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Pre-release Questions (from:TSR


1. Describe how a neurone can make a muscle 'clench'. (paragraph 3). (3)

2. In para 6, what would make a simple 'neural circuit'? Draw a labelled diagram to
help you. (3)

3. What are the key issues, both positive and negative, of using animals in
experiments to test (para 8) scientific theories of how the human body works? (4)

4. In para 10, it describes how some neurones are excitatory, whilst others are
inhibitory. Explain how this can be the case. (3)

5. Describe the basic steps involved in inserting a gene (para 17) from rats into
fruit flies. (4)

6. The ChR2 gene codes for a channel protein (para 22). Describe how a channel
protein works. (2)

7. In para 23 a German team managed to express the ChR2 gene. Draw a simple
flow chart showing the steps at a cellular level of how genes can be expressed. (3)

8. Gottschalk (para 26) describes it as a 'proof of concept'. what does this mean?

9. In para 29 'action potentials are generated'. Describe how this occurs. (3)

10. Deisseroth's clinical trial (para 36) was looking at area 25 of the limbic system.
Discuss the validity of his results.

11. Gene therapy involves a modified cold virus to insert the foreign gene (para
39). Why are
viruses often used as vectors in gene therapy? (2)

12. Apart from stress (para 43), what are the other key risk factors for
cardiovascular disease? (4)

13. How does the body prevent a neurone from repeatedly firing (para 50)? (3)

14. What evidence suggests that noradrenaline is not the cause of stress (para
58)? (2)

15. Why is it important that women should be included in clinical trials (para 67),
and why are women often not included in such trials? (3)

Why might eating chillis make women suffer more pain than those who don't (para 78)? (1) . (5) 17.16. Summarise the key findings about why there seems to be sex differences in pain perception (from para 61 onwards).