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Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Action

Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Action

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Published by: jellpen on Nov 11, 2010
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11/30/2011

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Like many other concepts borrowed from the behavioral sciences, the meaning

of reference group has changed over the years. As originally employed,

reference groups were narrowly defined to include only those groups with which

a person interacted on a direct basis (e.g., family and close friends). However,

the concept has gradually broadened to include both direct and indirect

individual or group influences. Indirect reference groups consist of those

individuals or groups with whom a person does not have direct face-to-face

contact, such as movie stars, sports heroes, political leaders, or TV personalities.

Referents that a person might use in evaluating his or her own general or

specific attitudes or behavior vary from an individual to several family members

to a broader kinship, from a voluntary association to a social class, a profession,

an ethnic group, a community, or even a nation.

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