Visual Presentation Tutorial

For The St. Martin s Guide to Public Speaking ©2003 Bedford/St. Martin s

Audiovisual Aids
Anything that audience members can see or hear (in addition to your speech) that helps them understand and remember your speech topic

Seeing (and Hearing) Is Believing
Audiovisual aids can enhance understanding and retention of concepts. Facts and concepts are more likely to be learned if they are accompanied by visual cues. Audiovisual aids should be relevant to the speech topic.

Types of Audiovisual Aids
The Speaker
The speaker sometimes becomes a visual aid when an explanation requires modeling.
Physical movement Clothing

Types of Audiovisual Aids
Physical Objects
Any physical object can be a visual aid.

Types of Audiovisual Aids
Assistants
Use an assistant when a demonstration might cut into speech time or decrease interaction with the audience.

Types of Audiovisual Aids
Maps, Charts, Graphs, Drawings, and Photographs
Map: a visual representation of geography Chart: any graphic representation that summarizes information and ideas Graph: usually employed to show a quantitative relationship

Types of Audiovisual Aids
Maps, Charts, Graphs, Drawings, and Photographs
Three types of charts:
verbal chart: uses words to explain ideas, concepts, or general information pie chart: displays proportions and percentages in relation to each other flow chart: demonstrates the flow or direction of information, processes, and ideas

Types of Audiovisual Aids
Maps, Charts, Graphs, Drawings, and Photographs
Two types of graphs:
Line graph: shows the linear relationship between data plotted on the horizontal axis and data plotted on the vertical axis Bar graph: consists of parallel bars of varying lengths -- those lengths being proportionate to the quantities being compared

Types of Audiovisual Aids
Maps, Charts, Graphs, Drawings, and Photographs
Use a drawing or photograph to depict what is being described orally

Types of Audiovisual Aids
Computer Technology and Visual Aids
Use software programs to create tables, charts, and graphs. Other programs can help you create illustrations, scan photographs, or use pictures from digital cameras.

Types of Audiovisual Aids
Technology and Audio Aids
For audio aids consider CDs, audiocassettes, and records. Some presentations may benefit from multiple audio aids.

Audience Analysis and the Selection of Audiovisual Aids
Consider the forum where your speech will be held. Consider the demographics of your audience. Remember that your audience may have some prior exposure to your aid.

Advantages Offered by Audiovisual Aids
Audiovisual aids can...
make a dull or boring presentation more interesting simplify a complex speech message

Rules for Preparing Audiovisual Aids
Be sure that the audiovisual aid supports your point. Consider your audience analysis when deciding what audiovisual aids you will use. Make sure your audio aid is loud and clear. Make sure your visual aid is large enough to be seen.

Rules for Preparing Audiovisual Aids
Make sure your visual aid is legible and easily understood. Follow the rules of contrast.
Use dark colors against light backgrounds and light colors against dark backgrounds

Keep the message of the audiovisual aid simple. Do not create the audiovisual aid while you speak.

Rules for Delivering Audiovisual Aids
Make sure your audiovisual aid is accessible to everyone in your audience. Control audience interaction with your audiovisual aid. Do not use the visual aid as an excuse to avoid looking at your audience.

Rules for Delivering Audiovisual Aids
Remember the role that the audiovisual aid plays in your speech. Visual aids should be displayed only during the time that you are using them to make a point in your speech.

The Power of Audiovisual Aids: Ethical Implications
There is a great potential for abuse of audiovisual aids. Be careful not to glamorize or popularize difficult topics as you translate them to a visual medium. Be aware that aids can oversimplify complex messages. Make sure your aids do not dilute or trivialize the content and power of your message.

The Power of Audiovisual Aids: Ethical Implications
Be aware of the power of an aid. Do not change the meaning of a photo by digitally altering it or use a bite of audio out of context.

A How-To Guide for Using Microsoft PowerPoint as a Presentation Aid

How-To Guide to PowerPoint
This guide offers straightforward advice that will help you use Microsoft PowerPoint to create effective and enjoyable presentations.

You don t want your slides to look like this:
Title too small Colors on the slide are distracting Texts overlap and have strange formatting

Font is small and hard to read

Clip art is too large; only one piece is necessary

Let¶s Begin!
PowerPoint is a Microsoft application. If you are proficient in programs such as Word and Excel, you are already familiar with over 100 common commands used by Microsoft Office software.

Let¶s Begin!
NOTE: All of the icons, example buttons, and toolbars shown in this slide show are taken from the PC version of PowerPoint. The Macintosh version is similar, yet slightly different.

To Use PowerPoint
Become familiar with the toolbars Select your presentation option Learn how to create a slide Learn how to organize design elements Learn how to balance design elements

Learning the Toolbars
Menu bar
Standard toolbar

Format -ting toolbar

View buttons

Drawing toolbar

Common tasks toolbar

Learning the Toolbars
The Menu bar The Standard toolbar The View toolbar The Drawing toolbar The Formatting toolbar The Common Tasks toolbar

Learning the Toolbars
The Menu bar contains the commands for which shortcuts exist on the toolbars.
For instance, under File you can find the option to Save your presentation, which is also available on the Standard toolbar. In the Formatting menu, you can click on Alignment and change the flow of text on your screen. You can also click one of the alignment icons on the Formatting toolbar to perform the same task.

Learning the Toolbars
The Standard toolbar contains a number of useful shortcuts:
New presentation Open a new or existing presentation Save Print Spelling

Learning the Toolbars
The Standard toolbar also includes a number of other shortcut features:
Insert a Microsoft Word Table Insert a Microsoft Excel Table Insert a Chart Insert Clip Art The Office Wizard. When you click this and type a question, it will search the Help index for possible answer.

Learning the Toolbars
The View toolbar gives different options for viewing slides:
Slide View: shows slides one by one Outline View: shows an outline of all slide text Slide Sorter View: places all the slides on one screen in slide format Note Pages View: allows you to add and read notes below each slide Slide Show: allows you to see the presentation

Learning the Toolbars
The Drawing toolbar gives shortcuts to:
AutoShapes: draw lines, arrows, rectangles, and ovals; access the AutoShapes menu Text boxes: draw these where you wish to add text on a blank slide or add text to an existing slide Line color, font color, and fill color options, with menus Dash style and 3-D options The Draw button presents a menu of other ways to manipulate your text and clip art, including rotation, alignment, and alterations to AutoShapes.

Learning the Toolbars
The Formatting toolbar allows you to:
Change font Change font size Add boldface, italics, underlining, and shading to text Create animation effects Change paragraph alignment

Learning the Toolbars
The New Slide button inserts a new slide directly following the slide currently being viewed. The Slide Layout button gives choices of layouts for different pre-designed text box and clip art formations. The Apply Design button gives pre-designed slide aesthetic options.

Learning the Toolbars
Finally, on the View menu you can choose which toolbars are available at any give time:
Click View Scroll down to Toolbars Select or deselect your preferences

Select Presentation Option

When PowerPoint launches you will see the screen above. Here you select how you would like to create your presentation.

Select Presentation Option
The AutoContent Wizard is useful for those who are unfamiliar with PowerPoint or who need extra help. It sets up an index of slides with preloaded titles, points, subpoints, and designs.

Select Presentation Option
The Template option provides moderate flexibility in designing presentations. You choose from 28 templates to organize your points, subpoints, and design.

Select Presentation Option
The Blank Presentation option offers the most flexibility. Users customize every aspect of the design for each individual slide.

The following slides will teach you how to work from Blank Presentation.

How to Create a Slide
Click New Slide to select a layout for the title slide. To change the color of the slide either right-click it and select Slide Color Scheme or select Format and then Slide Color Scheme from the Menu bar.

How to Create a Slide
You choose the color scheme and format of the slide, and if you wish you can also apply these choices to all of the following slides. You can change the color scheme of one or all of your slides at any time.

How to Create a Slide
To change the order of the slides, first ) from the select Slide Sorter View ( View toolbar. You can move slides by cutting and pasting or dragging and dropping To delete a slide, either click on it while in Slide Sorter View or go to it in Slide View ( ), then select Edit from the Menu bar and click on Delete Slide.

Organizing Design Elements
Text Clip art and pictures Animation effects Balancing the elements

Organizing Text
As you can see from this slide, text boxes can be put anywhere.

Click on the icon on the Drawing toolbar.
With the cursor, draw the approximate size you need for your text.

Organizing Text
You can expand the box to include more text or make it smaller to make room for other design elements on the slide. The predesigned selections from the Slide Layout screen offer the most logical and often-used layouts.

Organizing Text
Use a readable font and font size for each different aspect of the page (a good size range is between 20-60 points). Be consistent from slide to slide with fonts and font sizes. Choose colors that will ensure that your text is readable and your slides do not appear distracting.

Organizing Text
‡ Don·t use too many DIFFERENT fonts. ‡ DON¶T USE ALL CAPS. ‡ Avoid fonts that are distracting:
­ BRAGGADOCIO ² OzHandicraft BT

² Shelley Volante BT

Organizing Text
Don t include your entire speech on the slides. Instead highlight important points. To determine what information is best to include in your presentation, you should:
Review your speech outline. Identify points that can be illustrated, such as key terms and their definitions, statistics, or charts and graphs.

Organizing Clip Art and Pictures
To insert clip art onto your slide you can:
Select a slide layout that has a set space for clip art. When working on that slide, simply double-click on the clip art space and it will take you to the Microsoft Clip Gallery. Use the Insert menu, click Picture, and then select Clip Art. Click on the shortcut icon:

Organizing Clip Art and Pictures
To insert your own photos or graphics rather than ones from the gallery, click Insert, scroll to Picture, and select From File. Here you can browse your computer and choose art from your own files.

Organizing Clip Art and Pictures
If you cannot find what you need in the gallery or your own resources, you have another option. Downloads of more images are available free from Microsoft via the Internet. In the gallery, click on the icon in the bottom right corner. Search by key word to find what you need.

Organizing Clip Art and Pictures
PowerPoint can incorporate graphs and charts as well. On the Standard toolbar, there are shortcuts for inserting Microsoft Word tables and Microsoft Excel worksheets and graphs or charts to fit your information. . Change the numbers and labels on the graphs

Organizing Clip Art and Pictures
Remember: use clip art, pictures, charts, and graphs only to illustrate points, not as fillers.

Organizing Animation Effects
PowerPoint has a variety of different ways that text and art can be animated. For example:
Fly from Bottom-Left Blinds Vertical Dissolve Peek from Bottom Spiral Appear Zoom In

Stretch from Top Wipe Right Box Out

Checkerboard Across

Crawl from Right

Organizing Animation Effects
These effects can be interesting additions to your presentation, but they can also be distracting. Use them sparingly to add emphasis. To animate, right-click on the text or image and select Custom Animation from the menu. Select the effect you want to use, determine the order of the animations on the slide, and make sure to preview.

Organizing Animation Effects
Take time while in this screen to determine how your animation effects will appear. Clicking on the Timing menu gives you options so that your textboxes, clip art, and other animation elements can be presented on a mouse click, automatically, or automatically after a preset length of time.

Balancing the Elements
Even if you follow all the suggestions for setting up your slide and its elements, you still may find that your presentation is hard to follow. It is important to go back through your completed presentation and make sure that the overall experience of watching it is pleasant as well as educational.

Balancing the Elements
Defining a balanced slide may seem like a matter of opinion, but there are concrete criteria, including:
Clip art and text must fit together well. No element -- title, points, graphics -- should overpower the others. Headings should be consistent in size and placement. They should be large and clear. The audience should be able to understand each slide quickly and easily.

Example of a Balanced Slide
Text is easy to read and well sized. The clip art illustrates the slide and is well placed on the layout. The title is large and clear. Good use of contrasting colors on slide and in font.

Example of an Unbalanced Slide
Text is too small. Title and color scheme are still fine.

Clip art is too large. This slide is hard to read and places unnecessary emphasis on the artwork.

Balancing the Elements
If you are unsure whether your slide is well balanced, ask a friend or your instructor if they find your presentation easy to follow, and easy on the eye.

Giving Your Presentation
Make sure you have practiced giving your speech while using your PowerPoint presentation. It may be helpful to make notes on your cue cards or outline indicating when to move from one slide to the next. Time yourself giving your speech with the presentation. Make sure that you are within your assigned time limit.

Giving Your Presentation
In case of technical problems, be prepared to give your speech without your PowerPoint presentation. Consider making printouts of your presentation to give your classmates in case of technical problems.

Giving Your Presentation
To keep your audience from becoming distracted, you should also use blank slides when you are done with one slide and not yet ready for the next one. Consider this as you practice your speech with the presentation. Insert blank slides where you are speaking about something that departs from the contents on the slide.

The End

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