TWO TYPES OF EXPERIMENTS

• Single Factor Experiments - several levels of one factor are being tested while keeping all other factors at a constant level. Example: Varietal trial - several varieties are tested under uniform management and cultural practices. • Multi-factor or factorial experiments - test two or more factors simultaneously. Example: Testing five varieties under four nitrogen rates.

Presentation Title Goes Here Introduction to Experimental Designs
…presentation subtitle.
Violeta Bartolome Senior Associate Scientist-Biometrics Crop Research Informatics Laboratory International Rice Research Institute

:: color, composition, and layout

Experimental designs applicable to single-factor experiments
• Complete Block Design (completely randomized, randomized complete block and latin square designs). generally used for experiments with a small number of treatments. o characterized by blocks, each of which contains the complete set of treatments. • Incomplete Block Designs (lattices, alpha-lattice, and group balanced block designs).
o o o

Completely Randomized Design (CRD)
• Appropriate only for experiments with no obvious heterogeneity between experimental units. • Any difference among experimental units receiving the same treatment is considered as experimental error. • Treatments are assigned completely at random so that each experimental unit has the same chance of receiving each of the treatments.

generally used for experiments with a large number of treatments. characterized by blocks, each of which contains only a fraction of the treatments to be tested.
:: color, composition, and layout :: color, composition, and layout

A field experiment is to be conducted in CRD with 5 treatments and 4 replications. How do you make the layout? Step1: Divide the area into 5 trts x 4 reps = 20 plots.

Near homogeneous area
:: color, composition, and layout :: color, composition, and layout

T1 T3 T4 T1 T2

T4 T2 T2 T5 T5

T3 T5 T1 T4 T3

T5 T1 T3 T2 T4

Step2: On 20 pieces of paper, write treatment numbers and put in box. Step3: Assign treatment on each plot by drawing lots.

Randomized Complete Block Design (RCB)
• When the experimental units are not homogeneous and it is possible to group the experimental units into blocks such that experimental units within each block are more homogeneous than those between blocks. • The presence of blocks, each containing all the treatments, is the primary distinguishing feature of the RCB design.

In CRD, the treatments are assigned completely at random
:: color, composition, and layout :: color, composition, and layout

An experiment is to be conducted in RCB with 5 treatments and 4 replications. How do you make the layout? fertility gradient

fertility gradient T4 T1 T3 T2 T5
Block I

T5 T3 T1 T4 T2
Block II

T2 T3 T5 T4 T1
Block III

T4 T5 T3 T1 T2
Block IV

First, divide the field into 4 equal parts, each part representing one block. Next, divide each block into 5 equal parts, each part representing one plot. Then randomly assign the 5 treatments to the 5 plots in each block.
:: color, composition, and layout

:: color, composition, and layout

Advantage of RCB Latin Square
Block Variation

CRD ERROR
RCBD ERROR

Experimental error is minimized by removing block variation from the error.
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• Capacity to simultaneously handle two known sources of variation. • A treatment appears only once in each row or column. • To randomize, use basic plans found in some statistics book. • Number of treatments should be equal to number of replications. • Very seldom used in agricultural experiment.

:: color, composition, and layout

Example of LATIN SQUARE layout
fertility gradient
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4

Advantage of Latin Square
Block Row Variation Variation

T1 T3 T2 T4

T2 T4

T4 T1 T3 T2

T3 T2 T4 T1

Row 1
Column Variation

Row 2 Row 3 Row 4

Latin Square Error

RCBD ERROR

T1 T3

:: color, composition, and layout

Experimental error is minimized by removing row and column variations :: color, composition, and layout from the error.

FACTORIAL EXPERIMENTS
Two or more factors are tested simultaneously.
Example: 2 levels of Variety (V1, V2) 3 levels of Land Preparation (L1, L2, L3) The treatments are: V1L1 V2L1 V1L2 V2L2 V1L3 V2L3

Advantages of factorial experiments
• Provide for examination of interaction among the various factors tested. • Economical by comparison to several single factor experiments. • Broadens applicability of main effect conclusions.

:: color, composition, and layout

:: color, composition, and layout

Designs Applicable To Factorial Experiments
• Completely Randomized Design • Randomized Complete Block Design • Latin Square Design • Split Plot Family of Designs • Strip Plot Family of Designs

An experiment involving 5 N-rates and 4 Varieties is to be conducted in a RCB design in 3 replications. How do you make the layout?

V2 60 V4 90 V3 30 V1 30 V4 60

V4 30 V2 30 V4 120 V2 120 V1 90

V3 90 V1 60 V2 0 V4 0 V3 60

V1 120 V3 0 V3 120 V2 90 V1 0

V4 60 V3 0 V2 30 V1 30 V4 0

V2 120

V3 90

V1 60 V2 0 V3 120 V1 90 V3 30

V3 60 V2 120 V2 0 V4 30 V1 60

V1 V4 120 120 V1 0 V4 30 V2 60 V4 90 V3 30 V3 120 V3 0 V2 30

V2 90 V1 90 V4 0 V1 30 V3 90

V4 V1 120 120 V3 120 V2 90 V2 60 V2 30 V3 60 V4 90

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Block 1

Block 2

:: color, composition, and layout

Block 3

An experiment involving 5 N-rates and 4 Varieties is to be conducted in a Split-plot design in 3 replications. How do you make the layout?

Split-Plot Design
30

• Has two plot sizes: the larger one is called mainplot and the
smaller one subplot. • Precision for the comparison of the subplot treatments is expected to be higher than that for the mainplot treatments. • Smaller difference can be detected among subplot treatments than among mainplot treatments.

60

90

0

120
:: color, composition, and layout

Block 1

Block 2

:: color, composition, and layout

Block 3

An experiment involving 5 N-rates and 4 Varieties is to be conducted in a Split-plot design in 3 replications. How do you make the layout?

30
30 0 60

0 90 30 120 60 Block 2

60 120 90 0 30 Block 3
:: color, composition, and layout

60

90

120

60 90 0

90

30

0

0

120

0

120
120 60 30

Block 1 Block 1 Block 2
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Block 3

V2

V3 30V1

V4

0 90 30 120 60 Block 2

60 120 90 0 30 Block 3
:: color, composition, and layout

V2

V3 30 V1

V4

V4

V2 0 V1

V3

V2

V3 60 V4

V1

60 90 0 120 Block 1

V3

V4 60V2

V1

V3

V4 90 V2 V1 30 V3

V1

V4

V3120 2 V

V1

V2

V1 90 V4 V3 0 V2

V3

V4

V2

V1

V4 90 V3 V2 0 V1

V2

V4

V1

V2

V3120 4 V

V1

V3

V4

V1

V2120 3 V

V4

V1

V2 60V4

V3

V4

V1 30 V3

V2

Block 1

Block 2

Block 3
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Possible Reasons for Using Split-Plot
• Management requirement: some treatments such as water management is easier to manage in bigger plot. • Insertion of an additional factor into an established experiment. • Need to increase precision on the effect of one factor at the expense of another.

Strip-Plot Design
• Higher degree of precision is given to the measurement of the interaction effect than main effects. • Horizontal and vertical plots are perpendicular to each other. There is no relationship between their sizes. • Can accommodate two mechanical factors.

:: color, composition, and layout

:: color, composition, and layout

Suppose an experiment involving 5 N-rates and 4 Water Levels is to be conducted in a Strip-plot design in 3 replications. How do you make the layout?

Suppose an experiment involving 5 N-rates and 4 Water levels to be conducted in a Strip-plot design in 3 replications. How do you make the layout?

30

30

90

0

120

120

60

30

90

90

30

60

0

0

120

120

60

60

0

90
:: color, composition, and layout

Block 1

Block 2

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Block 3

Block 1

Block 2

Block 3

W1 W3 W4 W2 30 120 90 0 60 Block 1 90 60 30 120 0 Block 2 0 30 60 120 90 Block 3
:: color, composition, and layout

W1 W3 W4 W2 W3 w 4 30 120 90 0 60 Block 1 90 60 30

W1 W2 W3 W2 W1 W4 0 30 60 120 90 Block 3
:: color, composition, and layout

120 0 Block 2

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