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Reporters: Arianne Garcia, RN Isabel Nunag, RN Julie Mae Formales, RN
“Learning is not attained by chance. It must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence.” -Abigael Adams
is one of the most important mental function of humans, animals and artificial cognitive systems. It relies on the acquisition of different types of knowledge supported by perceived information. It leads to the development of new capacities, skills, values, understanding, and preferences. Its goal is the increasing of individual and group experience.
Teacher-directed Learning Strategies VS Student-directed Learning Strategies
According to Slavin (2003) One of the most important principles of educational psychology is that teachers cannot simply give students knowledge. Students must construct knowledge in their own minds. The teacher can facilitate this process by teaching in ways that make information meaningful and relevant to students, by giving students opportunities to discover or apply ideas themselves and by teaching students to be aware of and consciously use their own strategies for learning. Teachers can give students ladders that lead to higher understanding, yet the students themselves must climb these ladders.
Student-directed Learning Strategies
1. Focus on the learner rather than the teacher 2. Based on the constructivist model
- students must BUILD their own knowledge through activities that engage them in ACTIVE learning.
According to Carter and et.al (2000) there is no one “best” way to learn. Instead there are many different LEARNING STYLES.
In this session we will be discussing: What constructivism is, The students learning style according to Howard Gardner “Theory of Multiple Intelligence”. Different models of Student-directed learning strategies.
Howard Gardner Howard Gardner is a psychologist based at Harvard University best known for his theory of multiple intelligences. In 1981 he was awarded a MacArthur Prize Fellowship; (born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA in 1943).
Eight distinct intelligences according to Gardner: 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Verbal-linguistic intelligence- listening, reading, writing, speaking Logical-mathematical intelligence- math, science, patterns, sequences Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence- coordination, working with hands Visual-spatial intelligence- visual art, graphic design, charts and maps Interpersonal intelligence- social activity, cooperative learning, teamwork 8. Intrapersonal Intelligence- self-awareness, independence, time spent alone 9. Musical Intelligence- music, sensitivity to sound, understanding patterns 10. Naturalistic Intelligence- interest in nature, environmental balance, ecosystem, stress relief brought by natural environments
Advantage of knowing your learning style 1. Help you see how you operate in every arena of life- how you think, how you relate to others, how you understand yourself and more. 2. You can use techniques that take advantage of your highly developed areas while helping you through your less developed ones. 3. You will have a better chance of avoiding problematic situations. 4. You will be more successful on the job 5. You will be more able to target areas that need improvement.
THE INDUCTIVE MODEL A straightforward but powerful strategy designed to help students acquire a deep and thorough understanding of the topics they’re studying. Teachers present students with information that illustrates the topics and then guide students as they search for relationships in the information. Grounded in the view that learners construct their own understanding of the world rather than recording it in an already-organized form, the model requires teachers to be skilled in questioning and guiding student thinking. The model is effective for promoting student involvement and motivation within a safe and supportive learning environment.
The essential steps of the model First Second Third Fourth - The topics the teachers focused on were specific and well defined. - The teacher will start with an example or set of examples. - The teacher guided the students from the examples to the conclusions in each case. - Under the teacher’s guidance, the students used basic cognitive skills, such as observing, comparing and contrasting, and finding relationships to reach the teachers’ goals.
The Teacher’s Role • • • • • Establish positive expectation Keep students on task Actively guide the learning activity Guides to increase student achievement Does not display or demonstrate information for students and then explain it • Presents carefully chosen examples and guides students as they form their own understanding of the topic • Teachers must be expert in questioning
Goals for Inductive Model
• To help students acquire a deep and thorough understanding of specific topics. • It is designed to put students in an active role in the process of constructing their understanding.
Planning with the Inductive Model
Identifying topics Specifying Goals Selecting Examples
Implementing Lessons Using the Inductive Model
Lessons using the Inductive Model begin with a short introduction followed by an open-ended phase in which students are encouraged to make observations and comparisons among examples. The open-ended phase is followed by students’ gradual convergence toward the goal under guidance of the teacher. Lessons are completed when the students are able to define a concept or state a relationship in a principle, generalizations, or academic rule, and apply the topic to a new, and ideally real-world situation.
Emphasis on thinking and understanding
Promoting deep understanding of topics and developing critical thinking abilities is accomplished primarily with teacher questioning. Questions such as, “Why?” “How to we know?” and “What would happen if?” promote both thinking and understanding. Although teachers typically ask few of these questions, with effort and practice using them can become virtually automatic.
Assessing Student Learning
Effective assessments are consistent with teachers’ goals. Both traditional and alternative assessments in the form of performance assessments can be used to measure student understanding.
CONCEPT – ATTAINMENT MODELS
The model uses positive and negative examples to illustrate concepts and these become the basis for students’ constructions. This model is consistent with the view of constructivism which suggest that learners “construct” their own understanding of the way the world works rather than having it presented to them in an already organized form.
Social Structure of the Model The student feels free to think and test their ideas. The teacher’s role is to help create an environment in which students feel free to think and conjecture without fear for criticism or ridicule, and both teachers performed this role very well. Goals for the Concept – Attainment Model Helping students develop concepts and relationship among them and giving them practice with critical thinking processes.
Planning Lessons with the Concept – Attainment Model Identifying topics The importance of clear goals Selecting examples Preparing non examples Sequencing examples and non examples
Phases in the Goal Attainment Model The Concept – Attainment Model occurs in four phases. The activity begins when the teacher presents examples and continues until the students have isolated a single hypothesis. Phase I. Presenting Examples The teacher presents the students with examples. Typically, it will be an example and a non-example Phase II. Analyzing Hypotheses The teacher asks the students to hypothesize possible concept names. These hypotheses are then the focal points for the analysis.
The Cyclical Process – The teacher cycles through 1 and 2 by alternately presenting examples and analyzing the hypotheses. In the process, ask the students to explain why they accepted or rejected the hypothesis. Two Reasons for asking students to explain why they accepted or rejected the hypothesis. Articulating their reasoning helps them develop their thinking. Other students benefit from hearing their reasoning described in words.
Phase III. Closure Once the students have isolated a hypothesis, the lesson is ready for closure. The teacher asks the students to identify the critical characteristics of the concept and state a definition. Phase IV. Application Designed to increase students’ understanding of the concept and help them generalize to new examples. It provides students with opportunities to test their understanding with additional examples, and it gives the teacher feedback about that understanding.
Using the Concept – Attainment Model to Increase the Motivation and Self Regulation
Increasing Learner Motivation Implementing lessons - the model is flexible and can be fun for both the teacher and the students. It is presented as a game – type. Adds variety to classroom activities, developing self-regulation Developing Self – Regulation Encouraging students to think about their own thinking helped them recognize that the process they were involved in had utility beyond the classroom.
Implementing Concept – Attainment Model Activity It is important to consider the developmental level of the students. Concept – Attainment Model II It is a modification in the basic procedure designed to increase the emphasis on hypothesis testing and critical thinking. It begins in the same way as the basic procedure. But instead of presenting subsequent examples one at a time as in Concept – Attainment Model I, the teacher displays all the examples. The students are encouraged to scan the list for examples that might substantiate the hypothesis on the list. They choose an example and indicate whether they think it is positive or negative.
They also state which hypothesis would have to be rejected if their classification is correct. The teacher verifies the classification. If the classification is correct, the appropriate changes are made in the list of hypothesis; if incorrect, the hypotheses are reanalyzed in the light of the new information. The students then select additional examples and continue the process until one hypothesis is isolated. Goal testing. For the students to develop efficiency in their hypothesis
Concept – Attainment Model III Designed to extend the process of hypothesis testing even further. With Concept – Attainment Model III, after seeing the first two examples identified and labeled, students hypothesize concept names, but then they must supply their own examples and test the hypothesis.
Advantages: 3. The opportunity it affords learners to gather data. 4. More authentic or realistic than Concept – Attainment Model I or Concept – Attainment Model II. 5. Students actively investigate a concept they don’t fully understand. 6. Students can use of their own background knowledge and initiative in investigating hypotheses 7. This increases their control of the learning activity, which has been identified by researchers as a factor increasing learner’s intrinsic motivation
Assessing Student Outcomes of Concept – Attainment Activities Two outcomes: 4.Deeper understanding of concepts 5.Increases critical thinking activities Assessing Understanding of Concepts Students’ attainment of a concept can be measured in one or more of four ways: 10.They identify or supply examples of the concept not previously encountered 11.They identify the concepts characteristics 12.They relate the concept in other concepts 13.They define concept.
Assessing Student’s Critical Thinking Abilities More important than assessing their understanding of the concept itself. It involves simultaneous assessment of content understanding.