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Physics Preliminary Examination

Higher 2

PHYSICS 9646/01

Paper 1 Multiple Choice 31 Aug 2010

1 hour 15 minutes

Additional Materials: Multiple Choice Answer Sheet

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

Write your Name and Index number in the answer sheet provided.

There are forty questions in this section. Answer all questions. For each question there are

four possible answers A, B, C and D.

Choose the one you consider correct and circle your choice in soft pencil on the separate

Answer Sheet.

Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.

Any rough working should be done in this Question Paper.

2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 × 108 m s−1

permeability of free space, μo = 4π × 10−7 H m−1

permittivity of free space, εo = 8.85 × 10−12 F m−1

(1/(36π)) × 10-9 F m-1

elementary charge, e = 1.60 × 10−19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 × 10−34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 × 10−27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 × 10−31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 × 10−27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K−1 mol−1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 × 1023 mol−1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 × 10−23 J K−1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s−2

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + 1

2

at 2

2

v = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p ΔV

hydrostatic pressure, p = ρgh

Gm

gravitational potential, φ = −

r

displacement of particle in s.h.m., x = xo sin ωt

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = vo cos ωt

= ± ω xo2 − x 2

3

mean kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas E = kT

2

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

Q

electric potential, V =

4πε o r

alternating current/voltage, x = xo sin ωt

transmission coefficient, T ∝ exp(−2kd)

8 π 2 m (U − E )

where k =

h2

radioactive decay, x = xo exp(−λt)

0.693

decay constant, λ = t1

2

3

1 Which of the following SI units can be expressed in exactly two base SI units?

A coulomb

B tesla

C newton

D hertz

2 The viscosity of a fluid, μ, can be determined by measuring the terminal velocity, vT, of

a sphere when it descends in the fluid. The fluid has a density ρf while the sphere has

a density ρs and a diameter of d. The viscosity can then be calculated by the formula

5( ρs ρf )

μ= d2

9v T

vT = (1.60 ± 0.04) m s−1

ρs = (2700 ± 20) kg m−3

ρf = (900 ± 10) kg m−3

d = (20.0 ± 0.4) mm

3 A car is travelling at a velocity of 24 m s-1 due west initially. At a later time, it is seen

travelling at a velocity of 10 m s-1 due south.

Given that the direction North N, points vertically upwards, which of the following vector

R represents the change in velocity of the car?

A B C D

N N N N

R R

R R

4

4 Which displacement-time graph best represents the motion of a falling sphere, the

initial acceleration of which eventually reduces until it begins to travel at constant

terminal velocity?

A B

C D

5 A motorist travelling at 10 m s–1 can bring his car to rest in a braking distance of 10 m.

In what distance could he bring the car to rest from a speed of 30 m s–1 using the same

braking force?

A 17 m B 30 m C 52 m D 90 m

6 Two equal masses travel towards each other on a frictionless air track at speeds of 60

cm s–1 and 30 cm s–1. They stick together on impact.

A 15 cm s–1

B 20 cm s–1

C 30 cm s–1

D 45 cm s–1

5

7 In 2001, the leaning tower of Pisa was stabilised by a bundle of steel cable anchored to

the ground as shown by the simplified sketch below.

Tower

Steel Cable

ground

The weight of the tower is W, the tension in the cable is T and the reaction from the

ground is R.

Which vector triangle best represents the forces acting on the tower?

A B

T T

W R R W

C D

T T

R W W R

8 The area of the horizontal cross-section of a barge is 97 m2 and the sides of the barge

are vertical. The flat bottom of the barge is 70 cm under water when it is loaded with

2.0 x 104 kg of cargo.

How deep would the bottom of the barge below the water surface when the cargo is

unloaded off the barge? Density of sea water is 1030 kg m-3.

A 20 cm B 50 cm

C 70 cm D 90 cm

6

9 The moon remains in its orbit around the Earth rather than falls to the Earth because

A it is also attracted by the gravitational forces from the sun and other planets

B the net force on the Moon is zero

C the gravitational force exerted by the Earth on the moon provides a net force

that provides the Moon’s centripetal acceleration.

D the magnitude of the gravitational force from the Earth is too small to cause any

appreciable acceleration of the Moon

10 A person of weight 500 N does a bungee jump using an elastic rope of unstretched

length 40 m and having a spring constant k equal to 50 N m-1. During the initial fall

there is a transfer of energy from gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and

elastic potential energy. The person falls through a distance of 80 m before beginning

to move upwards.

Which set of graphs correctly represent the variation of the three energies?

A B

50 50

45 45

40 40

35 35

Energy / kJ

Energy / kJ

30 30

25 25

20 20

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

C D

50 50

45 45

40 40

35 35

Energy / kJ

Energy / kJ

30 30

25 25

20 20

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

7

11 A satellite orbits the Earth 200 km above its surface. The satellite's acceleration

towards the centre of the Earth is 9.2 m s−2 and the radius of the Earth is 6400 km. The

speed of the satellite is

12 The gravitational field strength at a point P on the Earth's surface is numerically equal

to

B the change in potential energy per unit distance from P.

C the force acting on any body placed at P

D the work done in bringing unit mass from infinity to P

resistance, the energy required to lift a mass of 10 kg from its surface into outer space

is

A 46.1 × 10 6 J

B 64.1 × 10 6 J

C 86.1 × 10 6 J

D 96.1 × 10 6 J

14 The escape speed of a nitrogen molecule at the Earth's surface is 0.90 × 10 4 m s-1.

What is the escape speed at a height 0.30 RE above the Earth's surface, where RE is

the radius of the Earth?

A 0.49 × 10 4 m s-1

B 0.59 × 10 4 m s-1

C 0.69 × 10 4 m s-1

D 0.79 × 10 4 m s-1

8

15 The graphs in Fig. 15 show how the displacement x, velocity v and the acceleration a

of a body vary with time t when it is oscillating with simple harmonic motion.

What is the value of T?

Fig. 15

π 2π π 2π

A s B s C s D s

9 9 3 3

exponentially with time. How does the total energy of the pendulum vary with time?

A It varies sinusoidally with time at the same frequency as that of the pendulum

B It varies sinusoidally with time at a frequency twice that of the pendulum

C It decreases at a steady rate

D It decreases exponentially with time

17 A constant power supply is used to melt 1 kg. of ice, to heat the water produced, and

finally to turn all the water to steam.

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3 x 105 J kg-1

Specific latent heat of vaporization of water = 2 x 106 J kg-1

Which graph in Fig.17, best shows how the thermodynamic temperature T varies with

time t for this sequence?

A B C D

Fig. 17

9

energy by heating

B The internal energy of a system depends only on its temperature

C When the internal energy of a system is increased, its temperature

always rises.

D When two systems have the same internal energy, they must be at the

same temperature.

19 The diagram below shows the relation between the pressure and the volume of

the gas in an engine for one cycle of operation of the engine.

A Q→R only.

B Q→R and R→S.

C S→T only.

D S→T and Q→R.

10

20 The diagram shows the snapshot of a transverse wave at a particular instant. The

wave is traveling to the right. The frequency of the wave is 12.5 Hz.

Q P

What is the shortest time to elapse before the displacement is zero at point Q?

What is the phase difference between two points 0.1 m apart in the direction of travel?

π π 2π 4π

A rad B rad C rad D rad

4 2 5 5

22 Two coherent monochromatic waves of equal amplitude are brought together to form

an interference pattern on a screen. Which of the following graphs could represent the

variation of intensity with position (x) across the pattern of fringes.

A B

C D

11

23 Fig 23 shows the formation of the first order spectrum when parallel rays of

monochromatic light fall perpendicularly on a non-uniform spacing diffraction grating

PQR. For the part of the grating between P and Q, the angle of deviation θ is constant,

whilst for that between Q and R, θ decreases.

diffraction grating

R

θ

x Q

Angle of deviation, θ

decreases

P

rays

Fig 23

Which diagram best shows how the grating interval d varies with distance x, the

distance from P?

A B

d d

P Q R x Q x

P R

C D

d d

P Q R x P Q R x

12

24 In the figure shown, a point charge +Q is placed at X and another point charge -2Q is

placed at Y.

X Z Y

+Q - 2Q

r

Which of the following correctly gives the magnitude of the electric field strength and

1

electric potential at point Z, a distance of r from X assuming they are isolated

4

charges.

44Q 5Q

A

9πε 0 r 2 3πε 0 r

44Q Q

B

9πε 0 r 2 3πε 0 r

28Q Q

C

9πε 0 r 2 3πε 0 r

28Q 5Q

D

9πε 0 r 2 3πε 0 r

charge

the following statements is correct?

A The electric field is directed from X to Y and there is a loss of kinetic energy as

the charge moves from X to Y

B The electric field is directed from Y to X and there is a loss of kinetic energy as

the charge moves from X to Y

C The electric field is directed from X to Y and there is a gain of kinetic energy as

the charge moves from X to Y

D The electric field is directed from Y to X and there is a gain of kinetic energy as

the charge moves from X to Y

13

26 The graph below shows the variation with current I of the potential difference V across

a filament lamp.

I/mA 2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

V/V

A 950 Ω

B 400 Ω

C 0.40 Ω

D 0.0025 Ω

14

27 In the circuit below, the battery has negligible internal resistance. Three identical lamps

L, M and N having the same resistance are connected as shown.

The filament of lamp N breaks. Which one of the following shows the subsequent

changes to the brightness of lamp L and lamp M?

Lamp L Lamp M

A stays the same Decreases

B increases stays the same

C increases Decreases

D decreases Increases

28 The diagram shows a light-dependent resistor (LDR) and a thermistor (with a negative

temperature coefficient of resistance) forming a potential divider.

Under which set of conditions will the potential difference across the thermistor have

the greatest value?

A Low Low

B High Low

C Low High

D High High

15

29 In the potentiometer circuit below, the moveable contact is placed at N on the bare wire

XY, such that the galvanometer shows zero deflection.

What is the effect of this decrease on the potential difference across the wire XY and

on the position of the moveable contact for zero deflection?

A Increases Nearer to X

B Increases Nearer to Y

C Decreases Nearer to X

D Decreases Nearer to Y

30 A proton beam of velocity 2.00 × 107 m s-1 enters a velocity selector with a plate

separation of 2.00 cm, and has a magnetic flux density of 1.5 T directed out-of-

plane of the paper.

If the protons pass through the velocity selector undeflected, what would be the

direction and magnitude of the electric field? You may ignore any relativistic effects

and assume no electrical breakdown occurs.

proton beam

direction magnitude

16

31 A compass is placed above a wire. The compass needle is seen to point toward

the north. When a current is made to flow through the wire, the needle deflects to

point along the northwest direction.

32 A current balance is used to measure the magnetic flux density B of a electromagnet. The

side PQ of a current balance is inserted inside a large electromagnet. The direction of

magnetic field is as shown in Fig 32. Length of PQ is L. PQ and RS are d1 and d2

respectively from the pivot. A load of mass m is placed along side RS. Take acceleration

due to gravity to be g.

P

S

B

Q R

Fig 32

direction magnitude

m d2

A from P to Q

B L d1

m g d2

B from P to Q

B L d1

m d2

C from Q to P

B L d1

m g d2

D from Q to P

B L d1

17

33 The diagram below shows two concentric loops in the same plane.

outer loop

inner loop

The variation of the magnitude of the current in the inner loop varies with time as

shown below and it is flowing clockwise.

current

time

The effect on the induced current in the outer loop is such that it is

B constant in the anticlockwise direction

C constant in the clockwise direction

D decreasing in the clockwise direction

r.m.s. value of the voltage is 20 V. The variation with time t of the power P dissipated in

the light bulb is shown below

The best estimate for the value of the peak current of the filament of the lamp is

A 2.5 A B 2.5 2 A C 5A D 5 2 A

18

35 An ideal transformer has a primary coil with Np turns and a secondary coil with Ns

turns. An alternating voltage supply of frequency f and average power of Po is

connected to the primary coil.

Which of the following correctly gives the frequency and average power in the

secondary coil?

Ns Ns

A f Po

Np Np

Ns

B f Po

Np

Ns

C f Po

Np

D f Po

36 Which one of the following shows the correct sequence of events in a helium-neon laser?

A Neon atoms excite helium atoms to a metastable state. Excited helium atoms

undergo stimulated emission of red light to a lower energy state followed by

spontaneous emission to ground state.

B Neon atoms excite helium atoms to a higher energy state. Excited helium atoms

undergo spontaneous emission to a metastable state followed by stimulated

emission of red light to ground state.

C Helium atoms excite neon atoms to a metastable state. Excited neon atoms

undergo stimulated emission of red light to a lower energy state followed by

spontaneous emission to ground state.

D Helium atoms excite neon atoms to a higher energy state. Excited neon atoms

undergo spontaneous emission to a metastable state followed by stimulated

emission of red light to ground state.

37 Which of the following statements below is NOT true regarding an intrinsic semiconductor?

A The total current flow is the sum of both ‘hole’ and ‘electron’ currents.

B In a p–n junction, free electrons near the junction in the n–type material diffuse

across the junction into the p–type material. Diffusion occurs because of different

thermal agitation of atoms in the n–type and p–type material.

C Metals and semiconductors have different electrical properties because

semiconductors have a small energy gap.

D In an intrinsic semiconductor, the valence band is completely filled and the

conduction band is empty at room temperature.

19

38 The following graph shows the spectrum of X-rays emitted from an X-ray tube.

intensity

wavelength

If the potential difference between the target and cathode is increased, which one of the

following combinations represents a possible change in minimum wavelength, and the

wavelengths of the peaks?

A decrease increase

C increase increase

39 The graph represents the decay of a newly prepared sample of radioactive nuclide X to

a stable nuclide Y. The half-life of X is τ. The growth curve for Y intersects the decay

curve for X after time T.

τ ⎛τ ⎞

A B ln⎜ ⎟ C τ D 2τ

2 ⎝2⎠

20

40 The graph shows how the binding energy per nucleon of a nucleon of a nucleus varies

with nucleon number, A.

B Nuclei in region Q are more stable than nuclei in region R.

C Nuclear fusion reactions bring nuclei closer to region Q.

D The binding energy per nucleon increases most significantly at lower nucleon

numbers.

1

Physics Preliminary Examination

Higher 2

CANDIDATE

CLASS

NAME

CENTRE INDEX

S

NUMBER NUMBER

PHYSICS 9646/02

Paper 2 Structured Questions

20 Aug 2010

Candidates answer on the Question Paper. 1 hour 45 minutes

No Additional Materials are required

Write your Name and Index number in the spaces on all the work you hand in.

Write in dark blue or black pen.

You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

Section A

Answer all questions.

It is recommended that you spend about 1 hour 15 minutes on this section

Section B

Answer Question 8. For Examiners’ use

It is recommended that you spend about 30 minutes on this section only

1 / 6

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.

The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each 2 / 9

question or part question. 3 / 7

4 / 7

5 / 7

6 / 6

7 / 18

8 / 12

Total / 72

2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 × 108 m s−1

permeability of free space, μo = 4π × 10−7 H m−1

permittivity of free space, εo = 8.85 × 10−12 F m−1

(1/(36π)) × 10−9 F m−1

elementary charge, e = 1.60 × 10−19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 × 10−34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 × 10−27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 × 10−31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 × 10−27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K−1 mol−1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 × 1023 mol−1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 × 10−23 J K−1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s−2

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + 1

2

at 2

2

v = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p ΔV

hydrostatic pressure, p = ρgh

Gm

gravitational potential, φ = −

r

displacement of particle in s.h.m., x = xo sin ωt

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = vo cos ωt

= ± ω xo2 − x 2

mean kinetic energy of a molecule of an 3

ideal gas

E = kT

2

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

Q

electric potential, V =

4πε o r

alternating current/voltage, x = xo sin ωt

transmission coefficient, T ∝ exp(−2kd)

8 π 2 m (U − E )

where k =

h2

radioactive decay, x = xo exp(−λt)

0.693

decay constant, λ = t1

2

3 For

Examiner’s

Section A Use

It is recommended that you spend about 1 hour 15 minutes on this section.

1 (a) Give reasonable estimates of the following quantities. In each case, give your

answer in an SI unit.

(i) The volume of the 2010 official World Cup soccer ball.

volume = m3 [1]

(ii) The kinetic energy of an olympic sprinter near the ending point of a 100-

metre dash.

(b) An experiment is conducted to determine the density of cooking oil, which floats

on water. Three sets of results are obtained from the experiment. The unit for

density is kg m−3.

A B C

810 1500 740

800 1490 870

805 1495 790

(i) Which set of results is precise but inaccurate? Explain your reasoning.

[2]

(ii) Assuming the measurement of volume has been done correctly, suggest

one possible source of experimental error that causes the aforementioned

set of results inaccurate.

[1]

For

4 Examiner’s

Use

2 (a) A mass oscillates on the end of a spring in simple harmonic motion. The graph of

the acceleration a of the mass against its displacement x from its equilibrium

position is shown in Fig 2.1

Fig. 2.1

(i) Explain how the graph shows that the object is oscillating in simple

harmonic motion.

[2]

(ii) Show that the period of oscillation of the particle is about 0.40 s.

[2]

fully labeled graph on the axes of Fig. 2.2 of the displacement of the mass

until t = 1.0 s.

Fig 2.2

[2]

5 For

Examiner’s

Use

(b) In order to check the speed of a camera shutter, the camera was used to

photograph the bob of a simple pendulum moving in front of a horizontal scale.

The extreme positions of the bob were at 600 mm and 700 mm marks. The

photograph showed that while the shutter was open the bob moved from the 650

mm mark to the 675 mm mark. If the period of the pendulum is 2 s, find the time

interval during which the shutter remained open.

[3]

3 A large horseshoe magnet produces a uniform magnetic field of flux density B between

its poles. Outside the region of the poles, the flux density is zero. The magnet is placed

on a top-pan balance and a stiff wire XY is situated between its poles, as shown in

Fig 3.1 below.

Fig 3.1

The wire XY is horizontal and normal to the magnetic field. The length of wire between

the poles is 4.4 cm. A direct current of magnitude 2.6 A is passed through the wire in

the direction from X to Y. The reading on the top-pan balance increases by 2.3 g.

Direction is [2]

Polarity of P is [1]

2010 ACJC H2 9646/2 [Turn over

For

6 Examiner’s

Use

(c) Draw the resultant magnetic field lines acting on the wire XY within the poles of

the magnet on Fig 3.2 which shows the current flowing into the page.

Fig 3.2

[2]

7 For

Examiner’s

4 You are tasked to investigates how the current through a 6.0 V filament lamp varies as Use

the potential difference across it is changed up to 6.0 V. You are supplied with the

following apparatus: a rheostat, a 9 V cell, an ammeter, voltmeter and connecting wires

(a) Draw a suitable circuit diagram for this investigation using only the above given

apparatus.

[2]

(b) (i) Use the axes below to sketch the graph showing how the current through

the lamp varies with the potential difference across it.

Current

Potential

difference

[2]

[2]

(iii) Explain how your graph shows that the resistivity of the filament is unique

at a specific temperature.

[1]

For

8 Examiner’s

Use

5 (a) Fig 5 shows the variation of the photocurrent I with the potential of the anode with

respect to the cathode V, in the photoelectric experiment.

I/nA

Fig 5

- Vs 0 V1 V/V

Suggest possible reasons for the following observations as seen from Fig 5.

(iii) saturation current was not achieved immediately when V became greater

than 0 V.

[3]

(b) An orbiting satellite can become charged by the photoelectric effect when

sunlight ejects electrons from its outer surface. Satellites must be designed to

minimise such charging. Suppose a satellite is coated with platinum, a metal with

a very large work function of 5.32 eV.

(i) Determine the longest wavelength of incident sunlight that can eject an

electron from platinum which has a work function energy of 5.32 eV.

λ = ……………… m [2]

(ii) The incident photon has a particle like nature. Determine the momentum of the

photon.

p = ……………… Ns [2]

9 For

Examiner’s

Use

6 (a) The uncertainty in the measurement of the momentum, Δp of a bullet and an

electron are 2 x 10−3 kg m s−1 and 2.7 x 10−32 kg m s−1 when they have the

same speed of 300 m s-1 respectively.

as follows:

h

ΔxΔp ≥

2

where Δx and Δp represents the uncertainty in the position and

momentum respectively.

Hence determine the uncertainty of locating the position of the bullet and

electron using the Heiserberg Uncertainty Principle.

Uncertainty in position for electron [1]

[1]

(b) The shaded region in Fig 6 shows the coulomb potential barrier as seen by the

alpha particle during its decay in polonium-212 and also the wave functions of

the alpha particle in regions I, II and III respectively.

alpha particle due

to presence of

Nuclear and

Coulomb force

alpha particles

II when it is still within

the atom but

III experiences mainly

the Coulomb

repulsive force.

of alpha when out

Fig 6 of atom.

Note that 1 fermi metre = 10−15 m

For

10 Examiner’s

Use

(i) Explain the phenomenon that tells us that alpha particle have the

probability of appearing in Region III.

[1]

(ii) Assuming a rectangular potential barrier of height 26.4 MeV taken at the

peak of the coulomb barrier and width 17.9 fm as shown by the dotted

lines, the half-life is determined to be 1.5 x 107 s. However, the actual

half-life is only about 0.30 μs.

the concept of the transmission probability and decay constant of the

alpha particles.

[2]

transmission probability to get a better estimate of the half-life.

[1]

11 For

Examiner’s

−1

7 (a) The vertical electric field E in the air is normally in the region about 100 V m Use

outdoors with negative charges on the earth’s surface. Ordinarily, the

equipotentials are parallel to the surface as shown in Fig. 7.1.

+300V

+200V

E = 100 V m-1

+100V

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Ground

Fig. 7.1

This means that outdoors the potential at the height of your nose is about 200

volts higher than the potential at your feet.

(i) By drawing equipotential lines on Fig 7.2 explain why a man standing in the

electric field similar to that in Fig. 7.1 do not get a shock when you go out

into the street if indeed the above discussion is correct.

Fig. 7.2

For

12 Examiner’s

Use

[2]

(ii) During fair weather, the total potential difference from the surface of the

earth to the top of the atmosphere is about 400 000 volts. A current

caused by the electric field may pass from the sky down to the earth.

If the total electric current reaching the earth’s surface at any time is very

nearly constant at 1800 amperes, show that the current-density (current

per unit normal surface area) in the air is of the order of 10−12 amperes per

metre square. (Radius of the earth is taken to be 6380 km)

[1]

[1]

(b) With such a large current coming down, the negative charge on the earth should

take only about half an hour to discharge. It is the thunderstorm and its lightning

that provides the “batteries” that keeps charging the earth up negatively. There

are about 40 000 thunderstorms per day all over the earth. Lightning storms

carry negative charges to the earth.

Thunderstorms occur when moist, warm air near the ground becomes buoyant

and rises to form clouds. Inside the clouds are millions of small water droplets

and ice suspended in air.

We will assume that we have a cumulus cloud that is 2 km deep with a similar

diameter and that it contains the order of 50-500 million water droplets per cubic

metre as shown in Fig 7.3.

13 For

Examiner’s

Use

Fig. 7.3

(i) If each of these droplet is about 10 μm in radius show that the mass of the

cloud at the lowest reasonable density of the droplets is about 1.3 x 106 kg.

(density of water is 1000 kg m-3)

[3]

(ii) Hence determine the depth of rainfall recorded at the lowest reasonable

density of droplets should the cloud release all its water in one instant.

(Assume the area covered by the rain is the same as the cloud base)

[1]

For

14 Examiner’s

Use

(c) Collisions among the water droplets and ice particles cause them to become

charged. The higher portion of the cloud acquires a net positive charge while the

lower portion of the cloud a net negative charge. Through induction, the earth

becomes positively charged.

The electrical potential difference between the earth surface and the base of a

cloud may be about several hundred millions volts in magnitude (108 V). Dry air

breaks down and becomes ionised at 3 millions volts per metre. When there is

an impending thunderstorm, the air is not dry. At a few hundreds of thousands

volts per metre, the conditions are ripe for resistance in the air to begin breaking

down and lightning, the electrical discharge between the regions of the cloud or

between the cloud and the ground, is formed. Electrons begin to flow from the

cloud to earth through a path of least resistance. They formed a funnel called the

step leader. It creates a channel of ionised air, which is an extremely good

conductor. When the step leader reaches the ground or any tall object near the

ground, the electrons quickly discharge to earth, followed quickly by electrons

higher up in the channel and followed again by the electrons in the next higher

successive levels in the channel. This results in a spectacular return stroke from

ground to the cloud which causes the intense lightning flashes that we observed

during an electrical storm.

In a typical lightning flash, exchange of charges between the clouds and the

earth may be about 20 coulombs. The time which the lightning flash is estimated

to be about 1 millisecond.

(i) Show that the energy involved in the lightning discharge is in the order of

109 joules.

[1]

15 For

Examiner’s

(ii) Hence, estimate the order of magnitude of the electrical power reaching Use

the earth’s surface during a thunderstorm.

[1]

(iii) Fig. 7.3 shows the magnitudes of the equipotential surfaces over the tower

at the time of a gathering storm.

Fig. 7.3

Estimate the magnitude of the electric field near the top of the tower and

hence explain if a return stroke is likely to occur at the top of the tower.

[2]

(d) The electrical discharge, results in an explosion of the air around the lightning

channel. Thunder is the sound wave produced as a result of the compression

wave propagating through the surrounding air.

[2]

For

16 Examiner’s

Use

(ii) As light travels faster than sound (3.00 x 108 m s-1 vs. 330 m s-1) you see

lightning before you hear the thunder. The rule of thumb is if you count the

seconds between seeing the flash and hearing the thunder, take the

seconds and divide it by 3, it will give the distance of the lightning from

where you are standing in km. Explain using the appropriate data.

[1]

the human ear has a non-linear response to the energy content of sound. Hence

a logarithmic scale is used to describe the response of the ear in terms of sound

level L which is measured in decibels, dB where

⎛ I ⎞

L = 10 log⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ dB

⎝ I0 ⎠

where Io = 10−12 W m−2 is the values for the threshold of hearing and I = the

intensity of the sound being measured.

If the thunder produces 120 dB in the decibel meter when the lightning is

2.00 km away, determine the distance of the source of the lightning if you record

a reading of 124.8 dB assuming that sound energy is distributed uniformly from

the source of the thunder.

Distance = km [3]

17 For

Examiner’s

Section B Use

8 Many homes have smoke detectors fitted to the ceilings of certain rooms to provide an

early warning of a fire. These detectors contain a weak radioactive source that ionises

the air between two metal plates. See Fig. 8.

Fig 8

A low voltage battery in the detector causes the ions to move. This produces a very small

ionisation current in a circuit containing the battery and the plates. Any reduction in this

ionisation current due to smoke is detected and an alarm sounds.

An airline company wishes to install some of these smoke detectors in its aircraft and

needs to know if changes in air pressure will affect the ionisation current.

Design a laboratory experiment to investigate how the ionisation current depends on air

pressure.

Beta Radioactive source

Milliammeter /microammeter

Galvanometer

Ammeter

Power Supply

Bourdon Gauge

Manometer

Pressure gauge

Vacuum pump

Source handling tool

Lead container

You should draw diagrams to show the arrangement of your apparatus. In your account you

should pay attention to

(b) the procedure to be followed,

(c) the control of variables,

(d) any safety precautions,

(e) any precautions that you would take to improve the accuracy of the experiment.

2010 ACJC H2 9646/2 [Turn over

For

18 Examiner’s

Use

Diagram

19 For

Examiner’s

Use

For

20 Examiner’s

Use

Anglo-Chinese Junior College

Physics Preliminary Examination

Higher 2

CANDIDATE

CLASS

NAME

CENTRE INDEX

S

NUMBER NUMBER

PHYSICS 9646/03

Paper 3 Longer Structured Questions 27 Aug 2010

2 hours

Candidates answer on the Question Paper.

No Additional Materials are required

Write your Name and Index number in the spaces on all the work you hand in.

Write in dark blue or black pen.

You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

Section A

Answer all questions.

Section B

Answer any two questions.

You are advised to spend about one hour on each section For Examiners’ use

only

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. Section A

The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each

question or part question. 1 / 10

2 / 10

3 / 10

4 / 10

Section B

5 / 20

6 / 20

7 / 20

Total / 80

2 For

Examiner’s

DATA AND FORMULAE Use

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 × 108 m s−1

permeability of free space, μo = 4π × 10−7 H m−1

permittivity of free space, εo = 8.85 × 10−12 F m−1

(1/(36π)) × 10−9 F m−1

elementary charge, e = 1.60 × 10−19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 × 10−34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 × 10−27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 × 10−31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 × 10−27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K−1 mol−1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 × 1023 mol−1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 × 10−23 J K−1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s−2

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + 1

2

at 2

2

v = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p ΔV

hydrostatic pressure, p = ρgh

Gm

gravitational potential, φ = −

r

displacement of particle in s.h.m., x = xo sin ωt

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = vo cos ωt

= ± ω xo2 − x 2

mean kinetic energy of a molecule of an 3

ideal gas

E = kT

2

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

Q

electric potential, V =

4πε o r

alternating current/voltage, x = xo sin ωt

transmission coefficient, T ∝ exp(−2kd)

8 π 2 m (U − E )

where k =

h2

radioactive decay, x = xo exp(−λt)

0.693

decay constant, λ = t1

2

3 For

Examiner’s

Section A Use

It is recommended that you spend about one hour on this section.

1 David had used a shepherd's sling to defeat Goliath. A shepherd's sling is a weapon

typically used to throw an object such as a stone to a location some distance away.

circular motion and when the stone reaches a speed v, it is released from the sling.

The stone travels in a parabolic path and hits the ground at point G which is at a

vertical distance H below the point of release of the stone from the sling and G is at

a horizontal distance X away from the point of release of the stone as shown in

Fig 1.

v

stone

position Y

Fig 1 H

X

G

(a) State three conditions necessary for the stone to move in a horizontal circular

path with constant speed.

[3]

(b) State and explain the change if any on the radius of the path and the tension

in the string when the stone is suddenly swirled at a lower speed.

[3]

(c) Suppose the stone is released from the sling at position Y with a speed of

22.8 m s−1 at a height H, of 42.5 m above the point of impact G, find the

horizontal distance X travelled by the stone when it hits the ground at G.

X= m [4]

4 For

Examiner’s

2 (a) Explain what is meant by an elastic collision. Use

[2]

piston as shown in Fig 2.1. An atom of the gas collides with the piston, as

illustrated.

Fig 2.1

The piston in (b) is lowered so that the volume of the gas is reduced.

(i) Explain the difference in the speed of an atom of ideal gas after an

elastic collision with a moving piston and with a stationary piston

(assume mass of piston much greater than mass of an atom of the gas).

and hence use the kinetic theory to explain the changes to the

temperature of the gas as the piston is lowered.

[4]

5 For

st

Examiner’s

(ii) Use the 1 law of thermodynamics to support your answer obtained in (i). Use

[3]

(c) Sketch on Fig 2.2, with the help of the two isotherms given, the variation in the

pressure of the gas in the cylinder as its volume is decreased.

Pressure

Volume

Fig 2.2

[1]

6 For

Examiner’s

3 A microwave oven, shown in Fig 3.1 consists of a reflective casing on the opposite Use

wall of the microwave source and a turntable at the bottom that rotates. It produces

microwave of frequency 2.45 GHz within the oven.

Control

Reflective panel

casing

Fig 3.1 (behind control panel)

Water molecules are electric dipoles (that is, they have one positive end and one

negative end). In the oscillating field of the microwave oven, the water molecules in

trying to align with the changing field, oscillate rapidly. Thus the water molecules in

the food get heated up and hence the food gets heated up.

(a) Explain how are standing waves formed inside the microwave oven.

[3]

(b) The turntable of the oven is removed from the oven so that oven’s content

will not rotate during heating. A wet piece of cardboard is placed flat in a

microwave oven. The cardboard is then micro-waved for a short while. Stripes

of dry regions regularly spaced apart are seen on the cardboard.

(i) Explain the formation of these dry stripes and hence deduce their

distances apart.

[3]

(ii) If the interior of the microwave oven is 30.5 cm wide, draw a amplitude-

position graph of the standing wave pattern in the oven. Mark the

positions on the graph with “D” that would produce dry patches on the

wet cardboard as mentioned.

[2]

ACJC 2010 H2 9646 Prelim Exam P3

7 For

Examiner’s

Use

(c) The turntable of the oven is now placed back in the oven. After five minutes of

cooking a dish in a microwave wave, and upon removing it, it is noticed that

several ants are inside the oven apparently unharmed by the intense

microwave radiation. Deduce why some of the ants did not die.

[1]

[1]

4 A metal spring of natural length 20.0 cm fixed to the ceiling such that the bottom end

is at a height of 30.0 cm from the ground as shown in Fig 4.

20.0 cm

30.0 cm

Fig 4

8 For

Examiner’s

(a) When the box of mass 5.00 kg hangs in equilibrium, the bottom end of the Use

spring is at a distance of 25.0 cm from the ground. Determine the spring

constant of the spring.

(b) The box was then brought to a higher point, such that the bottom of the spring

was 40.0 cm above the ground. The box was subsequently released from rest.

(i) Calculate the speed of the box when the bottom of the spring is 30.0 cm

above the ground.

(ii) Determine the nearest distance of the bottom of the spring from the

ground.

(c) Explain why in practice, we expect the answer obtain in (b)(ii) to be larger.

[1]

9 For

Examiner’s

Section B Use

Answer any two questions

a spring, as shown in Fig. 5.1.

Fig. 5.1

One end of the magnet hangs inside a circular coil of wire. The coil is connected in

series with a resistor R.

(a) The magnet is displaced vertically downwards a small distance D and then

released. Fig. 5.2 shows the variation with time t of the vertical displacement d

of Magnet A from its equilibrium position.

Displacem ent / cm

D

Tim e / s

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

-D

Fig. 5.2

10 For

Examiner’s

(i) Over the period t = 0.12s to t = 0.16s, the student estimates that the Use

magnetic flux density within the coil decreases from 120 mT to 30 mT.

Given the circular coil has a total of 80 turns and has a radius of 5.0 cm,

calculate the magnitude of the average emf induced in the coil during this

time.

(ii) Explain why the amplitude of the oscillation of Magnet A decreases with

time as shown in Fig 5.2.

[3]

(b) The student replaces Magnet A with another magnet labeled Magnet B of

exactly the same dimensions and mass. The student then repeats the

experiment as described in (a). Fig. 5.3 shows the variation with time t of the

vertical displacement d of Magnet A and Magnet B from its equilibrium position.

Displacem ent / cm

D

Magnet A

Tim e / s

Magnet B

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

-D

Magnet A Magnet B

Fig 5.3

11 For

Examiner’s

(i) Deduce from Fig 5.3 that the magnet field strength of Magnet B is Use

stronger compared to that of Magnet A.

[2]

(ii) State 2 adjustments that the student can apply to the apparatus in Fig

5.1 such that the amplitude of the oscillation using Magnet B (as shown

in Fig 5.3) could be increased.

[2]

(c) Magnet B is now replaced with the original Magnet A. The circular coil in Fig

5.1 is now removed and a flat horizontal coil is setup as shown in Fig 5.4.

When an alternating current is passed through the coil, the magnet vibrates

under forced oscillations. The graph, Fig. 5.5, shows how the amplitude of the

oscillations varies with f, the frequency of the alternating current where fo is the

natural frequency of the spring-magnet system.

Flat

horizontal

coil

12 For

Examiner’s

5 (c) (i) Explain why the magnet in the setup given in Fig 5.4 will undergo forced Use

oscillation.

[3]

(ii) State 2 parameters that will affect the amplitude of the forced oscillation.

[2]

(iii) Explain why the maximum amplitude of the forced oscillation occurs

when the driving frequency is at fo.

[1]

(iv) Suggest how the apparatus in Fig. 5.4 could be modified to make the

peak on Fig. 5.5 flatter, without significantly changing the frequency fo at

which the peak occurs.

[2]

13 For

Examiner’s

(d) The frequency of the alternating current is now fixed at a certain frequency. Use

The displacement time graph of the magnet is as shown in Fig 5.6.

Displacem ent / cm

2

Tim e / s

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

-1

-2

Fig. 5.6

The same setup in Fig 5.1 is now placed back to its original position as shown

in Fig 5.7.

Fig. 5.7

Sketch, on Fig 5.8, the new displacement time graph of the magnet’s

oscillation.

[3]

Fig. 5.8

14 For

Examiner’s

6 Fig 6.1 shows a spectroscope used to observe the emission line spectrum for a Use

hydrogen discharged tube subjected to a high voltage of 5000 V. The light emitted

from the discharged tube is passed through the collimator of the spectroscope and is

incident normally on a diffraction grating of 600 lines per mm.

Rotating Diffraction

table grating

Hydrogen

discharge Straight through

lamp θ position, θo

collimator

Diffracted

Telescope ray, θ1

Fig 6.1

(a) Four first order diffraction lines from the visible regions of the emission

spectrum of atomic hydrogen were observed on one side of the straight

through position. The reading of the straight through position and three of the

lines was recorded with the help of the telescope and the vernier scale on the

spectroscope. The data are as given in Fig 6.2.

number λ / nm

1 303.6 14.3 410.3 4.85 x 10-19

2

3 306.3 17.0 486.3 4.09 x 10-19 J

4 312.5

Fig 6.2

(i) Explain how the observation of the emission line spectrum provide

evidence of the existence of energy levels in atoms.

[3]

(ii) Explain clearly why we can use the term "atomic" given above even

though hydrogen gases exist as molecules.

[1]

(iii) Determine θ and hence the wavelength of line 4 for the spectrum given

to 4 sf and fill in your answer in Fig 6.2.

θ = …………o [2]

ACJC 2010 H2 9646 Prelim Exam P3

15 For

Examiner’s

(b) The telescope was replaced by a camera and a photograph taken of the same Use

spectrum. The emission line spectrum was superimposed on a scale shown in

Fig 6.3.

Line number

5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Scale readings / cm

Fig 6.3

(i) Fill in the line number which each line corresponds to in the boxes in

Fig 6.3. [1]

(ii) Hence complete the table given in Fig 6.4 with the corresponding line

number and the wavelength for Line number 1, 3 and 4.

0 cm on the scale coincides with the straight through position.

Line number Scale reading / cm Wavelength / nm

6.35

6.75

7.63

10.73

Fig 6.4 [1]

(iii) Plot a graph of wavelength against scale reading on Fig 6.5 and complete

Fig 6.4 for Line number 2.

[3]

Fig 6.5

16 For

Examiner’s

(c) (i) Determine the photon energies for Line 2 and 4. Use

Line 4 = ……....... J [3]

(ii) Hence draw to scale a partial energy level map diagram for hydrogen

from your answer in (i) given that the the transitions are to level 2 of the

energy levels of atomic hydrogen, which belongs to the Balmer Series.

Show, and label clearly, the electron transitions responsible for the

emission lines observed.

Note that the energy value for Level 2 is − 5.44 x 10−19 J.

[4]

(d) (i) Explain why the size of each slit in the grating must be narrow.

[1]

(ii) State one advantage of having a large number of rulings (lines) on the

grating.

[1]

17 For

Examiner’s

Use

7 (a) Explain what is meant by nuclear decay being spontaneous and random in nature.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………… [2]

226 222 4

88 Ra→ 86 Rn+2 He

226

88 Ra

226.0254

222 222.0176

86 Rn

4 4.0026

2 He

(i) Show that the energy released in this decay, Q, is 4.86 MeV.

[2]

(ii) This energy Q must be shared by the alpha particle and the daughter

nucleus. Use conservation of energy and momentum to show that

⎛ M ⎞

Q = K α ⎜1+ α ⎟

⎝ M ⎠

where Kα is the kinetic energy of the alpha particle,

Mα is the mass of the alpha particle, and

M is the mass of the daughter nucleus.

[3]

(iii) Hence find the kinetic energy of the alpha particle emitted in this decay

process. Comment on your answer with reference to (b)(i)

18 For

Examiner’s

Use

(c) Many radioisotopes have important industrial, medical and research applications.

One of these is 60Co, which has a half-life of 5.2 years and each 60Co nucleus

decays by emission of a beta particle (energy 0.31 MeV) and two gamma photons

(energies 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV respectively).

A scientist wishes to prepare a 60Co sealed source that will have an activity of at

least 37 x 1010 Bq after 30 months of use.

(i) Show that the initial minimum activity of 60Co when the scientist is preparing

the radioisotopes is 5.2 x 1011 Bq

[2]

(ii) Hence calculate the minimum initial mass in milligrams of 60Co required?

(iii) At what rate will the source emit energy after 30 months if its activity is

37 x 1010 Bq after 30 months of use.

(iv) With reference to the type and energies of the radiations emitted, suggest

which of the radiations emitted by 60Co decay could be used to detect the

uniformity of thickness of metal sheets.

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………[1]

ACJC 2010 Prelims

H2 P1 Ans

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18 Q19 Q20

A C B D D A D B C A B A C D D D D A B C

Q21 Q22 Q23 Q24 Q25 Q26 Q27 Q28 Q29 Q30 Q31 Q32 Q33 Q34 Q35 Q36 Q37 Q38 Q39 Q40

A A B B D B C B A D B D C B D C D B C A

H2P P2 Ans

1(a)(i) π

V= × d 3 , where d = 22 cm (accept values from18 cm to 24 cm)

6

∴V = 5.6 x 10-3 m3 (accept values from 3.0 to 7.5 x 10-3 m3 ); accept

corresponding values if alternative units are used (e.g. mm3 or m3)

1(a)(ii) 1

KE = mv 2 , where v = 10 m s-1 (accept values from 8 m s-1 to 12 m s-1) and

2

mass = 60 kg (accept values from 40 kg to 100 kg)

∴KE = 3000 J (accept values from 1900 J to 7200 J); accept corresponding

values if alternative units are used (e.g. kJ)

1(b)(i) The values are close to each other but very far from the expected value

which should be less than density of water (1000 kg m3).

Therefore, set B is precise but inaccurate.

- balance calibrated incorrectly

- negligence in zero-ing the weighing balance

(either one of the above)

Graph is a straight line with negative gradient

⇒ a is in the opposite direction of x

Τ = 2π/ω

Τ = 0.40 s

1

correct amplitude of 0.050 m and with 2 complete waves

2

(b) 2π 2π

ω= = =π rad s-1

T 2

Apply x = x0 sin ωt where x0 = 50 mm and x = 25 mm

Time interval when shuttle remains open ,

ACJC 2010 Prelims

2π

⇒ 25 = 50 sin t

2

1

t= s ⇒ t = 0.167s

6

(so by Newton’s third law)force on the wire is upwards

(b) pole P is a north pole (using Fleming’s left hand rule) (allows ecf from (a))

(c) Egg shape field lines closer at the bottom and spread out at the top

Direction is clockwise

2.3 x 10-3 x 9.8 = B x 2.6 x 4.4 x 10-2 ( g missing, then 0/2 in this mark)

∴ B = 0.20 T

aii

I

V

ACJC 2010 Prelims

Number of free electrons remains the same, hence resistance increases

aiv ρl

Know that R = ; or mention that R depends on ρ

A

Therefore ρ must have been unique as R is unique at each temperature.

5(a)(i) Vs is (stopping potential). Electrons with max KE cannot reach the anode/cannot be

collected (as even they do not have enough energy to overcome the electrostatic

repulsive force between cathode and anode.)

(ii) (Electrons are emitted with a range of KE), hence when anode is make less negative

with respect to cathode, some electrons may be able to (overcome the electrostatic

repulsive force and) reach the anode

(iii) Saturation not achieved immediately once V is +ve because the electrons are

scattered randomly in different directions. (Hence with higher V, the path of more

electrons may be altered so that it is able to reach the anode due to the increased in

the magnitude of the electric force.)

(Saturation current is achieved at V1 when all emitted electrons are collected.)

5(b)(i) φ = 5.32 x 1.6 x 10-19 = 8.51 x 10-19 J

hc/λ = 8.51 x 10-19 J

λ= 2.34 x 10-7 m

(ii)

r

p =h/λ

r

p =2.83 x 10-27 N s (allow ecf)

For electron Δx = 1.95 x 10-3 m (allow if given to 1 sf)

Both correct

(ii) For bullet, HUP sets no practical limit to the locating of the position of the bullet

accurately.

About 10-17 times diameter of nucleus

For electron, (the position of the electron is probabilistic.) Cannot determine its exact

position at any instant of time.

About 107 times diameter of an atom.

explicitly.

(b)(i) Quantum tunneling which is the phenomenon where the probability of the alpha particle

passing through the barrier is non-zero where classically it is unable to overcome the

barrier as it has less energy than the barrier.

(ii) The long half-life implies low decay constant which is the probability of decay per unit

time,

due to the error in the (huge) underestimate of the transmission probability of the

alpha particle.

ACJC 2010 Prelims

(iii) breaking the barrier into segments and (multiplying the successive tunneling

probabilities) or

r2

8 π 2m (U (r ) − E )

Use T proportional to exp ∫ −2 dr

r1 h2

(In this case r is from 9.01 to 26.90 fm

7(a)(i)

The body is a relatively good conductor. If the body is in contact with the

ground, the body and the ground will tend to make one equipotential surface.

So the body still have very nearly 0 potential difference between the head and

the feet.

(ii) 1800

Current Density =

4πr 2

1800

= (for correct substitutions)

(

4 × π × 6380 × 10 3 )

2

Hence current density near the surface of earth is in the order of about 10-12 A

m-2

(iii) P = 4 x105 x 1800

= 720 MW (2 sf) (Accept 700 MW)

(b)(i) πd 2 H

Volume of cloud =

4

π (2 × 10 3 ) (2 × 10 3 )

2

=

4

= 6.283 x 109 m3

No. of droplets at lowest density = 50 x 106 m-3

4

3

(

π 10 × 10 −6 )

3

= 4.189 x 10-15 m3

No. of droplets in the cloud = 50x106x6.283x109

= 3.14 x 1017

Total volume of water droplets = 3.14 x 1017x4.189x10-15

= 1.315 x 103 m3

ACJC 2010 Prelims

= 1.315x106 kg

(b) (ii) Volume

Rainfall =

Area

1.315 × 10 3

=

π (1 × 10 3 )

2

= 0.42 mm

(c) W = Q ×V

(i)

= 20 x 1 x 108

= 2 x 109 J

(ii) W

P = VI or P=

t

2 x109

=108 x 20 000 =

10−3

= 2 x 1012 W = 2 x 1012 W

Accept approx 109 / 10-3

(iii) dV

E=−

dr

80 × 10 3

E = (Accept 60 x 103 / 0.07)

0.07

= 1.14 x 106 V m-1

Since the electric field at the top of the tower is greater than the order of 105 (a

few hundred thousands V m-1), a return stroke is likely to occur.

(d) (i) The electrical discharge results in heating up of the atmosphere around the

lightning channel.

The sudden rise in pressure causes the air around it to expand rapidly resulting

in an explosion of the air.

(ii) Distance (m) = 330 (m s-1) x t (s)

(Assuming time taken by light is

negligible)

= 330t m

= t km t=

1000 9.9 x1010

t

= km

3

(e)(i) ⎛I ⎞

120 = 10 log⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟

⎝ I0 ⎠

⎛I ⎞

124.8 = 10 log⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟

⎝ I0 ⎠

⎛I ⎞ ⎛I ⎞ I1 = 1.0 W m-2 and

124.8 − 120 = 10 log⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ − 10 log⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟

⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎝ I0 ⎠ I2 = 100.48 W m-2 found separately

ACJC 2010 Prelims

⎛I ⎞

4.8 = 10 log⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟

⎝ I1 ⎠

⎛I ⎞

0.48 = log⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟

⎝ I1 ⎠

I2

10 0.48 =

I1

1

Iα

r2

I 1 r1 = I 2 r2

2 2

2

I 2 r1

= = 10 0.48

I 1 r2 2

2

2

2

= 10 0.48

r2

r2 = 1.15 km

ACJC 2010 Prelims

.

Basic procedure

Mentioned that ionisation current and air pressure measured or

B1

State IV is P and DV is ionization current

Explain how pressure is varied using vacuum pump B1

[2]

Diagram shows

Correct electrical circuit; power supply must be shown. B1

Alpha source between electrodes, Pressure gauge/Bourdon Gauge and Vacuum pump/ air

B1

pump shown connected correctly.

[2]

Measurements

Measure ionisation current using milliammeter / microammeter / galvanometer B1

Measure air pressure using pressure sensor with datalogger or direct reading from

B1

pressure gauge / Bourdon gauge

(accepted if shown on diagram) [2]

Control of variables

Measure that activity of source is ensured to be constant by using a source with long half-

B1

life / high activity / checked by using radiation detector.

Separation of parallel metal plates is kept constant throughout the experiment B1

[max 2]

Use Americium 241, 185 kBq as alpha particle emitter (a relatively pure alpha emitter) B1

Source of 185 kBq is also relatively safe to use in a school laboratory with standard basic

B1

precautions

Use high voltage (50 V to 1000 V) power supply as current is very small B1

Place source close to plates as alpha particles have short range in air B1

Count recorded over a fixed duration of 1 or 2 minutes if using detector to check for

B1

constant activity

Source placed near to detector if using detector to check for constant activity. B1

Tap pressure gauge /Bourdon gauge when taking readings in case needle sticks B1

Plot suitable graph to verify proposed relationship (eg log I vs log P) with suggested conclusion

given B1

(Do not accept if mention plot I against P)

[max 3]

Safety

Use safety goggles when working with low/high pressure (Do not award if no explanations given) B1

[max 1]

2010 H2 Prelims

H2 P3

Horizontal component of tension/centripetal force is perpendicular to the

velocity or direction of motion.

Horizontal component of tension/Centripetal force/constant net force points

towards a fixed point.

Constant tension supplied to maintain constant centripetal force

Horizontal component of tension/Centripetal force/constant net force just

sufficient to provide circular motion for a given v and r

Constant energy supplied to stone (Do not accept Apply const v)

(b) H = ½ g t2

When r decreases, θ decreases.

Hence from T cos θ > W, therefore T must decrease so that there will be

vertical equilibrium

gX2

H= t = 2.944 s

2v2

2H

X=v

g

2 (42.5)

= (22.8) (for correct

9.81 Use X = ut

substitutions)

= 67.1 m X = 67.1 m

2010 H2 Prelims

is conserved,

total linear momentum and total energy of the system are all conserved

b(i)

m M v m M

v

u vv V v

v

Before Collision After collision

For an elastic collision with a stationary piston, the speed of the gas remains

the same when it bounce off in the opp direction

With a piston moving down, using the fact that relative speed of approach =

rel speed of separation, its rebound speed will be greater than that earlier

Higher ave speed implies higher ave KE, hence Temperature rises

ΔU = Increase in internal energy, Q is heat supplied to system + W is WD

on system

mentions that Q=0 and work done is done on gas(or W is +ve), hence

higher internal energy,

For ideal gas, Internal energy depends on temp alone

thus higher temperature

(iii)

Process shown correctly

2010 H2 Prelims

3(a) There are standing waves produced in the microwave oven during the

cooking process because incident wave from the left gets reflected by the

reflective wall on the right and they superimpose /overlap /interfere

The conditions must be right such that the distance between the source and

wall must be integral multiples of half the wavelength of the microwave.to

form standing wave

as they have the same speed, frequency and almost the same amplitude

antinodes, hence the dry regions are the regions of antinodes

Wavelength = 3.0 x 108/2.45 x 109

= 0.1224 m = 12.2 cm

Hence distance apart is 6.1 cm

(ii)

D D D D D

Standing wave pattern drawn with ends as nodes

(need not have 5 loops)

5 Ds shown

(c) So there are regions in the oven where the microwave has high amplitude

(antinodes) and there are region where the microwave has no displacement

(node). Thus ants can stay away from the regions of high amplitude which

has high heat and thus stay alive.

Understand that the ants will stay away from the position of antinodes to stay

alive.

(d) The turntable enables different parts of the food to move to the antinodes of

the standing wave and get heated up. Thus it helps heat up the food more

uniformly.

2010 H2 Prelims

4a) F spring= kx

5 x 9.81 = k(0.05)

k=.981 N m-1

(No not penalize for inconsistent –ve sign that appears) – Pls annotate BOD

4b By conservation of energy,

(i) At a height 40cm, the contraction of spring is 10 cm.

Energy stored in spring = ½ (981)(0.1)2

= 4.905 J

Energy gain = Energy lost

½ mv2= mgh + 4.905

½ (5)v2= (5)(9.81)(0.1)+4.905 = 9.81

v= 1.98 m s-1

(ii) By conservation of energy,

Let final extension be x (measured from natural length)

Energy at natural length= Energy at lowest point Initial energies = final energies

2

9.81 = - (5)(9.81)x + ½ (981)x 4.905 =-5 (9.81)(x+0.1) + ½ (981)x2

490.5 x2 – 49.05 x – 9.81 = 0

50 x2 – 5x – 1 = 0

Hence x = -0.10 (initial released point) or + 0.20 (lowest point)

Hence lowest point is (0.30 – 0.20) = 0.10 m above the ground.

4c In reality, it is larger. There will be some energy lost due presence of air

resistance/friction in spring and thus less energy will be available for

conversion to elastic potential energy.

2010 H2 Prelims

5 (a)(i) | ε | = | - dΦ/dt |

= | - NA dB/dt |

= | - (80) * (π * 0.052) * (30-120)*10-3 / (0.16-0.12) |

= 1.41 V

(ignore –ve sign)

(a)(ii) When the magnet is oscillating, an emf will be induced in the coils and

thus induced current will flow since circuit is closed resulting in

either electrical energy being dissipated or heating effect of coils

Hence total (mechanical) energy of the magnet-spring system

decreases continuously as it is being converted into the electrical

energy in the coil

As amplitude of oscillations depends on amount of mechanical

energy present,

Hence the amplitude decreases continuously

more ME is converted into

A lower amplitude indicates that

electrical energy over each cycle,

there is greater damping /induced

(that can only be the result of a

force,

higher induced emf, hence induced

current)

(Since system has same frequency (Since system has same frequency

and started with same amplitude) and started with same amplitude)

and N and A are constant, higher This is due to greater induced

induced emf must be due to higher emf/current which must be due to

rate of change of B. greater rate of change of B

Magnet field strength of Magnet B

is stronger than that of Magnet A

result in a lower induced emf, therefore higher amplitude for the

oscillation

• Use a wire with higher resistance. Same emf will result in a lower

induced current

• Use a resistor with higher resistance. Same emf will result in a lower

induced current

• Use coil of smaller cross-sectional area

• Use spring of smaller k

2010 H2 Prelims

c (i) As the current pass through the coil, the coil will generate a magnetic field

and will behave like a magnet. As the current is alternating, the polarity of

this coil will change as the direction of the current flow changes.

The magnet will then be attracted and repelled by the coil as the current

changes direction.

will also be sinusoidal and therefore, the magnet will be forced into a

sinusoidal motion.

Idea that coil generates an alternating(sinusoidal) field

Idea that magnetic force created is hence also alternating

(and its magnitude is proportional to I at that instant.)

with the same frequency as the ac supply.

Hence magnet is undergoing forced oscillation.

(ii) • Amount of damping on the driven system

• The relative values of the natural frequency of the driven system and

the value of the frequency of the external driving force

• Amplitude of the periodic driving force

• More turns used in the coil

equal to (approaches the) natural frequency of system.

(iv) Mention that method is to increase damping on system

Any suitable method that increases damping, examples

• Attached an object of large surface area to the magnet

• submerged magnet in a viscous fluid

Alternative:

Use AC of lower amplitude

This will result in lower amplitude for all frequencies, hence flatter

peak.

(d) Displacem ent / cm

2

1

Tim e / s

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

-1

-2

2010 H2 Prelims

6 (a)(i) The distinct lines shows that only photons of certain frequency are emitted.

This took place for electron transition from higher energy levels to a lower energy

levels.

This electron transition results in the release of a photon from the atom of an

amount of energy (E = hν) equal to the difference in energy of the electronic energy

levels involved in the transition.

Hence showing the energy levels are quantised.

(ii) The high voltage applied broke the bonds of the hydrogen molecules into its

(isolated) atoms (and promote the electrons into higher energy levels.)

(iii) θ = 23.2o

λ = 656.6 nm

(b)(i) 1,2,3,4 L to R

(ii) 1 – 410.3 nm; 3 – 486.3 nm; 4 – 656.6 nm (no ecf)

(iii) All 3 points plotted correctly

Axes given to correct units

Wavelength read correctly as 435 nm (theoretical value 434 nm)

(accept 430 to 440 nm as read correctly from graph)

(c)(i) E = hc/λ

E = 6.63 x 10‐34 x 3 x 108/λ

(correct sub for h and c)

E2 = 4.57 x 10‐19 J(allow ecf)

E4 = 3.03 x 10‐19 J

(credit given only if both calculations are correct)

2010 H2 Prelims

(ii)

6 (‐0.59 x 10‐19

‐19

J)

5 (‐0.87 x 10‐19 J)

4 (‐1.35 x 10 J)

3 (‐2.41 x 10‐19 J)

1 2 3 4

2 (‐5.44 x 10‐19 J)

5 energy levels draw with decreasing spacing

Scale correct

Transitions all correct

Energy values all correct

(d)(i) For significant diffraction to occur so that higher wavelength photons could be

observed.

Accept (so that lines further away from straight through position are observable)

(ii) Brighter line spectrum / better contrast

Any other acceptable answer

2010 H2 Prelims

7a Random

Impossible to predict when and which individual nuclide will decay

OR

There is a constant probability or decay

Or

Unable to predict which atom and how many will decay at the next instant

of time

/ pressure, external source of energy supplied etc.

7bi Q = (MRa − MRn − Mα )c 2

( ) (

= ( 226.0254 − 222.0176 − 4.0026 ) × 1.66 × 10−27 × 3 × 108 )

2

= 7.7688 × 10−13 J

= 4.86 MeV

ii COM: MV + MαV = 0 --------- (1)

1 1 2

COE: Q = MV 2 + MαVα --------- (2)

2 2

⎛M ⎞

From (1): V = −⎜ α ⎟Vα -------------- (3)

⎝M ⎠

Subst (3) into (2)

2

1 ⎛ ⎛ Mα ⎞ ⎞ 1 2

Q = M⎜ −⎜ ⎟Vα ⎟ + MαVα

2 ⎝ ⎝M ⎠ ⎠ 2

1 2⎛ M ⎞

= MαVα ⎜ α + 1⎟

2 ⎝M ⎠

⎛M ⎞

= K α ⎜ α + 1⎟

⎝M ⎠

iii ⎛ 4.0026 ⎞

4.86 = Kα ⎜ + 1⎟ (correct substitution shown)

⎝ 222.0176 ⎠

Kα = 4.77 MeV

The alpha particles carries away most of the energy – 98 %

7ci ⎛ ln2

-⎜

⎞

×2.5 ⎟

A0 e ⎝ 5.2 ⎠

≥ 37 × 1010

A0 ≥ 5.16(3) × 1011 Bq

A0 = 5.2 × 1011 Bq

2010 H2 Prelims

ii λ = ln2 (5.2 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60)

= 4.2268 x 10-9 s-1

A0 = λ N0

5.2 × 1011 Bq

N0 =

ln2 (5.2 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60)

= 1.23 x 1020

m

1.23 × 1020 = 6.02 × 1023 ×

60

m = 12.3 mg

iii Energy emitted per decay = 0.31+1.17+1.33=2.81 MeV

Rate =( 2.81 x 1.6 x 10-13 J) x 37 x 1010 decay per second

= 166 mW

iv The β-decay energy is low compared to the γ-ray.

Hence the (2) strong γ-lines, could be used as a γ-ray source to check for

uniformity of the thickness of metal sheets in the industries

Name: ……………………….…………………. HT group: …………...

JC2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 2010

PHYSICS 9646/ 01

Higher 2

1 hour 15 minutes

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

Write your name, HT group and NRIC/ Fin number on the MCQ Answer Sheet. Shade

your NRIC/ Fin number correctly on the MCQ Answer Sheet in the spaces provided.

There are 40 questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there

are four possible answers A, B, C, D.

Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the

separate Answer Sheet.

Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong

answer. Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

PHYSICS DATA:

permeability of free space, μ0 = 4π x 10-7 H m-1

permittivity of free space, ε0 = 8.85 x 10-12 F m-1

≈ (1/(36π)) x 10-9 F m-1

elementary charge, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton, mP = 1.67 x 10-27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 mol-1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s-2

PHYSICS FORMULAE:

v2 = u2 + 2 a s

work done on / by a gas, W = p ΔV

Hydrostatic pressure P = ρgh

gravitational potential, φ = –Gm/r

Displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = x0 sin ωt

Velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos ωt

= 2

± ω x0 − x2

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + ...

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ...

electric potential, V = Q / 4 π ε0 r

alternating current / voltage, x = x0 sin ωt

Transmission coefficient T = exp (-2kd)

8 π2 m (U – E )

where k =

h2

decay constant, λ = 0.693

t1

2

2

1. The power loss P through a resistor is found by measuring the potential difference V across the

resistor and the current I through it. The equation is given by P = VI. The voltmeter has a 4%

uncertainty and the ammeter reading has a 3% uncertainty. What is the uncertainty in the power

calculated?

A 3% B 4% C 7% D 12 %

2. A student made a series of measurements of the diameter d, of a wire using four micrometer

screw gauges A, B, C and D. The table shows the measurements taken.

If the actual diameter of the wire was 1.49 mm, which micrometer screw gauge produced a set of

readings that could be described as accurate but not precise?

micrometer screw

Readings d/ mm

gauge

A 1.49 1.46 1.52 1.50

B 1.48 1.58 1.51 1.40

C 1.35 1.37 1.42 1.42

D 1.32 1.37 1.41 1.50

3. A man stands on the edge of a cliff. He throws a stone upwards with a velocity of 19.6 m s-1 at

time t = 0. The stone reaches the top of the trajectory after 2.00 s and then falls towards the

bottom of the cliff. Air resistance is negligible.

Which row shows the correct velocity v and acceleration a of the stone at different times?

t /s v / m s-1 a / m s-2

A 2.00 0 0

B 1.00 9.81 9.81

C 5.00 -29.4 -9.81

D 3.00 9.81 -9.81

4. The sketch graph below describes the motion of a ball rebounding from a horizontal surface after

being released from a point above the surface.

A Velocity C Acceleration

B Kinetic energy D Displacement

3

5. Two objects, X and Y, were dropped from rest from a tall tower on a wind-free day. In the graph

below are plotted their squared velocities as a function of their height above the ground.

From the information given in the graph and knowledge of the properties of bodies falling under

the influence of gravity, it is possible to say that the two objects

B had different masses

C hit the ground at the same time

D were not dropped simultaneously

6. A proton (mass 1 u) travelling with velocity +0.100 c collides elastically head-on with a helium

nucleus (mass 4 u) travelling with velocity -0.050 c.

proton Helium nucleus

A +0.140 c +0.010 c

B -0.140 c +0.010 c

C +0.233 c -0.083 c

D -0.233 c +0.083 c

B The force a ladder leaning on a smooth wall exerts on the rough floor and the normal

reaction from the floor

C The force a ladder leaning on a smooth wall exerts on the wall and the normal reaction force

from the wall

D Weight of a parachutist and the pull of the parachute on him when he is moving with

terminal velocity

4

8. The given diagram shows a column of dry air trapped by mercury in a narrow test tube.

Which graph best shows how the length l of the air column varies with the angle θ of the tube to

the vertical?

A C

B D

9. A right-angle rule hangs at rest from a peg P as shown below. It is made from a metal sheet of

uniform density. One arm is L cm long while the other is 2L cm long.

A 8o B 14o C 42o D 76o

B The centrifugal force on the object is equal and opposite to its weight.

C The centripetal force on the object is equal and opposite to its weight.

D The weight of the object is the only force acting on it.

5

11. A spring fixed at one end, has a mass attached to the other end. The mass bounces up and

down. It is shown in the diagram at three positions X, Y and Z.

Which line gives the kinetic, gravitational potential and elastic potential energies?

energy

A zero at X maximum at X maximum at X

B maximum at Y zero at Z maximum at Y

C zero at Z zero at Z zero at X

D maximum at Y maximum at X maximum at Z

12. A space vehicle of mass m re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere at an angle θ to the horizontal.

Because of air resistance, the vehicle travels at a constant speed v.

The heat shield of the vehicle dissipates heat at a rate P, so that the mean temperature of the

vehicle remains constant.

Taking g as the relevant value of the acceleration of free fall, which expression is equal to P.

A mgv

B mgv sinθ

C 1

mv 2

2

D 1

mgv 2 sin 2 θ

2

6

13. A segment of the rollercoaster track in an amusement park is illustrated.

In this segment, the carriage descends from rest at H, moves through the vertical loop with its

top at A, and then over a hump at B. The friction between the carriage and the track may be

taken as negligible.

If the carriage is to complete the loop without leaving the track, what is the minimum value of the

height y?

A 30 m B 27 m C 25 m D 23 m

14 A comet of mass m is moving around Planet X in an elliptical orbit. It is moving with a speed v

when it is at P at a distance r from the Planet’s centre. What is the total energy of the comet at P

(Mass of Planet X is M)

P

Comet

r

Planet X

+ mv 2 − + mv 2 −( + mv 2 )

r 2 r 2 r r 2

15. Points X and Y are two points at a distance of R and 3R from the centre of the Earth

respectively. The gravitational potential is -1.0 MJ kg-1 at point X. What is the change in potential

energy when a 30 kg mass is moved from Y to X?

A -20 MJ B 20 MJ C -40 MJ D 40 MJ

7

16. The graphs below show how the displacement x, velocity v and the acceleration a of a body vary

with time t when it is oscillating with simple harmonic motion.

A π/ 9 B 2π / 9 C 2π / 3 D 2π

17. A mass hanging from a spring suspended from the ceiling is pulled down and released. The

mass then oscillates vertically with simple harmonic motion of period T. The graph shows how

its distance from the ceiling varies with time t.

Distance from

ceiling /cm

100

30

t

0 T/4 T/2

T/2

B The restoring force on the mass increases D The speed is a maximum at t = T/4

between t = 0 and t = T/4

18. A metal block X, of mass m, at 0oC comes into contact with another metal block Y, of mass 2m,

at 100 oC. Heat conduction takes place with no loss to the surroundings. The final equilibrium

temperature of the blocks is 20 oC. If the specific heat capacities of the two metals are cx and cy

respectively, then

A cx = 8 cy B cx = 4 cy C cx = 2 cy D cx = ½ cy

8

19. Air is enclosed in a cylinder by a gas-tight, frictionless piston of cross-sectional area 3.0 × 10–3

m2. When atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa, the piston settles 80 mm from the end of the

cylinder. The piston is then pulled out until it is 320 mm from the end of the cylinder and is held

there. The temperature of the air in the cylinder returns to its original value.

80 mm piston 320 mm

air

F

What is the force F required to hold the piston in its new position?

B In boiling, the most energetic molecules of the liquid escape leaving behind molecules with

lower energies while in evaporation, all molecules have the same energy.

C Evaporation occurs at any temperature but the boiling point depends on the external

pressure.

D The rates of evaporation and boiling are dependent on the surface area of the liquid.

21. A mechanical wave of frequency 300 Hz travels along a railway line at 6 km s-1. Two points on

the rail which are 250 cm apart are out of phase by

22. A boy blows gently across the top of a piece of glass tubing the low end of which is closed by his

finger so that the tube gives its fundamental note of frequency, f. While blowing, he removes his

finger from the lower end. The note he then hears will have a frequency of approximately

A ¼f B ½f C 2f D 4f

23. Two loudspeakers L1 and L2, driven by a common oscillator and amplifier, are set up as shown.

As the frequency of the oscillator increases from zero, the detector at D recorded a series of

maximum and minimum signals. At what frequency is the first maximum observed?

(Speed of sound = 330 m s-1)

40 m

L1

D

9m

L2

9

24. A sphere of weight 1.6 x 10-3 N has an electric charge of 2.0 μC. It is released from rest, in

vacuum between two parallel, vertical metal plates. The separation of the plates is 0.10 m and

the potential difference between them is 80 V. The point of release of the sphere is within the

region of uniform electric field between the plates. The arrangement is shown in the diagram.

+2.0 μC

25. The diagram below shows the variation of the electric potential V with the distance d along a

straight line in a particular electric field.

26. Two wires P and Q, each of the same length and the same material, are connected in parallel to

a battery. The diameter of P is half that of Q.

10

27. The diagram shows three resistors of resistances 2 Ω, 20 Ω and 3 Ω connected in series. A

potential difference of 20 V is maintained across them. Point Q is earthed.

20 V

P Q R S

2Ω 20 Ω 3Ω

Potential at

P Q R S

A 20 V 18.4 V 2.4 V 0V

B 1.6 V 0V 16 V 18.4 V

C 20 V 16 V -6V - 20 V

D 1.6 V 0V - 16 V - 18.4 V

28. A battery of e.m.f. E and internal resistance r delivers a current I through a variable resistance R.

E r

A

I

R

R is set at two different values and the corresponding currents I are measured using an ammeter

of negligible resistance.

R/Ω I/A

1.0 3.0

2.0 2.0

11

29. An electric heater can be represented as two resistors of resistances R1 and R2 and two

switches S1 and S2. The resistance R2 is greater than that of R1.

S1

R1

S2

R2

Which switches must be closed so that the heater produces the maximum possible power and

the minimum non-zero power?

A S1 and S2 S2

B S1 and S2 S1

C S1 S2

D S2 S1

Which line of the table describes the subsequent motion of the magnet?

Rotation Movement

A anticlockwise to the left

B anticlockwise to the right

C clockwise to the left

D clockwise to the right

31. When an alternating current flows through a resistor of 5 Ω, heat is dissipated a rate of 20 W.

What is the peak value of this alternating current?

12

32. A sinusoidal alternating current has period T. The r.m.s. value of the current in a resistor is I and

the mean power dissipated in the resistor is P.

A 2π

The frequency is .

T

B The maximum power dissipated in the resistor is P 2 .

C I

The peak current is .

2

D P

The r.m.s. voltage is .

I

33. The graph shows the variation with time of the magnetic flux linking a coil.

flux

0

0 t 2t time

Which graph shows the variation with time of the e.m.f. induced in the coil?

A C

e.m.f

e.m.f

0

0

0 t 2t time

0 t 2t time

B D

e.m.f e.m.f

0 0

0 t 2t time 0 t 2t time

34. The de Broglie wavelength of a rifle bullet of mass 0.02 kg which is moving at a speed of

300 m s-1 is

13

35. Which of the following statements is true?

A A beam of electrons directed at a vessel of cold gas can cause the formation of either an

absorption or emission line spectrum.

B A beam of white light directed at a vessel of cold gas can cause the formation of either an

absorption or emission line spectrum.

C A beam of electrons directed at a vessel of cold gas can only cause the formation of an

absorption line spectrum.

D A beam of electrons directed at a vessel of cold gas can only cause the formation of an

emission line spectrum.

36. A beam of 5.0 eV electrons strikes a potential energy barrier of height 6.5 eV and thickness

0.70 nm, at a rate equivalent to a current of 1000 A. How long would it take for an electron to be

transmitted?

37. One of the characteristics of laser light is that it is monochromatic. Which of the following

statement explains this characteristic?

B The system is in a state of population inversion.

C Stimulated emission causes the emitted photon and the incident photon to be of the same

phase.

D Photons of the same energy as that of the incident photons are emitted when the electrons

transit down from a higher energy level.

p-n junction

P-type N-type

A B C D

Depletion

region

B When Group III atoms in region B accept electrons from neighbouring Group IV atoms, a

depletion region is formed.

C The potential barrier decreases when a positive potential is applied to region A and a

negative potential is applied to region D.

D Under forward-biased condition, electrons moves from D to A.

14

39. In an experiment to investigate the nature of the atom, a very thin gold film was bombarded with

α-particles.

A A few α-particles were deflected through angles greater than a right angle.

B All α-particles were deflected from their original path.

C No α-particle was deflected through an angle greater than a right angle.

D An interference pattern was observed.

40. A sample of pure potassium chloride is found to be radioactive due to the presence of 40K. The

sample contains 9.49 x 1019 atoms of 40K when the activity is measured to be 1600 Bq. The

half-life of the radioactive decay of 40K is

END OF PAPER 1

15

Name: ……………………….…………………. HT group: …………...

JC2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 2010

PHYSICS 9646/ 2

Higher 2

1 hours 45 minutes

Write your name and tutorial group on all the work you hand in.

Write in dark blue or black pen in the spaces provided on the Question Paper.

You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.

Do not use staple, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

Total marks for Paper 2 is 72 marks.

A total of 2 marks will be deducted for mistakes made in units and significant figures.

Marks

Awarded

Sec A 1 5

2 10

3 11

4 8

5 8

6 18

Sec B 7 12

Total 72

PHYSICS DATA:

permeability of free space, μ0 = 4π x 10-7 H m-1

permittivity of free space, ε0 = 8.85 x 10-12 F m-1

≈ (1/(36π)) x 10-9 F m-1

elementary charge, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton, mP = 1.67 x 10-27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 mol-1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s-2

PHYSICS FORMULAE:

v2 = u2 + 2 a s

work done on / by a gas, W = p ΔV

Hydrostatic pressure P = ρgh

gravitational potential, φ = –Gm/r

Displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = x0 sin ωt

Velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos ωt

= 2

± ω x0 − x2

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + ...

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ...

electric potential, V = Q / 4 π ε0 r

alternating current / voltage, x = x0 sin ωt

Transmission coefficient T = exp (-2kd)

8 π2 m (U – E )

where k =

h2

decay constant, λ = 0.693

t1

2

2

SECTION A

ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT YOU SPEND ABOUT 1 HOUR AND 15 MINUTES ON THIS SECTION.

1 When a solid is heated, the thermal energy required is given by the expression

(a) Name the quantities in the expression that are SI base quantities.

…………………………………………………….......................................................................... [1]

unit of c = …………………………

[2]

3

2 An aeroplane is flying horizontally at a steady speed of 67 m s-1 and an object is dropped off from the

aeroplane.

(i) Show that the vertical component of the velocity of the object is approximately 40 m s-1

when it has fallen 80 m.

[2]

(ii) Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant velocity of the object at this point.

[3]

Direction of velocity =.................................................................

4

(b) In practice, air resistance acts on the object during the fall. The air resistance may be

assumed to be proportional to the square of the speed.

State and explain how the magnitude of the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity

of the object vary with time.

............……………………………………………………………………………………………....

............……………………………………………………………………………………………....

............…………………………………………………………………………………………….... [1]

...........…………………………………………………………………………………………….....

...........…………………………………………………………………………………………….....

............……………………………………………………………………………………………....

............……………………………………………………………………………………………....

............……………………………………………………………………………………………....

............…………………………………………………………………………………………….... [2]

Start of fall

vertical

distance from

the point of

drop off

Fig. 2

5

3 (a) A train of mass 2.2 x 105 kg is traveling at a speed of 20 km h-1 and it requires a power of

900 kW.

(ii) What additional power must be supplied if the train is to maintain at a speed of 20 km h-1

on a slope which rises 1 m for every 60 m of track?

(iii) A simple pendulum hangs from the roof of one of the compartments. Calculate the

inclination of the string to the vertical as seen by a passenger as it slows down and

reaching station at a rate of 0.667 m s-2. Explain your reasoning with a suitable diagram.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

[3]

6

(b) A student wishes to find the volume of stone. He suspends the stone in air from a cord which is

attached to a force sensor as shown in Fig. 2.a. He then submerges the stone fully in a beaker

of water (see Fig. 2.b).

Force Force

sensor Sensor

Cord

Stone Beaker of

water

(i) State and explain the change in the force sensor reading.

…………………………………………………………………………….......................................

................................................................................................................................................ [1]

(ii) Explain how volume of the stone can be determined from the readings of the force sensor

and the density of water.

…………………………………………………………………………….......................................

................................................................................................................................................

…………………………………………………………………………….......................................

................................................................................................................................................ [3]

7

4 A student sets up the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 4.1 in order to determine a value for the specific

latent heat of fusion of ice.

Fig 4.1

A heater is placed in the funnel, surrounded by pure melting ice. The student measures the mass

of melted ice in the beaker at regular time intervals before and after switching on the heater. The

variation with time t of the mass m of melted ice in the beaker is shown in Fig. 4.2.

Fig 4.2

During the heating process, the current is adjusted so that the readings on the ammeter and

voltmeter are constant.

8

(a) By reference to Fig. 4.2,

(i) Suggest a time at which the heater is switched on,

(b) The readings of the ammeter and the voltmeter are 5.2 A and 11.5 V respectively. Use your

answers in (a) to calculate a value for the specific latent heat of fusion of ice.

(c) State and explain the effect on your calculated value for the specific latent heat of fusion if ice

taken directly from a freezer were used to replace the ice in the funnel.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [2]

9

5 (a) A set of coloured lamps are designed for use with a 240 V supply. The set up have 12 lamps

connected as seen in Fig 5 below.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M

Fig. 5

240 V a.c.

However, the lamps do not light up when the set is plugged in. Therefore, a voltmeter is used

to test the circuit. For each of the following observations, identify the fault.

(i) The potential difference is zero across every lamp except EF, across which the potential

difference is 240 V.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

[1]

(ii) The potential difference between A and M is 240 V but the potential difference is zero

across every lamp.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

[1]

(b) (i) Some lamps are designed so that when the filament fails the resistance of the lamp

drops to zero. If this happens to one of the lamps in the above set up, calculate the

fractional increase in the power dissipated in each of the remaining lamps, assuming

that the resistance of these lamps does not change.

(ii) What is likely to happen if failed lamps are not replaced?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [2]

10

6 Dangers associated with exposure to radiation have been recognised for many years. As a result

of these hazards, measures have been adopted to reduce exposure to radiation to as low a level

as possible. One such measure is to shield individuals from radioactive sources using radiation

absorbing materials.

Experiments have been carried out to investigate the effectiveness of materials as absorbers of

γ-ray photons. One possible experiment is illustrated in Fig. 6.1

The count rate Cx of γ-ray photons is measured for various thickness x of the absorber, together

with the count rate C0 for no absorber. Fig. 6.1 shows the variation with thickness x of the ratio

Cx/C0 for lead.

1.0

0.8

0.6

Cx/C0

0.4

0.2

0

0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

x/cm

Fig. 6.1

…………………………………………………………………………...................................

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

[1]

(ii) Suggest why it is necessary, in the experiment, to have a parallel beam of γ-radiation.

…………………………………………………………………………...................................

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………...................................

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………................................... [2]

11

(iii) State an evidence in Fig.6.1 for the fact that, theoretically, complete shielding is not

possible.

…………………………………………………………………………...................................

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

[1]

(b) Fig. 6.2 indicates that there may be an exponential decrease of the ratio Cx/ Co with

thickness x. In order to test this suggestion, a graph of ln (Cx/ Co) against x is plotted. This is

shown in Fig. 6.2

x/cm

0

-1.0

ln (Cx/ C0)

-2.0

-3.0

-4.0

-5.0

Fig. 6.2

Cx = Co e-μx,

Where μ is a constant.

[3]

(ii) The constant μ is known as the linear absorption coefficient. Use Fig. 6.2 to calculate

a value of μ for lead.

μ = …………………………….. cm -1 [2]

12

(c) The linear absorption coefficient μ has been found to depend on photon energy and on the

absorbing material itself. For γ-ray photons of one energy, μ is different for different

materials.

In order to assess absorption of γ-ray photons in matter such that the material of the

absorber does not have to be specified, a quantity known as the mass absorption coefficient

μm is calculated. μm is given by the expression

μm = μ/ρ

Values of μ for 2.75 MeV photons and of ρ for different materials are given in Fig. 6.3

Aluminium 0.095 2.70 0.035

Tin 0.267 7.28 0.037

Lead 11.3

Fig. 6.3

(ii) use your answer to (b) (ii) to complete the table of values for lead.

μ = …………………….. cm -1

μm = …………………………... [1]

(d) Concrete is a common building material which is sometimes used for shielding. The density

of concrete is 2.4 x 103 kg m-3.

(i) Use the information given in Fig. 6.3 to calculate an average value for μm and hence

show that the linear absorption coefficient μ for 2.75 MeV photons in concrete is

approximately 0.09 cm-1.

[2]

(ii) By reference to Fig. 6.1, calculate the approximate thickness of concrete which would

provide the same level of shielding, for 2.75 MeV photons, as thickness of 4.0 cm of

lead.

[3]

Thickness = …………………………… cm

13

(iii) Comment on your answer to (ii), making two suggestions as to why concrete maybe

used, in preference to lead, where radioactive sources of high activity are to be

shielded.

…………………………………………………………………………...................................

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………...................................

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…………………………………………………………………………...................................

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………...................................

…………………………………………………………………………………………………. [2]

14

SECTION B

7 An air rifle can be used to fire small cylindrical metal pellets of about 5 mm diameter and 10

mm length at a speed of about 150 m s-1 on leaving the rifle. When an absorbent material is

placed some distance from the rifle, the pellets are observed to create a hole of a diameter

slightly larger than that of the pellet in the material and penetrate it to a depth of three or four

centimeters.

Design an experiment to investigate how the depth of penetration varies with the speed of the

pellet. Your answer should include a diagram and make particular reference to

(b) how the depth of penetration of the pellets into the absorbent material is to be measured,

(c) how the speed of the pellets is to be changed (assuming that the pellets leave the rifle

with a fixed speed),

(d) any safety precautions which should be taken during the experiment.

You may assume that all of the following equipment is available, together with any other

standard laboratory apparatus that would be found in a school science laboratory.

Air rifle

Analogue stopwatch

Digital stopwatch

Photogates

Electronic timer capable measuring time interval to an accuracy of 0.001s

Vernier calipers

Metre rule

Measuring tape

Sheets of absorbent material (cork)

Thin aluminium foils

Sheets of papers

Loud speaker

Microphone

Cathode ray oscilloscope

Power supply with connecting wires

Video camera

Stroboscope

[12]

15

Diagram

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16

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17

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END OF PAPER 2

18

Name: ……………………….…………………. HT group: …………...

JC2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 2010

PHYSICS 9646/ 3

Higher 2

Paper 3 Tuesday 14 September 2010

2 hours

All essential working should be done in this booklet.

Total marks for Section A are 40 marks.

There are 3 questions in Section B. Answer 2 out of 3 questions in this section. Please

circle the 2 questions attempted on the cover page.

Write all answers to the questions on the question paper.

Write in dark blue or black pen on the writing paper provided. You may use a soft pencil for

any diagrams, graphs or rough working.

The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

Total marks for Section B is 40 marks.

Write your name and tutorial group on all the work you hand in.

A total of 2 marks will be deducted for mistakes made in units and significant figures.

AWARDED TOTAL

MARKS MARKS

SECTION A: Q1 11

Q2 10

Q3 4

Q4 15

SECTION B: Q5 20

Q6 20

Q7 20

TOTAL 80

PHYSICS DATA:

permeability of free space, μ0 = 4π x 10−7 H m−1

permittivity of free space, ε0 = 8.85 x 10−12 F m−1

= (1/(36π)) x 10-9 Fm−1

elementary charge, e = 1.60 x 10−19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 x 10−34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 x 10−27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 x 10−31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 x 10−27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K−1 mol−1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol−1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 x 10−23 J K−1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 x 10−11 N m2 kg−2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s−2

PHYSICS FORMULAE:

v2 = u2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p ΔV

hydrostatic pressure, p = ρgh

gravitational potential, φ = –Gm/r

displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = x0 sin ωt

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vo cosωt

= ±ω√(xo2 – x2)

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

electric potential, V = Q/4πεor

alternating current/voltage, x = x0sinω t

transmission coefficient, T = exp(-2kd)

where k = 8 π 2 m(U − E )

h2

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp(- λt)

decay constant, λ = 0.693

t1

2

2

SECTION A

Answer ALL questions in this section.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...… [1]

(b) Atoms of Neon-20 are ionised by the removal of one electron from each atom. These ions are

accelerated through a potential difference of 1400 V. They are then injected into a region of

space where there are uniform electric and magnetic fields acting in right angles to the original

direction of motion of the ions. The region of magnetic and electric fields and polarities of the

electric plates are shown in Fig 1.1.

Region of uniform

electric and

+ + + + + + + + magnetic fields

- - - - - - - -

Fig 1.1

The electric field has field strength E and the flux density of the magnetic field is B.

3

(iii) Calculate the speed of the Neon ions before they enter into the region of the electric

and magnetic fields.

(ii) (1) State the direction of the electric force acting on a Neon ion when it enters into the

shaded region.

(2) Draw the direction of the magnetic field onto the shaded region in Fig 1.1 such

that the Neon ions pass through the shaded region undeflected. [1]

(iv) The electric field strength E is 6.2 x 103 V m-1. Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic

flux density so that the ions are not deflected in the region of the fields.

(c) The mechanism by which the Neon atoms in (b) are ionised is changed so that each atom

loses two electrons instead of just one. State the changes that occur in

(i) the speed of the ions entering the region of the electric and magnetic fields in (b).

……………………………………………………………………………………………...………

……………………………………………………………………………………………...……… [1]

…………………………………………………………………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………………...… [1]

4

2 (a) State what is meant by the internal energy of a system.

.......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) An ideal gas in a cylinder can be considered to undergo a cycle of changes of pressure,

volume and temperature as shown on the graph of Fig. 2.1.

7.5 x 10-3

Fig 2.1

5

(ii) Calculate the volume of gas at C.

(iv) State with a reason the total change in internal energy of the gas when it completes a

cycle.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………………. [2]

6

3 When beryllium is bombarded with α-particles of energy 8.0 x 10-13 J, carbon atoms are produced,

together with a very penetrating radiation. A student suggested that the nuclear reaction might be

9

4 Be+ 24He→136 C + γ

.................................................................................................................................................

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. [1]

(b) (i) With the following information, calculate the energy released in the reaction as

suggested above.

Nuclide Mass/ u

9

Be 9.0150

4

4

He 4.0040

2

13

C 13.0075

6

(ii) The energy of the penetrating radiation is found to be at least 8.8 x 10-12 J. Explain why

the student’s suggestion cannot be valid.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………………. [1]

7

4 (a) State what is meant by the photoelectric effect.

………….…………………………………………………………………………………………….…

……………….……………………………………………………………………………………….…

……………….……………………………………………………………………………………….… [2]

(b) A lamp is placed above a metal surface and an electron requires a minimum energy of 2eV

before it can be emitted from the metal surface.

(i) Calculate the maximum wavelength of the incident photons from the lamp.

λ = …………………………………. m [2]

(ii) State the kind of electromagnetic radiation that is emitted out from the lamp.

………………………………………………………………………………………………… [1]

(iii) The metal surface contains atoms of radius 2.0 x 10-10 m. It may be assumed that the

electron can collect energy from a circular area which has a radius equal to that of

the atom. The lamp provides energy at a rate of 0.40 W m-2 at the metal surface.

Estimate, on the basis of wave theory, the time required for an electron to collect

sufficient energy for it to be emitted from the metal.

…………………………………………………………………………..………………………

…………………………………………………………………………..………………………

…………………………………………………………………………..………………………

…………………………………………………………………………..………………………

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…………………………………………………………………………..……………………… [2]

8

(c) A light dependent resistor is made of silicon which has a band gap energy Eg = 1.1 eV. Use

band theory to explain how the interaction of photons with electrons in this resistor might

change the resistivity of the material.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. [2]

(d) The Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM) uses the principle of quantum tunnelling.

Briefly explain how this principle is used to map out the surface of a metal sample.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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…………………………………………………………………………..…………………………..… [4]

END OF SECTION A

9

SECTION B

Answer 2 out of 3 questions in this section.

5 (a) Explain how an object travelling in a circle with constant speed has an acceleration. What is

the direction of this acceleration?

………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………. [3]

………..……………………………………………………………………………………………

………..……………………………………………………………………………………………

………..…………………………………………………………………………………………… [2]

(ii) A particle of mass m moving with speed v makes a head-on collision with an identical

particle which is initially at rest. Determine the subsequent motion of the particles after

they had made a completely inelastic collision.

………..……………………………………………………………………………………………

………..……………………………………………………………………………………………

………..…………………………………………………………………………………………… [2]

(iii) A bullet of mass 0.025 kg is travelling horizontally with a speed of 150 m s-1 when it

strikes the centre of a vertical face of a cubical block of mass 2.0 kg which is hanging at

rest from vertical strings. If the bullet embeds itself in the block, calculate the vertical

height risen by the block and bullet.

[4]

Height raised =…………….. m

10

(c) A railway truck of mass 22 000 kg and moving at a speed of 3 m s-1 catches up and collides

with a truck of mass 66 000 kg moving at 1 m s-1 moving in the same direction.

3 m s-1 1 m s-1

Spring buffers

22 000 kg 66 000 kg

The graph shows the speeds of the trucks before, during and after the collision.

V/ m s-1

0

0.000 0.100 0.200 time/ s

(i) Use the information in the graph to show that the collision is elastic.

[3]

(ii) Calculate the change in the total kinetic energy between the instant halfway through the

collision and after the collision. Suggest a reason for this change.

……………………………………...………………………………………………………………

……………………………………...……………………………………………………………… [3]

11

(iii) Calculate the magnitude of the impulse exerted by the lighter truck on the heavier truck.

(iv) Explain whether or not this impulse changes in value if the collision remains elastic but

takes half the time.

……………………………………...………………………………………………………………

……………………………………...……………………………………………………………… [1]

12

6 (a) The circuit below in Fig 6.1 is set up, with a 20 V driver cell and Cell P of 12 V, each with

internal resistance 2 Ω.

2Ω

J

A B

4Ω

2Ω

Cell P, e.m.f 12 V

Fig 6.1

The uniform resistance wire AB is of length 100 cm, and the balanced length AJ is found to be

64 cm.

13

(b) Define magnetic flux density and magnetic flux linkage.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………... [3]

(c) A wire with resistance 8.66 Ω per metre and diameter 0.050 mm is used to construct an

electromagnet in the form of a hollow solenoid by winding one layer of close-packed turns

onto a plastic tube of length 200 mm and diameter 30 mm. The solenoid is connected in series

with a switch and a battery of e.m.f. 6.0 V and negligible resistance, as shown in Fig 6.2.

6.0 V

Fig 6.2

When the switch is turned on, the magnetic flux density B produced in the centre of the

solenoid is given by

B = μ0nI,

14

(ii) Calculate the resistance of the wire of the solenoid.

(iii) Calculate the maximum magnetic flux density produced by the electromagnet.

(d) State and explain the effects on the magnetic flux density of each of the following changes.

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...………… [3]

(ii) Twice the length of similar wire is used so that the coil consists of two close-packed

layers.

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...………… [3]

15

7 (a) (i) State a property that can be used to differentiate a transverse wave from a longitudinal

wave.

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...………… [1]

(ii) State one feature of electromagnetic waves which are common across the whole

spectrum.

………………………………………………………………………………………………....…

…………………………………………….…………………………………………………...… [1]

(b) Two-source interference fringes using light can only be obtained if light from the two sources is

coherent. Explain

……………………………………………………..…………………………………………...…

……………………………………………………..…………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………...………… [2]

(ii) why, in practice, interference fringes can be seen only if light from a single source is

split into two.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………………...… [2]

16

(c) In an experiment on superposition, light from a laser is incident normally on a double slit, and

the interference pattern is observed on a screen situated a distance D from the slits. The

fringe spacing x is measured for a number of different values of D and the graph is plotted, as

shown in Fig. 7.1.

x/ mm

20.0

18.0

16.0

14.0

12.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

D/m

Fig. 7.1

17

(ii) Use your result in (c)(i) to determine the slit separation a, given that the wavelength of

the light is 600 nm.

a = ………………………… m [2]

The experiment is repeated with the frequency of the light slighty decreased. State what

will happen to

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………...… [1]

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………...… [1]

18

(d) Give reasons for the following.

(i) Sound waves and water waves can go round corners but light waves seem to travel

only in straight lines.

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...………… [2]

(ii) Fig 7.2 represents a stationary sound wave in a pipe. This figure looks like a transverse

wave although sound waves are longitudinal waves.

Fig 7.2

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...………… [2]

19

(e) In a simple experiment to find out the wavelength of monochromatic red light emitted by a

laser, a fine beam of red laser light is shone through a diffraction grating as shown below in

Fig 7.3.

1.00 m

grating

laser

0.46 m

2.00 m

Fig 7.3

The diffraction grating has 300 000 rulings per meter and is set so that its plane is normal to

the incident light. Bright spots are observed at 0.46 m and 1.00 m from the central spot on a

screen, which is 2.00 m from the grating.

(i) From the first-order diffracted light, estimate the wavelength of the laser light.

λ = ………………………m [3]

(ii) State and explain an advantage of obtaining the wavelength of the laser light by using

the second-order diffracted light rather than the first-order diffracted light.

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………...………… [2]

END OF SECTION B

20

YEAR 6 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 2010

CANDIDATE

NAME

CLASS

PHYSICS 9646/01

Higher 2 27 September 2010

Paper 1 Multiple Choice Questions 1 hour 15 minutes

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE OVER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

There are forty questions in this Section. Answer all questions. For each question

there are four possible answers A, B, C and D.

Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the

separate Answer Sheet.

Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong

answer.

This question paper consists of 20 printed pages (including this cover page).

2

DATA

permeability of free space μo = 4π × 10-7 H m-1

permittivity of free space εo = 8.85 × 10-12 F m-1

(1/(36π)) × 10-9 F m-1

elementary charge e = 1.60 × 10-19 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 × 10-34 Js

unified atomic mass constant u = 1.66 × 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 × 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 × 10-27 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K–1 mol–1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol–1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 x 10–23 J K–1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 × 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s−2

3

FORMULAE

uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + ½at2

v2 = u2 + 2as

gravitational potential Φ =

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vocosωt

=

mean kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas E =

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + ……..

electric potential V =

transmission coefficient T exp(-2kd)

where k =

decay constant λ =

4

T

expression v = , where T is the tension of the string. The S.I. unit of the quantity µ

μ

is

2 The velocity-time graph for a moving object is shown in the figure below.

A B

C D

[Turn over

5

3 A stone is projected with speed u from a cliff at a certain angle from the horizontal as

shown in the diagram below. The stone enters the water below at a horizontal

distance s from the side of the cliff. The diagram below shows the path of the stone

drawn to scale.

path

water surface

s

Assuming that air resistance is negligible, which one of the following statements is

correct?

only on the angle of projection of the stone.

B The vertical component of velocity of the stone is maximum just before the

stone hits the water.

C The velocity of the stone is instantaneously zero at the top of the stone's path.

D The acceleration of the stone reverses direction when the stone reaches the

top of its path.

4 A man is parachuting at constant speed towards the surface of the Earth. According

to Newton's third law of motion, the force that makes an action-reaction pair with the

gravitational force on the man is the

[Turn over

6

5 Three trolleys of equal mass m are stationary a short distance apart on a frictionless

track. The end trolley is given a constant velocity v towards the middle trolley. During

the collision between the end trolley and the middle trolley, the two stick together.

These two trolleys subsequently collide and stick to the third trolley.

What is the total loss of kinetic energy after these two collisions?

1 1 1 2

A mv 2 B mv 2 C mv 2 D mv 2

4 3 2 3

6 A forklift truck of weight W has dimensions shown in the diagram and its centre of

gravity G is midway between the front and rear axles.

x x x

front forks

G

w

front axle rear axle

When a uniform block of weight w (w < W) is placed on the front forks as shown, the

load on the rear axle

w

A decreases by

2

(W − w )

B decreases by

2

w

C increases by

2

(W − w )

D increases by

2

7 A ship has a horizontal cross-section of area 2.0 x 103 m2 and a mass of 6.6 x 106 kg

when unladen. It can be loaded safely until it sinks a further 1.00 m. If the density of

the sea-water is 1.20 x 103 kg m-3, what is the mass of cargo which the ship can

safely carry?

[Turn over

7

8 During a human heart beat, 20 g of blood is pushed into the main arties. This blood is

accelerated from a speed of 0.20 m s-1 to 0.34 m s-1. For a heart pulsing at 70 beats

per minute, the average power of the heart pump is

9 The forward thrust provided by the engine of a car moving horizontally with constant

velocity of 12 m s 1 on a straight road is 500 N.

C The power of the engine is zero as the car is moving at constant velocity.

10 As illustrated in the figure to the right, a pendulum bob of

mass m is attached to a string which is hung from a L1 X

structure that rotates about XY at a constant angular

velocity ω. Given that the angle θ is 23.0o, L1 is 1.65 m

and L2 is 4.30 m, the number of revolutions made by the L2

pendulum in one second is θ

ω Y

11 A simple pendulum consists of a bob of mass m at the end of a light and inextensible

thread of length L. The other end of the thread is fixed at C. The bob swings through

point B with a velocity v and just reaches A, where the string is just taut.

L

A C

90°

[Turn over

8

12 On the ground, the gravitational force acting on an object is 45 N. When the object is

at a height h above the ground, the gravitational force on it is 5 N. If R is the radius of

the earth, the approximate value for h is

A 2R B 3R C 4R D 5R

13 P is a planet with centre O, as shown in the figure below. X and M are two points of

equal gravitational potential, ΦA. Y and N are two other points of equal gravitational

potential, ΦB.

Y

P

X

M

N

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

B The work done by the gravitational field to move a mass from X to N is the

same as that needed to move the same mass from M to Y.

positive.

φ A OY

D =

φB OX

frequency of undamped oscillation.

[Turn over

9

15 The figure below shows an oscillating system. The system is set to oscillate in two

different fluids, water and castor oil, which is of a higher viscosity than water.

Which graph correctly shows the variation of displacement x of the mass with time t

for both fluids?

motion

fluid

smooth contact

x/m x/m

water oil

oil water

0 t/s 0 t/s

A B

x/m x/m

water oil

t/s t/s

0 0

oil water

C D

[Turn over

10

17 Material X of temperature TX and material Y of temperature Ty are in contact with

each other until there is no net transfer of energy between X and Y. Which of the

following statements is most correct?

18 A sound wave of frequency 800 Hz is travelling in air at a speed of 320 m s−1. What is

the difference in phase between two points on the wave 0.10 m apart in the direction

of travel?

π π 3π

A B C D π

4 2 4

19 Which of the following effects provides direct experimental evidence that light is a

transverse, rather than longitudinal, wave motion?

20 An opaque object 10 cm wide casts a shadow when placed in a beam of light but has

little effect on a beam of sound emitted by a small source of frequency 300 Hz. This is

because

C Light waves will be absorbed by the object but sound waves will not

Dunman High School (Senior High) 9646/01/PRELIM/10

[Turn over

11

21 The diagram below illustrates an experimental arrangement that produces

interference fringes with a double slit.

X

Thin glass plate

S1

Monochromatic S2 Screen

light source

Y

22 The diagrams below show 5 different arrangements of charges around a circle with

centre O. Rank in ascending order the magnitude of the electric field strength at point

O

O O O O O

1 2 3 4 5

[Turn over

12

23 The diagram below is a scaled drawing showing the equi-potential lines in the region

of an electric field.

‐2

10 m

A N B R C T D U

24 Two cylindrical resistors, one made of copper and the other of aluminum, have the

same volume. The cross-section area and the resistivity of aluminum are both three

times that of copper. What is the magnitude of the ratio

resistance of aluminium resistor

?

resistance of copper resistor

1 1

A 9 B 3 C D

3 9

[Turn over

13

25 The figure shows the graph of current against potential difference for two electrical

devices P and Q.

P and Q are joined in series. If the potential difference across P is 10 V, which of the

following is correct?

A 5.0 10

B 5.0 15

C 15 15

D 15 25

26 Two resistors, R1 and R2 are connected in parallel. R1 has a fixed value and the value

of R2 is variable but always greater than R1. The combined resistance is

[Turn over

14

27 In the circuit shown, X, Y and Z are three identical lamps. Initially switch S is closed.

28 An electron moves in a circular path in a uniform magnetic field of flux density 1.0 mT.

If an α-particle of the same speed is to follow an identical path, what must be the

magnitude and direction of the magnetic field? The mass of α-particle is 7200 times

the mass of an electron

[Turn over

15

29 Two long straight wires X and Y are placed perpendicular to each other at a distance

d apart. A current flows out of the page in wire X. The same current flows from left to

right in wire Y. What are the directions of the forces acting on wire Y at points P and

Q due to the magnetic field produced by wire X?

Force at P Force at Q

D towards X towards X

field perpendicular to UVWX. Which of the following pairs of points will NOT be at the

same potential?

[Turn over

16

31 In Fig (a) below, a beam of particles, each of charge q and mass m, is travelling at

speed v through a region in which a magnetic field B is perpendicular to an electric

field E. The beam is undeflected by the crossed electric and magnetic fields.

In Fig (b) below, the electric field is switched off. The beam is found to form an arc of

a circle of radius r.

Which one of the following expressions gives the mass m of the charged particle?

qBr qBv qB 2 r qB 2

A B C D

E E E rE

32 Alternating current of sinusoidal and square waveforms, as shown below, flow in turn

through a resistor.

The power dissipated is the same in each case. Given that the peak value of the

sinusoidal current is 1.0 A, what is the peak value, in A, of the square waveform?

1 1

A 2 B 2 C D

2 2

[Turn over

17

33 A metal rod OP of length L is rotated uniformly about O in a plane perpendicular to a

uniform magnetic field of flux density B. The rate of rotation is N rev s-1. An electron e

is found to be stationary at P.

O P

A πeLNB πeLNB

B πeLNB 2πeLNB

C 0 0

D 2πeLNB 2πeLNB

34 In the figure below, a windmill drives a 100 V generator which produces electrical

energy at a rate of 1000 W. This energy is supplied to a distant house through two

cables of total resistance 2.0 Ω. T1 and T2 are two transformers of 100% efficiency

used to step up and step down the voltage respectively.

[Turn over

18

35 The figure on the right shows five energy levels of an atom,

one being much lower than the other four. E5

Five transitions between the levels are indicated, E4

each of which produces a photon of definite energy

and frequency. E3

Which one of the spectra below best corresponds to the E2

set of transitions indicated?

(high) Frequency (low)

A

E1

36 Electrons emitted by a hot filament pass down a tube containing hydrogen and are

then collected by an anode which is maintained at a positive potential with respect to

the filament. The gas near the anode is found to emit monochromatic ultra-violet

radiation. Given that the energy levels of an electron in a hydrogen atom is

13.6

E= (eV), where n = 1, 2, 3…

n2

A 122 nm B 102 nm C 97 nm D 91 nm

mainly due to

B the atomic wide tip of the probe used for surface scanning

wave particle duality

[Turn over

19

38 Which of the following is the correct band diagram for p-type and n-type

semiconductors?

p-type n-type

Conduction Conduction

Band Band

A − − − − − − − − − −

− − − − − − − − − −

Valence Band Valence Band

Conduction Conduction

Band Band

B − − − − − − − − − −

− − − − − − − − − −

Valence Band Valence Band

Conduction Conduction

Band Band

C − − − − − − − − − −

Valence Band

Conduction Conduction

Band Band

− − − − − − − − − −

D

oooooooo

Valence Band

Valence Band

Dunman High School (Senior High) 9646/01/PRELIM/10

[Turn over

20

39 One reaction that may be used for nuclear fusion is shown

7 2 4

(

3 Li+ 1 H → 2 2 He )+ X

What is particle X?

A an α particle B an electron

C a neutron D a proton

40 The diagram below shows a graph of the binding energy per nucleon for a number of

naturally occurring nuclides plotted against their mass number

27

13 Al

23 238

11Na 92 U

particle

D Nuclear fusion between sodium (Na-23) and aluminum (Al-27) will release

energy

End of Paper

[Turn over

YEAR 6 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 2010

CANDIDATE

NAME

INDEX

CLASS

NUMBER

PHYSICS 9646/02

Higher 2 17 September 2010

Paper 2 Structured Questions 1 hour 45 minutes

¾ DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE OVER UNTIL YOU ARE 1 / 9

TOLD TO DO SO.

2 / 7

¾ Write your name, class and index number at the top of

this page. 3 / 6

4 / 11

¾ Answer ALL questions.

5 / 7

¾ For numerical answers, all working should be shown.

6 / 20

of each question or part question.

S.F. Units

Total / 72

This question paper consists of 18 printed pages (including this cover page).

2

DATA

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 × 108 m s-1

permeability of free space μo = 4π × 10-7 H m-1

permittivity of free space εo = 8.85 × 10-12 F m-1

(1/(36π)) × 10-9 F m-1

elementary charge e = 1.60 × 10-19 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 × 10-34 Js

unified atomic mass constant u = 1.66 × 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 × 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 × 10-27 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K–1 mol–1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol–1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 x 10–23 J K–1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 × 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s−2

3

FORMULAE

uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + ½at2

v2 = u2 + 2as

gravitational potential Φ =

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vocosωt

=

mean kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas E =

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + ……..

electric potential V =

transmission coefficient T exp(-2kd)

where k =

decay constant λ =

For

4 Examiner’s

Use

Answer ALL questions

1. An object of mass 1.5 kg is released from a stationary hot air balloon. Fig 1 shows

how the velocity of the object varies with time.

C

A

Fig 1

(a) By considering the forces acting on the falling object, explain the shape of the

graph in the regions marked A, B and C. [3]

For

5

Examiner’s

Use

(b) Using Fig 1, determine the distance fallen in the first 16 s [2]

(c) (i) Using your answer from (b), calculate the change in gravitational potential

energy ∆Ep of the object that occurred during the first 16 s. [1]

∆Ep = _______________ J

(ii) Calculate the change in kinetic energy ∆Ek of the object during the same

period. [1]

∆Ek = _______________ J

(iii) Hence, determine the average resistive force acting on the object during this

period [2]

For

6 Examiner’s

Use

2. (a) Define impulse and state how it is related to the momentum of an object. [2]

(b) Fig 2 shows a steel bar being reduced in thickness as it moves between two

rollers.

Fig 2

The steel is fed into the rollers at a speed of 0.40 m s-1 and emerges at 0.50 m s-1.

The thickness of the metal is reduced from 0.30 m to 0.24 m and the width of the

metal remains a constant at 0.85 m.

(i) Show that approximately 840 kg of steel passes through the rollers in each

second given that the density of steel is 8200 kg m-3. [1]

(ii) Calculate the change in momentum of the steel that passes through the

rollers in each second. [2]

For

7

Examiner’s

Use

(iii) State the magnitude and direction of the force that acts on the rollers due to

the change in momentum of the steel. [2]

Magnitude = _______________ N

Direction = _________________

3. The diffraction pattern due to a single light source on a single slit is shown in the Fig

3.1 below.

source slit

screen

Fig 3.1

Two additional slits were placed between the single slit and the screen as shown in

Fig 3.2 and an interference pattern is observed on the screen.

source slits

screen

Fig 3.2

For

8 Examiner’s

Use

(b) (i) Explain what is meant by term coherent? [1]

(ii) The slits are 3.5 × 10−6 m apart and the wavelength of the light is 0.65 × 10−6

m. Calculate the fringe spacing x if the screen is placed 2.5 m away from the

double slits. [2]

x = _______________ m

(iii) State and explain what will happen to the interference pattern if the single slit

is now removed. [2]

4. In Fig 4, a uniform magnetic field B pointing into the paper and a uniform electric field

E pointing upwards are applied on the left−hand side and right−hand side of y-axis

respectively.

Fig 4

For

9

Examiner’s

Use

A particle of mass m and charge q enters the magnetic field with an initial velocity vo

at point P. After leaving the magnetic field, it moves into the electric field and leaves

at point S. Neglect gravitational effects.

(a) (i) What is the sign of the charge carried by the particle? [1]

(ii) Describe the motion of the particle in the two different fields. [2]

time taken for the particle to travel through

For

10 Examiner’s

Use

(c) If the velocity of the particle at point S is v, deduce an expression, in terms of m,

vo and v, for the work done on the particle by the field as the particle travel

through

incident on it. When light of wavelength 535 nm is incident on it, electrons are

emitted has a stopping potential of about 1.30 V.

(i) Calculate the energy of the photon incident onto the material. [2]

For

11

Examiner’s

Use

(b) The material used in (a) is most likely metallic in nature. By considering the band

theory of materials, state and explain what will happen if the experiment is

repeated for a semiconductor instead of a metal. [3]

6. Since Albert Einstein established the theoretical foundations for the laser in his 1917

paper “On the Quantum Theory of Radiation”, we saw many applications of laser in

our modern life. In 1960, the first laser was built by Theodore Maiman and he used a

method known as optical pumping to achieve population inversion. Gas lasers, such

as the Helium-Neon laser, which made use of electrical pumping soon followed.

explain how amplification of light may be achieved by stimulated emission of

radiation. [3]

For

12 Examiner’s

Use

Lasers that cannot sustain population inversion for long periods of time may be

deployed in pulsed mode. In pulsed mode, lasing occurs for short period of time

hence the laser output is in pulses. Alternatively, the pulsed pumping can be used to

achieve a pulse laser. The graph in Fig 6.1 shows the output power of a certain pulse

laser with time.

Fig 6.1

Period = _______________ ns

Dunman High School (Senior High) 9646/02/Prelim/2010

For

13

Examiner’s

Use

For

14 Examiner’s

Use

(c) Lasers may be focused onto an even smaller circular area with the use optical

lens in a microscope as illustrated in Fig 6.2.

Focused circle

1000 μm 93 μm

Not to scale Image of the

focused laser

Fig 6.2

The diameter of the laser spot and magnification of the optical lens used in

experimentation are tabulated below. The wavelength of the laser is 553 nm.

1× 1000

10 × 93

20 × 46

50 × 18

The relationship between magnification and laser spot diameter can be estimated

with

M× D = K

where K is a constant.

K = ____________________

(ii) Calculate the diameter of the laser spot at 200× magnification. [1]

For

15

Examiner’s

Use

Diameter = _______________ μm

your answer clearly. [2]

(d) The laser spot is not uniform in its brightness. The graph in Fig 6.3 shows the

approximate beam profile of the same laser in (c) about its centre when focused

using an unknown lens.

Fig 6.3

The diameter of a laser spot is determined by its full width of the spot at half

maximum intensity. Estimate the magnification of the lens used. [2]

Magnification = _______________ X

For

16 Examiner’s

Use

(e) Besides the laser beam profile, the wavelength of the photons emitted by the

laser may be studied. The wavelength of photons emitted by the laser is found to

vary by 1% or even less as shown in Fig 6.4.

Fig 6.4

(i) Suggest how the figure above provide evidence that there are energy level

splitting about each discrete energy levels of electrons [2]

(ii) For ultra-short pulse laser of 10−15 s, the variation in laser wavelength is even

greater than what is shown in the figure above. With appropriate calculations,

explain why this is so. [2]

For

17

Examiner’s

Use

7. The attenuation of a γ-ray beam is the reduction in its intensity due to its passage

through a material. One way of investigating the attenuation of a γ-ray beam is to

measure the half-value thickness. The half value thickness of a material is the

thickness that reduces the intensity of the γ-ray beam to half its original value.

Design a laboratory experiment to measure the half value thickness of steel. You may

assume that you have access to steel plates of varying thickness as well as a

radioactive source emitting both α and γ radiation and other standard Physics

laboratory equipments. [12]

For

18 Examiner’s

Use

End of Paper

Dunman High School (Senior High) 9646/02/Prelim/2010

YEAR 6 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 2010

CANDIDATE

NAME

EXAM INDEX

CLASS

NUMBER

PHYSICS 9646/03

Higher 2 24 September 2010

Paper 3 Longer Structured Questions 2 hours

¾ DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE OVER UNTIL YOU ARE Section A

TOLD TO DO SO.

1 / 8

¾ Write your name and exam index number at the top of

this page. 2 / 10

3 / 7

¾ There are 2 sections to this paper,

4 / 9

Section A: Structured Questions

Answer ALL questions 5 / 6

Answer ANY 2 questions

6 / 20

8 / 20

¾ The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end

of each question or part question. S.F. Units

Total / 80

This question paper consists of 25 printed pages (including this cover page).

2

DATA

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 × 108 m s-1

permeability of free space μo = 4π × 10-7 H m-1

permittivity of free space εo = 8.85 × 10-12 F m-1

(1/(36π)) × 10-9 F m-1

elementary charge e = 1.60 × 10-19 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 × 10-34 Js

unified atomic mass constant u = 1.66 × 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 × 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 × 10-27 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K–1 mol–1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol–1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 x 10–23 J K–1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 × 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s−2

3

FORMULAE

uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + ½at2

v2 = u2 + 2as

gravitational potential Φ =

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vocosωt

=

mean kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas E =

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + ……..

electric potential V =

transmission coefficient T exp(-2kd)

where k =

decay constant λ =

For

4 Examiner’s

Use

Section A

Answer ALL questions in this section.

around the Earth does not appear to move relative to any fixed observer on Earth.

Radius of Earth RE = 6.4 × 106 m

(a) (i) One condition for a satellite to be in geostationary orbit is that the orbit of the

satellite must lie in the plane containing the equator. Explain why this is

necessary. [2]

(ii) Using Newton’s law of gravitation, explain why all geostationary satellites

have the same orbital radius around the earth which is independent of the

mass of the satellite. [2]

For

5

Examiner’s

Use

(b) (i) Show that the kinetic energy of a satellite of mass ms in an orbital radius R

around the earth is given by the expression

[1]

(ii) Using your answer to (a)(iii) and the expression in (b)(i), determine the

minimum amount of energy required to put a satellite of mass 1500 kg into a

geostationary orbit. You may ignore the effects due to the rotation of the

Earth about its own axis. [2]

[Turn over

For

6 Examiner’s

Use

2 Fig 2.1 below shows a simple vertical mass-spring system with the load oscillating in

a vertical plane. The spring has a spring constant k and the load a mass m. The load

may be considered to be in simple harmonic oscillation if the extension of the spring

does not exceed the limit of proportionality.

Vertical

LOAD Oscillation

Fig 2.1

By considering the forces acting on the platform and applying Newton’s second law, it

can be shown that when the spring obeys Hooke’s law and the extension of the

spring does not exceed the limit of proportionality, the acceleration of the load in the

vertical direction is given by

where x is the vertical displacement of the load measured from its equilibrium position.

(a) (i) Explain why the load may be considered to be in simple harmonic motion if

the spring obeys Hooke’s law and the extension of the spring does not

exceed the limit of proportionality. [1]

(ii) Show that the expression for the frequency of oscillation f of the vertical

mass-spring system is given by

[1]

For

7

Examiner’s

Use

(b) For a system with a spring of spring constant 100 Nm-1, a load of mass 1.0 kg

and a vertical amplitude of oscillation of 0.20 m, calculate the magnitude of the

velocity of the platform as it passes the equilibrium position. [2]

(c) The suspension system of a car, as shown in Fig 2.2, may be modeled as

vertical mass-spring system combined with a shock absorber that damps the

vertical oscillations of the car.

shock absorber

spring

Fig 2.2

When a driver of mass 90 kg steps into a car of mass 1410 kg, the vertical height

of the car above the road decreases by 2.0 cm. If the car is driven over a series

of equally spaced bumps, the amplitude of vibration becomes much larger at a

particular speed.

Dunman High School (Senior High) 9646/03/Prelim/2010

[Turn over

For

8 Examiner’s

Use

(i) Explain why the amplitude of vibration of the car becomes much larger at a

particular speed. [2]

(ii) Calculate the effective spring constant of the suspension system. [1]

(iii) Using the expression given in (a)(ii) and your answer to (c)(ii), determine the

separation between the bumps if large amplitude vibrations occurs at a

speed of 18 m s-1. [3]

For

9

Examiner’s

Use

Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg−1 K−1

Specific latent heat of fusion of water = 3.3 × 105 J kg−1

(a) Calculate the quantity of energy needed to change the ice at −15oC to water at

0oC [3]

(b) Calculate the mass of the water in the container if the lowest temperature

reached by the water is 7.5oC, assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings. [3]

(c) State one other assumption that you have made in your calculations in (b). [1]

[Turn over

For

10 Examiner’s

Use

potentiometer as shown in Fig 4.

Eo

lo

P Q

E r G

Fig 4

When switch S is open, the balance length is lo. When switch S is closed, the balance

length is l.

(a) (i) When switch S is closed, obtain an expression for V, the potential difference

across the variable resistor R in terms of the e.m.f. E and internal resistance

r of the cell [1]

(ii) Hence or otherwise, show that the internal resistance r of the cell is

[2]

For

11

Examiner’s

Use

(iii) She found that when R = 12 Ω, lo = 82.3 cm and l = 78.9 cm. Determine r. [1]

r = _______________ Ω

(b) She repeated the experiment with R set to (i) 4.0 Ω and (ii) 30 Ω. Explain which

value of R used would result in a more reliable determination of r. [2]

(c) The value of r can also be found by drawing a suitable straight line graph.

Explain how this can be done. [3]

[Turn over

For

12 Examiner’s

Use

5. A stationary radon (Rn) nucleus may decay spontaneously into a polonium (Po)

nucleus and an α-particle as shown below. It may be assumed that no γ-ray is

emitted in the process.

The rest masses of the polonium nuclei and constituents nucleons are

218

Po : 218.0090u

Proton : 1.007276u

Neutron : 1.008664u

(b) Show that the binding energy per nucleon of Polonium is about 1.207 × 10−12 J

[3]

(c) Calculate the total kinetic energy of the decay if the binding energy per nucleon

of 222Rn is 1.201 × 10−12 J and that of 4He is 1.092 × 10−12 J. [2]

For

13

Examiner’s

Use

Kinetic Energy = _______________ J

[Turn over

For

14 Examiner’s

Use

Section B

Answer ANY 2 questions in this section.

6. Ink-jet printing is a non-impact, dot matrix technology in which ink droplets are

projected through an array of tiny nozzles onto paper.

and can be charged negatively as they pass through a charging ring electrode

immediately after they break away from the nozzle of the print head. Whether or not

a droplet is charged is controlled by a signal sent to the printer by a computer. An ink

droplet that becomes charged would be deflected into a gutter when it passes

through a region with a uniform electric field strength while uncharged droplets pass

through undeflected to reach the paper.

4.0 × 10‐4 m

20 m s‐1

+ −

5.0 × 10‐4 m

35o

5.0 × 10‐4 m

Gutter to collect x

deflected ink droplets

5.0 × 10‐4 m

Paper

Fig 6

(a) Fig 6 shows the parallel deflecting plates with some dimensions of the ink-jet

cartridge. The ink drops falls straight through the centerline between the

deflecting plates with a constant vertical velocity of 20 m s-1. In order to land in

the center of the gutter, a charged ink droplet must leave the deflecting plates at

an angle of 350.

leaves the deflecting plates. [1]

For

15

Examiner’s

Use

Horizontal component of velocity = _______________ m s-1

(ii) Determine the horizontal acceleration of the charged ink droplet for which it

is between the deflecting plates. [3]

(iii) Determine the horizontal distance x between the centre of the gutter and the

centerline of between the deflecting plates. [3]

x = _______________ m

(b) (i) Explain the term uniform electric field strength. [2]

(ii) Sketch on Fig 6 the electric lines representing electric field in the region

between the pair of parallel deflecting plates. [2]

[Turn over

For

16 Examiner’s

Use

(iii) Each ink droplet has a mass of mass 2.9 × 10-10 kg. Using your answer to

(a)(ii), determine the electric force FE acting on the charged ink droplet while

it is between the deflecting plates. [2]

FE = _______________ N

(iv) If the charge gained by the ink droplet is -2 × 10-10 C, determine the electric

field strength E between the deflecting plates. [2]

E = _______________ N C-1

(v) Hence, calculate the potential difference V between the deflecting plates. [2]

V = _______________ V

For

17

Examiner’s

Use

(c) The uncharged, undeflected ink droplets travel beyond the deflecting plates

towards the paper. When a droplet hits the page, it forms a dot sticking to it.

Assuming that the printer giving print of 20 dots per mm would take 0.08 s to print

a line on a page 20.0 cm wide, calculate the average force exerted on the page

when the ink droplets strike. The ink has a density of 1100 kg m-3. [3]

[Turn over

For

18 Examiner’s

Use

7. Fig 7.1 shows a ring falling from rest through a coil A carrying a constant current.

Fig 7.1

(a) (i) List two factors which will affect the magnitude of e.m.f. induced in the ring.

[2]

1.

2.

(ii) Using the appropriate laws of electromagnetism, state and explain how the

magnitude and direction (as viewed from the top) of the current in the ring

changes throughout the motion in which the ring approaches, falls through

and away from coil A. [6]

For

19

Examiner’s

Use

(iii) On the separate axis below, sketch graphs to show the variation of

1. The magnetic flux through the ring with position of the ring

2. The induced current in the ring with time [4]

Magnetic flux

Position

Induced current

Time

[Turn over

For

20 Examiner’s

Use

(iv) If air resistance is ignored, state and explain whether the ring falls through

the coil A with a constant acceleration. [2]

(b) The constant current source connected to coil is now replaced by a varying e.m.f.

which produces a current in the coil A as shown in Fig 7.2.

Fig 7.2

In addition, coil A is wound on one side of an iron core with coil B on the other

side as shown in Fig 7.3.

Fig 7.3

For

21

Examiner’s

Use

(i) Sketch a graph to show the variation of magnetic flux produced by the

current in coil A with respect to time. [1]

Magnetic flux

Time

(ii) Sketch a graph to show the variation of e.m.f. induced across coil B with

respect to time. [1]

Induced e.m.f.

Time

[Turn over

For

22 Examiner’s

Use

(iii) State and explain how the e.m.f. induced across coil B be affected by

1. the number of turns in coil A [2]

For

23

Examiner’s

Use

8. Fig 8.1 below shows a simple model of a hydrogen atom in which a single ground

state electron stationary wave fits the radius of an atom. This model suggests that the

electron cannot exist outside this atomic sphere. The atomic radius is 3.0 × 10−10 m.

Electron stationary wave

3.0 × 10−10

Edge of atom

Fig 8.1

(a) (i) Explain what the electron stationary wave represents. [1]

(ii) State what you can infer about the location of the electron in ground

state. [1]

(iii) With reference to stationary waves, explain why you can’t find the

electron within the nucleus even if the electron is in excited state. [2]

[Turn over

For

24 Examiner’s

Use

(b) (i) Show that the kinetic energy of this electron at ground state can be

written as

stationary wave. [2]

(ii) Hence calculate the kinetic energy of the electron at ground state shown

in Fig 8.1. [3]

(iii) Given that the potential energy of the atom is −9.55 eV at 1.5×10−10m

away from the nucleus, explain if this model leads to a stable atom. [3]

For

25

Examiner’s

Use

(c) Another model of the hydrogen atom is to consider the electron to be a free

particle inside an ‘atomic box’ as shown in Fig 8.2 below.

Infinite potential at

the nucleus

Energy

Finite potential at

the edge

9.55 eV

3.0 × 10−10 m

−10

0.3 × 10 m

Fig 8.2

(i) Sketch the electron stationary wave for ground state on the figure above. [2]

(ii) Using your sketch above, explain why it is possible for this model of the

hydrogen atom to experience spontaneous ionization. [2]

atom leads to a stable atom. [3]

End of Paper

Name of Student : Class :

College Section

H2 Physics 9646

C2 Preliminary Examination

22 September 2010

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. Write your name and class at the top of the question paper.

2. Shade your NRIC/FIN number using a 2B pencil on the optical mark sheet (OMS).

3. Check that you have 24 printed pages (including this cover page) for this question

booklet.

4. There are 40 multiple-choice questions in this paper. For each multiple-choice question,

there are four possible answers. Choose the one you consider correct and shade your

answer using a 2B pencil in the boxes provided in the OMS.

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

Data Formulae

1 2

speed of light in a vacuum, uniformly accelerated motion, s ut at

8 -1 2

c = 3.00 10 m s

v 2 u 2 2as

permeability of free space,

-7 -1

o = 4 10 H m work done on/by a gas, W pV

-12 -1

o = 8.85 10 Fm

-9 -1 GM

= (1/(36)) 10 F m gravitational potential,

r

elementary charge,

-19 displacement of particle in s.h.m., x xo sint

e = 1.60 10 C

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v v o cost

the Planck constant,

- 34

h = 6.63 10 Js v x o x 2

2

-27 resistors in series, R R1 R2 ...

u = 1.66 10 kg

resistors in parallel, 1/ R 1/ R1 1/ R2 ...

rest mass of electron,

-31

me = 9.11 10 kg Q

electric potential, V

4 o r

rest mass of proton,

-27

mp = 1.67 10 kg alternating current / voltage, x x o sint

-1 -1

R = 8.31 J K mol

8 2 m(U E )

where k

the Avogrado constant, h2

23 -1

NA = 6.02 10 mol

radioactive decay, x x o exp(t )

the Boltzmann constant,

-23 -1 0.693

k = 1.38 10 JK decay constant,

t1

2

gravitational constant,

-11 2 -2

G = 6.67 10 N m kg

-2

g = 9.81 m s

Page 2 of 24

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the order of 105: 1.

B The ratio of the mass of an electron to the mass of a proton is 1: 1836.

C The ratio of the period of a 100 kg satellite orbiting the Earth at distance R

(from the centre of the earth) to the period of a 200 kg satellite orbiting Earth

at a distance 2R is 1: 2.8.

D The ratio of the size of the energy band gap in an insulator to the band gap in

a semiconductor is of the order of 103: 1.

2 Ball 1 is launched up an inclined plane from point A with an initial speed that is the

minimum speed for it to just reach point B at the top of the plane. At the same moment

that ball 1 is launched up the plane, ball 2 is released from rest from point B. The two

balls make their first contact at a point C somewhere on the inclined plane between A

and B. What is the ratio of the distance AC to the distance BC?

Ball 2

Ball 1 B

A 1

B 2

C 3

D 4

Page 3 of 24

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o

30

P Figure 3 Q

Neglecting air resistance, what is the magnitude of the change in momentum between

leaving P and arriving at Q?

A zero

1

B mv

2

C mv

D 2mv

Page 4 of 24

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H2 PHYSICS

4 A ladder is placed between a vertical wall and horizontal ground. The wall and ground

can be either smooth or rough.

Wall

Ladder

Ground

The table below shows you the various combinations of roughness and smoothness

for the two surfaces.

Wall Ground

For which of the options below would the ladder be in static equilibrium?

A (iv) only

B (ii) and (iv) only

C (iii) and (iv) only

D (ii), (iii) and (iv) only

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5 A fast moving neutron with an initial velocity u has a head-on elastic collision with a

stationary proton. After the collision, the velocity of the neutron is v and that of the

proton is w. Taking the masses of the neutron and proton to be equal, which one of

the following statements is false?

u2 = v2 + w2.

C The speed of the proton after the collision is the same as that of the neutron

before the collision.

D The proton and the neutron move off in opposite directions with equal speeds.

6 A block and a sphere of equal mass m are placed on an inclined plane. If the

maximum frictional force that can exist between the block and the plane is equal to the

weight of the block, and there is no frictional force between the sphere and the plane,

what is the maximum angle θ at which the plane can be inclined before the block starts

to slip?

A 30o

B 45o

C 60 o

D 90o

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7 Mass X slides down a frictionless slope while mass Y falls freely downwards from the

same height. Both blocks are initially at rest and the gradient of the slope is vertical at

the starting position of X.

X Y

Which object takes longer time to fall through the same height H?

A X

B Y

C X or Y, depending on which mass is lighter

D X and Y take the same time

8 Two objects P and Q having the same volume are hung at either ends of a light

uniform rod and subsequently submerged in two different liquids X and Y respectively.

The density of X is less than that of Y. The system is balanced when a string is hung

right at the centre of the rod as shown in figure.

P Q

Liquid X Liquid Y

A P

B Q

C P and Q have the same mass

D Not enough information given

Page 7 of 24

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9 Using a rope, delivery man Sam drags a crate of mass 10.0 kg across a rough

horizontal surface at a constant speed of 0.800 m s-1. The rope makes an angle of

30.0 with the horizontal. The average frictional force between the crate and the rough

surface is 200 N.

rope

crate

30.0

10.0 kg

However, Sam realizes that he has to increase his speed if he is to deliver the goods

in the crate on time. Hence, he begins to accelerate uniformly at 1.00 m s-2. The angle

which the rope makes with the crate remains unchanged.

What is the instantaneous power input by Sam on the crate 2.00 seconds after he

starts to accelerate?

A 0W

B 194 W

C 588 W

D 679 W

10 A 50.0 kg man weighs himself using a bathroom scale at the equator as well as on the

pole of planet Earth. What is the difference in the two readings due to the rotation of

the earth? Assume the earth is a sphere with a radius 6400 km.

A 2.64 x 10-7 N

B 0.0338 N

C 1.69 N

D 465 N

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11 A simple pendulum is released from rest at A. What is the tension in the string when

the pendulum is at position B (where the string is vertical), given that the mass of the

bob is m and the length of the pendulum is L?

L

A 0.87 mg o

60

B mg A

C 1.27 mg

B

D 2 mg

12 A and B are two spheres with the same mass. They are both placed at a height R

above the surface of Earth. Sphere A is released from rest while sphere B is projected

with a very small tangential velocity v perpendicular to the radial direction of Earth.

B

A

v

R

R

Which of the following best describes the gain in kinetic energy of the two spheres in

their descent to surface of Earth? Neglect frictional forces.

A Identical

B A is larger

C B is larger

D Cannot be deduced

and a maximum speed of 3.0 m s-1. What is the frequency of the particle’s oscillation?

A 0.095 Hz

B 0.27 Hz

C 0.60 Hz

D 1.7 Hz

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14 A hollow metal cylinder floats upright in a body of water with the bottom of the cylinder

at a depth of D below the water surface as shown in the figure below.

The cylinder is pressed further down into the water and upon release, performs simple

harmonic motion. Which of the following graphs (all drawn to scale) shows how the

upthrust U and net force F acting on the cylinder vary with d, the depth the bottom of

the cylinder below the water surface?

A B

U, F U, F

d d

0 D F 0 D F

U

U

C D U, F

U, F

D F

d d

0 D F 0

U

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1

15 n moles of an ideal gas has pressure p and volume V. The graph shows how

p

varies with V at a constant temperature.

1

/105 Pa1

p

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0 V / 103 m3

0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

temperature is reduced to one quarter of the initial temperature, which graph will be

obtained?

1

/105 Pa1

p

A B

0.4

0.3

0.2 C

0.1 D

0.0 V / 103 m3

0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

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16 Container X contains neon gas and container Y contains argon gas. Container X has

twice the volume of container Y. The temperatures of the gases in both containers are

the same. What is the ratio of the mean kinetic energy of a neon molecule to the mean

kinetic energy of an argon molecule? [The relative atomic masses of neon and argon

are 20 and 40 respectively.]

A 0.5

B 1

C 2

D 4

17 A progressive wave travelling to the right hits a hard surface and gets reflected after

suffering a phase change of 180°. The diagram below shows the incident wave at a

particular instant of time.

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18 A point source of sound emits energy equally in all directions at a constant rate. A

detector placed at a distance 8.0 m away registers an amplitude A. After a while, the

intensity of the source is halved. How far from the source must the detector be placed

now so that it can register the same amplitude?

A 2.0 m

B 2.8 m

C 4.0 m

D 5.7 m

19 A guitar string of length L is stretched between two fixed points P and Q and made to

vibrate transversely as shown in the figure.

A

P Q

s B

L

Two particles A and B on the string are separated by a distance s. The maximum

kinetic energies of A and B are KA and KB respectively. Which of the following gives

the correct phase difference and maximum kinetic energies of the particles?

3s

2L 360

0

A KA < KB

3s

2L 360

0

B same

C 180o KA < KB

D 180o same

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The angular separation between the two second order maxima is 60o. What is the

resolution of the grating?

B 3.5 x 105 lines per metre

C 6.1 x 105 lines per millimetre

D 6.1 x 105 lines per metre

21 A tuning fork of pitch 2.4 kHz is placed near the mouth of a long cylindrical container

which is fully filled with water. Water is slowly drained from the bottom of the container.

Resonance is first heard when the water level had dropped 3.4 cm below the mouth of

the container. At which position of water below the mouth of the container will the next

resonance be heard? Assume the speed of sound in air = 3.4 x 102 m s-1.

A 7.1 cm

B 8.0 cm

C 10.2 cm

D 10.5 cm

22 Two fixed point charges, each of magnitude Q1 = -7.83 nC and Q2 = +4.63 nC, are

located at O and P respectively as shown in the figure. The distance OP is 48.2 cm.

The value of the electric potential at point A is

50.0 cm

33.0 cm

Q1 Q2

48.2 cm

O P

A -14.7 V

B +29.7 V

C +101 V

D -267 V

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23 The diagram shows the electric equipotential lines in a non-uniform electric field. At

which position is the electric field greatest in magnitude?

24 An electron is located midway inside the space between horizontal metal plates H and

K. A potential difference of 1000 V is applied across

H and K. + 1000 V

H

H is positively charged while K is earthed. Which one electron x

of the following graphs best represents how the

K

electric force F acting on the electron varies with the

distance x measured from plate H?

A F B F

0 x

0 x

F F

C D

0 x 0 x

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of e.m.f. E1 = 9.00 V and internal resistance r = 1.42 Ω. The resistance of XY is 8.30 Ω.

Find the emf of cell E2 if the balance length l is found to be 0.745 m.

E1

X Y

E2 G

R2 = 2.00 Ω

A 0.636 V

B 2.72 V

C 5.73 V

D 9.00 V

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resistance as shown in the figure.

R1

M R3

V

P Q

R2 S

Which of the following actions will cause an increase in the potential difference V

measured by the voltmeter? Assume that the voltmeter has infinite resistance.

B Remove the earth connection at M with S open

C Close switch S

D Decrease resistance R3 with S open.

below. A constant current passes through R. When a charge of 30.0 C passes through

the circuit, the heat dissipated in r is 45.2 J and the heat dissipated in R is 88.3 J. Find

the e.m.f. of the battery.

A 0.148 V

r

B 1.51 V

C 2.94 V

D 4.45 V

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28 A coil PQRS in the shape of a rhombus, has its plane parallel to the magnetic field

lines of a uniform magnetic field, as shown in the figure.

Q

P

Uniform

I I magnetic

field

R

S

Which of the following statements is true when a current I flows in the coil?

A There are no forces on sides SP and QR.

B There are no forces on sides PQ and RS.

C The direction of force on PQ is acting out of the paper.

D The magnitude of force on PQ is smaller than the magnitude of the force on

QR.

suspended horizontally by two identical strings as shown below.

string

string B

P Q

A uniform magnetic field B acts throughout this region in the direction outwards from

the plane of this page and perpendicular to the length of the rod. When a certain

magnitude of current I is passed along the rod, the tensions of the supporting strings

reduce to zero. What is the magnitude and direction of the current in PQ?

Magnitude Direction

A B Q to P

Ag

B B P to Q

Ag

C Ag Q to P

B

D Ag P to Q

B

Page 18 of 24

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30 An e.m.f. is induced in a coil placed in a changing magnetic field. The flux density B of

this field varies with time t as shown below.

At which value of t is the magnitude of the e.m.f. induced in the wire a maximum?

A 1 ms

B 2 ms

C 3 ms

D 4 ms

31 A copper bar of length L is moving to the right with a uniform speed v in a region of

uniform magnetic field of flux density B, directed perpendicularly downwards into the

paper in the figure below.

v

B

The ends of the rods are rigidly connected to a voltmeter which moves with the rod.

What is the reading on the voltmeter?

A Zero

B Non-zero reading less than BLv

C BLv

D More than BLv

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is the reading on the ammeter?

100 turns 20 turns

Output:

A.C. supply 140 Ω

30 V a.c.

A

A 0.0429 A

B 0.214 A

C 1.07 A

D 2.14 A

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illuminated with light of wavelength 275 nm causing the emission of photo-electrons

which are collected at an adjacent electrode. The variation of photocurrent I with the

potential difference V between the metallic surface and the adjacent electrode is

shown in the diagram below.

A

B

V

B.

Sodium 2.7

Aluminum 4.3

Copper 4.7

A Copper Copper

B Copper Aluminum

C Sodium Aluminum

D Sodium Copper

Page 21 of 24

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

Intensity

/ 10-12 m

36 60 70

A The graph shows that electrons with a range of kinetic energies are used to

bombard the target.

B The position of the peaks allow us to calculate the energy of the electrons

used to bombard the target

C The smallest wavelength detected, 36 x 10-12 m, is dependent on the target

material.

D The locations of the peaks can be used to identify the element that the target

material is made of.

35 An atom X is excited to an energy level E2 from its ground state E0 by collision with

another atom Y. Atom X is initially at rest. Which of the following gives possible energy

values of X and Y?

before collision after the collision

A less than (E2 - Eo) zero

B (E2 - Eo) non-zero

C (E2 - Eo) zero

Page 22 of 24

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

36 The figure below shows how the atomic energy levels for a material vary with the inter-

atomic separation.

energy

P Q R S

Inter-atomic separation

At which separation does the graph show the material possibly behaving like a

conductor and an ideal gas respectively?

A P R

B P S

C Q R

D Q S

semiconductor. Which of the following statements about the p-n junction is false?

B The p-type semiconductor becomes positively charged after joining.

C In reverse bias condition, the p-n junction can be used to rectify an alternating

current.

D In forward bias condition, the width of the depletion region decreases.

Given that the mass m of the positron is equal to the mass of the electron, what is the

minimum wavelength of the photons produced?

h h h 2h

A B C D

mc mc 2 2mc mc 2

Page 23 of 24

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

39 A sample of a radioactive material contains 1018 atoms. The half life of the material is

2.00 days. Calculate the activity of the sample after 5.00 days.

B 7.09 x 1011 disintegrations s-1

C 2.05 x 1012 disintegrations s-1

D 6.13 x 1016 disintegrations s-1

40 A radioactive source contains two materials. One has a half life of 4 days and decays

by the emission of alpha particles whilst the other has a half life of 3 days and emits

beta particles. The initial count rate is 160 Bq but when a sheet of paper is placed in

between the source and the detector, the reading drops to 96 Bq. What will be the

count rate after 12 days, without the paper present?

A 10 Bq

B 14 Bq

C 16 Bq

D 20 Bq

Page 24 of 24

College Section

H2 Physics 9646

Preliminary Examination

Paper 2 Structured Questions

3 Sept 2010

Name of Student :

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

To Do So.

calculator model clearly on this cover page.

pages for this question booklet.

For Examiner's Use :

4. For numerical answers, all working should be 1 /9

shown.

2 /8

5. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams,

graphs or rough working. 3 /8

6. Do not use paperclips, highlighters, glue or 4 /7

correction fluid.

5 /8

7. A data and formula list is provided on page 2.

presentation and good English.

7 / 12

end of each question or part question.

Paper 2 /72

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

Data Formulae

8 -1

c = 3.00 10 m s 2 2

2

v = u + 2as

permeability of free space,

-7 -1

o = 4 10 H m work done on/ by a gas, W = p V

-12 -1

o = 8.85 10 F m

-9

(1/(36)) 10 F m

-1 gravitational potential, = -Gm/r

-19

e = 1.60 10 C

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = vo cos t

the Planck constant, = ( xo2 x 2 )

- 34

h = 6.63 10 J s

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . .

unified atomic mass constant,

-27

u = 1.66 10 kg resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

-31

me = 9.11 10 kg

alternating current / voltage, x = xo sin t

rest mass of proton,

-27 transmission coefficient, T exp(-2kd)

mp = 1.67 10 kg

2

molar gas constant, 8 m(U E )

-1 -1 where k 2

R = 8.31 J K mol h

23 -1

NA = 6.02 10 mol radioactive decay, x = xo exp ( -t )

k

-23

= 1.38 10 J K

-1

decay constant,

t1

2

gravitational constant,

-11 2 -2

G = 6.67 10 N m kg

-2

g = 9.81 m s

Page 2 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

1. The figure below shows a juggler performing a trick called “the shower” in which three balls are

kept moving around between the two hands and through the air in the trajectory shown in

Figure 1.

Trajectory

of balls.

1.75 m

Ball 1

Ball 3

Right Left

(Throw) (Catch)

Ball 2

Figure 1

(a) Ball 1 leaves the right hand at an angle of 80.0o to the horizontal and reaches a maximum

height of 1.75 m above the level of the juggler’s hands. Show that ball 1’s initial speed of

projection must be 5.95 m s-1.

[2]

(b) Calculate how far the juggler must position his hands apart so that the ball lands on his

left hand.

Page 3 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(c) For a fixed speed of projection, suggest two advantages for the juggler to throw the balls

at such a large angle to the horizontal

Advantage 1:

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________[1]

Advantage 2:

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________[1]

(d) When Ball 1 is just at its maximum height, the juggler throws Ball 2 up with the same

speed and in the same direction as he did Ball 1. How much time does the juggler have to

transfer Ball 3 from his left to right hand so that his left hand is available to catch Ball 1?

(e) Suggest a minimum value for the horizontal distance between the two hands and explain

your answer clearly.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________[2]

Page 4 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

2. Daniel decides to have his first attempt at bungee jumping. He falls from rest from the top of a

tall cliff with an elastic rope tied to his feet. The force constant of the rope is 100 N m-1, and the

rope's unstretched length is 20.0 m. Daniel's mass is 80.0 kg. Assume that the average drag

force by the air on Daniel during his jump is 300 N, and that g = 10 m s-2.

cliff H

H = ____________ m [3]

Page 5 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(b) Calculate the tension in the rope at the instant when Daniel is at his lowest height.

(d) Sketch a graph of the tension in the rope against the height which Daniel falls through,

from the time when he jumps to the instant when he is at the lowest height

[1]

Tension in

rope

0

Height Daniel falls through

Page 6 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

3. A small cube of mass m slides down along a spiraled path round a cone as shown in

Figure 3a. The path is always inclined at an angle to the horizontal at any point.

There is a smooth wall along the outer edge of the spiraled path to prevent the cube

from falling out of the path (see Figure 3b). This wall is inclined such that it always

exerts a horizontal contact force on the cube as it spirals down. All frictional forces are

negligible.

Inner Wall

Cube

Cone

Spiraled Outer

Path Wall

Figure 3a

Spiral Path

taken by cube

cube

Figure 3b

(a) Label all the forces acting on the cube in Figure 3b. [3]

(b) Based on the answer in (a), describe the motion of the cube.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________[2]

Page 7 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(c) (i) State the work done by the horizontal contact force on the cube as it spirals

down the plane.

________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________[1]

(ii) Derive an expression for the rate of change of kinetic energy of this cube in

terms of m, and its instantaneous speed v.

[2]

Page 8 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________[2]

(b) (i) State the expression of the gravitational potential due to a point mass m at a distance r

from it.

_____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________[1]

(ii) 4 identical masses, each of mass m, are arranged symmetrically about a light circular

ring of radius R.

m

O P Central axis

h

R Figure 4

Find the gravitational potential V at point P (at distance h from the centre O of the ring

along the central axis of the ring) as shown in Figure 4.

potential = _______________[2]

(iii) Another mass of mass M is placed at P. It is moved along the central axis of the ring

towards the centre O of the ring by an external force F. Assume that the kinetic energy

of the mass remains a constant. Discuss how the work done by F changes with

distance as the mass M approaches O from P.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________[2]

Page 9 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

5(a) A student attempts to measure the resistivity of soil using two parallel copper plates driven into

the ground as shown in Figure 5.

E

A

K

d = 0.800 m 1.040 m

0.210 m

x = 0.900 m

0.050 m 0.050 m

Figure 5

Each copper plate has a height of 1.040 m, a width of 0.210 m and a thickness of 0.050 m.

Assume the ammeter has zero resistance and the voltmeter has infinite resistance.

The copper plates are driven to a depth of d = 0.800 m and separated by a distance x = 0.900

m. If the soil is acidic, it reacts with copper and this produces an e.m.f. When switch K is open,

the student obtained a steady voltmeter reading of +0.281 V. When switch K is closed, the

student obtained a voltmeter reading of +1.398 V and an ammeter reading of 0.31 mA.

(i) Show that the resistance of the soil between the copper electrodes is 3.6 k. [2]

Page 10 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(ii) Hence, find the resistivity of the soil.

(iii) Suggest how the value in a(ii) could be measured more accurately.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________[1]

(b) A light bulb, marked 60 W, 120 V, is connected to an alternating power supply whose voltage V

in volts is given by V = 170 sin (100 t) where t is time in seconds.

(ii) Sketch the graph showing the variation with time t of the power P dissipated by the light

bulb. Indicate the mean power clearly on the graph. [2]

P/W

t/s

0

Page 11 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

6. The Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) is a stylus-type instrument in which a sharp probe

is scanned across a sample to detect changes in the surface structure on the atomic scale.

(a) Explain using the concept of quantum tunneling, how the STM detects changes in the

topography of the surface.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________[3]

(b) When the tip of a STM probe is set at a distance d of 1.0 x 10-10 m from the sample, its

transmission coefficient T is 0.0001. The sample has a work function energy of 4.0 eV.

8 2 m(U E )

The transmission coefficient is given by T e 2 kd , k .

h2

(i) Compute k.

Page 12 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(ii) Hence, find the value of d when T is 0.0002.

d = ________________ m [2]

(c) When STM is used in biological applications, it is often required to coat DNA complexes

with a conducting film. Suggest why this coating is necessary.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________[1]

Page 13 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

7. Solids can be classified as crystalline, polymeric or amorphous. All these materials are widely

used in engineering and industry. In the question, we will look at how materials deform when

subjected to loads of varying amounts.

When a load F is applied to the end of a wire of unstretched length l and cross sectional A, it

extends by a length e. Some technical terms used in the subject of elasticity of wires include:

F

Tensile stress = force per unit area =

A

e

Tensile strain = extension per unit length =

l

stress Fl

Young Modulus E =

strain Ae

Page 14 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

A specimen fibre of glass has the same dimensions as a specimen of copper wire. The length

of each specimen is 1.60 m and the radius of each is 0.18 mm. Both specimens are loaded

until they break. The force-extension graphs of both specimens are shown in Figure 7.1.

18

16

14

A

12

10

force/N

8

B

6

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

extension/mm

Figure 7.1

_____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________[1]

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________[2]

Page 15 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(i) the Young modulus of B

(ii) the approximate value of work done to stretch material A to its breaking point

Page 16 of 17

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(d) In a separate experiment, three rods were set up as shown in Figure 7.2 for the loading test. All

rods are of the same dimensions as in the previous experiment. Rods X and Y are made of

material B and Rod Z is made of material A. Rod Z is at the midpoint of the support rod.

X Y

Support rod

Applied load

Figure 7.2

State, with a reason, which rod(s) will break first as the load increases.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________[2]

Page 17 of 17

College Section

H2 Physics 9646

Preliminary Examination

Paper 2 Structured Questions

Planning Question

3 Sept 2010

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. Write your name, class and tutor’s name clearly on this cover page.

2. Check that you have the 4 printed pages inclusive of the cover page for this question

booklet.

3. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.

5. You are reminded of the need for clear presentation and good English.

Page 1 of 4

8. A bar magnet is attached to the end of a given spring which is connected to a corkboard. The

arrangement is as shown in Figure 8.1.

Current

carrying coil

brick

x

Coil is taped onto Bar

table surface magnet Screw

Figure 8.1

A current carrying coil is placed near the bar magnet. There is an attractive force on the

magnet which depends on the distance x between the end of the magnet and that of the coil.

Design a laboratory experiment to investigate how this attractive force varies with the distance

x.

You may use any standard equipment which may be found in a school or college science

laboratory together with some or all of the apparatus from the following list.

Ammeter,

Bar magnet,

Coil,

Connecting wires,

Mass holder,

Metre rule,

Oscilloscope,

Power supply units (variable output 0 – 6 V d.c.),

Pulleys,

Resistor,

Rheostat,

Set of masses,

Signal generator,

String,

Voltmeter

(b) how the attractive force between the magnet and the coil would be measured

(d) any modifications you would make to the setup shown in Figure 8.1 in order to obtain a

measurable change in x. Diagrams should be clearly labelled.

Page 2 of 4

________________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Page 3 of 4

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Page 4 of 4

College Section

H2 Physics 9646

Preliminary Examinations

Paper 3

Section A

Longer Structured Questions

Do So.

1. Write your name, class, tutor’s name and calculator Name of Tutor :

model clearly on this cover page.

2. Check that you have the correct number of pages for Calculator model:

this question booklet.

Section A

4. The total marks for Section A is 40.

1 /10

5. For numerical answers, all working should be shown.

2 /10

6. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or

rough working 3 /10

7. Do not use paperclips, highlighters, glue or correction

4 /10

fluid.

Section B

8. A data and formula list is provided on page 2. Question No.

and good English.

/20

each question or part question. Paper 3 /80

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

Data Formulae

2

8 -1 uniformly accelerated motion,

c = 3.00 10 m s 2

2 2

v = u + 2as

permeability of free space,

-7 -1

o = 4 10 H m work done on/ by a gas, W = p V

-12 -1

o = 8.85 10 Fm

-9 -1 gravitational potential, = -Gm/r

(1/(36)) 10 F m

displacement of particle in s.h.m., x = xo sin t

elementary charge,

-19

e = 1.60 10 C velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = vo cos t

= ( xo 2 x 2 )

the Planck constant,

- 34

h = 6.63 10 J s resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . .

-27

u = 1.66 10 kg

electric potential, V = Q/4or

rest mass of electron,

-31 alternating current / voltage, x = xo sin t

me = 9.11 10 kg

transmission coefficient, T ∞ exp(-2kd)

rest mass of proton,

-27

mp = 1.67 10 kg 2

8π m(U - E)

where k=

molar gas constant, 2

-1 -1 h

R = 8.31 J K mol

23 -1

NA = 6.02 10 mol

0.693

the Boltzmann constant, decay constant, λ=

-23 -1 t1

k = 1.38 10 J K

2

gravitational constant,

-11 2 -2

G = 6.67 10 N m kg

-2

g = 9.81 m s

Page 2 of 10

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

SECTION A (40 Marks)

1 Tom was driving his car on the expressway one evening when he spotted a van

travelling towards him at a high speed from a short distance away. The driver in the van

was apparently drunk and not aware that he was driving on the wrong lane.

Unfortunately, Tom was unable to stop his car on time and the two vehicles collided

eventually.

The variation of the velocity of both vehicles from the time Tom saw the oncoming van to

the time after the accident occurred is shown in the graph below.

A B

80

Tom's car

60

40

C

20

E

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 time /s

–20

D

–40

–60 Van

Page 3 of 10

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(a) Using information from the graph, briefly describe and explain what happened to [4]

Tom's car during the following periods of time:

AB: __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

BC: __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

CD: __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

DE: __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

(b) The mass of Tom's car is 1200 kg. Determine the average force experienced by

Tom's car during the collision.

(d) Is the collision between the two vehicles elastic or inelastic? Explain your answer. [2]

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Page 4 of 10

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

2 (a) State

(i) the first law of thermodynamics, [2]

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

(b) The diesel cycle is the thermodynamic cycle which approximates the pressure and

volume of the combustion chamber of the diesel engine, invented by Rudolph

Diesel in 1897.

Process A - adiabatic compression

Process B - isobaric heating

Process C - adiabatic expansion

Process D - isovolumetric cooling

P / 105 Pa

11

B

A

D

0.020 0.070 V / m3

Page 5 of 10

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(ii) Table 2.1 is a table of energy changes during one cycle. Complete the table [4]

with appropriate values.

increase in

work done on heat supplied to

Process internal energy,

gas, W / kJ gas, Q / kJ

ΔU / kJ

A + 201

B + 74

C - 185

D - 35 - 35

Table 2.1

3 A researcher is investigating a cubic crystal with x-rays. The x-rays are incident at an

angle with the crystal surface and the crystal has a lattice spacing a. He is looking at

reflection from parallel planes of atoms in a thin film deposit of the material, as shown in

Figure 3.1.

Constructive interference occurs when the path difference between radiation reflected

off adjacent layers is an integer product of the wavelength of the radiation.

Incident Reflected

parallel radiation

beams of

radiation

Top-most

layer of atoms

a

Second layer

of atoms Fig. 3.1

(a) Derive an expression of the path difference, x, between the radiation reflected from

two adjacent layers of atoms, in terms of and a.

x = ________________ [1]

Page 6 of 10

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(b) (i) When the x-rays of wavelength 0.165 nm are used, a strong first order

maximum occurs as the beam makes an angle of = 23.5° with the top-most

plane. Calculate the lattice spacing a.

a = ______________ m [3]

(ii) The beams indicated in Fig 3.1 depict the conditions for first order maxima. [1]

Sketch, in the same figure, the beams of incident and reflected radiations

corresponding to the second order maxima.

(c) It is suggested that electron beam can be used in place of x-rays to carry out this

diffraction experiment.

(i) Calculate the maximum wavelength of x-rays which can be used to probe the

crystal lattice.

(ii) Hence, find the minimum speed which the electrons must possess to be

used for electron diffraction.

Page 7 of 10

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

4 In 1932, Cockcroft and Walton produced nuclear disintegrations by bombarding lithium with

the high speed protons. The protons were accelerated through a potential difference of

4.00 x 105 V using a specially built high-voltage machine. Photographs of the reaction taken

in a cloud chamber show that two alpha particles were produced. The tracks were straight

and as their range was equal, the alpha particles have the same initial energy. Using the

length of the tracks, the initial energy of the alpha particles was calculated. The experimental

value of the energy agreed closely to the theoretical value, providing the earliest verification

of Einstein’s mass-energy relation.

7

3 Li 11 H 2 4

2 He

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

[1]

(ii) By considering the Coulomb repulsion between the lithium nucleus and the

proton, calculate the distance of closest approach between the lithium

nucleus and the accelerated proton.

(iii) Suggest why it is possible for the proton to penetrate the Coulomb potential

barrier and interact with the lithium nucleus, producing the alpha particles.

____________________________________________________________

[1]

____________________________________________________________

Page 8 of 10

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(b) The masses of the nuclei involved are listed below:

7

3 Li 7.0138 u

4

2 He 4.0015 u

1

1 H 1.0073 u

(i) Ignoring the kinetic energy of the proton, calculate the energy of each alpha particle.

(ii) On average, an alpha particle creates 5.0 x 103 ion pairs per mm of track in the

cloud chamber and the energy needed to produce an ion pair is 5.2 x 10-18 J.

2. Sketch the tracks produced by the two alpha particles in figure below.

path of incident

proton

1 7

1 H 3 Li

[1]

Page 9 of 10

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(c) In 1934, Fermi began using neutrons instead of protons to produce nuclear

disintegrations. Neutrons are generally more effective than protons or alpha particles for

this purpose. Suggest a reason why this may be so.

[1]

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

- End of Section A -

Page 10 of 10

College Section

H2 Physics 9646

Preliminary Examinations

Paper 3

Section B

Longer Structured Questions

Do So.

1. Write your name, class, tutor’s name and calculator Name of Tutor :

model clearly on this cover page.

2. Check that you have the correct number of pages for Calculator model:

this question booklet.

3. Answer ANY TWO questions from Section B and For Examiner's Use :

CIRCLE the questions attempted on this cover Section B

page.

CIRCLE Question No. attempted

4. The total marks for Section B is 40.

6. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or 6 /20

rough working.

7 /20

7. Do not use paperclips, highlighters, glue or correction

fluid.

Deductions

8. A data and formula list is provided on page 2.

and good English.

Section B

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES Total

/40

each question or part question.

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION)

C2

H2 PHYSICS

Data Formulae

2

8 -1 uniformly accelerated motion,

c = 3.00 10 m s 2

2 2

v = u + 2as

permeability of free space,

-7 -1

o = 4 10 H m work done on/ by a gas, W = p V

-12 -1

o = 8.85 10 Fm

-9 -1 gravitational potential, = -Gm/r

(1/(36)) 10 F m

displacement of particle in s.h.m., x = xo sin t

elementary charge,

-19

e = 1.60 10 C velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = vo cos t

= ( xo 2 x 2 )

the Planck constant,

- 34

h = 6.63 10 J s resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . .

-27

u = 1.66 10 kg

electric potential, V = Q/4or

rest mass of electron,

-31 alternating current / voltage, x = xo sin t

me = 9.11 10 kg

transmission coefficient, T ∞ exp(-2kd)

rest mass of proton,

-27

mp = 1.67 10 kg 2

8π m(U - E)

where k=

molar gas constant, 2

-1 -1 h

R = 8.31 J K mol

23 -1

NA = 6.02 10 mol

0.693

the Boltzmann constant, decay constant, λ=

-23 -1 t1

k = 1.38 10 J K

2

gravitational constant,

-11 2 -2

G = 6.67 10 N m kg

-2

g = 9.81 m s

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SECTION B (40 Marks)

CIRCLE the question you have chosen on the cover sheet.

5 (a) Speed guns are frequently employed by traffic police to measure the speed of

vehicles for the purpose of speed limit enforcement. A radar speed gun sends a

broad, cone-shaped radiowave and gauge the speed of the target from the change in

frequency of the reflected wave from the moving target. A laser speed gun shoots a

very short pulse of infrared laser light and waits for the reflected laser light to

calculate the distance to the target. By taking many samples per second, the laser

speed gun can find the change in distance between samples and calculate the speed

of the target.

(i) Give one advantage and disadvantage of using the laser speed gun over the [2]

radar speed gun.

Advantage : ___________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Disadvantage : _________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

(ii) A simple laser speed gun is used to investigate the motion of a small object

performing simple harmonic motion (Fig. 5.1). At its equilibrium position, the

object is 5.000 m away from the laser speed gun.

5.000 m

Fig. 5.1

One section of the data recorded by the laser speed gun is shown in the table

below.

1000 5.031 31.0

1001 5.059 28.0

1002 5.081 22.0

1003 5.095 14.0

1004 5.100 5.0

1005 5.095 -5.0

1006 5.081 -14.0

1007 5.059 -22.0

1008 5.031 -28.0

1009 Z -

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_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

2. Hence, verify that x = Acos(Bt) is a possible solution for an object in SHM, [2]

where A and B are constants.

3. Calculate the amplitude and the period of the simple harmonic motion. [4]

amplitude = ____________ m

period = ____________ s

Z = _______________ m

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5. Calculate the number of samples taken per second by the laser speed gun. [3]

Hence explain why a high number of samples taken per unit time is

necessary for the laser speed gun to measure the speed of a moving object.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

(b) Consider a laser medium whose atoms only have two energy levels. Lasing can

occur when population inversion is achieved between the two energy levels through

optical pumping.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

(ii) Explain why it is very difficult to achieve population inversion using optical [3]

pumping in the 2 levels laser medium.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

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6 (a) Define magnetic flux density. [2]

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

(b) (i) The magnetic flux density B a distance d from a long, straight wire carrying a [2]

current I is given by

o I

B

2d

Using this relationship with a clearly labeled diagram, show that the force per

unit length between two long, straight, parallel wires carrying currents I1 and I2

respectively in the same direction, separated by a distance d is given by

o I1 I 2

F

2d

(ii) A light metal spring with its axis vertical is clamped at the top and is hanging

freely unextended. The turns of the spring have a radius r and the longitudinal

distance between adjacent turns is d when the spring is unstretched, as shown

in figure 6.1. The spring obeys Hooke’s Law and has a spring constant k.

r

c

d

10.0 g

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An e.m.f. source is then connected across points A and B, and a current I

passed through exactly two turns of the spring.

1. On Figure 6.2, complete the circuit connections made at A and B so that the [2]

current passing through the spring can be measured.

2. A student noted that the current causes a change in the length of the spring. [3]

State and explain whether the change in the length of the spring is an

extension or compression.

(Assume the connections themselves are light, and do not disturb the

equilibrium of the spring and the force between any two circular turns of the

spring is the same as that between two straight wires.)

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

3. Using your answer in (b)(i), derive an expression for the change in the length [2]

of the spring, x, caused by a current I passing through points A and B on the

spring, in terms of I, d, k and r.

x = _____________________

4. The connections made across A and B are now reversed. State whether the [1]

change in the length of the spring is an extension or a compression.

______________________________________________________________

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(c) A physicist designs an electromagnetic braking system for a truck in his model

railway. The top view of the set up is shown in the figure below.

The truck has mass M = 0.15 kg. X and Y are wheel axles with an axle spacing of

l = 0.10 m. The truck is projected at velocity v to the right, along a level metal track

with rail spacing w = 0.050 m. Mechanical friction is negligible.

The truck runs into a limited region of vertical magnetic field B = 0.70 T over the

length L = 0.15 m between points P and Q. The field is negligible outside this region.

The truck has metal wheels and axles. Axles X and Y, together with the section of rail

length l between the axles, form a closed loop. The closed loop has a circuit

resistance R of 0.020 .

When the initial velocity v = 30 mm s-1, the braking system works well with the truck

coming to rest before axle X enters the magnetic field at point P.

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

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(ii) Hence, by considering the net horizontal force, show that the acceleration, a, [3]

experienced by the truck when it enters the magnetic field is proportional to its

velocity v.

(iii) Suggest and explain briefly one improvement to this braking system to [2]

effectively stop trucks projected at high velocities.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

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7 (a) List two similarities and two differences between electric field and magnetic field. [2]

Similarities:

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Differences: [2]

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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(b) Fig. 7.1 shows a cyclotron, which is used for accelerating charged particles to very

high kinetic energies. It consists of two hollow semi-circular metal chambers, called

‘dees’ of radius 1.30 m, within which there is a uniform magnetic field, B. A high

frequency square wave alternating voltage V and frequency 3.05 MHz is connected

across the narrow gap between the chambers.

Fig 7.1

Fig. 7.2 shows an enlarged view of the narrow gap at the centre of the cyclotron. Positive

charges called deuterons enter the narrow gap near dee Y with negligible kinetic energy

(point 1). They accelerate towards dee X, which has lower potential (point 2).

There is no electric field within the dees and the deuterons move in semi-circular path

inside the dee X. As soon as they complete a semi-circular path (point 3), dee X reverses

its polarity such that dee Y now has a lower potential. The deuterons then accelerate

towards dee Y (point 4).

This process is repeated until the deuterons have gained sufficient energy, eventually

emerging at a very high speed.

High frequency

alternating voltage

3 Particles released here +V

with negligible K.E.

2 X

X Narrow gap of

negligible width -V

1 Y 0V

Y

4

Fig. 7.2

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(i) Explain why the deuterons move in a semicircular path when they are inside [2]

the dees.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

(ii) Show that the radius of the circular path of the deuteron motion inside a dee [2]

is given by

mv

r

Bq

where m is the mass of the deuteron, v is its speed and q is its charge and B is

the magnetic flux density inside the chambers.

(iii) Show that the period of the motion is independent of v and r. [2]

(iv) Sketch the graph showing the variation of the kinetic energy of the deuteron [2]

with distance travelled as it moves from Point 2 to Point 4.

K.E.

Distance

Point Point Point

2 3 4

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(v) There is a uniform magnetic field of 0.400 T directed normally out of the plane

of the dees and the high frequency alternating voltage V of amplitude 100 V

and frequency 3.05 MHz is connected between the dees.

The mass of deuteron is 3.34 X 10-27 kg and its charge is +1.60 X 10-19 C.

revolution.

2. Show why a frequency of 3.05 MHz for the square wave alternating voltage [3]

is appropriate (Fig 7.1).

3. Hence calculate the time taken for a deuteron to attain a kinetic energy of

1.00 MeV.

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- End of Paper -

Page 14 of 14

2010 Hwa Chong Institution C2 Preliminary

H2 Physics Worked Solutions

2 C 12 A 22 A 32 A to the moment Ball 1 is launched, the

distance travelled by Ball 1,

3 C 13 B 23 B 33 C

4 C 14 A 24 B 34 D ,

where u is the initial speed it was

5 D 15 B 25 C 35 D

launched, and the distance travelled by

6 A 16 B 26 D 36 B

Ball 2 is .

7 A 17 C 27 D 37 B

Therefore, the sum of the distances

8 A 18 D 28 D 38 A travelled, .

9 C 19 C 29 C 39 B The two balls will meet when the sum

10 C 20 B 30 D 40 B equals the distance s that Ball 1

would travel from A to B.

Worked Solutions

1. D. Option A is correct because the ratio of

diameter of atom to nucleus

= 10-10: 10-15

mass of electron to proton

= 9.11x10-31:1.67x10-27

of orbit depends on the radius of

circular orbit r according to the

4 2 3

equation, T 2 r where M = mass

GM

of planet. It is independent of the mass ,

of the satellite. When r is doubled, T is

3 and .

increased by a factor of 2 2 = 2.8

The ratio is 1.5:0.5 = 3:1.

Option D is wrong because ratio of

band gap for semiconductor to insulator Method 2: Graphical

is 1eV: 10 eV. The band gap for

insulator is at most tens of eV, but not 3. C

1000 eV.

since this is an

60o

equilateral triangle. So the

change in momentum is mv.

1

2010 Hwa Chong Institution C2 Preliminary

H2 Physics Worked Solutions

will exert a normal contact force 8. A. The freebody diagram for each mass is

(horizontally) on to the ladder. To as shown:

balance it, a horizontal force acting to

the left must be provided by the

Mass P Mass Q

ground. That is only possible if the T1 T2

ground is rough so as to provide a

frictional force on the ladder. UP UQ

proton to 3 significant figures (1.67 x

WP WQ

10-27 kg). The result of this elastic

collision (same mass of particles, with

one particle initially stationary) is that T = tension in the string suspending the masses

the proton will leave with the speed of U = upthrust acting on each mass

W= weight

the incident neutron, while the neutron

will come to rest.

For rod to be horizontal:

6. A. If the frictional force is , then

T1 T2 T

when the block just starts to

slip: WP U P WQ U Q

WP X gV WQ Y gV

sin

Since X Y , then the weight of fluid

sin

displaced by P is less than the weight of

fluid displaced by Y if both masses had

sin = 0.5

the same volume.

X gV Y gV

7. A. The magnitude of acceleration of X

along its path decreases as it is Hence,

released. It decreases from g = 9.81 m

s-2 to 0 at the bottom of the slope. On W P WQ

the other hand the vertical acceleration m P mQ

of Y is constantly at g = 9.81 m s-2. The

average speed of descent of Y will be 9. C. Along the horizontal direction:

higher than the average speed of

descent of X. Thus X will take a longer cos 30o - 200

time to fall down the same height as Y. 242.49 N

0.800 + (1.00)(2.00)

2.80 m s-2

cos

(210)(2.8)

= 588 W

2

2010 Hwa Chong Institution C2 Preliminary

H2 Physics Worked Solutions

10. C

At pole: Normal contact force,

13. B. Using and

,

= (50)(9.81)

= 490.50 N then .

At equator:

Hz.

of fluid displaced. When d = D, U =

weight of the cylinder. Since the

cylinder has a uniform cross-sectional

= 488.81 N area, U must vary linearly with d. Given

that the motion is simple harmonic, the

Difference is = 1.69 N

net force .

15. B.

11. D

Gain in

= lost in GPE

KE

that n is doubled and T is ¼ the original

F temperature, then the gradient will

increase by a factor 2.

TB mg

16. B. The mean kinetic energy of a molecule

is proportional to the temperature of the gas.

energy is the same since the change in

distance to the centre of the earth is the

same. Lost in GPE is the same and

hence the gain in KE will be the same

too.

3

2010 Hwa Chong Institution C2 Preliminary

H2 Physics Worked Solutions

17. C. When electromagnetic waves enter a 19. C. The adjacent segments of a stationary

region of different refractive index, the speed wave on a string are in antiphase. Point

and wavelength change. The direction also B has a larger amplitude of vibration

changes (refraction) if the incident angle is than point A. Thus the maximum kinetic

oblique. The frequency remains unchanged, energy that point B can have during the

however. vibration is greater than A.

20. B.

21. D. Wavelength = v / f

= (3.4 x 102) /(2.4 x 103)

= 0.142 m = 14.2 cm

reflection

Distance between consecutive

resonances = /2

18. D. Intensity of the source is the power

Therefore the next position of

emitted per unit area over which the

resonance = /2 + 3.4

wave energy is distributed. Assuming a

= 7.1 + 3.4

point source emitting in all directions, = 10.5 cm

the area is the spherical surface

22. A. Vnet = V1 + V2

enclosing the source.

(Po = the power of the source). The

intensity is halved at the same position

only if the power of the source is = -14.7 V

halved. Next, the power of the wave is

proportional to the the square of the 23. B. Electric field is numerically equal to the

amplitude of the wave. In order to potential gradient. The closer the

register the same amplitude, the spacing of the equipotential lines, the

intensity measured by the detector stronger the E field.

must still be the original intensity I.

24. B. Electric between parallel plates is

uniform. Hence force F on the electron

is constant.

4

2010 Hwa Chong Institution C2 Preliminary

H2 Physics Worked Solutions

25. C. Total resistance in series with E1 29. C. Using Fleming’s Left hand rule to

= 8.30 + 1.42 = 9.72 Ω. obtain an upward magnetic force so

Pd across XY that the tensions of the strings

= 8.30/9.72 x 9.00 = 7.69 V. become zero, the current has to flow

leftwards i.e. Q to P.

Pd across l

= 0.745/1.000 x 7.69 Since F = BIL,

= 5.73 V. I = F/BL

This is equal to the emf E2.

= mg/BL

26. D. By potential divider principle, voltmeter

reading increase when effective = ALg/BL = Ag/B.

resistance across thermistor is

increased or resistance R3 is reduced. 30. D. Maximum induced e.m.f. occurs at the

greatest rate of change of magnetic

27. D. Energy supplied by emf flux linkage. Since the coil area

= Sum of energy dissipated by R and r remains the same, then this occurs

when the magnetic field B is changing

Emf = W/Q = (88.3+45.2)/30.0 = 4.45

at greatest rate i.e. at the steepest

V

gradient of the graph.

28. D. Current in PS and QR are

31. A. The same p.d. will be induced across

perpendicular to the magnetic field,

the voltmeter, resulting in no net

thus a magnetic force acts on them.

induced emf.

Current in PQ and SR do experience

a component of the magnetic field that 32. A. RMS current in secondary coil

is perpendicular the current, thus will = V/R = 30/140 = 0.214 A

still experience a magnetic force. IS/IP= NP/NS = VP/VS = 100/20 = 5

Component of B IP = 0.214/5 = 0.0429 A

parallel to PQ 33. C. Sodium having the smallest work

B (given) function will release photoelectrons

with greatest kinetic energy. Sodium

Component of B

will require the largest stopping

perpendicular to PQ

voltage. The stopping voltage is the

value of V such that the photocurrent I

The direction of the magnetic force on = 0 (x-intercept).

PQ is directed into the plane of the

paper.

PQ will be less than that on QR since

the magnetic field perpendicular to PQ

is a small component of the magnetic

field perpendicular to QR.

5

2010 Hwa Chong Institution C2 Preliminary

H2 Physics Worked Solutions

34. D. Option A is not correct because since the mass of the positron. By the law of

the X-ray spectra will always contain conservation of energy, the total energy

bremsstrahlung radiation whether the of the 2 photons is

electrons bombarding the metal target

has a single energy or have a range of 2hc

2mc 2

energies. Option B is not correct

because the the position (wavelength) h

corresponding to the characteristic

mc

peaks is dependent only on the kind of

target and not on the energy of the ln 2

incoming electrons. Option C is not 39. B. 0.3466 day-1

2

correct because minimum wavelength

(cutoff wavelength) depends on the A A0 e t

maximum energy of the incident

electrons. N 0 e t

(0.3466)(1018 )e ( 0.3466)( 5)

35. D. In addition to the law of conservation

energy, the law of conservation of

A 6.1263 1016 day-1

momentum must also be fulfilled. The

atom Y cannot have exactly the = 7.09 x 1011 disintegrations s-1

energy required to excite atom X

because this imply that both atoms Y 40. B Initial activity of alpha emitter:

and X will come to rest after the 160-96= 64 Bq

collision and the total momentum

would be zero, inconsistent with the After 12 days (3 half lives) :

non-zero total momentum before Activity = 64 / 8 = 8 Bq

collision. The total momentum would Initial activity of beta emitter : 96 Bq

not be conserved. Therefore atom Y

has to have a kinetic energy greater After 12 days (4 half lives) :

than the excitation energy of X. After Activity = 96/ 16 = 6 Bq

the collision, atom X must move in the

direction that Y was incident on X in Hence, total activity = 8 + 6 = 14 Bq.

order to conserve momentum.

would make it a conductor. The atoms

in an ideal gas are isolated from one

another and would have discrete

energy levels of R.

semiconductor becomes negatively

charged due to the diffusion of mobile

electrons from n-type to p-type at the

pn junction.

6

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

Suggested solution for Paper 2

Q1

(a) vy2 = uy2 + 2aysy

+

0 = (usin80.0) 2 + 2 (- 9.81) (1.75) [M1]

u = 5.95 m s-1 [C1]

(b) vy = uu + ayt

0 = 5.95 sin80.0o – 9.81(T/2),

where T is time of flight and is twice the time to reach maximum height,

T = 1.1946 s [C1]

Range Sx= 5.95 cos80.0 (1.1946) = 1.23 m. [A1]

(c)

1. Large angle gives a longer time of flight for a given projection speed and hence

juggler has more time to manipulate balls. [B1]

2. Large angle keeps (horizontal) range small and of the order of the natural distance

between the juggler’s hands. [B1]

(d) The left hand has 1.19/2 = 0.597 seconds before ball 1 arrives. [A1]

(e) The minimum distance between the two hands must be at least greater than the diameter

of the balls. [B1]

Otherwise, an upward moving ball will collide with a downward moving ball. [B1]

Q2

(a) Decrease in GPE = Increase in EPE + Work done against drag force [M1]

m g H= ½ k e2 + F H

80.0(10)H = ½ (100)(H – 20.0)2 + 300 (H) [C1]

800 H = 50( H2 – 40H +400) + 300 H

16 H = H2 – 40H + 400 + 6 H

0 = H2 – 50H +400

0 = (H – 40) (H – 10)

H = 40 m , 10 m (rejected) [A1]

= 100 (40.0 – 20.0)

= 2000 N [A1]

(c) T – mg = ma [M1]

2260 – 80.0(10) = 80.0a

a = 15 m s-2 [A1]

Direction: Vertically upwards [B1]

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2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(d) Tension in

rope

0 [B1]

20.0 H Height Daniel falls through

3(a)

Normal contact

force from ground

The direction of the

Horizontal Normal normal contact force from

Contact force from the wall should be drawn

wall into the paper properly into the page

using the right symbol. In

X the event where it is really

hard to draw, a clearly

written statement to

explain the direction is

required.

Weight of cube

Figure 3b

(b) Normal horizontal contact force of wall on cube provides the centripetal force for cube

to spiral. [B1]

Component of the weight down the slope causes the acceleration of cube down slope.

[B1]

(ci) Since the horizontal normal contact force is always perpendicular to the direction of

motion, work done is zero. [B1]

potential energy. [M1]

= m g v sin. [A1]

4(a) Gravitational potential at a point in a gravitational field is the work done by external

force to bring a unit mass from infinite to that point [B1]

without a change in kinetic energy. [B1]

Gm

4(bi) V [A1]

r

4Gm

Potential at P, Vp = [A1]

R2 h2

2

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

4(biii) Work done W by external force at constant kinetic energy = the change in

gravitational potential energy of the system. [A1]

W required from h to h1

= 4G mM

1 1

= (Vp)M

R2 h 2 R2 h2

1

magnitude). [A1]

I = 0.31x10-3 A

R = V/I = 3600 Ω [A1]

ρ = RA/l = 3600 x 0.800 x 0.210 / 0.900

= 670 Ω (2 s.f.) [A1]

(iii) Any one of these: [B1]

Among all the readings given, the least significant or most

imprecise is the current reading (only 2 s.f.). The current reading

will be subject to significant random errors.

EITHER: Increase the area of the copper plates in the soil. This

will decrease the resistance of the sample of soil to be measured

and increase the current readings for the same voltage applied.

graph of the voltmeter reading V against the current I. The gradient

equals the resistance R of the soil and the y-intercept the emf due

to the copper plate interacting with the soil. Calculate the resistivity

using the value of resistance R obtained from the gradient of the

graph.

Vary the area of the copper plates in the soil (use different depths),

find the corresponding R of the soil between the plates using V

and I, and plot the graph of the R against A-1. The gradient is ρl

where l = x. Calculate resistivity ρ as gradient divided by x.

(b) (i) The labels 60 W and 120 V indicate that the normal operating conditions

for the bulb. If a DC voltage of 120 V is applied across the bulb, then the

power dissipated is 60 W. If an alternating voltage is applied, then the

RMS value of the voltage should be 120 V so that the mean power

dissipated is 60 W.

Mean P = IrmsVrms

Irms = Mean P/V rms = 60/ 120 = 0.500 A [A1]

3

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(ii)

Compare the given equation with V=V0 sin (2f t).

Therefore 100 = 2f, and f = 50 Hz.

P/W P=V2/R = (V02/R)sin2(2πf t)

[1] – Correct sine-squared [B2]

curve (note P=0 when t=0)

Peak power 120 [1] – All three values

labelled (120W, 60W, T =

0.020 s)

Mean power 60

0

t/s

T = 1/f

= 1/50

= 0.020 s

6 (a) The gap between the STM probe tip and the sample surface acts like [B1]

a potential barrier to the electrons.

When a pd is applied between the probe and the sample, there is a finite [B1]

probability that electrons can tunnel through this potential barrier

due to the wave nature of the electrons even though the electron does

not have sufficient kinetic energy.

The probability of tunneling is T e 2 kd where d is the width of the [B1]

potential barrier. Thus tunneling current varies exponentially with the

distance of gap d between the probe and the sample surface. As

probe scans across the surface, the distance d changes and the variation

in tunneling current can be detected and used to plot the topography of

the sample surface.

2nd mark: identifying electrons as the particles tunneling the barrier

3rd mark: the tunneling current varies exponentially with the width of the

potential barrier which is identified as the distance of the gap.

(b) (i) Work function energy refers to how much additional energy needs to be

provided to the electron for it to cross the potential barrier classically.

This equals to U-E in the equation for k.

k

8 2m(U E )

8 2 9.11 1031 (4.0 1.6 1019 )

[M1]

h2

2

6.63 1034

[A1]

1.02 1010

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2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(ii) T e 2kd

T e 2kd

2kd [C1]

T0 e 0

T

e 2k ( d do )

T0

e

0.0001

(c) DNA complexes are poor electrical conductors. As a result, electrons [A1]

that have tunneled through to the molecule accumulates. This results in a

strong electrostatic field that will disrupt the tunneling process. The

conducting film helps to channel the tunneling current away.

7 (a) Fl F

Units of E = Units of = Units of [M1]

Ae A

-2 -2

= kg m s m

[A1]

= kg m-1 s-2

(b)(i) The extension of the material is proportional to the applied load if the limit [B1]

of proportionality is not exceeded.

(ii) Mark X on (2.0, 12.4) [B1]

(iii) Material B. [A1]

Glass is brittle and is unlikely to undergo extended stretching/plastic

deformation after it reaches its limit of proportionality before its breaking [B1]

point.

(c)(i) Fl (6.0)(1.60) [C1]

E

Ae (1.01 10 7 )(1.6 10 3 )

[A1]

= 5.89 x 1010 kg m-1 s-2

1 1

= (12)(0.002) (12 14.4)(0.0036) 14.8(0.0148) [C1]

2 2

[A1]

= 0.278 J

Accepted range (0.264, 0.291)

(d) Rod Z will break first. [A1]

Each rod X and Y only experiences half of the force on Z. The maximum

force that rods X and Y can take is more than half of Z, hence Z will reach [B1]

breaking point first.

5

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

Question 8

Mark Aim

B1 The aim of this experiment is to investigate how the attractive force varies

with the distance x.

(Some students used another quantity instead of force, eg. Extension of

spring. In such cases, students need to elaborate on how this quantity is

related to the attractive force and justify in order to score this mark.)

Preliminary work

The attractive force can be measured by the formula

D1 F = ke where e is the extension of the spring, which is given by e = L – L0,

where L0 is the initial length of the spring when it is not stretched and L is the

length of the spring when it is stretched. The spring constant k can be

measured by

D2 i) suspending the spring vertically from a retort stand. Its length is measured

using a meter rule Lo.

ii) attach a mass of 50g to the bottom of the spring and measure its new

length L.

iii) calculate the spring constant k from k = F/e = (0.050 )(9.81)/(L-L0)

(Calibration curves are acceptable but elaborations on how to get the data

for this curve and how to use it are necessary. Spring balance is also

acceptable as a means to measure the force directly, however, as with scale

instruments, need elaboration on zero error).

Control Variable

B2 The current in the coil is to be kept constant. This can be done by connecting

an ammeter to the coil as shown in the following diagram.

(Good answers include how a rheostat is necessary to allow for adjustments

to the resistance in the circuit as a means of ensuring constant current.

Some students forgot to include a cell in the circuit diagram)

A4

A

A5 The rheostat is first used to vary the resistance in the circuit and hence the

current. The current should be fixed at a value such that when x = 6.0 cm,

the extension in the spring is more than 1.0 cm. This is to ensure that values

of e recorded in the experiment are large enough such that it can be

measured with acceptable percentage error with a meter rule.

(students should elaborate that an acceptable range is one whereby

variations in data are not just realistic, but also measurable, according to the

resolution of the measuring instruments)

B3 More batteries can be connected in series to increase the current until the

resulting change in e is large enough.

A4

A

6

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

Hypothesis

D3 Suppose the relationship between the attractive force F and the distance x is

expressed in power law,

F = cxn where c and n are constants to be determined.

lg F = n lg x + lg c

If we plot lgF against lgx, then a straight line will indicate that the relationship

is valid and the gradient is n and the y-intercept is lg c.

(some students neglect the interpretation of the gradient and vertical

intercept of the graph)

Procedure

A1 a) Setup the apparatus as shown in Fig 1.1.

b) Use a meter rule to measure the length of the spring when it is

unstretched. Record this as L0.

D4 c) Switch on the circuit to allow current to flow through the coil. Monitor

the ammeter to ensure that current is constant. Ensure that an

attractive force is exerted on the bar magnet by the coil (this occurs

when the spring is stretched). If there is a repulsive force instead,

switch the polarity of the battery in the circuit to reverse the direction

of current flow.

(Its important to include this step in verifying that an attractive force is

present and if not,elaborate on how one can rectify the problem)

A2 d) Measure the distance between the magnet and the coil x. Also

measure the length of the stretched spring and record it as L.

A3 e) Shift the magnet, together with the spring, corkboard and brick, for at

least 5 different values of x. For each x, record the new stretched

length of the spring L. Tabulate the data in the table below,

A4 Labeled Diagrams

A5 Actions taken to set range readings

B1 Correct Dependent and Independent Variables

B2 Valid choice of control variable

B3 Action to improve accuracy of readings

D1 Theory on how to calculate the attractive force

D2 Pre experiment work necessary to measure spring constant

D3 Linearization

D4 Action to ensure correct current flow

(12 marks in total)

7

2010 HCI H2 Physics Preliminary Examinations

Suggested solution for Paper 3

SECTION A

Q1

(a)

AB: Car travels at constant speed. Tom's reaction time.

BC: Car decelerates uniformly. Tom applies car's brakes.

CD: Car's velocity changes from one direction to the opposite direction. Actual collision of the two

vehicles.

DE: Both vehicles stuck together after the collision and slow down to a rest. Friction of road on

the vehicles causes them to stop eventually. [B4]

(b)

dp d (mv)

F

dt dt

[M1]

[30 (20)] 1000

F 1200

0.1 3600

F 1.67 105 N [A1]

mC ( vC 2 vC 1 ) mV ( vV 2 vV 1 )

[M1]

t t

mV vC 2 vC 1 50

mC vV 2 vV 1 30

5

mV ( 1200 ) 2000kg [A1]

3

(EITHER)

The 2 vehicles stuck together and move as one after the collision, as observed from the

velocity-time graph.

(OR)

The total KE of the 2 vehicles after the collision is less than the total KE of the 2 vehicles

before the collision. [B1]

Q2

(a)(i) The increase in the internal energy of the system, U, is the sum of the heat supplied to the

system, Q, and the work done on the system, W. [B2]

(a)(ii) Internal energy U of a system is the sum of all microscopic kinetic energies of the

particles and their potential energies. [B2]

= (0.070 – 0.020) x (11 x 105) [M1]

= 55 kJ [A1]

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(b)(ii)

Process W / kJ Q / kJ ΔU / kJ

AQ + CQ correct [1]

A 201 0 201 DW correct [1]

B -55 74 19 BW correct [1] (for –ve)

C -185 0 -185 ABC ∆U correct [1]

D 0 -35 -35

Q3

(a) x = 2 a sin [B1]

2 a sin = n

a = (1)(0.165 x 10-9)/ 2 sin(23.5o) [M1]

a = 2.07 x 10-10 m [A1]

(b)(ii)

nd

2 order

st

1 order

[M1]

< 2a sinn

is maximum when = 90o and n = 1 [M1]

< 4.14 x 10-10 m [A1]

h/p < 4.14 x 10-10 [M1]

h / (me vmin ) < 4.14 x 10-10

vmin > h / (me)(4.14 x 10-10) [M1]

vmin > 1.76 x 106 m s-1 [A1]

Gain in electric potential energy = loss in kinetic energy

qV [M1]

4 0 x

3 1.6 10 19

400000

4 0 x

[A1]

Solving, x = 1.08 x 10-14 m

Page 2 of 7

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(a)(ii) With quantum tunneling, the proton can still penetrate the barrier despite [B1]

having an energy that is less than the potential barrier.

(b)(i) Energy released = (7.0138 + 1.0073 – 4.0015 x 2)(1.66 x 10-27)(3 x 108)2 [M1]

= 2.70414 x 10-12 J [A1]

(b)(ii)1. 1.35211012

Length = 52 mm [A1]

(5.0 103 )(5.2 1018 )

(b)(ii)2. [A1]

(c) Neutrons have no charge and are therefore able to penetrate more deeply B1

into the positively charged nucleus, resulting in higher probability of nuclear

reactions.

SECTION B

Q5

(a)(i) Advantage: precise (can accurately target 1 specific vehicle) or longer range because laser

is unidirectional/small divergence [B1]

Disadvantage: need to aim properly, need to ensure beam is reflected back to the gun [B1]

and proportional to displacement from that point [B1]

Let x A cos(Bt ) , x AB sin(Bt ) [M1]

x B A cos( Bt ) B x , where C B

2 2 2

[A1]

(a)(ii) 3. From table, maximum distance is 5.100 m, hence amplitude = 0.100 m. [B1]

2

Let t = 0 s when time = 1004 ms (laser speed gun time), hence x 0.100 cos( t)

T

[M1

]

When time = 1005 ms, t = 0.001 s, x = 0.095 m, [M1]

2

0.095 0.100 cos( 0.001) T 0.0198 0.020 s [A1]

T

2 2

(a)(ii) 4. Using x 0.100 cos( t ) and t = 0.005 s, x 0.100 cos( 0.005) 0.0016 m [M1]

T 0.0198

Hence Z = x + 5.000 = 4.998 m. [A1]

Page 3 of 7

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

(a)(ii) 5. t 0.001 s f 1/ t 1000 samples per second [B1]

Laser gun computes the average speed = Δx / Δt [M1]

Δt should as small as possible so that it approximates instantaneous speed. [A1]

with light of correct frequency f, such that the energy difference between the 2 levels is equal

to hf. [B1]

(b)(ii) When using optical pumping for a 2 levels laser, any incoming photon can cause simulated

adsorption as well as stimulated emission [C1]

Initially most of the atoms are in the ground state, the incoming photons will cause more

simulated adsorption than stimulated emission. [M1]

As more atoms become excited, the rate of simulated emission will eventually increase until

it at most equals that of simulated adsorption, when the number of excited atoms is equal to

the number of ground state atoms. Thus it is very difficult to achieve population inversion.

[A1]

6a) The magnetic flux density is defined as the force per unit length per unit current [B1]

acting on an infinitely long current carrying conductor placed perpendicularly to the magnetic

field. [B1]

o I1 o I 2

6b) (i) B1 B2 [C1]

2d 2d

F21 B1 I 2 L F12 B2 I1 L

F II F

F 21 B1 I 2 o 1 2 B2 I 1 12 [A1]

L 2d L

d

6b)(ii) 1.

b)(ii) 2. The current in each turn of the coil of the spring produces a magnetic field that is

perpendicular to the current in the adjacent coil. [B1]

Since the current in the adjacent spring coils is flowing in the same direction, by

Fleming’s left hand rule, an attractive force will be exerted on the coils towards each

other. [B1]

The spring coils will move towards each other and the length (vertical) will shorten.

The change in the length of the spring is therefore a compression. [B1]

F o I 2 I2

b)(ii) 3. Force per unit length F o (2r ) where r is the radius of the

L 2d 2d

spring coil. [B1]

Page 4 of 7

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

o I 2 o I 2 r

kx (2r ) x [B1]

2d dk

6c)(i) According to the Faraday’s law of Electromagnetic Induction, when the metal axle Y of the

truck first enters the magnetic field entry point P with an initial velocity, there will be an

induced electromotive force (emf) across the two metal wheels of Y whose magnitude is

directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage. The wheel on the left (at

the top according to figure) will be at a higher potential. [B1]

Since the axle Y, the two wheels and the railing form a complete loop, induced current will

hence flow. [B1]

Using Fleming’s left hand rule, a magnetic force opposite to the direction of motion would be

produced due to this current flow. This opposing force on the wheels will cause braking to

occur. [B1]

Induced emf E = IR = Bwv

Bwv

Induced current I [B1]

R

Since FB = - BIw (using the direction of motion as +ve direction)

Bwv

M a B ( )w [B1]

R

B 2 w2

a ( )v v a v ----------------(1) [B1]

RM

c)(iii) (If the truck’s initial speed is high, the magnetic braking force experienced upon entering and

leaving the magnetic field may not be able to bring the truck to rest completely.)

To improve, we can either have several regions of PQ placed close to each other for

consecutive braking effects [B2]

OR

Have a stronger vertical magnetic field B. [B1]

Any reasonable explanation that leads to a larger acceleration hence braking force eg. with

reference to (1), would be awarded the second mark. [B1]

7(a)

Similarities:

1. Both fields exert forces on moving charged particles. [B1]

2. They are non-contact forces/action-at-a-distance force [B1]

Alternative answers

3. The forces they exert long range forces.

4. They are conservative fields

Differences

1. Electric field will change the magnitude of the speed of charged particles whereas magnetic

field can be used to change the direction of motion of charged particles. [B1]

2. If the paths of charged particles are not straight line path, it will be parabolic and circular

paths in electric and magnetic field respectively. [B1]

Page 5 of 7

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

Alternative answers

3. The electric force is either parallel or anti-parallel to the Electric field whereas the magnetic

force is always mutually perpendicular to the magnetic field and the motion of charged

particle.

4. There will not be any magnetic force on stationary charged particle whilst there will be

electric force on charged particle regardless of its state of motion.

b(i) Using Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, the magnetic force will be mutually perpendicular to the

velocity and the magnetic field. [B1]

It provides the necessary centripetal force for uniform circular motion. [B1]

(ii)

m v2

FB C1 [1]

r

m v2

Bqv C1 [1]

r

mv

r

Bq

2

(iii) T

mv v Bq

Since r C1 [1]

Bq r m

2 m

T C1 [1]

Bq

In the above derivation for the period, period is found to be dependent on mass and

charge of deuteron and B only

(iv)

K.E B1 B1

[2]

.

distance

Point 2 Point 3 Point 4

(v)

Hence gain in KE per revolution = 2 e V = 2 (100) ( 1.6 x 10-19) = 3.2 x 10-17 J [C1]

2 m Bq

2. T f C1 [1]

Bq 2 m

C1 [1]

2 (3.34 10 27 )

Page 6 of 7

2010 HWA CHONG INSTITUTION (COLLEGE SECTION) C2

H2 PHYSICS

3. Number of revolutions to gain 1.00 MeV =

3.2 1017

= 5000 [C1]

2π (3.34 10 27 )

Time taken = 5000 x [C1]

(0.400)(1.60 10 19 )

= 1.63 x 10-3 s [A1]

Page 7 of 7

INNOVA JUNIOR COLLEGE

JC 2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 2

in preparation for General Certificate of Education Advanced Level

Higher 2

CANDIDATE

NAME

Paper 1 Multiple Choice 17 September 2010

1 hour 15 minutes

Additional Materials: Multiple Choice Answer Sheet

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

Write your name, class and index number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided

unless this has been done for you.

There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question, there are

four possible answers A, B, C and D.

Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate

Answer Sheet.

Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.

Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1

permeability of free space, μo = 4π x 10-7 H m-1

permittivity of free space, εo = 8.85 x 10 F m

-12 -1

elementary charge, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s-2

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + ½at2

v2 = u2+ 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p ΔV

3

average kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas U = kT

2

hydrostatic pressure, p = ρgh

GM

gravitational potential, Φ = −

r

displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = xosin ωt

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vocos ωt

= ±ω (x o

2

− x2 )

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

electric potential V = Q/4πεor

alternating current/voltage, x = xo sinωt

transmission coefficient T = exp (-2kd)

8π 2m (U − E )

where k =

h2

radioactive decay, x = xo exp(-λt)

0.693

decay constant, λ =

t½

3

B force and kinetic energy

C momentum and velocity

D power and speed

2 A student makes measurements from which she calculates the speed of sound as

327.66 m s-1. She estimates that her result is accurate to ± 3 %.

Which of the following gives her result expressed to the appropriate number of

significant figures?

causing a constant acceleration a. The force is not in the same direction as the initial

velocity.

A F B Ft C at D u + at

momentarily at rest, and falls back to his hands.

Which of the following gives the acceleration of the ball at various stages in its motion?

Take vertically upwards as positive. Neglect air resistance.

-2

A + 9.81 m s 0 - 9.81 m s-2

B - 9.81 m s-2 0 + 9.81 m s-2

C - 9.81 m s-2 0 - 9.81 m s-2

D - 9.81 m s-2 - 9.81 m s-2 - 9.81 m s-2

4

B The third law follows from the second law.

C Conservation of energy is a consequence of the third law.

D Conservation of energy is a consequence of the first law.

6 A tennis ball of mass 100 g is struck by a tennis racket. The velocity of the ball is

changed as shown.

Y

A 0.25

B 0.50

C 2.0

D 4.0

5

Which diagram best shows the direction of the total force exerted by the road on the

front wheels?

Three forces act on the door. The forces are the weight W of the door, the tension T in

the cable and the force H at the hinge. The diagram is not drawn to scale.

A W, H, T B W, T, H C H, T, W D T, H, W

10 Two springs P and Q both obey Hooke’s Law. They have spring constants 2k and k

respectively.

The springs are stretched, separately by the same force. The elastic potential energies

stored in spring P and Q are WP and WQ respectively.

A WP = ¼ WQ B WP = ½ WQ C WP = 2 WQ D WP = 4 WQ

6

11 A ball of mass 0.10 kg is attached to a string and swung in a vertical circle of radius

0.50 m. Its speed at the top of the circle is 6.0 m s-1.

6.0 m s-1

0.50 m

12 Which diagram shows the variation of gravitational force F on a point mass, and the

gravitational potential energy U of the mass, with its distance r from another point mass?

A B

C D

13 The escape speed of an oxygen molecule at the Earth’s surface is 1.1 × 104 m s-1. What

is the escape speed at a height 0.2 RE above the Earth’s surface, where RE is the radius

of the Earth?

B 1.0 × 104 m s-1

C 1.2 × 104 m s-1

D 2.5 × 104 m s-1

7

14 A trolley of mass 2.0 kg with free-running wheels is attached to two fixed points P and Q

by two springs under tension as shown.

10 N and is then released. The equation of the subsequent motion is a = -ω 2 x, where x

is the displacement from the equilibrium position.

A - 10 rad2 s-2 B - 100 rad2 s-2 C 10 rad2 s-2 D 100 rad2 s-2

15 A particle of mass 4.0 kg moves with a simple harmonic motion and its potential energy

U varies with position x as shown.

π 2 8π 4π 2π 2

A s B s C s D s

5 25 5 5

scale.

A Δθ

B Δθ + 273

C Δθ + 273.15

D Δθ + 273.16

8

shown in the diagram.

9

19 A light meter measures the intensity I of the light falling on it. Theory suggests that this

varies with the inverse of the square of the distance d.

20 A stationary wave has a series of nodes. The distance between the first and the sixth

node is 30.0 cm.

10

A The central fringe is black with black and white fringes on each side.

B The central fringe is black with coloured continuous spectrum on each side.

C The central fringe is white with black and white fringes on each side.

D The central fringe is white with coloured continuous spectrum on each side.

Third-order diffracted beams are formed at angles of 40° to the original direction.

11

24 An electric field exists in the space between two parallel charged metal plates.

Which of the following graphs shows the variation of electric field strength E with

distance d from X along the line XY?

What is the rate of flow and the direction of flow of electrons through the resistor R?

A 3.0 × 1019 s-1 X to Y

B 6.0 × 10 s

18 -1 X to Y

C 3.0 × 1019 s-1 Y to X

D 6.0 × 1018 s-1 Y to X

26 The resistivity of aluminum is 2.0 times that of silver. An aluminium wire of length L and

diameter d has a resistance R.

What is the diameter of the silver wire, also of length L and resistance R?

12

27 When four identical lamps P, Q, R and S are connected as shown in diagram 1, they

have normal brightness.

The four lamps and the battery are then connected as shown in diagram 2.

B The lamps are less bright than normal.

C The lamps have normal brightness.

D The lamps are brighter than normal.

28 In the circuit, the battery has an e.m.f. of 12 V and an internal resistance of 3.0 Ω. The

ammeter has negligible resistance.

13

29 A long straight wire XY lies in the same plane as a square loop of wire PQRS which is

free to move. The sides PS and QR are initially parallel to XY. The wire and loop carry

steady currents as shown in the diagram.

B It will move away from the long wire.

C It will rotate about an axis parallel to XY.

D It will be unaffected.

A uniform magnetic field of flux density B acts at an angle θ to the plane of the coil, as

shown.

What is the decrease in magnetic flux linkage when the coil rotates so that angle θ is

reduced to zero?

14

diagram 1. Diagram 2 shows the variation with time t of the distance s from point O.

Which graph best shows the variation with t of the e.m.f E induced in the rod?

A B

C D

when applied across a resistor R

graph 1 graph 2

What is the mean rate of production of heat when the square-wave potential difference

V2 shown in graph 2 is applied across the resistor?

W W

A B C 2W D 2W

2 2

15

33 A transformer has NP turns in its primary coil and Ns turns in the secondary coil. The

alternating voltage and current in the primary coil are VP and IP respectively. The

alternating voltage and current in the secondary coil are VS and IS respectively.

NS VS I S

A = =

NP VP I P

NS VS I P

B = =

NP VP I S

NS VS

C =

NP VP

NS I P

D =

NP I S

plotted as a graph of y against x, give a straight line passing through the origin.

Which of the following correctly identifies x and y with the photoelectric quantities?

x y

A photocurrent threshold frequency

B frequency of incident light maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons

C light intensity photocurrent

D light intensity maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons

16

35 The diagram shows the energy levels for an atom, drawn to scale. The electron

transitions give rise to the emission of a spectrum of lines of λ1, λ2, λ3, λ4 and λ5.

A λ1 > λ2

B λ3 = λ4 + λ5

C λ4 is the shortest of the five wavelengths.

D The transition corresponding to wavelength λ3 represents the ionisation of the atom.

17

36 The sketch graph shows how the wave function ψ of an electron varies with position.

Which graph, drawn on the same horizontal scale, gives the probability of finding an

electron at each position?

18

37 A proton has a kinetic energy of 1.00 MeV. If its momentum is measured with an

uncertainty of 1.00 %, what is the minimum uncertainty in its position?

A 9.08 × 10-13 m

B 2.28 × 10-13 m

C 9.08 × 10-14 m

D 5.64 × 10-14 m

Conduction band

Energy gap

Energy E

10

39 When an isotope of boron, 5 B captures a slow neutron, it splits into a lithium 73 Li and an

alpha particle. An emission of γ-ray occurs during this reaction. The nuclear binding

energies are

10

5B

: 64.94 MeV

7

3 Li : 39.25 MeV

4

2 He : 28.48 MeV

4

If the total kinetic energy of the products produced, 73 Li and 2 He is 2.31 MeV, the

energy of the γ-ray emitted is

40 The half-life of a certain radioactive material is 3.0 s. How long does it take for its activity

to reduce by 90%?

A 0.46 s B 5.4 s C 10 s D 11 s

END OF PAPER

INNOVA JUNIOR COLLEGE

JC 2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 2

in preparation for General Certificate of Education Advanced Level

Higher 2

CANDIDATE

NAME

PHYSICS 9646/02

Paper 2 Structured Questions 17 September 2010

1 hour 45 minutes

Candidates answer on the Question Paper

No Additional Materials are required.

Write your name, class and index number on all the work you For Examiner’s Use

hand in.

Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper. 1

6

You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough

working. 2

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction 7

fluid.

3

8

For Section A

Answer all questions. 4

6

It is recommended that you spend about 1 hour and 15

minutes on this section. 5

7

For Section B 6

Answer Question 8. 8

It is recommended that you spend about 30 minutes on this

section. 7

18

12

together.

The number of marks is given in the brackets [ ] at the end of

each question or part question. Total

72

Innova Junior College [Turn over

2

For

Data Examiner’s

Use

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1

permeability of free space, μo = 4π x 10-7 H m-1

permittivity of free space, εo = 8.85 x 10 F m

-12 -1

elementary charge, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s-2

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + ½at2

v2 = u2+ 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p ΔV

3

average kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas U = kT

2

hydrostatic pressure, p = ρgh

GM

gravitational potential, Φ = −

r

displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = xosin ωt

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vocos ωt

= ±ω (x o

2

− x2 )

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

electric potential V = Q/4πεor

alternating current/voltage, x = xo sinωt

transmission coefficient T = exp (-2kd)

8π 2m (U − E )

where k =

h2

radioactive decay, x = xo exp(-λt)

0.693

decay constant, λ =

t½

3

Section A For

Examiner’s

Use

Answer all the questions in this section.

1 (a) Complete Fig. 1.1 to show each quantity and its base units. [2]

speed m s-1

density kg m-3

…………………… kg m s-1

electric field strength ……………………

Fig. 1.1

(b) In the classroom, a student wishes to determine the mass of a plastic semi-circular

protractor.

Fig. 1.2

(i) Give a reasoned estimate of the mass of the semi-circular protractor and express

your answer in an SI unit.

(ii) State an instrument which is most appropriate for the measurement of the

thickness of the protractor x, as indicated in Fig. 1.2.

……………………………………………………………………………..…..…….….. [1]

…..…………………………………………………………………………..……………….

……………………………………………………………………………..…..…….….. [1]

4

2 ‘Clay pigeon shooting’ is a sport whereby the shooter aims and hits the clay disc For

Examiner’s

projected by a launcher. A certain clay disc is launched from the horizontal ground with a Use

o

velocity of 20 m s-1 at an angle of 30 to the horizontal.

(ii) the horizontal distance between the point from which the disc is launched and

where it lands on the ground.

(b) The path N for the above disc is as given in Fig. 2.1 where air resistance is neglected.

20 m s-1

o

30

Fig. 2.1

(i) Draw the path of the clay disc on Fig. 2.1, assuming that air resistance cannot be

neglected. Label this path A. [1]

(ii) Suggest an explanation for any differences between the two paths N and A.

.………………………………………………………………………………………………

.………………………………………………………………………………………………

.………………………………………………………………………………………………

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

5

3 Fig. 3.1 shows a binary star system where two identical stars each of mass 4.0×1030 kg For

Examiner’s

are moving with a constant speed v in a circular orbit of radius 1.0×1011 m about their Use

common centre of mass.

star

star 1.0×1011 m

Fig. 3.1

You may assume that each star to be a uniform sphere with its mass concentrated at

the centre of the sphere.

(a) (i) On Fig. 3.1, label with the letter ‘X’ a point where the gravitational field strength is

zero. [1]

………………………………………………………………………………………………

..………………………………..………………………………………………………. [1]

6

(ii) the linear speed v. For

Examiner’s

Use

7

4 (a) Define For

Examiner’s

Use

(i) magnetic flux density,

………………………………………………………………………………………………

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...………………………………..………………………………………………………. [1]

………………………………………………………………………………………………

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...………………………………..………………………………………………………. [1]

(b) Fig. 4.1 shows an electric motor which is made up of a rectangular coil of wire of 150

turns. The coil is 0.20 m long and 0.12 m wide. The coil has a current of 0.32 A

flowing through it and its plane is parallel to a field of magnetic flux density 0.36 T.

magnetic field

0.12 m

Y

0.20 m

0.32A

Fig. 4.1

(i) Draw arrows on Fig. 4.1 to represent the directions of the magnetic forces acting

on the coil. Label them F. [1]

(ii) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic force acting on one side of the coil.

8

(iii) Calculate the torque which is exerted on the coil. For

Examiner’s

Use

9

5 A student sets up the apparatus shown in Fig. 5.1 to demonstrate a two slit interference For

Examiner’s

pattern on the screen. The set-up is modelled after Young’s double slit experiment. The Use

slits S1 and S2 are of the same width.

slit slit

S1

laser So d

beam S2

Fig. 5.1

(a) Explain why the single slit So is not necessary in this particular set-up.

.…….……………………………………………………………………………………………

..……………………………….……………………………………………………………. [1]

(b) The laser beam has a wavelength of 630 nm. The separation d is 1.0 mm and the

distance D is 2.5 m. Determine the separation of the fringes on the screen.

(c) Describe and explain what would be observed on the screen if the slit S1 is made

narrower by half compared to slit S2 while maintaining the same separation d.

.…….……………………………………………………………………………………………

.…….……………………………………………………………………………………………

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..……………………………….……………………………………………………………. [2]

10

(d) Explain how the result of this experiment provided evidence that light must have For

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wave properties. Use

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11

6 (a) (i) Electromagnetic radiation has a wave nature as well as a particulate nature. This For

Examiner’s

is known as wave-particle duality. Describe a situation in which particles can be Use

shown to have a wave nature.

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…………………………………..………………………………………………………. [3]

(ii) Calculate the wavelength of a particle of mass 1.82 x 10-28 kg when travelling with

a speed which equals to 10% of the speed of light.

hence it also exhibits wave-like behaviour such as polarisation. Explain why

polarisation is a phenomenon of transverse waves but not longitudinal waves.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

..………………………………..………………………………………………………. [1]

12

(b) Fig 6.1 illustrates a phenomenon known as the Compton effect, whereby an incident For

Examiner’s

X-ray photon is scattered by an electron at rest. The wavelength of the scattered Use

photon λ’ is found to be longer than the wavelength λ of the incident photon.

electron after

collision

incident

photon (λ)

θ

electron at φ

rest

Scattered

photon (λ’)

Fig. 6.1

particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation.

.…….……………………………………………………………………………………………

.…….……………………………………………………………………………………………

.…….……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………….……………………………………………………………. [2]

13

7 Multi-bladed low-speed wind turbines (windmills) similar to the one shown in Fig. 7.1 For

Examiner’s

have been used since 1870, particularly for pumping water on farms. Use

Fig. 7.1

The turbine blades cover almost the whole surface of the wheel and a tail vane behind

the windmill keeps the wheel facing the wind. The diameters of the wheel of windmills of

this type vary from 2 m to a practical maximum of about 12 m. Because of this size

limitation, they are not suited to large power outputs. They will start freely with wind

speeds as low as 2 m s-1 and, at these low speeds, can produce large torques.

14

Fig. 7.2 shows how P, the output power of these windmills, varies with the overall For

Examiner’s

diameter of the wheel for different wind speeds, v. Use

v = 8.0 m s-1

Power P / W

v = 5.0 m s-1

v = 4.0 m s-1

v = 3.0 m s-1

v = 2.0 m s-1

diameter / m

Fig. 7.2

15

(a) It is thought that, for a given diameter, the output power is related to the wind speed For

Examiner’s

by the equation Use

P = k v n,

where n and k are constants.

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…....……………………………….……………………………………………………………

………………………………….…………………………….…………………………………

.…….……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………….……………………………………………………………. [3]

(b) (i) Use Fig. 7.2 to determine lg (P / W) for a particular multi-bladed low-speed

windmill with a wheel of diameter 6.0 m and wind speed 3.0 m s-1.

lg (P / W) = ………………………… [1]

1. plot the point corresponding to a wheel diameter of 6.0 m and a wind speed of

3.0 m s-1, [1]

lg (P / W)

x

3.5

x

x

3.0

x

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00

-1

Fig. 7.3 lg (v / m s )

16

(iii) Use the line drawn in (b)(ii) to determine the magnitudes of the constants n and k For

Examiner’s

in the expression in (a). Use

n = …………………………

k = ………………………… [3]

(c) (i) When the wind speed is 8.0 m s-1, calculate the volume of air that reaches the

6.0 m diameter wheel of the windmill in one second.

(ii) The density of air is 1.3 kg m-3. Calculate the kinetic energy of the volume of

moving air in (c)(i).

(d) Use your answer in (c)(ii), together with data from Fig. 7.2 to find the fraction of this

power converted into useful output power.

17

(e) State three factors, other than wind speed and diameter of wheel, that are likely to For

Examiner’s

influence the output power. In each case, indicate how the power output is likely to Use

be affected.

1. ……………………………….………………………………………………………….……

….……………………………….……………………………………………………………

2. ………………….……………….……………………………………………………………

…….…………………………….……………………………………………………………

3. …….…….……………………………………………………………………………………

.…………………………….……………………………………………………………. [3]

(f) In practice, it has been found difficult to scale up a windmill such as this to a wheel of

30 m diameter, to achieve power outputs of the order of megawatts. Suggest two

reasons for this.

1. ………………….……………….……………………………………………………………

…….…………………………….……………………………………………………………

2. …….…….……………………………………………………………………………………

.…………………………….……………………………………………………………. [2]

18

Section B For

Examiner’s

Use

It is recommended that you spend about 30 minutes on this section.

The cantilever is a beam that is supported on only one end and it can be represented by

a loaded wooden rule, as shown in Fig 8.1. As a result of support only at one end, a

cantilever will oscillate when it is subjected to external forces such as wind.

Fig 8.1

Design a laboratory experiment to investigate how the period of the oscillation of the

loaded wooden rule depends on the overhanging length l of the rule.

You may assume that the following apparatus is available, together with any other

standard equipment that may be found in a school or college science laboratory.

wooden rule

slotted mass

stopwatch

G-clamp

You should draw diagram to show the arrangement of your apparatus. In your account

you should pay particular attention to

(e) any precautions that you would take to improve the accuracy of the experiment. [12]

19

Diagram For

Examiner’s

Use

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20

For

Examiner’s

…....…………………………………………………………………………………………………….... Use

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21

For

Examiner’s

…....…………………………………………………………………………………………………….... Use

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END OF PAPER

INNOVA JUNIOR COLLEGE

JC 2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 2

in preparation for General Certificate of Education Advanced Level

Higher 2

CANDIDATE

NAME

Paper 3 Longer Structured Questions 21 September 2010

2 hours

Candidates answer on the Question Paper

No Additional Materials are required.

For Examiner’s Use

Write your name, class and index number on all the work you

hand in. Section A

Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper.

You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough

1

working. 10

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction

fluid. 2

10

Section A 3

Answer all questions. 10

4

Section B 10

Answer any two questions.

Section B

You are advised to spend about one hour on each section.

5

The number of marks is given in the brackets [ ] at the end of 20

each question or part question. 6

20

7

20

Total

80

Penalty

[Turn over

2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1

permeability of free space, μo = 4π x 10-7 H m-1

permittivity of free space, εo = 8.85 x 10 F m

-12 -1

elementary charge, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s-2

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + ½at2

v2 = u2+ 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p ΔV

3

Average kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas U = kT

2

hydrostatic pressure, p = ρgh

GM

gravitational potential, Φ = −

r

displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = xo sin ωt

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vo cos ωt

= ±ω (x o

2

− x2 )

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

electric potential V = Q/4πεor

alternating current/voltage, x = xo sinωt

transmission coefficient T = exp (-2kd)

8π 2m (U − E )

where k =

h2

radioactive decay, x = xo exp(-λt)

0.693

decay constant, λ =

t½

3

Section A For

Examiner’s

Use

Answer all the questions in this section.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

(ii) On the axes of Fig 1.1, sketch the variation with displacement x of the

acceleration a of a particle undergoing simple harmonic motion.

[1]

Fig 1.1

(b) A strip of metal is clamped to the edge of a bench and a mass is hung from its free

end as shown in Fig. 1.2.

Fig 1.2

4

The end of the strip is pulled downwards and then released. Fig. 1.3 shows the For

Examiner’s

variation with time t of the displacement y of the end of the strip. Use

Fig 1.3

(i) State two times, apart from t = 0, at which the end of the strip is stationary.

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [1]

(ii) State two times at which the end of the strip is moving vertically upwards with

maximum speed.

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [1]

(iii) State two times at which the end of the strip is moving with maximum downward

acceleration.

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [1]

(c) On Fig. 1.4, sketch the corresponding variation with time t of the potential energy Ep

of the vibrating system. [2]

Fig 1.4

(d) The string supporting the mass breaks when the end of the strip is at its lowest point

in an oscillation. Suggest what change, if any, will occur in the period and amplitude

of the subsequent motion of the end of the strip.

Period : ..……………………………………………………………………………..……

5

2 (a) (i) What is meant by the term internal energy of a system? For

Examiner’s

Use

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

(ii) Write down an equation representing first law of thermodynamics. Define the

symbols that you use.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

(i) Explain why there is a change in internal energy as water changes to steam.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

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.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

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.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

(iii) With reference to your answers in (b)(i) and (b)(ii), show that thermal energy

must be supplied to the water during the boiling process.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

6

3 (a) A charged particle may experience a force in an electric field and in a magnetic field. For

Examiner’s

Use

State two differences between the forces experienced in the two types of field.

1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

...………………………………………………………………………………………… [2]

(b) A proton, travelling in a vacuum at a speed of 4.5 × 106 m s–1, enters a region of

uniform magnetic field of flux density 0.12 T. The path of the proton in the field is a

circular arc, as illustrated in Fig. 3.1.

Fig 3.1

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [1]

(ii) Calculate the radius of the path of the proton, in terms of cm, in the magnetic field.

7

(c) A uniform electric field is now created in the same region as the magnetic field in For

Examiner’s

Fig. 3.1, so that the proton passes undeviated through the region of the two fields. Use

(i) On Fig. 3.1, mark with an arrow labelled E, the direction of the electric field. [1]

(d) Suggest why gravitational force on the proton has not been considered in the

calculations in (b) and (c).

.…………………………………..……………………………………………..…………… [1]

8

4 (a) (i) Explain what is meant by metastable state and population inversion. For

Examiner’s

Use

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

(ii) Explain why it is important in the production of laser to excite atoms to the

metastable state.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

(iii) Explain how stimulated emission enables a laser to deliver a monochromatic light

beam.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

.…………………………………..……………………………………………………… [2]

9

(b) The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one For

Examiner’s

direction while blocking current in the opposite direction. This rectifying behaviour Use

can be achieved by using p-n junctions made of semiconductors. A p-n junction is

formed when a p-type and n-type extrinsic semiconductors are joined as shown in

Fig 4.1.

n-type p-type

material material

Fig 4.1

Explain, with a diagram, how the p-n junction acts as an open switch during the

rectification of an alternating current.

…...……………………………………………………………………………………………...

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………………………………………..……………………………………………………… [4]

10

Section B For

Examiner’s

Use

Answer two of the questions in this section.

5 (a) (i) State Newton’s first law of motion and show it leads to the concept of force.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

.………………………………..……..…………………………………………………. [2]

(ii) Using diagrams, with labelled arrows showing the velocity v and acceleration a,

describe situations in which an object

2. has an acceleration at right angles to its velocity.

In each case, include in your diagram, a labelled arrow to illustrate the direction of

the resultant force F acting on the object.

1.

…....……………………………………………………………………………………….

……....………………………………………………………………………………… [2]

2.

…....……………………………………………………………………………………….

……....………………………………………………………………………………… [2]

11

(b) A ship of mass 1.2 × 107 kg is moving backwards with a velocity of 0.50 m s-1 towards For

Examiner’s

a dockside. In order to stop the ship, the engines are ordered full ahead. Use

(ii) Assuming that viscous effects are negligible, calculate the magnitude of the

constant retarding force which must be exerted on the ship if it is to stop in a

distance of 15 m.

(iii) Calculate the time taken by the ship to stop under these conditions.

(iv) Explain qualitatively how your answer in (iii) would be affected by viscous forces.

…......……..…………………………………………………………………………………

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...……..………………………………………………………………………………..... [3]

12

(v) Calculate the change in momentum of the ship as it comes to a complete halt at For

Examiner’s

the dock. Use

(vi) Using your answer in (v) and with the aid of a diagram, explain how the law of

conservation of momentum is applied in this example.

……..……..…………………………………………………………………………………

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...……..……………..…………………………………………………………………... [3]

13

6 (a) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of the type of apparatus used by Rutherford, Geiger and For

Examiner’s

Marsden to investigate the nuclear model of the atom. Use

[2]

(ii) With the aid of diagrams, discuss qualitatively two important outcomes of the

experiment that provided the evidence for the nuclear model of the atom.

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14

For

(b) A stationary radium ( 226

88 Ra ) nucleus decays into a radon (Rn) nucleus and an Examiner’s

α-particle. Use

….…………………………………..…………………………………………………… [1]

v

(ii) Show that the ratio of speeds α after the decay is approximately 56.

v Rn

[2]

15

(iii) After the decay which takes place at a large distance from the gold nucleus, the For

Examiner’s

α-particle moves head-on towards a gold ( 197 79 Au ) nucleus with a speed of Use

Sketch 2 curves on Fig. 6.1 to illustrate how the electrical potential energy

between the two particles, and the kinetic energy of the α-particle varies with

position between the α-particle and the gold ( 197

79 Au ) nucleus.

79 Au ) nucleus remains stationary during the

interaction.

[2]

Point of closest

approach of α-particle B

A

α

vA

E/J

0

Position of α-particle relative to

the point of closest approach

Fig. 6.1

(iv) Calculate the distance of closest approach of the α-particle relative to the gold

( 197

79 Au ) nucleus.

16

(v) With reference to your answer to (b) (iv), comment on the radius of the gold For

Examiner’s

nucleus. Use

..………………………………………………………………………………………..……

……………………………..……..………………………………………………..……. [1]

79 Au ).

17

7 (a) X-rays are emitted when a metal target is bombarded by high-energy electrons. For

Examiner’s

Fig. 7.1 shows a X-ray spectrum which consists of a broad continuous spectrum and Use

a series of sharp lines known as characteristic X-ray spectrum.

intensity

characteristic spectrum

continuous spectrum

wavelength

λo

Fig. 7.1

…..……………………………………………………………………………………..……

…..……………………………………………………………………………………..……

…..……………………………………………………………………………………..……

…..……………………………………………………………………………………..……

…..……………………………………………………………………………………..……

..…………………………..……..………………………………………………..……. [3]

(ii) Explain why there is a minimum wavelength λo for the continuous spectrum in

Fig. 7.1.

…..……………………………………………………………………………………..……

..…………………………..……..………………………………………………..……. [1]

(iii) Suggest a reason why the lines are called the characteristic X-ray spectrum.

…..……………………………………………………………………………………..……

..…………………………..……..………………………………………………..……. [1]

18

(b) Fig. 7.2 shows an experimental setup to investigate the photoelectric effect. For

Examiner’s

Ultraviolet (UV) light of wavelength 237 nm is incident on an emitter of area 2.0 cm2 Use

and a current reading of 2.00 nA is registered.

I

A

collector +

UV light Variable

V d.c supply

_

emitter

Fig. 7.2

(i) Given that every 1 in 5 photons causes a photoelectron to be emitted from the

emitter, show that the rate of photons incident on the emitter is 6.25 × 1010 s-1.

[2]

19

(iv) The battery connections in Fig. 7.2 are reversed so that the emitter is made For

Examiner’s

positive with respect to the collector. Use

1. Given that the work function of emitter is 4.7 eV, calculate the stopping

potential.

2. Explain why the stopping potential in (b)(iv)1. remains the same when the

intensity of the UV light is increased.

……………………………………………………………..……………………………

……………………………………………………………..……………………………

..….……………………………………………..………………………………………

……………………………………………………………..……………………………

..….……………………………………………..………………………………………

.………..……….…………………………..……………………….………………. [3]

20

(c) Fig. 7.3 represents the energy levels for an atom. The atom at ground state is For

Examiner’s

bombarded with an electron of energy 17 eV. Use

n=4 -2eV

n=3 -5 eV

n=2 -7 eV

n=1 -20 eV

Fig. 7.3

(i) State all possible photon energies when the atom returns to its ground state.

…..………………..……….……………………………………………………………. [2]

(ii) On Fig.7.4, sketch the appearance of the spectrum which corresponds to the

frequencies of the emitted photons.

[1]

Increasing frequency

Fig. 7.4

(iii) Explain the difference between an emission line spectrum and an absorption line

spectrum.

…..…………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………..……..………………………………………………..……. [1]

END OF PAPER

Innova Junior College

2010 Prelim 2 H2 Physics

Paper I Solutions

1 B 11 B 21 D 31 D

2 C 12 C 22 B 32 D

3 C 13 B 23 D 33 C

4 D 14 D 24 C 34 C

5 A 15 D 25 C 35 A

6 B 16 A 26 B 36 B

7 C 17 B 27 C 37 B

8 B 18 D 28 B 38 B

9 A 19 D 29 A 39 A

10 B 20 D 30 B 40 C

B force (vector) and kinetic energy (scalar)

C momentum (vector) and velocity (vector)

D power (scalar) and speed (scalar)

2.

ΔV = 0.03×327.66

ΔV = 9.8298

ΔV = 10m s-1 (to 1 s.f.)

3.

-u

The vector on side X is the sum of vector : v + (-u)

From v = u + at,

v – u = at

4. Since air resistance is neglected, the ball undergoes free fall after it leaves the hand and

before it falls back on the hand. Under free-falling, the acceleration is due to gravity and

acting downwards (negative by convention) all the time, even when the ball is

momentarily at rest at the maximum height.

5. From Newton’s second law, net force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum.

For a case where there is no net force acting on an object, the object will maintain its

momentum (i.e. either stay at rest or continue its motion with a constant speed along a

straight line) , which is Newton’s first law.

1

6. Δ p = pf – pi

Δ p = m vf – m vi

Δ p = [0.100 (–30)] – [0.100 (20)]

Δ p = – 5.0 kg m s-1 (to the left)

⏐Δ p⏐ = 5.0 kg m s-1

7.

From Conservation of Momentum,

Initial momentum of system = Final momentum of system

0 = px + p y

py = – p x

p2

Use KE = to establish the ratio,

2m

2

px 2 px

X 2(m ) 2(m )

= 2

= 2

= 2.0

Y py px

2(2m ) 2(2m )

Normal force by road

Friction by road

2

9.

Ty

Tx

Hx

Hy

Tx = Hx

Ty = Hy + Wy

hence T > H (Only Option A and C)

Hence T > W

(Leaving option A as the answer)

For spring P,

F = (2k) xP

F

xP =

2k

For spring Q,

F = (k) xQ

F

XQ =

k

Work done on spring:

W=½Fx

Since F is constant,

W∝ x

WP xP

=

WQ xQ

F

WP 2k 1

= =

WQ F 2

k

WP = ½ WQ

3

11.

T

At the top position, tension and weight are both acting vertically downwards on the ball.

mv 2

= T +W

r

mv 2

= T + mg

r

(0.10)(6.0)2

T= - (0.10)(9.81)

(0.50)

T = 6.2 N

-GMm

12. From U = , U has negative values.

r

- dU

From F = , F is the negative gradient of U–r graph.

dr

13. For molecule to escape, it must be given enough KE to overcome the GPE.

-GMm

½ m v2 = 0 – ( )

r

2GM

v=

r

1

v∝

r

v1.2RE RE

=

v RE 1.2 RE

ao = - ω 2 x o

Fmax

= ω 2 xo

m

10

= ω 2 (0.05)

2.0

ω 2 =100

4

15.

From graph, PEmax at amplitude position = 1.0 J

By conservation of energy, KEmax at equilibrium position is also 1.0 J.

1

vo = m s-1

2

For SHM, vo = xo ω

1 2π

=(0.2)

2 T

1 2π

=

2 5T

2π 2

T= s

5

θf - θI = Δθ

Converting to Kelvins,

(θf + 273.15) – (θI + 273.15) = Δθ

17.

For W → X,

work done on gas = area under the p-V curve = 400 J

For Y → Z,

work done on gas = area under the p-V curve = - 600 J

For X → Y and Z → W,

work done on gas = 0 J

For cycle W → X → Y → Z → W

Net work done on gas = 400 + 0 + (-600) + 0 = -200 J

18.

Δφ Δt

=

2π T

Δφ 1.5T

=

2π T

Δφ = 3 π

∴n = 3

1

19. Since I ∝ ,

d2

1

I=k ,

d2

1

For a graph of I against , a straight line passing through the origin is obtained.

d2

5

20. 2.5 λ = 30.0 cm

λ = 12.0 cm

21. The zeroth order fringes of the various wavelengths overlap to give a central bright fringe.

Other than this, the various wavelengths of light are diffracted by different diffraction

angles (red, having the largest wavelength, will be diffracted the most), to form coloured

fringes on each side.

22.

d sin θ = n λ

d sin 40° = 3 λ --- Eqn (1)

nmax = 4.67

nmax = 4 (round down)

23. The electric field of a negatively point charge is directed radially inwards.

24. The electric field between 2 parallel charged plates is uniform. Hence E is constant when

plotted against d.

25. Q = I t

Ne e = I t

Ne I

=

t e

Ne

= 3.0 × 1019 s-1

t

The electrons flow from the negative to the positive terminal of the battery. Hence Y to X.

26.

ρL

R=

R

ρL

R= 2

⎛d ⎞

π⎜ ⎟

⎝2⎠

ρ alumimium ρ silver

2

= 2

⎛ d alumimium ⎞ ⎛ d silver ⎞

π⎜ ⎟ π⎜ ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

ρ silver d silver 2

=

ρ alumimium d alu min ium 2

1 d silver 2

=

2 d2

d silver = 0.71 d

6

27. The potential difference across each lamp in diagram 2 is the same as that in diagram 1.

Hence power dissipated in each lamp is the same. Each lamp will light up with normal

brightness.

1 1 1

= +

R 6 6

R = 3.0 Ω

E = I (R+r)

12 = I (3.0 + 3.0)

I = 2.0 A

Since I1 + I2 = 2.0 A

And I1 = I2

I1 = 1.0 A

29.

XY carrying a current upwards, produces a magnetic field (into the page) in the region

where PQRS is. Segment PS, carrying a current upwards experiences a magnetic force

directed towards XY while segment QR, carrying a current downwards will experience a

magnetic force away from XY. However, the strength of the magnetic field decreases

with distance from XY, hence PS being nearer to XY will experience a larger force

compared to QR. Hence, the coil experiences a net force towards XY and it will move in

that direction.

The magnetic force acting on PQ upwards and the magnetic force acting on SR is

downwards. These 2 forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, hence they

cancel.

30. Initially,

Φ = nBA cos α , where α is the angle between the magnetic field and normal to the

plane.

Φ = nBA sin θ

7

31.

Constant gradient velocity is zero

implies velocity is E = Blv is zero.

constant.

E = Blv is a constant.

Vo 2

P R =W

<P> = o =

2 2

For the square-wave,

Vo 2

<P> = =2W

R

NS VS I P

33. If the transformer is 100% efficient, = = will be true.

NP VP I S

N V

If the transformer is NOT 100% efficient, only S = S can be applied.

NP VP

N V

Hence, S = S must be true.

NP VP

34. As light intensity increases, the number of photons arriving at the metal surface per unit

time increases. An increase in the number of photons per unit time by a certain

proportion will lead to an increase in the number of photoelectrons per unit time (hence

photocurrent) in the same proportion.

35. From E = hc , energy of photon 1 is smaller than energy of photon 2, hence λ1 > λ2.

λ

36. The square of the wavefunction ψ gives the probability of finding the electron at each

2

position.

8

37.

p2

KE =

2m

p2

1.0 × 106 × 1.6 × 10-19 =

2 (1.67 × 10-27 )

p = 2.312 × 10-20 kg m s-1

h

Δx Δp ≥

4π

h

Δx (2.312 × 10-22 ) ≥

4π

Δx ≥ 2.28 × 10-13

Hence, minimum Δx is 2.28 × 10-13 m.

38. B

39. 10

5 B + 01n → 73 Li + 42 He + net energy release

net energy release = energy release when 73 Li is formed from its constituent nucleons

+ energy release when 42 He is formed from its constituent nucleons

- energy required for 10

5 B to separate into its constituent nucleons

net energy release = 2.79 MeV

KE of 73 Li and 42 He + energy of γ photon = 2.79 MeV

Thus, energy of γ photon = 0.48 MeV

40. A = Ao e - λt

A

= e − λt

Ao

A

When Ao reduces by 90%, it means = 10%

Ao

⎛ ln2 ⎞

−⎜ ⎟t

0.10 = e ⎝ 3.0 ⎠

t = 9.97 s

t =10 s

9

Innova Junior College

2010 Prelim 2 H2 Physics

Paper 2 Solutions

Section A

1 (a)

kg m s-1 = [mass] × [velocity] = [momentum] or [impulse] [B1]

electric force

electric field strength =

charge

electric force

electric field strength =

charge

electric field strength = [E] = [mass] × [acceleration]

[current] × [time]

kg m s-2

[E] =

As

[E] = kg m A -1 s-3 [B1]

(b) (i) Estimate the density of plastic to be 2 times that of water = 2 g cm-3

Mass of protractor = ½ π r 2 x ρ

Mass of protractor = ½ π (5.0)2 (0.1) (2)

Mass of protractor = 7.9 g

[A1] for acceptable range of 5 to 50 g

(iii) Repeat the measurement of x at different parts of the protractor and taking

average. [B1]

2 (a) (i) Taking into consideration, the vertical component of the motion

u y = u sin θ = (20) sin 30 o = 10.0 m s-1

v 2y = u 2y + 2 gh

0 = (10.0) 2 + 2(−9.81)h [M1]

h = 5.10 m [A1]

v y = u y + gt

0 = 10.0 + (−9.81)t

t = 1.02 s [C1]

1

vx = u x = u cos θ = (20) cos 30o = 17.3 m s-1

= (u x )(time of flight )

= (17.3)(1.02×2)

= 35.3 m [A1]

(b)

20 m s-1 A

o

30

Fig. 2.1

(i) The maximum height and the horizontal distance will both be reduced. [B1]

Note: The path should be shorter in height and in range slightly. No mark for

excessive reduction in height and range as the effect of air resistance is

slight. The path should be asymmetrical as the net force on the clay disc is

varied.

(ii) Suggest an explanation for any differences between the two paths N and A.

The maximum vertical height is smaller because the net force acting against the

object moving up is larger (weight plus air resistance). The deceleration on the

object is greater, thus the maximum vertical displacement is reduced. [B1]

The shorter time of flight due to the reduced maximum height causes the horizontal

distance covered to be reduced. Or the additional horizontal force due to air

resistance causes the object to be displaced less horizontally. [B1]

3

v

star

star 1.0×1011 m

Fig. 3.1

v

2

The stars are directly opposite each other. When an object of any mass is placed at

the centre, it will have two forces of equal magnitude acting in opposite directions

thereby causing the net gravitational force on the object to be zero. Hence, the net

gravitational field strength here will be zero.

[B1]

⎛ GM ⎞

= ⎜− ⎟×2

⎝ r ⎠

⎛ (6.67 × 10 −11 )(4.0 × 10 30 ) ⎞

= ⎜⎜ − ⎟×2

⎟ [M1]

⎝ 1.0 × 1011 ⎠

= -5.34 × 109 J kg-1 [A1]

It is also the work done to transfer an object of unit mass from infinity to this point.

GM 2

(b)(i) Net force = Gravitational force =

(2r ) 2

(6.67 × 10 −11 )(4.0 × 10 30 ) 2

= [M1]

(2 × 1.0 × 1011 ) 2

= 2.67×1028 N [A1]

Mv 2

= Net force

r

(4.0 × 10 30 )v 2

= 2.67×1028 [M1]

1.0 × 10 11

4

(a) (i) Magnetic flux density is the magnetic force acting on a straight wire per unit length

per unit current flowing through it, when the wire is placed perpendicular to the

magnetic field. [B1]

(ii) It is the amount of magnetic flux density of a uniform magnetic field when a magnetic

force per unit length per unit current of 1 newton per metre per ampere acts on a

straight wire placed perpendicular to the magnetic field. [B1]

(b) (i)

3

Magnetic field

F 0.12 m

Y

0.20 m

0.32A F

Correct direction for forces acting on each side of the coil showing a couple [B1]

F = NBIL sinθ

= (150)(0.36)(0.32)(0.20) sin 90o [M1]

= 3.46 N [A1]

= (Magnitude of one force)×(perpendicular distance between forces)

= (3.46)(0.12)

= 0.415 N m [A1]

5 (a) The single slit So is not necessary because the light source used is a laser and it is

already coherent by nature. [B1]

(b) Separation of fringes x = = [M1]

d (1.0 ×10−3 )

= 1.58×10-3 m

= 1.58 mm [A1]

(c) Since the separation of the slits is maintained, the separation of the fringes is

unchanged. Because one slit is made narrower, the fringes are not so distinct or

clearly observable. [B1]

The amplitude of the light emerging from it will be less than that from the other slit.

The amplitudes are not the same and hence, when the waves combine at the

locations of destructive interference, there are no total cancellations of waves.

[B1]

(d)The observation that there are bright and dark fringes on the screen is an indication

that interference has taken place. [B1]

Bright fringes are where constructive interference takes place while dark fringes are

where destructive interference takes place. The summation of the two combined light

rays is a direct consequence of the principle of superposition which applies to waves.

Thus, light has wave properties. [B1]

4

6

(a) (i) A beam of electrons passes through the graphite ‘diffraction grating’ [B1].

An interference pattern of circular concentric rings is seen on the screen [B1].

The de-Broglie wavelength of the electron is of the same order as the lattice spacing

of the graphite atoms [B1].

(ii)

h

λ=

mv

6.63 × 10−34

= [M1]

(1.82 × 10−28 ) × (0.10 × 3.0 × 108 )

=1.21× 10-13 m [A1]

(iii) For a transverse wave, there are many possible vibration of particles as long as it is

perpendicular to the direction of the wave, but the axis of vibration of particles in a

longitudinal wave is always parallel to the direction of the wave [B1].

(b) As a result of collision, the momentum of the electron increases and the momentum of

h

the photon decreases as the momentum of the scattered photon is less than the

λ'

h

momentum of the incident photon (since λ’ is longer than λ) [B1].

λ

From the principle of conservation of linear momentum [B1], the decrease in the

momentum of the incident photon displays the particulate nature of electromagnetic

radiation.

5

7.

(a) Linearise the equation P = k vn by taking lg on both sides,

lg P = lg (k v n)

lg P = lg k + n lg v [B1]

If the points lie close to a straight-line trend, the relationship P = k v n is true. [B1]

(b)

lg (P / W)

3.5

0.91, 3.45

3.0

2.5

1.5

1.0

0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00

-1

lg (v / m s )

(a) (i) For diameter = 6.0 m and v = 3.0 m s-1,

P = 150 W

lg P = 2.18 [A1]

(iii)

3.45 -1.90

Gradient = [B1]

0.91- 0.38

n = 2.93 (to 3 s.f) [A1] for n = 2.95 ± 0.05

6

Sub (0.38, 1.90) and gradient = 2.93,

1.90 = (2.93) (0.38) + y-intercept

y-intercept = 0.7866

lg k = 0.7866

k = 6.12 [A1]

volume πr 2 x

=

time t

volume

= πr 2v

time

2

volume ⎛ 6.0 ⎞

=π ⎜ ⎟ 8.0

time ⎝ 2 ⎠

volume

= 226.2 = 230 m3 s-1

time

In 1 sec,

Volume of air = 230 m3 [A1]

1

(c) (ii) kinetic energy = mv 2

2

1

kinetic energy = ( ρV)v 2

2

1

kinetic energy = (1.3)(226.2)(8)2 [M1]

2

(d) = = 0.292 (to 3 s.f) [A1]

total power 9409.92

- Height of the windmill. The wind is stronger at higher heights, hence the

output power will be higher.

- Location of the windmill. For example, the wind is stronger near the coast and

the power output will be higher.

- Type of material used for the blades. A lighter material has smaller inertia in

rotating and hence the power output will be higher.

- Shape of the blades. An aerodynamic shape will cause the power output to

be higher.

- Surface area of the blade. A larger surface area implies that more wind is in

contact with the blade and the power output will be higher.

- Friction between the wheel and the axle. A higher friction would mean that

more energy is lost through heat, causing the power output to be less.

- The wheel of diameter 30 m may be too heavy to mount during construction.

- The wheel produces a very large torque, hence may be unstable.

- To provide a strong frame to support it, it may be costly.

- There may be space constraints to construct long blades as they extend 30m

high up.

7

Section B

Suggested Solution

Diagram

B

fixed ends load

G-clamp

1. Diagram is to show that the cantilever is fixed using g-clamp & bench or retort stand and clamp

or any other appropriate means.

Procedure

1. Set up the apparatus as shown above.

Variable(s) to be controlled

2. Ensure that the mass of the load at the end of the strip remains unchanged by using the same

slotted mass.

3. Ensure that the position of the mass remains unchanged by taping or gluing it at the end of

the rule.

4. Ensure that the Young modulus of the rule remains unchanged by using the same wooden

rule. (not type or material as not quantifiable)

5. Ensure that the width and/or thickness of the rule remain unchanged by using the same

wooden rule.

(Maximum 1 out of these 4 controls)

setup

Initial

6. Measure the overhanging length l of the rule using the scale on the rule [M1].

7. Slightly displace the end of the rule vertically downwards so that the end of the rule starts

Measurement

of dependent

variable

8. Measure the time taken t for many oscillations such that the time is more than 20 seconds

using a stopwatch. [M1] An oscillation is considered when the end of the rule moves from A to

B, then back to B to A.

Repeat

9. Repeat steps 6 to 8 to obtain another 7 set of values of t with different overhanging length l of

the rule by shifting the rule [P1].

t

Plotting

Graph

n

11. Plot a graph of lg T against lg l to determine the relationship [A1].

8

Additional Detail Mark (AD1)

Reliability measures

1. The same mass should be used (to keep the mass of the loaded wooden rule constant)

2. The load should be secured to the rule using tape and/or glue (to keep the position of the

mass constant).

3. The same rule should be used (to keep Young Modulus and the dimensions of the rule

constant).

4. Start timing after the oscillations become stable (as the first few oscillations are usually jerky

Reliability

and will constitute to the random errors in measuring the time taken).

5. Take repeated readings of time taken t to reduce the random errors incurred due to the

inconsistent starting and stopping of stopwatch

6. The mass of the load should be large enough to make period T large.

7. A fiducial marker should be used to help in the measurement of the time taken t.

8. Discussion of how motion sensor or light gates can be used to ensure accurate measurement

of time taken t.

9. The amplitude/angle of oscillations should be small (to ensure that the oscillations follow

S.H.M.).

Safety Precautions

1. There should have sand placed below the load just in case the load falls off or the load

Safety

2. No person or fragile object should be placed near the possible landing area of the load if it

falls off.

(Maximum 5 out of all the reliability and safety measures)

END OF PAPER

9

Innova Junior College

2010 Prelim 2 H2 Physics

Paper 3 Solutions

Section A

1

(a) (i) Simple harmonic motion is defined as the periodic motion in which acceleration is

directly proportional to displacement [B1] but opposite in direction to the

displacement [B1].

(ii)

The graph should be a downwards sloping straight line through the origin [B1]

(b)

(i) 0.05 s, 0.10 s, 0.15 s, 0.20 s [B1] for any 2 correct answers

(ii) 0.025 s, 0.125 s [B1] for both correct answers

(iii) 0.05 s, 0.15 s [B1] for both correct answers

(c)

Correct shape (sinusoidal curve with all above t-axis and maximum Ep at t = 0) [B1]

Correct period (2 maximum Ep for every 0.10 s) [B1]

(d)

When the mass breaks at the lowest point, the resultant force increases with the

reduction in the weight (net force is mainly due to the tension in the stretched metal

strip).

With an increased in restoring force and a decrease in mass, acceleration will

increase and hence period will decrease.

The equilibrium position shift higher, hence the amplitude of subsequent motion of

the end of the strip increases.

Note: the total available energy for energy transformation increases with the shift in

equilibrium upwards, hence the amplitude of subsequent motion increases according

to ET = ½ kx02.

1

2

(a) (i) Internal energy of a system is the sum of all the microscopic kinetic and potential

energies of the atoms/molecules within the system. [B1] The kinetic energy is

associated with the random motion of the atoms/molecules while the potential

energy is associated with the intermolecular forces between molecules. [B1]

(ii) ΔU = Q + W [B1]

ΔU : increase in internal energy of the system

Q : thermal energy (heat) supplied to the system

W : work done on system [B1]

(b)

(i) Since there is no change in temperature during boiling, the kinetic energy of the

water molecules remains constant [B1]. However, when the volume of the water

expands during boiling, the separation between water molecules increases, the

potential energy of the atoms increases [B1]. Since internal energy of water is the

sum of potential and kinetic energy of the water molecules, there is a change

(increase) in internal energy.

(ii) The volume occupied by the water molecules increases [B1] on vaporisation.

Hence the water molecules has to do work, pushing back the atmosphere [B1].

(iii) During boiling, the internal energy of the water molecules increases [M1] (ΔU:

+ve). According to first law of thermodynamics, the thermal energy supplied must

be positive since work done on the boiling water is negative [A1],

2

3 (a)

1. The magnitude of the electric force is independent of the speed of the charged

particle while the magnitude of the magnetic force is directly proportional to the

speed of the charged particle. [B1]

2. The direction of electric force is along the direction of the electric field while the

direction of the magnetic force is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic

field. [B1]

(b)

(i) Since the proton deflects downwards, the magnetic force acting on the proton is

downwards. With velocity towards right, the direction of the magnetic field is out

of the plane of paper [B1] (not upwards) according to Fleming’s Left Hand rule.

(ii) Fc = mac

mv 2

Bqv =

r

1.67 × 10 −27 × 4.5 × 10 6

0.12 × 1.6 × 10 −19 = [M1]

r

r = 0.391 m [C1]

r = 39.1 cm [A1]

(c)

(i)

With magnetic force acting downwards, the electric force acting on the proton

must be upwards. Thus the electric field should be acting upwards.

Arrow pointing vertically upwards [B1].

FE = FB

Eq = Bqv

E = 0.12 × 4.5 × 106 [M1]

= 5.40 × 105 V m-1 [A1]

the electric or magnetic forces [B1].

(‘mass of proton is small’ is an insufficient answer)

3

4 (a)

(i) A metastable state is an excited state of an atom in which the atom can remain

for a relatively longer time interval (~10-3 s) than most other normal excited

states (~10-8 s). [B1]

excited states than in lower energy states (or ground state). [B1]

(ii) With atoms in the metastable state, the atoms can stay there longer, so that

population inversion can be achieved [B1].

As such, a photon with appropriate energy equivalent to the energy difference

between the two energy levels can cause stimulated emission to take place [B1],

than absorption.

(iii) When an atom in its excited state encounter an incoming photon with energy

equivalent to the energy difference between the excited state and its lower

energy level [B1], stimulated emission will occur. The incoming photon can

stimulate the de-excitation of the atom such that the subsequent emitted photon

has the same energy (same wavelength) as the incoming photon [B1], hence the

light beam has same wavelength (monochromatic).

(b)

When the potential at the p-type material is negative with respect to the n-type

material (reverse bias) [B1], holes and electrons are pulled away from the junction

[B1], creating a larger negative potential difference. The depletion region widens [B1]

i.e. no current.

4

Section B

5.

(a) (i) Newton’s First Law of Motion states that every body continues in its state of rest or

uniform motion in a straight line unless a net external force acts on it to change that

state. [B1]

Hence, if we observe an object initially in a state at rest but which suddenly moves,

or an object moving at uniform speed in a straight line, but which suddenly reduces

or increases in speed or changes in direction, we say that there must be a net

external force acting on it. [B1]

(ii)

1. v

a

F

field. [B1]

v

2.

a

F

(b)(i)

1 2 1

Initial KE = mu = (1.2 × 107 )(0.50)2

2 2

= 1.5 × 106 J [A1]

(ii)

Using v 2 = u 2 + 2as

0=(0.5)2 + 2a(15)

-(0.5)2

a= [M1]

2(15)

-(0.5)2

net force = ma = (1.2 × 107 )[ ] [M1]

2(15)

= -1.0 × 105 N

5

(iii)

Using v = u + at ,

−(0.50)2

0 = 0.50 + [ ]t [M1]

2 × 15

t = 60 s [A1]

(iv)

Viscous force FD ∝ v where v is the instantaneous velocity [B1]

Viscous force will be greatest initially as the initial speed is greatest, and it will

reduce to zero when the final speed is zero.

The viscous force will provide a greater retardation force [B1], and the time

taken to stop the ship will be shorter [B1].

(v)

Δp =m(v - u ) = 1.2 × 107 (0 − 0.50) [M1]

Δp = - 6.0 × 10 N s

6

[A1]

Fws

Fsw

Fws = force exerted by water on the ship

Fsw = force exerted by ship on the water

(Diagram - B1)

By considering the ship and the water as an isolated system and with no external

forces acting on the ship and the water [B1], the momentum lost by the ship is equal

to the momentum gained by the water [B1].

6

Beam of alpha particles Gold foil target

(a)(i)

Radium source

Details: Radium source emitting beam of alpha particles, gold foil target &

detector

(Deduct up to 2 × B1 for each missing detail)

(a)(ii)

Nucleus

of gold

atom

Most of the α-particles passed straight through the foil with little or no deflection [B1].

This concluded that the atom consist of mostly empty space.[B1]

Some α-particles were deflected from their original direction of travel [B1]. This

suggested that there was an electrostatic force of repulsion between the nucleus and

the positively charged alpha particles. This concluded that the nucleus of the atom is

positively charged[B1].

A very small number of alpha particles were deflected with an angle greater than 90

degree from their original path [B1]. This suggested that the positive charge is

concentrated in the nucleus of the atom. This concluded that the nucleus is massive

[B1].

candidates for marks to be awarded]

7

(b)(i) 226

88 Ra → 222

86 Rn+ 24α [B1]

0 = mα vα + mRn ( −v Rn ) [C1]

vα m 222u

= Rn = [M1]

v Rn mα 4u

≈ 56 (shown) [A0]

Point of closest

(iii) B

A approach of α-particle

α

vA

E/J

KE

EPE

One curve showing EPE –B1

Deduct B1 if the total energy (KE & EPE) is not constant.

8

(iv) From the Principle of Conservation of energy,

1 q q

mα vα 2 = α Au [C1]

2 4πε o r

(2e )(79e )

r=

2πε o (mα )(vα )2

(2)(79)(1.6 × 10−19 )2

= [M1]

2πε o (4 × 1.66 × 10−27 )(1.66 × 107 )2

= 3.97 × 10−14 m [A1]

(v) The radius of the gold nucleus is in the order of 10-14 m [B1].

(vi) 1.

datom = 10–10 m & dnucleus = 10–14 m

datom / dnucleus = 104 [A1]

2.

Mnucleus 79mprotons + 118mneutrons

=

Matom 79mprotons + 118mneutrons + 79melectrons

197(1.67 × 10−27 )

= [M1]

197(1.67 × 10 −27 ) + 79(9.11× 10 −31 )

=1.00 [A1]

7

(a)(i) When an electron collides with one of the target atoms, it loses an amount of kinetic

energy that corresponds to the energy of an X-ray photon[B1].

The electron may continue to lose kinetic energy in a series of collisions with other

atoms, thereby giving off X-ray photons of different energies [B1].

spectrum is thus formed [B1].

(ii) An electron may lose all its kinetic energy in a single collision with a target atom [B1],

thereby emitting a photon of maximum energy E max . that corresponds to a minimum

wavelength λo .

(iii) The wavelengths of the characterlistic lines are unique for each element [B1].

2.00 × 10−9

(b) (i) Rate of electrons produced = −19

= 1.25 × 1010 [M1]

1.6 × 10

Rate of incident photons = 1.25 × 1010 × 5 [M1]

=6.25 × 1010 s−1 [A0]

(ii)

hc 6.63 × 10−34 × 3.0 × 108

E= =

λ 237 × 10−9

= 8.39 × 10−19 J [A1]

9

(iii) power = 8.39 × 10−19 × 6.25 × 1010 = 5.24 × 10−8 W [M1]

power 5.24 × 10−8

= [M1]

Intensity = area 2.0 × 10−4

= 2.62 × 10−4 W m−2 [A1]

(iv)1.

hf = φ + eVs

Vs =

−19

(

hf − φ 8.39 × 10 − 4.7 1.6 × 10

=

−19

) [M1]

e 1.6 × 10 −19

= 0.544 V [A1]

(iv)2.

Increasing intensity does not affect the photon energy and the photon energy remains

the same as the frequency of UV light is constant. [B1].

The radiation is incident on the same emitter surface (work function is also constant)

[B1].

The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectron does not change [B1].

Hence the stopping potential does not change.

(ii)

Increasing frequency

3 distinct lines drawn with 2 lines closely spaced on the right of the spectrum [B1]

(iii) An emission line spectrum consists of bright lines against a dark background but an

absorption line spectrum consists of dark lines against a continuous spectrum. [B1]

10

Class Adm No

Candidate Name:

Pre-university 3

H2 Physics 9646

Paper 1: Multiple-Choice Questions

9646/01

Friday 24 September 1h 15m

Additional materials:

OMR

Write your name, class and admission number in the spaces at the top of this page and on all the

work you hand in.

Write in soft pencil.

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, and glue or correction fluid.

There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four

possible answers A, B, C, and D.

Choose the one you consider correct and record your answer in soft pencil on the separate

OMR.

Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.

Any rough working should be done in this booklet

2

Data

3

Formulae

1 2

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + at

2

v2 = u2 + 2as

gravitational potential, Gm

=

r

v = xo2 x 2

an ideal gas E =

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1 1 1

= ...

R R1 R 2

electric potential, Q

V =

4 0 r

8 2 m(U E )

where k =

h2

0.693

decay constant, = t1

2

[Turn Over

4

equation to be homogeneous, which of the following must be true.

B. P, Q, R and S are all scalar quantities.

C. The product RS have the same units as P and Q.

D. The product RS is numerically equal to (Q – P)

d 2

h and diameter of cross section d, using the formula M h . If the

4

percentage uncertainties of his measurements of M, d and h are 3%, 1%

and 2% respectively, what will be the percentage uncertainty of ?

A. 3% B. 5%

C. 6% D. 7%

3. A train travelling at 2.0 m s-1 passes through a station. The graph below

shows the variation with time, t of the speed, v of the train after leaving the

station.

What is the speed of the train when it is 150 m from the station?

C. 10 m s-1 D. 12 m s-1

5

4. Which of the following is a false statement regarding how two forces give

rise to a couple?

B. They both act at the same point.

C. They both act on the same body.

D. They both have the same magnitude.

the other end to a fixed point P. The sphere is acted upon by a horizontal

force of 80 N such that the string makes an angle to the vertical. What is

the value of ?

A. B.

C. D.

identical strings as shown in the diagram below. They are pulled by a

steadily increasing force F. Which of the strings A, B, C or D is most likely

to break first?

[Turn Over

6

horizontally at 50 m s-1. What is the final velocity of the archer as he moves

across the ice after firing the arrow?

initial kinetic energy of 150 J. Ignoring air resistance, the kinetic energy, the

gain in potential energy, and the work done against gravity when the stone

is at 1.00 m above the ground will be

Energy

A. 70 J 70 J 70 J

B. 70 J 80 J 70 J

C. 70 J 80 J 80 J

D. 80 J 150 J 80 J

7

B. The area of face R is greater than the area of face S.

C. The density of water increases with depth.

D. The pressure of water increases with depth.

10. A helicopter which has blades of diameter 5.0 m is hovering above the

ground at a particular instance. Its blades are rotating in such a way that

they are pushing air downwards at a speed of 18 m s-1.

A. 360 N B. 1400 N

C. 6500 N D. 26000 N

The driving force on the car is 600 N. At what speed is the car travelling at?

C. 25 m s-1 D. 42 m s-1

[Turn Over

8

12. A satellite is in circular orbit 144 km above the Earth. Assuming that the

radius of the Earth is 5760 km, the gravitational force on the satellite

compared with that when it is at the Earth’s surface is approximately

A. greater by 10%

B. greater by 5%

C. the same

D. less by 5%

13. Why does the Moon stay in its orbit at a constant distance from the Earth?

A. The gravitational pull of the Earth on the Moon is just sufficient to cause

the centripetal acceleration of the Moon.

B. The gravitational pull of the Earth on the Moon balances the

gravitational pull of the Moon on the Earth.

C. The gravitational pull of the Moon on the Earth is negligible at this

distance.

D. The centripetal force the Earth exerts on the Moon balances the

centripetal force the Moon exerts on the Earth.

14. P is a planet with centre O, as shown in the figure below. X and M are two

points of equal gravitational potential, A . Y and N are two other points of

equal gravitational potential, B .

9

negative.

B. The work done by the gravitational field to move a mass from X to N is

different from that needed to move the same mass from M to Y.

C. The work done by the gravitational field to move a mass from N to M is

negative.

D. A OX

B OY

15. For one complete oscillation in simple harmonic motion with amplitude, a,

how does velocity, v vary with displacement, x?

A. B.

C. D.

16. An object undergoes simple harmonic motion with an amplitude A, and its

[Turn Over

10

total energy is E. What is the displacement of the object from the equilibrium

3E

position when its kinetic energy is ?

4

A. 3 B. A

A

2 4

C. 3A D. A

4 2

by heating.

B. The internal energy of a system is dependent only on its temperature.

C. When the internal energy of a system is increased, its temperature

always rises.

D. When two systems have the same internal energy, they must be at the

same temperature.

18. A heater of power of 300 W is immersed in a filter funnel of crushed ice.

Before the heater is switched on, 10 g of water is collected from the melting

ice in 1 minute. When the heater is switched on, the mass of water collected

from the melting ice in 1 minute is 85 g. The specific latent heat of fusion of

ice, in J g-1 is

A. 5 B. 240

C. 300 D. 1200

19. A star emits electromagnetic waves of wavelengths 50 m, 5 m, 0.5 m and

0.05 m. In which regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are they?

Wavelength

50 m 5 m 0.5 m 0.05 m

A. infra-red infra-red visible ultraviolet

B. infra-red visible ultraviolet x-ray

11

D. radio infra-red visible ultraviolet

20. A stationary sound wave has a series of nodes. The distance between the

first and the sixth antinode is 30.0 cm.

A. 5.0 cm B. 6.0 cm

C. 10.0 cm D. 12.0 cm

diffraction grating. The angle between the directions of the two second-order

diffracted beams is .

A. 2 B.

sin sin

C. 2 D.

2

sin sin 2

[Turn Over

12

22. A sphere is released from rest, in vacuum, between two parallel, vertical

metal plates with a separation of 0.10 m. The sphere has a weight of

1.6 103 N and an electric charge of +2.0 C. The potential difference

between the two plates is 80 V.

Which of the following depicts the path of the sphere after release?

electric potential at different points between these two charges is shown in

the figure below.

Which of the following graphs correctly shows the variation with distance, x

along line PQ of the electric field strength, E?

13

A. B.

C. D.

the distance from P to X?

A. 40 mm B. 45 mm

C. 50 mm D. 60 mm

B. Resistance is the gradient of the graph of potential difference against

current.

C. Resistance is the voltage required for a current of 1 A.

D. l

Resistance is defined by the equation R , where is the resistivity

A

of the material, l is the length of the wire, and A is its cross-sectional

area.

[Turn Over

14

26. A main circuit has six identical bulb connected in series. One of the bulbs

has a broken filament. Voltmeters X and Y of infinite resistance are placed in

the circuit as shown.

X reading Y reading

A. 0V 0V

B. 0V 240 V

C. 40 V 40 V

D. 240 V 0V

B. The resistance is very large.

C. The voltage across the diode is zero.

15

D. The voltage across the diode is the same as the e.m.f. of the source.

28. In the circuit shown below, the light bulb will become brighter when

B. light is incident on the LDR and P is moved to Y.

C. the LDR is covered and P is moved to X.

D. the LDR is covered and P is moved to Y.

uniform magnetic field, as represented by the dotted line in the diagram

below.

[Turn Over

16

perpendicular to the plane of the diagram.

Which of the following graph shows how the magnitude of the magnetic force

F on the wire varies with in the range 0° to 90°?

A. B.

C. D.

30. Two long straight wires, X and Y are placed perpendicular to each other at a

17

small distance, d apart, with wire X vertically above the point R. The current

in wire X is out of the page and the current in wire Y is to the right as shown

in the figure below.

What is the direction of the force acting on wire Y at point P due to the

magnetic field produced by wire X?

B. Into the page

C. Upwards

D. Downwards

The following graphs show how magnetic flux density, B of this field varies

with time, t.

At what time is the magnitude of the e.m.f induced in the wire at its

maximum?

A. 1 ms B. 2 ms

C. 3 ms D. 4 ms

[Turn Over

18

current?

upwards.

2. Both coils are stationary and S is switched on and off.

3. With switch S closed, the variable resistor R is increased and

decreased rapidly.

A. 2 only

B. 1 and 3 only

C. 2 and 3 only

D. 1, 2 and 3

A. 1

maximum current

2

2

B. 1

maximum power

2

C. 1

2

maximum current

2

D. 1

2

maximum power

19

amplitude 100 V gives the waveform as shown in the figure below. The r.m.s.

value of the rectified voltage is

A. 25 V B. 50 V

C. 71 V D. 100 V

35. A laser beam of power, P has wavelength, . What is the rate of photons

produced?

A. hc B. Ph

P c

C. Phc D. P

hc

36. Which of the following observations regarding the photoelectric effect is not predicted

by the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation?

radiation.

B. Irrespective of the intensity of radiation, photoelectric emission is instantaneous.

C. Photoelectric emission is observable using any part of the electromagnetic

spectrum.

D. The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is dependent on the intensity

of the radiation.

[Turn Over

20

37. At room temperature, the charge carriers inside a p-type semi-conductor are

A. holes only

B. electrons only

C. positive ions

D. both holes and electrons

38. The following diagram illustrates the upper energy bands in two different classes of

solids at absolute zero. The shaded areas represent occupied electron energy levels.

A. conduction valence intrinsic semi-conductor metal

B. conduction valence metal intrinsic semi-conductor

C. valence conduction intrinsic semi-conductor metal

D. valence conduction metal intrinsic semi-conductor

39. Which of the following equations correctly shows an -particle causing a nuclear

reaction?

A. 14

7

N 42 He 178 O 11n

B. 17

8

O 42 He 20

9

F 11p

C. 17

8

O 10e 135 B 42 He

D. 14

7

N 11p 116 C 42 He

21

40. Initially, a source comprises No nuclei of a radioactive nuclide. What is the number of nuclei

decayed after a time interval of three half-lives?

A. No B. No

16 8

C. 7No D. 15No

8 16

END OF PAPER

[Turn Over

Class Adm No

Candidate Name:

Pre-university 3

H2 Physics 9646

Paper 2 Structured Questions

9646/02

Friday 17 September 1h 45m

No Additional Materials are required.

Write your name, class and admission number in the spaces at the

top of this page.

Write in dark blue or black pen.

You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough

working. For Examiner’s Use

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, and glue or correction

fluid. 1

2

Section A

Answer all questions. 3

It is recommended that you spend about 1 hour 15 minutes on this 4

section.

5

Section B 6

Answer Question 8

It is recommended that you spend about 30 minutes on this section 7

8

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.

The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each Total

question or part question.

[Turn over

2

Data

3

Formulae

1 2

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + at

2

v2 = u2 + 2as

gravitational potential, Gm

=

r

v = ( x o2 x 2 )

an ideal gas E = kT

2

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1 1 1

= ...

R R1 R 2

electric potential, Q

V =

4 0 r

8 2 m(U E )

where k =

h2

0.693

decay constant, = t1

2

[Turn Over

4 For

Examiner’s

Use

Section A

It is recommended that you spend about 1 hour 15 minutes on this section.

1. (a) Distinguish between a scalar quantity and a vector quantity, providing an example for

each.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………....[2]

(b) A ship is initially cruising in the direction bearing of 045 at a speed of 10 m s-1

changes direction to head in a new direction bearing of 145 at a speed of 5 m s-1, as

seen in Fig. 1.1. The manoeuvre was completed in 30 s.

Fig. 1.1

Using a vector diagram or otherwise, calculate the acceleration of the ship during the

change in direction.

For

5 Examiner’s

Use

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………....[1]

(b) A Singapore Army soldier is undergoing marksmanship training by firing at the target,

as seen in Fig. 2.1 below. He uses the SAR 21 Rifle, which has a muzzle velocity

(velocity at which the bullet exits the rifle) of 900 m s-1.

Fig. 2.1

He ensures his rifle is perfectly horizontal while aiming for the head of the target. He

then fires a bullet at the target, which is 300 m away from his current position.

(i) Calculate the time taken for the bullet to reach the target after it is fired.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

[Turn Over

6 For

Examiner’s

Use

(iii) Assuming that it is a perfect shot (i.e. the rifle was perfectly horizontal and was

aimed properly at the head of the target), calculate the vertical distance

between his aiming point and where the bullet actually hits the target.

(iv) After passing through the target, the bullet is entrenched 4.0 m deep into a

sandbag that is directly behind the target board.

Calculate the average deceleration of the bullet as it moves within the sandbag

(v) If the assumption was not made in (b) (ii), state whether the bullet would hit the

target at a lower or higher point than what was calculated in (b) (iii).

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

3. (a) Using the simple Kinetic Model of Matter, explain the following:

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

(ii) the specific latent heat of vaporisation of water is higher than its specific latent

heat of fusion.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

For

7 Examiner’s

Use

(b) An ideal gas at constant pressure has its volume directly proportional to its absolute

temperature.

Calculate the absolute temperature T when an ideal gas has volume 0.00825 m3,

assuming that the same mass of the ideal gas at the same pressure has volume

0.00424 m3 at a temperature of 273 K.

(c) (i) State the conversion formula from the Celsius scale (°C) to the thermodynamic

absolute scale (K)

[1]

as hot today as it was yesterday.”

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

[Turn Over

8 For

Examiner’s

Use

4. (a) A 1 kg solid block of iron, when placed on water, will sink. The same block of iron is

shaped into a model of a boat, and this model would float on water.

Explain why the boat model would float, and not sink.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………….………......[2]

(b) A string supports a solid iron object of mass 200 g. The solid iron object is hence

suspended in mid-air

(i) Calculate the tension in the string when the solid iron object is suspended by

the string in mid-air

(ii) Given that the density of iron is 8000 kg m-3, calculate the volume of the solid

iron object

(iii) Calculate the new tension in the string when the solid iron object is completely

immersed in a liquid of density 800 kg m-3.

For

9 Examiner’s

Use

(c) A solid cube with sides of length, x is placed on the surface of a fluid. The cube is

then slowly pushed downwards into the fluid, as seen in Fig.. The distance from the

base of the cube to the surface of liquid is given by h. The cube is pushed

downwards until h >> x.

Fig. 4.1

Fig. 4.2

Sketch in, Fig. 4.2 above, the graph showing the variation of the upthrust acting on

cube due to the fluid against the distance from the base of the cube to the fluid

surface, h. Your graph should show the variation of upthrust for values of h that are

greater than x.

[2]

[Turn Over

10 For

Examiner’s

Use

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………....[2]

(b) Fig. 5.2 below shows a loosely-coiled metal spring hanging from a fixed point.

Fig. 5.1

The ends of the spring are connected to a circuit as shown in Fig. 5.1. When a

current is switched on, the spring becomes compressed (i.e. the coils move closer to

one another and the vertical length of the spring becomes slightly shorter than

before).

(i) Explain why the spring shortens in length when the current is switched on.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

For

11 Examiner’s

Use

(ii) State and explain if the spring is lengthened or compressed if the direction of

current is reverse?

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

(c) Fig. 5.2 below shows a beam of -particles of speed v entering a region in space

where there is a uniform magnetic field of flux density B.

Fig. 5.2

In the magnetic field, they are deflected from their original pathway and move along

the arc of a circle of radius r.

[1]

(ii) Sketch the path of -particles that has a speed greater than v.

[1]

(d) A beam of electrons that is travelling with velocity 3.4 107 m s-1 enters

perpendicularly into a region with magnetic flux density of 8.4 mT.

[Turn Over

12 For

Examiner’s

Use

(ii) State and explain the changes (if any) in the kinetic energy of electron due to

the magnetic force acting on it.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

6. (a) State and explain briefly the conditions necessary for the production of a laser beam.

…………………….…………………….…………………….…………………….…………

…………………….…………………….…………………….…………………….…………

…………………….…………………….…………………….…………………….…………

…………………….…………………….…………………….…………………….…………

…………………….…………………….…………………….…………………….…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

……...…………………….…………………….…………………….……………………..[3]

For

13 Examiner’s

Use

(b) Complete the table below to show the three differences between light from a filament

lamp and laser light.

[3]

[Turn Over

14 For

Examiner’s

Use

7. X-rays are emitted when a metal target is bombarded by high-energy electrons. The X-ray

spectrum consists of a broad continuous spectrum and a series of sharp lines known as

the line or characteristic X-ray spectrum.

The K-series line spectrum arises when an incoming electron removed an atomic electron

from the innermost shell, K-shell (n = 1). An electron from the L-shell (n = 2) may fill the

vacancy, and in the process emits a photon. The photon emitted has an energy that

corresponds to the wavelength of the K -line shown in Fig. 7.1.

Fig. 7.1

……………………………………………………………………………………………

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……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

(ii) Explain why there is a minimum wavelength 0 for the continuous spectrum.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

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………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

For

15 Examiner’s

Use

……………………………………………………………………………………………

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………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

characteristics X-rays from a number of elements. He noted that when the square-

root of the frequency f is plotted against the position Z (atomic number) of the

element in the periodic table, a straight line results.

k Z 1

2

En

n2

where k is a constant

(i) Show that the frequency f of the K -line is given by the expression

f C Z 1

where C is a constant.

[2]

[Turn Over

16 For

Examiner’s

Use

(ii) The experimental data for the variation with Z of f are shown in Fig. 7.2.

[1]

Fig. 7.2

For

17 Examiner’s

Use

C =…………………

unit =………………[2]

(iv) Hence, or otherwise, determine the wavelength of the K -line for copper

whose atomic number Z is 29.

(c) The X-ray spectrum can be studied using the X-ray diffraction. A particular set of

crystal planes that have a known spacing d is chosen, as seen in Fig. 7.3 These

planes effectively reflect different wavelengths at different angles.

Fig. 7.3

[Turn Over

18 For

Examiner’s

Use

(i) Fig. 7.4 shows a graph of intensity against angular position (measured in

degrees) for the diffraction of an X-ray beam by a crystal. The beam consists of

two wavelengths, and the spacing d between the reflecting planes is 0.94 nm.

Fig. 7.4

2d sin m , which is known as Bragg’s law.

Using Bragg’s law, calculate the values of these two wavelengths of the X-ray

beam.

1 [1]

1 =………………… pm [1]

2 =………………… pm [1]

For

19 Examiner’s

Use

(ii) A standard optical diffraction grating where the grating spacing is 3000 nm

cannot be used to discriminate between different wavelengths in the X-ray

region of approximately 0.1 nm.

Using the formula for the calculation of the diffraction angle, given the

wavelength and grating spacing, explain quantitatively why this is so.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

[Turn Over

20 For

Examiner’s

Use

Section B

Answer Question 8

It is recommended that you spend about 30 minutes on this section.

about the surface temperature of the glass envelope after the lamp has been left on for some

time, The surface temperature must not be too high, otherwise there is a danger of burns or fire

resulting from accidental contact with the surface of the lamp. However, it is important that the

power output from the lamp should not be too small, otherwise the lamp will be too dim to be

useful.

Connecting wires Ammeter

Light bulbs of different diameters Oscilloscope

3 V battery Bucket of water

Crocodile clips Thermometer

Signal generator Rheostat

Microphone Thermistor

Bunsen burner Thermocouple

Loudspeaker

Your answer should contain a diagram showing how the chosen equipment would be

arranged, together with details of

(b) your choice of the type of thermometer used to measure the surface temperature of the

lamp,

(d) any relevant safety precautions you may take when carrying out the experiment,

(e) any particular features of your design that may improve the accuracy of your experiment.

[12]

For

21 Examiner’s

Use

DIAGRAM

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[Turn Over

22 For

Examiner’s

Use

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For

23 Examiner’s

Use

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END OF PAPER

Class Adm No

Candidate Name:

Pre-university 3

H2 Physics 9646

Paper 3 Longer Structured Questions

9646/03

Monday 20 September 2h

No Additional Materials are required.

Write your name, class and admission number in the spaces at the

top of this page.

Write in dark blue or black pen.

You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough

working. For Examiner’s Use

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, and glue or correction

fluid. 1

Section A 2

Answer all questions. 3

Section B 4

Answer any two questions.

5

You are advised to spend about one hour on each section. 6

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.

The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each 7

question or part question.

Total

[Turn over

2

Data

For

3 Examiner’s

Use

Formulae

1 2

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + at

2

v2 = u2 + 2as

gravitational potential, Gm

=

r

v = ( x o2 x 2 )

an ideal gas E = kT

2

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel, 1 1 1

= ...

R R1 R 2

electric potential, Q

V =

4 0 r

8 2 m(U E )

where k =

h2

0.693

decay constant, = t1

2

[Turn Over

For

Examiner’s

4 Use

Section A

1. An intelligent elevator as seen in Fig. 1.1, can take passengers to the top of a skyscraper.

The elevator has a built-in weight sensor below its floor that can be used to measure the

combined weight of the elevator’s occupants.

Fig. 1.1

An emergency braking mechanism can be activated within a few seconds if the steel cable

holding onto the elevator snaps.

A man decides to take the elevator to reach the upper floors. He has a mass of 80 kg, and

the elevator has a mass of 1.0 103 kg.

For

5 Examiner’s

Use

(a) Calculate the initial reading of the weight sensor when the elevator is stationary.

(i) Draw a free-body diagram of the man, indicating and labelling the forces acting

on him.

[1]

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

6 Use

(ii) Hence or otherwise, calculate the reading of the weight sensor when the

elevator is accelerating upwards at 2.5 m s-2.

(iii) If the maximum G-force that can be experienced safely by a human is 1.5G

(i.e. 1.5 times of the human’s weight), calculate the maximum upward

acceleration of the elevator that is still considered safe.

(c) A computer simulation is designed to test the response of the emergency braking

mechanism and the weight sensor should the elevator’s cable snap when there are

passengers onboard. The simulation takes place in the following sequence:

Time / s Incident

0 Elevator is stationary at a height of 250 m.

t1 Steel cable snaps and elevator starts to

freefall.

t2 Emergency braking system kicks in and

elevator undergoes deceleration.

t3 Elevator comes to a complete stop.

For

7 Examiner’s

Use

Sketch a graph using the axes provided in Fig. 1.2 below to show the variation of the

weight sensor’s reading with time during the simulation. The original reading, W, is

indicated.

[2]

Fig. 1.2

(d) The owner of the skyscraper decided to replace the motor powering the elevator as it

was not efficient enough. He decided to use a motor that is 75% efficient, replacing

the original model which is 60% efficient.

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

8 Use

required to rise up to a height of 250 m in 60 s, calculate the power required to

achieve the task.

(ii) Hence, calculate the input power that is required to operate the new motor.

For

9 Examiner’s

Use

2. (a) State the formula to calculate the centripetal force required to keep a body of mass

m, moving in a circle of radius r with speed v.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………....[1]

(b) A smooth toy car track is set up in the following manner as seen in Fig. 2.1 below.

Fig. 2.1

Cars 1 and 2 are identical in construction and have a mass of 500 g each. Car 1 is

released from rest at point A, which is at a height of 0.60 m. Car 1 is designed to

move down the slope and complete the circular loop (during which it would be upside

down at the top of the loop), before colliding with Car 2.

(i) Calculate the speed of Car 1 at point B after it has moved down the slope.

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

10 Use

(ii) If Car 1 was to just reach point C, i.e., it comes to a complete stop at point C,

state the height of the circular loop.

(iii) Explain why if the circular loop has the height that is calculated in (b) (ii), Car 1

would be unable to complete the entire loop safely.

………………………………………………..…………………………………………

………………………………………………..…………………………………………

…..…………………………………….…………………………………………….. [2]

(iv) Hence or otherwise, calculate the maximum radius of the circular loop.

For

11 Examiner’s

Use

(c) After completing the loop, Car 1 collides elastically with Car 2. Car 1 comes to a

complete stop, and Car 2 moves forward and compresses the spring until it comes to

a complete stop

Given that the spring constant of the spring is 150 N m-1, calculate the compression

of the spring when Car 2 comes to a complete stop.

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

12 Use

3. (a) In Fig. 3.1 below, the battery has an internal resistance r and the ammeter has

negligible resistance.

Fig. 3.1

The graph in Fig. 3.2 below shows how current I in the circuit varies as the potential

difference V across the variable resistor R changes.

Fig. 3.2

For

13 Examiner’s

Use

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

[2]

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

14 Use

2. What is the power dissipated in the variable resistor R when the current

in the circuit is 1.2 A?

For

15 Examiner’s

Use

(b) Four resistors are connected as shown in Fig. 3.3 below. Point a is at a higher

potential than point b.

Fig. 3.3

If a wire is connected from c to d, state and explain the direction of the current that

will flow through the wire.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………[2]

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

16 Use

monochromatic light emitted by a laser.

Fig. 4.1

S1 and S2 are slits that are at right angles to the plane of this page. When illuminated by

light from the laser, they form coherent sources of light. An interference pattern is formed

on the screen, from which measurements can be taken to determine .

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………[2]

For

17 Examiner’s

Use

(b) (i) Describe briefly the interference pattern produced using the arrangement

shown in Fig. 4.1 above.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

(ii) Describe the roles played by diffraction and interference in the production of

the interference pattern.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

(iii) Calculate the wavelength of light emitted by the laser, given the following

values:

D = 2.0 m

a = 0.5 mm

Fringe spacing = 2.5 mm.

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

18 Use

(c) The interference pattern is easier to observe when the amplitudes of the waves from

the two coherent sources are similar.

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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………………………….………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………….....[2]

Section B

5. (a) Explain what is meant by simple harmonic motion, and give an example of it that

occurs in nature.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

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…………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………….[2]

For

19 Examiner’s

Use

(b) A vertical peg is fixed to the rim of a horizontal turntable of radius r = 15.0 cm,

rotating with a constant angular speed = 4.0 rad s-1, as shown in Fig. 5.1 below.

Fig. 5.1

Parallel light is incident on the turntable so that the shadow of the peg is observed on

a screen, which is normal to the incident light. At time t = 0, = 0 and the shadow of

the peg is seen at S.

(i) Write down an expression for the angular displacement in terms of and t.

[1]

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

20 Use

[2]

(iii) By reference to your answer in (b) (ii), explain how the motion executed by the

shadow is simple harmonic in nature.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………..………………………………………………………………………….[2]

(iv) Calculate the period of the motion of the shadow on the screen.

For

21 Examiner’s

Use

1. the speed of the shadow as it passed through S,

instantaneously at rest

(c) A light spring hangs vertically from a fixed support and a metal sphere of mass

m is attached to its free end. The mass is displaced vertically and then

released. The variation of the kinetic energy of the mass Ek, with time t of the

mass is shown in Fig. 5.2 below.

Fig. 5.2

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

22 Use

(ii) Using the data from the kinetic energy-time graph in Fig. 5.2, sketch the

displacement-time graph of the oscillating mass for two complete oscillations

using the axes in Fig. 5.3 below.

On the axes, indicate and label clearly the amplitude and the period of the

oscillation.

[2]

Fig. 5.3

For

23 Examiner’s

Use

(d) To investigate the effects of damping on the oscillations of the metal sphere in (c), an

electromagnet is placed near it, and light damping is observed.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……..………………………………………………………………………………….[1]

(ii) Sketch on Fig. 5.2, the kinetic energy-time graph of the lightly damped

oscillating system.

[2]

(iii) Suggest how critical damping of the metal sphere’s oscillations may be

achieved using the electromagnet.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……..………………………………………………………………………………….[2]

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

24 Use

6. (a) Fig. 6.1 below shows 2 coils X and Y wound on a soft iron core.

Fig. 6.1

(i) Magnetic flux links coils X and Y when there is a current in coil X.

1. What happens in coil Y when the magnetic flux in the soft iron core

changes?

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

(ii) The output of coil Y is connected to a 12 V, 3 A light bulb. The input of coil X is

now connected to a 240 Vr.m.s 100 Hz mains supply.

(Assume that the efficiency of energy transfer between the two coils is 100%

and the bulb lights with full intensity.)

For

25 Examiner’s

Use

(iii) Sketch a graph to show how the power dissipated in the light bulb connected to

coil Y varies with time over one cycle of the alternating output voltage.

[2]

(b) Fig. 6.2 below shows the path of an -particle as it passes near the nucleus of a gold

atom.

Fig. 6.2

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

26 Use

(i) Explain why the -particle was deflected as shown in Fig. 6.2.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

(ii) Indicate on the diagram the direction of the electric force acting on the

-particle.

[1]

(c) Xenon-139 has a half-life of 41 s and is generated at a constant rate during the

fission of a specific sample of Uranium-235. The number of Xenon-139 nuclei in the

sample increases initially and finally becomes constant.

1. half-life,

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

2. fission.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

(ii) Suggest a reason why the number of Xenon-139 nuclei in the sample becomes

constant.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

For

27 Examiner’s

Use

(iii) The activity of Xenon-139 is 3.4 108 Bq when the number of Xenon-139

nuclei has reached a constant.

Calculate

1. the number of Xenon-139 nuclei present in the sample.

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

28 Use

(d) The energy released in the fission reaction of Uranium-235 occurs partly as kinetic

energy of the fission products (167 MeV) and of the neutrons (5 MeV).

In a nuclear power station, 25% of the energy of the fission products is converted

into electrical energy. The number of uranium nuclei in 1.0 kg of Uranium-235 is

2.56 1024 .

(i) Calculate the electrical energy generated from the fission of 1.0 kg of

Uranium-235.

(ii) Calculate the average power output of the power station if the duration of the

fission reaction of Uranium-235 is 24 hours.

For

29 Examiner’s

Use

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

30 Use

(i) Light waves seem to travel only in straight lines while sound waves and water

waves can go around corners.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[1]

(b) Fig. 7.1 below shows some of the possible energy levels of an electron orbiting

inside a mercury atom.

The lowest possible energy level is Level 1. The diagram below is not drawn to

scale.

Fig. 7.1

For

31 Examiner’s

Use

(i) Explain how Fig. 7.1 can be used to account for the emission line spectrum.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

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………………………………………………………………………………………......

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[3]

(ii) Cool mercury vapour is bombarded with a stream of electrons that have been

accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 7.3 V.

from Level 2 to Level 1.

[Turn over

For

Examiner’s

32 Use

3. State and explain whether photons with frequency in (b) (ii) (2) would

be emitted if electrons with energy of 4.15 eV collide with the mercury

atoms.

………………………………………………………………………………………......

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

4. Draw on Fig. 7.1 the number of possible transitions when the mercury

atoms are bombarded by electrons with energy of 7.6 eV.

[2]

Show that the expression for de Broglie wavelength in terms of m and E is given by

h

2mE

[2]

For

33 Examiner’s

Use

(ii) Comment and explain what is observed if such an electron beam is passed

through a thin film of crystalline material.

………………………………………………………………………………………......

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...[2]

END OF PAPER

[Turn over

Millennia Institute

PU3 H2 Physics

Preliminary Examination II

Mark Scheme

Paper 1

1 C 11 D 21 C 31 D

2 D 12 D 22 C 32 B

3 B 13 A 23 A 33 D

4 B 14 A 24 A 34 B

5 A 15 C 25 A 35 D

6 A 16 D 26 D 36 B

7 A 17 A 27 C 37 D

8 C 18 B 28 A 38 A

9 D 19 A 29 D 39 B

10 C 20 D 30 A 40 C

QN ANS SOLUTION

1 C -

2 D d 2

M h

4

4M

d 2h

m d h

m

2

d

h

3 2 1 2 7%

3 B v u 62

a 0.2

t 20

v u 2 2as 22 2 0.2 150 8 m s-1

point

5 A Tx T sin 80

80

T

sin

Ty T cos 50

50

T

cos

80 50

sin cos

8

tan1

5

6 A Common a

TA mW mx mY mz a

1

7 A m1v1 m2v 2 0

60v1 0.50(50) 0

v1 0.42 m s-1

8 C

W GPE 80 1.00 80

KEf KEi GPE 150 80 70 J

will still experience a larger force due to the higher pressure at a

greater depth.

10 C 2

m V 5.0

t

t

1.02

2

18 360.5

p m

F

t

t

v 360.5 18 6500 N

11 D P Fv

25000

v 42 m s-1

600

above the surface.

GMm GMm

F

r2 5760 2

GMm GMm

F'

r2 5904 2

F

F' 2

0.95F

5904

5760

Moon due to Earth.

done by the G field negative work done by external agent.

15 C

v w a2 x2

Hence circular.

2

16 D 1

KEmax mv002 E

2

2

3E 1 1 3v

mv 2 m 0

4 2 2 4

2

3v

v2 0

4

x2

v x02 x 2 x0 1

x02

3v 02 x2

v 02 1 2

4 x0

3 x2

1 2

4 x0

x0 A

x

2 2

Temp increase = KE increase

18 B m 85 10 75

W ml f

300 60 75l f

l f 240 J g-1

Hence: 0.05 m is UV

5 m and m is IR.

Hence wavelength is 12.0 cm

21 C d sin n

n 2

d

sin

sin

2

Hence C and not B. B assumes that there is horizontal velocity,

hence incorrect.

electric potential with respect to distance. Close to P and Q,

lines become closer, hence increased E.

3

24 A VP VQ 0

k 4 k 6 0

x 100 x

4 6

x 100 x

400 4x 6x

x 40 mm

25 A V

R

I

dropped across X. Hence Y is zero.

behaves like an open circuit, and therefore potential across it is

equal to the cell’s emf.

28 A Potential divider

Light incident on LDR, its resistance would drop.

Hence more potential dropped across XY

29 D F BILcos

page

linkage wrt time is highest. Hence 4 ms.

2. No change in flux density, hence no change in flux

linkage

3. Current in coil 2 increases, increasing flux density and

hence changing flux linkage.

33 D P0

P by definition.

2

34 B T T

Vrms

0

V 2 dt

0

Vo2 sin2 t dt

Vo

T T 2

After rectification,

1 T 2 2

V sin t dt

Vrms 2 0 o

1 Vo Vo 100

50 V

T 2 2 2 2

4

35 D hc

E hf

hc

E n n hc

P

t t t

n p

t hc

lower, time lag would be longer.

as well.

Y is metal as it has an occupied conduction band.

1

n , and not 11n .

0

40 C 3

N N 7N0

N 1 0 1 0

2 8 8

5

Paper 2

v v v v

1b V B A B A

x : Ax Bx 10 sin 45 5 sin35 4.2

y : Ay By 10 cos 45 5 cos35 11.2 M1

11.9

a 0.40

30

4.2

tan1 20.6 M1

11.2

[Do not accept definition of acceleration.]

2bi sx 300 C1

t 0.333 s

ux 900

2bii No air resistance. B1

2biii 1 2

s y uy t gt

2

sy 0

1

2

9.81 0.333 2 M1

sy 0.544 m A1

M1

0 9002 2a 4

a 101000 m s-2 A1

2b Lower B1

structure to clusters of molecules

constant

3aii During boiling, molecules escape from liquid and escape into B1

surrounding atmosphere.

atmospheric pressure

6

3b V T

V1 T1

M1

V2 T2

0.00825 T

1 A1

0.00424 273

T1 531 K

3ci T 273.15 (Do not accept other values) B1

scale. In that case, difference is not 2 times.

space within)

upthrust to support its weight.

4bi

T W mg 0.200 9.81 1.96 N C1

4bii m 0.200

V 2.5 105 m3 C1

8000

4biii T U W

T W U M1

T 1.96 2.5 105 800 9.81 1.76 N A1

4c B1:

Constant

gradient

up till h =

x

B1: no

increase

thereafter

5a The magnetic flux density at a point is the force per unit length B1

of conductor per unit current carried

field.

The magnetic field of one coil interacts with the magnetic field B1

of adjacent coil resulting in magnetic forces between coils.

7

5bii Current in each coil flows in the same direction. The spring is B1

compressed due to attractive magnetic forces.

5di FB =Bev M1

displacement.

No change in KE of electron

stimulated emission of

coherent monochromatic laser.

multiplication of

stimulated emission.

enough to allow them

to stimulate further emission from other excited atoms.

6b

B1 each

(max 3)

Total 3

marks

7ai When an electron collides with one of the target atoms, it may B1

lose an amount of energy that corresponds to the energy of an

X-ray photon.

collisions with other atoms, thereby giving off X-ray photons of

different energies. Since different X-ray photons correspond to

different wavelengths, the continuous spectrum is thus formed.

of energy due to most energetic electron losing all its KE.

immediate state before dropping back down and releasing a

photon of wavelength corresponding to K

8

E E 2 E1

M1

k Z 1 k Z 12

2

E

22 12

3k Z 1

2

hf

4

3k Z 1

2

f

4h

f C Z 1 A1

3k

where C and is a constant.

4h

gradient 5.0 10 7 ( 0.2 10 7 ) M1

1

Therefore, the constant C is 5.0 10 Hz . 7 2 A1

7biv Since f C Z 1 ,

f 5.0 10 7 29 1

f 1.4 10 9

C1

c

Since ,

f

3.0 10 8

1.4 10 9

2

10

1.5 10 m C1

7ci The first two peaks are the 1st order maxima and the next two

peaks are the 2nd order maxima for the two wavelengths of the

X-ray beam.

Using 2d sin m ,

1 26 pm

2 39 pm

considering the 1st order maxima,

9

0.0019

The 1st order maxima is too close to the central bright fringe and A1

so is unable to discriminate between different wavelengths in

the X-ray region.

Purpose

Experiment is to investigate how the surface temperature of the glass envelope of a

filament lamp varies with the electrical power delivered to the lamp.

1. Basic Procedure

BP1

Switch on a.c. supply, measure current and voltage, measure temperature of lamp

surface.

2. Diagram

surface of

lamp. D2

Correct setup

3. Procedure

2. Measure the current and voltage across the lamp with the ammeter and voltmeter. M1

3. Power supplied to lamp P = V/I M2

4. Measure the surface temperature with a thermocouple. M3

5. Repeat steps 1-4 for different values of V by varying the variable resistor M4

6. Thermocouple is placed at the same part of the lamp. (any one 5 / 6) CV1

OR The room temperature is kept constant.

Safety

1. Do not touch the surface of the bulb FS1

2. Switch off bulb before adjusting the thermocouple FS2

3. Use glove to protect burns from lamp surface.

Improvement

1. Temperature reading take at various points on the surface. FI1

10

2. Tape junction of thermocouple on to the surface to ensure proper thermal contact. FI2

11

Paper 3

1a W = 80 (9.81) = 780 N C1

presen

Normal force acting upwards from base of object t: B1

1bii F N W

a M1

m m

N 780

2.5

80

N 980 N A1

1biii F N W

a

m m

1.5W W

a C1

m

a 0.5g 4.9 m s-2

1c Correc

tF

values:

B1

Correc

t

timing:

B1

1di W Fs

P M1

t t

P

8000 1 103 250

60

P 37.5 kW A1

1dii Eo

0.75

Ei

37.5

0.75

Ei

C1

E i 50.0 kW

2a mv 2 B1

F

r

12

2bi GPE KE M1

1

mgh mv 2

2

v 2gh 2 9.81 0.60

A1

v 3.4 m s-1

2bii 0.60 m B1

2biii mv 2

At top, v 0 F 0

r

M1

F N W 0 N 0

If contact force, N is less than zero, car breaks contact from track A1

and drops

2biv Min N = 0

mv 2

N 0& F N W

r

mv 2

W

r

Wr 1

mv 2 M1

2 2

mg 0.6 mg 2r Wr

2

5r

0.6

2

r 0.24 m A1

2c GPE EPE M1

1

mgh kx 2

2

0.5 9.81 0.60 21 150x 2

x 0.20 m A1

electrical energy converted into other forms of energy

3aii E = V + Ir V = - Ir + E y = mx + c M1

1

The y-intercept of the graph gives the e.m.f. E of the battery = 6 V A1

13

2

P = I V P 1.2 x 4.2 = 5.04 W A1

3aii E = V + Ir M1

3

6 = 4.2 + 1.2 r

r = (6 - 4.2)/1.2 = 1.5 Ω A1

2Ω) compared to across d and b (I x 1Ω).

to d.

resultant wave where

4bii Diffraction occurs at the slits where the beams spread out and B1

overlap.

the screen. Constructive interference occurs if both waves are in

phase, and destructive if out of phase.

4biii

ax

0.5 103 2.5 103 M1

D 2.0

625 nm A1

destructive results in zero amplitude.

displacement from the equilibrium position and opposite direction to

the displacement.

5bi t B1

5bii ST r sin M1

ST r sin t A1

5biii The shadow moves up and down about S. B1

14

ST y

y r sin t

v r cos t

a r 2 sin t 2 y M1

Hence SHM

5biv 2

T

2 2

T 1.57 s C1

4

5bv v v 0 wr M1

1

v 4 15.0 102 0.60 m s-1 A1

5bv a 2 x0 M1

2

a 4.0 0.15

a 2.4 m s-2 A1

5ci T = 0.200 s B1

T = 0.200 s B1

due to resistive forces and energy is lost.

Until the mass does not oscillate but quickly returns to its equilibrium B1

position when displaced.

6ai2 Faraday's law states that the induced e.m.f. is equal to the rate of B1

change of flux linking the coil.

nuclei roughly equal mass

M1

A1

15

6aiii

2 power cycles for a cycle of voltage B1

6bi Both the -particle and nucleus contains protons which are positively B1

charged.

6ci1 The half-life of a radioactive isotope is the time taken for half of the B1

unstable nuclei in the sample to decay.

nuclei roughly equal mass

6cii When the rate of production Xenon - 39 nuclei in the sample from B1

the Uranium-235 fission process is equal to its rate of decay of

Uranium-235 nuclei in the sample.

1 A N N = M1

ln 2

t1/2

3.4 x 108 x 41

2.01x1010 A1

ln 2

6ciii N N M1

2 m x molar mass m = x 0.139 kg mol1

NA NA

2.01 x 1010

x 0.139 4.6 x 1015 kg

6.02 x 1023 A1

16

6di

M1

A1

6dii M1

A1

7ai Sound waves and water waves have wavelengths comparable to the B1

size of the obstacles in their path. Sound and water waves and

undergo diffraction around corners easily.

Light waves have wavelengths that are too small compared to the

dimensions of the obstacles, and will not undergo diffraction. Thus B1

light waves will appear to travel only in straight lines.

7aii Sound waves are longitudinal whereas radio waves are transverse. B1

Only transverse waves can be polarized.

7bi When the electron in a particular excited state falls to a lower energy

state, it loses energy by emitting a photon of energy. B1

between two energy levels of the will be emitted. B1

to these photon energies give rise to an emission line spectrum.

B1

1 A1

2

E 4.66 x 1.6 x 1019

E=hf f= 34

1.12 x 1015 Hz

h 6.63 x 10 A1

3 lowest level to move to next higher Energy Level 2 (E = 4.66 eV)

A1

7bii Working Not required 3

17

4 Energy of electrons = 7.3 eV correct

Possible transitions are: : B2

E3 – E1 > - 3.71 eV to - 10.38 eV E = 6.67 eV

E2 – E1 > - 5.72 eV to -10.38 eV E = 4.66 eV 1 or 2

E3 – E2 > - 3.71 eV to - 5.72 eV E = 2.01 eV correct

: B1

Therefore, the number of possible transitions (or frequencies) is 3.

7c 1 2

Energy of particle E mv

2

p

momentum of particle p mv (Sub. v )

m

1 p p2

E m( ) 2 E p= 2mE M1

2 m 2m

h h

de Broglie wavelength = = A1

p 2mE

7di 1 M1

KE of electron E= x (9.11 x 1031 ) x (0.5 x 3 x 108 ) 2 1.02 x 1014 J

2

h 6.63 x 1034

4.86 x A1

1012 m

31 14

2mE 2 x (9.11 x 10 ) x 1.02 x 10

atomic spacing between atoms inside the crystal.

diffraction effect of electrons will be observed.

18

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September

2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

Preliminary Examination

Higher 2

___________________________________________________________________

H2 Physics 9646/1

Paper 1 24 September 2010

1 hour 15 mins

___________________________________________________________________

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

There are forty questions in this section. Answer all questions. For each question, there

are four possible answers A, B, C and D. Choose the one you consider correct and

record your choice in soft pencil on the Optical Mark Sheet (OMS).

Write your name and class in the spaces provided on the OMS.

1) first 2 digits is your index number in class (e.g. 5th student is shaded as “05”);

2) ignore the last row of alphabets.

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1

permeability of free space μo = 4π x 10-7 H m-1

permittivity of free space ε0 = 8.85 x 10-12 F m-1

= (1/(36π)) x 10-9 F m-1

elementary charge e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

unified atomic mass constant u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s-2

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion 1

s = ut + at2

2

v2 = u2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = p ΔV

hydrostatic pressure p = ρgh

gravitational potential φ = -Gm/r

displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = xo sin ωt

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vo cos ωt

± ω xo - x

2 2

=

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

electric potential V = Q/4πεor

alternating current/voltage x = xo sin ωt

transmission coefficient T = exp(-2kd)

8π m(U − E )

2

where k = 2

h

radioactive decay x = xo exp(-λt )

decay constant 0.693

λ =

t1

2

2

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

Answer all 40 questions in this paper and shade your answers on the answer sheet provided.

1 The length of a rectangle is given as L ± l and its width as W ± w. What is the uncertainty

in its area?

A l+w

B Lw + W l

C Ll + W w

l w

D +

L W

B wavelength of green light 500 nm

C frequency of a radio wave 500 μHz

D the acceleration due to free fall 981 mm s-2

3 A housewife released a bag of rubbish weighing 54 N from rest into a refuse chute from

her unit in a HDB flat. The rubbish passes through two speed detectors at different

locations and the readings shown in the detectors are 14.7 m s-1 and 49.1 m s-1

respectively.

Neglecting the effect of air resistance, the distance between the two speed detectors is

A 20.3 m

B 31.9 m

C 71.7 m

D 112 m

4 When a ball is thrown upwards at an angle to the horizontal with an initial speed.

Assuming that air resistance is not negligible, which of the following statement is

incorrect?

B Horizontal range of the ball is shorter than the case with negligible air resistance.

C The maximum height reached by the ball is smaller than the case with negligible air

resistance.

D The time taken for the flight up to the highest point is longer than the time taken for the

flight down.

3

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

5 A car of weight Wc is driven across a uniform bridge of length l and weight Wb. The bridge is

supported by two ropes having tensions T1 and T2 when the car is a distance x from the rope

on the left as shown in the figure below.

T1 T2

x

Wc Wb

Tension T1 Tension T2

Wb Wc x Wb x

A + + Wc (1 − )

2 l 2 l

Wb Wc l Wb l

B + + Wc (1 − )

2 x 2 x

Wb Wc Wb Wc

C + +

2 2 2 2

Wb x Wb Wc x

D + Wc (1 − ) +

2 l 2 l

6 Three identical stationary discs P, Q and R are placed in a line on a horizontal, flat,

frictionless surface. Disc P is projected straight towards disc Q.

P Q R

If all consequent collisions are perfectly elastic, predict the final motion of the three discs.

P Q R

A moving left moving left moving right

B moving left stationary moving right

C stationary stationary moving right

D moving right moving right moving right

4

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

7 In the Pixar movie, Up, an old man lifted his house using about 20000 helium balloons.

Assuming that the average volume of each balloon used is 0.17 m3, determine the weight

of the old man’s house.

(density of air = 1.2 kg m-3, density of helium = 0.18 kg m-3)

8 A sphere of mass 3.00 kg rests on a frictionless slope inclined at 300 above the horizontal

as shown below.

The spring constant is 500 N m-1. Determine the compression of the spring.

Wall

300

9 A small metal sphere of mass m is moving through a viscous liquid of height h. When it

reaches a constant downward velocity v, which of the following describes the changes

with time in the kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy of the sphere?

A constant and equal to ½mv2 decreases at a rate mgv

B constant and equal to ½mv2 decreases at a rate mgh

C increases at a rate ½mv2 decreases at a rate (½mv2 – mgv)

D increases at a rate mgv decreases at a rate (mgv – ½mv2)

below.

Seoul

37.50

Singapore

The centripetal acceleration at Singapore due to the Earth’s rotation about its axis is

asingapore . The centripetal acceleration at Seoul due to the Earth’s rotation about its axis is

asingapore

aseoul . What is the ratio ?

aseoul

5

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

11 Tarzan, whose mass is 80.0 kg, needs to swing across a river filled with crocodiles in

order to save Jane of mass 45.0 kg, at the middle of the river as shown in the diagram

below. He has to swing from a branch, which is assumed to be fixed in position, on a vine

of length 30.0 m, and initially making angle of 50o with the vertical.

50o 30.0 m

Tarzan swings towards Jane and grabs hold of her. Assuming that this is a completely

inelastic collision, determine their common speed just after the collision.

12 A particle of mass m performs vertical circular motion as show in the diagram below.

C

The following two graphs show the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity of

the particle along path ABC.

6

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

13 Mercury is 5.79 × 1010 m away from the Sun and it takes 0.241 earth years for Mercury to

make one revolution around the Sun. Neptune is 450 × 1010 m away from the Sun,

calculate the period of its orbit around the Sun.

A 2.12 years

B 18.7 years

C 165 years

D 330 years

14 The figure below shows the gravitational potential near the surface of the asteroid 951

Gaspra. Determine the mass of the asteroid.

A 1.00 × 1016 kg

B 2.00 × 1016 kg

C 3.00 × 1016 kg

D 4.00 × 1016 kg

15 A 0.10 kg mass hanging from a light helical spring produces an equilibrium extension of

0.10 m. The mass is pulled vertically downwards by a distance of 0.020 m and then

released.

Taking g as 10 m s-2, the equation relating the displacement x of the mass from its

equilibrium position and the time t after release is

B x = 0.10 cos(0.20π t )

C x = 0.020 cos ( 0.10t )

D x = 0.020 cos (10t )

7

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

16 Which graph correctly shows the variation with time t of kinetic energy Ek of an object

undergoing simple harmonic motion of period T?

placed beyond D such that its plane is perpendicular to the line joining S to D. As the

detector is moved slowly away from the source, it registers a series of maxima and

minima.

S D R

It is observed that the detector moved through a distance of 5.6 cm between the first and

fifth minimum. What is the frequency of the microwaves in GHz?

A 5.4

B 10.7

C 13.4

D 27.5

8

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

18 In a two-slit interference experiment, one slit transmits twice the amplitude of the other slit.

If the maximum intensity of the interference pattern is Io, the minimum intensity in the

pattern would be

A zero

B Io/9

C Io/4

D Io/2

B they have a constant phase difference.

C they have the same frequency and amplitude.

D they can interfere constructively.

A carry momentum.

B create a standing wave.

C propagate at any velocity.

D create interference patterns.

heating.

B The internal energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic energies of the molecules.

C When the internal energy of a system is increased, its temperature always rises.

D When two systems have the same internal energy, they must be at the same

temperature.

22 An ideal gas is contained in a cylinder with a movable piston. At pressure p, volume V and

temperature T, it has Nv molecules per unit volume. If the pressure of the gas is changed

to 0.50p, and the temperature to 2.0T, the number of molecules per unit volume becomes

A 0.25 Nv

B 0.50 Nv

C 1.0 Nv

D 4.0 Nv

9

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

23 A negatively-charged oil drop is held stationary between two horizontal, charged metal

plates, the upper plate being positive.

+

Oil drop

The oil-drop then acquires an additional negative charge. In order to keep the oil-drop

stationary, what change should be made?

B Reverse the charges on the plates.

C Increase the electric field strength between the plates.

D Decrease the potential difference between the plates.

24 Two point charges of -5 μC and +5 μC, are situated at points P and Q respectively as

shown below. X lies midway between P and Q while Y is at the same vertical position as X

but displaced to the right.

X Y

At point X At point Y

Electric Electric

Electric field Electric field

potential potential

A towards Q zero downwards zero

B towards Q negative downwards negative

C towards P zero upwards zero

D towards P negative upwards negative

10

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

25 In the circuit diagram below, D is an ideal diode. The voltage supply has negligible

internal resistance and the voltmeter reads 12 V.

2.0 Ω

V

Voltage

supply 2.0 Ω

2.0 Ω

If the connections to the terminals of the voltage supply are reversed, the voltmeter

reading would be

26 The circuit shown in Fig. 1 may be used to determine the internal resistance of a battery.

An oscilloscope is connected across the battery as shown. Fig. 2 represents the screen of

the oscilloscope.

●

●

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

The time base of the oscilloscope is switched off throughout the experiment.

Initially the switches S1 and S2 are both open. Under these conditions, the spot on the

oscilloscope screen is at A.

Switch S1 is kept closed and S2 is also closed. The spot moves to C.

The vertical sensitivity of the oscilloscope is 0.50 V per division.

11

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

When the supply is switched on, the lights do not work. The owner uses a voltmeter to test

the circuit. When the voltmeter is connected across the fifth bulb in the row, a reading of

zero is obtained.

B The fuse in the mains transformer has blown.

C The filament of at least one of the other bulbs has broken.

D There is a break in the wire from the supply to the transformer.

28 The diagram shows a network of three resistors. Two of these marked R, are identical.

The other one has a resistance of 5.0 Ω.

●Y

●

R

5.0

X● ●

R ●

●Z

The resistance between Y and Z is found to be 2.5 Ω.

Determine the resistance between X and Y.

12

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

29 In the diagram below, P is a horizontal circular coil of wire carrying a steady current I1 . A

conducting rod, which is free to move, is supported by 2 fixed horizontal parallel rails TQ

and SR which are perpendicular to the length of the conducting rod and carry a constant

current I 2 as shown in the diagram below.

P

Q R

I2

I2

I2

T S

I1

The conducting rod will

B move towards QR with increasing speed.

C move towards QR with decreasing speed.

D be lifted off the horizontal parallel rails momentarily.

30 The wire AC is free to move vertically while the wire BD is fixed. Suppose that both wires

carry equal currents of 100 A in opposite directions and that the mass per unit length for

each wire is 20.0 g m-1. Calculate the height which the wire AC is above wire BD. (You

may assume that the magnetic field, B at a distance r from a wire carrying current I to be

μo I

B= )

2π r

A C

I = 100 A

B D

I = 100 A

B 0.102 cm

C 1.02 cm

D 10.2 cm

13

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

31 A short bar magnet passes at a steady speed through a long solenoid. A galvanometer is

connected across the solenoid.

S N

Which graph best represents the variation of the current I of the galvanometer with time t?

I A II C

B

A

00 tt 00 tt

II C II

B D

00 tt 00 tt

32 A copper ring is suspended by a long, light rod pivoted at X so that it may swing as a

pendulum, as shown in the diagram below. An electromagnet is mounted so that the ring

passes over it as it swings.

K

The ring is set into oscillation with switch K open. What happens to the motion after switch

K has been closed?

B The oscillations will be heavily damped.

C The amplitude will increase because the ring is accelerated towards the magnet.

D The oscillations will continue at constant amplitude while the battery can supply

energy.

14

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

produces heat at a mean rate W. What is the mean rate of heat produced when another

potential difference V2 as shown in Fig. B is applied across the same resistor?

V1 V2

Vo 2Vo

0

T time

-Vo 0

T time

Fig. A Fig. B

A ½W B 2W C 4W D 8W

Voltage : 220 to 240V

Frequency : 50 to 60 Hz

Which of the following is a probable expression of the current that passes through the

kettle when used in Singapore?

B I = 10.9 sin (315t)

C I = 14.1 sin (375t)

D I = 16.0 sin (375t)

35 A potential barrier has a width W and potential height 6.0 MeV. The probability of a

3.0 MeV electron tunneling through it is 0.025.

Suppose that the potential height of the barrier is now doubled, what must the width of the

barrier be in order for a 3.0 MeV electron to have the same probability of transmission?

36 The decay energy of a short-nuclear excited state is measured to be 150 keV ± 1%. What

is the shortest lifetime it can have?

15

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

37 Which of the following statements about electron transitions between energy levels is

true?

A Stimulated emission describes a scenario when an atom get ‘excited’ from a lower

energy state E1 to a higher energy state E2 when one of its electron absorbs a photon

of energy E2 – E1.

B Spontaneous emission occurs more rapidly when the lifetime of the excited state is

long.

C Stimulated emission occurs more rapidly when the stimulating photon beam is of high

intensity.

D Spontaneous emission competes more strongly with stimulated emission in transitions

that emit red or infrared radiation.

current is found to pass through the circuit. When polarities of the battery are reversed the

current drops to zero. The device may be:

A pn junction

B intrinsic semiconductor

C p-type semiconductor

D n-type semiconductor

39 The radioactive isotope of iodine, 123I, is often used to test for overall thyroid function in

patients. The thyroid of an individual with hypothyroid condition will accumulate less

iodine than that of a normal individual.

patient. Twenty-four hours after injecting the radiopharmaceutical, the activity emanating

from the thyroid region is monitored and found to be 4 μCi.

123

What percentage of the injected I was concentrated in the thyroid

(Half-life of 123I = 13 hrs).

16

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 24 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

40 The figure below shows the apparatus used to repeat the alpha-particle scattering

experiment. The detector measures the intensity of the alpha-radiation I at various

angular positions θ.

+90o

alpha gold

particles +170o foil

0o

θ

–170o

detector

–90o

Ι Ι

A B

θ θ

ο ο ο ο ο ο

−170 −90 0 +90 +170 −170 −90 0 +90 +170

ο ο ο ο

Ι Ι

C D

θ θ

ο ο ο ο ο ο

−170 −90 0 +90 +170 −170 −90 0 +90 +170

ο ο ο ο

End of Paper

17

MERIDIAN JUNIOR COLLEGE

Preliminary Examination

Higher 2

___________________________________________________________________

H2 Physics 9646/2

Paper 2 21 September 2010

1 hour 45 mins

___________________________________________________________________

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Examiner’s Use

Section A

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES

Q1 /15

The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end

of each question or part question. Marks will be Q2 /8

deducted if units are not stated where necessary or if

answers are not quoted to the appropriate number of Q3 /8

significant figures.

Q4 /6

All working for numerical answers must be shown. You

are reminded of the need for good English and clear Q5 /8

presentation of your answers.

Q6 /15

Section B

Q7 /12

Deductions

Total /72

2

[Turn Over

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1

permittivity of free space ε0 = 8.85 x 10-12 F m-1

= (1/(36π)) x 10-9 F m-1

elementary charge e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

unified atomic mass constant u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s-2

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion 1

s = ut + at2

2

v2 = u2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = p ΔV

hydrostatic pressure p = ρgh

gravitational potential φ = -Gm/r

displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = xo sin ωt

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vo cos ωt

± ω xo - x

2 2

=

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + …

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

electric potential V = Q/4πεor

alternating current/voltage x = xo sin ωt

transmission coefficient T = exp(-2kd)

8π m(U − E )

2

where k = 2

h

radioactive decay x = xo exp(-λt )

decay constant 0.693

λ = t1

2

3

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

.............................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) Two sinusoidal transverse waves W1 and W2, of the same type, are incident

simultaneously on a point P. The amplitude of W2 is the same as the amplitude of W1.

The frequency of W2 is half the frequency of W1.

At a certain instant (time t = 0) at P, both waves have zero displacement and then both

displacements increase in the same direction.

displacement

(wave W1)

displacement

(wave W2)

displacement

(resultant

wave)

(i) On Fig. 1.2, sketch a graph of displacement against time for wave W2. [3]

(ii) On Fig. 1.3, sketch a graph to show the resultant wave produced by the

superposition at P of waves W1 and W2. [3]

4

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

(iii) The frequency of wave W1 is 4.2 x 1015 Hz. Determine the frequency of the

resultant wave produced by the superposition of waves W1 and W2.

(iv) Explain why it is incorrect to say that waves W1 and W2 are coherent.

...................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Blue light of wavelength 485.6 nm from a star is incident normally on a diffraction

grating. The light is diffracted into a number of beams as shown in Fig. 1.4.

second order

first order

zero order

first order

second order

grating

Fig. 1.4

The angular separation of the two second order beams is 45.7o. Calculate the

number of lines per millimeter on the grating.

5

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

2 (a) Air near the Earth conducts electricity to a small extent. Because there is an electric field

directed towards the Earth’s surface, a small electric current exists in the atmosphere.

Measurements of the electric field near the Earth’s surface give an average of about

1.0 x 102 V m-1.

(i) Estimate the potential difference between the head and feet of an average adult.

(ii) The electric field near the Earth’s surface is as large as 1.0 x 102 V m-1, explain

why you do not experience an electric shock when you stand upright.

……………………………………………………………………………………................

……………………………………………………………………………………................

……………………………………………………………………………………................

……………………………………………………………………………………................

……………………………………………………………………………..............… [2]

(b) A photomultiplier tube is a device which has a common electrode (the photocathode) and

a number of other electrodes (the dynodes), which must be maintained at definite

potentials relative to the common electrode. A potential divider circuit may be used to

supply these potentials.

Fig. 2.1 illustrates a photomultiplier tube with a photocathode and six dynodes,

numbered 1 to 6. A potential divider of six resistors, each of resistance R, using a supply

voltage of 1050 V, is connected to the electrodes in the tube.

photomultiplier tube

1 2 3 4 5 6

photocathode dynodes

R R R R R R

potential divider

1050 V

Fig. 2.1

6

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

(i) For the situation where there is no electron current inside the photomultiplier tube,

determine the potential difference between dynode 4 and the photocathode.

(ii) A fault develops inside the photomultiplier tube causing a short circuit between

dynodes 3 and 5. Determine the new potential difference between dynode 4 and

the photocathode. Explain your reasoning.

Explanation: …………..……………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………................

……………………………………………………………………………………................

……………………………………………………………………………………....... [3]

7

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

3 From the power station, the voltage is stepped up to about 230 kV along the high voltage

cables before a series of step down transformers near homes are used to reduce the voltage

to 240 V at our homes. Fig. 3.1 shows the last iron-cored step down transformer before our

homes with the actual turns ratio indicated. The home 240 V output has a frequency of 50 Hz

is connected to a 58 Ω resistor of a home appliance.

iron-core

58 Ω

home

Fig. 3.1

(a) Determine the number of similar turns-ratio transformers required to step down from the

high voltage (230 kV) cables to the 240 V output used at homes. State one assumption

made.

Assumption: ........................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [4]

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

8

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

(c) Determine the average power dissipated in the 58 Ω resistor of a home appliance.

4 A p-n junction is formed between slices of p-type and n-type semiconductor material as shown

in Fig. 4.1

p-type n-type

Fig. 4.1

(a) On Fig. 4.1, draw an arrow indicating the direction of movement of holes when the two

slices are brought into contact. [1]

(b) Boron is used as a dopant in one of the semiconductor slices. State and explain whether

the addition of Boron creates a p-type or a n-type semiconductor.

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

……………………………………………………………………………………................. [3]

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Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

(c) State and explain what will happen to the depletion region when a battery is connected in

as shown in Fig. 4.2.

Fig. 4.2

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

……………………………………………………………………………………................. [2]

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

…………………………………………………………………………………………...................

……………………………………………………………………………………................. [1]

90 Th.

Given that

rest mass of 226

90 Th = 226.0249 u

rest mass of proton = 1.0073 u

rest mass of neutron = 1.0087 u

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Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

90 Th originally at rest decays and forms a radium nucleus 222

88 Ra* and

an alpha particle as shown below. The radium nucleus 222

88 Ra* is in an excited state.

226

90 Th Æ 222

88 Ra* + 42 He

Given that

rest mass of 226

90 Th = 226.0249 u

rest mass of 222

88 Ra = 222.0154 u

rest mass of 4

2 He = 4.0026 u

(i) Calculate the kinetic energy of the radium nucleus if the alpha particle is emitted

with a kinetic energy of 2.38 MeV.

Ra* further undergoes a gamma decay as shown below:

88

88 Ra + γ

Ra* Æ 222

222

88

11

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

6 Most Singapore buildings are built using a framework of concrete beams, slabs and columns.

The concrete columns need to carry both the ultimate vertical load, N and the ultimate bending

moment, M induced from the attached beam/s as shown in the 3-D pictorial diagram of

Fig. 6.1. In practice, the concrete columns are reinforced with steel bars.

N

Beam

Column

Fig. 6.1

To design for the steel bars in such columns, design charts are available from the British

Standard Structural Use of Concrete, BS8110.

12

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

In order to choose the correct design chart, the values of the following must match the design

details:

fy = Ultimate characteristic strength of steel bar

d

where d is the distance from the edge of the column to the centre of the steel bar that is

h

furthest from that edge and h is the larger dimension of the column

h = 450 mm

d

h = 450 mm

Height of

column

32 mm cover= 40 mm

diameter steel

bar

b = 200 mm

h = 450 mm (larger dimension of the column)

b = 200 mm

d = distance from the edge of the column to the centre of the steel bar that is furthest from that

edge.

(a) The chosen design details for the column above are:

fcu = 50 N mm-2

fy = 460 N mm-2

cover = 40 mm (from edge of column to edge of steel bar)

Assuming that 4 numbers of 32 mm diameter steel bars are to be used. Determine the

d

value of and hence explain why Chart No. 49 is appropriate to be used.

h

d

= ………………

h [1]

Explanation:

..............................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

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Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

N M

(b) The coordinates of the chart derived from the values of and can be used to

bh bh2

100 ASC

establish the corresponding value of such that ASC (the total required

bh

cross-sectional area of steel bars) can be calculated. It is necessary to provide enough

steel bars, with a total area more than ASC.

100 ASC

An example of reading off the value is:

bh

N

Value of = 32.5 N mm-2

bh

M

Value of 2

= 3.20 N mm-2

bh

From Chart No. 49, the corresponding coordinate is marked with a cross and labelled

100 ASC

‘A’. This coordinate corresponds to a value of 4 < < 5 . More specifically, the

bh

100 ASC

value of is 4.5. Using this value, ASC can then be calculated.

bh

Based on the same design details in (a), the loads carried by the column in Fig 6.2 are:

M = Ultimate bending moment = 91.2 kN m

N = Ultimate vertical load = 2460 kN

N M

(i) Determine the values of and for the column in Fig 6.2.

bh bh2

N

= ……………… N mm-2

bh

M

2

= ……………… N mm-2 [2]

bh

14

Preliminary Examination Meridian Junior College 21 September 2010

JC2 H2 Physics 2010

(ii) Using Chart No. 49, determine whether 4 steel bars of diameter 32 mm with a

total area of 3220 mm2 is sufficient. [4]

(c) A young engineer designed the same column except that he used a different concrete

with an ultimate crushing pressure limit, fcu of 25 N mm-2. Compare your calculated value

N

of in (b)(i) with this value of fcu = 25 N mm-2. Comment what would happen to the

bh

concrete.

.......................................................................................