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Development of Schemes
Source: MECON VOLTAGE REGULATION OBJECTIVE The basic objective of strengthening and improvement of sub Transmission-system is to ensure quality and reliability of supply to the consumers, along with bringing down the technical losses to an optimal minimum value and phase the system expansion to match the growing power demand in the area under study. Today consumers have become more aware of electricity supply quality. Appliances used today by consumers are more sensitive than earlier. Quality power supply is necessity of today. By quality power supply we mean voltage regulation with in a limit laid by Bureau of Indian Standard, Power Supply should be free from harmonics which affects the equipment life adversely and increase the energy loss. In order to improve the sub-transmission and distribution system to provide reliable and quality power supply to consumers. It is necessary to take up strengthening and improvement of the system in a scientific and methodical manner. Why Voltage Regulation? Performance of electrical equipment is affected by variation in voltage, current and frequency of supply power. There are many appliances available today which are in common use of consumer which are very sensitive to voltage, current and frequency. For example a microwave oven is frequency sensitive equipment where as tube light is voltage sensitive and a filament bulb is current sensitive. In industry annealing is very precise process which is current sensitive process where as the performance of drive motors depends on the availability of voltage at their terminals and AC drives are frequency sensitive. Among these examples variation in frequency & current is least recognized parameter by common consumers but it is the voltage which is much talked by people. A tube-light stop glowing as soon as the voltage dips a certain level and it is quickly notices by people. Among voltage, current and frequency it is the voltage which is quantifiable, measurable and easily controllable by utilities. Controlling frequency variation is not in the hand of utility. This is why an electrical power supply network is design and developed taking the voltage variation at different level/ section.
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(A Govt. of India Undertaking)
Project Development. outage of transformer / line.g.5% For example Sending End Voltage Receiving End Voltage To develop new network or to renovate existing system to achieve above voltage variation limit following tools are used. KVA – KM 2. Appraisal and Schemes Implementation Distribution Reform. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. So quality power is the necessity of today.420 Than % voltage regulation 440 The voltage drop in 33 kV and 11 kV feeders should not exceed 5% at the farthest end under peak load conditions and normal system operation regime. of India Undertaking) 2 . Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program What is Voltage Regulation? By Voltage regulation we mean the voltage drop between sending end to receiving and due to resistance. BIS has specified the range of permissible/ acceptable voltage at consumer end. voltage variation at various voltage levels with on load tap changing at power transformer if necessary shall be maintained with in the following limits: Above 33 kV (-) 12. DPR Preparation. However. (A Govt.5% Up to 33 kV (-) 9. skin effect etc. under system exigencies e. Sending End Voltage – Receiving End Voltage Voltage Regulation = Sending End Voltage E1 – E2 =E1 Where E1 = Sending End Voltage E2 = Receiving End Voltage = 440 Voltage = 420 Voltage 440 . reactance. Today consumers/ industries are using electronic equipment in large numbers which are voltage sensitive. 1. MI-POWER etc. DINIS. ETAP.0% Low voltage (-) 6% to (+) 10% to (+) 6% to (+) 6% x 100 = 4. Software available for network analysis like – POWERNET. POWERGEN NETWORK.
C = Power Factor = Diversity Factor = Line Regulation Constant Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd.1 KM 0. KVA-KM methodology is very commonly used tools for calculating voltage regulations of lines. Tools for calculating regulation of power distribution lines.KM concept as explained may be used to decide the size of conductor and distribution planning.= D. DPR Preparation.5 KM 0.5 KM 1.Project Development.464 % 1.05 KM 0. Appraisal and Schemes Implementation Distribution Reform.1 KM 160 kVA 1.5 X 1438 + 1 X 1763 = 630 + 1242 + 719 + 1763 = 4354 % Regulation = KVA-KM X P.3 KM 1. 250 kVA 0.05 KM 0.2 KM 0. Till computer software facilities are established in the circle.05 KM 0.85 -----------------.5 KM 0.= 3.0 KM 315 kVA Where P.2 KM 100 kVA 0. kVA.F --------------------.2 X 838 Receiving End 2.1 KM 2. of India Undertaking) 3 .F D. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program The selection of conductor size should be based on studies using software and the economic analysis by considering capital cost and capitalization of losses. (A Govt.0 KM 0.0 KM 325 kVA 610 kVA 513 kVA kVA-KM = 2 X 315 + 1.05 KM 100kVA 200kVA 63 kVA 0.0 KM 315 kVA 100kVA 100 kVA 25 kVA Sending End 0.5 KM 1.F X RC 4354 X 0.5 X 828 + 0.F R.05 KM 100kVA 0.
kW Active Power φ kVAR Reactive Power kVA Apparent Power Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. 3. 3. 3.f. Energy consumed during 24 hours Load Factor = ------------------------------------------------Maximum load recorded x 24 hours Also Load Factor Average Load = -------------------------Maximum Load Power Factor Power Factor is defined as the ratio of active power to apparent power.8 at 11 kV 617 838 1219 KW-Km for 1% voltage drop at p. DPR Preparation. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Regulation constant for commonly used ACSR conductors are given in following table: Sl. (A Govt. 4.35 mm ACSR Rabbit Size & Name of conductor 7/2.Project Development. No.14 1.59 mm ACSR Weasel 7/3. 1. 5.80 Some Important Factors Load Factor The load factor can be defined as the ratio of the energy consumed during a given period to the energy which would have been used it the maximum load has been maintained through out that period. No.22 1.59 mm ACSR Weasel 7/3.11 mm ACSR Squirrel 7/2.8 at 450 Volt 1. Sl.21 mm AAC GNAT 7/3.f.57 mm ACSR Dog Size & Name of conductor 7/2. 2.11 mm ACSR Squirrel 7/2. Sl.09 mm ACSR Raccoon 6/4.72 mm + 4/1. 1.10 mm AAC ANT 7/2.98 0.8 at 33 kV 10708 13750 16267 KW-Km for 1% voltage drop at p. 0.f. 2. 0. Appraisal and Schemes Implementation Distribution Reform. No. 2. 1.90 1.15 mm ACSR Rabbit KW-Km for 1% voltage drop at p. of India Undertaking) 4 . Size & Name of conductor 7/3.35 mm ACSR Rabbit 7/4. 0.
Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Power Factor = Cos φ KW (True Power) = --------------------------------------------KVA (Apparent Power) What are the effects of low power factor? Low power factor results in: • Poor Voltage Regulation • Increase in Maximum Demand • Increased loading in customer’s cable/ transformer Why does Power Factor become low? • • Presence of large number of Induction Motors Highly loaded induction motors How to Improve Power Factor? • • Installation of Static Capacitors Installation of Static VAR Compensator Variation of Maximum Demand with Change in Power Factor (pf) MD at Unity pf 100 = ----------------1 100 = ----------------0.90 pf = 111. Maximum non-coincident demand = sum of individual maximum demand of various load over a particular period.95 100 = ----------------0.26 kVA i. (A Govt.11% Increase Advantage of improvement in power factor is the reduction in monthly Maximum Demand Charges.90 = 100 kVA MD at 0.Project Development. 5.11 kVA i.e. DPR Preparation.95 pf = 105. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd.e.25% Increase MD at 0. Diversity Factor Diversity Factor is the ratio of the maximum non coincident demand over a period to maximum diversified demand over the same period. 11. of India Undertaking) 5 . Appraisal and Schemes Implementation Distribution Reform.
So a good planning is very essential before taking up reconductoring.Project Development. Replacing ACSR & AAAC All aluminum alloy conductor have better conductivity than aluminum conductor steel reinforced though it is costlier. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Maximum diversified demand = Maximum demand of the group of loads over a particular period. Diversity Factor P1. Reconductoring The another method of improving voltage regulation is by replacing old conductor with one size higher new conductor. This can be improved by use of capacitors of proper rating near the load to compensate the reactive power requirement. (A Govt. The main constraint in this method is taking shut down. max + P2. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. Appraisal and Schemes Implementation Distribution Reform. max = ----------------------------PC. max Sum of maximum demand of individual = ------------------------------------------------------Maximum load connected to system Diversity Factor Voltage Regulation Improvement Tools • • • • • • • Bifurcation of lines Reconductoring Use of higher Size conductor Use of AAAC conductor in place of ACSR Conductor Improving power factor Diversifying the load Setting of new substation near load centre Bifurcation of Lines Long length transmission line have more voltage drop due to I2R loss because with the increase of length resistance increases so it is preferable to have short transmission line by furcating the existing long transmission line or creating a new feeder from primary sub-station. Improving Power Factor Voltage at receiving end bear less power due to use of induction motors is large number in industries as well as for pumps for irrigation purpose. of India Undertaking) 6 . DPR Preparation.
of India Undertaking) 7 . Network Development The Distribution System planning involves setting of sub-station routing of feeders and many other decisions relating to both location and amounts of capacity additions.Project Development. System load forecast via forecast for the entire area. So by carrying out proper survey of load a new PSS can be installed near load centre which in turn will provide better voltage to consumer. The three steps procedures involved in distribution load forecast are: • • • Analysis of past trends of growth in electricity demand. (A Govt. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Diversity the Load Voltage regulation can be improved by incoming consumers to use electrical power in different time. Setting New PSS By setting new PSS instead of stretching 11 kV lines too long can improve voltage regulation with increase of consumers the length of 11 kV lines have also increase to cater the consumers located at for distance. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. one should know the following information/ data. PHED can use pumps in warning house. Appraisal and Schemes Implementation Distribution Reform. DPR Preparation. For this utility can fixed different tariff for different hours. To renovate the existing network we must know the following data : • • • • • • • Length of present network Single line diagram of network The voltage regulation of the system Type and size of conductor used Consumer profile Emergency supply requirement if any The existing capacities of PSS To develop new power supply network or to renovate the existing power supply network. Therefore the distribution forecast refers to fore cast of geographical locations as well as quantum of future load growth. For example the industrial consumers can be asked to use power during night. Divide the utility service area into sufficient large number of small areas and the forecast for each small area. Spatial / small area load forecast.
size & material Land availability Accessibility of road & rail * Following points are taken care while developing network: • Non coincident peak demands at the individual 33/11 kV sub-station would be used in the load flow studies for assessing the adequacy and reinforcements required to sub-transmission lines.e. population. solar radiation. However.e. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Consumer Profile Consumer profile includes type of the consumer. seismic intensity. Existing Network details incase of renovation and modernization i.Project Development. • Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. connected loads of consumer. consumer may be of the following types. of India Undertaking) 8 . DPR Preparation. However for the system below 33 kV diversities shall be taken into account. altitude. The demand intervals are normally 30 minutes. for the system below 33 kV diversities shall be taken into account. Non coincident peak demands at the individual 33/11 kV Sub-station would be used in the load flow studies for assessing the adequacy and reinforcements required to sub transmission lines. but may vary from utility to utility from 15 minutes to 60 minutes. The demand is measured using a trivector meter/ digital energy meter. PSS SLD of existing network Length of the lines Details of conductors i. snow fall. wind speed. specific requirement of consumer. Area Profile It includes latitude. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Capacities of existing GSS. rain fall. • • • • • • HT Consumers Domestic Consumer LT Industrial Consumers PHED Loads Street Lighting Loads Agriculture Consumers Peak Demand It is the highest average kVA recorded during any one demand interval with in the month. (A Govt. Appraisal and Schemes Implementation Distribution Reform. floods etc.
Wolf. 3. Rabbit or equivalent AAAC.15. Raccoon. Appraisal and Schemes Implementation Distribution Reform.3 MVA.5 MVA and 5 MVA to be supplied at 33 kV Maximum Demand of more than 5 MVA to be supplied at 66 kV (or higher voltage) Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. Every 33/11 kV Sub-station may have preferably at least two incoming feeders from two different sources from reliability consideration. 1. The 11 kV feeders shall generally not be long under normal condition. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program • • The voltage drop in 33 kV and 11 kV feeders should not exceed 5% at the farthest and under peak load condition and normal operation regime. Raccoon.mm ACSR Dog. • • • • Maximum Demand of up to 100 kVA to be supplied at low voltage Maximum Demand of between 100 kVA and 1500 kVA to be supplied at 11 kV Maximum Demand between 1. As a guideline. The preferred transformer capacity for primary Sub-station (i. 150.mm 11 kV LT The separate 33/11 kV feeders shall be laid for major industrial consumers. 150. 3 Core XLPE cables of sized 120. The power factor of the system would preferably be not less than 0. 300 and 400 sq.Project Development. 185. DPR Preparation.6. Rabbit AAC. (A Govt. It possible it should not be exceeded beyond 15 Km.mm ACSR Dog. 66/11 kV or 33/11 kV) should be of 5 MVA. 185. Dog or equivalent AAAC. 185. Equivalent Aerial Bunched Cable (ABC). 240. In case of outage of one transformer the other transformer should be of sufficient capacity to meet the system requirement alone. 16 MVA and 20 MVA for Urban Area and 1. 5 MVA for Rural Area. Rated System Voltage 33 kV Conductor Type • • • • • • ACSR Panther. the conductors / cables indicated below could be preferred. Adequate power supply at normal voltage shall be available from main grid substation (GSS) to meet the system demand. 240 & 300 sq. 10 MVA. PVC Cables of 95. Wasp or equivalent Aerial Bunched Cable (ABC) 3½ Core or 4 Core. Ant. Grasshopper. The loading of lines should preferably be kept as per economic loading level of the particular conductor.95 at 11 kV level. 6. 240. 8 MVA. 3 Core XLPE cables of 150. 120. 300 sq.e. of India Undertaking) 9 .
25 1. all factors affecting the calculation to decide the rating and capacity of equipment.00 8. Voltage regulation is taken as indicator of power supply quality as it quantifiable.5 1.25 4. of India Undertaking) 10 .50 7.50 1. measurable and controllable by utility.Km tool to calculate voltage regulation of transmission line. it is equally important to take care of all component of network like voltage. Step up Transformer and EHV Transmission System Transformation to inter-mediate voltage level.50 2. (A Govt. System Components Levels for peak power losses Target Level Max.00 4. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. 2. The diversity factor to know the pattern of the connected load. 4. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Maximum fault level • 33 kV System – 750 MVA • 11 kV System – 350 MVA (Urbans) – 250 MVA (Rurals) • LT System – 40 MVA ECONOMIC LOSS LEVELS Sl. DPR Preparation.Project Development.00 3. current.00 15. 3. No. transmission system & step down to subtransmission voltage level Sub-transmission system and step down to distribution voltage level Distribution lines and service connections TOTAL POWER LOSS CONCLUSION As discussed in preceding sides it is clear that to develop and analyze a electrical subtransmission and distribution system. kVA. the power triangle to calculate the kVAR required to improve the power factor. Appraisal and Schemes Implementation Distribution Reform. Tolerable (%) (%) 0. frequency.
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