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CCNA Presentation

CCNA Presentation

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Published by: Himanshu Palerwal on Nov 12, 2010
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  • Data Networks
  • Networking Devices
  • Networking Device Icons
  • Repeater
  • Hub
  • Bridge
  • Workgroup Switch
  • Router
  • “The Cloud”
  • LANs, MANs, & WANs
  • Examples of Data Networks
  • Memorize it!
  • LAN Physical Layer
  • UTP Implementation
  • Connection Media
  • Straight-Thru or Crossover
  • Coaxial Cable
  • Fiber Optic Connectors
  • Fiber Optic Patch Panels
  • Ethernet in the Campus
  • WAN Physical Layer
  • The 4 Repeater Rule
  • Network Interface Card
  • MAC Address
  • Bridges
  • Switch
  • Switches – MAC Tables
  • Peer-to-Peer Network
  • Client/Server Network
  • Don’t Confuse the Models
  • The Application Layer
  • The Internet Layer
  • The Network Access Layer
  • More on The Transport Layer
  • Flow Control
  • 3-Way Handshake
  • Basic Windowing
  • TCP
  • TCP Segment Format
  • UDP
  • UDP Segment Format
  • Well Known Port Numbers
  • URL
  • SNMP – Managed Network
  • Network and Host Addressing
  • Internet Addresses
  • IP Address Classes
  • Identifying Address Classes
  • Address Class Prefixes
  • Network and Host Division
  • Class A Addresses
  • Class B Addresses
  • Class C Addresses
  • Class D Addresses
  • Class E Addresses
  • IP Address Ranges
  • IPv4
  • Network Address
  • Broadcast Address
  • Network/Broadcast Addresses at the Binary Level
  • Public IP Addresses
  • Private IP Addresses
  • Mixing Public and Private IP Addresses
  • Introduction to Subnetting
  • Obtaining an Internet Address
  • RARP
  • BootP
  • DHCP
  • RAM
  • Flash
  • ROM
  • Interfaces
  • External Connections
  • Fixed Interfaces
  • Routers & DSL Connections
  • Establishing a HyperTerminal Session
  • Cisco IOS
  • The Purpose of Cisco IOS
  • Router Command Line Interface
  • Setup Mode
  • IOS File System Overview
  • After the Post…
  • Step in Router Initialization
  • Router LED Indicators
  • Enhanced Cisco IOS Commands
  • The show version Command
  • Router User Interface Modes
  • Overview of Router Modes
  • Router Modes
  • User Mode Commands
  • Privileged Mode Commands
  • Specific Configuration Modes
  • CLI Command Modes
  • Configuring a Router’s Name
  • Setting the Clock with Help
  • Message Of The Day (MOTD)
  • The copy run tftp Command
  • The copy tftp run Command
  • Ethernet Overview
  • Ethernet and the OSI Model
  • Layer 2 Framing
  • Collision Domains
  • Backoff
  • Anatomy of an IP Packet
  • Introducing Routing
  • Administrative Distance
  • Configuring Default Routes
  • Verifying Static Route Configuration
  • Trouble Shooting Static Route Configuration
  • IGP and EGP
  • Categories of Routing Protocols
  • Distance Vector Routing Concepts
  • Distance Vector Routing (DVR)
  • Routing Tables Graphic
  • Distance Vector Topology Changes
  • Router Metric Components
  • RIP Characteristics
  • Router Configuration
  • Configuring RIP Example
  • Problem: Counting to Infinity
  • Solution: Define a Maximum
  • Solution: Split Horizon
  • Triggered Updates
  • Triggered Updates Graphic
  • Solution: Holddown Timers
  • IGRP
  • IGRP Stability Features
  • Configuring IGRP
  • Routing Metrics Graphics
  • Link State Concepts
  • Link State Topology Changes
  • Link State Routing (LSR)
  • Link State Concerns
  • Link State Routing Features
  • Overview
  • Neighbor Table
  • Topology Table
  • Routing Table
  • EIGRP Data Structure
  • Default Hello Intervals and Hold Times for EIGRP
  • EIGRP Algorithm
  • FS Route Selection Rules
  • Configuring EIGRP
  • show ip eigrp neighbors
  • show ip eigrp interfaces
  • show ip eigrp topology
  • show ip eigrp topology [active | pending | successors]
  • show ip eigrp topology all-links
  • show ip eigrp traffic
  • Administrative Distances
  • What are ACLs?
  • Reasons to Create ACLs
  • ACLs Filter Traffic Graphic
  • How ACLs Filter Traffic
  • One List per Port, per Destination, per Protocol
  • How ACLs work
  • Creating ACLs
  • The access-list command
  • ACL Example
  • Basic Rules for ACLs
  • Wildcard Mask Examples
  • The any and host Keywords
  • Verifying ACLs
  • Standard ACLs
  • Extended ACLs
  • Extended ACL Example
  • ip access-group
  • Named ACLs
  • Named ACL Example
  • Placing ACLs
  • Full Duplex Transmitting
  • Why Segment LANs?
  • Segmentation with Bridges
  • Segmentation with Routers
  • Segmentation with Switches
  • Basic Operations of a Switch
  • Switching Methods
  • Frame Transmission Modes
  • Benefits of Switching
  • How Switches and Bridges Learn Addresses
  • CAM Content Addressable Memory
  • Broadcast Domain
  • The Access Layer
  • Access Layer Switches
  • The Distribution Layer
  • Distribution Layer Switches
  • The Core Layer
  • Core Layer Switches
  • Switch LED Indicators
  • Using Bridging Loops for Redundancy
  • Logical Loop Free Topology Created with STP
  • VLANs
  • VLAN Communication

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Data Networks
Sharing data through the use of floppy disks is not an efficient or cost-effective manner in which to operate businesses. Businesses needed a solution that would successfully address the following three problems: • How to avoid duplication of equipment and resources • How to communicate efficiently • How to set up and manage a network Businesses realized that networking technology could increase productivity while saving money.

Networking Devices
Equipment that connects directly to a network segment is referred to as a device. These devices are broken up into two classifications. • end-user devices • network devices End-user devices include computers, printers, scanners, and other devices that provide services directly to the user. Network devices include all the devices that connect the enduser devices together to allow them to communicate.

Network Interface Card
A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. Also called a LAN adapter.


Networking Device Icons


A repeater is a network device used to regenerate a signal. Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by transmission loss due to attenuation. A repeater does not perform intelligent routing.


Hubs concentrate connections. In other words, they take a group of hosts and allow the network to see them as a single unit. This is done passively, without any other effect on the data transmission. Active hubs not only concentrate hosts, but they also regenerate signals.


Bridges convert network transmission data formats as well as perform basic data transmission management. Bridges, as the name implies, provide connections between LANs. Not only do bridges connect LANs, but they also perform a check on the data to determine whether it should cross the bridge or not. This makes each part of the network more efficient.


Workgroup Switch
Workgroup switches add more intelligence to data transfer management. Switches can determine whether data should remain on a LAN or not, and they can transfer the data to the connection that needs that data.

Routers have all capabilities of the previous devices. Routers can regenerate signals, concentrate multiple connections, convert data transmission formats, and manage data transfers.They can also connect to a WAN, which allows them to connect LANs that are separated by great distances.


“The Cloud”
The cloud is used in diagrams to represent where the connection to the internet is. It also represents all of the devices on the internet.


One part of the topology definition is the physical topology.which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts for sending data. which is the actual layout of the wire or media.Network Topologies Network topology defines the structure of the network. The other part is the logical topology. 13 .

Physical Topologies 14 .

15 . All the hosts connect directly to this backbone.Bus Topology A bus topology uses a single backbone cable that is terminated at both ends.

This creates a physical ring of cable. 16 .Ring Topology A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first.

Star Topology A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. 17 .

This topology can extend the scope and coverage of the network. 18 .Extended Star Topology An extended star topology links individual stars together by connecting the hubs and/or switches.

19 .Hierarchical Topology A hierarchical topology is similar to an extended star.

Mesh Topology A mesh topology is implemented to provide as much protection as possible from interruption of service. Each host has its own connections to all other hosts. it does not adopt the full mesh topology. 20 . Although the Internet has multiple paths to any one location.

but also from one business to another. What was needed was a way for information to move efficiently and quickly. The solution was the creation of metropolitan-area networks (MANs) and wide-area networks (WANs). MANs. 21 . making equipment from different companies compatible. not only within a company.LANs. & WANs One early solution was the creation of local-area network (LAN) standards which provided an open set of guidelines for creating network hardware and software.

Examples of Data Networks 22 .

LANs 23 .

11 standard is Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS).Wireless LAN Organizations and Standards In cabled networks. A key technology contained within the 802. The standards have been created within the framework of the regulations created by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). 24 . IEEE is the prime issuer of standards for wireless networks.

Cellular Topology for Wireless 25 .

WANs 26 .

27 .SANs A SAN is a dedicated. Because it is a separate. dedicated network. highperformance network used to move data between servers and storage resources. it avoids any traffic conflict between clients and servers.

Using VPN. a telecommuter can access the network of the company headquarters through the Internet by building a secure tunnel between the telecommuter’s PC and a VPN router in the headquarters.Virtual Private Network A VPN is a private network that is constructed within a public network infrastructure such as the global Internet. 28 .

Bandwidth 29 .

Measuring Bandwidth 30 .

31 .

Why do we need the OSI Model? To address the problem of networks increasing in size and in number. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) researched many network schemes and recognized that there was a need to create a network model that would help network builders implement networks that could communicate and work together and therefore. released the OSI reference model in 1984. 32 .

Open System Interconnection IOS . The “ISO” acronym is correct as shown.” 33 . ISO .International Organization for Standardization OSI .Don’t Get Confused. some people say “International Standard Organization.Internetwork Operating System The ISO created the OSI to make the IOS more efficient. To avoid confusion.

The OSI Reference Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical 34 The OSI Model will be used throughout your entire networking career! Memorize it! .

Examples: • Email • Web browsers PDU .User Data .The Application Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical 35 This layer deal with networking applications.Layer 7 .

Layer 6 .Formatted Data .The Presentation Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical 36 This layer is responsible for presenting the data in the required format which may include: • Encryption • Compression PDU .

Example: • Client Software ( Used for logging in) PDU .Formatted Data 37 . manages. and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts.The Session Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer establishes.Layer 5 .

Segments 38 .Layer 4 . It also is used to insure reliable data transport across the network.The Transport Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer breaks up the data from the sending host and then reassembles it in the receiver. PDU .

Makes “Best Path Determination” decisions based on logical addresses (usually IP addresses).Layer 3 .The Network Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Sometimes referred to as the “Cisco Layer”.Packets 39 . PDU .

Layer 2 .The Data Link Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. PDU . Makes decisions based on physical addresses (usually MAC addresses).Frames 40 .

The Physical Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This is the physical media through which the data. represented as electronic signals. Examples: • CAT5 (what we have) • Coaxial (like cable TV) • Fiber optic PDU .Bits 41 .Layer 1 . is sent from the source host to the destination host.

you decide that you want to give it to a friend who lives in Munich. 42 .Source Host After riding your new bicycle a few times in NewYork.OSI Model Analogy Application Layer .Germany.

Source Host Make sure you have the proper directions to disassemble and reassemble the bicycle. 43 .OSI Model Analogy Presentation Layer .

44 .OSI Model Analogy Session Layer .Source Host Call your friend and make sure you have his correct address.

45 . The boxes are labeled “1 of 3”.OSI Model Analogy Transport Layer . “2 of 3”. and “3 of 3”.Source Host Disassemble the bicycle and put different pieces in different boxes.

Since the packages are too big for your mailbox (and since you don’t have enough stamps) you determine that you need to 46 go to the post office.Source Host Put your friend's complete mailing address (and yours) on each box.OSI Model Analogy Network Layer . .

47 .OSI Model Analogy Data Link Layer – Source Host NewYork post office takes possession of the boxes.

48 .Media The boxes are flown from USA to Germany.OSI Model Analogy Physical Layer .

Destination Munich post office receives your boxes.OSI Model Analogy Data Link Layer . 49 .

Destination Upon examining the destination address. 50 .OSI Model Analogy Network Layer . Munich post office determines that your boxes should be delivered to your written home address.

Destination Your friend calls you and tells you he got all 3 boxes and he is having another friend named BOB reassemble the bicycle.OSI Model Analogy Transport Layer . 51 .

52 .OSI Model Analogy Session Layer .Destination Your friend hangs up because he is done talking to you.

Destination BOB is finished and “presents” the bicycle to your friend.OSI Model Analogy Presentation Layer . 53 . Another way to say it is that your friend is finally getting him “present”.

OSI Model Analogy Application Layer .Destination Your friend enjoys riding his new bicycle in Munich. 54 .

Host Layers 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical 55 These layers only exist in the source and destination host computers. .

Media Layers 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical These layers manage the information out in the LAN or WAN between the source and destination hosts. 56 .

The OSI Layers Communications 57 .

Encapsulation Process 58 .

Data Flow Through a Network 59 .

60 .

the principal medium that will be studied is Category 5 unshielded twistedpair cable (Cat 5 UTP) 61 . or physical layer.Networking media are considered Layer 1. optical fiber.LAN Physical Layer Various symbols are used to represent media types. The function of media is to carry a flow of information through a LAN. Some of the advantage or disadvantage comparisons concern: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation • Susceptibility to interference Coaxial cable. Each media has advantages and disadvantages. However. components of LANs. and even free space can carry network signals.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable 62 .

The other four wires are grounded and are called “ring” (R1 through R4).UTP Implementation EIA/TIA specifies an RJ-45 connector for UTP cable. Four of the wires carry the voltage and are considered “tip” (T1 through T4). The wires in the first pair in a cable or a connector are designated as T1 & R1 63 . The RJ-45 transparent end connector shows eight colored wires.

64 . A transceiver is an adapter that converts one type of connection to another. The attachment unit interface (AUI) connector allows different media to connect when used with the appropriate transceiver. In some cases the type of connector on a network interface card (NIC) does not match the media that it needs to connect to.Connection Media The registered jack (RJ-45) connector and jack are the most common.

65 . A NIC transmits signals on pins 1 & 2.Ethernet Standards The Ethernet standard specifies that each of the pins on an RJ-45 connector have a particular purpose. and it receives signals on pins 3 & 6.

Remember… A straight-thru cable has T568B on both ends. A crossover (or cross-connect) cable has T568B on one end and T568A on the other. 66 . which is why it is also called a rollover cable. A console cable had T568B on one end and reverse T568B on the other.

Straight-Thru or Crossover Use straight-through cables for the following cabling: • Switch to router • Switch to PC or server • Hub to PC or server Use crossover cables for the following cabling: • Switch to switch • Switch to hub • Hub to hub • Router to router • PC to PC • Router to PC 67 .

68 . Because a noise signal on one wire will appear identically on the other wire. TIA/EIA-568-B certification of a cable now requires testing for a variety of types of noise.Twisted-pair cable is designed to take advantage of the effects of crosstalk in order to minimize noise.Twisting one pair of wires in a cable also helps to reduce crosstalk of data or noise signals from adjacent wires. this noise be easily detected and filtered at receiver. a pair of wires is used to transmit one signal.Sources of Noise on Copper Media Noise is any electrical energy on the transmission cable that makes it difficult for a receiver to interpret the data sent from the transmitter. In twisted-pair cable.The wire pair is twisted so that each wire experiences similar crosstalk.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable 69 .

Coaxial Cable 70 .

Fiber Optic Cable 71 .

Fiber Optic Connectors Connectors are attached to the fiber ends so that the fibers can be connected to the ports on the transmitter and receiver.On single-mode fiber. The type of connector most commonly used with multimode fiber is the Subscriber Connector (SC connector). the Straight Tip (ST) connector is frequently used 72 .

73 .Fiber Optic Patch Panels Fiber patch panels similar to the patch panels used with copper cable.

Cable Specifications 10BASE-T The T stands for twisted pair. All 3 of these specifications refer to the speed of transmission at 10 Mbps and a type of transmission that is baseband. Thinnet and Thicknet are actually a type of networks. 74 . 10BASE2 The 2 represents the fact that a signal can travel for approximately 200 meters 10BASE2 is often referred to as Thinnet. 10BASE5 The 5 represents the fact that a signal can travel for approximately 500 meters 10BASE5 is often referred to as Thicknet. or digitally interpreted. while 10BASE2 & 10BASE5 are the types of cabling used in these networks.

Ethernet Media Connector Requirements 75 .

LAN Physical Layer Implementation 76 .

Ethernet in the Campus 77 .

WAN Physical Layer 78 .

WAN Serial Connection Options 79 .

or to a device such as a CSU/DSU that will perform signal clocking. 80 . the router is a DTE and needs a DTE serial cable. This is typically the case for routers.Serial Implementation of DTE & DCE When connecting directly to a service provider.

one of the routers will be a DTE and the other will be a DCE.Back-to-Back Serial Connection When performing a back-to-back router scenario in a test environment. 81 .

Repeater is a Physical Layer device 82 . Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by transmission loss due to attenuation.Repeater A repeater is a network device used to regenerate a signal.

The 4 Repeater Rule The Four Repeater Rule for 10-Mbps Ethernet should be used as a standard when extending LAN segments. This rule states that no more than four repeaters can be used between hosts on a LAN. 83 . This rule is used to limit latency added to frame travel by each repeater.

In other words.Hub Hubs concentrate connections. Hub is a physical layer device. they take a group of hosts and allow the network to see them as a single unit. 84 .

The NIC is also referred to as a network adapter. A NIC is a printed circuit board that fits into the expansion slot on the motherboard or peripheral device of a computer. NICs are considered Data Link Layer devices because each NIC carries a unique code called a MAC address.Network Interface Card The function of a NIC is to connect a host device to the network medium. 85 .

MAC Address MAC address is 48 bits in length and expressed as twelve hexadecimal digits. 86 .MAC addresses are sometimes referred to as burned-in addresses (BIA) because they are burned into read-only memory (ROM) and are copied into random-access memory (RAM) when the NIC initializes.

Bridge Bridges are Data Link layer devices.Connected host addresses are learned and stored on a MAC address table.Each bridge port has a unique MAC address 87 .

Bridges 88 .

Bridging Graphic 89 .

90 . Each Switch port has a unique MAC address.Switch Switches are Data Link layer devices. Connected host MAC addresses are learned and stored on a MAC address table.

Must be used with asynchronous switching. which includes the frame header. store-and-forward At the other extreme.Switching Modes cut-through A switch starts to transfer the frame as soon as the destination MAC address is received. No error checking is available. fragment-free A compromise between the cut-through and store-and-forward modes. Fragment-free reads the first 64 bytes. and switching begins before the entire data field and checksum are read. This gives the switch software an opportunity to verify the Frame Check Sum (FCS) to ensure that the frame was reliably received before sending it to the destination. Must use synchronous switching. 91 . the switch can receive the entire frame before sending it out the destination port.

A separate pair is used for the return or received signal. In a network that uses twisted-pair cabling.Full Duplex Another capability emerges when only two nodes are connected. 92 . It is possible for signals to pass through both pairs simultaneously. The capability of communication in both directions at once is known as full duplex. one pair is used to carry the transmitted signal from one node to the other node.

Switches – MAC Tables 93 .

Switches – Parallel Communication 94 .

These small physical segments are called micro segments. consist of the switch port and the host connected to it. the collision domain on the shared media contains only two nodes. When only one node is connected to a switch port.Microsegmentation A switch is simply a bridge with many ports. The two nodes in this small segment. 95 . or collision domain.

networked computers act as equal partners. Peer-topeer networks are relatively easy to install and operate. which responds by serving the file to computer A. computer A may make a request for a file from computer B. In a peer-to-peer network. or peers. peer-topeer relationships become increasingly difficult to coordinate. Computer A functions as client. 96 . At one time.Peer-to-Peer Network In a peer-to-peer network. As peers. individual users control their own resources. while B functions as the server. computers A and B can reverse roles. each computer can take on the client function or the server function. At a later time. As networks grow.

and other services. print. 97 . network services are located on a dedicated computer called a server. Most network operating systems adopt the form of a client/server relationship. application. The server is a central computer that is continuously available to respond to requests from clients for file.Client/Server Network In a client/server arrangement. The server responds to the requests of clients.

98 .

The TCP/IP reference model and the TCP/IP protocol stack make data communication possible between any two computers. the historical and technical open standard of the Internet is Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). The U. anywhere in the world. 99 .S. even a nuclear war. at nearly the speed of light.Why Another Model? Although the OSI reference model is universally recognized. Department of Defense (DoD) created the TCP/IP reference model because it wanted a network that could survive any conditions.

Don’t Confuse the Models 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Transport Internet Network Access Application 100 .

2 Models Side-By-Side 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Transport Internet Network Access 101 Application .

and dialog control. 102 . issues of representation.The Application Layer The application layer of the TCP/IP model handles highlevel protocols. encoding.

. It constitutes a logical connection between these endpoints of the network.The Transport Layer The transport layer provides transport services from the source host to the destination host. Transport protocols segment and reassemble upper-layer applications into the same data stream between endpoints. The transport layer data stream provides end-to-end 103 transport services.

Best path determination and packet switching occur at this layer. 104 .The Internet Layer The purpose of the Internet layer is to select the best path through the network for packets to travel. The main protocol that functions at this layer is the Internet Protocol (IP).

NOTE: ARP & RARP work at both the Internet and Network Access Layers. It includes LAN and WAN details.The Network Access Layer The network access layer is also called the host-tonetwork layer. and all the details contained in the OSI physical and data-link layers. It the layer that is concerned with all of the issues that an IP packet requires to actually make a physical link to the network media. 105 .

106 .Comparing TCP/IP & OSI Models NOTE: TCP/IP transport layer using UDP does not always guarantee reliable delivery of packets as the transport layer in the OSI model does.

107 . and acknowledgments.Introduction to the Transport Layer The primary duties of the transport layer. reliably and accurately. End-to-end control and reliability are provided by sliding windows. are to transport and regulate the flow of information from the source to the destination. sequencing numbers. Layer 4 of the OSI model.

It establishes a logical connection between the endpoints of the network.More on The Transport Layer The transport layer provides transport services from the source host to the destination host. • Transport services include the following basic services: • Segmentation of upper-layer application data • Establishment of end-to-end operations • Transport of segments from one end host to another end host • Flow control provided by sliding windows • Reliability provided by sequence numbers and acknowledgments 108 .

Flow control avoids the problem of a transmitting host overflowing the buffers in the receiving host.Flow Control As the transport layer sends data segments. it tries to ensure that data is not lost. A receiving host that is unable to process data as quickly as it arrives could be a cause of data loss. 109 .

3-Way Handshake TCP requires connection establishment before data transfer begins. For a connection to be established or initialized. the two hosts must synchronize their Initial Sequence Numbers (ISNs). 110 .

The protocol fails if any data packets are lost. 111 .Basic Windowing Data packets must be delivered to the recipient in the same order in which they were transmitted to have a reliable. connection-oriented data transfer. duplicated. An easy solution is to have a recipient acknowledge the receipt of each packet before the next packet is sent. damaged. or received in a different order.

Sliding Window 112 .

Sliding Window with Different Window Sizes 113 .

TCP Sequence & Acknowledgement 114 .

a connection is established between both ends before the transfer of information can begin.TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented Layer 4 protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission. In a connection-oriented environment. The protocols that use TCP include: • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • Telnet 115 .TCP supplies a virtual circuit between end-user applications. TCP is responsible for breaking messages into segments. TCP is part of the TCP/IP protocol stack. and reassembling messages from the segments. reassembling them at the destination station. resending anything that is not received.

TCP Segment Format 116 .

UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is the connectionless transport protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack. without acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery. UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams. Error processing and retransmission must be handled by higher layer protocols. The protocols that use UDP include: • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) • DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) • DNS (Domain Name System) 117 . if needed. UDP is designed for applications that do not need to put sequences of segments together. is provided by application layer protocols. UDP uses no windowing or acknowledgments so reliability.

UDP Segment Format 118 .

Well Known Port Numbers The following port numbers should be memorized: NOTE: The curriculum forgot to mention one of the most important port numbers. (Essentially access to the internet. Port 80 is used for HTTP or WWW protocols.) 119 .

URL 120 .

SNMP – Managed Network 121 .

122 .

Base 2 Number System 101102 = (1 x 24 = 16) + (0 x 23 = 0) + (1 x 22 = 4) + (1 x 21 = 2) + (0 x 20 = 0) = 22 123 .

Converting Decimal to Binary Convert 20110 to binary: 201 / 2 = 100 remainder 1 100 / 2 = 50 remainder 0 50 / 2 = 25 remainder 0 25 / 2 = 12 remainder 1 12 / 2 = 6 remainder 0 6 / 2 = 3 remainder 0 3 / 2 = 1 remainder 1 1 / 2 = 0 remainder 1 When the quotient is 0. take all the remainders in reverse order for your answer: 20110 = 110010012 124 .

125 .

126 . Accordingly. When the packet arrives at a router connected to the destination network. every IP address has two parts. a router can deliver a packet to the correct network. the router uses the IP address to locate the particular computer connected to that network.Network and Host Addressing Using the IP address of the destination network.

127 . The packets must include an identifier for both the source and destination networks.Network Layer Communication Path A router forwards packets from the originating network to the destination network using the IP protocol.

The first part identifies the system's network address. called the host part.An IP address combines two identifiers into one number. identifies which particular machine it is on the network.The second part. because duplicate addresses would make routing impossible. 128 . This number must be a unique number.Internet Addresses IP Addressing is a hierarchical structure.

& Cla ss C for small networks. and small networks. Cla ss B addresses are used for medium-sized networks. 129 .IP Address Classes IP addresses are divided into classes to define the large. Cla ss A addresses are assigned to larger networks. medium.

Identifying Address Classes 130 .

IP addresses are divided into groups called classes.Address Class Prefixes To accommodate different size networks and aid in classifying these networks. 131 .This is classful addressing.

There are 5 IP address classes.Network and Host Division Each complete 32-bit IP address is broken down into a network part and a host part. 132 . A bit or bit sequence at the start of each address determines the class of the address.

Class A Addresses The Class A address was designed to support extremely large networks. 133 . The remaining three octets provide for host addresses. with more than 16 million host addresses available. Class A IP addresses use only the first octet to indicate the network address.

Class B Addresses The Class B address was designed to support the needs of moderate to large-sized networks. The other two octets specify host addresses.A Class B IP address uses the first two of the four octets to indicate the network address. 134 .

Class C Addresses The Class C address space is the most commonly used of the original address classes.This address space was intended to support small networks with a maximum of 254 hosts. 135 .

Therefore. a single station can simultaneously transmit a single stream of data to multiple recipients. 136 .Class D Addresses The Class D address class was created to enable multicasting in an IP address. A multicast address is a unique network address that directs packets with that destination address to predefined groups of IP addresses.

Therefore.Class E Addresses A Class E address has been defined. 137 . However. no Class E addresses have been released for use in the Internet. the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) reserves these addresses for its own research.

IP Address Ranges The graphic below shows the IP address range of the first octet both in decimal and binary for each IP address class. 138 .

numerous extensions to IPv4 have been developed.IPv4 As early as 1992. Two of the more important of these are subnet masks and classless interdomain routing (CIDR). unassigned IPv4 network addresses and the increase in the size of Internet routing tables. Over the past two decades. the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) identified two specific concerns: Exhaustion of the remaining. 139 .

2 with 255.0 (its network mask) we obtain the network address of 140 .255.10.Finding the Network Address with ANDing By ANDing the Host address of 192.

Network Address 141 .

Broadcast Address 142 .

Network/Broadcast Addresses at the Binary Level An IP address that has binary 0s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address.255. An IP address that has binary 1s in all host bit positions is reserved for the broadcast address.50.255.0 Broadcast Address 100.255 200.50. Here are some examples: Class A B C Network Address 100.0 200.0.255 150.255 143 .75. which is used to send data to all hosts on the network.0 150.100. which identifies the network.

Public IP addresses must be obtained from an Internet service provider (ISP) or a registry at some expense.Public IP Addresses Unique addresses are required for each device on a network. All machines connected to the Internet agree to conform to the system. Originally. 144 . an organization known as the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) handled this procedure. InterNIC no longer exists and has been succeeded by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). No two machines that connect to a public network can have the same IP address because public IP addresses are global and standardized.

public networks require hosts to have unique IP addresses. However. private networks that are not connected to the Internet may use any host addresses.Private IP Addresses Private IP addresses are another solution to the problem of the impending exhaustion of public IP addresses. as long as each host within the private network is unique.As mentioned. 145 .

This will conserve the number of addresses used for internal connections. with public IP addresses. as shown in the graphic.Mixing Public and Private IP Addresses Private IP addresses can be intermixed. Connecting a network using private addresses to the Internet requires translation of the private addresses to public addresses. 146 . This translation process is referred to as Network Address Translation (NAT).

With subnetting. or C network masks and there is more flexibility in the network design.Introduction to Subnetting Subnetting a network means to use the subnet mask to divide the network and break a large network up into smaller. Subnet addresses include the network portion. 147 . the network is not limited to the default Class A. or subnets. more efficient and manageable segments.The ability to decide how to divide the original host portion into the new subnet and host fields provides addressing flexibility for the network administrator. B. plus a subnet field and a host field.

The 32-Bit Binary IP Address 148 .

Numbers That Show Up In Subnet Masks (Memorize Them!) 149 .

Addressing with Subnetworks 150 .

Obtaining an Internet Address 151 .

Network printers.Static Assignment of an IP Address Static assignment works best on small networks. The administrator manually assigns and tracks IP addresses for each computer. or server on the intranet. and routers should be assigned static IP addresses. 152 . printer. application servers.

47) .10.0.4 HW Address: 080020021545 153 Fig.Broadcast to all hosts „What is the hardware address for IP address 128.4?“ ARP Reply SIE NS ME NIXDOR F SIEM ENS NIXDORF Host B IP Address: 128.ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Host A SIEMENS NIXDO RF ARP Request .0. 32 How does ARP work? (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer.10.

47) .154 Fig. 33 The ARP command (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer.

34 Proxy-ARP concept (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer. 49) .1 Network = 1 Broadcast Domain A B host B would reply Broadcast: ARP request 2 Networks = 2 Broadcast Domains A Router B no one would reply Broadcast: ARP request 155 Fig.

to forward IP packets to B Broadcast Message to all: If your IP address matches “B” then please tell me your Ethernet address Yes.A B A B Router R I take care. I know the destination network. let me give you my Ethernet address 156 .

A network device.RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) associates a known MAC addresses with an IP addresses. Devices using RARP require that a RARP server be present on the network to answer RARP requests. 157 . might know its MAC address but not its IP address. such as a diskless workstation. RARP allows the device to make a request to learn its IP address.

the address of a server. is that it was not designed to provide dynamic address assignment. With BOOTP. there is still a one to one relationship between the number of IP addresses and the number of hosts.BootP The bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) operates in a client-server environment and only requires a single packet exchange to obtain IP information. unlike RARP.The administrator must add hosts and maintain the BOOTP database. Even though the addresses are dynamically assigned. however. and vendor-specific information. However. No two profiles can have the same IP address. as well as the address of a router. 158 . One problem with BOOTP. a network administrator creates a configuration file that specifies the parameters for each device. This means that for every host on the network there must be a BOOTP profile with an IP address assignment in it. BOOTP packets can include the IP address.

Unlike BOOTP. This includes all of the data supplied by the BOOTP message.As hosts come online. they contact the DHCP server and request an address. 159 . the entire network configuration of a computer can be obtained in one message.DHCP Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) is the successor to BOOTP. DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically without the network administrator having to set up an individual profile for each device. plus a leased IP address and a subnet mask. The major advantage that DHCP has over BOOTP is that it allows users to be mobile. The DHCP server chooses an address and leases it to that host. All that is required when using DHCP is a defined range of IP addresses on a DHCP server. With DHCP.

160 .

However. The many parts of a router are shown below: 161 . Just as computers need operating systems to run software applications. It has the same basic components as a standard desktop PC.Introduction to Routers A router is a special type of computer. routers are designed to perform some very specific functions. These configuration files contain the instructions and parameters that control the flow of traffic in and out of the routers. routers need the Internetwork Operating System software (IOS) to run configuration files.

also called dynamic RAM (DRAM) RAM has the following characteristics and functions: • • • • • • • Stores routing tables Holds ARP cache Holds fast-switching cache Performs packet buffering (shared RAM) Maintains packet-hold queues Provides temporary memory for the configuration file of the router while the router is powered on Loses content when router is powered down or restarted 162 .RAM Random Access Memory.

NVRAM Non-Volatile RAM NVRAM has the following characteristics and functions: • • Provides storage for the startup configuration file Retains content when router is powered down or restarted 163 .

programmable ROM (EEPROM) 164 .Flash Flash memory has the following characteristics and functions: • Holds the operating system image (IOS) • Allows software to be updated without removing and replacing chips on the processor • Retains content when router is powered down or restarted • Can store multiple versions of IOS software Is a type of electronically erasable.

ROM Read-Only Memory ROM has the following characteristics and functions: • Maintains instructions for power-on self test (POST) diagnostics • Stores bootstrap program and basic operating system software • Requires replacing pluggable chips on the motherboard for software upgrades 165 .

Interfaces Interfaces have the following characteristics and functions: • • Connect router to network for frame entry and exit Can be on the motherboard or on a separate module Types of interfaces: • • • • • • • • Ethernet Fast Ethernet Serial Token ring ISDN BRI Loopback Console Aux 166 .

Internal Components of a 2600 Router 167 .

External Components of a 2600 Router 168 .

External Connections


Fixed Interfaces
When cabling routers for serial connectivity, the routers will either have fixed or modular ports. The type of port being used will affect the syntax used later to configure each interface. Interfaces on routers with fixed serial ports are labeled for port type and port number.


Modular Serial Port Interfaces
Interfaces on routers with modular serial ports are labeled for port type, slot, and port number.The slot is the location of the module.To configure a port on a modular card, it is necessary to specify the interface using the syntax “port type slot number/port number.” Use the label “serial 0/1,” when the interface is serial, the slot number where the module is installed is slot 0, and the port that is being referenced is port 1.


Routers & DSL Connections
The Cisco 827 ADSL router has one asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) interface. To connect a router for DSL service, use a phone cable with RJ-11 connectors. DSL works over standard telephone lines using pins 3 and 4 on a standard RJ-11 connector.


Computer/Terminal Console Connection


Modem Connection to Console/Aux Port


HyperTerminal Session Properties


Establishing a HyperTerminal Session
Take the following steps to connect a terminal to the console port on the router: First, connect the terminal using the RJ-45 to RJ-45 rollover cable and an RJ-45 to DB-9 or RJ-45 to DB-25 adapter. Then, configure the terminal or PC terminal emulation software for 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, and no flow control.


Cisco IOS
Cisco technology is built around the Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS), which is the software that controls the routing and switching functions of internetworking devices. A solid understanding of the IOS is essential for a network administrator.


The Purpose of Cisco IOS
As with a computer, a router or switch cannot function without an operating system. Cisco calls its operating system the Cisco Internetwork Operating System or Cisco IOS. It is the embedded software architecture in all of the Cisco routers and is also the operating system of the Catalyst switches. Without an operating system, the hardware does not have any capabilities. The Cisco IOS provides the following network services: • Basic routing and switching functions • Reliable and secure access to networked resources 178 • Network scalability

Router Command Line Interface


Setup Mode
Setup is not intended as the mode for entering complex protocol features in the router. The purpose of the setup mode is to permit the administrator to install a minimal configuration for a router, unable to locate a configuration from another source. In the setup mode, default answers appear in square brackets [ ] following the question. Press the Enter key to use these defaults. During the setup process, Ctrl-C can be pressed at any time to terminate the process. When setup is terminated using Ctrl-C, all interfaces will be administratively shutdown. When the configuration process is completed in setup mode, the following options will be displayed: [0] Go to the IOS command prompt without saving this config. [1] Return back to the setup without saving this config. [2] Save this configuration to nvram and exit. 180 Enter your selection [2]:

To see the IOS image and version that is running.Operation of Cisco IOS Software The Cisco IOS devices have three distinct operating environments or modes: • ROM monitor • Boot ROM • Cisco IOS The startup process of the router normally loads into RAM and executes one of these operating environments. use the show version command. which also indicates the configuration register setting. The configuration register setting can be used by the system administrator to control the default start up mode for the router. 181 .

IOS File System Overview 182 .

Initial Startup of Cisco Routers A router initializes by loading the bootstrap. • Find and load the Cisco IOS software. it performs a power-on self test (POST). . • Find and apply the startup configuration file or enter the setup mode. and a configuration file. When a Cisco router powers up. During this self test. the router executes diagnostics from ROM on all 183 hardware modules. Upon completion of the setup mode a backup copy of the configuration file may be saved to nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). the startup routines must accomplish the following: • Make sure that the router hardware is tested and functional. If the router cannot find a configuration file. To do this. the operating system. it enters setup mode. The goal of the startup routines for Cisco IOS software is to start the router operations.

If the boot field indicates a flash or network load. Step 5 If no valid configuration file exists in NVRAM. A bootstrap is a simple set of instructions that tests hardware and initializes the IOS for operation. the operating system searches for an 184 available TFTP server. boot system commands in the configuration file indicate the exact name and location of the image. If no TFTP server is found. Step 2 The IOS can be found in several places.After the Post… After the POST. . The configuration commands start routing processes. Step 3 The operating system image is loaded. and define other operating characteristics of the router. Step 4 The configuration file saved in NVRAM is loaded into main memory and executed one line at a time. the following events occur as the router initializes: Step 1 The generic bootstrap loader in ROM executes. the setup dialog is initiated. The boot field of the configuration register determines the location to be used in loading the IOS. supply addresses for interfaces.

Step in Router Initialization 185 .

An interface LED indicates the activity of the corresponding interface. The green OK LED to the right of the AUX port will be on after the system initializes correctly. a problem may be indicated. its LED will always be on. Depending upon the Cisco router model.Router LED Indicators Cisco routers use LED indicators to provide status information. the LED indicators will vary. 186 . If an interface is extremely busy. If an LED is off when the interface is active and the interface is correctly connected.

Enhanced Cisco IOS Commands 187 .

The show version Command The show version command displays information about the Cisco IOS software version that is currently running on the router. 188 . To find out the amount of flash memory. The following information is available from the show version command: IOS version and descriptive information • Bootstrap ROM version • Boot ROM version • Router up time • Last restart method • System image file and location • Router platform • Configuration register setting Use the show version command to identify router IOS image and boot source. issue the show flash command. This includes the configuration register and the boot field settings.

Checking File System Information with show version command 189 .

190 .

The privileged EXEC mode is also known as enable mode. As a security feature the Cisco IOS software separates sessions into two access levels.Router User Interface Modes The Cisco command-line interface (CLI) uses a hierarchical structure. 191 . Each configuration mode is indicated with a distinctive prompt and allows only commands that are appropriate for that mode. This structure requires entry into different modes to accomplish particular tasks. user EXEC mode and privileged EXEC mode.

Overview of Router Modes 192 .

Router Modes 193 .

User Mode Commands 194 .

Privileged Mode Commands NOTE: There are many more commands available in privileged mode. 195 .

Specific Configuration Modes 196 .

.CLI Command Modes All command-line interface (CLI) configuration changes to a Cisco router are made from the global configuration mode. Pressing Ctrl-Z returns the router to all 197 the way back privileged EXEC mode. the router prompt changes to indicate the current configuration mode. Other more specific modes are entered depending upon the configuration change that is required. Global configuration mode commands are used in a router to apply configuration statements that affect the system as a whole. The following command moves the router into global configuration mode Router#configure terminal Router(config)# (or config t) When specific configuration modes are entered. Typing exit from one of these specific configuration modes will return the router to global configuration mode.

Configuring a Router’s Name A router should be given a unique name as one of the first configuration tasks. . This task is accomplished in global configuration mode using the following commands: Router(config)#hostname Tokyo Tokyo(config)# As soon as the Enter key is pressed. the prompt changes from the default host name (Router) to the newly configured host name (which is Tokyo in the 198 example above).

Setting the Clock with Help 199 .

Save changes by issuing the command copy run start 200 . Enter global configuration mode by using the command config t Enter the command banner motd # The message of the day goes here #.Message Of The Day (MOTD) A message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner can be displayed on all connected terminals.

Configuring a Console Password Passwords restrict access to routers. Passwords are also used to control access to privileged EXEC mode so that only authorized users may make changes to the configuration file. Passwords should always be configured for virtual terminal lines and the console line. The following commands are used to set an optional but recommended password on the console line: Router(config)#line console 0 Router(config-line)#password <password> Router(config-line)#login 201 .

The method for configuring the aux port is very similar to configuring the console port.Configuring a Modem Password If configuring a router via a modem you are most likely connected to the aux port. Router(config)#line aux 0 Router(config-line)#password <password> Router(config-line)#login 202 .

Serial 0/1 would be just Serial 1 and f0/0 would be e0.255. Router#config t Router(config)#interface serial 0/1 Router(config-if)#ip address 200. s = serial e = Ethernet f = fast Ethernet 203 .75 Interfaces An interface needs an IP Address and a Subnet Mask to be configured.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#exit Router# On older routers.100.240 Router(config-if)#clock rate 56000 (required for serial DCE only) Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#int f0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 150. All interfaces are “shutdown” by default.255.50.25 255.50. The DCE end of a serial interface needs a clock rate.

Typically Cisco routers support five VTY lines numbered 0 through 4.Configuring a Telnet Password A password must be set on one or more of the virtual terminal (VTY) lines for users to gain remote access to the router using Telnet. The following commands are used to set the same password on all of the VTY lines: Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)#password <password> Router(config-line)#login 204 .

int s0/1 – Displays statistics for interface Serial 0/1 controllers serial – Displays information-specific to the interface hardware clock – Shows the time set in the router hosts – Displays a cached list of host names and addresses users – Displays all users who are connected to the router history – Displays a history of commands that have been entered flash – Displays info about flash memory and what IOS files are stored there version – Displays info about the router and the IOS that is running in RAM ARP – Displays the ARP table of the router start – Displays the saved configuration located in NVRAM run – Displays the configuration currently running in RAM protocol – Displays the global and interface specific status of any configured Layer 3 protocols 205 .Examining the show Commands There are many show commands that can be used to examine the contents of files in the router and for troubleshooting. show show show show show show show show show show show show show interfaces – Displays all the statistics for all the interfaces on the router. the command show ? provides a list of available show commands. In both privileged EXEC and user EXEC modes. The list is considerably longer in privileged EXEC mode than it is in user EXEC mode.

The copy run tftp Command 206 .

The copy tftp run Command 207 .

208 .

All LANs must deal with the basic issue of how individual stations (nodes) are named. bandwidths. Ethernet specifications support different media. and other Layer 1 and 2 variations. Ethernet is not one technology but a family of LAN technologies. However. and Ethernet is no exception. the basic frame format and addressing scheme is the same for all varieties of Ethernet. 209 .Ethernet Overview Ethernet is now the dominant LAN technology in the world.

known as the MAC sublayer and the physical layer 210 .Ethernet and the OSI Model Ethernet operates in two areas of the OSI model. the lower half of the data link layer.

Ethernet Technologies Mapped to the OSI Model 211 .

The frame format diagram shows different groupings of bits (fields) that perform other functions. A frame is the Layer 2 protocol data unit. 212 .Layer 2 Framing Framing is the Layer 2 encapsulation process.

Ethernet and IEEE Frame Formats are Very Similar 213 .

it is wired as a star) FDDI logical ring topology (information flow is controlled in a ring) and physical dualring topology(wired as a dual-ring) 214 .3 Common Layer 2 Technologies Ethernet Uses CSMA/CD logical bus topology (information flow is on a linear bus) physical star or extended star (wired as a star) Token Ring logical ring topology (information flow is controlled in a ring) and a physical star topology (in other words.

Collision Domains To move data between one Ethernet station and another. 215 . Problems originating in one part of the collision domain will usually impact the entire collision domain. the data often passes through a repeater. A collision domain is then a shared resource. All other stations in the same collision domain see traffic that passes through a repeater.

CSMA/CD Graphic 216 .

then the stations that collided must wait an additional and potentially progressively longer period of time before attempting to retransmit the collided frame. which would result in more collisions. 217 . The waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting.Backoff After a collision occurs and all stations allow the cable to become idle (each waits the full interframe spacing).

218 .

219 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Hierarchical Addressing Using Variable-Length Subnet Masks © 2003. Inc.

64 through when the host bits of the IP network number are: • All binary zeros – that address is the bottom of the address range • All binary ones – that address is the top of the address range .11111111.79 • Have the first 28 bits in common. which is represented by a /28 prefix length • 28 bits in common can also be represented in dotted decimal as 255.11110000 Network Mask Fourth Octet 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 01000000 01000001 01000010 01000011 01000100 01000101 01000110 01000111 01001000 01001001 01001010 01001011 01001100 01001101 01001110 01001111 220 In the IP network number that accompanies the network mask.10101000.11111111.1.240 Binary ones in the network mask represent network bits in the accompanying IP address.00000001.255.0100xxxx IP Address 11111111. binary zeros represent host bits 11000000.Prefix Length and Network Mask Range of Addresses: 192.

Implementing VLSM 221 .

Range Of Addresses for VLSM 222 .

Breakdown Address Space for Largest Subnet 223 .

Breakdown Address Space for Ethernets at Remote Sites 224 .

Address Space for Serial Subnets 225 .

Calculating VLSM: Binary 226 .

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.Route Summarization and Classless Interdomain Routing © 2003. 227 .

What Is Route Summarization? 228 .

Summarizing Within an Octet 229 .

Summarizing Addresses in a VLSM-Designed Network 230 .

– Block addresses can be summarized into single entries without regard to the classful boundary of the network number. 231 .Classless Interdomain Routing – CIDR is a mechanism developed to alleviate exhaustion of addresses and reduce routing table size. – Summarized blocks are installed in routing tables.

except that Class B network 172 has been replaced by Class C network 192. 232 .What Is CIDR? • Addresses are the same as in the route summarization figure.

CIDR Example 233 .

234 .

Anatomy of an IP Packet IP packets consist of the data from upper layers plus an IP header. The IP header consists of the following: 235 .

Introducing Routing Routing is the process that a router uses to forward packets toward the destination network. routers must learn the direction to remote networks. In order to make the correct decisions. All devices along the way use the destination IP address to point the packet in the correct direction so that the packet eventually arrives at its destination. 236 . A router makes decisions based upon the destination IP address of a packet.

Configuring Static Routes by Specifying Outgoing Interfaces 237 .

Configuring Static Routes by Specifying Next-Hop Addresses 238 .

1 130 Sometimes static routes are used for backup purposes. 239 .Administrative Distance The administrative distance is an optional parameter that gives a measure of the reliability of the route.0 255. To use a static route in this manner. while the default administrative distance when using the outgoing interface is 0.16. The range of an AD is 0-255 where smaller numbers are more desireable.3. simply set the administrative distance higher than that of the dynamic routing protocol being used.255. You can statically assign an AD as follows: Router(config)#ip route 172.16. The default administrative distance when using next-hop address is 1. A static route can be configured on a router that will only be used when the dynamically learned route has failed.

0. Example using next hop address: Router(config)#ip route 0.0 [next-hop-address | outgoing interface] This is sometimes referred to as a “Quad-Zero” route.0.0 172.1 Example using the exit interface: Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0. A default route is actually a special static route that uses this format: ip route 0.0 s0/0 240 .0.0.16.Configuring Default Routes Default routes are used to route packets with destinations that do not match any of the other routes in the routing table.

The show ip route command is used to make sure that the static route is present in the routing table. The command show running-config is used to view the active configuration in RAM to verify that the static route was entered correctly.Verifying Static Route Configuration After static routes are configured it is important to verify that they are present in the routing table and that routing is working as expected. 241 .

Trouble Shooting Static Route Configuration 242 .

Path Determination Graphic 243 .

Routing Protocol Router Switch Router Router Switch Router Router What is an optimal route ? 244 .

OSPF. BGP. and EIGRP.Routing Protocols Routing protocols includes the following: processes for sharing route information allows routers to communicate with other routers to update and maintain the routing tables Examples of routing protocols that support the IP routed protocol are: RIP. 245 . IGRP.

Routing Protocols 246 .

routing protocols enable routers to route routed protocols. Routers use routing protocols to exchange routing tables and share routing information.Routed Protocols Protocols used at the network layer that transfer data from one host to another across a router are called routed or routable protocols. In other words. The Internet Protocol (IP) and Novell's Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) are examples of routed protocols. 247 .

Routed Protocols 248 .

67) . EGP Exterior Gateway Protocols are used for routing between Autonomous Systems AS 1000 AS 3000 IGP AS 2000 Interior Gateway Protocols are used for routing decisions within an Autonomous System. which has a single and clearly defined external routing policy. 48 IGP and EGP (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer. 249 Fig.Autonomous System An Autonomous System (AS) is a group of IP networks.

67) . 49 The use of IGP and EGP protocols (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer.Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) AS 1000 EGP EGP IGP EGP AS 3000 AS 2000 250 Fig.

com domain.IGP and EGP An autonomous system is a network or set of networks under common administrative control. 251 . such as the cisco.

The link-state approach. also called shortest path first. 252 .Categories of Routing Protocols Most routing algorithms can be classified into one of two categories: • • distance vector link-state The distance vector routing approach determines the direction (vector) and distance to any link in the internetwork. recreates the exact topology of the entire internetwork.

Distance Vector Routing Concepts 253 .

16.16.Distance Vector Routing (DVR) Destination 192.16.0 192.5. 2 Hops 1 Hop Router A Router B 1 Hop Router C Router D 192.16.0 192.0 Flow of routing information 192.16.0 Distance 1 1 2 Routing table contains the addresses of destinations and the distance of the way to this destination.1.0 254 .0

Routing Tables Graphic 255 .

Distance Vector Topology Changes 256 .

Router Metric Components 257 .

0 192.Distance Vector Routing (DVR) 192.0 0 0 L L 192.1.0 192.16.0 192.0 0 0 1 1 L L B B 192.4.0 192.0 192.0 192.0 192.0 192.16.0 192.5.0 192.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 L L L L L L A C C 192.3.0 192.16.0 Router A Router B Router C 192.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 L L L L L L B B D 192.0 0 0 L L 192.16.0 192.0 192.0 0 0 1 1 L L C C L Locally connected 258 .2.4.0 192.0 Router D 192.16.0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 L L L B B D B 192.3.0 192.7.0 192.0 192.0 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 L L C C C C C 259 Fig.0 192. 53 Distribution of routing information with distance vector routing protocol (cont. (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer. 192.0 192.0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 L L L A C C C 192.16.0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 L L L A C C C 192.16.0 192.0 192. 71) .16.0 192.1.0 192.16.0 192.2.0 192.0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 L L L B B D B 192.16.0 192.0 0 0 1 1 2 2 L L C C C C 192.16.0 192.16.0 192.0 192.0 192.16.0 192.0 192.7.0 192.16.0 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 L L B B B B B 192.0 192.16.0 192.0 Vector Routing (DVR) 192.0 192.5.0 192.6.0 192.0 192.6.0 192.0 192.16.0 192.6.0 0 0 1 1 2 2 L L B B B B 192.

59 Properties of RIPv1 (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer.RIPv1 Distance Vector Routing Protocol. classful Distribution of Routing Tables via broadcast to adjacent routers Only one kind of metric: Number of Hops Connections with different bandwidth can not be weighted Routing loops can occur -> bad convergence in case of a failure Count to infinity problem (infinity = 16) Maximum network size is limited by the number of hops Fig. 81) 260 .

RIP Characteristics 261 . permits only a Single Subnet Mask Port 1 130.1/24 130. 60 RIP-1 permits only a single subnet mask (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer.24.24.0 130.0/24 RIP-1: 130.0/24 262 Fig.13.0/24 Router A RIP-1: 130.0 RIP-1: 130.25.0 Port 2 200.36.0/24 200.36.24. 83) .

not subnet addresses or individual host addresses.Router Configuration The router command starts a routing process. The network command is required because it enables the routing process to determine which interfaces participate in the sending and receiving of routing updates.16. 263 .0 The network numbers are based on the network class addresses. An example of a routing configuration is: GAD(config)#router rip GAD(config-router)#network 172.0.

Configuring RIP Example 264 .

Verifying RIP Configuration 265 .

One highly effective command for finding RIP update issues is the debug ip rip command. or split horizons. 266 .The debug ip rip Command Most of the RIP configuration errors involve an incorrect network statement. The debug ip rip command displays RIP routing updates as they are sent and received. discontiguous subnets.

Problem: Routing Loops 267 .Routing loops can occur when inconsistent routing tables are not updated due to slow convergence in a changing network.

Problem: Counting to Infinity 268 .

Solution: Define a Maximum 269 .

Solution: Split Horizon 270 .

271 .Route Poisoning Route poisoning is used by various distance vector protocols in order to overcome large routing loops and offer explicit information when a subnet or network is not accessible. This is usually accomplished by setting the hop count to one more than the maximum.

When a route fails. The router that detects a topology change immediately sends an update message to adjacent routers that.Triggered Updates New routing tables are sent to neighboring routers on a regular basis. in turn. 272 . an update is sent immediately rather than waiting on the update timer to expire. Triggered updates. generate triggered updates notifying their adjacent neighbors of the change. RIP updates occur every 30 seconds. However a triggered update is sent immediately in response to some change in the routing table. used in conjunction with route poisoning. For example. ensure that all routers know of failed routes before any holddown timers can expire.

Triggered Updates Graphic 273 .

Solution: Holddown Timers 274 .

load. Routing updates are broadcast every 90 seconds. Some of the IGRP key design characteristics emphasize the following: • • • It is a distance vector routing protocol. delay and reliability are used to create a composite metric. Bandwidth. 275 .IGRP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Cisco.

but poison reverse updates are necessary to defeat larger routing loops. IGRP is showing its age. Cisco has 276 built upon IGRP's legacy of success with Enhanced IGRP. Today.IGRP Stability Features IGRP has a number of features that are designed to enhance its stability. Split horizons Split horizons are derived from the premise that it is usually not useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which it came. it lacks support for variable length subnet masks (VLSM). Rather than develop an IGRP version 2 to correct this problem. such as: • Holddowns • Split horizons • Poison reverse updates Holddowns Holddowns are used to prevent regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that may not be up. Poison reverse updates Split horizons prevent routing loops between adjacent routers. .

Configuring IGRP 277 .

Routing Metrics Graphics 278 .

Link State Concepts 279 .

Link State Topology Changes 280 .

my link to R4 is down...link state packet SPF.“ Router 4 Router 1 Router 2 LSP: „My links to R1 and R3 are up.Link State Routing (LSR) LSP: „My links to R2 and R4 are up“ SPF Routing Table LSP: „My links to R1 and R3 are up.“ Router 3 LSP: „My links to R2 and R4 are up.. My link to R2 is down. shortest path first 281 .“ LSP...

Link State Concerns 282 .

Link State Routing (LSR) 1 Router A Router C 4 2 4 Router B 2 1 Router D Link State Database Router E B-2 C-1 A-2 D-4 A-1 D-2 E-4 Router C C-2 B-4 E-1 Router D C-4 D-1 Router A Router B Router E A B C D E D E A B D B C D E A C E C A B 283 .

Topological database A topological database is a collection of information gathered from LSAs. 284 • • • . A link-state routing algorithm maintains full knowledge of distant routers and how they interconnect. Link-state routing uses: • Link-state advertisements (LSAs) A link-state advertisement (LSA) is a small packet of routing information that is sent between routers. Link-state routing algorithms maintain a complex database of topology information. They have nonspecific information about distant networks and no knowledge of distant routers. The distance vector algorithm are also known as Bellman-Ford algorithms. Routing tables – A list of the known paths and interfaces.Link State Routing Features Link-state algorithms are also known as Dijkstras algorithm or as SPF (shortest path first) algorithms. SPF algorithm The shortest path first (SPF) algorithm is a calculation performed on the database resulting in the SPF tree.

Link State Routing 285 .

Comparing Routing Methods 286 .

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Protocol © 2003. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. 287 .

Consequently LS routers tend to make more accurate decisions. – Link-state routers keep track of the following: • Their neighbours • All routers within the same area • Best paths toward a destination 288 .OSPF is a Link-State Routing Protocols – Link-state (LS) routers recognize much more information about the network than their distance-vector counterparts.

Link-State Data Structures – Neighbor table: • Also known as the adjacency database (list of recognized neighbors) – Topology table: • Typically referred to as LSDB (routers and links in the area or network) • All routers within an area have an identical LSDB – Routing table: • Commonly named a forwarding database (list of best paths to destinations) 289 .

OSPF vs. and it sometimes chooses slow routes because it ignores critical factors such as bandwidth in route determination. RIP RIP is limited to 15 hops. it converges slowly. OSPF overcomes these limitations and proves to be a robust and scalable routing protocol suitable for the networks of today. 290 .

OSPF Terminology The next several slides explain various OSPF terms -one per slide. 291 .

OSPF Term: Link 292 .

OSPF Term: Link State 293 .

OSPF Term: Area 294 .

OSPF Term: Link Cost 295 .

OSPF Term: Forwarding Database 296 .

OSPF Term: Adjacencies Database 297 .

OSPF Terms: DR & BDR 298 .

•This two-level hierarchy consists of the following: • Transit area (backbone or area 0) • Regular areas (nonbackbone areas) 299 .Link-State Data Structure: Network Hierarchy •Link-state routing requires a hierachical network structure that is enforced by OSPF.

OSPF Areas 300 .

Area Terminology 301 .

– Point-to-point WAN links: • Both neighbors become fully adjacent. • Maintain two-way state with the other routers (DROTHERs).LS Data Structures: Adjacency Database – Routers discover neighbors by exchanging hello packets. – Routing updates and topology information are only passed between adjacent routers. 302 . – LAN links: • Neighbors form an adjacency with the DR and BDR. – Routers declare neighbors to be up after checking certain parameters or options in the hello packet.

OSPF Adjacencies Routers build logical adjacencies between each other using the Hello Protocol. Once an adjacency is formed: • LS database packets are exchanged to synchronize each other’s LS databases. using these adjacencies. • LSAs are flooded reliably throughout the area or network 303 .

Link State Routing Graphic 304 .

305 . – The best path is calculated with respect to the lowest total cost of links to a specific destination. – Best routes are put into the forwarding database. – Each router in the area places itself into the root of the tree that is built.Open Shortest Path First Calculation •Routers find the best paths to destinations by applying Dijkstra’s SPF algorithm to the link-state database as follows: – Every router in an area has the identical link-state database.

OSPF Packet Types 306 .

OSPF Packet Header Format 307 .

Neighborship 308 .

Establishing Bidirectional Communication 309 .

) 310 .Establishing Bidirectional Communication (Cont.

) 311 .Establishing Bidirectional Communication (Cont.

Establishing Bidirectional Communication 312 .

Discovering the Network Routes 313 .

Discovering the Network Routes 314 .

Adding the Link-State Entries 315 .

) 316 .Adding the Link-State Entries (Cont.

Adding the Link-State Entries 317 .

0.0.6 318 .Maintaining Routing Information • Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on 224. • DR notifies others on 224.5 319 .Maintaining Routing Information (Cont.) • Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on 224.

) • Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on 224.Maintaining Routing Information (Cont.5 320 . • DR notifies others on 224.

0.6 • DR notifies others on 224.0.5 321 .0.Maintaining Routing Information • Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on 224.0.

322 . Router(config-router)# network address inverse-mask area [area-id] • Router OSPF subordinate command that defines the interfaces (by network number) that OSPF will run on.Configuring Basic OSPF: Single Area Router(config)# router ospf process-id  • Turns on one or more OSPF routing processes in the IOS software. Each network number must be defined to a specific area.

Configuring OSPF on Internal Routers of a Single Area 323 .

parameters and statistics Router# show ip route ospf • Displays all OSPF routes learned by the router Router# show ip ospf interface • Displays the OSPF router ID.Verifying OSPF Operation Router# show ip protocols • Verifies the configured IP routing protocol processes. area ID and adjacency information 324 .

including Designated Router (DR) and Backup Designated Router (BDR) information on broadcast networks 325 .) Router# show ip ospf • Displays the OSPF router ID. and statistics Router# show ip ospf neighbor [detail] • Displays information about the OSPF neighbors. timers.Verifying OSPF Operation (Cont.

EGP.OSPF external type 1. 2 subnets O 10.mobile. E2 . I .static. D .OSPF.0.0. 00:00:50.candidate default Gateway of last resort is not set 10.255.IGRP. E .EIGRP.1. i .connected. L1 .2.IS-IS. L2 . * .64.IS-IS level-1.0 is subnetted. B .0 255. IA . Ethernet0 326 .IS-IS level-2.The show ip route ospf Command RouterA# show ip route ospf Codes: C .2.OSPF inter area.0. EX .EIGRP external.0 [110/10] via 10. O . S .255.RIP.BGP. M . R . E1 .OSPF external type 2.

Area 0 Process ID 1.1 Timer intervals configured. Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec. Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 10. line protocol is up Internet Address 10.2 (Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 327 .0. Hello 10.64. Interface address 10.0. Interface address 10. Network Type BROADCAST.1/24.0. State DROTHER. Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 10.64.The show ip ospf interface Command RouterA# show ip ospf interface e0 Ethernet0 is up.2. Wait Backup Designated router (ID) 10. Router ID 10.0. Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:04 Neighbor Count is 1.1. Dead 40.

2.2.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/BDR FULL/Dead Time 00:00:31 00:00:38 Address 10.The show ip ospf neighbor Command RouterB# show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 10.1 Interface Ethernet0 Serial0 328 . 10.1.

show ip protocol show ip route 329 .

show ip ospf neighbor detail show ip ospf database 330 .

1 331 .OSPF Network Types .

0.0.5 332 .Point-to-Point Links • Usually a serial interface running either PPP or HDLC • May also be a point-to-point subinterface running Frame Relay or ATM • No DR or BDR election required • OSPF autodetects this interface type • OSPF packets are sent using multicast 224.

0.6 • Packets from DR to all other routers use 224.0.0.Multi-access Broadcast Network • Generally LAN technologies like Ethernet and Token Ring • DR and BDR selection required • All neighbor routers form full adjacencies with the DR and BDR only • Packets to the DR use 224.5 333 .0.

Electing the DR and BDR • Hello packets are exchanged via IP multicast. • The DR election is nonpreemptive. • Use the OSPF router ID as the tie breaker. 334 . • The router with the highest OSPF priority is selected as the DR.

it can’t be the DR or BDR. • The default priority is 1. • 0 means the router is a DROTHER. 335 . • Different interfaces on a router may be assigned different values. The range is from 0 to 255.Setting Priority for DR Election Router(config-if)# ip ospf priority number • This interface configuration command assigns the OSPF priority to an interface.

2 336 .OSPF Network Types .

1. changed state to up OSPF: Interface Serial1 going Up OSPF: Rcv hello from 192. router ID 192. state 2WAY OSPF: Send DBD to 192.11 on Serial1.11 on Serial1 seq 0x167F opt 0x2 flag 0x7 len 32 OSPF: NBR Negotiation Done.168.Creation of Adjacencies RouterA# debug ip ospf adj Point-to-point interfaces coming up: No election %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial1. on Serial1 seq 0x20C4 opt 0x2 flag 0x2 len 72 337 .11 area 0 from Serial1 OSPF: End of hello processing OSPF: Build router LSA for area on Serial1 seq 0x20C4 opt 0x2 flag 0x7 len 32 state INIT OSPF: 2 Way Communication to OSPF: Rcv DBD from 192.168.168. We are the SLAVE OSPF: Send DBD to 192.

168.12 on Ethernet0 seq 0x546 opt 0x2 flag 0x7 len 32 <…> OSPF: DR/BDR election on Ethernet0 OSPF: Elect BDR 192.11 OSPF: Elect DR 192.0.12 (Id) BDR: RouterA# debug ip ospf adj Ethernet interface coming up: Election OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 192.12 (Id) OSPF: Send DBD to 192. state 2WAY OSPF: end of Wait on interface Ethernet0 OSPF: DR/BDR election on Ethernet0 OSPF: Elect BDR 192.168.12 DR: 192.12 DR: (Id) 338 . (Id) BDR: 192.12 OSPF: Elect DR 192.10 on Ethernet0.0.Creation of Adjacencies (Cont.

339 .

Overview Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Ciscoproprietary routing protocol based on Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Unlike IGRP. 340 . Compared to IGRP. improved scalability. Furthermore. and superior handling of routing loops. EIGRP boasts faster convergence times. EIGRP supports CIDR and VLSM. offering the best of distance vector and link-state algorithms. which is a classful routing protocol. serving both IPX and AppleTalk networks with powerful efficiency. EIGRP can replace Novell Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and AppleTalk Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP). EIGRP is often described as a hybrid routing protocol.

is automatic between IGRP and EIGRP as long as both processes use the same 341 autonomous system (AS) number. the sharing of routes. EIGRP and IGRP use different metric calculations. EIGRP has a maximum hop count limit of 224. IGRP has a maximum hop count of 255. EIGRP offers multiprotocol support. Redistribution.Comparing EIGRP with IGRP IGRP and EIGRP are compatible with each other. Enabling dissimilar routing protocols such as OSPF and RIP to share information requires advanced configuration. EIGRP scales the metric of IGRP by a factor of 256. . but IGRP does not.

EIGRP & IGRP Metric Calculation 342 .

Comparing EIGRP with IGRP 343 .

Comparing EIGRP with IGRP 344 .

so they can react quickly to changes. EIGRP saves routes that are learned in specific ways.EIGRP Concepts & Terminology EIGRP routers keep route and topology information readily available in RAM. EIGRP maintains three tables: • Neighbor table • Topology table • Routing table 345 . Like OSPF. Routes are given a particular status and can be tagged to provide additional useful information. EIGRP saves this information in several tables and databases.

346 . When the hold time expires. The hold time is the amount of time a router treats a neighbor as reachable and operational. In other words. then the hold time expires. is informed of the topology change and must recalculate the new topology. There is a neighbor table for each protocol that EIGRP supports. it advertises a hold time. the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL). When a neighbor sends a hello packet. This table is comparable to the adjacency database used by OSPF. which is the EIGRP distance vector algorithm. Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. if a hello packet is not heard within the hold time.Neighbor Table The neighbor table is the most important table in EIGRP.

347 . EIGRP routers can identify and switch to alternate routes quickly. By tracking this information.Topology Table The topology table is made up of all the EIGRP routing tables in the autonomous system. All learned routes to a destination are maintained in the topology table. DUAL takes the information supplied in the neighbor table and the topology table and calculates the lowest cost routes to each destination. The information that the router learns from the DUAL is used to determine the successor route. A copy is also placed in the topology table. Every EIGRP router maintains a topology table for each configured network protocol. which is the term used to identify the primary or best route.

A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination. This information is retrieved from the topology table. but they are only kept in the topology table. These can be of equal or unequal cost and are identified as the best loop-free paths to a given destination. .Routing Table The EIGRP routing table holds the best routes to a destination. A copy of the successor routes is also placed in the topology table. There can be up to four successor routes for any particular route.DUAL identifies this route from the information contained in the neighbor and topology tables and places it in the routing table. A feasible successor (FS) is a backup route. Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be 348 retained in the topology table although it is not mandatory.These routes are identified at the same time the successors are identified. Each EIGRP router maintains a routing table for each network protocol.

0.EIGRP Data Structure Like OSPF.10. The five EIGRP packet types are: • Hello • Acknowledgment • Update • Query • Reply EIGRP relies on hello packets to discover. called the hello interval. The default hello interval depends on the bandwidth of the interface. Rediscovery occurs if EIGRP routers do not receive hellos from each other for a hold time interval but then re-establish communication. verify. EIGRP routers send hellos at a fixed but configurable interval. EIGRP routers send hellos to the multicast IP address 224.0. On IP networks. and rediscover neighbor routers. EIGRP relies on different types of packets to maintain its various tables and establish complex relationships with neighbor routers. 349 .

Default Hello Intervals and Hold Times for EIGRP 350 .

which is called Reported Distance The Topology heading identifies the preferred primary route. Each router constructs a topology table that contains information about how to route to a destination network. and. called the successor route (Successor). which is called Feasible Distance • The cost of the route as advertised by the neighboring router. 351 . the backup route. where identified.EIGRP Algorithm The sophisticated DUAL algorithm results in the exceptionally fast convergence of EIGRP. Note that it is not necessary to have an identified feasible successor. called the feasible successor (FS). Each topology table identifies the following: • The routing protocol or EIGRP • The lowest cost of the route.

FS Route Selection Rules 352 .

DUAL Example 353 .

Configuring EIGRP 354 .

355 .0.1. 2. as defined by classbased addressing. In most cases auto summarization is beneficial because it keeps routing tables as compact as possible.Configuring EIGRP Summarization EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary.1. it will advertise that it is connected to the entire Class A network.0.0. This means that even though RTC is connected only to the subnet 2.0. This is the boundary where the network address ends.

Configuring EIGRP no-summary
However, automatic summarization may not be the preferred option in certain instances. To turn off auto-summarization, use the following command: router(config-router)#no auto-summary


Configuring EIGRP Summary Addersses Manually
With EIGRP, a summary address can be manually configured by configuring a prefix network. Manual summary routes are configured on a per-interface basis. router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-systemnumber ip-address mask administrative-distance EIGRP summary routes have an administrative distance of 5 by default. In the graphic below, RTC can be configured using the commands shown: RTC(config)#router eigrp 2446 RTC(config-router)#no auto-summary RTC(config-router)#exit RTC(config)#interface serial 0/0 RTC(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 2446


Verifying the EIGRP Configuration
To verify the EIGRP configuration a number of show and debug commands are available. These commands are shown on the next few slides.


show ip eigrp neighbors

show ip eigrp interfaces


show ip eigrp topology

show ip eigrp topology [active | pending | successors]

show ip eigrp topology all-links

show ip eigrp traffic


Administrative Distances


Classful and Classless Routing Protocols



What are ACLs?
ACLs are lists of conditions that are applied to traffic traveling across a router's interface. These lists tell the router what types of packets to accept or deny. Acceptance and denial can be based on specified conditions. ACLs can be created for all routed network protocols, such as Internet Protocol (IP) and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). ACLs can be configured at the router to control access to a network or subnet. Some ACL decision points are source and destination addresses, protocols, and upper-layer port numbers. ACLs must be defined on a per-protocol, per direction, or per port 365 basis.

Reasons to Create ACLs
The following are some of the primary reasons to create ACLs: • • • • Limit network traffic and increase network performance. Provide traffic flow control. Provide a basic level of security for network access. Decide which types of traffic are forwarded or blocked at the router interfaces. For example: Permit e-mail traffic to be routed, but block all telnet traffic. Allow an administrator to control what areas a client can access on a network. If ACLs are not configured on the router, all packets passing 366 through the router will be allowed onto all parts of the network.

ACLs Filter Traffic Graphic


How ACLs Filter Traffic 368 .

.One List per Port.. per Protocol. 369 . per Destination.

How ACLs work. 370 .

and others. Standard IP: 1300-1999 Extended IP: 2000-2699 371 . This number identifies the type of access list created and must fall within the specific range of numbers that is valid for that type of list. IPX. extended. When configuring ACLs on a router. addition ACL numbers have been added to newer router IOSs. each ACL must be uniquely identified by assigning a number to it.Creating ACLs ACLs are created in the global configuration mode. AppleTalk. There are many different types of ACLs including standard. Since IP is by far the most popular routed protocol.

The access-list command 372 .

The ip access-group command { in | out } 373 .

ACL Example 374 .

if no match is found then the packet is denied.Basic Rules for ACLs These basic rules should be followed when creating and applying access lists: • • • • One access list per protocol per direction. and groups or general filters should come last. • New lines are always added to the end of the access list. Standard IP access lists should be applied closest to the destination. This will not appear in the configuration listing. 375 . Use the inbound or outbound interface reference as if looking at the port from inside the router. • There is an implicit deny at the end of all access lists. • Outbound filters do not affect traffic originating from the local router. • Access list entries should filter in the order from specific to general. • Statements are processed sequentially from the top of list to the bottom until a match is found. • Never work with an access list that is actively applied. It is not possible to selectively add and remove lines with numbered ACLs. Specific hosts should be denied first. Extended IP access lists should be applied closest to the source. • A no access-list x command will remove the whole list.

In the examples that follow Cisco has chosen to represent the binary 1s in the wilcard masks with Xs to focus on the specific bits being shown in each example. wildcard masks are the reverse meaning they typically start with binary 0s and end with binary 1s. You will see that while subnet masks were ANDed with ip addresses. . While subnet masks start with binary 1s and end with binary 0s.Wildcard Mask Examples 5 Examples follow that demonstrate how a wildcard mask can be used to permit or deny certain IP addresses. or IP address ranges. wildcard masks are ORed with IP addresses. 376 .

Wildcard Mask Example #1 377 .

Wildcard Mask Example #2 378 .

Wildcard Mask Example #3 379 .

Even IPs 380 .Wildcard Mask Example #4 .

Odd IP#s 381 .Wildcard Mask Example #5 .

The any and host Keywords 382 .

The show running-config command will also reveal the access lists on a router and the interface assignment information.Verifying ACLs There are many show commands that will verify the content and placement of ACLs on the router. The show ip interface command displays IP interface information and indicates whether any ACLs are set. show access-list 1 shows just access-list 1. The show access-lists command displays the contents of all ACLs on the router. 383 .

0. The comparison will result in either permit or deny access for an entire protocol suite. which is 0. and host addresses.0. (This only works with Standard ACLs and is the same thing as using host. based on the network. If there is no wildcard mask.0. the default mask is used.Standard ACLs Standard ACLs check the source address of IP packets that are routed.) The full syntax of the standard ACL command is: Router(config)#access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} source [source-wildcard ] [log] The no form of this command is used to remove a standard ACL. subnet. This is the syntax: 384 Router(config)#no access-list access-list-number . The standard version of the access-list global configuration command is used to define a standard ACL with a number in the range of 1 to 99 (also from 1300 to 1999 in recent IOS).

Extended ACLs Extended ACLs are used more often than standard ACLs because they provide a greater range of control. additional precision is gained from a field that specifies the optional Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number. equal (eq). Logical operations may be specified such as. that the extended ACL will perform on specific protocols. At the end of the extended ACL statement. Extended ACLs use an access-list-number in the range 100 to 199 (also from 2000 to 2699 in recent IOS). greater than (gt). The syntax for the extended ACL statement can get very long and often will wrap in the terminal window. The wildcards also have the option of using the host or any keywords in the command. not equal (neq). and less than (lt). Extended ACLs check the source and destination packet addresses as well as being able to check for protocols and port numbers. 385 .

Extended ACL Syntax 386 .

Well Known Port Numbers Don’t forget that WWW or HTTP is 80 387 .

ftp.Extended ACL Example This extended ACL will allow people in network any eq http NOTE: Just like all Standard ACLs end with an implicit "deny any".100.0 0.255 any eq www or access-list 101 permit tcp 200.0.50. all Extended ACLs end with an implicit "deny ip any any" which means deny the entire internet from anywhere to 388 anywhere. .255 any eq 80 or access-list 101 permit tcp 200.0 0.0. but not allow any other protocols like email. 0.0. access-list 101 permit tcp to surfing the internet.100. etc.

ip access-group
The ip access-group command links an existing standard or extended ACL to an interface. Remember that only one ACL per interface, per direction, per protocol is allowed. The format of the command is:

Router(config-if)#ip access-group access-list-number {in | out}


Named ACLs
IP named ACLs were introduced in Cisco IOS Software Release 11.2, allowing standard and extended ACLs to be given names instead of numbers. The advantages that a named access list provides are: • Intuitively identify an ACL using an alphanumeric name. • Eliminate the limit of 798 simple and 799 extended ACLs • Named ACLs provide the ability to modify ACLs without deleting them completely and then reconfiguring them. Named ACLs are not compatible with Cisco IOS releases prior to Release 11.2. The same name may not be used for multiple ACLs.


Named ACL Example


Placing ACLs
The general rule is to put the extended ACLs as close as possible to the source of the traffic denied. Standard ACLs do not specify destination addresses, so they should be placed as close to the destination as possible. For example, in the graphic a standard ACL should be placed on Fa0/0 of Router D to prevent traffic from Router A.



Permitting a Single Host
Router(config)# access-list 1 permit or Router(config)# access-list 1 permit host or Router(config)# access-list 1 permit (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.) Router(config)# int e0 Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 in or Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 out

Denying a Single Host
Router(config)# access-list 1 deny Router(config)# access-list 1 permit or Router(config)# access-list 1 deny host Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any (The implicit “deny any” is still present, but totally irrelevant.) Router(config)# int e0 Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 in or Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 out

Permitting a Single Network
Class C Router(config)# access-list 1 permit or Class B Router(config)# access-list 1 permit or Class A Router(config)# access-list 1 permit (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.) Router(config)# int e0 Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 in or Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 out


Denying a Single Network
Class C Router(config)# access-list 1 deny Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any or Class B Router(config)# access-list 1 deny Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any or Class A Router(config)# access-list 1 deny Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any (The implicit “deny any” is still present, but totally irrelevant.)

Permitting a Class C Subnet
Network Address/Subnet Mask: Desired Subnet: 3rd Process: 32-28=4 2^4 = 16 1st Usable Subnet address range it 2nd Usable Subnet address range it 3rd Usable Subnet address range it Subnet Mask is Inverse Mask is or subtract from to get Router(config)# access-list 1 permit
398 (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.)

Denying a Class C Subnet
Network Address/Subnet Mask: Undesired Subnet: 2nd Process: 32-27=5 2^5=32 1st Usable Subnet address range it 2nd Usable Subnet address range it Subnet Mask is Inverse Mask is or subtract from to get Router(config)# access-list 1 deny Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any
399 (The implicit “deny any” is still present, but totally irrelevant.)

Permitting a Class B Subnet
Network Address/Subnet Mask: Desired Subnet: 129th Process: Since exactly 8 bits are borrowed the 3rd octet will denote the subnet number. 129th Usable Subnet address range it

Subnet Mask is Inverse Mask is or subtract from to get Router(config)# access-list 1 permit
400 (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.)

88.0-160.200.255 50 * 4 = 200 50th subnet is 160.255 401 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any .200.0- or subtract Subnet Mask is 255.203.255 2nd Usable Subnet address range it 160.252.255 to get 0.Denying a Class B Subnet Network Address/Subnet Mask: from 160.0/22 Undesired Subnet: 50th Process: 32-22=10 (more than 1 octet) 10-8=2 2^2=4 1st Usable Subnet address range it 160.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 0.0-160.88.0 Inverse Mask is

0/12 Desired Subnet: 13th Process: 32-12=20 20-16=4 2^4=16 1st Usable Subnet address range is 111.255 13*16=208 13th Usable Subnet address range is 111.0 0.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 111.255 Subnet Mask is 255.31.0 from or subtract 111.255 to get 0.0 Inverse Mask is (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.255.) 402 . a Class A Subnet Network Address/Subnet Mask: 111.

0.0.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any 403 .255.44.1.Denying a Class A Subnet Network Address/Subnet Mask: 1st Usable Subnet address range is 500th Usable Subnet address range is Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 40.255 255th Usable Subnet address range is 40.1.255 256th Usable Subnet address range is 40.0/24 Undesired Subnet: 500th Process: Since exactly 16 bits were borrowed the 2nd and 3rd octet will denote the subnet.0.0-40.0- 300th Usable Subnet address range is 40.0 0

404 .

50.100.100.Permit 200.50.98 access-list 1 permit host 200.50.99 access-list 1 permit host access-list 1 permit host 200.96 access-list 1 permit host 200.25 access-list 1 permit host 200.28 : : : : : : : : access-list 1 permit host 200.50.24-100 Plan A access-list 1 permit host 200.100 This would get very tedious! 405 .100.50.26 access-list 1 permit host access-list 1 permit host access-list 1 permit host

0.0.31 (64-95) access-list 1 permit 0.24 (96-99) (100) (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied. 200.0.31 (32-63) access-list 1 permit 0.3 access-list 1 permit host 200.64 Plan B access-list 1 permit 200.) 406 .7 (24-31) access-list 1 permit 200.

50.50.31 (32-63) access-list 1 permit 0.32 0.16-127 Plan A access-list 1 permit 200.) 407 .Permit (16-31) access-list 1 permit 200.16 0.63 (64-127) (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.

Then we can permit any address in the range 0-127.Permit 200.0 0.16-127 Plan B access-list 1 deny 200.127 (0-127) First we make sure that addresses 0-15 are denied.0.100. Since only the first matching statement in an ACL is applied an address in the range of 0-15 will be denied by the first statement before it has a chance to be permitted by the second.0.50.15 (0-15) access-list 1 permit 200.50.0. (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.0.0 408 .

5.77 Sometimes a group of addresses has no pattern and the best way to deal with them is individually.77 access-list 1 permit host 200.50.1 access-list 1 permit host access-list 1 permit host . access-list 1 permit host 200.50.13 access-list 1 permit host 200. 409 (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.42 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.Permit 200.13.

410 .

Permit Source Network access-list 101 permit ip or access-list 101 permit ip 200.0 0.0.255 any Implicit deny ip any any 411 .0 255.0.0 0.50.0.

0 412 .0.255.0 any access-list 101 permit ip any any Implicit deny ip any any is present but irrelevant.255.Deny Source Network access-list 101 deny ip 200.100.255 or access-list 101 deny ip 200.0 0.255.0 255.0.255 access-list 101 permit ip 0.100.255 0.0

0.0.255 or access-list 101 permit ip any 200.100.255.Permit Destination Network access-list 101 permit ip Implicit deny ip any any 413 .0.50.0 0.255 200.0.0 0.50.0 255.

0 access-list 101 permit ip any any Implicit deny ip any any is present but irrelevant.0.0.0 0.255 0.Deny Destination Network access-list 101 deny ip 255.50.255 or access-list 101 deny ip any 200.0.0 255.0.0 255. 414 . access-list 101 permit ip 0.

0 0.50.255 to network 150.255 415 200.75.Permit one Source Network to another Destination Network Assume the only traffic you want is traffic from network Implicit deny ip any any To allow 2 way traffic between the networks add this statement: access-list 101 permit ip .0 0.0 access-list 101 permit ip 200.0.0 0.100.

255 access-list 101 permit ip any any To deny 2 way traffic between the networks add this statement: access-list 101 deny ip 150.0.0 to network 0.0.0 access-list 101 deny ip 200.0 0.0 0.0 0.Deny one Source Network to another Destination Network Assume you want to allow all traffic EXCEPT from network .255 416 200.0.

access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq 21 access-list 101 permit ip any any or access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq ftp access-list 101 permit ip any any 417 .Deny FTP Assume you do not want anyone FTPing on the network.

Deny Telnet Assume you do not want anyone telnetting on the network. access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq 23 access-list 101 permit ip any any or access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq telnet access-list 101 permit ip any any 418 .

Deny Web Surfing Assume you do not want anyone surfing the internet. access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq 80 access-list 101 permit ip any any or access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq www access-list 101 permit ip any any You can also use http instead of www. 419 .

75.0/24 is not allowed to surf the internet access-list 101 deny tcp 200.0 may telnet to network 50.255 50.100.0 is allowed to FTP anywhere • Only hosts from network 150.0 any eq 80 access-list 101 permit ip any any 420 .0 Example #1 Suppose you have the following conditions: • No one from Network eq 23 access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq 23 access-list 101 deny tcp any eq 21 access-list 101 permit tcp 150.100.0 0.0 • Subnetwork

255 eq 110 access-list 101 deny tcp any any smtp access-list 101 deny tcp any any pop3 421 access-list 101 permit ip any any .75.255. ftp. etc. eq 25 access-list 101 permit tcp 150.0 0.0.0 0.50. port 110 This example assumes the your Email server is at addresses 0.50.25 access-list 101 permit tcp 200. • Email server send/receive Protocol: SMTP.255 Example #2 Suppose you are the admin of network 200. You want to permit Email only between your network and network 150.0.0 0.0.0 0.255 eq 25 access-list 101 permit tcp 200. telnet.0.0.255 port 25 • User Check Email Protocol: POP3. 0. You wish to place no restriction on other protocols like web surfing.0.50.

7) .NAT Network Address Translator 422 Fig. 3 NAT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.

New addressing concepts Problems with IPv4 Shortage of IPv4 addresses Allocation of the last IPv4 addresses is forecasted for the year 2005 Address classes were replaced by usage of CIDR. 5) . 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. but this is not sufficient Short term solution NAT: Network Address Translator Long term solution IPv6 = IPng (IP next generation) Provides an extended address range 423 Fig.

4 How does NAT work? (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.NAT: Network Address Translator NAT Translates between local addresses and public ones Many private hosts share few global addresses Private Network Uses private address range (local addresses) Local addresses may not be used externally Public Network Uses public addresses Public addresses are globally unique 424 Fig. 9) .

9) .realm with private addresses translate reserve pool map realm with public addresses To be translated NAT exclude exclude NAT Router 425 Fig. 5 Translation mechanism (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.

15) .free NAT Pool A timeout value (default 15 min) instructs NAT how long to keep an association in an idle state before returning the external IP address to the free NAT pool. 426 Fig. 8 How does NAT know when to return the public IP address to the pool? (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.

NAT Addressing Terms • Inside Local – The term “inside” refers to an address used for a host inside an enterprise. • Inside Global – NAT uses an inside global address to represent the inside host as the packet is sent through the outside network. – A NAT router changes the source IP address of a packet sent by an inside host from an inside local address to an inside global address as the packet goes from the inside to the outside network. 427 . It is the actual IP address assigned to a host in the private enterprise network. typically the Internet.

428 . typically the Internet. the Internet.NAT Addressing Terms • Outside Global – The term “outside” refers to an address used for a host outside an enterprise. sent from an outside global address to an inside host. as the packet goes from the outside to the inside network. • Outside Local – NAT uses an outside local address to represent the outside host as the packet is sent through the private enterprise network. – An outside global is the actual IP address assigned to a host that resides in the outside network. – A NAT router changes a packet’s destination IP address.

0 10.10.10 192. 13) .5 SA = 10.47.50.WAN Router Router A with NAT Router SA = 193.20.5 429 Fig.50.50.4 DA = DA = 192.47.0 LAN Net A 10.50. 7 An example for NAT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. Router Router B Router Router LAN Net B 192.

76.28.7 Net A DA =138.10 SA = Router SA = 138.7 SA = Router SA = 10.10 DA = 138.0. 11 An example for NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.76.7 DA = 10.0.4 Router 138.WAN NAT with WAN interface: 138. 21) .29.7 DA = 138.0.10 430 Fig.29.29.0/8 10.76.

Types Of NAT • There are different types of NAT that can be used. which are – Static NAT – Dynamic NAT – Overloading NAT with PAT (NAPT) 431 .

Static NAT • With static NAT. 432 . the NAT router simply configures a one-to-one mapping between the private address and the registered address that is used on its behalf.

Static NAT 433 .

• However.Dynamic NAT • Like static NAT. the NAT router creates a one-to-one mapping between an inside local and inside global address and changes the IP addresses in packets as they exit and enter the inside network. the mapping of an inside local address to an inside global address happens dynamically. 434 .

Dynamic NAT • Dynamic NAT sets up a pool of possible inside global addresses and defines criteria for the set of inside local IP addresses whose traffic should be translated with NAT. • The dynamic entry in the NAT table stays in there as long as traffic flows occasionally. 435 .

9 NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.PAT Port Address Translator 436 Fig. 17) .

10 437 Fig.76.0. 21) .0.7 Net A 10. dpor t= 23 SA = 138. sport = 3017 DA = 138.29.7. spor t= 23 DA = dpor t= 23 Router SA = dport = 3017 SA = Router SA = 11 An example for NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. spor t= 23 DA = 10.WAN NAPT with WAN interface: 10.76. sport = 1024 DA = dport = 1024 Router 138.

. registered IP @. local TU port # mapping assigned TU port # TU. SOHO) WAN pool of TU port numbers local IP @..PAT with e.TCP/UDP 438 Fig.g.g. a single public IP address single public IP address private IP network (e.. 10 NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. 19) .

NAT&PAT Network Address Translation & Port Address Transation 439 Fig. 3 NAT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. 7) .

2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. but this is not sufficient Short term solution NAT: Network Address Translator Long term solution IPv6 = IPng (IP next generation) Provides an extended address range 440 Fig.New addressing concepts Problems with IPv4 Shortage of IPv4 addresses Allocation of the last IPv4 addresses is forecasted for the year 2006 Address classes were replaced by usage of CIDR. 5) .

NAT: Network Address Translator NAT Translates between local addresses and public ones Many private hosts share few global addresses Private Network Uses private address range (local addresses) Local addresses may not be used externally Public Network Uses public addresses Public addresses are globally unique 441 Fig. 9) . 4 How does NAT work? (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.

9) . 5 Translation mechanism (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.private addresses translate reserve pool map public addresses To be translated NAT exclude exclude NAT Router 442 Fig.

free NAT Pool A timeout value (default 15 min) instructs NAT how long to keep an association in an idle state before returning the external IP address to the free NAT pool. 15) . 443 Fig. 8 How does NAT know when to return the public IP address to the pool? (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.

– A NAT router changes the source IP address of a packet sent by an inside host from an inside local address to an inside global address as the packet goes from the inside to the outside network. typically the WAN. It is the actual IP address assigned to a host in the private enterprise network. 5) .NAT Addressing Terms • Inside Local “Private address” – The term “inside” refers to an address used for a host inside an enterprise. • Inside Global “Public address” – NAT uses an inside global address to represent the inside host as the packet is sent through the outside network. 444 Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.

0 10. 13) . Router Router B Router Router LAN Net B 192. 7 An example for NAT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.47.5 SA = Router Router A with NAT Router SA = 193.4 DA = 192.10 DA = 192.47.5 445 Fig.50.50.0 LAN Net A 10. Router SA = 138.7 Net A 10.10 SA = 138.76.0/8 11 An example for NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.0.29.7 DA = Router 138.WAN NAT with WAN interface: DA =138.0. 21) .7 DA = DA = 138.10 446 Fig.7 Router SA = 10.76.7 SA = 138.

2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.Types Of NAT • There are different types of NAT that can be used. which are – Static NAT – Dynamic NAT – Overloading NAT with PAT (NAT Over PAT) 447 Fig. 5) .

Static NAT • With static NAT. 448 Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. 5) . the NAT router simply configures a one-to-one mapping between the private address and the registered address that is used on its behalf.

5) .Static NAT 449 Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.

2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. 5) .Static NAT Configuration • To form NAT table Router(config)#IP Nat inside source static [inside local source IP address] [inside global source IP address] • Assign NAT to an Interface Router(config)#Interface [Serial x/y] Router(config-if)#IP NAT [Inside] • See Example 450 Fig.

the NAT router creates a one-to-one mapping between an inside local and inside global address and changes the IP addresses in packets as they exit and enter the inside network. 451 Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. the mapping of an inside local address to an inside global address happens dynamically.Dynamic NAT • Like static NAT. • However. 5) .

but all the pooled IP addresses are in use. • The dynamic entry in the NAT table stays in there as long as traffic flows occasionally. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts. 5) .Dynamic NAT • Dynamic NAT sets up a pool of possible inside global addresses and defines criteria for the set of inside local IP addresses whose traffic should be translated with NAT. 452 Fig. • If a new packet arrives. the router simply discards the packet. and it needs a NAT entry.

5) . 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.Dynamic NAT Configuration • Specify inside addresses to be translated Router(config)#IP Nat inside source list [standard Access List number] pool [NAT Pool Name] • Specify NAT pool Router(config)#IP Nat pool [NAT Pool Name] [First inside global address] [Last inside global address] netmask [subnet mask] • Assign NAT to an Interface Router(config)#Interface [Serial x/y] Router(config-if)#IP NAT [Inside] • See Example 453 Fig.

PAT Port Address Translator 454 Fig. 17) . 9 NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.

7 Net A dport = 3017 SA = sport = 3017 DA = spor t= 23 DA = 10.29.10. sport = 1024 DA =138. dport = 1024 Router 138.76. dpor t= 23 SA = 138.76.0/8 10.WAN NAPT with WAN interface: 138.0. dpor t= 23 Router SA = spor t= 23 DA = 138.76.10 455 Fig. 5) .0.0.4 Router SA = 138.29.0. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.

. local TU port # mapping assigned TU port # TU. registered IP @.. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts.TCP/UDP 456 Fig.. SOHO) WAN pool of TU port numbers local IP @. a single public IP address single public IP address private IP network (e.PAT with e.g. 5) .g.

PAT Configuration
• Specify inside addresses to be translated
Router(config)#IP Nat inside source list [standard Access List number] pool [NAT Pool Name] overload

• Specify PAT pool
Router(config)#IP Nat pool [NAT Pool Name] [First inside global address] [Last inside global address] netmask [subnet mask]

• Assign PAT to an Interface
Router(config)#Interface [Serial x/y] Router(config-if)#IP NAT [Inside]

• See Example
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)


Ethernet Access with Hubs


Ethernet Access with Bridges


Ethernet Access with Switches


Today's LAN


Full Duplex Transmitting
Full-duplex Ethernet allows the transmission of a packet and the reception of a different packet at the same time. This simultaneous transmission and reception requires the use of two pairs of wires in the cable and a switched connection between each node. This connection is considered point-to-point and is collision free. The full-duplex Ethernet switch takes advantage of the two pairs of wires in the cable by creating a direct connection between the transmit (TX) at one end of the circuit and the receive (RX) at the other end. Ethernet usually can only use 50%-60% of the available 10 Mbps of bandwidth because of collisions and latency. Full-duplex Ethernet offers 100% of the bandwidth in both directions. This produces a potential 20 Mbps throughput.


Why Segment LANs?


Collision Domains


Segmentation with Bridges


Segmentation with Routers


Segmentation with Switches


Switching equipment performs the following two basic operations: • Switching data frames • Maintaining switching operations 469 . Token Ring.Basic Operations of a Switch Switching is a technology that decreases congestion in Ethernet. and FDDI LANs. Switching accomplishes this by reducing traffic and increasing bandwidth. LAN switches are often used to replace shared hubs and are designed to work with existing cable infrastructures.

Most reliable and also most latency especially when frames are large. Anything > 64 bytes is a valid packet and is usually received without error. This mode decreases the latency of the transmission. S to re-and-Forward The entire frame is received before any forwarding takes place. but also reduces error detection. collision fragments must be smaller than 64 bytes.Switching Methods 1. 3. 2. 470 . In a properly functioning network. Fragment -Free Fragment-free switching filters out collision fragments before forwarding begins. Filters are applied before the frame is forwarded. At a minimum the frame destination address must be read before the frame can be forwarded. Cut -T hrough The frame is forwarded through the switch before the entire frame is received. Collision fragments are the majority of packet errors.

Frame Transmission Modes 471 .

Benefits of Switching 472 .

the bridge or switch learns which addresses belong to the devices connected to each port.How Switches and Bridges Learn Addresses Bridges and switches learn in the following ways: • Reading the source MAC address of each received frame or datagram • Recording the port on which the MAC address was received. 473 . In this way.

. If the comparison yields a match. The CAM compares the received destination MAC address against the CAM table contents. the port is provided.CAM Content Addressable Memory CAM is used in switch applications: • To take out and process the address information from incoming data packets • To compare the destination address with a table of addresses stored within it The CAM stores host MAC addresses and associated port numbers. and switching control 474 forwards the packet to the correct port and address.

then bandwidth is dedicated. bandwidth is shared. If a workstation or server is directly connected to a switch port. then the full bandwidth of the connection to the switch is available to the connected computer. 475 . If a hub is connected to a switch port. Dedicates Bandwidth If a hub is used. bandwidth is shared between all devices connected to the hub.Shared vs. If a switch is used.

Microsegmentation of a Network 476 .

Microsegmentation 477 .

3 Methods of Communication 478 .

479 . the broadcast domain is increased. Routers do not propagate broadcasts.Switches & Broadcast Domains When two switches are connected. The overall result is a reduction in available bandwidth. Routers are used to segment both collision and broadcast domains. Routers are Layer 3 devices. This happens because all devices in the broadcast domain must receive and process the broadcast frame.

Broadcast Domain 480 .

481 .

Good network design will improve performance and also reduce the difficulties associated with network growth and evolution. a network designer must realize that each of the major components of a network has distinct design requirements. manageable. and scalable networks. The design of larger LANs includes identifying the following: • An access layer that connects end users into the LAN • A distribution layer that provides policy-based connectivity between end-user LANs • A core layer that provides the fastest connection between the distribution points Each of these LAN design layers requires switches that are best 482 suited for specific tasks.Overview To design reliable. .

The Access Layer The access layer is the entry point for user workstations and servers to the network. Layer 2 switches are used in the access layer. In a campus LAN the device used at the access layer can be a switch or a hub. Access layer functions also include MAC layer filtering and microsegmentation. 483 .

Access Layer Switches Access layer switches operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model The main purpose of an access layer switch is to allow end users into the network. An access layer switch should provide this functionality with low cost and high port density. The following Cisco switches are commonly used at the access layer: • Catalyst 1900 series • Catalyst 2820 series • Catalyst 2950 series • Catalyst 4000 series • Catalyst 5000 series 484 .

485 .The Distribution Layer The distribution layer of the network is between the access and core layers. Policies can be applied and access control lists can filter packets. The distribution layer isolates network problems to the workgroups in which they occur. Switches in this layer operate at Layer 2 and Layer 3. The distribution layer also prevents these problems from affecting the core layer. Networks are segmented into broadcast domains by this layer.

Distribution Layer Switches The distribution layer switch must have high performance. The distribution layer switch is a point at which a broadcast domain is delineated. Switches in this layer are referred to as multilayer switches. The following Cisco switches are suitable for the distribution layer: • Catalyst 2926G • Catalyst 5000 family • Catalyst 6000 family 486 . These multilayer switches combine the functions of a router and a switch in one device. It combines VLAN traffic and is a focal point for policy decisions about traffic flow. For these reasons distribution layer switches operate at both Layer 2 and Layer 3 of the OSI model.

487 . This layer of the network design should not perform any packet manipulation.The Core Layer The core layer is a high-speed switching backbone. would slow down the process. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or Ethernet switches can be used. such as access list filtering. Packet manipulation. The core can be designed to use Layer 2 or Layer 3 switching. Providing a core infrastructure with redundant alternate paths gives stability to the network in the event of a single device failure.

core. cost. In a network design. and performance should be considered before a choice is made. or Layer 3. The following Cisco switches are suitable for the core layer: • Catalyst 6500 series • Catalyst 8500 series • IGX 8400 series • Lightstream 1010 488 . Core layer switches are designed to provide efficient Layer 3 functionality when needed. the core layer can be a routed. Factors such as need. the switches can use Ethernet technology. Provided that the distance between the core layer switches is not too great.Core Layer Switches The switches in this layer can make use of a number of Layer 2 technologies.

489 .

490 . specialized computers.Physical Startup of the Catalyst Switch Switches are dedicated. Several switches from the Cisco Catalyst 2950 series are shown in graphic to the right. Switches usually have several ports for the purpose of connecting hosts. Switches typically have no power switch to turn them on and off. which contain a CPU. and an operating system. They simply connect or disconnect from a power source. RAM. A switch can be managed by connecting to the console port to view and make changes to the configuration. as well as specialized ports for the purpose of management.

These lights are called light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The Port Status LEDs have different meanings. depending on the current 491 value of the Mode LED. The Mode LEDs indicate the current state of the Mode button. The switch has the following LEDs: • • • • System LED Remote Power Supply (RPS) LED Port Mode LED Port Status LEDs The System LED shows whether the system is receiving power and functioning correctly.Switch LED Indicators The front panel of a switch has several lights to help monitor system activity and performance. The RPS LED indicates whether or not the remote power supply is in use. .

the switch initiates a series of tests called the power-on self test (POST). POST runs automatically to verify that the switch functions correctly.Verifying Port LEDs During Switch POST Once the power cable is connected. The System LED indicates the success or failure of POST. 492 .

Connecting a Switch to a Computer 493 .

This form of help is called command syntax help. a list of commands available for the current command mode is displayed. because it provides applicable keywords or arguments based on a partial 494 command. When this command is entered at the system prompt.Examining Help in the Switch CLI The command-line interface (CLI) for Cisco switches is very similar to the CLI for Cisco routers. . The help command is very flexible and essentially functions the same way it does in a router CLI. The help command is issued by entering a question mark (?).

The commands available in User EXEC mode are limited to those that change terminal settings. and display system information. perform basic tests. which ends in a pound-sign character (#). . The configure command allows other command modes to be 495 accessed. The enable command is used to change from User EXEC mode to Privileged EXEC mode. The default mode is User EXEC mode.Switch Command Modes Switches have several command modes. which ends in a greater-than character (>).

Show Commands in User-Exec Mode 496 .

Setting Switch Hostname Setting Passwords on Lines 497 .

498 .

and MAC address database instability. Redundant topologies based on switches and bridges are susceptible to broadcast storms. Therefore network redundancy requires careful planning and monitoring to function properly. multiple frame transmissions.Overview Redundancy in a network is extremely important because redundancy allows networks to be fault tolerant. 499 . The Spanning-Tree Protocol is used in switched networks to create a loop free logical topology from a physical topology that has loops.

500 . If port 1 fails on Switch A then traffic can still flow through port 1 on Switch B. and MAC address table instability problems. multiple frame copies. Switches learn the MAC addresses of devices on their ports so that data can be properly forwarded to the destination. A redundant switched topology may cause broadcast storms. In the graphic. if Switch A fails. traffic can still flow from Segment 2 to Segment 1 and to the router through Switch B.Redundant Switched Topologies Networks with redundant paths and devices allow for more network uptime. Switches will flood frames for unknown destinations until they learn the MAC addresses of the devices.

Broadcast Storms Broadcasts and multicasts can cause problems in a switched network. 501 . The switches continue to propagate broadcast traffic over and over. This is called a broadcast storm. The network will appear to be down or extremely slow. except the one on which the frame was received. Broadcasts and multicasts frames are flooded out all ports. Multicasts are treated as broadcasts by the switches. This will continue until one of the switches is disconnected.

Switch A does not have the MAC address of the Router Y and will therefore flood the frame out its ports. Switch B then floods the frame it received causing Router Y to receive multiple copies of the same frame. Also assume that Host X still has the MAC address of Router Y in its ARP cache and sends a unicast frame to Router Y. Switch B also does not know which port Router Y is on.Multiple Frame Transmissions In a redundant switched network it is possible for an end device to receive multiple frames. This is a cause of unnecessary processing in all devices. 502 . The router receives the frame because it is on the same segment as Host X. Assume that the MAC address of Router Y has been timed out by both switches.

but the switches have incorrectly learned that Host X is on port 1. When Router Y sends a frame to Host X. Switches A & B learn the MAC address of Host X on port 0. This is unnecessary. Host X sends a frame directed to Router Y. Switch A and Switch B will also receive the frame and will send it out port 1. The frame to Router Y is flooded on port 1 of both switches. when it is actually on a different port.MAC Database Instability A switch can incorrectly learn that a MAC address is on one port. 503 . In this example the MAC address of Router Y is not in the MAC address table of either switch. Switches A and B see this information on port 1 and incorrectly learn the MAC address of Host X on port 1.

Using Bridging Loops for Redundancy 504 .

Logical Loop Free Topology Created with STP 505 .

NOTE: Don’t confuse Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) with Shielded Twisted Pair (STP). 506 .

Spanning Tree Protocol . Link costs are based on the speed of the link.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol and use the spanning-tree algorithm to construct a loop free shortest path network.1 Ethernet bridges and switches can implement the IEEE 802. Shortest path is based on cumulative link costs. 507 .

The message that a switch sends. allowing the formation of a loop free logical topology.2 The Spanning-Tree Protocol establishes a root node. 508 . is called a Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU). The resulting tree originates from the root bridge/switch. The Spanning-Tree Protocol requires network devices to exchange messages to detect bridging loops.Spanning Tree Protocol . called the root bridge/switch. Links that will cause a loop are put into a blocking state. The Spanning-Tree Protocol constructs a topology that has one path for reaching every network node.

As a switch receives a BPDU with a lower root BID it replaces that in the BPDUs that are sent out. These BPDUs contain the switch MAC address in both the root and sender BID. the spanning-tree algorithm is used to identify the root bridge. it assumes it is the root switch and sends BPDUs. When a switch is turned on. BPDUs are sent out with the Bridge ID (BID).Selecting the Root Bridge The first decision that all switches in the network make. The BID consists of a bridge priority that defaults to 32768 and the switch base MAC address. The position of the root bridge in a network will affect the traffic flow. When a switch first starts up. A network administrator may want to influence the decision by setting 509 the switch priority to a smaller value than the default. . All bridges see these and decide that the bridge with the smallest BID value will be the root bridge. is to identify the root bridge.

• Each non-root switch choose one of its ports as its root port. this is the interface that gives the best path to the root switch. 510 .BDPUs BPDUs contain enough information so that all switches can do the following: • Select a single switch that will act as the root of the spanning tree • Calculate the shortest path from itself to the root switch • Designate one of the switches as the closest one to the root. the designated ports. • Select ports that are part of the spanning tree. for each LAN segment. The designated switch handles all communication from that LAN towards the root bridge. This bridge is called the “designated switch”. Non-designated ports are blocked.

As a result. Non-designated ports are called blocking (B) or discarding ports. Non-designated ports discard data traffic.Spanning Tree Operation When the network has stabilized. 511 . it has converged and there is one spanning tree per network. for every switched network the following elements exist: • One root bridge per network • One root port per non root bridge • One designated port per segment • Unused. non-designated ports Root ports and designated ports are used for forwarding (F) data traffic.

Spanning Tree Port States 512 .

Convergence on a new spanning-tree topology using the IEEE 802. This convergence is made up of the max-age of 20 seconds. switches and bridges recompute the Spanning Tree and cause a disruption of user traffic. Forwarding ports send and receive data traffic and BPDUs. When the network topology changes.1D standard can take up to 50 seconds. plus the listening forward delay of 15 seconds. Blocked ports will only receive BPDUs. . and the learning forward 513 delay of 15 seconds.Spanning Tree Recalculation A switched internetwork has converged when all the switch and bridge ports are in either the forwarding or blocked state.

Rapid STP Designations 514 .

515 .

NOTE: This is the only way a switch can break up a broadcast domain! 516 . VLANs can also be used to provide security by creating the VLAN groups according to function and by using routers to communicate between VLANs. A physical port association is used to implement VLAN assignment.VLANs VLAN implementation combines Layer 2 switching and Layer 3 routing technologies to limit both collision domains and broadcast domains. This limits the size of the broadcast domains and uses the router to determine whether one VLAN can talk to another VLAN. Communication between VLANs can occur only through the router.

Setting up VLAN Implementation 517 .

VLAN Communication 518 .

VLAN Membership Modes • VLAN membership can either be static or dynamic. 519 .

Static VLANs • All users attached to same switch port must be in the same VLAN. 520 .

Configuring VLANs in Global Mode Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#vlan 3 Switch(config-vlan)#name Vlan3 Switch(config-vlan)#exit Switch(config)#end 521 .

. Exiting.Configuring VLANs in VLAN Database Mode Switch#vlan database Switch(vlan)#vlan 3 VLAN 3 added: Name: VLAN0003 Switch(vlan)#exit APPLY completed. 522 ...

Deleting VLANs in Global Mode Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#no vlan 3 Switch(config)#end 523 .

Deleting VLANs in VLAN Database Mode Switch#vlan database Switch(vlan)#no vlan 3 VLAN 3 deleted: Name: VLAN0003 Switch(vlan)#exit APPLY completed. Exiting. 524 ....

Assigning Access Ports to a VLAN Switch(config)#interface gigabitethernet 1/1 • Enters interface configuration mode Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access • Configures the interface as an access port Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 3 • Assigns the access port to a VLAN 525 .

------------------------------1 default active Fa0/1.Verifying the VLAN Configuration Switch#show vlan [id | name] [vlan_num | vlan_name] VLAN Name Status Ports ---. Fa0/11. Gi0/2 2 VLAN0002 active 51 VLAN0051 active 52 VLAN0052 active … VLAN ---1 2 51 52 … Type ----enet enet enet enet SAID ---------100001 100002 100051 100052 MTU ----1500 1500 1500 1500 Parent -----RingNo -----BridgeNo -------Stp ---BrdgMode -------Trans1 -----1002 0 0 0 Trans2 -----1003 0 0 0 Remote SPAN VLANs -----------------------------------------------------------------------------526 Primary Secondary Type Ports ------.----------------. Fa0/12 Gi0/1. Fa0/5. Fa0/2.--------.--------. Fa0/9. Fa0/7 Fa0/8.-------------------------------.------------------------------------------ .

Verifying the VLAN Port Configuration Switch#show running-config interface {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} slot/port • Displays the running configuration of the interface Switch#show interfaces [{fastethernet | gigabitethernet} slot/port] switchport • Displays the switch port configuration of the interface Switch#show mac-address-table interface interface-id [vlan vlan-id] [ | {begin | exclude | include} expression] • Displays the MAC address table information for the specified interface in the specified VLAN 527 .

Inc. BCMSN v2.Implementing VLAN Trunks 528 © 2003. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.0—2-528 .

VLAN Trunking 529 .

Importance of Native VLANs 530 .

ISL Encapsulation – Performed with ASIC – Not intrusive to client stations. and between routers and switches 531 . client does not see the header – Effective between switches.

ISL and Layer 2 Encapsulation 532 .

Configuring ISL Trunking Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 2/1 • Enters interface configuration mode Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk • Configures the interface as a Layer 2 trunk Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation [isl|dot1q] • Selects the encapsulation 533 .

1002-1005 VLANs in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1-2.Verifying ISL Trunking Switch#show running-config interface {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} slot/port Switch#show interfaces [fastethernet | gigabitethernet] slot/port [ switchport | trunk ] Switch#show interfaces fastethernet 2/1 trunk Port Fa2/1 Port Fa2/1 Port Fa2/1 Port Fa2/1 Mode desirable Encapsulation isl Status trunking Native VLAN 1 VLANs allowed on trunk 1-1005 VLANs allowed and active in management domain 1-2.1002-1005 534 .

802.1Q Trunking 535 .

11.15.Configuring 802.1Q Trunking Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 5/8 Switch(config-if)#shutdown Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan 1.1002-1005 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk Switch(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate Switch(config-if)#no shutdown 536 .

1Q Trunking Switch#show running-config interface {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} slot/port Switch#show interfaces [fastethernet | gigabitethernet] slot/port [ switchport | trunk ] Switch#show interfaces gigabitEthernet 0/1 switchport Name: Gi0/1 Switchport: Enabled Administrative Mode: trunk Operational Mode: trunk Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q Operational Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q Negotiation of Trunking: On Access Mode VLAN: 1 (default) Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 1 (default) Trunking VLANs Enabled: ALL Pruning VLANs Enabled: 2-1001 . .Verifying 802. 537 . .

Cisco Systems. Inc.0—2-538 . All rights reserved.Implementing VLAN Trunk Protocol 538 © 2003. BCMSN 2.

VTP Protocol Features – Advertises VLAN configuration information – Maintains VLAN configuration consistency throughout a common administrative domain – Sends advertisements on trunk ports only 539 .

or delete VLANs • Forwards advertisements • Synchronizes VLAN configurations • Does not save in NVRAM • Creates. modifies. and deletes VLANs • Sends and forwards advertisements • Synchronizes VLAN configurations • Saves configuration in NVRAM • Cannot create. modifies. change. and deletes VLANs locally only • Forwards advertisements • Does not synchronize VLAN configurations • Saves configuration in NVRAM 540 .VTP Modes • Creates.

• VTP advertisements are sent every 5 minutes or when there is a change. • VTP servers and clients are synchronized to the latest update identified revision number.VTP Operation • VTP advertisements are sent as multicast frames. 541 .

542 . and broadcast is flooded only toward any switch with ports assigned to the red VLAN.VTP Pruning • Increases available bandwidth by reducing unnecessary flooded traffic • Example: Station A sends broadcast.

– Add a new switch in a Client mode to get the last up-todate information from the network then convert it to Server mode. 543 . – Add all new configurations to switch in transparent mode and check your configuration well then convert it to Server mode to prevent the switch from propagating incorrect VLAN information.VTP Configuration Guidelines – Configure the following: • • • • VTP domain name VTP mode (server mode is the default) VTP pruning VTP password – Be cautious when adding a new switch into an existing domain.

Configuring a VTP Server Switch(config)#vtp server • Configures VTP server mode Switch(config)#vtp domain domain-name • Specifies a domain name Switch(config)#vtp password password • Sets a VTP password Switch(config)#vtp pruning • Enables VTP pruning in the domain 544 .

Switch(config)#vtp domain Lab_Network Setting VTP domain name to Lab_Network Switch(config)#end 545 .) Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#vtp server Setting device to VTP SERVER mode.Configuring a VTP Server (Cont.

0 at 8-12-99 15:04:49 Switch# 546 .0.Verifying the VTP Configuration Switch#show vtp status Switch#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 247 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 33 VTP Operating Mode : Client VTP Domain Name : Lab_Network VTP Pruning Mode : Enabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x45 0x52 0xB6 0xFD 0x63 0xC8 0x49 0x80 Configuration last modified by 0.0.

---------------.Verifying the VTP Configuration (Cont.---------------.) Switch#show vtp counters Switch#show vtp counters VTP statistics: Summary advertisements received Subset advertisements received Request advertisements received Summary advertisements transmitted Subset advertisements transmitted Request advertisements transmitted Number of config revision errors Number of config digest errors Number of V1 summary errors : : : : : : : : : 7 5 0 997 13 3 0 0 0 VTP pruning statistics: Trunk Join Transmitted Join Received Summary advts received from non-pruning-capable device ---------------.--------------------------Fa5/8 43071 42766 5 547 .

548 .

Contents • • • • • Remote access overview WAN Connection Types Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols Determining the WAN Type to Use OSI Layer-2 Point-to-Point WANs – PPP – HDLC – Frame Relay 549 .

550 .Remote Access Overview • A WAN is a data communications network covering a relatively broad geographical area. • A network administrator designing a remote network must weight issues concerning users needs such as bandwidth and cost of the variable available technologies.

WAN Connection Types 551 .

No data can transfer before the end-to-end connection is established. allowing DTE networks to communicate at any time with no setup procedures before transmitting data.WAN Connection Types • Leased lines – It is a pre-established WAN communications path from the CPE. through the DCE switch. 552 . to the CPE of the remote site. • Circuit switching – Sets up line like a phone call.

then you will need to get a leased line. – Frame Relay and X. As long as you are not constantly transmitting data and are instead using bursty data transfers. 553 .25 are packet switching technologies. if you have constant data transfers. – However. packet switching can save you a lot of money.WAN Connection Types • Packet switching – WAN switching method that allows you to share bandwidth with other companies to save money.

• The choice of the encapsulation protocol depends on the underlying WAN technology and the communicating equipment. 554 .Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols • Each WAN connection uses an encapsulation protocol to encapsulate traffic while it crossing the WAN link.

25 / Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB) Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 555 .Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols • Typical WAN encapsulation types include the following: – – – – – – Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) High-Level Data Link Control Protocol (HDLC) X.

Determining the WAN Type to Use • Availability – Each type of service may be available in certain geographical areas. 556 . • Cost – Making a compromise between the traffic you need to transfer and the type of service with the available cost that will suit you. • Bandwidth – Determining usage over the WAN is important to evaluate the most cost-effective WAN service.

Determining the WAN Type to Use • Ease of Management – Connection management includes both the initial start-up configuration and the outgoing configuration of the normal operation. 557 . • Application Traffic – Traffic may be as small as during a terminal session . or very large packets as during file transfer.

WAN Speeds for WAN Connections WAN Type Asynchronous Dial-Up X.Max.25. ISDN – BRI ISDN – PRI Leased Line / Frame Relay Maximum Speed 56-64 Kbps 128 Kbps E1 / T1 E3 / T3 558 .

559 . • The two most popular data link protocols used today are Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC).OSI Layer-2 Point-to-Point WANs • WAN protocols used on Point-to-Point serial links provide the basic function of data delivery across that one link.

• It determines when it is appropriate to use the physical medium. 560 . • Ensures that the correct recipient receives and processes the data that is sent. • Determines whether the sent data was received correctly or not (error detection).HDLC • HDLC performs OSI Layer-2 functions.

HDLC • HDLC Frame Format • The original HDLC didn’t include any Protocol Type field. so it became a proprietary protocol that can be used between only Cisco routers. 561 . every company (including Cisco) added its own field.

and tests the data link connection.Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) • PPP is a standard encapsulation protocol for the transport of different Network Layer protocols (including. • It has the following main functional components – Link Control Protocol (LCP) that establishes. IP). – Network Control Protocols (NCPs) that establishes and configure different network layer protocols. but not limited to. 562 . authenticates.

• PPP is a standard protocol. 563 .Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) • PPP discards frames that do not pass the error check. and so it can be used with all types of routers (not Cisco Proprietary).

PPP LCP Features • • • • • Authentication Compression Multilink PPP Error Detection Looped Link Detection 564 .

PAP Authentication 565 .

CHAP Authentication 566 .

– Stacker : it looks at the data stream and only sends each type of data once with information about where the type occurs and then the receiving side uses this information to reassemble the data stream.Compression • Compression enables higher data throughput across the link. 567 . • Different compression schemes are available: – Predictor : checks if the data was already compressed. – MPPC (Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression) : allows Cisco routers to compress data with Microsoft clients.

synchronous. and asynchronous interfaces. 568 . • This can improve throughput and reduce latency between systems by splitting packets and sending fragments over parallel circuits.PPP Multilink • PPP Multilink provides load balancing over dialer interfaces-including ISDN.

and according to a predetermined value.Error Detection • PPP can take down a link based on the value of what is called LQM (Link Quality Monitor) as it gets the ratio of corrupted packets to the total number of sent packets. the link can be brought down if it is thought that its performance is beyond limits accepted. 569 .

and if packets were received having the same router’s magic number.Looped Link Detection • PPP can detect looped links (that are sometimes done by Teleco companies) using what is called Magic Number. then the link is looped. 570 . • Every router will have a magic number.

PPP Configuration Commands • To enable PPP – Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp • To configure PAP authentication – Router(Config-if)#ppp authentication pap – Router(Config-if)#ppp pap username .. password . • To configure Compression – Router(Config-if)#compress [predictor|stack|mppc] 571 ..

Inc. All rights reserved.Frame Relay 572 © 2003. Cisco Systems. BCMSN v2.0—2-572 .

Frame Relay Components 573 .

574 .Frame Relay • The switch examines the frame sent by the router that has a header containing an address called DLCI (Data Link Control Identifier) and then switches the frame based on the DLCI till it reaches the router on the other side of the network.

575 . • Each VC is committed to a CIR (Committed Information Rate) which is a guarantee by the provider that a particular VC gets at least this much of BW.Frame Relay • Frame Relay networks use permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) or switched virtual circuits (SVCs) but most nowadays Frame Relay networks use permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). • VCs share the access link and the frame relay network. • The logical path between each pair of routers is called a Virtual Circuit (VC).

35.PVC PC CPE UNI Controller Router ISDN dial-up connection or direct connection (V. RS232) Switch Port PVC PVC SVC SVC PBX Video Desktop & LAN Formats packets in frames Network access Frame Relay Network 576 . E1.

• The switch and its connected router care about using the same LMI. The endpoint routers (DTEs) do care about the encapsulation. • The encapsulation defines the headers used by a DTE to communicate some information to the DTE on the other end of a VC.LMI and Encapsulation Types • The LMI is a definition of the messages used between the DTE and the DCE. the switch does not care about the encapsulation. 577 .

If the access link has a problem. the absence of keepalive messages implies that the link is down. Status messages perform two key functions: – Perform a keepalive function between the DTE and DCE. – Signal whether a PVC is active or inactive. 578 . its status can change. Even though each PVC is predefined.LMI • The most important LMI message is the LMI status inquiry message.

ITU. 579 . and ANSI.LMI • Three LMI protocol options are available in Cisco IOS software: Cisco. • Each LMI option is slightly different and therefore is incompatible with the other two.

as well as the DLCI. • The header and trailer are defined by the Link Access Procedure Frame Bearer Services (LAPF) specification. DE. • The LAPF framing provides error detection with an FCS in the trailer. and BECN fields in the header.LAPF • A Frame Relay-connected router encapsulates each Layer 3 packet inside a Frame Relay header and trailer before it is sent out an access link. FECN. 580 .

581 . and the other one is called ietf.LAPF • DTEs use and react to the fields specified by these two types of encapsulation. each VC can use a different encapsulation. In the configuration. Because the frames flow from DTE to DTE. the encapsulation created by Cisco is called cisco. both DTEs must agree to the encapsulation used. • However. but Frame Relay switches ignore these fields.

the Frame Relay switches know how to forward the frames to the correct remote sites. • When multiple VCs use the same access link.DLCI Addressing Details • The logical path between a pair of DTEs is called a virtual circuit (VC). The DLCI is the Frame Relay address describing a Virtual Circuit 582 . • The data-link connection identifier (DLCI) identifies each individual PVC.

DLCI=32 DLCI=16 R DLCI=17 DLCI=32 DLCI=17 B FR-network DLCI=16 DLCI=16 DLCI=21 R Virtual circuit R B Router Bridge Frame Relay switch 583 .

DLCI Addressing Details • The difference between layer-2 addressing and DLCI addressing is mainly because the fact that the header has a single DLCI field. not both Source and Destination DLCI fields. 584 .

Global DLCI Addressing • Frame Relay DLCIs are locally significant. 585 . global addressing does not change these rules. • Global addressing is simply a way of choosing DLCI numbers when planning a Frame Relay network so that working with DLCIs is much easier. Global addressing just makes DLCI assignment more obvious. • Because local addressing is a fact. this means that the addresses need to be unique only on the local access link.

Global DLCI Addressing 586 .

• The receiver thinks of the DLCI field as the source address. using the destination’s global DLCI in the header. 587 .Global DLCI Addressing • The final key to global addressing is that the Frame Relay switches actually change the DLCI value before delivering the frame. because it contains the global DLCI of the frame’s sender. • The sender treats the DLCI field as a destination address.

Layer 3 Addressing • Cisco’s Frame Relay implementation defines three different options for assigning subnets and IP addresses on Frame Relay interfaces: – One subnet containing all Frame Relay DTEs – One subnet per VC – A hybrid of the first two options 588 .

meaning that each router can send frames directly to every other router 589 . • In a full mesh.One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs • The single-subnet option is typically used when a full mesh of VCs exists. each router has a VC to every other router.

One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs 590 .

One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs 591 .

592 .One Subnet Per VC • The single-subnet-per-VC alternative. works better with a partially meshed Frame Relay network.

One Subnet Per VC 593 .

Hybrid Terminology • Point-to-point subinterfaces are used when a single VC is considered to be all that is in the group—for instance. and C. • Multipoint subinterfaces are used when more than two routers are considered to be in the same group— for instance. between Routers A and D and between Routers A and E. with Routers A. B. 594 .

Hybrid Terminology 595 .

Hybrid Terminology 596 .

• It is used so that after the router receives the packet with the intended IP address could be able to handle it to the right Frame Relay switch (with the appropriate DLCI) 597 .Frame Relay Address Mapping • Mapping creates a correlation between a Layer3 address (IP Address) and its corresponding Layer-2 address (DLCI in Frame Relay).

• Static Mapping – Using the frame-relay map command but you should first disable the inverse arp using the command no frame-relay inverse-arp 598 .Mapping Methods • Mapping can be done either two ways: • Dynamic Mapping – Using the Inverse ARP that is enabled by default on Cisco routers.

Inverse ARP Process 599 .

Frame Relay Configuration 600 .

Frame Relay Verification 601 .

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) 602 © 2003.0—2-602 . Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. BCMSN v2.

ISDN Protocols 603 .

BRI & PRI B and D Channels 604 .

LAPD & PPP on D and B Channels 605 .

• Essentially. • LAPD provides the data-link protocol that allows delivery of messages across that D channel to the local switch.LAPD & PPP on D and B Channels • LAPD is used as a data-link protocol across an ISDN D channel. 606 . a router with an ISDN interface needs to send and receive signaling messages to and from the local ISDN switch to which it is connected.

the local switch can receive a Q.LAPD & PPP on D and B Channels • The call setup and teardown messages themselves are defined by the Q.931 message by setting up a circuit over the public network. 607 .931 call setup request from a router over the LAPD-controlled D channel.931 protocol. and it should react to that Q. So.

931 call setup messages are accepted. .LAPD & PPP on D and B Channels • An ISDN switch often requires some form of authentication with the device connecting to it. If the values match what is configured in the switch. call setup flows are 608 accepted. • In short. call the service profile identifier (SPID). before any Q. to perform authentication. • Switches use a free-form decimal value. the switch asks for the configured SPID values.

new T1s use ESF. • The two options for framing on T1s are to use either Extended Super Frame (ESF) or the older option—Super Frame (SF). 609 . In most cases today.PRI Encoding and Framing • ISDN PRI in North America is based on a digital T1 circuit. T1 circuits use two different encoding schemes—Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) and Binary 8 with Zero Substitution (B8ZS).

DDR (Dial On Demand Routing) • You can configure DDR in several ways. 610 . allowing a great deal of flexibility. including Legacy DDR and DDR dialer profiles. • The main difference between the two is that Legacy DDR associates dial details with a physical interface. whereas DDR dialer profiles disassociate the dial configuration from a physical interface.

611 . Dial (signal). Determine the subset of the packets that trigger the dialing process. 2. 4. Route packets out the interface to be dialed.Legacy DDR Operation 1. Determine when the connection is terminated. 3.

Legacy DDR Operation 612 .

routing the packet out BRI0 triggers the Cisco IOS software. • The router needs to route packets so that they are queued to go out the dial interface. decides to route the traffic out the interface to be dialed. Cisco’s design for DDR defines that the router receives some usergenerated traffic and. 613 . causing the dial to occur. through normal routing processes.DDR Step 1: Routing Packets Out the Interface to Be Dialed • DDR does not dial until some traffic is directed (routed) out the dial interface. • The router (SanFrancisco) can receive a packet that must be routed out BRI0.

– The second method allows you to define packets as interesting if they are permitted by an access list. – In the first method.DDR Step 2: Determining the Interesting Traffic • Packets that are worthy of causing the device to dial are called interesting packets. 614 . • Two different methods can be used to define interesting packets. interesting is defined as all packets of one or more Layer 3 protocols.

• The dialer map command maps the different dialer numbers to the equivalent IP addresses of the routers to be dialed. where string is the phone number (used when dialing only one site). • The command is dialer string . 615 .DDR Step 3: Dialing (Signaling) • Defining the phone number to be dialed.

• When the telco switch has configured SPIDs. 616 . provide a basic authentication feature. it might not allow the BRI line to work unless the router announces the correct SPID values to the switch. SPIDs.Configuring SPIDs • You might need to configure the Service Profile Identifier (SPID) for one or both B channels. when used. depending on the switch’s expectations.

4. Configure the T1 or E1 channel range for the DS0 channels used on this PRI (controller configuration mode). Configure the T1 or E1 encoding and framing options (controller configuration mode). Configure any interface settings (for example.ISDN PRI Configuration 1. PPP encapsulation and IP address) on the interface representing the D channel. 617 . 2. 3. Configure the type of ISDN switch to which this router is connected.

PRI Configuration Commands 618 .

ISDN Switch Types 619 .

you will use all 24 DS0 channels in the PRI—23 B channels and the D channel. in almost every case.Configuring a T1 or E1 Controller • Your service provider will tell you what encoding and framing to configure on the router. Also. 620 .

DDR With Dialer Profiles • Dialer profiles pool the physical interfaces so that the router uses any available B channel on any of the BRIs or PRIs in the pool. 621 . • Dialer profiles configuration moves most of the DDR interface configuration to a virtual interface called a dialer interface.

Dialer Profiles Configuration 622 .

Dialer Profiles Configuration 623 .

Inc. 624 .With all my best wishes for you to succeed and distinguish in the CCNA International Exam. Cisco Systems. Keep In touch © 2003. All rights reserved.

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