Monev and LnpIovee

Molivalion

Ianes Houian, Iiesidenl, 2O 2O SkiIIs¯ LnpIovee Assessnenl
Keilh Kefgen, Iresidenl, HVS Ixeculive Search
20120 5KILL5 A55E55MENT
372 WiIIis Ave.
MineoIa, NY 115O1
+1 516.248.8828 (ph)
+1 516.742.3O59 (fax)






www.2020ski!!s.cnm



Money and employee motivation 2.



Abstract. – Research consistently substantiates the effectiveness of financial incentives
on job performance, although companies need to consider the issue of job quantity versus
quality and also be aware of the limitations of financial incentives. Employees can have
vastly different motives for acquiring wealth – including using money to fulfill
psychological needs. Thus, it is not surprising that money alone is less an effective
motivator for employees than when it is used in conjunction with non-financial
reinforcements. We review the nuances of financial incentives and make basic
recommendations that can form the basis of best practice compensation and incentive
policies.


The 2020 Skills™ assessment is the only screening, selection and training assessment
guaranteed to satisfy professional testing and legal standards and which was designed
specifically for the hospitality-service industry. During the assessment test takers must
indicate the degree to which they disagree or agree with a number of statements that
pertain to their personality or approach to professional situations. One of those statements
is:

“Acceptance is more important to me than money”

How well does that statement describe you, your coworkers or executive team? More
importantly, what does one’s attitude towards money as a motivator actually reveal? This
article explores this latter question in the context of classic and recent research findings
pertaining to the workplace and beyond. Our aim is to outline the nuances of financial
incentives for enhancing job performance.



Understanding Materialism

Materialism is defined simply as when a person values money, wealth and possessions
over other things in life
14
. Studies have consistently shown that a materialistic focus in
life is associated with a lower psychological well-being
2,6,7,8,12
. Even though individuals
who are very poor financially demonstrate increased happiness when their income rises,
intensity of desire for wealth remains negatively correlated with psychological well-
being
2
. There are a few possible reasons for these trends
2
. Specifically, materialistic
pursuits do not provide what people are really looking for in their quest for happiness; the
tendency for those without much in the way of non-material resources to focus on
material goods or the endless and forever evolving supply of goods and services
produced in materialistic or capitalistic societies precludes satiation. They further
Money and employee motivation 3.

suggested that people who are unhappy or lacking in social connections may seek solace
in material goods, using external means to fulfill internal desires and aspirations
2
.

Some researchers
16
have argued that the motives that drive one to focus on money are
more relevant than the intensity of the focus itself, and they subsequently differentiate
between instrumental materialism and terminal materialism. Instrumental materialism
describes using material goods as a means for attaining personal goals and fulfillment;
whereas terminal materialism involves using material possessions to achieve social status
and elicit envy from others. They also divide motives for materialistic pursuit into three
different categories: positive, negative and freedom of action. Positive motives involve
using money for basic necessities and as a measure of achievement. Negative motives
refer to using money to gain power or superiority over others. Negative motives also
include efforts to allay one’s self-doubt. Motives concerning freedom of action simply
imply spending money in any way that one desires.

When the significant negative correlation between subjective well-being and money
importance was analyzed, while controlling for the influence of motivation, the
correlation lost its statistical significance. In addition, when calculated independently,
the relationship between negative motives and money importance was both negative and
statistically significant. As a result, the authors
16
attributed the correlation between
psychological well-being and money importance to negative motives alone. This suggests
that not all motives for wanting money lead to decreased happiness. Their findings
suggest that it is not the importance of money that contributes to well-being; rather,
attempting to use money to alleviate self-doubt and increase self-esteem leads to
problems. They add that such motives become problematic when money is used for
things it cannot provide, e.g., self-esteem, happiness and genuine friendship.

Overall, the research described above suggests that having money is not related to
personal happiness per se. However, whether people who have money or not, the amount
of importance they place on it can actually be maladaptive. Indeed, individuals who
consider money important tend to be less happy than those who place less importance on
money
2,16
.


Financial Incentives in the Workplace

No one works for free, nor should they. While pursuing money based on negative
motives can lead to a poorer psychological well-being, this is not the same as pursuing
money to provide security and comfort for oneself and family. Obviously, employees
want to earn fair wages and salaries, and employers want their workers to feel that is
what they are getting. To that end, it is logical that employees and employers alike view
money as the fundamental incentive for satisfactory job performance.

The use of monetary or other financial incentives in the classic “work performance
paradigm” is based primarily on reinforcement theory. Reinforcement theory
15
focuses on
the relationship between a target behavior (e.g., work performance) and its consequences
Money and employee motivation 4.

(e.g., pay), and it is premised on the principles and techniques of organizational behavior
modification
9,17
. Organizational behavior modification is a framework within which
employee behaviors are identified, measured and analyzed in terms of their functional
consequences (i.e., existing reinforcements) and where an intervention is developed using
principles of reinforcement
10,17
.
In a much publicized study, Gupta and her colleagues
5
analyzed thirty-nine studies
conducted over four decades and found that cold-hard cash motivates workers whether
their jobs are exciting or mundane, in labs and real-world settings alike. But the research
team acknowledges that money is not the only thing that concerns employees – noting
that beyond a certain point higher salaries will make employees happier, but it will not
“buy” better performance. Still, Gupta warns that employers who dole out small merit
raises – less than 7% of base pay – may do more harm than good. According to her, small
raises can actually be dysfunctional in terms of motivation because employees become
irritated that their hard work yielded so little. Because of this, she advises employers who
must give small raises to be careful about linking them to results and to be scrupulous
about being fair.
Still, the research by Gupta’s team is just one study from a wealth of findings that can
appear inconsistent. These apparent inconsistencies reflect, in part, important nuances
about the relationship between monetary incentives and job performance. For example,
the broad literature on job performance encompasses financial incentives that address
both individual and group performance and productivity. Furthermore, monetary
incentives can extend beyond the mere raises discussed by Gupta’s team to include
individual and small-group rewards, merit pay, pay-for-performance, variable pay plans,
or group bonus plans as well as profit-sharing and gain-sharing incentive plans.
Perry and his colleagues
13
analyzed this diverse literature in an outstanding review and
culled two general propositions relevant to best practices in the service industry:
• Financial incentives moderately to significantly improve task performance,
but their effectiveness is dependent upon organizational conditions.
Differences in institutional arrangements contribute to the feasibility and
effectiveness of various monetary incentives, as do differences in employees’
preferences for specific incentives. Therefore, companies are wise to study these
issues before implementing changes to existing incentive plans. This is especially
pertinent for service organizations, where financial reinforcements tend to
produce a stronger effect on task performance than non-financial rewards used
alone. Even stronger results are seen with a composite approach. For example,
one meta-analysis of 72 field studies found that monetary incentives improved
task performance by 23%, social recognition improved task performance by 17%
and feedback elicited a 10% improvement
18
. Simultaneously combining all three
types of reinforcements improved performance by 45%.

• Group incentive systems are consistently effective in private sector settings.
Team-based or small-group incentives are defined as rewards whereby a portion
Money and employee motivation 5.

of individual pay is contingent on measurable group performance
1
. In general, its
effectiveness is dependent on the characteristics of the reward system, the
organization, the team and the individual team members
1
. Here again, studying
this issue via employee surveys or interviews can be useful. But generally
speaking, research suggests that equally divided small-group incentives sustain
high levels of productivity and satisfaction for group members, and that small-
group incentives are at least as effective as individual incentives with groups of
two to twelve people
4.


Qualitative, quantitative and survey research studies of alternative pay systems
such as profit-sharing or gain-sharing plans are even more consistent in their
findings. These incentive programs include various pay-for-performance
approaches that link financial rewards for employees to improvements in the
performance of the work unit
20
. Research reveals that these types of incentive
systems are associated in practice – and in employer and employee minds – with
both higher productivity and improvements in organizational performance.

Cashing in on the Latest Research
We have shared several useful insights into the relationship between money and
employee motivation. For readers wanting more in-depth discussions of this information,
we recommend the resources listed below. These sources also provide guidance on how
to translate some of these principles into practice:

Heneman, R. L. (1992). Merit pay: linking pay increases to performance Ratings.
New York: Addison-Wesley.

Milkovich, G. T., & Wigdor, A. K. (Eds). (1991). Pay for performance:
evaluating performance appraisal and merit pay. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press.

Perry, J. L., Mesch, D., & Paarlberg, L. (2006). Motivating employees in a new
governance era: The performance paradigm revisited. Public Administration
Review, 66, 505-514. (Accessed on October 26, 2006
at http://www.aspanet.org/scriptcontent/custom/staticcontent/t2pdownloads/Perry
Article.pdf)


Of course, the available research makes it clear that a monetary incentive is simply one
piece of a larger mosaic of issues. Savvy organizations delve into those other issues.
Employee surveys and interviews can help organizations identify what type of monetary
incentives are the most motivating to a given employee base, and, naturally, those
incentives must be feasible for the organization to implement. Subsequently, companies
must balance financial considerations with other non-financial reinforcements to
maximize job quantity and quality. The best rule of thumb stems from Stajkovic and
Money and employee motivation 6.

Luthans’ influential meta-analysis,
18
which concluded that feedback combined with
money and social recognition produced the strongest effect on job performance.

We further recommend that performance feedback should be structured to maximize its
benefit both to the employee and the company. For example, many employees respond
well to coaching or mentoring. And there are many tools, such as the 2020 Skills™
assessment, that can streamline goal-setting for individual employees or even entire
departments. Goal-setting is an important aspect to enhancing job performance, although
it is not always an obvious one to managers. For instance, one review
19
discovered that,
while monetary incentives influence performance, the relationship is not mediated by
goal-setting. That is, goal-setting and monetary incentives independently influence job
performance (for more information, see Perry et al.
13
).

HVS has also completed proprietary research on the effectiveness of pay-for-performance
metrics in the hotel, gaming and restaurant industries, and its results generally reinforce
the findings of researchers like Gupta and Perry. That is, “money ranks below other
factors relative to job satisfaction, but high on the motivational matrix when all other
factors have been met.” Furthermore, as executive search professionals, we understand
what motivates individuals to change positions and employers. Job stature, scope of
responsibilities, employer reputation and other key criteria need to be met before
compensation negotiations begin. Once negotiations begin, it is all about the money and
how the pay package compares to industry peers.

For example, once major league baseball players become free agents, “what motivates
them to stay or sign with another team?” Issues such as team dynamics, ability to win,
job security, preferred location and position must be satisfied. Once satisfied, it becomes
an issue of money. And the easiest way to compare offers is to look at what other similar
players in similar positions are paid. It is no different in the corporate world. The tangible
results of a well-conceived pay program are numerous, but the HVS study found that
executives with clear pay-for-performance metrics outperformed their peers by nearly
80% at the Net Operating Income line.

HVS Executive Search and 2020 Skills™ assessment offer consultation on employee
compensation and coaching issues. But for those companies seeking simple guidance
here and now, the following heuristic nicely summarizes how most employees in the
private sector view the relationship between money and employee motivation…


“Show me the money, show me respect and show me attention…
or show me the door.”



Money and employee motivation 7.

About the Authors

James Houran holds a Ph.D. in Psychology and is president of 2020 Skills™
Employee Assessment (www.2020skills.com). A full member of the American
Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society, Dr. Houran is a 15-
year veteran in research and assessment on peak performance and experiences – with a
special focus on online testing. He has authored more than 100 journal articles, and his
award-winning work has been profiled by a myriad of media outlets and programs
including the Discovery Channel, A&E, BBC, NBC’s Today show, Wilson Quarterly,
USA Today, New Scientist, Psychology Today, Forbes.com and Rolling Stone.

Keith Kefgen holds a BS in Hotel Administration from Cornell University and is
president of HVS Executive Search. HVS Executive Search is the leading executive
search firm specializing in the gaming, lodging and restaurant industries with offices in
New York, Hong Kong, Las Vegas, London, Moscow and New Delhi. Mr. Kefgen is a
frequent lecturer on industry related issues and has written more than 100 articles on the
topics of executive selection, pay-for-performance, corporate governance and executive
leadership. He serves on the board of the International Association of Corporate &
Professional Recruitment (IACPR) and the Association of Executive Search Consultants
(AESC).
For information on the Best Practice 2020 Skills™ assessment system, contact:
James Houran, Ph.D.
jhouran@2020skills.com
516.248.8828 x 264

www.2020skills.com


For information on Best Practice Executive Search, Corporate Governance and
Compensation, contact:

Keith Kefgen
kkefgen@hvsinternational.com
516.248.8828 x 220



Money and employee motivation 8.

References

1
DeMatteo, J. S., Eby, L. T., & Sundstrom, E. (1998). Team-based rewards: current
empirical evidence and directions for future research. Research in Organizational
Behavior, 20, 141-183.

2
Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2002). Will money increase subjective well-being? a
literature review and guide to needed research. Social Indicators Research, 57,
119-169.

3
Heneman, R. L. (1992). Merit pay: linking pay increases to performance ratings. New
York: Addison-Wesley.

4
Honeywell-Johnson, J. A., & Dickinson, A. M. (1999). Small group incentives: a review
of the literature. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 19, 89-120.

5
Jenkins, Jr, G. D., Mitra, A., Gupta, N., & Shaw, J. D. (1998). Are financial incentives
related to performance? a meta-analytic review of empirical research. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 83, 777-787.

6
Kasser, T. (2002). The high price of materialism. Massachusetts: MIT Press

7
Kasser, T., & Ahuvia, A. (2002). Materialistic values and well-being in business
students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 137-146.

8
Kasser, T., & Kasser, V. G. (2001). The dreams of people high and low in materialism.
Journal of Economic Psychology, 22, 693-719.

9
Luthans, F. (1973). Organizational behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.

10
Luthans, F., & Kreitner, R. (1975). Organizational behavior modification. Glenview,
IL: Scott, Foresman.

11
Milkovich, G. T., & Wigdor, A. K. (Eds). (1991). Pay for performance: evaluating
performance appraisal and merit pay. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

12
Nickerson, C., Schwarz, N., Diener, E., & Kahneman, D. (2001). The American dream:
the dark side is in the wish, not the realization. Psychological Science, 14, 531-
536.

13
Perry, J. L., Mesch, D., & Paarlberg, L. (2006). Motivating employees in a new
governance era: the performance paradigm revisited. Public Administration
Review, 66, 505-514. (Accessed on October 26, 2006
at http://www.aspanet.org/scriptcontent/custom/staticcontent/t2pdownloads/Perry
Article.pdf)

Money and employee motivation 9.

14
Sirgy, J. M. (1998). Matherialism and quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 43,
227-260.

15
Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-
Crofts.

16
Srivastava, A., Locke, E. A. and Bartol, K. M. (2001). Money and subjective well-being
it’s not the money, it’s the motives. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 80, 959-971.

17
Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1997). A meta-analysis of the effects of organizational
behavior modification on task performance, 1975-1995. Academy of Management
Journal, 40, 1122-1149.

18
Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (2003). Behavioral management and task performance
in organizations: conceptual background, meta-analysis, and test of alternative
models. Personnel Psychology, 56, 155-194.

19
Tolchinsky, P. D., & King, D. C. (1980). Do goals mediate the effects of incentives on
performance? Academy of Management Review, 5, 455-467.

20
Welbourne, T. M., & Gomez Mejia, L. R. (1995). Gainsharing: a critical review and a
future research agenda. Journal of Management, 21, 559-609.

There are a few possible reasons for these trends2.8. Abstract. Even though individuals who are very poor financially demonstrate increased happiness when their income rises. – Research consistently substantiates the effectiveness of financial incentives on job performance. We review the nuances of financial incentives and make basic recommendations that can form the basis of best practice compensation and incentive policies. Thus. Our aim is to outline the nuances of financial incentives for enhancing job performance. it is not surprising that money alone is less an effective motivator for employees than when it is used in conjunction with non-financial reinforcements.12. During the assessment test takers must indicate the degree to which they disagree or agree with a number of statements that pertain to their personality or approach to professional situations. your coworkers or executive team? More importantly. although companies need to consider the issue of job quantity versus quality and also be aware of the limitations of financial incentives. what does one’s attitude towards money as a motivator actually reveal? This article explores this latter question in the context of classic and recent research findings pertaining to the workplace and beyond.7. Specifically. materialistic pursuits do not provide what people are really looking for in their quest for happiness. selection and training assessment guaranteed to satisfy professional testing and legal standards and which was designed specifically for the hospitality-service industry.6. Studies have consistently shown that a materialistic focus in life is associated with a lower psychological well-being2. the tendency for those without much in the way of non-material resources to focus on material goods or the endless and forever evolving supply of goods and services produced in materialistic or capitalistic societies precludes satiation. The 20 20 Skills™ assessment is the only screening. wealth and possessions over other things in life14. intensity of desire for wealth remains negatively correlated with psychological wellbeing2. Understanding Materialism Materialism is defined simply as when a person values money. They further .Money and employee motivation 2. Employees can have vastly different motives for acquiring wealth – including using money to fulfill psychological needs. One of those statements is: “Acceptance is more important to me than money” How well does that statement describe you.

happiness and genuine friendship. The use of monetary or other financial incentives in the classic “work performance paradigm” is based primarily on reinforcement theory. Reinforcement theory15 focuses on the relationship between a target behavior (e. the research described above suggests that having money is not related to personal happiness per se. Indeed. whether people who have money or not. nor should they. the relationship between negative motives and money importance was both negative and statistically significant.g. Overall. and employers want their workers to feel that is what they are getting. While pursuing money based on negative motives can lead to a poorer psychological well-being. and they subsequently differentiate between instrumental materialism and terminal materialism. individuals who consider money important tend to be less happy than those who place less importance on money2. while controlling for the influence of motivation. They add that such motives become problematic when money is used for things it cannot provide. Instrumental materialism describes using material goods as a means for attaining personal goals and fulfillment.Money and employee motivation 3. To that end. Financial Incentives in the Workplace No one works for free. Negative motives also include efforts to allay one’s self-doubt. attempting to use money to alleviate self-doubt and increase self-esteem leads to problems. employees want to earn fair wages and salaries. the correlation lost its statistical significance. Their findings suggest that it is not the importance of money that contributes to well-being. it is logical that employees and employers alike view money as the fundamental incentive for satisfactory job performance. the authors16 attributed the correlation between psychological well-being and money importance to negative motives alone. However. Some researchers16 have argued that the motives that drive one to focus on money are more relevant than the intensity of the focus itself. self-esteem. They also divide motives for materialistic pursuit into three different categories: positive.16. Obviously. whereas terminal materialism involves using material possessions to achieve social status and elicit envy from others.g. this is not the same as pursuing money to provide security and comfort for oneself and family. Negative motives refer to using money to gain power or superiority over others. rather. This suggests that not all motives for wanting money lead to decreased happiness. negative and freedom of action. suggested that people who are unhappy or lacking in social connections may seek solace in material goods. In addition. e. When the significant negative correlation between subjective well-being and money importance was analyzed.. when calculated independently.. As a result. work performance) and its consequences . Motives concerning freedom of action simply imply spending money in any way that one desires. Positive motives involve using money for basic necessities and as a measure of achievement. using external means to fulfill internal desires and aspirations2. the amount of importance they place on it can actually be maladaptive.

In a much publicized study. monetary incentives can extend beyond the mere raises discussed by Gupta’s team to include individual and small-group rewards. Differences in institutional arrangements contribute to the feasibility and effectiveness of various monetary incentives. but it will not “buy” better performance. social recognition improved task performance by 17% and feedback elicited a 10% improvement18. Group incentive systems are consistently effective in private sector settings. But the research team acknowledges that money is not the only thing that concerns employees – noting that beyond a certain point higher salaries will make employees happier. existing reinforcements) and where an intervention is developed using principles of reinforcement10. merit pay. pay). in part. variable pay plans. companies are wise to study these issues before implementing changes to existing incentive plans. and it is premised on the principles and techniques of organizational behavior modification9. Simultaneously combining all three types of reinforcements improved performance by 45%. Perry and his colleagues13 analyzed this diverse literature in an outstanding review and culled two general propositions relevant to best practices in the service industry: • Financial incentives moderately to significantly improve task performance. Team-based or small-group incentives are defined as rewards whereby a portion • .. Still. one meta-analysis of 72 field studies found that monetary incentives improved task performance by 23%. For example. Therefore. in labs and real-world settings alike. These apparent inconsistencies reflect. the research by Gupta’s team is just one study from a wealth of findings that can appear inconsistent. measured and analyzed in terms of their functional consequences (i. Still. or group bonus plans as well as profit-sharing and gain-sharing incentive plans.Money and employee motivation 4. Gupta warns that employers who dole out small merit raises – less than 7% of base pay – may do more harm than good.e. Because of this.17. Organizational behavior modification is a framework within which employee behaviors are identified. pay-for-performance. the broad literature on job performance encompasses financial incentives that address both individual and group performance and productivity. (e.g.17. where financial reinforcements tend to produce a stronger effect on task performance than non-financial rewards used alone. important nuances about the relationship between monetary incentives and job performance. but their effectiveness is dependent upon organizational conditions. she advises employers who must give small raises to be careful about linking them to results and to be scrupulous about being fair. as do differences in employees’ preferences for specific incentives. Furthermore. Even stronger results are seen with a composite approach.. Gupta and her colleagues5 analyzed thirty-nine studies conducted over four decades and found that cold-hard cash motivates workers whether their jobs are exciting or mundane. For example. small raises can actually be dysfunctional in terms of motivation because employees become irritated that their hard work yielded so little. This is especially pertinent for service organizations. According to her.

J. 66. and that smallgroup incentives are at least as effective as individual incentives with groups of two to twelve people4. DC: National Academy Press. those incentives must be feasible for the organization to implement. (2006). the available research makes it clear that a monetary incentive is simply one piece of a larger mosaic of issues. Pay for performance: evaluating performance appraisal and merit pay. & Wigdor. These incentive programs include various pay-for-performance approaches that link financial rewards for employees to improvements in the performance of the work unit20. These sources also provide guidance on how to translate some of these principles into practice: Heneman. L. (1991).pdf) Of course. Motivating employees in a new governance era: The performance paradigm revisited. Washington. (1992).org/scriptcontent/custom/staticcontent/t2pdownloads/Perry Article. 505-514. G. of individual pay is contingent on measurable group performance1. New York: Addison-Wesley. K. L. 2006 at http://www. the team and the individual team members1.. & Paarlberg. R. Perry. Public Administration Review.. In general. Qualitative. companies must balance financial considerations with other non-financial reinforcements to maximize job quantity and quality. Cashing in on the Latest Research We have shared several useful insights into the relationship between money and employee motivation. Merit pay: linking pay increases to performance Ratings.aspanet. D. A. quantitative and survey research studies of alternative pay systems such as profit-sharing or gain-sharing plans are even more consistent in their findings. Research reveals that these types of incentive systems are associated in practice – and in employer and employee minds – with both higher productivity and improvements in organizational performance.. (Accessed on October 26. Mesch. Milkovich. and. For readers wanting more in-depth discussions of this information. L. naturally. studying this issue via employee surveys or interviews can be useful. Savvy organizations delve into those other issues. its effectiveness is dependent on the characteristics of the reward system. we recommend the resources listed below. Here again. Employee surveys and interviews can help organizations identify what type of monetary incentives are the most motivating to a given employee base. Subsequently. T. the organization. But generally speaking. (Eds).Money and employee motivation 5. The best rule of thumb stems from Stajkovic and . research suggests that equally divided small-group incentives sustain high levels of productivity and satisfaction for group members.

Once negotiations begin. The tangible results of a well-conceived pay program are numerous. We further recommend that performance feedback should be structured to maximize its benefit both to the employee and the company. show me respect and show me attention… or show me the door. Once satisfied. as executive search professionals. And there are many tools. “money ranks below other factors relative to job satisfaction. For example. see Perry et al.Money and employee motivation 6. and its results generally reinforce the findings of researchers like Gupta and Perry. Luthans’ influential meta-analysis. many employees respond well to coaching or mentoring.13).18 which concluded that feedback combined with money and social recognition produced the strongest effect on job performance. It is no different in the corporate world. such as the 20 20 Skills™ assessment. Job stature. ability to win. although it is not always an obvious one to managers. preferred location and position must be satisfied. but the HVS study found that executives with clear pay-for-performance metrics outperformed their peers by nearly 80% at the Net Operating Income line. the following heuristic nicely summarizes how most employees in the private sector view the relationship between money and employee motivation… “Show me the money. the relationship is not mediated by goal-setting. That is. employer reputation and other key criteria need to be met before compensation negotiations begin. scope of responsibilities. that can streamline goal-setting for individual employees or even entire departments. “what motivates them to stay or sign with another team?” Issues such as team dynamics. it is all about the money and how the pay package compares to industry peers. but high on the motivational matrix when all other factors have been met. once major league baseball players become free agents. one review19 discovered that. while monetary incentives influence performance. That is. And the easiest way to compare offers is to look at what other similar players in similar positions are paid. we understand what motivates individuals to change positions and employers. it becomes an issue of money. gaming and restaurant industries. But for those companies seeking simple guidance here and now. HVS has also completed proprietary research on the effectiveness of pay-for-performance metrics in the hotel. goal-setting and monetary incentives independently influence job performance (for more information.” Furthermore. Goal-setting is an important aspect to enhancing job performance. job security. For instance.” . For example. HVS Executive Search and 20 20 Skills™ assessment offer consultation on employee compensation and coaching issues.

in Psychology and is president of 20 20 Skills™ Employee Assessment (www. Forbes. BBC. A full member of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. USA Today. pay-for-performance. Houran is a 15year veteran in research and assessment on peak performance and experiences – with a special focus on online testing. Psychology Today.2020skills.8828 x 264 www. HVS Executive Search is the leading executive search firm specializing in the gaming. Keith Kefgen holds a BS in Hotel Administration from Cornell University and is president of HVS Executive Search. jhouran@2020skills. A&E.com).D. Ph.com 516.Money and employee motivation 7. Mr. London. contact: Keith Kefgen kkefgen@hvsinternational.D. lodging and restaurant industries with offices in New York. Wilson Quarterly. and his award-winning work has been profiled by a myriad of media outlets and programs including the Discovery Channel.com and Rolling Stone.248.2020skills. NBC’s Today show. For information on the Best Practice 20 20 Skills™ assessment system.com 516. Kefgen is a frequent lecturer on industry related issues and has written more than 100 articles on the topics of executive selection. New Scientist. He serves on the board of the International Association of Corporate & Professional Recruitment (IACPR) and the Association of Executive Search Consultants (AESC). Las Vegas. Moscow and New Delhi.248. About the Authors James Houran holds a Ph.com For information on Best Practice Executive Search.8828 x 220 . Corporate Governance and Compensation. corporate governance and executive leadership. Dr. Hong Kong. contact: James Houran. He has authored more than 100 journal articles.

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