases.140 15. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network. To invoke the Network Configuration window enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# neat or [root@localhost ~]# system-config-network .Configuration file The configuration file for the DHCP server is /etc/dhcpd.conf. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.Working of DHCP server The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign a ip address to a computer on its network.DHCP client The DHCP client can be configured using the utility Network Configuration. 15.conf 15. On the client computer if a user enters the command ifconfig -a then corresponding to the Ethernet interface which was assigned ip address using the dhcp server the user will be the ip address mentioned in the file /etc/dhcpd.5.leases contains information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server.

dns server information and other information needed for connecting to the internet from the dhcp server follow this steps. This will throw a Ethernet device panel to the user. On the below Ethernet device panel choose the general tab . Choose the device listing.141 To configure a device to obtain the ipaddress. click on the edit button. In the above example the device eth0 is chosen (Ethernet interface eth0).

conf for configuration parameters). The process id (PID) of the dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient) is stored in the file /var/run/dhclient. User can also choose to obtain the DNS server information using dhcp by clicking on the check box Automatically obtain DNS information from provider.pid. The dhcp client (invoked by the command dhclient at boot time if the client is configured to obtain the ip address from the dhcp server at boot time else invoked when the activate button of the network configuration utility is clicked after selecting the Ethernet interface) gets the ip address information from the dhcp server it first checks the configuration file /etc/dhclient. .142 Then to set up a dhcp client click on the option box Automatically obtain ip address settings with and in the drop down menu items choose dhcp. After making the changes the user should restart the network using the below command service network start The dhclient is used to get the information from the dhcp server.

16. It also contains information about each domain and organization of domain into zones.1.3.2.DNS SERVER 16. It is used to translate the host names into ip address and also ip address into the host names.Overview The DNS stands for Domain Name System.d/named start or service named start 16. In Red Hat the DNS service is implemented using the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND).BIND Configuration GUI The BIND Configuration GUI is used to configure the DNS server on a Red Hat Box. To invoke the BIND Configuration GUI enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost ~]# system-config-bind .Starting Named daemon The status of the named daemon can be checked by the command chkconfig .143 16.-list named if the service is not running then enable the service using the command chkconfig named on to start the service named use the command /etc/init.

144 The properties button is clicked after selecting the object in the listing panel. The objects which are displayed in the drop down list are z z z z z z z z Zone View Access Control List Security key Server Controls Logging DNSSEC Trusted keys The user can enter the value of the parameter by clicking on the object. . In the current case the DNS server is selected. The properties of an existing DNS server can be edit by selecting the server in the drop down list and then clicking the object on the drop down list. To add a new DNS server click on the New button to add a new server. After clicking on the new tab a drop down list is displayed on which the user can choose the object which he/she wants to set the value. After editing the values the changes can be saved using the save button of the main panel. This displays a panel on which user can enter the value. The values can be edited on the displayed panel.

db. The directory /var/named directory is the zone file directory of the named service. The statements in this file are enclosed in braces and are terminated by semicolon.conf file. The lines marked by /* */.Important files The named daemon configuration file is /etc/named. The important action defined elements are acl – access control list used as acl “description “ { ip address }. server – to describe the server logging – logging facility definitions options – various options like view – the value can be inside and outside for a DNS server the from the private network(inside) or from Zone – to describe the zone information After editing the /etc/named.conf for syntax.// . named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named. The dump file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/cache_dumb.txt The path and the description of the files can also be viewed using the utility BIND Configuration GUI. The statistics file of the named daemon is /var/named/data/named_stats. 16.conf.145 To delete a listing use the delete button on the panel and selecting the object in the drop down list.and # are marked as comment lines. The pid of the named daemon is stored in the file /var/run/named. the central directory request may come .4.conf file the syntax of the file can be checked using the command named-checkconf by default it checks the file /etc/named.pid. ON the BIND Configuration GUI the DNS server is selected on the list and clicking on the the outside.

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properties button displays the location on which the important files are kept and also the description of the files.

Command whois

Description Searches for the availability of the domain name. Format is whois domain-name.

host

It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. Format is

dig

It is used to query the DNS server and display information returned by the DNS server. It is often used to troubleshoot the DNS server.

17.MAIL SERVICES
17.1.Overview

There are three parts of message transfer
z z z

MTA – Mail Transfer Agent MDA – Mail Delivery Agent MUA – Mail User Agent

MTA's are also referred as the mail server. The sendmail and postfix are examples of the mail server.
17.2.Sendmail

To start the sendmail server type the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# service sendmail start

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17.2.1./etc/mail The /etc/mail is the core directory of the sendmail. The files which are contained in the directory are /etc/mail are divided into following category 17.2.1.1.configuration file The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc. The file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail, location of the log files and database files. 17.2.1.2.Domain name mapping file The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. 17.2.1.3.Access file The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmail will accept mail for delivery or relay. 17.2.1.4.Virtual server files The file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. 17.2.1.5.Virtual users file The file /etc/mail/virtusertable defines the actions which sendmail should take after receiving mail from the trusted users and hosts. Apart from this files the directory /etc/mail also contains the .db files which are database files corresponding to the files described above for example access.db. 17.2.2.Generating the .db files To generate the .db files use the following approaches /etc/init.d/sendmail reload or

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/etc/init.d/sendmail restart in above case the database files are automatically created as the sendmail is restarted or the configuration files are reloaded when the reload option is used. But this case doesn’t work if user doesn’t want to stop or reload the sendmail server. Then the second approach is used Use the below command sequence to create .db files for all the configuration file cd /etc/mail make all if the user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access.db replace the filename access.db with the .db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.db makes the file virtusertable.db. 17.2.3.Checking Sendmail Server The sendmail server responds to requests on the port 25. To check whether the server is working or not type the command [root@localhost mail]# telnet localhost 25 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. 220 localhost.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8.14.1/8.14.1; Sun, 18 Jan 2009 17:55:26 +0530 ^] user can enter help command to see the sendmail commands he/she can use.

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help 214-2.0.0 This is sendmail 214-2.0.0 Topics: 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 214-2.0.0 HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA RSET NOOP QUIT HELP VRFY EXPN VERB ETRN DSN STARTTLS AUTH

214-2.0.0 For more info use "HELP <topic>". 17.2.4.Important Files 17.2.4.1./var/spool/mail The directory contains files corresponding to the user names that are using sendmail. These files contain the incoming messages received and processed by the sendmail. 17.2.4.2./var/spool/mail/statistics This file contains the collected statistics about the sendmail. 17.2.4.3./var/spool/mqueue This directory keeps the outgoing messages temporarily .the outgoing messages are kept until they are send. 17.2.4.4.Log files The sendmail log information is maintained in three files /var/log/maillog,/var/log/maillog.1,and /var/log/maillog.2. The log files contain different level of information. The file /var/log/maillog.2 contains the detailed log information. An entry is made for each mail been send by the server or received by the server. 17.2.5.Actions taken by server on a mail There are four actions which the server can take

Postfix RELAY RELAY RELAY It is a mail transfer agent that is mail server. So to add the postfix server use the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --list postfix service postfix supports chkconfig. The options are used in the /etc/mail/access file. 17.. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected.3.0. ERROR:user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message..1. The second command adds the postfix server to run level which the user is currently logged on.150 RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail. but is not referenced in any runlevel (run 'chkconfig --add postfix') [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig --add postfix the first command shows that postfix is not in any runlevel.1 17. The directory /etc/postfix contain the main configuration files and access related files used by the postfix server. To enable the postfix server enter the command [root@localhost postfix]# chkconfig postfix on . This options are used to configure the actions of a sendmail server.Starting postfix server The postfix server is not added in any run level by default (sendmail is generally there).localdomain Connect:localhost Connect:127. For example # by default we allow relaying from localhost. Connect:localhost. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected.0.3.

17. It defines the hostnames and domain names .Configuration file The /etc/postfix/main.default which is exact copy of the main.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.3.2. 17.2.postfix queues and locations to be used for logging.1.3. Access file – the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server.4.151 to start the postfix server use the below command [root@localhost postfix]# service postfix start Starting postfix: 17.2.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server.Daemon Configuration file The file /etc/postfix/master. 17.3.Post install file The file /etc/postfix/post-install is a shell script which performs the post installation configuration of the postfix server.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process. 17.2.2. The files act as mailbox.3.3. mailbox.3. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main.3.2.Mailbox The directory /var/spool/mail contains files corresponding to the user name of each user having access to the postfix mail server. [ OK ] .3.cf.Permissions file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server. The incoming mail of the users processed by the postfix server is kept in the file.Script file The file /etc/postfix/postfix-scripts file is a shell script which executes the postfix administrative commands. 17. For example for a user named jack the mailbox will be /var/spool/mail/jack.cf.

4.3.Log files The log information about the postfix server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog. The /var/lib/alternatives directory contains file mta which lists other mail servers. The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives display the default services configured on the system.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix server. 17. In the window displayed choose the postfix as the alternate mail server.1. The postfix server is treated as an alternative service to the sendmail server.152 17./var/spool/postfix The directory contains a list of directories to temporarily store the mails. [root@localhost mail]# cd /var/spool/postfix.and /var/log/maillog.2./var/log/maillog.5. The file /var/log/maillog. The directory contain the entry mta-sendmail this makes sendmail as the default mail server.Switching MTA On a Red Hat Linux box the sendmail and postfix both the servers are installed but the sendmail is used as the default MTA. 17. Bounce to temporarily store the bounced mails. The alternatives services and the default services are defined in the directory /var/lib/alternatives directory and the /etc/alternatives directory. . To switch between the mail services from desktop perform following actions System Tools --> Mail Transport Agent Switcher.4.ls active corrupt deferred hold bounce defer flush maildrop private saved public trace incoming pid In above example the directory /var/spool/postfix contains the sub directories incoming to temporarily store the incoming mails which have not been delivered yet.3.

5.conf file is # Base directory where to store runtime data.153 Then use the following commands to stop the sendmail server and start the postfix server. [root@localhost alternatives]# service postfix start Starting postfix: [ OK ] The postfix server takes the mail transport agent work in place of sendmail.The sample format of the /etc/dovecot.2.IMAP stands for Internet message Access Protocol and POP3 stands for Post Office Protocol. 17. The user sending mail and receiving mail don’t see any difference as there is change only in the transport agent. It replaces the sendmail components and uses the postfix components but the location of the mailbox and the log files remain same in both the services.Dovecot The dovecot is used to configure the IMAP and POP3.5. base_dir = /var/run/dovecot/ . 17.conf. [root@localhost alternatives]# service sendmail stop Shutting down sm-client: Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] [ OK ] the default sendmail server s stopped and the below command is used to start the postfix server.Starting Dovecot To enable the dovecot service use the command chkconfig dovecot on and to start the dovecot service use the command service dovecot start 17.The mailboxes of sendmail and postfix are one single file so the above protocols are used to access the mails.5.1.Configuration file The main configuration file for the dovecot service is /etc/dovecot.

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base_dir option sets the location where dovecot will store the run time data. The base_dir will contain the file master.pid file which contains the PID of the dovecot service. protocols = imap imaps pop3 pop3s protocols option sets the protocols which the dovecot listens. Above example sets the dovecot to listen imap,imaps,pop3 ,and pop3s protocols. # specify different ports for IMAP/POP3. For example: protocol imap { listen = *:10143 ssl_listen = *:10943 .. } the above part sets the port for the imap. Different ports are used for different protocols. # Log file to use for error messages, instead of sending them to syslog .# /dev/stderr can be used to log into stderr. log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log # Log file to use for informational and debug messages. # Default is the same as log_path. info_log_path =/var/log/dovecot.log The log_path and the info_log_path sets the log file paths where the dovecot will log the informational messages and error messages. # Maximum number of running mail processes. When this limit is reached, # new users aren't allowed to log in. max_mail_processes = 1024

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max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously

18.NETWORK SECURITY
18.1.Overview

Network security is becoming a vital and challenging task. If a system is connected with network then the administrator should pay considerable attention to network security.
18.2.The daemon xinetd

The daemon xinetd is started when the system boots and listens on lot of ports corresponding to the services configured in the configuration file of the xinetd daemon /etc/xinetd.conf. The directory /etc/xinetd.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. These services are called on demand services and can be seen using the command [root@localhost xinetd.d]# system-config-services

or by viewing the contents of the directory /etc/xinetd.d [root@localhost ~]# cd /etc/xinetd.d;ls chargen-dgram daytime-dgram discard-stream rsync time-dgram

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chargen-stream daytime-stream echo-dgram tcpmux-server time-stream cvs dgram echo-stream tftp

discard-

Each file correspond to a service which xinetd automatically starts when connection is made to that port. This on demand services should not be accessible by everyone. The access can be made selective by the use of TCP wrappers.
18.3.Using TCP wrappers

The tcpd (tcp wrapper daemon) program can be set up to monitor incoming requests for xinetd services or in other words the services which xinetd supports and also services that have one to one mapping onto executable files. If tcp wrapper is used then if a client makes connection at a port for services like finger,talk,telnet,and rsh ( xinetd service) then at first tcp wrapper daemon determines whether the connection will be allowed or refused. If the connection is allowed then the corresponding service is invoked to listen at the port. The tcpd authenticates the client using the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. 18.3.1./etc/hosts.allow It contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. This file is first scanned by tcpd. 18.3.2./etc/hosts.deny Iit contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts.allow file. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. Format of the files /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny are same. The keyword ALL is specified for all clients. For example in.telnetd: .example.com fingerd: ALL the connection for the telnet is allowed for clients from domain example.com and connection for the finger is allowed for all the clients.

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The service daemon is listed on the left if two service daemons are to be listed then the daemons are separated by comma (,) character. The semicolon acts as a separator between the daemon names and the address part. If multiple address is to be mentioned then the addresses are separated by comma. The ALL flag enables user to make the files as restrictive as it can be made. This enhances security.
18.4.Security Level Configuration

The Security Level Configuration utility is used to set the security level of the system. To invoke the Security Level Configuration utility enter the below command in the terminal window [root@localhost ~]# system-config-securitylevel

On the Firewall Options tab the user can set the firewall is enabled or disabled. The trusted services are allowed to pass through the firewall. On the other ports the user can add the trusted ports by clicking on the Add button clicking on the Add button displays the below panel

The user can browse and upload the file containing the user defined rules. After making the changes click on apply and then OK. This allows user to add more complex rules and also customize the fire- wall. The user can click on the Advanced options tab to add a file containing iptable rules in the iptables save format.158 On the add port panel the user can enter the port and also the protocol (tcp and udp).after entering the value press ok. .

Command Reference Command iptables -A Description To append a security rule in current iptable rule iptables -D iptables -R iptables -I iptables -L Delete a rule Replace a rule Insert a rule List all rules .159 18. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. The sample /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config file is IPTABLES_MODULES="ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp" The directive IPTABLES_MODULES defines the modules which are loaded. # Value: yes|no. IPTABLES_SAVE_ON_RESTART="no" If the value is yes then the rules are saved to the file /etc/sysconfig/iptables. 18. default: no # Saves all firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables if firewall gets # restarted. load additional iptables modules. In above example the modules ip_conntrack_netbios_ns ip_conntrack_ftp are loaded.4.5. The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers. # Save current firewall rules on restart. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility.1.Configuration files There are two configuration files /etc/sysconfig/iptables and /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config.

2. The format of the next lines are or rule lines are type control module. The contents of the file /etc/pam. PAM is a system of libraries that handle the authentication tasks of applications (services) on the system.and session.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication.PAM PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication module. . For example the file passwd in the above directory contains the following line #%PAM-1.0 auth include system-auth system-auth system-auth account include password include the first line is a comment.conf or the files in the directory /etc/pam. The second line contains the rule for the PAM. PAM allows four types account. The configuration file /etc/pam.password.PAM AND SELINUX 19.1. 19.160 iptables-save Save rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file.authentiction.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam.d are present.path module-argument The type in above case is auth.d is used for configuring PAM.d The files in the directory /etc/pam./etc/pam. 19.

so nullok try_first_pass requisite required pam_succeed_if. authentication(auth) – the authentication type prompts the user for a password and if the user provides it then he/she can access the service.so uid >= 500 quiet pam_deny. Sufficient – means that PAM returns success if this module returns success and other PAM modules will not be called which are to be called for the process. Required – means that pam will return failure if this PAM modules returns failure. The configuration file is passwd as an argument. Optional – the success and failure of this module is not important on the overall return value (success or failure) of PAM.required.so sufficient pam_unix.and optional. Include – this module includes all lines given in the configuration file of a specific type. The system-auth module resides in the current directory. The module is important if it is the only module for the service.so in the above file the pam modules are called for verification of a user for the service passwd. Password – the password type is used to update the user information like changing user password.161 Account – the account type defines access to a service based on the availability of resource. Session –this type is used to perform the jobs (like logging) before a user access a service or after a user access a service. . time and other parameters.sufficient. let three modules are called and if this module returns false then the resultant will be false but pam will call all the modules which are to be called for the process. The valid values for the control are include. The system-auth is the module path. Contents of file system-auth auth auth auth auth required pam_env.

2. The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux. 19. 19. Three values are allowed enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced. It is flexible access control architecture and provides support for the role based access control and multilevel security.1. Disable-. To invoke the SELinux administration enter the below command in the terminal [root@localhost selinux]# system-config-selinux The user can set the value of SELinux enforcing mode.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled.162 The PAM modules reside in the directory /lib/security.2. The contents of the file are (for the above configuration of SELinux administration) warning . Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues instead of enforcement.SELinux SELinux stands for the Security Enhanced Linux.SELinux administration The SELinux administration utility is used to configure the SELinux.

SELINUXTYPE=targeted 19. interface and hosts and file context mapping.163 # This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.3. security context mapping for network port. permissive . strict .Command Reference Command semanage Description Mapping Linux user names to SELinux user identities.remove. chcat Change file or users SELinux security category chcon Change the security context of each file to context semodule Used to install.list selinux policy modules. disabled . SELINUX=disabled # SELINUXTYPE= type of policy in use. Possible values are: # # targeted .SELinux security policy is enforced.SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.SELinux is fully disabled.Only targeted network daemons are protected.Full SELinux protection. # SELINUX= can take one of these three values: # # # enforcing . .

2. set selinux .info d.-default d. Which line should be added in the Kickstart file to install the bootloader in the Master Boot Record (MBR)? a. grub . /root/anaconda. 3. selinux . After an installation a user wants to see the log information of the installation process.com? .cfg b. redhatinstaller d./root/anaconda-ks. /root/anaconda-ks. bootloader . selinux = enforce Answer – b 4.-enforcing c. disk druid c. Which file the user should refer? a.log is default log file. Grub is the default bootloader for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux and anaconda is default installer.-location=mbr b. A user wants to use Kickstart file for installing Red Hat Linux. He wants to set the SELinux policy during installation to enforcing. bootloader . grub . Which line should he add in the Kickstart file? a.-enforcing b.-location=hd0 d. selinux . /root/install. grub Answer – a Explanation – disk druid is the default partition manager for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux.-location=hd0 Answer – a 5.cfg is the Kickstart file created after successful installation of Red Hat and /root/install.log Answer – b Explanation -.log c. anaconda b.-location=mbr c. Which command is entered on the anaconda boot prompt to install using the kickstart file located on the website http://kickstart-file/install/linux. /root/install-log. Which is default installer of Red Hat Enterprise Linux? a.164 O V E R 2 5 0 E X A M P R E PA R AT I O N Q U E S T I O N S 1.

com d. 8. swap c. Anything other than no can be used on the left hand side of the assignment. /home. SAFE=YES c. 6. :anaconda ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux. SAFE=? d.d Explanation – The / filesystem is root of the Linux file system structure. All other partitions can lie within the / partition. /boot. DISK DRUID is the default partition manager in Red Hat Linux. 4 Answer – 2 Explanation – kudzu can operate in two modes x safe probe mode x no safe probe mode 7. DISK DRUID d.com Answer – d Explanation – The anaconda boot prompt is denoted by: boot. So it is mandatory to make a / partition. Which two partitions are necessary for Red Hat Linux installation? a. What will you add in the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/kudzu? a.com b.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. LILO c. /. Answer – d Explanation – SAFE=no denotes that kudzu starts in no safe probing mode and anything other than no means that it is started in the safe mode. You want to start the kudzu in safe probe mode. 3 d. Which of the following is the default Red Hat Linux bootloader? a. The swap partition is . ANACONDA Answer – a Explanation – GRUB is the default bootloader of Red Hat Linux. :anaconda ks . GRUB b. LILO is also bootloader but nowadays it is not used as default bootloader. 2 c. swap Answer -. /home d.com c. 1 b.165 a. How many modes can kudzu operate? a. SAFE=no b. 9.-http://kickstart-file/install/linux. /usr b. /. :boot ks=http://kickstart-file/install/linux. :boot ks .

/etc/sysconfig/lasthwconf c.conf lists the hardware like monitor. mouse.166 also necessary as Linux uses swap partition as extension of main memory. /etc/modprobe./etc/X11/xorg. Which files will kudzu query to find out the devices already configure? a./etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* d. keyboard which are configured for X.conf. 400 MB Answer – c Explanation – For good performance of the system the swap space area should be double of the physical RAM attached with the System./etc/modprobe. system-config-network b. /usr d. 13. 512 MB d. /etc/modprobe. 10. /var c. neat d. c Explanation – system-config-network and neat both the commands can be used to invoke the Network Configuration utility.conf is module configuration file /etc/X11/xorg. 12.conf. You have computer 256 MB RAM .conf b. 11. /etc b./etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth0 lists the network device detected if there are more than one network device present then /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-eth1 lists the second network device detected and so on. The file /etc/sysconfig/hwconf is not present on the system./etc/X11/xorg. What command is used to invoke the Network Configuration utility? a. system-config-net c. system-config-neat Answer – a. /etc/modprobe.conf. /mnt Answer – a . Which filesystem contains the configuration files? a. 256 MB b. 128 MB c.conf Answer – c Explanation -.What is the size of swap space for good performance of the system? a.

b. /proc d. You want to upgrade a system using the kickstart file. system-config-time is used to set time only. 15. update option in line 1 of kickstart file. 17. No both are same b.167 14. d. /sys Answer – c Explanation -. yes both are different Answer – a . /home/anaconda-ks. 16. upgrade option in line 1 of kickstart file. Which filesystem will you use to get the information? a.cfg is the default kickstart file created by anaconda based on the options chosen during installation./root/anaconda-ks. /root/anaconda-ks. no file contains that information b. Is there any difference? a. You want to see the options you have chosen during the installation process. /root/anaconda-ks Answer – b Explanation -. /boot c. update option in line 5 of kickstart file.cfg c.You used system-config-date to set the date of your system./proc is pseudo filesystem which contains information about the processes running on the system. You have installed Red Hat Linux in your box. system-config-date is used to set date only. /root b. Your friend used systemconfig-time for the same purpose. Which file should you look for? a. d. You want to see the information about the processes running on your system. Which option will you use in kickstart file? a. upgrade option in line 5 of kickstart file. c. c.cfg d. Answer – b Explanation – install option is used in the first line of kickstart file to show fresh install and upgrade option is used in the first line to show upgrade of a previous installation.

kernel /kernel-2.conf.14 d. init b.168 18. c. 0) in the grub configuration file? a. Don’t verify the first sector of hard disk.14. boot /kernel-2. d. Which process has the PID of 1? a.6.14 b.6. grub d.6.6. You want to boot your Red Hat Linux operating system using kernel2. Don’t mount the partition within braces of rootnoverify option. kernel /vmlinuz-2. What is meaning of the option rootnoverify (hd0.14 Answer – a 21. What changes should be made in the grub configuration file? a. Which command will you use in grub configuration file? a. boot /vmlinuz-2. main Answer – a . mount the partition indicated within the rootnoverify option. timeout=10 s d. inittab c.-10 Answer – a Explanation – The timeout=10 parameter is allowed in the grub configuration file /boot/grub/grub. 20. 0) option is used in case there is another operating system installed along with Red Hat Linux. 19. For example if windows is installed along with Red Hat then grub should not try to mount the partition on which windows is installed. You want to boot the default operating system if user did not make a choice for 10 seconds. You have grub bootloader installed on your system.14 c. Answer – b Explanation – The rootnoverify (hd0. timeout=10 b. timeout=10 secs c. don’t verify the / partition b. timeout .6.

and 5 the multiuser mode is active. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3. 3. Write a shell script for that and keep it in root directory c. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –r now in /etc/inittab file b. A user created two scripts S111USERDEF and S85USERDEP which are executed during boot time. What is the meaning of this line? a. The system reboots in a loop d. What should you do? a. The digits are compared from left to right taking one digit at a time. The entry captures the CTRL+ALT+DELETE key sequence and the command shutdown –r now is executed.d Answer – a 26.5 c. Which of the two services will start first? a. During boot process kernel gives control to the init process. Since 1 is less than 8 so S111USERDEF is run first.d/rc. Answer – a Explanation – The numeric digits i. A runlevel script has the line #chkconfig 345 25 75. 23. /etc/rc. Which directories contain the boot time scripts for the run level 5? a. It is a comment b. It denotes that the script will run in runlevel 3.it is called father of all processes. It cannot be done Answer – a Explanation – The init process looks the /etc/inittab file for the processing to be done. .4. 4. 5 and the start priority is 25 and the stop priority is 75. The system comes to halt Answer –c Explanation – In runlevel 0 the system comes to halt and in runlevel 2. 22. 24.e.5d c.d/rc5.d/r5. Can’t be determined. S85USERDEP c. 25. At same time d. /etc/rc. 111 and 85 decide the order of run. Add ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown –h now in /etc/inittab file d. /etc/rc.d b. /etc/rc. What will happen if runlevel is set to 6? a.d d. You want to reboot your system if a user presses CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys of the keyboard during the boot process. Multiuser mode booting b.d/rcv. S111USERDEF b. Multiuser with networking mode c.169 Explanation – The init process have the PID of 1.

c. runlevel c. telinit b. Which command will you use to do so? a. runlevel b. Which command is used to get the previous run level of a system? a. chgrunlevel Answer – a 30. service httpd start b. The previous runlevel of the system was 5 d. The line gives an error Answer –c 27. How will the problem resolve? a. chkconfig httpd start c. Answer – d 29. chkconfig httpd on d. enable service-name c. prevrun Answer – a Explanation – the runlevel command is used to get the current run level and the previous runlevel of a system. The output of the runlevel command is N 5. 31. Which command is used to change the current run level? a. 28. chkconfig service-name on d. The runlevel of the system was never changed from 5 so the previous runlevel is displayed as N. lastrunlevel d. You want to enable a service service-name for current run level (run level 5). The httpd service is enabled in the runlevel 5 but it is not running. What does it mean? a. disable a service and lists the status of a service or services. prevrunlevel c. Previous runlevel of the system was N b. service httpd on Answer – a .170 d.c Explanation – the chkconfig command is used to enable a service. init d. chkconfig service-name enable Answer -. The current runlevel of the system is N. runlevel service-name on b.

/proc Answer – d Explanation – The proc filesystem is virtual filesystem (it is not mounted on a disk partition) which contains the process and system information.d contain symbolic links to the scripts of directory /etc/rc.d Answer – b Explanation – The directory /etc/rc. /etc/ftab .d/init. system-config-services d. /home c. /usr d. None of these Answer – c 33. 34. Which directory contains the run level scripts of all the runlevel? a. 36.d d.d/rcall. 32.d/all.d/rc. system-config-services c. /etc/mtab b.d/init. serviceconf b. Using chkconfig list Answer – b Explanation – the chkconfig –list gives the listing of all the services in different run levels with the status of services as on or off. /etc/fstab c.all b.171 Explanation – the service httpd needs to be started for that the service httpd start command is used. serviceconf. How will you view the status of all the services in all the runlevel? a. Using chkconfig –all d. Using chkconfig –list c.d 35.d contains all the runlevel scripts and the directories /etc/rc. Which command is used to start the service configuration utility? a. Which filesystem is not mounted on disk partition? a. /etc/rc. /etc/rc.d/rc*.d c. Which file contains the static information about the filesystem? a. /etc/rc. /etc b. Using chkconfig all b. /etc/rc.d/init.

Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab b. What should he do? a. filesystem type. mount –t vfat /mnt/win /dev/sda6 Answer – b Explanation – The mount command has the form mount –t filesystem-type source partition target partition . Which filesystem contains the information about the filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. 39. Which command is used to see the listing of filesystem currently mounted on the system? a. fdisk -l b. mount –t d. and other options. fdisk –m c. /etc/fstab b. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/fstab c. If noauto option is used the filesystem is not automatically mounted. 38. mount vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win b. A user wants don’t want to mount the /home partition automatically at boot time. fdisk –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win d. A system has windows and Red Hat Linux installed on it. /etc/mtab c./etc/mtab contains the information about the filesystem currently used by a running system. Add noauto option in fourth field of /etc/mtab d. mount Answer – d Explanation – fdisk command is used for creating new partition and view all the partitions of the hard disk. 40. Add notauto option in fourth field of /etc/mstab Answer –a Explanation – At boot time the /etc/fstab file is scanned for information about the filesystem to be mounted.172 d. /etc/mstab d. mount –t vfat /dev/sda6 /mnt/win c. 37. What should he/she do? a. /etc/mstab Answer – b Explanation – The file /etc/fstab contains mount point. /etc/ftab Answer – b Explanation -. The user wants to access files kept in the /dev/sda6 partition with the vfat filesystem type.

20MB b.conf c. A file is created using the below command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/demo bs=1000000 count=2. swapon Answer – c 45. /etc/mkfs/mke2fs. The command is wrong Answer – b Explanation – The bs option denotes the blocksize and count denotes the number of that.vfat.conf b. Which command is used to create vfat filesystem on a re writable CDROM? a.What is the size of the file /home/demo? a. None of above Answer – a Explanation -. Your system has a swap partition on /dev/sda3 and another swap partition on /dev/sda5. cat /proc/swap d. 42. createswap b. /etc/ext3. Which command is used to create a swap filesystem on a device or file? a./proc/swaps contain the entries . cat /proc/swaps b. Which configuration file is used while creating ext3 filesystem on a partition using the mke2fs command? a. mkfs c. fdisk –l c. 44.How will you decide which swap partition is active? a.conf d. 41. mkswap d. Both of above d. /etc/mke2fs.vfat /dev/cdrom c. 2GB d. None of above Answer – c Explanation – The mkfs –t vfat is frontend of the command mkfs. So the size of the file is 1000000 * 2 = 2 MB.173 to mount a source filesystem on target directory. 2MB c. mkfs -t vfat /dev/cdrom b. None of above Answer – b 43. mkfs.

/etc/auto.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 c.-create /dev/md0 .d/autofs status c. The contents of the file can be viewed using cat command. /etc/rc.d/autofs . badblocks Answer – d 47. /etc/autofs. Which configuration file does /etc/rc.d/automount status d.-raid devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 b. mdadm . /etc/rc.d/autofs controls the operation of the automount daemon.conf c. mdadm . No problem b. A user ran command badblocks -w on a device containing important data files. How will you check the status of the automount daemon? a.-create /dev/md0 . /etc/rc.-raid . 49. 46. fsck b.-level 5 .conf b.d/init.-status Answer –b Explanation -. mkfs c.174 of the entire active swap space of the system.d/autofs use? a. chkfs d.master d. Data on the device will be erased c. In the third option .-create /dev/md0 . What will be the problem? a. /dev/sda2? a. /etc/init. Which command is used to create a raid device of level 5 using devices /dev/sda1.d/autofs status b.d/init.d/init.d/init. mdadm .-create /dev/md1 ./etc/rc.-level=5 devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 Answer – a Explanation – In second option . Which command is used to check a device for badblocks? a.-raid devices= /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 d.-level=5 . /etc/auto. mdadm . -w is invalid option to badblocks command Answer – b Explanation – The data is not deleted if the badblocks command is used without option or with –n option.-level=5 . /etc/autofs.d/init. 48. Data on device will not be erased d.-level= should be used.master Answer –c 50.

Which of the following should be created first before creating the Logical volume? a. vgextend c. Which command is used to create volume group? a. Which directory contains entry for the logical volume group lvol0 created by a user in the volume group vol_grp? a. Physical volume b. 56. System-config-logman d. Volume group c. Which file and directory yum does look for information about the software . 53.-raid devices. Both of them Answer – d Explanation –Physical volume is to be initialized first and then the volume group is to be created before creating Logical volume. No directory has the entry b. In fourth option . A raid device contains four devices. vgcreate b. Which command is used to invoke the Logical Volume Management utility? a. There is no such utility Answer – b 55. /sys/vol_grp Answer – b Explanation – The directory /dev/vol_grp contains lvol0 entry corresponding to the logical volume lvol0. mdadm –r device-name raid-device-name Answer – a 52. How will you remove one of the devices from the raid device? a. mdadm raid-device-name –r device-name b. None of them d. 54. 51. pvcreate Answer – a Explanation – vgcreate is used to create a new volume group and vgextend is used to extend an existing volume group.-raid is missing from . System-config-lvm c. mdadm device-name –r raid-device-name c. /home/vol_grp d.175 devices=n where n is no of devices is missing. /dev/vol_grp c. volgrpcr d. mdadm –r raid-device-name device-name d. System-config-lv b.

He can’t decide b.conf file c. It uses /etc/rpmrc configuration file which is configuration file specific to a system. Looking at /etc/yum.d c.d 57. Yellow dog updater modified b. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before update only Answer – a Explanation – Usually the gpgkeys are installed before adding any software repository. The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install or update b. User. /etc/yum. Yellow umbrella c. 60. What is the importance of option gpgcheck=1 in /etc/yum.global d.log. global b.conf. Looking at /var/log/yum. User.conf and then looks for the files in the directory /etc/yum. Sytem. Then he went for a cup of coffee.conf.d directory d. How can user decide whether the install was successful or failure? a. User can use the file to decide the install was successful or failure. The gpgkeys of packages are not checked before install or update c. /etc/yum. The configuration file . The gpgkeys of packages are checked before install only d. The install completed before his return. None of them Answer – c Explanation – it looks for the configuration file /etc/yum. system Answer – b Explanation – The rpm command uses the two global configuration file /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc and /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc. The status of yum commands execution will be logged there.176 repositories? a. Both of them d. What is full form of yum? a. Looking at /etc/yum. What are the levels of rpm configuration file? a.rpmrc in the home directory of a user is the user . User. If the gpgkey option is 1 then the packages are checked for the gpgkeys before installing or updating the packages.conf.conf file? a.system.global c. Yellow updater modified d. A user ran yum command to install a package. Yellow software updater modified Answer – a 58. 59.log Answer – d Explanation – The log file of the yum command is /var/log/yum.conf b.

No use rpm-q d. Your software vendor informed you that package-name. What is the difference between rpm –U and rpm –F commands? a. Using system monitor c. /var/lib/rpm/* b. yum install package-name . rpm –iF Answer – c Explanation – the options -v (verbose information). rpm –ieh b. 63. A user used the command rpm –U package-name to install the package packagename which is not previously installed on the system. How will you check vendor’s statement? a. No use rpm -v b.e. rpm –q package-name d. None of the above Answer – a Explanation – The command rpm –U updates a previously installed package but installs a new package and the command rpm –F updates a previously installed package but does not installs a new package. U and e. There is no way to check vendor’s statement. Is the command correct? a.rpm has been installed in your machine. No it is used for update only Answer –b Explanation – The command rpm –U is used to upgrade a previously installed package and if the package is not installed in the system then it installs the package.177 level rpm configuration file.-vv (verbose lots of information) and h (prints hash marks are rpm options which can be used with other options. The options i. 61. b. /var/lib/rpm/db/* d. /var/log/rpm/* c. Yes c. 62. rpm –F installs a package if it is not installed previously c. 64. 65. Both command do same function d. F are mutually exclusive. and e. Where does the rpm package information kept? a. rpm –ivvh d. rpm –U installs a package if it is not installed previously b. Which is a valid rpm command? a. rpm –Ueh c. /var/lib/rpmdb/* Answer – a Explanation – The rpm command uses the /var/lib/rpm/* directory as the database for storing rpm package information.

gz file but xvf uncompress a . system-config-package b. Package management c. 69. How will you uncompress the file? a. Package Admin d. What does command bzip2 does? a. Using tar xvf b.bz2 file b. You have downloaded a package in tar. Using tar xvf followed by gunzip d.bz2 file c.bz2 file. Which utility is used to manage packages on a Red Hat box? a.tar.tar format and then the command tar xvf is used to uncompress the tar file. system-config-manage c.bzip2 –c is used to create .tar file d. system-config-packages d.zip format. bzip2 is used to uncompress .bz2 file and –d option is used to uncompress a . Using bzip2 followed by tar xvf Answer – b Explanation – gunzip uncompressed the tar. bzip2 is used to compress a file to . Package manager b.tar file c. bzip2 –d uncompress a tar. Which command is used to invoke a Package Manager? a.tar file but xvf uncompress a .system monitor is used to view system information.gz file into . xvfz is verbose mode of command xvf Answer – c 68.yum install is used to install the package packagename.zip file d. Using gunzip followed by tar xvf c. Answer – a Explanation – bzip2 command is used to create and decompress a bz2 file. Package manage Answer – a 70.gz format. 66. What is the difference between the commands tar xvf and tar xvfz? a. xvfz uncompress a . No difference b. bzip2 –d creates a tar. xvfz compresses a . 67. system-config-manages Answer – c .178 Answer – c Explanation – rpm –q package-name queries the rpm package database and finds out information about the package-name.

/etc/skel b. /etc/initial Answer – a Explanation -.The content of /etc/skel is copied to the home directory of user when the user account is created. d. /etc/bash b.defs c.What line will you add in the file /etc/login. A user Matt have a user id of 400./etc/skel directory contains the initial login and a startup scripts.conf Answer – b Explanation – The file contains the default values to be used while creating a user account. /etc/login. /etc/login d. 75. Creating a . The default values can be overridden on the command line. Which file does contain global options to the bash shell? a.defs? a. 74. /etc/bashrc. /etc/bash. A user wants to override the default values used for bash shell. Creating a . The mail box of john should lie in the directory /var/temp. MAIL_DIR=/var/temp b. 76. MAIL_BOX=/var/temp c. MAIL_CONFIG=/var/temp Answer – a Explanation – The line MAIL_DIR is used to denote the directory where mailbox of a user will reside. /etc/login. 73.defs b.bash file in home directory of user c. /etc/userdefs d. /etc/login. Creating a .conf d. Which file does define the default values to be used while creating the user account? a.bashrc file in home directory of user Answer – a Explanation – The .bashrc file in the home directory of the user is used to override the default values used for bash shell. Editing the /etc/bashrc file.defs c. Which directory contains the initial login and startup scripts? a.bashrc file in home directory of user b.179 71. What action should be taken by him? a. MAIL_JOHN=/var/temp d. You want to create a user account john.What is the significance of it? . /etc/user. /etc/bashrc Answer – d 72.conf c.

usermod –D –s /bin/bash Answer – a Explanation – usermod command is used to modify the user information. userdel –h /home/user1 user1 d. Which file does contain the password of user? a. Answer – c Explanation – User id less than 500 are reserved for the administrative users. 77. usermod –s /bin/bash new-user b. userdel –r /home/user1 user1 Answer – b Explanation – The command userdel –r user1 is used to delete the account of a user along with his/her home directory. User Manger b. 78. None of these Answer – d Explanation – The file /etc/shadow contains the user login name and encrypted password. Matt is a non administrative user. 81. If the –r option is not used then the home directory of the user is not deleted. What command will the system administrator execute? a. 80. delete.180 a. User id 400 is of root user b. Matt is an administrative user. d. /etc/password d. and modify user and group information. The file/etc/passwd contains information about the user but at the place of passwd x character is written. So matt is an administrative user. User Administrator c. Which graphical utility is used to manage users? a. User Admin d. User Configuration Answer – a Explanation –User Manager is used to create. /etc/passwd b. Which command is used to invoke user Manager Utility? . usermod –s /bin/bash c. useradd –D –s /bin/bash new-user d. userdel –r user1 c. /etc/pass c. System Administrator wants to delete the account of user user1 along with the home directory of the user user1. A user cannot have user id 400 c. 79. He wants the bash shell. userdel user1 b.What should be his approach? a. A new user is working on the /bin/tcsh shell.

grpasswd b. gpassword Answer – c 86. df /home Answer – b Explanation -. su root d. df /home/user Answer – c Explanation – The du command is used to check the space used by the files and subfolders of a . Which command is used to change the password of the root user? a. df /home/jack c. system-config-user b. grppasswd c. gpasswd d. Ask jack about the disk space usage b. What should he do? a. Which command is used to change password of a group? a. Which file does contain the information about the groups in a system? a. 83. space /home/jack d. A user wants to list the space used up by files and subdirectories of his home directory. du /home/user d. /etc/gpasswd b. If the command passwd is used alone it means the password of root user is to be changed. What sh0uld he do? a. /etc/groups Answer – d 84. Ask the system administrator c. /etc/group d. system-config-usrs Answer – c 82.181 a. system-config-users d. Check each file size and subdirectory size b. system-config-usr c.The df command is used to display the amount of space available on a filesystem. /etc/passwd c. su – c. passwd root b. 85. passwd Answer – d Explanation – The format of passwd command id passwd user-name. It means the password of user user-name is to be changed. The system administrator wants to see the disk space used up by user Jack.

Using visudo d. No as it is different terminal session he won’t have root privilege in this session.182 directory 87. 91.chown owner: group file-name case 1 if only owner is specified but group is not specified then the file owner is changed to owner and the file group is changed to that of login group of owner. The group demo is defined with the privilege of command shutdown –h now in /etc/sudoers file. A user ran su – command in a terminal (terminal1) and got privilege of root user. Yes he can use shutdown –h now b. The group of the file will change to that of group’s Answer – a Explanation -. Using geditsudo Answer – c Explanation – the visudo command is used to edit the /etc/sudoers file. A root user used the command su – user-name where user-name is a non administrative user.Will root has to enter the user’s password? a. No the shell will prompt for password of user-name but root can choose not to enter the password c. How will you edit /etc/sudoers file? a. Yes he will have to use sudo shutdown –h now d. No shell won’t prompt for user-name’s password Answer – d 89. Will the command execute successfully? a. Answer – d 88. Using gedit b. Yes c. Yes he will have to use visudo shutdown –h now Answer – c Explanation – The commands should be prefixed by the sudo command. No he can’t use the command directly c. Yes he has to enter the root password d. A user Vishnu is member of group demo. The user and group of the file will change to that of user’s c. 90. He then opened a new terminal and ran command to mount a filesystem. . Does Vishnu have privilege to run the command shutdown –h now? a. Using vi c. The user of the file will change to that of user’s d. Nothing b. Yes root user will have to enter user’s password b. If root don’t enter user-name’s password then he won’t be able to execute user-name’s files d. No su – command don’t give root privilege b. What will happen ? a. A user entered the command chown : file-name.

He gets an error b.What will be the impact of the command? a. A user issues the chown user-name-group-name file-name command on a file filename which belongs to the root user. . All d. gives the amount of free and used memory space of the system d. It also shows the time for which the system is running and the load average of the system. 93. Vmstat c.183 Case 2 if owner and group both are specified then the file owner is changed to owner and file group is changed to group. The group of the file will change d. Virtual d. Gives an error c. Which command shows the virtual memory statistics of a system? a. A user issues a command kill 0. All process with pid >0 are re signaled. gives the amount of free and used memory of a filesystem Answer – c 96. 92. What does free command do? a. all processes in current process are signaled. Frees RAM memory b. W b. Users c. What will happen? a.The vmstat command is used to displays the virtual memory statistics 95. All of these Answer – b Explanation -. System administrator wants to see the users currently logged into the system and the processes run by them. Frees swap memory c. The owner of the file will change c. Iostat b. b. Which command will help the system administrator? a. 94. Nothing happens Answer – a Explanation – The user don’t have privilege to change the file permissions of root user so he gets an error. Case 3 if owner is not specified but group is specified then the group of file is changed to that of group case 4 if owner and group both are not specified then nothing happens. None of these Answer – a Explanation – The w command is used to view the users who are logged on the system and the processes run by them. Process with pid 0 is re signaled d.

% memory usage. System Log Viewer d. System Administration d. no of processes sleeping. Which file does the command uptime use to present the output? a. Which of the following information does top command not give? a. network usage information Answer – d Explanation -. no of processes active. /sys/uptime d. System Log Manager c. the command used for invoking the process. Which utility is used to view various system information like CPU usage. May a process have pid of 0? a. Which utility is used to see system log information? a. no of zombie processes d. memory and swap information. process information? a.184 Answer – d 97. A process pid can be set to 0 using renice command Answer – a Explanation – The lowest pid that a process can have is 1 which is pid of init process ( init is called father of all processes). total number of processes. /proc/uptime b. System Monitor b. . number of users currently logged on b. 101. Log Configuration Answer – c 99. no of processes active. SystemManager Answer – a 100. load average of the system c. System Information c. no of zombie processes usage detail of swap memory usage detail of RAM memory the information about the processes of the system like PID (process identification number).no other process can have pid of 1 or lower than that. /proc/sys/uptime c. Yes init process have pid of 0 c. No process can have pid of 0 b. no of processes sleeping. 98.The top command gives various information about the system number of users currently logged on load average of the system total number of processes. network information. It don’t use any file Answer – a Explanation – The uptime command uses the file /proc/uptime for the information and formats them in user readable format. Boot process have pid of 0 d. Log Manager b. percent CPU usage.

the command uname is used to print various system information. infomod modulename c. None of above d. /proc/mod d.What will happen? a. uname -p d. 103. The file /proc/modules also contain the same information. uname -k Answer – c Explanation -. A user wants to see the filename of a module currently loaded into the kernel. no such file is there Answer – b Explanation – The lsmod command is also used to list the modules currently loaded into kernel. /proc/modules c.The insmod command is used to insert a driver module into the kernel. modinfo modulename b. uname -r b.14 c. lsmod modulename d. modprobe modulename Answer – a Explanation –modinfo gives the details of a module loaded into the kernel. lists all the modules of kernel2. It is a command c. what should he do? a. Both of them Answer – a Explanation – The SIGKILL is used to signal a process. 104. For example kill –SIGKILL 5009 command gives the signal SIGKILL to process with pid 5009. Which command is used to print the processor type of a system? a. /proc/module b.6. What is SIGKILL? a. A user issues command insmod -. Which file contains the list of currently loaded modules in the kernel? a. It is a signal used with kill command generally b. uname -n c. 106. The format of the insmod command is insmod file-name .uname -a prints all the information about the system. 105. Error will occur b.185 102. file name should be given from sysin d. none of the above Answer –c Explanation -.

renice c.conf b. schedule Answer – b 111. The command renice 5 -u Jack is issued. Modprobe -a b.The modprobe command inserts other modules which are dependent on the module being inserted using the command.d d. /etc/modprobe. On business requirement your client wants to run the process A (already running on the system) with increased priority. What command does administrator use? a. modprobe -b c. priority 5 not allowed Answer – b Explanation -.insmod loads only the module mentioned on the command line. rmmod d.If the renice command is issued on user then the process priority of all processes of the user changes . Which configuration file and directory does modprobe command refer? a. /etc/modprobe. modprobe -d Answer – c 109. process priority of all processes belonging to user is changed to 5 c. 108.conf (if the file is present) and in the directory /etc/modprobe.186 if the file-name is – then the module is taken from the standard input. modprobe c. 110. none of them c. What will happen? a. no change in priority d. modinfo Answer – b Explanation -. The module A is dependent on module B. which command should be used to load the module A into kernel? a. both of them Answer – d Explanation – modprobe looks for the configuration file /etc/modprobe. nice b. 107. Error occurs no pid mentioned b. Which command is used to remove a module from the kernel? a. priority d. modprobe -r d.d. insmod b.

conf Answer – d Explanation – syslogd supports the system logging.pid c. No output b. What system administrator does? Add name on mac in /etc/at. Which file does contain the pid of klogd daemon? a. /var/run/klogd Answer –a 117. In which file is cron utility log the messages? a. /etc/sysconfig/syslog. /var/log/cron. /var/log/cron/cron. .pid b. error d.conf c.log c. /var/run/klogd. It uses the configuration file /etc/syslog. /etc/syslog d. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. 113. help options displayed for dmesg Answer – a Explanation – dmesg when used with the -c option clears the kernel ring buffer. /etc/sysconfig/syslog.conf. /etc/syslog d. Which configuration file does syslogd use? a.187 112. Which file should he/she edit? a. The file defines the files where different system messages will be written. A user wants to log the boot messages in the file /var/log/boot.conf Answer --d 115. System administrator wants to allow the user Mac to access the at facility. /var/klogd.log d. A user issues two commands back to back dmesg -c dmesg What will be the output of second command? a. /var/log/cron b. 116.allow a. kernel messages displayed c. /var/run/klog. /etc/syslog. /etc/syslog. none of the above Answer – a 114. /etc/sysconfig/syslog b. so dmesg command prints no output.pid d.conf c.

jack.deny d.deny command lists the name of the users who can't use the at command. All the users of system b. at -l b. none of them c. /var/spool/at. Same as at -l.allow lists the name of the users who are allowed to use the at command.The user names should be one in a line and there should not be whitespaces between the username (on a line). jill Answer – d Explanation -. On a system the files /etc/at.jill d. /var/spool/at b. System administrator allows users Jack and Jill to use at facility. error condition Answer – c 120. Which command is used to create a crontab file? . /var/spool/batch c. both of them d. If the /etc/at. jack e. Jack.allow and /etc/at. 121.spool Answer – a Explanation -. what will be content of file /etc/at. The files contain the information about the commands along with the environment under which the commands were scheduled.The file /etc/at. any of the above Answer – a Explanation -.spool d. 118.The scheduled jobs which are submitted using the at command and batch command are spooled in the directory /var/spool/at.188 b. only root user d. Add name on mac in /etc/at c. 122. jack:jill c. atq Answer – c Explanation -. /var/spool/batch.deny are not present. Which users can use the at facility? a. Which command is used to list all the scheduled jobs? a.allow? a. don't add name on mac in /etc/at. no user of the system c.atq the atq command is used to list the scheduled job.jill b. 119. In which directory the jobs scheduled by the batch command spooled? a.

service http start b. crontab -k Answer – b Explanation -. /lib/httpd/module Answer – b 127. /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.pid b. /var/run/httpd Answer – b 126.conf. /etc/crontab b. /usr/lib/httpd/module c. The cron daemon reads the /etc/crontab file. Which command is used to start the Apache web server? a. crontab -l b. /lib/httpd/modules d. 123. Which directory contains the library modules for the httpd server? a. The conf sub directory of /etc/httpd directory contains the main Apache configuration file httpd. /etc/httpd/conf.The crontab -e command is used to create a crontab file. /etc/cron c. service httpd on d. service http on Answer – b 125. crontab -e c. Which file is system crontab file? a. Which file does contain the configuration information about the httpd server? a. The name of the file is same as the name of the user. /var/run/httpd. /etc/httpd/conf c.conf Answer – c Explanation -. The crontab file is created in the /var/spool/cron directory. none of the above d.d Answer – c Explanation -. . Which file does contain the pid of the httpd daemon? a. 124. /etc/httpd.conf d. service httpd start c.189 a. crontab -d d.the file /etc/crontab file is system crontab file.The Apache web server configuration directory is /etc/httpd.pid c. /etc/cron.conf b. /var/run/http. /var/run/http d. /usr/lib/httpd/modules b.

Configuration parameters for the main server c. Answer – d 130. The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration. HTTPD Server Configuration b. b. no changes d. system-config-http c. and log files are kept will be /etc/demo. error. Perl. Where the users need to put the html files to be served by the server in response of client request? . What are the sections of Apache web server main configuration file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Settings for virtual hosts. Which command invokes the HTTP Server Configuration utility? a. system-config-https d. What will be the impact? a. system-config-httpconf Answer – a 133. HTTP Server Configuration c. nothing d. database (Mysql) and the authorization modules.d contains the configuration files relating to the languages (like Python.d directory? a. and PHP). Configuration file related to Apache client b. Error value c. Which is the graphical utility for httpd server configuration? a. and log files are kept 129. error.190 128. d. Answer – a Explanation – ServerRoot directive defines The top of the directory tree under which the server's configuration. HTTPD Configuration Answer – b 132. Configuration directives for Apache web server process as whole.conf? a. b.conf file the user set the directive ServerRoot “/etc/demo”. ServerRoot is not a directive. The DocumentRoot directive of main apache web server configuration file is set to “/home/demo”. What is the content of /etc/httpd/conf. load libraries related to Apache server c. HTTP Configuration d. The conf. All of the above Answer –d 131. system-config-httpd b. In the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.

dsnserver d. /var/log/apache c. Warn b. /var/www/html c. /etc/squid/squid. Which is the main configuration file for squid server? a. 137. /var/log/http d. all of them Answer – d Explanation -.debug info. /var/log/httpd. 135. squid.dnssrv b. /etc/squid/squidd. a Domain Name System lookup program dnsserver and some other modules for authentication and management tasks. What are the two main programs consisting Squid server? a. /etc/squid. notice.conf b.html file will be displayed. warn. What are the possible values of LogLevel directive in Apache web server main configuration file? a. squid. both of them d.191 a. 134.conf Answer – c 138.squiddemo Answer – c Explanation -.log Answer --a 136.conf d. alert.squid consists of a main server program squid. crit. error. squid. none of them Answer – a Explanation – DocumentRoot defines the directory where the user will place the contents or files he/she wants to get handled by the web server. Which directory does contain the log information about the httpd server? a. debug c. none of them d.html file and kept it in this directory and opened the address http://localhost using any web browser then the contents of index. and emerg are possible value of LogLevel directive. On which port does squid listen by default for http? .conf c. For example if you create an index. /etc/squid/sqd. squid. /var/log/httpd b.dns c. /home/demo b.

ram_mem of /etc/squid/squid. Port alone b.conf c. all of them Answer – d Explanation -. hostname with port c. How will you set the RAM memory used to handle the in transit and hot objects of squid server? a. What do you mean by in transit objects in terms of squid server? a. cache_mem of /etc/squid/squid.conf b. 80 c. httpd_port 4000 b. objects never used c. http_port 4000 Answer – d Explanation -.What should he/she do in main squid configuration file? a. and IP address with port. objects that are in use Answer –d 142. httpport 4000 d. In what forms does http_port socket address be defined in the squid server main configuration file? a.192 a. objects used very often Answer –d 143. objects which moved out d. An administrator wants to change the default http port that squid listen to 4000. none of them d. hostname with port. 3120 Answer – a 139. 3128 b.conf . Objects in use b. 141. Objects used often b. RAM_mem of /etc/squid/squid. What are hot objects in connection with squid server? a. objects very complex c. objects not in use d. 413 d.The socket address can be defined in three forms: port alone.http_port define the socket addresses where Squid will listen for HTTP client 140. port 4000 c.

no http_access is not allowed Answer – c . 148.0.193 d.0/0. /var/run/squid/squid. Which file does contain the pid of the squid server? a. What is the meaning of the line acl all src 0. gives name acl to all the addresses d.conf Answer – a Explanation – cache_mem sets the cache size (RAM memory used to store the in transit objects that is objects that are in use). b.pid b. no deny is not allowed c.The acl tag is used to define access control. gives name all to all the addresses b.pid d. /var/spool/squid/cache b. the form of acl tag is acl name type string or file 147.0 of main squid server configuration file? a. 192.168.56. /var/spool/squid c. yes it can be d.pid Answer – a 146.56. 144.168. /var/spool/cache d. gives name all to no address c.0. what does it refer? a. /var/spool/squid/cachedir Answer – b 145. allow is invalid d. /var/run/squid. Can the line http_access deny all be added in the /etc/squid/squid. Which is the default cache directory for the squid server? a. gives name src to all the addresses Answer – a Explanation -. /var/run/squid c.65. An administrator writes the below line in main squid server http_access allow 192.0. and negative cache objects (recent failed requests).0. ip address should be with netmask Answer – a Explanation – http_access define which clients can access the squid server for http contents.conf file? a. No all not allowed b. hot objects (objects that are used often).65 can access the http content. Wrong format c. mem_ram of /etc/squid/squid. /var/run/squidd.

Under which user does squid server run? a. 154.d/squid. /etc/sysconfig/squid. Using system-config-cache d. c. /etc/squid/cachemanager.conf d. squiduser d.cgi. How is the cache manager invoked? a.conf c.194 Explanation – line means the http content is denied for all the clients.conf b. Used to see amount of cache space used by a process c. Cache-manager command b.cgi. Which is the configuration file for the cache manager? a.conf Answer – c 152. all of them Answer – a 150. /etc/squid/cache. using http://server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr. b. /etc/sysconfig/squid.conf is configuration file for squid server. The cache manager is a cgi utility for displaying information about the squid http proxy process as it runs.The cache manager can be invoked by typing the address http://servername/cgi-bin/cachemgr. Which is the configuration file for the squid daemon? a. b. Answer – a 151. nothing d./etc/sysconfig/squid is configuration file for squid daemon and /etc/squid/squid.conf d. 153. Squid b. 149.conf c. What is cache manager? a. /etc/sysconfig/squid Answer – d Explanation -.conf b. /etc/squid/cachemgr. . it is daemon process name of squid server. root c. all of the above Answer – b Explanation -. /etc/cachemgr. /etc/squid/squid. What does the line SQUID_OPTS="-D" in the squid daemon configuration file mean? Squid can be started without having internet connection load default values from configuration file a.

/etc/init. service nfsd on Answer – b 158. all of above Answer – a Explanation -.d/squid restart d. Not possible b. Service nfsd start b. An administrator wants to add a NIS group NISGRP in /etc/exports file? Which of the following is true? a. service nfd start d. use #NISGRP Answer – c Explanation -. service sqd restart c.195 c. use SELinux d. Invalid option b. none of above Answer – d Explanation -. runs squid in safe mode d. squid configure Answer – a 156. 159. squid reconfigure d.if the insecure option is specified then any port can be used. An administrator wants to add host1 and host2 in /etc/exports file corresponding to . service nfs start c. Which command does make squid to reread the configuration file? a.the client computer should connect using the port below 1024. use NISGRP c. service squid reload Answer – c 157. Service squidd restart b.The access can also be defined in terms of the NIS group. squid -k configure c. Which command is used to start the NFS services? a. use PAM c.-D option disables initial dns checks so squid can be started without having internet connection 155. squid -k reconfigure b. What does the option secure mean in case of /etc/exports file? a. Which command is used to restart the squid daemon? a. The nis group can be preceded by the @ of sign before the nis group name. use @NISGRP d. 160.

164. none of above Answer – b Explanation -.com entry in the file /etc/exports. Which of the below address match the entry? a. both of above d. The combination of ip address and hostname can also be used.Multiple hostnames or Ip address can be entered separated by blank. Which graphical utility is used to create the /etc/exports file? a.196 the directory /home/user. Maps root user to client to user jack's account b.example.* character matches any number of characters in a domain name that is * matches for myhost (of option b) but not of option a as in option a there was new.The anonymous uid and gid value can be changed by using options anonuid and anongid. Which command is used to export all directories listed in the file /etc/exports? a.maps the root user of client (uid 0 gid 0) to anonymous uid and gid. NFS Server Administration Answer – b . New. NFS Configuration b. all of above Answer – c Explanation -. What is meaning of option root_squash in the file /etc/exports? a.example. Which of the following is valid entry? a. 163. myhost. maps the root user of client to anonymous user Answer – d Explanation -. exportfs c.The directories mentioned in the /etc/exports file can be exported that is made available to the network using the exportfs command or rebooting the system or restarting the NFS service. The default value of anonymous uid and gid is 65534. Host1. A system administrator has made *. host1 host2 d. Exports b.com c. don't allow client root user to login c. NFS Server Configuration c.myhost (means new belonging to domain myhost) 162.com b.myhost. exportsf Answer – b Explanation -. host1:host2 c. export d.host2 b. NFS Server Manager d. 161.example. maps client root user to NFS server root user d.

log Answer – a Explanation -. Which utility is used to configure samba server? a. and rmtab files which contain the information about the exported files. Smaba Server configuration b. 169. Samba Server configuration c. etab. nfsstat -c c. The directory is mounted b. nfstat Answer – a Explanation -. /var/log/nfs c. Which command is used to invoke the NFS server configuration utility? a. the directory is unmounted c. The files xtab. c. b. Which directory does contain information about the exported directory using the NFS? a.The var/lib/nfs directory is used to keep information about the exported directory. Samba configuration d. system-config-nfs c. none of them Answer – b 166. /var/spool/nfs d. nfs d. nfsstat -s b. Smaba configuration Answer – b 170. System-config-nfsd b.197 165. both of them d. no operation is done d. Which command is used to display server side NFS information? a. What operation is performed before user accesses a NFS directory? a.The nfsstat command is used to display statistics about the NFS server and client activity 168. /var/log/nfs/nfs. Which command is used to invoke the Samba Server Configuration utility? System-config-samba system-config-smb system-config-sambad a. /var/lib/nfs b. . system should be rebooted Answer – a Explanation – before accessing a NFS directory the directory should be mounted using mount command or using autofs 167.

The /etc/samba/smbusers file contains the list of samba users. The Unix username and windows user name of Jack are same (it is Jack). none of them Answer – c Explanation – the command is used to check whether the samba service is running on the system and the share created on the system is being shared as the user wanted it to be. jack=jack b. /etc/samba. /etc/samba/smb. service samba start c. smbclient -L d.conf b. service sambad start Answer – c 175. Service smbd start b. Which of the following is main configuration file of samba server? a. user=jack c. An administrator wants to add a user Jack as samba user. system-config-smbd Answer – a 171. jack:jack Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/smbusers c. service smb start d.conf c. /etc/samba/samba.conf d. /etc/samba/smbusers b. To add a new samba user vishnu as in above case enter below line in the /etc/samba/smbusers file vishnu = vishnu the left hand side denotes the Unix user name and the right hand side denotes the windows user name. smbstatus b.conf Answer – c 172. /etc/samba/smbusrs d.what should be the format of entry in samba user file? a. Which command is used to view the samba server status information? a. smb status c. Which file does contain the name of the all samba users? a. /etc/smb. Which command is used to start the samba server? a. .198 d. user:jack d. 174. /etc/samba/sambausers Answer – a 173.

An administrator wants the local users to use the ftp service. local_usr=YES d. service vftpd start Answer – c 177. All users b. service ftpd start c. d. /etc/ftpd/vsftpd.conf c. jack john.conf Answer – d 178. service vsftpd start d. An administrator wants to list the names of two users John and Jack in /etc/vsftpd/user_list file. local_enable=YES Answer – d Explanation -.The /etc/vsftpd/user_list contain list of users which are allowed access if userlist_enable=NO. c. local_users=YES c. Service ftp start b. /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. users not in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list Answer – c Explanation -.conf b. jack Answer – d Explanation – the users should be listed one in a line. local_user=YES b.conf d. Which of the following is valid entry? John. users in file /etc/vsftpd/user_list d. 179. a. /etc/vsftpd/vsftp. /etc/ftp/vsftpd. which of the following lines is to be added in the ftp server configuration file? a. b. Which is the main configuration file for the vsftpd server? a. Which users are allowed to login into ftp? a. Which command is used to start the ftp server? a. 180.local_enable parameter is when set to YES then local users can login to ftp server if set to NO then local users can not login to ftp server.199 176.jack john:jack john . In the main configuration file of ftp server the directive userlist_enable=NO is used. no users c.

System-config-vsftp b.log and /var/log/xferlog files contain the logging info about the ftp server. none of them Answer – d Explanation --The file /var/log/vsftpd. system-config-ftpd d.conf b. /etc/openldap/openldap. ftp d. 182. Which files contain the logging information about the ftp server? a. Very Secure FTP Configuration c. put c. Which command invokes the ftp command prompt? a. What is the significance of the sizelimit option in the main configuration file of .conf d. A user wants to copy a file from current directory of remote system to current directory of local system.log b. system-config-vsftpd Answer –d 186. VSFTPD Configuration Answer -. /etc/ldap/openldap. both of them d. paste Answer – a 183. Get b.conf Answer – a 187.a 185. Which command is used to invoke the Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration utility? a. Very Secure FTP daemon Configuration b.conf c. Which is the main configuration file for the LDAP server? a. /etc/openldap/ldap. system-config-ftp c. VSFTP daemon Configuration d. Which ftp command should he/she use? a. sftp c.200 181. ftpd Answer –c 184. Which graphical utility is used to configure the ftp server? a. vsftp b. /etc/ldap/ldap. copy d. /var/log/vsftp. /var/log/xferlogd c.

specifies the limit of results returned Answer – d Explanation -. What is the significance of the timelimit option in the main configuration file of ldap? a.conf? a. Memory size limit b.conf using the include directive. include d.TIMELIMIT specifies the time limit which the ldap will take to answer the search request. Before using a schema to create ldap directory information what a user should do? a. the number of records in ldap c. make Answer – c 192. The timelimit of 15 in above example means that the ldap will take 15 seconds to answer a search request.conf b. Maximum time taken by ldap to answer a search request b.conf. Maximum time taken by ldap to add a entry d. 188. ldaf d.conf d. 189. use c.To create the ldap directories user have to include the ldap schema he/she is using in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap.201 ldap? a. A user created a file which contains the directories of information he/she wants to add into an ldap server. 191. ldfa Answer – b Explanation -. A user makes changes in the file /etc/openldap/ldap. ldif c. nothing is to be done c. number of concurrent processes d. Add the schema in /etc/openldap/ldap. Minimum time taken by ldap to answer a search request c. ad schema in /etc/openldap/openldap. Copy b. What should be file extension? a.LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) 190. none of above Answer – a Explanation -. If the value is set to 12 then 12 results will be returned as the output of a search. Which directive is used to include a schema in the file /etc/openldap/ldap.SIZELIMIT specifies the limit of results which will be returned when the ldap server is searched. Ldap b. make the schema file Answer – a Explanation -. He/she wants to check .

and ypdomainname is used to set the NIS domain name of the system 196. /etc/openldap/schema/ d. ypdomainname d. 194. which command is used to set the nis domain name of a system? a. domainname b. ldap -s c. 193. ldapsrch Answer – c Explanation -. /etc/yp. The number of entries which should be returned using the ldapsearch command is defined in the configuration file /etc/openldap/ldap. /etc/nis/yp.Ldapsearch is used to search the ldap directory using the search parameters. yes using slapd -t c. No he can't do this using any command b. ldapsearch d.The command domainname.conf b. /etc/openldap/ldap/schema/ b. yes using ldap -t d. /etc/ldap/schema/ c. all of these Answer – d Explanation -. /etc/openldap/schemaldap Answer – c 195. yes using ldcheck Answer – b Explanation -. or nisdomainname. Which command is used to search for an entry in the ldap directory? a. Which directory does contain the default ldap schema file? a. nisdomainname c. b. .conf Answer – d 197.conf.conf c. Which is the main configuration file for NIS server? a.conf d.The command slapd -t is used to check the /etc/openldap/ldap.conf file for the syntax change.202 whether he/she made any syntax error. Can he/she do this? a. /etc/yp/yp. The SIZELEIMIT option is used to define the number of rows returned. Which command is used to start the NIS server? service ypserver start service yp start a. ldap b. /etc/nis.

203 c. all of these Answer – d Explanation -. /var/yp/secure Answer – b Explanation -. 200. /etc/nswitch. service ypserv start d.conf c.The security can have values as none (to allow access). yp b.conf is used to include the NIS in the search path of the files 199.the NIS database of the files configured to have shared by the NIS server is . deny d.the Makefile in the directory /var/yp is edited to include the files which files are being shared by the NIS server. port (to allow access from port below 1024). Makefile in /var/yp directory c. Which file contains the name of the files being shared by the NIS server? a. deny (denying access) 202. What are the valid values of security field in file /etc/ypserv. Which file does contain the entry for the client computers with access to NIS server? a. ypserv Answer – c Explanation -. Makefile in /var/nis directory d.conf b.conf d. /etc/nsswitch. The files /etc/passwd and /etc/group are being shared by the NIS server. port c. ypinit d. The file names which should not be shard in commented out. service ypd start Answer – c 198. None b. Make in /var/yp directory Answer – b Explanation -. /etc/nwitch. Which command is used to create a NIS database? a. ypdata c. Which file is used to map NIS? a. /var/yp/securenets c.conf d. /var/yp/access.The /etc/nsswitch. /var/yp/securenet b. /etc/nisswitch. 201. Sharefile in /var/yp directory b.conf Answer – a Explanation -.The client’s computers who are allowed access the NIS server information is added in the file /var/yp/securenets file.conf? a.

leases. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.conf contain? Answer -.num d.conf b.pid. For every client which has been assigned address one set of lease line is written in the file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. /var/run/dhcplient. /var/run/dhcpclient. /etc/dhcp. How can administrator decide number of client’s assigned address using the DHCP server? a. c. /var/run/dhpclient. Using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.count c.conf d. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. b. chkconfig dhcp on Answer –b 204.leases b. using file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. chkconfig dhcpd on c.conf Answer – c 205. Which graphical utility is used to configure the dhcp client? a. 207.conf c. 203. Which file does contain the process id of the dhcp client? a.leases contain information if a client has been assigned address by a dhcp server.pid. It can also contain option to assign a particular address to a definite Ethernet address on the network. all of there d.204 created by using the ypinit command. Answer – b . chkconfig dhcpd start b.stat Answer – a Explanation -.pid. d. chkconfig dhcpd enable d. neat c. /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.The configuration file is used to list the range of ip address out of which the server will assign an ip address to a computer on its network. Which of the following is dhcp server configuration file? a. /etc/dhcpd. What does the file /etc/dhcpd. /etc/dhcpd/dhcpd. 206.The file /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. System-config-network b. none of these Answer – c 208. Which command is used to enable the dhcp server? a. /var/run/dhclient.pid.

service bind start b.d/named start c. What is the function of acl directive in the file /etc/named. /etc/name. Which configuration file does dhcp client use? a. Which graphical utility is used to configure the DNS server? a.conf c. system-config-dns Answer – c 213. BIND Configuration GUI b. system-config-name b. system-config-named c.conf d. /etc/dhclient. /etc/init. /etc/dhpclient. An administrator made changes to file /etc/named.conf d. none of the above Answer – a Explanation -. Which command is used to start the named server? a. /etc/dhcpdclient. 215. to define performance option c. Which command does check file for syntax error? . to define server pid d.d/name start d. Which is the main configuration file for the named daemon? a. /etc/named.conf Answer – c 214. /etc/named/name.conf.205 209.conf b.acl – access control list used as acl “description “{ip address}. BIND Configuration c.conf Answer – d 210. /etc/init. To define access control list b.conf b. service name start Answer – b 211.conf c. BIND Server Configuration GUI d. Which command is used to invoke BIND Configuration GUI? a. BIND Server Configuration Answer –a 212. system-config-bind d.conf? a. /etc/named/named. /etc/dhcplient.

domaincheck Answer – b Explanation – whois command is used to search for the availability of domain name format whois domain-name 219.206 a. . none of these Answer – a Explanation -. who b.It is used to get the ip address corresponding to the hostname and vice versa. checkconf c.db a.conf file. named-checkzone b. zonecheck Answer – a Explanation -. gethost d. checkfile d. Named-checkconf b. checkzone c. host b.txt Answer – c 218.db /var/named/data/dumb.txt /var/named/data/stats. Which file does contain the statistics of named daemon? /var/named/data/named_statistics.txt /var/named/data/named_stats /var/named/data/named_stats. hostname c.Named-checkzone is used to check the syntax of the zone files which should be created by the user in the /var/named directory after creating the file /etc/named. you have chosen a domain name for your system. Format is host host-name host ip address 220. checkzonenamed d. Which command is used to check the syntax of the zone files? a. namedcheckconf Answer – a 216. 217. c. whois c.db /var/named/data/named_dumb. domainchk d. b. How can you check the availability of domain name? a. Which file is dump file for the named daemon? /var/named/data/cache_dumb. How can you get the hostname of your system from ip address? a.

mc contains the sendmail default values like the location of the other configuration files to be used by the sendmail. /etc/mail/sendmail.cf b. The file /etc/mail/sendmail. Domain name mapping in file /etc/domain b. /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. 222.The main configuration file for the sendmail is /etc/mail/sendmail. Which of the following files are configuration files for the sendmail server? a. use command domainname c. What command does server the purpose? . both of them d. define domain names in /etc/mail/virtual Answer – b Explanation -. domain name mapping in file /etc/mail/domaintable d. What should the administrator do? a. define domain names in /etc/mail/domain-name d. 225. define domain names in /etc/mail/local-host-name c. /etc/mail/access b. /etc/mail/access. You want to configure the sendmail server to handle two domain names.mc c.The /etc/mail/access file defines the hosts and users from which the mail server sendmal will accept mail for delivery or relay. /var/named/data/cache_dumb Answer – a 221.the file /etc/mail/local-host-name define the domain names for which the sendmail server of the system will act as a mail server. After changing the /etc/mail/access file a user wants to create the access. 223.deny c.db file. none of above Answer – c Explanation -. location of the log files and database files. /etc/mail/access.The file /etc/mail/domaintable contain the domain name mapping that is mapping the old domain name of the network to the new one. Can't be done b. The domain name of your system changed from oldone to newone. 224. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the sendmail server? a.207 d.allow d. Many options which sendmail uses are also defined in the file /etc/mail/sendmail.mc. /etc/mail/security Answer – a Explanation -. What will you do? a.

cf /etc/postfix/daemon. /var/spool/mail/stats d. 227.There are four actions which the sendmail server can take RELAY – the server sends the message to the mail server request in the mail. Which is the main configuration file for postfix server? a.the /etc/postfix/main.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix server.db file you want to create for example make virtusertable.default which is exact copy of the main.mc c.The user wants to make the individual configuration files into the .cf b. /etc/postfix/post.db. What actions does sendmail do on a mail? a. /etc/postfix/main. There is also a file /etc/postfix/main. RELAY b. create access. /etc/postfix/main. /var/spool/mail/statistics b. d.db b. /var/spool/mail/stat c.cf d. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. It defines the hostnames and domain names.Which file does contain collected statistics from sendmail? a. Make access.cf Answer – a Explanation -.cf. create access d. postfix queues and locations to be used for logging.conf a. make access c.conf /etc/postfix/master.cf /etc/postfix/postfix. b.db with the .db makes the file virtusertable.208 a. . /var/spool/mail/statistic Answer – a 228. REJECT c.db files then use the following commands cd /etc/mail make access.db replace the filename access. mailbox. REJECT – the message is rejected and sender is informed that the message is rejected. DISCARD – the message is rejected and sender is not informed that the message is rejected.db Answer – a Explanation -. ERROR: user defined text message – inform the user why the server did not relay the message. both of them d. 226. /etc/postfix/postfix. c. 229. Which is the postfix daemon configuration file? /etc/postfix/master.cf.cf file and is used for reference in case user has made any wrong changes in the file main.

/etc/postfix/access. /etc/postfix/permission-files Answer –a Explanation -. Which file does contain the alternative mail services? /var/lib/alternatives /var/lib/alternatives/mta /var/lib/alternative/mta a. b.The contents of the directory /etc/alternatives displays the default services configured on the system 234.1. /etc/postfix/postfix-files b. . /etc/postfix/security Answer – a Explanation -.the log information about the postfix and sendmail server is logged in the file /var/log/maillog. /etc/services/alternatives d. /var/log/maillog b.deny c. Which file does contain the directory and file permission set by postfix? a.cf is the main configuration file for the postfix daemon process. Which file is used to define the users and clients for accessing the postfix server? a. /etc/alternatives c./var/log/maillog. /etc/service/alternatives Answer –b Explanation -. The file /var/log/maillog. /var/log/maillog. Which directory does contain the default services configured on the system? a.The file /etc/postfix/master.the file /etc/postfix/access file is used to define the users and system which have access to use the postfix server. /etc/postfix/access b.209 Answer – a Explanation -.allow d.2.1 c. 233. /var/log/maillog.2 d. 230. all of above Answer – d Explanation -. 232. /etc/postfix/permit-files c. /etc/postfix/postfix-file d.the file /etc/postfix/postfix-files contain the directory and file permissions set by the postfix server. Which files does contain the sendmail and postfix server log information? a.2 contains log information about each and every mail received and send by the postfix and sendmail server.and /var/log/maillog. /etc/alternative b. 231. c. /etc/postfix/access.

Which directive of dovecot configuration file does set the directory path containing run time data? a. Which directory does contain the files corresponding to the services supported by xinetd? a. /var/lib/alternatives/mta-alternate Answer – b 235. /etc/xine. base_run c.conf b. /etc/xinetd. /etc/xinetd. max_run_mail_processes c.cf c. /etc/dovecot. /etc/dovecot.210 d.conf c. max_mail_run_processes d.d b. mail_processes Answer – a Explanation -.conf d. /etc/xinetd.conf Answer – d 239.mc d. /etc/dovecot/dovecot.a . /etc/xinetd.d/service d. Which directive of dovecot configuration defines maximum number of running mail processes? a. /etc/dovecot. Which is the main configuration file for the dovecot services? a.max_mail_processes defines the maximum number of mail processes that can run simultaneously. /etc/xinetd c. 238. /etc/xinet. main_dir d. /etc/xinetd/xinetd. Which configuration file does xinetd use? a. base_dir Answer – d Explanation – base_dir defines Base directory where to store runtime data 237.conf b.d/services Answer -. max_mail_processes b. run_dir b.conf Answer – a 236.

The client A is listed in file /etc/hosts.deny – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are not allowed connection. both of these d. /etc/hosts.211 Explanation -. This file is written by the Security Level Configuration utility. These services are called on demand services. none of these Answer – a 242.allow file. . Which command is used to invoke security level configuration? a.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables contains the security level currently imposed on the system. security Configuration b. deny? a. yes Answer – b Explanation -.The directory /etc/xinetd. allow and /etc/hosts. What is the significance of ALL in /etc/hosts. All is specified to denote all clients b. and C.d contains files corresponding to the services which xinetd will start if connection is made to that port number. /etc/sysconfig/iptable b. This file is scanned by tcpd after scanning the /etc/hosts.allow – it contains the list of ip address and subnet masks of clients who are allowed connection. No b. There are three clients A. all is specified for all services c. If an address is not specified in any file then the connection is allowed. security Level Manager Answer – c 243.deny. security Level Configurations c. system-config-securitylevel Answer – d 244. /etc/sysconfig/ipchain Answer – b Explanation -. /etc/sysconfig/ipchains d. /etc/sysconfig/iptables c. Which graphical utility is used to configure security level of a system? a.allow and c in /etc/hosts. 241./etc/hosts. system-config-securelevel d. B. Which file contains the current security level settings? a.Is the configuration right? a. system-config-security b. This file is first scanned by tcpd. system-config-level c. 240. security Level Configuration d. Administrator wants to allow A and B for xinetd services (with tcp wrappers).

none of them d. and session.d b.d/conf c. /etc/pam. and optional. /etc/sysconfig/iptable-config Answer – a Explanation -. iptables -S Answer – a 247. /etc/pam. /etc/pam. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-nat c.d Answer – d Explanation -. iptables-load c. 249. password. iptables-save b.d correspond to the services which use PAM for authentication. . done c. both of them Answer – c Explanation -. password c.The contents of the file /etc/pam.conf is ignored if the files in the directory /etc/pam. Which directory does contain the PAM modules? /lib/security a. 250. 248.d/pam d. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config b. load additional iptables modules.The valid values for the control are include. Which command is used to save the rules from kernel and install them in a configuration file? a. Where will the configuration file for PAM find? a.d are present. 246. The files in the directory /etc/conf.conf file is absent on a system.The file /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config is used to. /etc/pam/pam. The additional modules help in NAT filtering and helpers. Which file does configure the modules needed for NAT filtering? a. authentiction. Which of the following account types does PAM allow? a. The /etc/pam. auth b.PAM allows four types account. mandate b. iptables-kernel d. What are the valid control types for a PAM configuration file? a. none of them Answer – c Explanation -. both of them d.212 245. sufficient. required. /etc/sysconfig/iptables-filter d.

Disable-. all of them Answer – d Explanation -.The SELinux administration changes the values in the SELinux configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux . /etc/sysconfig/selinux Answer – d 255. /etc/sysconfig/selinux b. /lib/security/PAM d. system-config-SELinux d. SELinux administration d. system-config-SElinux c.213 b. Which file does SELinux Administration utility change? a.conf b. What of the following is valid SELinux enforcing mode? a. Which command is used to invoke the SELinux administration utility? a. system-config-se Answer – a 253. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. Which configuration file does SELinux use? a. SELinux configurations c.mc c. enforcing c. /etc/sysconfig/selad c. disable d.cf d. 254. /etc/sysconfig/seladm d. permissive b. /etc/sysconfig/seladmin Answer – a Explanation -. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. /etc/sysconfig/selinux. SELinux configuration b. system-config-selinux b.enforcing – SELinux policies are enforced.SELinux policies are not enforced that is are disabled. Permissive – SELinux policies are checked but policy issues warning instead of enforcement. /lib/PAM c. SELinux manager Answer – c 252. /etc/PAM Answer – a 251. Which graphical utility is used for SELinux configuration? a.

103.214 INDEX* A access 97. 105.out store. 204-5. 193. 198-9. 193 access control list 145. 79. 26. 203. 161. 191. 119-20. 151. 122.conf 200 etc/name. 134 ALT 30.log squid. 205 acl tag 113.master 174 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cachemgr.conf 199 etc/xinetd.conf 187 etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. 132. 193 actions System Tools 152 address 61.conf 194 etc/dhclient. 122. 99. 32. 211 assigned 140. 140. 208-9 [4] access control 113. 107.conf 204 etc/dovecot/dovecot. 135.conf 205 etc/openldap/schemaldap 202 etc/PAM 213 etc/samba/sambausers 198 etc/smb. 155.log 112 account system-auth 160 user jack's 196 acl 113. 195. 81.conf 210 etc/groups 181 etc/ldap/openldap. 201 command xvf 178 dev/sda2 174 device-name raid-device-name 175 dumb 207 error condition 188 etc/autofs. 116-17. 113-14. 156. 172 access tab user 125 access. 167 anaconda boot prompt 164-5 anaconda ks 165 anongid 118. 115. 204 lp 117 adm 78-9. 145. 138-9.conf 210 etc/yp. 204.conf 198 etc/sysconfig/selinux 213 etc/syslog. 130 Administrative group 73 administrator 66. 164-5.log cache. 193-4. 134. 211 AGE 68 AGENT 97 Alias SERVICES 79 aliases 70-1.conf 205 etc/dhcp.conf 202 filesystem 183 ftpd 200 gpassword 181 hd0 164 kickstart-file/install/linux. 208 AccessFileName 103 access. 103-4. 153. 207. 113 Access file 147.db 147-8. 125-6. 192-3. 183. 205 access control section 9. 194 anaconda 14.com 165 . 196 anonuid 122 Anonymous login 127 anonymous uid 118. 150-1. 169 amount 85-6. 196 anonymous user behavior 132 answer 3. 129.

110. 173 bo 85 book 3. 174 B badblocks 6. 212 file system-auth 161 authentication 111. 105-6 configuration apache configuration file httpd. 149. 5 boot 14-15. 101 auth 102. 49. 210 bash 70 bash shell 70-1.log 191 var/run/httpd 189 var/run/klogd 187 var/run/squidd.pid 193 var/spool/mail/statistic 208 var/spool/squid/cachedir 193 apache 102. 188 atrm 95-6 attributes 55.215 lib/httpd/module 189 modified 176 namedcheckconf 206 paste 200 renice command 184 schedule 186 security Level Manager 211 service name start 205 service sambad start 198 service squid reload 195 service vftpd start 199 service ypd start 203 squid configure 195 system-config-dns 205 system-config-httpconf 190 system-config-manages 178 system-config-se 213 system-config-securitylevel 211 system-config-smbd 198 system-config-usrs 181 system-config-vsftpd 200 var/log/httpd. 85 bin/bash 35. 179-80 bashrc 70 batch 93. 122 atq 94-6. 51. 25-9. 191. 190 Apache web server 99. 189 apache web server process 101. 67. 50. 189-91 apache web server configuration directory 100. 101.conf 100. 190 async 42. 97-9. 174. 41. 133-4. 174 base 45. 96 bi 19. 85 blocksize 45-6. 212 auto 42. 180 bin/bash new-user 180 bin/mount 79-80 bin/tcsh 72 bin/true 90 bin/umount 79-80 Block device 57. 160-1. 160-1. 197 autofs status 174 automount 6. 153-4. 118. 78. 51 autofs 50-1. 72. 189 apache server 109. 52 automount daemons 50. 165. 167-8 boot configuration 27-8 . 91. 70.

25. 125. 171 chkconfig command 170 chkconfig dhcpd 204 chkconfig service-name 37-8. 157 bzip2 178 C ca 31. 36-40. 183 cat 47-8. 78. 87.conf 25.216 boot directory 15 boot/grub/grub. 52. 192-4. 81. 158 user information 74 clicking 83. 114-15. 27-8. 43-4. 202-7 [29] administrative 8. 114. 170 choice 16. 25. 153. 204. 121. 172 bootloader 15-16. 75. 90 Changing runlevels 36 chgrunlevel 170 chkconfig 35-8. 192-3 cache directory 112 default 193 cache directory section 9. 5. 41. 188 . 164-5 default 25. 168 boot ks 165 boot partition 14-15. 195200. 47-8. 150. 194 Cache-manager command 194 cache server 105 cache size 112. 163. 29. 46. 141. 142. 173-4 cd 120. 138-40. 113-14. 90. 118. 211 [1] dhcp 142. 181-3. 184 normal 29 boot process kernel 169 boot prompt 16. 80 CDROM media 52 change 36. 87. 34. 99. 170. 188 badblocks 49. 174 batch 96. 193 cachedir 60 case 81. 18 boot system. 123-5. 169. 170-5. 91. 144-5. 192 change directory 131 change root user's password 76 Changing priority of process 8. 123. 27. 104. 142. 139-40. 142. 93-8. 196 subnet masks of 156. 79. 186. 86-91. 211 web 104. 41. 72. 26 boot process 3. 144-5. 196. 164-5 bootloader command 17 broadcast 136-7 browse tab user 66 buffer 86. 64-5. 186. 204 root user of 118. 132-3. 187 button 107-8. 157 client computers 118. 99. 127-8. 168 click 40. 169 cache 105. 28. 169. 207. 87. 119-20. 125-6. 131. 83. 169. 203 client side information 122 client system 137 clients 3. 112 cache files 60 cache manager 10. single 14 boot time 34-5. 121. 151 atq 95. 180-90. 195. 76-81. 82-3. 142. 84. 54-8. 155 cdrom 16-19. 156. 120-1. 112. 152. 131. 111 Cmnd 79 columns 42-3 comma 157 command 20-4. 42.

184 uptime 85 useradd 66-7. 72. 90 pvcreate 54 renice 90-1. 186 network 17 nfsstat 122. 153 free 183 fsck 48-9 groupadd 73 groupdel 73 groupmod 73 insmod 89. 176 command aliases 79-80 command askmethod 16 command atq 96 command badblocks 49. 202 lsmod 185 lvdisplay 57 lvremove 57 mdadm 53-4 mke2fs 173 mkfs 44 mkswap 46 modinfo 88 modprobe 89-90. 186 rmmod 89 sbin/visudo 81 sudo 182 swap 46 swapon 47 top 84. 178 command chkconfig 37. 180 visudo 182 vmstat 85. 67.217 bzip2 178 chgrp 81 chmod 46 chown 81 chown user-name-group-name file-name df 77. 174 command badblocks device-name 49 command badblocks searches 49 command bzip2 65. 181 dmesg 187 exportfs 119. 183 whois 206 183 ypinit 139. 196 fdisk 172 filename time-specification 95 following 46. 71 userdel 72 usermod 72. 204 yum 60-1. 90 purpose 53. 197 ps 8. 52. 185 install 64 ldapsearch 135. 143 command chkconfig dhcpd 139 command chkconfig dovecot 153 command chkconfig httpd 99 command chown 182 command crontab 98 command dd 173 command dhclient 142 command dmesg 91 .

211 httpd server 190 post installation 151 samba 197 server's 190 configuration directives 103 Configuration directives for Apache web server process 190 configuration file cd 148 configuration file restart 116 configuration files 11-12. 116-18. 101. 11.218 command domainname 135. 190. 101. 147-8. 138-40. 145.gz 64 commands mke2fs uses 45 commands tar xvf 178 comment 71-2. 140. 160. 177 command sequence 148 command service dhcpd start 139 command service dovecot start 153 command service httpd start 99 command service network start 142 command service ypbind start 137 command sets 135 command shutdown 169. 182 command slapd 134. 166. 202 command swapoff 48 command system-config-kickstart 17 command tar xvf 178 command tar xvfz realplay. 202. 131. 207 command don W  command execute 182 command field 98 command file swap 46 command ifconfig 140 command insmod 90 command kudzu 19 command ldapadd 135 command line 46. 205. 48. 77. 181 command prompts 76. 133. 143. 176. 96 command ps 90 command pvremove 58 Command Reference 13. 73. 133-5. 102. 128. 194-5. 162. 186-7. 23. 200. 207-8. 173.vfat 173 command modprobe 90 command mount 42. 27-8. 45. 205 . 169 computers 14-15. 41. 179. 135-6. 212 conf directory 100 config directory 102 configuration 8-9. 122. 159. 159-61. 163 command renice 186 command root@localhost 44 command rpm 81.tar. 189-90. 212-13 [19] Configuration GUI 11.gz 64 command umount directory-name 43 command uname 185 command useradd 72 command userdel 180 command vgcreate 55 command vgdisplay 55 command vgextend 55 command vgremove 58 command. 59-60. 165-6.insmod loads 186 commands gunzip realplay. 64. 80 command passwd 76. 204 remote 131 conf 100.tar. 186 command lsmod 88 command lvcreate 56 command mdadm 53 command mkfs. 126-8.

169 D daemon 78-9. 145. 150. 161. 131. 131. 211 internet 115. 162. 163. 174 database 64. 189 klogd 93. 147. 200 Daemon Configuration 151 daemon process name 194 daemon xinetd 12. 204-5 [5] configure command configures 65 configure IPSec tunnel 23 configure printers 24 configure samba server 197 configure security level 211 configure system's hostname 23 Configuring Grub 5. 131. 79. 189 configuration parameters 142. 16 Creating User Account 7. 51-2. 169 ctrlaltdel 30-2. 130. 33. 212 copy 15. 99. 72 deref 134 DEREF options 134 desc 19 description 29. 27. 200-1 core directory 109. 17. 101. 23. 110. 173 . 104. 128-9. 41-2 dev/cdrom 43-4. 64-5.219 configuration information 115. 128 connect 118. 123. 150. 81. 86. 205-6 tcp wrapper 156 daemon Configuration 10. 194-5 conntrack 159 console 29-30. 177. 141. 207 days 68 db 138 db files 12. 208 dc 133-4 default installer 14. 192. 155 data files 46. 97 crontab 97-8. 100. 52 Creating Kickstart 5. 145-6. 190 configuration configure 14. 152 dev 18. 136 Configuring services 36 Configuring Squid 9. 19-20. 190 database files 147-8. 66 cron facility 93. 179. 155-6. 32. 109-10. 131. 106-7. 19 Configuring NIS 11. 91. 207 defaults 41. 147-8. 27 Configuring Hardware 5. 92 control 27. 131. 147 cpu 85 CPU usage 84. 159. 157 cron 97-9. 143. 195 connection 102. 187 named 143. 35. 45 deflate/module 89 Deleting user account 7. 205 desktop 82. 194. 164 default operating system 27-8. 169. 122-3. 112. 71-3. 111 Configuring vsftpd 10. 184 crashes 40. 189 crontab jobs 97-8 CTRL 30. 168 default parameters 45-6 default runlevel 29-30 default values 66-7. 61-2. 125-6. 153.

166. 169 dir 17. 143 domain example. 125-6. 190 directory user 70 directory yum 175 disk 85. 90. 139. 171 disk druid 164-5 display 57. 49. 140 dhcp server 139-42. 153-4.220 dev/fd0 51 dev/md0 53-4. 141. 44. 105. 174 dev/my 57 dev/sda 26. 59-60. 46. 124.com 117-18. 41-2. 200 etc/alternatives 152 etc/httpd 189 schema 134 target 173 var/lib/alternatives 152 var/named 145. 1967. 175-7. 206 var/nis 203 var/yp 203 directory entry 117. 187 DNS server 11. 204 difference 42. 181 dhcp 139. 149-52. 52-4. 156 . 118. 179 directory 15. 106. 177-8 digits 35. 99-104. 174 dev/sda4 43 dev/sda5 40. 205 dns server information 141 DNS server information 142 DNS service 143 DocumentRoot 103. 210 DIR 67-8.tar 65 directory tree 101. 190-1 domain 106. 210 directory realplay 64-5 directory realplay. 173-5 multiple 52 physical 53 device listing 141 device name 42 device-name 48-9. 171. 173 dev/sda6 172 dev/vol 175 device 19. 77. 45. 175 filesystem-type 44. 48 devpts 41. 181 display server side information 122 display server side NFS information 197 dmesg 91. 174 dev/sda2 53-4. 77 dev/sda0 53 dev/sda1 53. 131. 40-1. 142 DHCP client 11. 167. 188-91. 134 directory files 117 directory information 134 directory list 132 directory listing 121 directory name 17. 133-4. 153. 117-21. 127. 210 current 131. 143-6. 161. 42-3. 43 df 77. 96-7. 34-6. 127. 204 DHCP server 11. 160. 209-12 [25] base 153. 139-40. 54-5. 47-8. 117 directory-name host-name 117 directory option 132 directory path 17.

mc 147. 207 etc/mail/sendmail.deny 12. 190-1.daily 98-9 etc/demo 190 etc/dhcpd. 171-2 etc/ftab 171-2 etc/gshadow 73 etc/hosts 137. 58. 196. 186 etc/modprobe. 179 etc/mail 11. 195-6 etc/fstab 42. 126. 154 etc/alternatives 209 etc/at. 183.db 145.conf 140. 189-90 etc/httpd/conf/httpd.cf 147. 199 entry initdefault 29 entry mta-sendmail 152 environment 96. 156. 71-3. 120-1.deny 93-4. 143.allow 94. 207 etc/mail/sendmail. 37.misc 50-1 etc/bashrc 71 etc/cron. 175. 108. 207 Domain Name Service 138 Domain Name System 111. 186 . 144. 206-8 domain NISDOMAIN 136 domain ServerName 106 domainname domain-name-of-system 135 don W   dovecot 12. 195.221 domain name mapping 147. 185-7. 101. 144-5. 173. 138. 187-8 etc/at. 188 customize user's shell 70 EOT 95-6 error 49. web master 107. 211 etc/hosts. 156. 211 etc/hosts. 206 DVD 14-15 DVD drive 14 DVD media 14-15 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 139 Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) 102 E edit 39. 138. 150. 189 etc/httpd/conf 101-2. 196. 20. 29. 104. 191 domain names 146-7. 188 etc/at. 174. 80. 147-8. 179 email address. 50-1.conf 90. 123.defs 67. 169.conf 189-90 etc/init 116. 182 editing 27-8. 87-8 drm 88-9 DSO (Dynamic Shared Object) 102 dual boot system 14 dumb. 149. 207 etc/modprobe 90. 205 etc/inittab 29 etc/login. 151.allow 12. 134. 208 etc/mail/local-host-name 147. 114. 188 etc/auto. 153-4 dovecot configuration 210 down list 144-5 drivers 19. 83. 208 error Answer 170 error messages 91. 59. 143. 196 etc/exports file 118-20. 135. 117-18.deny command lists 93. 99. 204 etc/exports 117. 147-8. 166. 201-3 [2] valid 136. 109 ENAB 69-70 entry 15. 211 etc/httpd 100-1.

160. 171-2 etc/named. 72. 191-4 etc/sudoers 80-1 etc/sysconfig/hwconf 19-20.conf 134-5. 44. 78.222 etc/mstab 172 etc/mtab 6. 51 ext3 41. 48 filesystem types 42 ext3 filesystem type 52 ext3 filesystems 40. 67. 29. 166 etc/sysconfig/ipchains 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables 159. 122.cf 151. 142 exam 3 exam topics 3 example. 140. 184 fc7 26. 180-1. 213 etc/sysconfig/squid 115. 72 Explanation 164-213 export 119. 196 ext2 44-5. 203 etc/postfix/main. 169. 196 export HOSTNAME DESKTOP 97 exported directory 122.conf 59-60. 87-8. 173 ext3 rw 42-3 F facility 187-8 failure 54. 203 etc/openldap/ldap. 208-9 etc/postfix/permission-files 209 etc/postfix/permit-files 209 etc/postfix/postfix-files 151. 194 etc/sysconfig/syslog 187 etc/sysconfig/syslog. 200-2 etc/openldap/openldap.conf 92.conf 111.conf 200-1 etc/pam 13. 210-11 etc/yp. 179 etc/skel directory 70. 34-6. 42. 161. 48.conf 136 etc/yum. 197 exportfs 119. 187 etc/vsftpd/ftpusers 130 etc/vsftpd/user 129-30. 127 fdisk 172-3 Fedora Core Linux 14 . 91. 212 etc/sysconfig/selinux 162. 50. 179 etc/squid/squid. 44-5. 171. 209 etc/profile 71 etc/rc 31-2. 70. 212 etc/pam. 212 etc/passwd 71.com 105.conf 160. 166 etc/xinetd 155. 156 exec 42 execution. 199 etc/X11 32-3. 205 etc/nsswitch. 52.conf 145. 169. 63.conf 187 etc/syslog 187 etc/syslog. yum commands 176 exit codes 49 expire 60. 117-19. 176 Ethernet device panel 141 Ethernet interface 17. 176 father 27. 211 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159. 208 etc/postfix/master. 132. 174 etc/samba directory 126 etc/service/alternatives 209 etc/services/alternatives 209 etc/skel 67.conf 137.cf 151.

master 50 etc/auto.conf 101. 185. 206 entry 117 etc/at. 171-6.allow 97 etc/cron. 88. 182 . 198-201. multiple 49 filename 47-8.db 207 apache web server configuration 190 authpriv 92 bash 179 bashrc 70-1. 29-30. 137-40. 87.conf 15 bz2 178 cached 105 change 163 component support component 102 configu-ration 92 crontab 97. 176 etc/samba/smb. 81 etc/hosts. 172 file group 81.defs 67 etc/mail/access 147.conf configuration 126 etc/samba/smbusers 126-7. 115-18. 34-6. 79-80. 41. 206 etc/nsswitch 137 etc/nsswitch.allow 156. 92-9. 95. 43. 209 etc/postfix/postfix-scripts 151 etc/profile 71 etc/rpmrc configuration 64.db 148. 179 boot/grub/grub. 182-3 file modules. 17890. 49 virtual 41 file system errors 49 file systems.networking 88 file names 67. 203 file owner 81. 138. 190 etc/inittab 5. 155-64. 48. 185 filename access. 207 etc/mke2fs 45 etc/mtab 42 etc/named. 145-7. 139 fourth 42.conf 138 etc/openldap/ldap. 202 etc/pam. 129-34. 172 etc/group 71.deny 97 etc/crontab 98. 46-8.223 field 98. 78-81. 198 etc/shadow 71 etc/squid/squid.conf 212 etc/passwd 72 etc/postfix/access 151.conf 145. 188-9 dhcp server configuration 204 domain name mapping 147 dovecot configuration 210 download 128 dump 145. 189 etc/dovecot. 208 files 29-30. 150. 203-13 [20] access. 132. 93.allow 93 etc/auto. 169 etc/login. 101-4. 149-52. 211 etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf 134. 182-3 file permissions 46. 98.misc 51 etc/bashrc 179 etc/cron.conf 193 etc/sudoers 8. 183 file swap 47-8 file system 42.conf 153 etc/export 119 etc/fstab 6.

197 samba configuration 10. 96 sample auto. 197 file master. 145-6. 206 files he/she 103. 194 squid server configuration 193 standard logging 132 sub-component configuration 101 swap 46-8 tar 178 tar. 192 squid daemon configuration 115.224 etc/sysconfig/iptables-config 159 etc/syslog. 126 samba user 198 sample 35. 132.pid 154 file-name.bz2 178 tar. 149 index. 199 load config 102 local 138 main.conf 92 etc/yp. 208 modules. 176 gpg key 61 htaccess 104 htpasswd 104 httpd.pid 101 important 11-12. 200 var/yp/securenets 138.html 103.conf 128 script 151 sharing 122. 128 single 153 special 92 squid configuration 111. 191 initrd 15 inittab 29 ldif 135 library 101 list 130.dep 89 multiple 131 named daemon configuration 145 pid 109 postfix daemon configuration 208 proc/kmsg 93 rmtab 122.conf 133 sample modprobe. 204 var/log/secure 93 var/log/xferlog 130.conf 136 etc/yum. 203 ypbind configuration 136 yum configuration 65 zip 178 zone 145.gz 178 temporary 60 using 95. 156 execute user-namex201fs 182 exported 122.conf 90 sample vsftpd.master 50 sample configuration 60 sample etab 122 sample ldap. 191 files nisplus nis shadow 138 files passwd 138 .cf 151.cron 97 ftp server configuration 199 global configuration 64.conf 176 executable 42.

bz2 64-5 value 134 Fri 94-6 fs 45-6 fsck 48-9. 16-17. 82 Group Administration 7. 168 grub menu 15. 96. 146. 67. 79-82. 69. 78. 89-91. 83. 58-9. 169 . 171-2. 180. 73 group administration group apache 102-3 group demo 182 group ids 78 group information 73-4. 180 group-name 72. 50-1. 91. 132. 65. 171 pseudo 167 single 52 vfat 173 filesystems tab 83 finger 156 firewall 3. 73 group accounts 66. 199-200 FTP 3. 15. 200. 159 firewall command sets 17 firewall rules 159 floppy 45-6. 204-5. 20.225 files S10network 35 files xtab 122. 213 group 8. 196. 81. 172 filesystem-type device-path-name directory-name 43 filesystems 6. 164-5. 25-6. 138-9. 190. 25. 76-8. 159. 25. 48. 211. 184-5 [17] tar. 43. 168 grub configuration file 5. 165-7. 109. 73 grp 55-7. 129-30. 181-2 basic 29 df 77 mounted 77. 52. 181-3 logical 56 new 7. 175 grub 5. 59. 27-8 gunzip 178 H halt 30. 138. 101 gpgcheck 60-1 gpgkeys 61. 48-50. 47-8. 130. 77. 34. 117. 122 proc 41. 35. 197 Filesystem Administration 6 Filesystem Information 6. 41. 71-3. 208 format 10. 53-7. 40 filesystem mount command 43 filesystem option 77 filesystem type 42. 46. 103 group sys root 81 groupadd 68. 118. 40-4. 72-3. 16-17. 176 graphical tools 33 graphical utility 5. 60-1. 130. 71. 200 ftp server 129-30. 80. 157. 33. 51 following commands cd 148. 27-8. 17-18. 29. 14. 19. 199-200 FTP server 128 ftp service 199 G GB 56 gid 41. 196 Global Environment Configuration 9. 174 fstype 51 ftp 18. 111 ftp command 200 ftp command prompt 10. 53.

167 Installation and Hardware Configuration 5 installation files 15 . 172. 192. 29. 98. 47 hardware 19-20. 50. 42. 179-81 his/her 180 home directory name 72 home-directory-name 72 home directory of user 179 home directory path 71 home/jack 181 home/movies 43-4 home/swap 47 home/user 70-1. 71. 208 htaccess 103-4 HTTPD Configuration Answer 190 httpd server 103. 171. 112 home 41. 164. 160-1. 31-4 initialize 54 Initializing System 6. 50. 67. 196 home/vishnu 118-22 home/vishnu directory 119-20 host 19. 201-2 sendmail commands 148 hierarchy 40. 89 hd0 15. 104. 131. 166 Hardware Configuration 5 hardware drivers 87. 168 he/she 144. 72. 67. 146. 172 hard-disk-device name 53 hard-disk-device-name 53-4 hard-disk-partition 55 vgcreate volume-group-name 55 vgextend volume-group-name 55 hard disk partitions 42. 35. 59. 34. 77. 196. 89 install 14. 164. 191 HTTPD Server Configuration 190 httpd service 99. 176-8. 77. 126. 154 infomod modulename 185 information he/she 83. 36. 16. 174. 31. 32. 117. 169. 163-4. 65. 34 initrd 15. 26-7. 168. 176. 81. 201 information server 103 init 29-30. 69. 189. 206 virtual 107-8 host names 117. 65-6. 97 grp System 55 IfModule mod 104-5 imap 153-4 include 50. 212 system-auth password 160 inconsistencies 118 index closed db 64 opening db 63 info 92. 86. 181 home/demo 173. 122. 27. 168. 170-1. 26-7 inode 45-6 Inserting module 8. 89-90. 34. 115. 53-4. 69-70. 126-7. 160. 77. 87. 201. 212 install server 15 installation 5. 203. 118-19. 72. 61-2. 161. 192. 143 hostname 10. 184 init process 27. 60. 44. 146. 195-6. 137-8. 52-3. 52. 184 INIT process 30 initdefault 29.226 hard disk 14-16. 151. 29. 64. 206. 79. 170 I id 19. 190-1 home directory 46. 165. 180-1. 14-17. 59. 23. 134.

188. 174. 34-8. 186. 16. 87. 165 L LABEL 26. procfs-based 122 ip. 134. 164. 193. 201 LEN 68 letter 36 level 29. 128. 188 john 179. 29. 164. 181. 198-9 jill 188 jobs 87. 87-91. 17. 26-7. 145-6. 167 kickstart-file/install/linux. 168. ns 159 ip address 131. 202 ldap directory information 201 ldap server 134-5. 93-7. 185-7. 212 kernel/crypto/module 89 Kernel Information 8. 149-50. 151. 161. 41 languages system 14 largefile 46 lastrunlevel 170 ldap 11. 204-6 list of 156. 167 interface. 160. 90 kernel/lib/zlib 89 kernel messages 92-3. 15. 80. 185 Kernel Services and Configuration 8 kernel subdirectory 88 keyboard 16. 52 K KB 56 kde 70 kernel 8. 139-40. 196. 32. 20-1 keys 30. 212 iptables modules 159. 201-2 LDAP Data Interchange Format 134. 176 level directories 35 level rpm configuration file 177 lib/modules 87-90 lib/modules/uname 89 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 133 . 169 keyboard layout 14. 201 ldap service service ldap start 135 ldap. 93. 142-3. 91. 18. 169 gpg 60 Kickstart 18 kickstart configurator 17 kickstart file 5. 169-71. 133-5.227 installation process 14-16. 94. 201 ldap directory 135. 212 iso9660 51 J jack 81.conf 133 ldapsearch 202 ldif 134. 18. 166. 187 kernel Modules 8. 30.com 164-5 Kickstart Kill Process 83 klogd 92-3 ko 89 ks 18 kudzu 19-20. 53. 211 IPC 127 IPC Service 127 ipt 88 iptables 158-9. 199 journaling feature 40. 50-1.

97-8. 100. 149-50. 188. 179. 126. 86-7. 208 mail server sendmal 207 mail services 11. 99. 199 list root 129 list service-name 38 list status 38 listing 19. 135. 185. 176. 205. 83. 136. 190. 103. 190-2. 92-3. 109. 67. 146-7. symbolic 35. 196 automounter 50-1 . 67-8. 56 Logical volume group support 54 login 33. 60. 149. 120. 88. 111. 101. 164. 143. default partition 164-5 maps 91. 147. 140. 70. 25. 199 links. 66. 151. 56-9. 161. 171-2 load average 84-5. 203 manager. 78-9. 150. 200 local system mget 131 local system mkdir 131 localdomain 135-6 localhost 99. 130. 150-1. 87. 60. 149. 150 Mail Transport Agent Switcher 152 mail transport agent work 153 Mail User Agent 146 mailbox 12. 128-30. 164. 198-202. 153-4. 128. 153. 133. 154. 152-5. 170-1. 103. 133. 208 logical volume 7. 127-8. 92. following 104-5. 70. 96. 152. 153. 132. 160. 168 linux file system structure 165 linux filesystem 48 list 38. 151. 106. 210 mail root 96 mail server 146-7. 87. 175 Logical Volume Group 6-7. 95-6. 129. 147. 147. 94. 183-4 LoadModule auth 102 local system 131. 132. 114. 84. 126. 207-10 Makefile 138. 85. 179. 207 default 152 mail server request 150. 187 Log Configuration Answer 184 Log File and Cache directory section 9. 104. 152 lsmod modulename 185 lvcreate 56 lvremove 57-8 M mac 187-8 mail 12. 87. 87. 129. 209 logging 92. 52. 150. 54. 131. 94-5. 191 entry domain Localdomain server 137 location 16. 112 log files 12. 209 mail transfer agent 146. 207-10 incoming 151-2 mail processes 155. 199 [5] list of commands 44. 94. 48 list of users 129. 191 logout 70 logs directory 100 lp 78-9. 151. 100-3 Linux 15. 132. 191. 25. 100. 112.228 LILO 165 line. 207 default 164 log information 8. 66. 50-1. 78-9. 60-1. 128. 196. 47. 114-15. 78. 208 main configuration file 100-1. 72. 207-8 locks 122 log 78. 148. 152. 152-4. 70. 199 anonymous user 129 initial 179 LogLevel 104. 152. 131-2. 60. 41. 138. 152. 130 lrwxrwxrwx 100 ls 46-7. 97-8.

46 mkfs 44-5. 190 command modprobe 89 driver 89. 21. 159. 56. 41-3. 50. 25. 33. 119. 172 mnt/win directory 120 modes 20. 42. 72 modinfo 88. 165 Modifying group information 7. 185 loaded 88. 29. 192-3 members 69. 63. 33 misc 50-1 mke2fs 44. 191. 185-6 modinfo modulename 185 modprobe 186 modprobe modulename 185 modsecurity directory 101 module modules/mod 102 module name 90 module-name 90 modules 87-90. 164 MBR (Master Boot Record) 14. 166. 82 mount 27.229 master 50 MASQUERADE 88 Master Boot Record (MBR) 14. 185-6. 173 mbr 16. 172-3. 49. 80. 166 package package-name. 210 Maximum number of running mail processes 154 MB 46. 80. 156. 168. 208 outgoing 149 Min/max values 68 minutes 30-1. 210 MAX 68-9 maximum number of mail processes 155. 212 authorization 100. 50. 42-3. 182 memory 85.usbmap kernel modules. 53. 100.list selinux policy 163 system-auth 161 modules directory 101 Modules Loaded 8. 165 graphics 33 multiuser 31. 169 safe probe 20. 172 mounted directory 44 mounting 6. 164 matt 180 max 154-5. 164 MD5 69-70 mdadm 53-4. 173-4 mnt/cdrom 80 mnt/win 120.networking modules. 102. 52. 197 mount-options-separated-by-comma 50-1 mount point 40. 174-5 mdadm device-name 175 mdadm raid-device-name 53-4. 172. 93. 175 mem 112. 73 Modifying user account 7. 50. 169 Multiuser mode booting 169 MYGROUP 127-8 . 187.symbols 87 modules. 104. 166. 166. 119-20. 185 remove. 112. 88 modules module 89-90 modules. 111.inputmap 88 monitor 17. 182 mount command 42-3. 25. 161. 183-4 messages 91. 150. 80.system 178 monitor type 21 Monitoring System performance 8. 53. 42-3. 50 Multiuser 31.

192-3 hot 112. 53. 48. 137-8. 155. 193 network 16-18. 193. 103. 135. 212 neat 22. 184. 140. 155 network usage information 184 networking 31. 119. 202-3 NIS server information 138. 143 OS 127 output 46. 135-7. 119. 166 network devices 14. 122. 190 N name 35. 71.230 Mysql 100. 22-3. 192-3 transit 112. 147. 187. 204 O objects 112-13. 196. 198-9 [3] Naming convention of files 35 nat 88 NAT filtering 159. 197 NFS server root user 196 NFS service 116. 184. 133. 166. 195 NIS server 11. 118. 144-5. 204 net 50. 131. 117. 114. 132 network port 163 network security 12. 17-18. 207 network access 135 Network Configuration 140. 173. 97. 170. 87-8. 101. 120 netbios 159 netmask 139. 197 NFS Configuration 196 NFS daemon 119. 41. 94. 166 network information 184 Network Information Service 135 network options 9. 204. 117. 197 nis 135. 104-5. 88. 166. 96. 202 nisdomainname domain-name-of-system ypdomainname domain-name-of-system 135 NISGRP 195 noauto option 172 nocrossmnt 122 nodaemon 32-3 nodev 51 nosuid 51 notauto option 172 nouser 42 ntfs 45. 197 NFS Server Administration Answer 196 NFS Server Configuration 10. 134. 35-6. 139. 201-2. 91. 118 order 35-6. 79-80 NFS 3. 116. 187-9. 88. 196 NFS server configuration utility 120. 203 NIS domain name 11. 138-40. 114. 61. 169 organizations 116. 120. 63. 122. 102. 120. 128-9. 203 NIS server name 137 NIS version 138 nisdomainname 135-6. 121 NFS directory 10. 202 NIS group 117. 93. 122. 197 option url 17 options format 10. 196. 94. 117. 142. 203 files nisplus 138 NIS database 11. 179 . 69. 48 number 29. 68. 85. 126. 31. 61-2. 174. 192-3 operation 50. 136-9. 53. 111. 195-6 nfsstat 122. 197 NFS server 15. 201 overridden 46. 119. 104. 119-20.

17. 161. 174 proc 41-2. 161. 86. 183-7. 85. 71. 124. 65. 177 software 14. 129. 78. 64-6. 180-1 passwd user-name 76 passwd command id 181 password 15. 186 privilege 78-81. 74. 40. 139. 171 . 58. 157 partition 14. 59. 52. 166 Perl 100. 132. 71. 47-8. 97. 102. 178 package name 61 package-name 62. 123-5. 211 port panel 158 postfix 12. 209 list postfix service 150 postfix mail server 151 postfix server 150-3. 155. 146. 167. 168-9. 172 disk 40. 66. 5. 180 path 18. 96. 122 Prints 63 priority 36. 145. 182-3 P Package management and Kickstart 3 Package Manager 7. 154. 14. 144-5. 150-3. 181-2. 148. 32-3 powerfail action 30. 208-9 postfix server log information 209 power 30-2 power failure 30. 62-4 istration xf0b7 3 pam 129. 171 filesystem-type source 172 pass 3. 126. 154 performance 110. 118. 111-12. 80. 176-8 gpgkeys of 176 installed 62. 170. 102. 102. 107-9. 171-3 dev/sda6 40. 90. 129 pop3 153-4 port 16. 177 package-name queries 178 package-name. 157 PASS 68 passwd 138. 121. 114-15. 107.yum install 178 package package-name 177 package processing 63 packages 3. 52-4. 66. 165. 52 Power Restored 32-3 powerfail 30. 121. 145. 168. 154-8. 190 physical volume 7. 177 yum install 61. 118. 203 port number 102. 193 pipe 94 Pluggable Authentication Module 93. 195. 191-2. 27. 98. 212 password of user 76.231 owner 81. 212 configuring 160 PAM configuration file 212 PAM modules 161-2. 54-5. 142. 134. 93. 68. 33 powerokwait 30. 189. 28-9. 76. 127. 43. 59-62. 160-1. 32-3 prefdm 32-3 prevrunlevel 170 printers 23-4. 47-8. 83-4. 121. 190 permission mask 69 PHP 100. 84. 175 pid 29. 32-3. 212 panel 53. 182-3 probing 20 problem 103.

53-4. 80. 16. 195 Red Hat 14-15. 173 proc/uptime 184 Process and Kernel Information 8. 142. 150. 36. 108-9. 62. 95 pts 85 Python 100. 5 Red Hat Certified Engineer Exam 3. 41. 91. 146 R raid 174-5 RAID 52 raid array 53 raid device name 53 raid-device-name 53-4. 192-3 ratio 45-6 rc 31-2. 84. 53-4. 208 remote system mput 131 remote system rename 131 remove 7. 184. 83-6. 161. 62. 27. 136. 156.232 proc/modules 185 proc/swaps 47-8. 169. 171. 146 protocols 101. 194. 23. 57-8. 89-90. 165. 35-6. 207-8 RELAY 150. 69. 121. 69. 191 prompt 30. 164 Red Hat Linux 14. 144 properties button 74. 182 properties 59. 58-9. 168. 122. 143. 32-4. 164. 102. 153-4. 174-5 RAID devices 52-3 raid devices information 53 RAID disks 6. 52 raid level information 53 raid options panel 53 ram 192-3 RAM memory 84. 144. 186 remove user groups 69 . 194 running 90 total number of 84. 158 proxy 104-5 ps 20. 191 programs 35. 154-5. 209 proxy 114. 112. 190 Q QMAIL 67-8 queries 62. 171 rc1 34. 184 process pid 90. 186 processes 8. 28. 210 active 83 concurrent 201 postfix daemon 151. 120. 168 Red Hat Certified Engineer 3. 175 raid-device-name device-name 175 raid devices 53-4. 93. 169 rc.sysinit 31-2 read/write 55. 94-5. 184 process PID 41 process priority 91. 172 relay 147. 36 rc5 32. 5 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 14. 29-30. 90 process id 91. 204 process identification number 29. 64. 175. 183-6. 184 processes tab 83 profile 70 program dnsserver 111. 77. 184 zombie 84. 57 reconfigure 116. 25. 167-9. 90-1.

188 maps 196 maps client 196 privilege of 78. 118. 150. 135-6.log 164 root password 14. 100. 169-71 previous 36. 99. 122. 82. 93-8. 67. 77-9. 212 iptable 158-9 runlevel 6. 62 rpm package information 177 storing 64. 85. 167 root directory 105. 180-3. 181-2. 5 RH systems 69 RHCE 3. 168 rootnoverify option 168 rpm 7. 176-7 rpm configuration file 176 user level 64 rpm format 59. 89 respawn 29. 164. 120. 195 service nfs 119 service sqd 195 service squidd 195 restarting 119. 93-4. 32-3 restart 40. 169 document 109 root/install-log. 122. 5 ro 51. 26-7. 36-9. 197 samba server status information 198 samba users 123-6. 59.233 Removing module 8. 194 root/anaconda-ks. 122 S Samba 3. 198 . 66. 70.info 164 root/install. 62-3. 122 root@localhost postfix 150-1 root@localhost pub 20-4 root@localhost squid 112. 78. 70-3. 43-4. 210 rw 42. 99. 159-60. 171 runlevel service-name 170 runlevel values 29 running mail processes 154. 54. 140 [8] root@localhost alternatives 153 root@localhost cron 98 root@localhost dev 55-7 root@localhost home 47-8 root@localhost mail 148. 29-30. 80-1. 118. 198 list of 127. 78 root@localhost 17. 133 root run-parts 98-9 root user 42. 165. 127 Samba Server Configuration 10. 167. 122 root 15. 17. 32-9. 97. 118. 177 rules 112. 28. 118. 85-8. 159. 196 RH 3. 152 root@localhost nfs 119-20. 182 root user's password 76. 142. 177-8 rpm command 62-3 valid 177 rpm command uses 64. 116 rootnoverify 26-7. 114. 182 root privilege 182 root root 47. 94-9. 60. 170 standard 32 runlevel command 170 runlevel directories 35-7 runlevel field 29-30 runlevel scripts 169. 77. 58.cfg 16. 46. 52.

159. 195.234 sample 30.com 106 ServerRoot 101. 211 Security Level Configuration 12. 122. 159. 134-5. 198 web 9. 128. 112-13 global environment configuration 101 security 17. 98 sbin directory 80 sbin/fdisk 79-80 sbin/nologin 78-9 sbin/service 79 sbin/sfdisk 79-80 sbin/shutdown 31-3. 201 schema files 133-4. 169 schedule 31. 147-8. 139-40. 33. 207-9 default 153 sendmail server type 146 sendmail uses 147. 103. 134 server-name/cgi-bin/cachemgr. 70. 78-9. 213 SELinux administration 13. 206 search request 134. 137. 207 server 3. 127. 152-3. 157. 101. 163-4 SELinux 3. 93. 134-5. 134. 101. 138. 164. 191 Server Configuration 9. 203 security Configuration 211 security level 117. 201-2. 78-9. 159 sample format 94. 101-4. 115 sample questions 3 sbin 41. 208 sendmail 11. 92. 188 schema 133. 15.cgi 194 server root names 101 server section 9. 15. 148-50. 144-5. 32. 65-6. 190. 157. 213 SELinux user identities 163 Selinuxtype 163 sender 150. 99. 207-9 mail server 147 sendmail log information 149 sendmail restart 148 sendmail server 12. 162-3. 146-50. 50-1. 126. 118. 41-2. 106. 207-8 [6] demo sama 127-8 high performance proxy caching 111 proxy 104-5 samba 10. 136-7. 169. 34-6. 201 default ldap 202 scripts 29. 41. 114-16. 67. 162. 93-4. 168. 213 SELinux configuration file 162. 139. 201 section 9. 96-7 scheduled jobs 94-6. 205 Server Configuration Answer 205 server HOSTNAME 136-7 server information 101 server mirrorlist 61 server name 107. 45. 213 SELinux configurations 213 SELinux manager Answer 213 SELinux policies 162. 150. 171 search 60. 13. 146. 105. 211 security Level Configurations 211 selinux 17. 98. 99. 12. 103 server system 135 single web 106 ServerAdmin root@localhost 103 servername 17 ServerName 106 ServerName dummy-host. 152-3. 201 search tab user 66 seconds 27-8. 118.example. 190. 204-5. 190 . 157. 80.

155-6. 52. 182 shell script 34. 78. 189 service httpd start 38. 151. 33 size. 201-2 [20] set initdefault 30-1 share 121. 99. 199 service yp start 202 service ypserv start 203 terminal 137 service ypserver start 202 serviceconf 39. subdirectory 181 size of files 76. 65. 79-82. 27. 129-30. 145. 115. 139. 198 service smbd start 198 service vsftpd start 128. 181 SIZELIMIT 133-4. 198 samba 123. 130. 126. 199. 128 shell 67. 70-2. 36 new 37 samba 127. 171 services 10. 169-71. 170 service service-name start 38 service service-name stop 39 service smb start 127. 154. 127. 182 Shutdown Canceled 32-3 Shutting 119. 32. 128 shared directories 120. 21. 25. 125-7. 99. 80. 125. 30. 212 set 14. 120 default 152.235 service daemons 157 service ftp start 199 service ftpd start 199 service httpd 38-9. 61. 198 sharing 3 trusted 157 xinetd 156. 170-1. 160-1. 205. 143. 201 Smaba configuration Answer 197 Smaba Server configuration 197 socket 111. 79-80. 98-9. 210-12 alternatives 152 autofs 50. 152-3. 17. 195 service nfsd 195 service nfsd start 195 service passwd 161 service postfix start 153 service S10network 35 service samba start 198 service sendmail start 146 service service-name 37-9. 175 software configuration 33 software repositories 59. 182. 132. 209 dhcpd 139 dovecot 153-4. 189 service httpd stop 39 service management apps 80 service-name 170 service nfd start 195 service nfs start 116. 153 SIGKILL 185 signal 185 Single user mode 31. 210 managing 82 net-work 35 network 33. 156-7. 192 software 64. 211 ypbind 137 services Answer 210 session 160-1. 169 shutdown 30-3. 129. 101. 189. 170-1. 134-5. 176 . 103-4. 34-41.

77-80. 150 Starting Samba 10. 122. 82. 127 Starting Services 34 Starting squid 116 Starting vsftd 10. 137 startup 20. 128 Starting ypbind service 11. 143. 119 Starting NIS server 11. 181 subtree 122 success 161 suid 42 Sun Microsystems 135 swap 41-2. 189. 167 sysfs 41-2 sysinit 29-32 syslogd 9. 137 Starting postfix. service postfix start 151 Starting postfix server 12. 111-12. 99. 132. 64-6. 76. 148. 28. 127-8. 191-2. 39-40. 194-5 squid log files 112 squid reconfigure 195 squid restart 116. 143. 92. 1836. 183 status 37-8. 166 swpd 85 sync 78. 115-16. 47. 118. 119 Starting NFS quotas 116. 56. 130 synchronize system's clock 25 syntax 145. 206 sys 41. 116. 114-16. 45-7. 195 squid server 9. 130. 191 squid daemon 10. 85-6. 205 [10] Start Process 83 start squid 115 Starting Apache 9. 111. 91. 139. 61-2. 135-8. 187 system 25-6. 134-5. 79-80 subdirectories 40. 165 swap area 46-8 swap filesystem 173 swap partition 14. 33-4. 196-8 [21] . 34. 166-70. 181 subfolders 76. 191-4 squid start 116 squid user 114 squiduser 194 start 17. 97 statistics kernel NFS client 122 kernel NFS server 122 virtual memory 85. 137. 116. 29 Starting Named 11. 176 stop 35-7. 153 Starting httpd 39.236 source code 64-5 source filesystem 173 space 53. 165. 99 Starting init 5. 198-9. 194-5 server program 111. 173 swap space 6. 170-1. 119 Starting NFS mountd 116. 49-50. 46-7. 153. 29-30. 82-6. 174. 172-4. 181 amount of 77. 99 Starting Dovecot 12. 143 Starting NFS daemon 116. 127-8. 80-1. 176-7. 153 network service 36 service sendmail 153 storage 60. 119 Starting NFS services 10. 122. 35-40. 181 total 56 squash 118. 196 squid 3.

141. 107. 155. 166. 183. 155 system clock 34 system-config-bind 143. 125 samba user 124 tab user 132 server control 132 tar xvf 178 tcpd 156. 187 System Monitor 82. 169 system users 132 system users behavior 132 SystemManager 184 T tab 21. 144 basic 123. 196 system administrator execute 180 system-auth 160-1 system boots 30.uname 185 system initialization 31 System Log 86 system log information 184 System Log Manager 184 system log viewer 86. 23. 167 system-config-display 21 system-config-ftp 200 system-config-ftpd 200 system-config-httpd 106. 213 system-config-SElinux 213 system-config-SELinux 213 system-config-services 39. 181 system-config-usr 181 System-config-vsftp 200 system-config-vsftpd 131 system crontab file 98.237 system administration 7. 50. 184 system reboots 32. 190 system-config-https 190 system-config-keyboard 20 system-config-kickstart 17 system-config-level 211 System-config-logman 175 System-config-lv 175 system-config-lvm 58. 109. 140. 42. 187-8. 82. 205 system-config-boot 28 system-config-date 24. 197 System-config-nfsd 197 system-config-packages 65. 184 system administrator 180-1. 189 system information. 197 system-config-sambad 197 system-config-securelevel 211 system-config-security 211 system-config-securitylevel 157 system-config-selinux 162. 171 system-config-smb 197 system-config-soundcard 21 system-config-time 24. 167 system-config-users 73. 184 system logging 92. 175 system-config-manage 178 system-config-name 205 system-config-neat 166 system-config-net 166 system-config-network 22. 211 . 178 system-config-printer 23 system-config-samba 122. 204 system-config-nfs 120.

150-1. 70. 112 usage 49. 65-6. 201 timeout 26. 161. 178 xvf 178 unconfigures 20 uninitialized entries 59 Unix 127 Unix user name 198 UNIX user name 124. 129-30. 179-91. 27-8. 196 ban 132 bin/bash 71 bin/csh 71 common 40 configuration file 134 effective 114 etc/passwd filesystem 71 ldap directories 134. 27-30. 127 Unix username 198 unmount 43-4. 101-2. 174-7. 16-17. 115. 80 unmounting 6. 59. 62. 161. 128 uncompress 64. 199 menu option 83 modifying 82 multi 66 new 66-7. 83-7. 132.238 Te user 78 telinit 36. 180 normal 80 password 29 trusted 147 useradd 70 userdel 180 valid 126 user accesses 161. 132. 168 timezone 16-17 tmpfs 41-3 topics 3. 97 time 19. 93-4. 75. 160-1. 132. 69-71. 169. 176-7 upgrade 14. 149 type 17. 124-30. 115. 66-7. 45. 177 upgrade option 17. 91. 135. 170 telnet 156 text editors 16. 167 upload 128-9. 101. 43-4 update option 167 updates 20. 61-2 Use NIS 138 user 14-18. 197 user account apache 103 . 102-4. 158 UPS 31-2 uptime command uses 184 URI 133-4 url 17. 93-5. 201 local 128-9. 148. 78-80. 44. 157-8. 132. 206-9 [31] administrative 78. 47-8. 99. 52. 139-42. 167. 163 processor 185 running Linux system 42 U uid 68. 183 time-specification 94-5 TIMELIMIT 133-4. 61. 154. 127. 118. 115. 24-5. 198-201. 104-5. 84-5. 180 anonymous 128. 121. 185 uncomment 81. 196 umount 44 uname 87. 71.

90. 71-2. 93-4. 130. 124. 188 user-name V SDVVZRUG  user password. 106 user set 190 user squid 114 USER TTY 85 user user 180 user user-name 181 user Vishnu 182 user yum 59 user1 126 useradd 67-9. 149. 199 directive 199 usermod 72. 161. 74. 198 user login name 180 user lookups 138 user Mac 187 User Manager 180 user Manager Utility 180 User Manger 180 user Matt 179 user-name 72.Will root. 179 administrative 114 installation root 66 new 72 User Admin 180 User Administrator 180 User and Group Administration 7 user apache 102-3 user applications 41 user button 75 new 124 User Configuration 180 user doesn W  user don W  user id 78. 97. 78.239 user account john 179 user accounts 66-7. 179-80 user-id 72 user information 72. 71-2. 180 username 188 users don W  users group 80 users Jack 188 users John 199 users localhost 80 users SELinux security cate-gory 163 users tab 132 user. 161 user requests 49. 180 user issues 183. administrative 182 user V  user V HQWU\ YDOLG  user V SDVVZRUG  . 71-2. 182 his/her 103 useradd options 66 user names 15. 76. 151. 187 user issues command insmod 185 user jack 81 user Jack 181. 76. changing 7. 180 userdel user-name 72 USERGROUPS 69 userid 71 userlist 129. 72. 78-9. 180 useradd command line 69 useradd user-name 67 userdel 69.

149. 165-6. 60. 36. 149. 177 var/lib/rpm/Name 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Packages 63-4 var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys 63-4 var/log/cron 92-3. 171 system monitor 82 user manager 73 utility Answer 175 utility Network Configuration 140 V values 29. 96 Using chkconfig 171 Using command chkconfig 6. 28. 87. 172-3 vfat filesystem type 172 vgcreate 55. 59. 145. 91. 193 var/temp 179 var/yp/securenets 203 vendor V VWDWHPHQW  verbose information 63. 152 var/spool/squid 112. 191 [4] var/cache/mod 105 var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. 152. 178. 175 video card 17. 197 daemon Configuration 131. 144-5. 106. 204 var/lib/nfs directory 122. 45. 139. 78. 200 network configuration 142 samba server configuration 122 service configuration 39. 69. 98.240 Using batch command 9. 182. 77.log 60.log 130. 131. 53. 82 Using tar xvf 178 Using User Manager 7. 206-7 var/run directory 101 var/spool/at 96. 151 var/spool/mail directory 70 var/spool/mail/stats 208 var/spool/postfix 12. 37 Using mdadm command 53 Using modprobe command 8. 134. 162-3. 198 vmlinuz 15 vol 55-7. 125.log 154 var/log/httpd directory 100 var/log/maillog 92.leases 140. 200 var/log/yum. 59 . 177 Very Secure 10. 187 var/log/dovecot. 171. 197 var/lib/rpm 64. 200 vfat 43. 209 var/log/vsftpd. 48. 175 vgextend 55. 189 var/spool/mail 68. 123. 159. 199 usr/lib/httpd/modules 189 usr/lib/httpd/modules directory 101-2 usr/local 97-8 usr/sbin directory 79 utility 22-4. 198 samba user 127. 132. 188 var/spool/cron directory 97. 50. 71. 131. 184. 73 usr 40-1. 89 Using system-config-cache 194 Using system monitor 177 Using System Monitor 8. 21 View Process 83 Virtual server files 147 Virtual users file 147 VirtualHost 106 vishnu 126-7. 176 var/named/data/cache 145.

86. 122. 127. 65-6 web browser 100. 176 yum uses 59-60 Z zombie processes usage detail zone file directory 145 184 . 34. 27.com 106 X xconfig 16-17 -18. 144 st 144 xferlog 129 xfs 45. 168. 203 ypdomainname 135-6. 172 windows user name 124. 103-4. 82.conf 166 Y yp 138. 210-11 xorg. 198 won W  workgroup 128 writable option 125-6 www/docs/dummy-host. 23. 84.241 volume group 7. 152. 119. 53. 200 VSFTP daemon Configuration 200 vsftpd 128 VSFTPD Configuration Answer 200 vsftpd service 128 vsftpd userlist 129 vv 63-4. 191 wdelay 122 web 59-61. 175 vsftp 128-9. 59. 104. 155-6. 132. 20. 55-6.example. 25. 58-9. 122. 27. 98. 75. 191 wheel 80 Window System 3 windows 25. 202 ypserver HOSTNAME 136 yum 59-60. 48 xinetd 3. 177 W warn 68.

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