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and its variation with Reynolds number. Also prepare a calibration chart for the given. Apparatus: • An orifice meter and a venturi meter, • Suitable manometer (with mercury as the manometric fluid) for measuring pressured drop across the meters, • Water circulation system consisting of water reservoir, a centrifugal pump having delivery line with by pass. Flow control valves are provided on delivery line as well as by pass line. • Calibrated tank for measuring the flow rate of water through orifice meter. • Stop watch Theory: This experiment introduces us to two devices that are used to measure flow. These instruments are based on the same principle as following: "The pressure difference between any two points on a tapering pipe through which the fluid is flowing depends on the change of levels and on the change in velocities and therefore on the volume rate of flow" One, the venturi meter, is a device used for measuring the rate of flow of a fluid through a pipe. Water is allowed to flow through the meter at different rates ranging from zero to the maximum and the corresponding pressure differences shown in the manometer are noted. The actual discharge is determined using the measuring tank and the stop watch.

Figure 1Venturi Meter A Venturi Meter consists of a short converging conical tube leading to a cylindrical portion, called the throat, of smaller diameter of that of the pipeline, which is followed by a diverging section in which the diameter increases again to that of the main pipeline.

which is concentric with the pipe. It consists of a flat circular plate which has a circular sharp edged hole called orifice. The second. which increases due to constriction placed inside the closed conduit carrying stream of fluid. laminar flow in a horizontal pipe (no change in elevation) with negligible frictional losses. Construction of orifice meter is simplest amongst all the flow meters in that it consists of a plate with a hole drilled in it. inviscid. incompressible (constant fluid density). This pressure difference is correlated to the rate of flow. the orifice meter. A differential manometer is connected at section 1 which is at a distance of about 1. In principle. however. It works on the same principle as a venturi meter. Bernoulli'sequation reduces to an equation relating the conservation of energy between two points on the same streamline: .5 to 2 times the pipe diameter upstream from the orifice plate. This difference in the flow physics of the two flow meters leads to difference in the value of discharge coefficient and irrecoverable pressure loss even when the area ratios for two are identical. and at section 2. Figure 2 Orifice Meter The orifice meter comes under the category of "constant area variable head flow meter.5 times the diameter of the pipe. which is at a distance of about half the diameter of the orifice on the downstream side from the orifice plate.The function of the converging portion is to increase the velocity of the fluid and temporarily lower its static pressure. it is essentially similar to a venturi since it obstructs the flow of fluid. is again a device used for measuring the rate of flow of a fluid through a pipe. The pressure difference between inlet and throat is developed. placed in a flange connecting the two portions of the pipeline. It has an opening in it smaller than the internal diameter of the pipeline. due to the absence of guiding passage on the downstream passage of the orifice meter fluid comes out in the form of a free jet." The principle of these meters is conversion of pressure head into velocity head. By assuming steady-state. The orifice diameter is about 0.

and for the Orifice it is about 0. Observation: Orifice Meter .or: By continuity equation: or V1 = Q / A1 and V2 = Q / A2 : Solving for Q: and: The above expression for Q gives the theoretical volume flow rate.Introducing the beta factor β = d2 / d1 as well as the coefficient of discharge Cd: The value of Cd is usually less than 1.65. due to the larger losses in the case of Orifice meter. in actual practice there are considerablefrictional lossesin orifice meter dueto boundary layer separation and eventual wake formation on its downstream side and actualvolumetricflow rate through orifice meter is less than the theoreticaldischarge. However. for the Venturi Meter it is close to one.

72 26 422.61 27 391.4248 845.9425 522.0000 393.4914 699573 649604 393094 456388 503026 556327 602966 We see that C0 = approx 0.96 72 361.5 11.6192 898.8 13.92 76 C0=Qac/k*Rm ^.7136 965.9818 650.65 24 326.Sr.6667 503.1 16.7231 0.7521 0.7 15.vslog(Reynold Number) Venturi Meter .3333 556. Height in tank H Time Take n T T 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 Mercu ry level Rm cm 15 13 4.72 Graphs Figure 3Qactualvs R Figure 4 Discharge Coeff.4 6.5 Discharg e Q=H*Atan k/t cm3/s 700.1885 788.0000 650.8 8 10 11.5) Qact=Qt/C0 cm3/s Reynold s number r=ρ*v*d /μ uni t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cm 21 19.7024 0.3333 Velocit y C0 Qactual V=Q/S0 cm/s 454.7249 0.1517 705.51 08 296.1 0.6667 603.7138 0. no.3333 456.7 18.24 24 255.7060 0.

3333 723.3333 516.4 12.8 to 0.3333 560.5 15 17.9467 0.9425 Reynold s number r=ρ*v*d /μ 316474 499695 582978 516352 572984 722892 559659 732886 Here the C0 value vary from 0.5003 551.80 19 378.8 22 Q=H*Atank/ t cm3/s 316.8 4.4857 635.7 16. The principal of this meter is conversion of pressure head into velocity head.3333 V=Q/S0 cm/s 205.0000 583.8206 0.6667 500.0000 733.70 79 324.88 363.8453 0.5 6.5 13 Discharge Velocit y Discharge Coefficient C0 C0=Qact/k*Rm^ .8377 0.8973 696.8158 Qactual H Cm 9.5 15.3179 584.2286 881.6667 573.6484 898.9 7.vslog(Reynold Number) Discussion: Orifice meter is a device used to measure the discharge through pipe.2 21.93 55 335.5 17. Inside the orifices meter due to constriction placed a pressure difference between two sections is developed.95 Graphs: Figure 5 Q vs R Figure 6 Discharge Coeff.8 5.37 61 Qact=Qt/ C0 cm3/s 334. The discharge through the orifice meter is calculated by the formula Qact = Co * Qt .5) 0.8836 0.Height in tank Time Take n T T 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 Mercu ry level Rm cm 1.8810 0. which determines the discharge through the pipe.62 86 372.77 81 476.5 7.7114 678.9060 0.43 95 469.

.where Qt = theoretical discharge. According to theoretical explication discharge coefficient remains constant for higher Reynolds number. For a given set up the first 3 parameters are fixed so in the experiment we observe the behavior of discharge coefficient with change in Reynolds number. location of pressure taps and the Reynolds number. which is measured sing manometer reading Co = discharge coefficient of orifice meter which is the ratio of actual flow rate and theoretical flow rate The discharge coefficient is also dependent upon the diameter ratio of orifice and pipe. shape of orifice.

Precautions: • Ensure that there is no air in manometer if there are some air bubbles are present than using air release valve slowly release the air in manometer. The discharge through the venture meter is calculated by the formula in the same way as in orifice meter. • • • Venturimeter is a device used to measure the discharge through pipe. After release the air close the air valves again. venture meter has less pressure loss. The explanation is that the pressure losses in the convergent section but it pressure regain in divergent section.70 to 0. In comparison of orifice meter. pressure difference is created and measurement of pressure difference enables the determination of the discharge through pipe. There can be error in the measurement of manometer reading. Result: • • • The discharge coefficient for venture meter varies in-between 0. The graphs of manometer reading verses flow rate were come out to be parabola which was expected theoretically. The graph plotted for discharge coefficient verses Reynolds number is very much straight line. Explanation for Error: • • One of the sources of error is the place where the pressure taps are installed are right or not.80 to 0. The principal of this meter is by reducing the cross section area of flow passes.77 This all data are calculated at a higher value of Reynolds number.95 The graph plotted for discharge coefficient verses Reynolds number is very much straight line.Result: • The discharge coefficient for orifices meter varies in-between 0. This describes that due to high pressure loss in orifices meter the velocity of flow also get reduced. • Conclusion: . Never close the delivery line and by pass line simultaneously.

then started to descend with further increment in the rate of discharge. which indicates that the head losses occurred in the Orifice are larger than that in the venturi. . this result was predicted theoretically. but as seen in this experiment the venturi meter provide more accurate results that the Orifice meter.For both meters it was noted from plots that the difference in pressures are directly related to the rate of discharge. where in the venturi meter the value of Cd increase gradually at first with increasing the rate of discharge till a point approaching one. • Coefficient of discharge have a varying value depending on the rate of discharge.7 • The Coefficient of discharge " Cd" for the venturi Meter was greater than that for the Orifice Meter. • The arrangement of Orifice Meter is much economical than the use of the venturi meter. For the Orifice meter the same scheme was noticed but with the ultimate value of 0. • A practical error in taking the reading was noticed when the Cd of that reading was calculated. So the choice of which to use in a specified laboratory depends on the financial ability of the organization occupying the device and on the accuracy needed. which showed increasing value of Cd of the previous results.

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