Fdsðwxor 4

Uhylvær gh Dojxqv
Frqfhlwrv Lpsruwdqwhv
414 Lqwurgxêær
Um loxlo soLio fïsica malomalica ooyo sompio pailii oo alguns piossuposlos
ouanlo a foimacao anloiioi oo aluno. Nosla oLia aciooilamos conhocioos os
iuoimonlos oo calculo yoloiial (oocomposicao om compononlos. piooulo oscalai.
piooulo yoloiial. olc.). oo calculo oifoioncial o inlogial o algum conhocimonlo
Lasico om oouacoos oifoionciais. Lslo o looo o conloúoo inicial ouo o aluno ooyo
possuii paia poooi soguii o ioslanlo oa oLia som maioios pioLlomas.
Ainoa assim. paioco-nos inloiossanlo iniciai nossa oxposicao com um capïlulo
inicial soLio uma pailo oo maloiial supiacilaoo ouo. muilas yozos. o nogligon-
ciaoa nos cuisos liaoicionais. Assim. oslo piimoiio capïlulo soiyiia ao aluno
como ioyisao oos assunlos aoui assumioos como ja osluoaoos. pooonoo. oyon-
lualmonlo. soi úlil paia um niyolamonlo inicial oos alunos.
Ja noslo loxlo inlioouloiio iiomos apiosonlai muilos oxomplos o oxoicïcios
ouo mosliam as moliyacoos fïsicas oo foimalismo apiosonlaoo. algo ouo fiooüon-
lomonlo o oospiozaoo om cuisos liaoicionais oo malomalica.
Comocaiomos nossa oxposicao com uma ioyisao Laslanlo Lioyo oos yoloios.
junlamonlo com suas piopiiooaoos. passaiomos ao osluoo oa muoanca oo Laso
(mas aponas como uma muoanca oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas poi iolacao) o.
lnalmonlo. lialaiomos oos campos oscalaios o yoloiiais o oos looiomas inlogiais
ouo so pooom oomonsliai paia oslos campos.
415 Yhwruhv= xpd uhylvær
Um yoloi no ospaco U
6
o oolnioo como um sogmonlo oo iola oiionlaoo. ou soja.
um oLjolo ouo ooponoo aponas oo uma oiiocao. um sonlioo o um mooulo. Na
sua iopiosonlacao gialca. um yoloi pooo soi oosonhaoo como uma sola. como
1
2 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
Figuia 1.1: Vaiios yoloios com oiyoisas oiiocoos o aponlanoo om yaiios sonli-
oos oislinlos. Moslia a iopiosonlacao oo um yoloi poi um sogmonlo oo iola
oiionlaoo (nolo ouo nao foi piociso lxai o sisloma oo cooioonaoas).
na lguia 1.1. caso om ouo a oiiocao lca ooloiminaoa pola :·ìn ·&¡·:ì· soLio a
oual o yoloi foi oosonhaoo. o sonlioo lca ooloiminaoo pola ponla oa sola o o
mooulo polo sou compiimonlo.
Lxislo uma iazao fïsica piofunoa paia so oolnii um yoloi como sonoo um
oLjolo malomalico ooponoonoo aponas oa oiiocao oo sonlioo o oo mooulo. Nolo
ouo nosla oolnicao nao fazomos moncao ao sisloma oo cooioonaoas ouo oyon-
lualmonlo oslojamos ulilizanoo paia iopiosonlai oslo yoloi: osla o. coilamonlo.
a piopiiooaoo mais impoilanlo oos yoloios: ·|·· nn· J·¡·nJ·n J· ·.·ì·nn J·
···:J·nnJn· n· n&n| ··ìn· ··nJ· :·¡:···nìnJ··. Ioooiïamos onlao nos poigun-
lai pola iazao oo a fïsica ouoioi oolnii oLjolos malomalicos ouo nao possuam
osla ooponooncia com o sisloma oo cooioonaoas.
A iazao paia islo o simplos: a fïsica piolonoo ouo suas iolacoos sojam lois
uniyoisais ouo yalham inooponoonlomonlo oa aiLiliaiiooaoo (o suLjoliyioaoo)
humana. Um sisloma oo cooioonaoas o uma consliucao malomalica humana o
pooo soi colocaoo com sua oiigom om oualouoi ponlo oo ospaco. ooponoonoo
aponas oo goslo oaouolo ouo o oslaLoloco. As lois fïsicas nao pooom ooponooi
oosla aiLiliaiiooaoo: poi oxomplo: as lois oo Nowlon nao pooom ooponooi oo
ponlo oo ospaco no oual so coloca a oiigom oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas no oual
olas sao osciilas... islo signilcaiia ouo. paia caoa sisloma. hayoiia uma foimula
malomalica paia oslas lois´! Assim. so lomos oLjolos malomalicos ouo nao
ooponoom oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas (os yoloios). ao oscioyoimos uma loi fïsica
como

1 = na.
ouo o uma loi iolacionanoo yoloios. saLomos ouo osla loi poimanocoia sonoo os-
ciila ·rnìnn·nì· Jn n··nn nnn·.:n oualouoi ouo soja o sisloma oo cooioonaoas
lxo ulilizaoo (oualouoi ouo soja nossa oscolha oa oiigom oo um lal sisloma).
Lsla possiLilioaoo oo so colocai a oiigom oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas om oual-
ouoi ponlo oo ospaco implica na consiooiacao oa h·n·n·n·.JnJ· J··ì· ··¡n··.
ou soja. na oouiyaloncia oo looos os sous ponlos.
Iooo-so mosliai ouo a loi oo consoiyacao oo momonlo linoai osla associaoa
a osla homogonoioaoo. Do falo. suponha ouo oslamos no ospaco yazio (as foicas
oslaLolocom oiiocoos o ponlos piiyilogiaoos. como oia oo so ospoiai: um ponlo
poilo oa supoifïcio oa loiia. num campo giayilacional. o oifoionlo lsicamonlo
oo um ponlo longo oosla supoifïcio): noslo ospaco yazio (som foicas). lomos ouo
4151 YHWRUHV= XPD UHYLVÆR 8
Figuia 1.2: Lsouoma (a) moslianoo a nocossioaoo oo so oolnii uma com-
posicao oo yoloios" (sua soma yoloiial) paia iopiosonlai a nocao oo iosullanlo
oa mocanica. (L) O molooo oo polïgono paia somai oois yoloios o (c) a oxlonsao
oo molooo paia um númoio oualouoi oo yoloios.
a sogunoa loi oo Nowlon foinoco na = dj´dt = 0. ou soja. j = conct.. ouo o a
consoiyacao oo momonlo linoai.
Nolomos ainoa ouo uma loi fïsica nao ooyoiia ooponooi lamLom oa oiionlacao
oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas (oixo a aponlanoo paia uma oiiocao. oixo n paia
oulia. olc.). Islo lamLom o um oaoo oa aiLiliaiiooaoo humana. Assim. os
yoloios. nao ooponoonoo oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas. nao ooponooiao oa oscolha
oo sua oiionlacao ospocïlca o as lois fïsicas soiao .nn:.nnì·· pola oscolha oosla
oiionlacao.
Iooo-so mosliai ouo a loi oo consoiyacao oo momonlo angulai osla associaoa
a osla nocao oo .··ì:·¡.n oo ospaco (oouiyaloncia oo oiiocoos) oo uma manoiia
paiocioa com a ouo lzomos no paiagiafo mais acima paia a consoiyacao oo
momonlo linoai.
Uma úllima nocao fïsica impoilanlo. mas ouo nao loca a nocao oo yoloi. o a
oa h·n·n·n·.JnJ· J· ì·n¡·. pola oual assumimos ouo a oscolha paia o inslanlo
oo lompo inicial polo oual comocamos a consiooiai o fonomono lamLom nao o
impoilanlo. Iooo-so mosliai ouo osla nocao osla ligaoa a loi oo consoiyacao oa
onoigia. algo ouo nao faiomos aoui.
Assim. o yoloi o uma onlioaoo aLsliala. ciiaoa paia. om piimoiio lugai.
oai conla oas piopiiooaoos mais funoamonlais oo ospaco (homogonoioaoo o
isoliopia). oo lal manoiia ouo as lois oa fïsica. uma yoz osciilas om loimos
ooslas onlioaoos. sojam aulomalicamonlo inyaiianlos poi oscolha oa oiigom o oo
oiiocionamonlo oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas. L ¡·: .··· ouo as lois fïsicas. como
as oa mocanica. poi oxomplo. iiao iolacionai gianoozas como o J··|··nn·nì· o
· ì·n¡· nn·ì· (aliayos oa yolocioaoo) o nao gianoozas como ¡··.·n· o .n·ìnnì·
J· ì·n¡·. ouo sao gianoozas ouo ooponoom oa oiigom o oa oiiocao oo sisloma
oo cooioonaoas. Lom como oo inslanlo inicial om ouo so comocou a consiooiai
o fonomono.
Agoia ouo ja oolnimos o yoloi. ooyomos saLoi como opoia-los algoLiica-
monlo. Do falo. consiooio um pioLloma lïpico oo mocanica no oual um caixolo
osla sonoo puxaoo poi oois homons sogunoo as foicas (yoloios)

1
4
o

1
5
+cf.
4 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
lguia 1.2(a)). Quoiomos saLoi oual a foica única

1
1
ouo ooyoiïamos fazoi paia
pioouzii no caixolo o mosmo ofoilo ouo as foicas oiiginais: ou soja. ouoiomos
saLoi como ooyomos J·]n.: a nossa ··nn ·ì·:.n|. 1r¡·:.n·nìn|n·nì· nola-so
ouo ooyomos oolnii osla soma como sonoo oaoa polo molooo oo polïgono (cf.
lguia 1.2(L)): noslo molooo a ]·:·n :··&|ìnnì·

1
1
soia iopiosonlaoa gialca-
monlo polo sogmonlo oo iola oiionlaoo ouo pailo oa oiigom oo um oos yoloios
o choga a ponla oo oulio. sonoo ouo os yoloios sao oisposlos oo lal manoiia ouo
a ponla oo um oolos osloja sompio om conlalo com a oiigom oo um oulio. Lslo
molooo pooo. oyioonlomonlo. soi gonoializaoo paia oualouoi númoio oo yoloios.
como moslia a lguia 1.2(c)osla gonoializacao o a possiLilioaoo oo oispoi os
yoloios na oioom ouo ouisoimos ja moslia ouo a soma yoloiial soia ··n&ìnì.n
o n····.nì.n. como o aluno ja ooyo saLoi oo sous cuisos Lasicos soLio yoloios.
Assim. ooyomos loi

1
1
=

1
4
÷

1
5
=

1
5
÷

1
4
(comulaliyioaoo)

1
1
=

1
4
÷ (

1
5
÷

1
6
) = (

1
4
÷

1
5
) ÷

1
6
(associaliyioaoo)
.
41514 Yhwruhv Xqlwäulrv h Uhsuhvhqwdêær gh Yhwruhv=
Ainoa ouo ouoiiamos ouo o oLjolo malomalico ·ì·: nao ooponoa oa oscolha
(aiLiliaiia) oo um sisloma oo cooioonaoas oualouoi. sompio ouo yamos iosolyoi
um pioLloma fïsico. piocisamos iopiosonla-lo oo alguma manoiia o. paia isso.
piocisamos inlioouzii um lal sisloma oo cooioonaoas. Assim. o inloiossanlo ouo
possamos iopiosonlai os yoloios noslos sislomas oo cooioonaoas. Iaia fazo-lo.
pooomos inlioouzii a nolacao oo ·ì·:·· &n.ìn:.··. como so soguo.
Iaia caoa oixo cooioonaoo ciiamos um yoloi unilaiio (com mooulo igual a
um) ouo oa a oiiocao o lxa o sonlioo posiliyo oo oixo om ouoslao (cf. lguia
1.8). Assim. o yoloi n oa lguia pooo soi osciilo. soguinoo o algoiïlimo oo soma
yoloiial inlioouzioo polo molooo oo polïgono. como sonoo a soma yoloiial oos
yoloios aLaixo
n = n
i
´
j ÷n
u
´
, ÷n
:
´
/.
sonoo ouo
´
j.
´
,.
´
/ sao os yoloios unilaiios nas oiiocoos a. n. . iospocliyamonlo. Os
oscalaios n
i
. n
u
. n
:
sao oilos as ··n¡·n·nì·· J· ·ì·: n o foinocom o mooulo
ouo os yoloios om caoa uma oas oiiocoos ooyom possuii paia. na composicao.
goiai o yoloi n.
Mas so os yoloios sao osciilos om loimos oos yoloios unilaiios
´
j.
´
,.
´
/ ouo sao.
poi oolnicao. ooponoonlos oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas. como pooomos manloi
ainoa a nocao oo inyaiiancia acima oofonoioa´ Doixaiomos a iosposla a osla
poigunla paia a socao om ouo falaiomos oa muoanca oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas.
r surgxwr hvfdodu=
Assim como a oolnicao oo yoloios foi foila oo mooo a oai conla oo caiacloiïsli-
cas ouo os fïsicos supoom soi as oo ospaco o oo lompo. o assim como a oolnicao
4151 YHWRUHV= XPD UHYLVÆR ò
Figuia 1.8: Diagiama moslianoo os yoloios unilaiios paia uma coila oscolha oo
sisloma oo cooioonaoas (posicao oa oiigom o oiionlacao). Moslia-so lamLom a
oocomposicao oo um yoloi oualouoi x om suas compononlos ao longo oos oixos
cooioonaoos.
Figuia 1.4: Iopiosonlacao moslianoo a nocossioaoo oo so oolnii um piooulo
oscalai como sonoo o mooulo oa piojocao oo um yoloi soLio o oulio.
oa aoicao oo yoloios foi consliuïoa oo manoiia a iopiosonlai aouilo ouo oxpoi-
imonlalmonlo so ospoia oa composicao oo coilas ouanlioaoos ouo ocoiiom na
fïsica. pooomos igualmonlo lonlai imaginai oulias opoiacoos onlio yoloios ouo
sojam inloiossanlos oo ponlo oo yisla oa fïsica. ou soja. ouo apaiocam com sul-
cionlo fiooüoncia om calculos fïsicos oo manoiia a juslilcai sua inliooucao como
uma opoiacao ospocïlca.
Um oxomplo oo uma lal opoiacao o a oo piooulo oscalai. O aluno ouo ja
lom conhocimonlos oo mocanica ooyo oslai lomLiaoo oa oolnicao oo liaLalho.
Suponha ouo uma coila foica osla sonoo aplicaoa a um Lloco 1 sogunoo um
angulo 0 com a hoiizonlal. como mosliaoo na lguia 1.4. Suponoo ouo o moyi-
monlo oo Lloco so so oa na hoiizonlal. a única compononlo oa foica ouo o
ioloyanlo paia nossas analisos oo pioLloma o aouola nn J.:··n· J· n·.n·nì·.
ou soja. na oiiocao oo ooslocamonlo. Assim. o liaLalho ioalizaoo poi uma foica
pooo soi oolnioo como sonoo
\ = (

1

cos 0)

d

onoo yomos a compononlo hoiizonlal oa foica sonoo mulliplicaoa polo mooulo
6 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
oa oislancia. Lsla oxpiossao ocoiio com lanla fiooüoncia na fïsica (ou soja.
siluacoos om ouo so a compononlo lomaoa numa oas oiiocoos o ouo impoila)
ouo passa a soi inloiossanlo oolnii uma opoiacao ouo a oo como iosullaoo.
A opoiacao a ouo nos iofoiimos o o chamaoo ¡:·J&ì· ···n|n: ·nì:· J·.·
·ì·:·· o o oolnioo como

1 ·

d =

1

d

cos 0.
onoo 0 o o angulo oolimilaoo polos yoloios

1 o

d. O piooulo oscalai. como o
piopiio nomo oiz. lom como iosullaoo &n n4n·:· (um oscalai).
Com osla oolnicao oo piooulo oscalai. junlamonlo com as oolnicoos oos
yoloios unilaiios
´
j.
´
,.
´
/. oolnioos soLio um sisloma cailosiano oualouoi. lomos
as soguinlos piopiiooaoos:
1.
´

´
j=
´

´
,=
´

´
/ = 1:
2.
´

´
,=
´

´
/=
´

´
j = 1:
8. So

¹ = a
i
´
j÷a
u
´
,÷a
:
´
/ o

1 = /
i
´
j÷/
u
´
,÷/
:
´
/. onlao

¹·

1 = a
i
/
i
÷a
u
/
u
÷a
:
/
:
:
4. O mooulo oo um yoloi

¹ pooo soi osciilo como

¹

5
=

¹·

¹:
ò. Os yoloios

¹ o

1 sao poiponoiculaios so. o somonlo so.

¹·

1 = 0.
Muilas ioonlioaoos liigonomoliicas pooom soi oLlioas a pailii aponas oo uso
oas piopiiooaoos acima lislaoas paia o piooulo oscalai oo yoloiosincluimos
algumas ooslas nos oxoicïcios ao lnal oo capïlulo.
R surgxwr yhwruldo=
Da mosma foima ouo com o piooulo oscalai. uma oulia opoiacao onlio yoloios
pooo lamLom soi oolnioa oaoa a fiooüoncia com ouo apaioco om siluacoos oo
calculo oa fïsica: osla opoiacao o oonominaoa ¡:·J&ì· ·ì·:.n|. Vojamos agoia
uma siluacao lïpica oa fïsica oa oual pooomos ioliiai as iogias paia o piooulo
yoloiial.
Suponhamos ouo oosojomos aLiii uma poila. como apiosonlaoo na lguia
1.ò(a). Ioooiïamos oxoicoi uma foica

1
4
cuja iola supoilo passasso polo ponlo
om ouo a poila osla piosa a paiooo (as ooLiaoicas) o cujo ponlo oo aplicacao
osla soLio a macanola. Claiamonlo osla foica nao soiia capaz oo pioouzii o
moyimonlo oosojaoo oo aLoiluia (ou fochamonlo) oa poila. Lnliolanlo. assim
ouo inclinamos a iola supoilo oo

1
5
poi um angulo 0. lomaoo como na lguia.
poicoLomos ouo uma foica apaioco o ouo a poila comoca a moyoi-so na oiiocao
oosojaoa. IoicoLomos ainoa ouo ouanlo mais inclinamos a iola supoilo. mais
moyimonlo a foica

1
5
o capaz oo pioouzii: oslo compoilamonlo conlinua alo
ouo alingimos o angulo oo ¬´2. a pailii oo oual. so conlinuamos a inclinai a iola
supoilo oo

1
5
. poicoLomos uma oiminuicao oa inlonsioaoo com ouo liansfoiimos
nossa foica paia o moyimonlo oa poila. Concluimos assim ouo oslo moyimonlo
4151 YHWRUHV= XPD UHYLVÆR 7
Figuia 1.ò: Lsouoma ouo moslia a nocossioaoo oo so oolnii o piooulo yoloiial
onlio oois yoloios. (a) ouas foi cas lonlanoo fochai uma poila. A foica I
4
nao
soia capaz oo fazo-lo: (L) a iopiosonlacao oo piooulo yoloiial com a iogia oa
mao oiioila ja aplicaoa.
ooyo soi piopoicional ao faloi

1
5

sin0. ouo. lxaoo o mooulo oa foica. aumonla
no inloiyalo [0. ¬´2[ o oiminui om [¬´2. ¬[. sonoo nulo paia os casos 0 = 0 o 0 = ¬.
como oxigioo pola fïsica oo pioLloma. So lxamos o mooulo oa foica

1
5
o o angulo
0. pooomos ainoa mooilcai o ponlo oo aplicacao oa foica. apioximanoo-o caoa
yoz mais oas ooLiaoicas. Nolamos. onlao. ouo a liansfoioncia oa foica paia
o moyimonlo oa poila yai oiminuinoo a mooioa om ouo nos apioximamos oas
ooLiaoicas. Lspoiamos ouo osla liansfoioncia oo foica" soja oaoa. om mooulo.
pola oxpiossao
'' =

1
5

d

sin0.
onoo

d o o yoloi mosliaoo na lguia 1.ò(L) o 0 o o angulo onlio os yoloios

1
5
o

d. Iiocisamos ainoa oolnii uma conyoncao paia saLoi ouanoo a poila osla
sonoo fochaoa o ouanoo ola osla sonoo aLoila. 1omos. poilanlo. J&n· possiLili-
oaoos. Nao pooomos oscolhoi um yoloi poiponoiculai a poila. como poooiïamos
inicialmonlo oosojai. pois o moyimonlo oa poila implicaiia numa alloiacao con-
lïnua oa oiiocao ooslo yoloi. Iiocisamos oo um yoloi ouo manlonha-so numa
oiiocao conslanlo ouianlo looo o moyimonlo (oo aLiii ou oo fochai) oa poila.
Assim. yamos inlioouzii uma iogia. chamaoa :·n:n Jn nn· J.:·.ìn. ouo oiz ouo.
paia ooloiminai a oiiocao iosullanlo oo piooulo yoloiial oo oois yoloios

¹ o

1.
ooyomos ospalmai a mao oiioila soLio

¹ com os oooos aponlanoo no sonlioo
oo

¹ o giiai a palma oa mao alo ouo ola onconlio o yoloi

1. A oiiocao o o
sonlioo oo piooulo yoloiial oo

¹ o

1 lca sonoo a oiiocao o o sonlioo om ouo
aponla o pologai oa mao ulilizaoa (cf. lguia 1.ò(L)). L oyioonlo ouo oslo yo-
loi aponlaia. ouianlo looo o piocosso oo fochamonlo oa poila (ou aLoiluia).
paia a mosma oiiocao o o mosmo sonlioo. como oosojayamos. Nolo. onliolanlo.
ouo nao ha oualouoi ]·:·n aluanoo nosla oiiocao: a única foica oo pioLloma o
aouola iosponsayol poi pioouzii o moyimonlo oa poila o nao pooo. poilanlo.
soi poiponoiculai a oslo moyimonlo. A ··n·n·n· inlioouzioa pola :·n:n Jn
8 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
nn· J.:·.ìn soiyo aponas paia inoicai so a poila osla fochanoo-so ou aLiinoo-
so. Finalmonlo. nolo ouo a iogia ooyo soi aplicaoa aponas ouanoo os yoloios

¹ o

1 osliyoiom com suas oiigons soLioposlas. caso conliaiio loiïamos uma
amLigüioaoo na oolnicao oa mosma.
A oxpiossao anloiioi apaioco com onoimo fiooüoncia om aplicacoos oa fïsica:
assim. o inloiossanlo foimaliza-la aliayos oa oolnicao oo um piooulo. como
sonoo
=

d ×

1
5
cujo mooulo o oaoo pola oxpiossao anloiioi o cuja oiiocao o oaoa pola iogia oa
mao oiioila. como oxplicaoo anloiioimonlo.
Com osla oolnicao oo piooulo yoloiial. junlamonlo com as oolnicoos oos
yoloios unilaiios
´
j.
´
,.
´
/. oolnioos soLio um sisloma cailosiano oualouoi. lomos
as soguinlos piopiiooaoos:
1.
´

´
j=
´
, ×
´
,=
´
/ ×
´
/ = 0:
2.
´

´
,=
´
/:
´

´
/=
´
j:
´

´
j =
´
,:
8.

¹×

1= ~

¹ (lomLio-so ouo sin(~0) = ~sin0):
4. So

¹ = a
i
´
j ÷a
u
´
, ÷a
:
´
/ o

1 = /
i
´
j ÷/
u
´
, ÷/
:
´
/. onlao

¹×

1 = (a
u
/
:
~a
:
/
u
)
´
j ÷ (a
:
/
i
~a
i
/
:
)
´
, ÷ (a
i
/
u
~a
u
/
i
)
´
/:
ò. O piooulo yoloiial acima pooo soi lamLom osciilo como

¹×

1 =

´
j
´
,
´
/
a
i
a
u
a
:
/
i
/
u
/
:

:
6. Os yoloios

¹ o

1 sao paialolos so. o somonlo so.

¹×

1 = 0:
7. O yoloi

¹×

1 o poiponoiculai aos yoloios

¹ o

1.
Assim como o piooulo oscalai. o piooulo yoloiial pooo soi ulilizaoo paia
oomonsliai inúmoias ioonlioaoos oa goomoliia plana. Vamos. onliolanlo. foinocoi
alguns oxomplos ouo mosliam sua ulilizacao na fïsica:
H{hpsor 4 `··ì:· n&· · ¡:·J&ì· ·ì·:.n| J·

¹ ·

1 ]·:n··· n n:·n J· ¡n:n|·|·-
n:nn· J·|.n.ìnJ· ¡·: ··ì·· ·ì·:··. 5·|&·n·: ··n]·:n· n ]n&:n 1.(.n). ¡·J·n··
·: n&·. ·· :·ì.:n:n·· · ì:.nnn&|· hn·h&:nJ· · · ··|··n:n·· J· ·&ì:· |nJ·. ··n·
n··ì:nJ· nn ]n&:n 1.(.h). ì·:·n·· &n n&nJ:nJ· J· |nJ··:

¹

sin0 ·

1

. ¹
n:·n J··ì· n&nJ:nJ· ··:n. ¡·:ìnnì·.
3 =

¹×

1

.
··n· J···]nJ·.
4161 PXGDQÊD GH EDVH= URWDÊØHV 0
Figuia 1.6: Calculo oa aioa oo um paialologiamo usanoo o piooulo yoloiial.
H{hpsor 5 1·n·n·ì:· n |·. Jn· n:·n· J· 1·¡|·:' .n ì·::n n::· n:·n· .n&n.·
·n ì·n¡·· .n&n.·). 5·|&·n·: n··ì· ·n·· ì·n·· · n·n·nì· nnn&|n: JnJ· ¡·|·
¡:·J&ì· ·ì·:.n|

1 = v× j.
·nJ· v · · ·ì·: n&· n. Jn ·:.n·n .··h:· · ··|) nì· n ì·::n · j · · n·n·nì&n
|.n·n: Jn ì·::n .····n·.n|n·nì· ·&n ·|··.JnJ·). O|hnnJ· n ]n&:n 1.7 ·n·· n&·
n n:.n·n· J· n·n·nì· nnn&|n: ¡·J· ··: ···:.ìn ··n·
^

1 = ^(v× j) .
O:n. ^

1 :·¡:···nìn J&n· ·.·· n n:·n J··ì· ì:.nnn&|· .·r¡|.n&· ¡·:n&· J&n·
·.··). `n· ·nh·n·· n&· · n·n·nì· nnn&|n: nn· n:.n ¡n:n · ¡:·h|·nn Jn
ì·::n .n ]·:·n · ··nì:n|. ·r¡|.n&·). J· nnn·.:n n&·
^

1
^t
= 0.
·& ··]n. n· n:·n· n::.Jn· ¡·|· ·ì·: v nn· n:.nn ··n · ì·n¡·.
416 Pxgdqêd gh Edvh= urwdêøhv
Muilas yozos oslamos liaLalhanoo num sisloma oo cooioonaoas cailosiano o
poicoLomos ouo lalyoz fosso mais inloiossanlo liaLalhai num oulio sisloma oo
cooioonaoas lamLom cailosiano. mas ouo possuïsso uma oiionlacao oislinla oo
piimoiio. Ja yimos. anloiioimonlo. ouo as lois oa fïsica nao pooom ooponooi oa
oiionlacao aiLiliaiia no ospaco ouo oscolhomos paia nosso sisloma oo cooioo-
naoas: islo implica ouo. paia caoa pioLloma. ooyomos piocuiai aouolo sisloma
ouo mais so aoooua a sua solucao.
H{hpsor 6 ··n·.J·:· · ¡:·h|·nn J· &n |nn·nn·nì· ·h|.n&·. ¡·|· n&n| &nn
¡n:ì.·&|n · |nn·nJn J· ·hn· ··n &nn ·|··.JnJ· .n.·.n| ··n n·J&|· ·
3
]n.·nJ·
&n nnn&|· 0
3
··n · ·hn·. 5&¡·nhn n&· ····|hnn·· · ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn·
10 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
Figuia 1.7: Lsouoma iopiosonlanoo o moyimonlo oa loiia ao ioooi oo sol. O
piooulo yoloiial oo u com s foinoco a yaiiacao oa aioa yaiiioa poi u no lompo.
Lsla yaiiacao. poi consoiyacao oo momonlo angulai. o nula. yalonoo a loi oo
Koploi.
··n |.nhn ··n· n··ì:nJ· nn ]n&:n 1.·. ¹·h· n· ·n&n···· J· n·.n·nì·. ¹·h·
n· ·n&n···· J· n·.n·nì· n· ·.·ì·nn ··n |.nhn. 5·|&·n·: 1n:n ·n··nì:n:n··
n ··|&·n· J· ¡:·h|·nn. J··n·· ···:··: n ··n&nJn |·. J· A·&ì·n n··ì· ·.·ì·nn
J· ···:J·nnJn·. O|hnnJ· ¡n:n n ]n&:n. ·n·· n&· n ]·:·n J·· ··: JnJn ¡·:

1 = ~no sinc
´
j
!
~no cos c
´
,
!
= ~no(sinc
´
j
!
÷ cos c
´
,
!
).
n··ì:nnJ· n&·. n··ì· ·.·ì·nn. ·r.·ì· &nn ]·:·n :·ìn:JnJ·:n nn J.:··n· a
!
. A··ì·
·.·ì·nn. n ·|··.JnJ· .n.·.n| ¡·J· ··: ···:.ìn ·ì·:.n|n·nì· ··n·
y
3
= ·
3
(cos(0
3
~ c)
´
j
!
÷ sin(0
3
~c)
´
,
!
).
¹ ··n&nJn |·. J· A·&ì·n ]·n
n
dy
dt
= ~no(sinc
´
j
!
÷ cos c
´
,
!
).
n&· ¡·J· ··: .n·J.nìnn·nì· .nì·n:nJn ¡n:n ]·:n···:
y(t) = y
3
~no(sinc
´
j
!
÷ cos c
´
,
!
)t
n&· ]·:n···. ·n ·nJn ·.r· .a
!
· n
!
)

·
i
(t) = ·
3
cos(0
3
~c) ~(no sinc)t
·
u
(t) = ·
3
sin(0
3
~c) ~(no cos c)t
.
:·¡:···nìnnJ· J·.· n·.n·nì·· ··n n··|·:n·n· .n· ·.r· a
!
n n··|·:n·n· · n·nn-
ì.n). 5· ì.····n·· ····|h.J· · ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· an .··n |.nhn). ìnnh·n
n··ì:nJ· nn ]n&:n 1.·. ·nìn· n· ·n&n····. ··n· ·nh·n··. ]·n:.nn

·
i
(t) = ·
3
cos(0
3
)t
·
u
(t) = ·
3
sin(0
3
) ~not
.
4161 PXGDQÊD GH EDVH= URWDÊØHV 11
Figuia 1.8: IioLloma oo um lancamonlo oLlïouo lialaoo om oois sislomas oo
cooioonaoas giiaoos poi um angulo c.
Figuia 1.0: Diagiama ouo moslia oois sislomas oo cooioonaoas om ouo um foi
iooaoo com iolacao ao oulio poi um angulo 0. As iolacoos onlio os yoloios unil
aiios oos oiyoisos sislomas pooo soi facilmonlo oLlioa oa lguia.
n&· · &n ·.·ì·nn nn.· ·.n¡|·· n&· · nnì·:.·:. .·ì· n&·. n&nn Jn· J.:·····.
· n·.n·nì· · &n.]·:n·J· ]nì·. n· ·nn···· ¡n:n a(t) · a
!
(t) n··ì:nn .·ì·
]n·.|n·nì·.
H{hufðflr 7 1·nnJ· · ·r·n¡|· nnì·:.·:. n·h· n· ·n&n···· Jn· ì:n]·ì·:.n· ·n
·nJn ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· .··n · ··n |.nhn). ·& ··]n. n·h· n· ·n&n···· n(a)
· n
!
(a
!
). O|hnnJ· n ]n&:n 1.·. ·r¡|.n&· ¡·:n&· J··:.nn·· :·n|n·nì· ··¡·:n:
&nn n··|·:n·n· n·nnì.n nn J.:··n· a
!
.
O oxomplo anloiioi moslia claiamonlo ouo ooyomos fazoi. sompio ouo pos-
sïyol. uma oscolha ciiloiiosa oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas. No ouo so soguo. yamos
mosliai como o possïyol passai oo um sisloma oo cooioonaoas an paia um sis-
loma oo cooioonaoas a
!
n
!
poi moio oo iolacoos. Lslo o aponas o caso pailiculai
oo um lipo oo liansfoimacao (chamaoa muoanca oo Laso) ouo iiomos osluoai
mais a fionlo.
Consiooio onlao a lguia 1.0. Nola mosliamos os oois sislomas cailosianos oo
cooioonaoas com os sous iospocliyos yoloios unilaiios. L facil yoi. poi simplos
12 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
inspocao oa lguia. ouo ooyomos loi as iolacoos
´
j =
´
j
!
cos 0 ~
´
,
!
sin0 (1.1)
´
, =
´
j
!
sin0 ÷
´
,
!
cos 0
onlio os yoloios unilaiios oo caoa sisloma. SaLomos ouo o yoloi n. ali iopioson-
laoo. pooo soi osciilo no sisloma oo cooioonaoas som linha como
n = n
i
´
j ÷n
u
´
,. (1.2)
oa mosma foima ouo pooomos iopiosonla-lo no sisloma oo cooioonaoas com
linha como
n = n
!
i
´
j
!
÷n
!
u
´
,
!
. (1.8)
om ouo n o o n··n· yoloi (pois nao pooo ooponooi oa oscolha oo sisloma oo
cooioonaoas). SuLsliluinoo (1.1) om (1.2) lomos
n = (n
i
cos 0 ÷n
u
sin0)
´
j
!
÷ (~n
i
sin0 ÷n
u
cos 0)
´
,
!
ouo. compaiaoa com a oxpiossao (1.8) foinoco a oxpiossao paia a liansfoimacao
oas compononlos oo yoloi n como

n
!
i
= n
i
cos 0 ÷n
u
sin0
n
!
u
= ~n
i
sin0 ÷n
u
cos 0
.
Ioooiïamos oscioyoi oslas oouacoos oo liansfoimacao no foimalo maliicial como

n
!
i
n
!
u

=

cos 0 sin0
~sin0 cos 0

n
i
n
u

. (1.4)
ou. ainoa. no foimalo mais compaclo
n
!
= P· n.
onoo P o a maliiz (oila maliiz oo iolacao) ouo apaioco om (1.4). Nolo ouo as
compononlos oo yoloi n so liansfoimam como os yoloios oa Laso ·· .n·:ì·:n··
· ·.nn| J· 0: oizomos poilanlo ouo as liansfoimacoos oas compononlos oo n sao
oo lipo ··nì:nn:.nnì·. ou soja. yaiiam numa oiiocao" conliaiia a yaiiacao oos
yoloios unilaiios.
Do falo. o facil nolai ouo as colunas oa maliiz P oao a iopiosonlacao oos
yoloios unilaiios oo sisloma som linha no sisloma com linha.
´
j =
´
j
!
cos 0 ~
´
,
!
sin0 =
´
j
!
n
44
÷
´
,
!
n
54
(1.ò)
´
, =
´
j
!
sin0 ÷
´
,
!
cos 0 =
´
j
!
n
45
÷
´
,
!
n
55
onouanlo ouo as linhas oo P oao a iopiosonlacao oos yoloios unilaiios oo sis-
loma com linha no sisloma som linha
´
j
!
=
´
j cos 0 ÷
´
, sin0 =
´
jn
44
÷
´
,n
45
(1.6)
´
,
!
= ~
´
j sin0 ÷
´
, cos 0 =
´
jn
54
÷
´
,n
55
As iolacoos (1.ò) o (1.6) nos possiLililam onconliai iolacoos goiais ouo as
maliizos oo iolacao ooyom oLooocoi. 1ais iolacoos sao:
4161 PXGDQÊD GH EDVH= URWDÊØHV 18
1.
´

´
j = 1 =n
5
44
÷n
5
54
= 1:
´

´
, = 1 =n
5
45
÷n
5
55
= 1:
2.
´
j
!
·
´
j
!
= 1 =n
5
44
÷n
5
45
= 1:
´
,
!
·
´
,
!
= 1 =n
5
54
÷n
5
55
= 1:
8.
´

´
, = 0 =n
44
n
45
÷n
54
n
55
= 0:
´
j
!
·
´
,
!
= 0 =n
44
n
54
÷n
45
n
55
= 0:
moslianoo ouo lais maliizos nao pooom loi olomonlos ouaisouoi. mas ouo
sous olomonlos ooyom oslai iolacionaoos sogunoo as oxpiossoos acima. As ma-
liizos ouo oLooocom a oslas iogias onlio os sous olomonlos sao oilas nnì:..··
·:ì·n·nn.· o as liansfoimacoos ouo goiam sao oilas liansfoimacoos oilogonais.
As maliizos oilogonais possuom onoimo aplicacao om fïsica: um oxomplo
oLyio oo aplicacao o o pioLloma oa iolacao oo um coipo (om loino oo um oixo.
so oslamos consiooianoo o pioLloma no plano. como yimos fazonoo alo aoui).
Lslas maliizos possuom. alom oos yïnculos oaoos acima yalonoo onlio os sous
olomonlos. as soguinlos piopiiooaoos:
1. A inyoisa oo uma iolacao poi 0 o simplosmonlo uma iolacao poi ~0:
2. A inyoisa oo uma maliiz oilogonal oualouoi o ioonlica a maliiz liansposla:
P
4
= P
T
. como pooo soi facilmonlo yoiilcaoo usanoo a maliiz oLlioa
acima.
8. O ooloiminanlo oo uma maliiz oilogonal o ±1:
41614 Urwdêøhv Uhshwlgdv
Suponhamos agoia ouo oosojamos analisai como as compononlos oo um yoloi
lcam oaoas om um sisloma oo cooioonaoas (com ouas linhas) iolaliyamonlo a
um sisloma oo cooioonaoas (som linha). oaoo ouo saLomos como oslo sisloma
som linha so liansfoima paia um sisloma com linha o como oslo sisloma com
linha so liansfoima paia um sisloma com ouas linhas. So a liansfoimacao (poi
iolacao) oo sisloma som linha no sisloma com linha o foila poi um angulo 0.
onlao nossos oosonyolyimonlos anloiioios mosliaiam ouo ooyo yaloi

n
!
i
n
!
u

=

cos 0 sin0
~sin0 cos 0

n
i
n
u

. (1.7)
So a iolacao oo sisloma com linha paia oLloi o sisloma com ouas linhas o foila
poi um angulo o. onlao. usanoo os mosmos oosonyolyimonlos. lomos ouo

n
!!
i
n
!!
u

=

cos o sino
~sino cos o

n
!
i
n
!
u

. (1.8)
Assim. paia oLloi a liansfoimacao ouo yincula as compononlos oo yoloi no
sisloma com ouas linhas aouolas oolnioas soLio o sisloma som linha. Lasla
suLsliluii (1.7) om (1.8) paia oLloi

n
!!
i
n
!!
u

=

cos o sino
~sino cos o

cos 0 sin0
~sin0 cos 0

n
i
n
u

=
14 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
=

cos(0 ÷o) sin(0 ÷o)
~sin(0 ÷o) cos(0 ÷o)

n
i
n
u

.
moslianoo ouo a composicao. como oia oo so ospoiai. implica simplosmonlo
numa única iolacao foila pola soma oos angulos oo caoa iolacao inoiyioualmonlo
consiooiaoa. Islo oxplica poiouo a inyoisa oo uma liansfoimacao foila poi 0 o
oaoa pola maliiz oo iolacao consliuïoa com ~0: So lzoimos a opoiacao oo
giiai poi 0 o oopois giiai poi ~0. lcaiomos com o mosmo sisloma. ouo o o ouo
oLlomos so suLsliluimos o = ~0 na liansfoimacao acima (nolo ouo apaioco a
nnì:.. .J·nì.JnJ·).
O foimalismo oosonyolyioo acima pooo soi aplicaoo. com algumas alloiacoos.
om yaiias siluacoos fïsicas ioloyanlos. Vojamos o oxomplo a soguii:
H{hpsor 8 1n :·|nì..JnJ· ··¡··.n|. n··ì:n-·· n&· n· ì:nn·]·:nn···· n&· |·nn
&n ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· .··n |.nhn) n&· ·· n·· ··n &nn ·|··.JnJ· · .nn
J.:··n· a) ··n :·|n·n· n &n ·&ì:· ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· .··n |.nhn) ··n·.J-
·:nJ· ¡n:nJ· ·n· JnJn· ¡·|n· ·hnnnJn· ì:nn·]·:nn···· J· 1·:·nì.

a
!
= ~(a ÷oa
3
)
a
3!
= ~(a
3
÷oa)
.
·nJ· a
3
= ct. c=·|··.JnJ· Jn |&..
~ =
1

1 ~·
5
´c
5
: o =
·
c
.
`··ì:· n&· ··ìn· ì:nn·]·:nn···· ¡·J·n ··: ··n·.J·:nJn· ··n· :·ìn···· .J· &n
ì.¡· ··¡··.n|) n· ··¡n··-ì·n¡· .n· ¡|nn· ]·:nnJ· ¡·|n· ···:J·nnJn· at. ·& aa
3
).
5·|&·n·: ¡·J·n·· .n.·.n|n·nì· ]n.·: n· .J·nì.]·n····
~ = coslí : ~o = sinlí.
A·ì· n&· nn· ¡·J·n·· ··|··n: ~ = cos í. .·ì· n&· ~ 1. ¹··.n. ì·n·· n&·
laní = o n&· · ·hnnnJn `:n¡.J·.` J· ¡:·h|·nn. ··n ··ìn· .J·nì.]·n····.
¡·J·n·· ···:··: n· ì:nn·]·:nn···· J· 1·:·nì. ··n·

a
!
= a
3
sinlí ÷acoslí
a
3!
= a
3
coslí ÷asinlí
.
·& n.nJn

a
!
a
3!

=

coslí sinlí
sinlí coslí

a
a
3

A·ì· n&· · J·ì·:n.nnnì· J··ìn ì:nn·]·:nn·n· ìnnh·n · .n&n| n &n.JnJ·. ¡·.·
·nh·n·· n&·
cosl
5
í ~sinl
5
í = 1.
¹|·n J.···. ·n·· n&· J·· n|·:
a
!5
~(a
3
!
)
5
= a
5
~(a
3
)
5
.
J· nnn·.:n n&· n· h.¡·:h·|·· n· ¡|nn· at ·n· |·nJn· nn· n··nn· h.¡·:h·|·· n·
¡|nn· a
!
t
!
. ¹· :·|n···· ·nì:· ·· ·.r·· ···:J·nnJ·· J·· ·.·ì·nn· at · a
!
t
!
··ìn·
n··ì:nJn· nn ]n&:n 1.1u.
4161 PXGDQÊD GH EDVH= URWDÊØHV 1ò
Figuia 1.10: Disposicao oos oixos associaoa as liansfoimacoos oo Loionlz (as
`iolacoos` moncionaoas no loxlo).
H{hpsor 9 1·nnJ· · ]·:nn|.·n· n¡:···nìnJ· n·.nn. n··ì:· ··n· J·:.n: n
·r¡:···n· ¡n:n n nJ.·n· J· ·|··.JnJ·· Jn :·|nì..JnJ· ··¡··.n|. 5·|&·n·: ··n-
·.J·:· &nn ¡n:ì.·&|n 1 ·· n··nJ· ··n ·|··.JnJ· ·
4
.nn J.:··n· a) n· ·.·ì·nn
J· ···:J·nnJn· ··n |.nhn · &nn ·&ì:n ¡n:ì.·&|n 2 ·· n··nJ· n··ì· n··n· ·.·-
ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· ··n &nn ·|··.JnJ· ·
5
. 1···]nn·· ·nh·: n&n| n ·|··.JnJ·
Jn ¡n:ì.·&|n 2 ··n :·|n·n· nn&·|n Jn ¡n:ì.·&|n 1. 1n:n ]n.·:n·· .·ì·. ¡·J·n··
]rn: &n ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· n ¡n:ì.·&|n 1 .]n.·nJ· ··n n&· ·|n ]n&· ·n
:·¡·&·· n··ì· ·.·ì·nn) · ·n|·&|n: n ·|··.JnJ· Jn ¡n:ì.·&|n 2 n··ì· ·.·ì·nn. O
:··&|ìnJ·. ·|n:nn·nì·. · n ·|··.JnJ· Jn ¡n:ì.·&|n 2 ··n :·|n·n· n ·|··.JnJ· Jn
¡n:ì.·&|n 1. n&· · · n&· J···]nn··. `n· ]n.·: &n ìn| ·n|·&|· .n¡|.·n ·n ¡n··n:.
¡:.n·.:nn·nì·. J· ·.·ì·nn ·:.n.nn| ¡n:n &n ·.·ì·nn .··n |.nhn) nì:n·· J· &nn
ì:nn·]·:nn·n· J· 1·:·nì. ··n ·|··.JnJ· ·
4
· J·¡·.· ]n.·: &nn n·n ì:nn·]·:-
nn·n· J··ì· ·.·ì·nn .··n |.nhn) ¡n:n &n ·.·ì·nn .··n J&n· |.nhn·) &·nnJ· n
·|··.JnJ· ·
45
n·hn-··. n··.n. n ·|··.JnJ· ·
5
. J:nìn-·· ¡·.· J· ·· ]n.·: J&n·
ì:nn·]·:nn···· J· 1·:·nì. :·¡·ì.Jn· .J&n· `:·ìn····`) · ·: ¡·: .nì·:n·J.· J·
n&n| ¡n:nn·ì:· ··ìn ì:nn·]·:nn·n· ì·ìn| ·· Jn. ¹··.n. ì·n··.

a
!!
a
3!!

=

coslí
45
sinlí
45
sinlí
45
coslí
45

coslí
4
sinlí
4
sinlí
4
coslí
4

a
a
3

=
=

cosl(í
45
֒
5
) sinl(í
45
֒
5
)
sinl(í
45
֒
5
) cosl(í
45
֒
5
)

a
a
3

.
n··ì:nnJ· n&· n ·|··.JnJ· J· ·.·ì·nn ]r· ·n 2 ··n :·|n·n· n· ·.·ì·nn ·:.n.nn|
· JnJn ¡·:
o
5
= lanl(í
45
֒
5
) =
lanlí
45
÷ lanlí
5
1 ÷ lanlí
45
lanlí
5
n&· Jn. ···:··nJ· ·n ì·:n·· Jn· ·|··.JnJ··
·
5
=
·
45
÷·
4
1 ÷·
45
·
4
´c
5
]·:n···nJ· n ·|··.JnJ· :·|nì.n Jn· ¡n:ì.·&|n· 1 · 2 ··n·
·
45
=
·
5

4
1 ~·
5
·
4
´c
5
.
16 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
Figuia 1.11: Linhas oo campo paia uma conlguiacao oo ouas caigas oo sinais
oposlos. Os campos om 1 o Q oifoiom pola oiiocao mooulo o sonlioo.
A·ì· n&·. J· n··:J· ··n n :·|nì..JnJ· ··¡··.n|. ·· nnhn· n· ¡n:ì.·|n· ì·n ·|··.-
JnJ· c. ·&n ·|··.JnJ· :·|nì.n · c´2 .· nn· .·:·. ··n· ·· ·hì·:.n Jn :·|nì..JnJ·
nn|.|·nnn).
417 fdpsrv hvfdoduhv h yhwruldlv
Alo agoia yimos oosonyolyonoo nossas consiooiacoos liaLalhanoo com yoloios
cujas compononlos sao conslanlos. Lm goial. onliolanlo. uma coila gianooza
yoloiial pooo soi lal ouo o sou mooulo o sua oiiocao yaiiom a mooioa om ouo a
posicao om ouo a consiooiamos yaiia. Um oxomplo oo lal compoilamonlo pooo
soi oaoo so consiooiaimos um coipo cainoo oo uma gianoo alluia: noslo caso.
a acoloiacao oa giayioaoo o oaoa poi (lxaoo um oixo n conyonionlo)
j(n) = ~
GA
n
5
´
,.
Dizomos ouo um yoloi n = n(a. n. .) ouo ooponoa oas cooioonaoas oolno um
·nn¡· ·ì·:.n| a oxpiossao acima oolno o ·nn¡· n:n.ìn·.·nn|. Um oulio ox-
omplo pooo soi oaoo consiooianoo-so um campo ololiico ouo so foima ouanoo
apioximamos ouas caigas oo sinais oposlos. como mosliaoo na lguia 1.11. Vo-
mos ouo nos ponlos 1 o Q lanlo as oiiocoos como os mooulos oo campo ololiico
oifoiom. Noslo caso ooyomos iopiosonlai o campo ololiico ooslo oxomplo como

1 = 1
i
(a. n. .)
´
j ÷1
u
(a. n. .)
´
, ÷1
:
(a. n. .)
´
/.
Nom looas as gianoozas fïsicas ouo ooponoom oa posicao sao yoloiiais: a
funcao lompoialuia soLio uma chapa molalica na oual so iniciou a aouocoi uma
oas ponlas o oaoa como algo oo lipo T(a. n. t). yislo ouo ospoiamos ouo. om
caoa lompo. caoa ponlo oa chapa (plano an) apiosonlo uma lompoialuia T
!
. um
oscalai. Campos assim. oolnioo funcoos oscalaios oa posicao. sao oilos ·nn¡··
···n|n:··.
41714 R Judglhqwh=
Um concoilo impoilanlo ouo suigo logo ouo iniciamos nosso osluoo soLio campos
oscalaios o yoloiiais oiz iospoilo a nocao oo giaoionlo. Iaia onlonooimos molhoi
4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 17
Figuia 1.12: Iopiosonlacao osouomalica oo yoloi du soLio o plano langonlo a
supoifïcio oo uma osfoia (u = al ÷nm ÷.n).
osla nocao. consiooio a funcao 1(a. n. .) iopiosonlanoo uma supoifïcio no 1
6
aliayos oa oxpiossao
1(a. n. .) = c. (1.0)
onoo c = conct. Um oxomplo oo uma lal supoifïcio pooo soi a oouacao oos
lugaios goomoliicos ouo oolnom uma osfoia no 1
6
. caso om ouo lomos
a
5
÷n
5
÷.
5
= c
5
.
paia uma osfoia conliaoa na oiigom. possuinoo iaio c. Difoioncianoo a oouacao
(1.0) lcamos com
d1 =
01
0a
da ÷
01
0n
dn ÷
01
0.
d. = 0.
ouo pooo soi ioosciilo como

01
0a
´
j ÷
01
0n
´
, ÷
01
0.
´
/

·

da
´
j ÷dn
´
, ÷d.
´
/

= 0.
ou. om nolacao compacla.
\1 · dv = 0.
onoo ja oolnimos o giaoionlo oa funcao 1(a. n. .) como sonoo
\1 =
01
0a
´
j ÷
01
0n
´
, ÷
01
0.
´
/
o nolamos ouo o iosullaoo o um yoloi. O olomonlo dv o paialolo ao plano
langonlo a supoifïcio oaoa poi (1.0). como mosliaoo na lguia 1.12 ouanoo
1 (a. n. .) = c iopiosonla uma osfoia. oo foima ouo o giaoionlo oa cuiya o
poiponoiculai a oslo plano. Do falo. o giaoionlo oo uma supoifïcio sompio
aponla paia a oiiocao na oual a mosma possui a maioi laxa oo yaiiacao.
18 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
Lslo concoilo o impoilanlïssimo om fïsica. Lm muilas opoilunioaoos ooso-
jamos oolnii um ooloiminaoo campo yoloiial

1 a pailii oo um campo oscalai c
juslamonlo oo um giaoionlo. Lsla oolnicao piolonoo oai conla oo falo oo ouo
as linhas oo campo oo

1 ooyom soi poiponoiculaios as supoifïcios c = conct.
om looos os ponlos oo ospaco. Assim aconloco. poi oxomplo. com o poloncial
giayilacional. O poloncial giayilacional pooo soi oolnioo pola oxpiossao
c
c
(a. n. .) = ~
GA

a
5
÷n
5
÷.
5
moslianoo ouo olo lom simoliia osfoiica. como ospoiaoo: oo falo. a oouacao
c
c
(a. n. .) = ~c implica na oouacao paia as cooioonaoas oaoa poi
a
5
÷ n
5
÷.
5
= (GA´c)
5
.
ouo o uma oouacao similai aouola oa osfoia. O campo giayilacional o oolnioo
como sonoo o giaoionlo oo poloncial giayilacional o o. poilanlo. oaoo poi
o(a. n. .) = ~\c
c
(a. n. .) =
GA
(a
5
÷n
5
÷.
5
)
6/5
(a
´
j ÷n
´
, ÷.
´
/).
Lslo campo o um campo iaoial. yislo ouo
v = a
´
j ÷n
´
, ÷.
´
/
o o. poilanlo. poiponoiculai as supoifïcios oo poloncial. Fisicamonlo. a oolnicao
oa foica (ou oa acoloiacao) om loimos oo giaoionlo oo um poloncial gaianlo ouo
as linhas oo foica iiao coincioii com as linhas oo maioi yaiiacao oo poloncial. o
ouo o ospoiaoo: oo falo. o coipo iia poicoiioi uma liajoloiia ouo coincioo com
oslas linhas oo foica. poicoiionoo. poilanlo. as linhas om ouo o poloncial yaiia
maximamonlo.
Nom sompio. onliolanlo. um campo yoloiial pooo soi osciilo om loimos oo
um campo oscalai poi inloimooio oo um giaoionlo. Iaia yoimos islo. consiooio
o oxomplo aLaixo:
H{hpsor : 5·]n

1 = an
´
j ÷n
´
, &nn ]·:·n n· ¡|nn·. `··ì:· n&· ··ìn ]·:·n nn·
¡·J· ··: ···:.ìn ··n· · n:nJ.·nì· J· n·nh&n ·nn¡· ···n|n: c(a. n). 5·|&·n·:
5· · ·:JnJ· n&· · ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n|

1 ¡·J· ··: ···:.ì· ··n· &n ìn| n:nJ.·nì·.
·nìn· J··n·· ì·:
0c
0a
= 1
i
·
0c
0n
= 1
u
.
¹ ¡:.n·.:n ·n&n·n· ]·:n···
c(a. n) =

1
i
(a. n)da ÷1(n).
.·ì· n&· n .nì·n:n·n· J·· |·n: ·n ··nìn n&· n n:.n·| n ··ìn ··nJ· ··n·.J·:-
nJn ··n· &nn ··n·ìnnì·. J· n·J· n&· n ]&n·n· 1(n) ·. ¡·: ·nn&nnì·. n&n|n&·:.
A· ¡:·h|·nn ··¡··.]··. ì·n··
c(a. n) =

anda ÷1(n) = na
5
´2 ÷1(n).
4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 10
O:n. n.nJn nn· &·nn·· n ··n&nJn ·n&n·n·: ]n.·nJ· .···. ]n n&· nn·:n ì·n·· n
·r¡:···n· Jn ]&n·n· c(a. n) .n n·n·· Jn ]&n·n· 1(n)). ·h·nnn·· n
0c
0n
=
a
5
2
÷
d1(n)
dn
= n.
· n&· nn· · ¡···.·|. .·ì· n&· n ]&n·n· 1(n) · ]&n·n· n¡·nn· J· n. · nn ·n&n·n·
·n·· n¡n:···: n n:.n·| a ··n n&· ¡···nn·· ·|.n.nn-|n. ¹··.n. ·n·· n&·
· ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n|

1(a. n) n·.nn nn· ¡·J· ··: ···:.ì· ··n· &n n:nJ.·nì· J· &n
·nn¡· ···n|n:.
H{hufðflr ; `··ì:· n&· n&n|n&·: ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n| n· ¡|nn·

1 = 1
i
´
j ÷1
u
´
, ¡n:n
· n&n| n|hn n :·|n·n·
01
u
0a
=
01
i
0n
¡·J· ··: ···:.ì· ··n· &nn ]&n·n· ¡·ì·n·.n|.
Os campos yoloiiais ouo pooom soi osciilos como o giaoionlo oo um campo
oscalai possuom onoimo aplicacao om fïsica. Do falo. pooo-so mosliai ouo olos
salisfazom uma piopiiooaoo impoilanlïssima ouo passamos agoia a osluoai. Do
falo. consiooio a oolnicao oo ì:nhn|h· om Mocanica. Lsla oolnicao o consliuïoa
oo manoiia a fazoi com ouo o liaLalho ioalizaoo poi uma foica paia ooslocai
um coilo coipo oo massa n nao ooponoa oo caminho ulilizaoo paia ooslocai
oslo coipo. No ouo so soguo iiomos mosliai ouo osla piopiiooaoo implica noc-
ossaiiamonlo no falo oo a foica poooi soi osciila como um giaoionlo oo uma
funcao poloncial. Iooomos onunciai osla piopiiooaoo oa soguinlo manoiia:
Whruhpd < O ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n|

1(a. n. .) ¡·J· ··: ···:.ì· ··n· · n:nJ.·nì· J·
&n ·nn¡· ···n|n: c(a. n. .). J· n·J· n&·

1 = \c
··. · ··n·nì· ··. n .nì·n:n| J· ì:n]·ì·:.n J·

1(a. n. .) ·nì:· ·· ¡·nì·· ¹ · 1
nn· J·¡·nJ· J· ·nn.nh· ····|h.J·.
Ghprqvwudêær1 Suponha ouo

1(a. n. .) pooo soi osciila como um giaoi-
onlo. onlao loiomos a inlogial oo linha sonoo osciila como

1
.

1(a. n. .) · dv =

1
.
\c(a. n. .) · dv =
=

1
.

0c
0a
da ÷
0c
0n
dn ÷
0c
0.
d.

=

1
.

0c
0a
da
dt
÷
0c
0n
dn
dt
÷
0c
0.
d.
dt

dt =
=

1
.
dc
dt
dt =

1
.
dc = c(1) ~c(¹).
implicanoo ouo a inlogial oo liajoloiia oo

1(a. n. .) nao ooponoo oo caminho.
yislo ouo o iosullaoo oa inlogial ooponoo aponas oos ponlos oxliomos ¹ o 1.
20 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
Conyoisamonlo. suponha ouo a inlogial oo liajoloiia nao ooponoo oo caminho
oscolhioo. onlao loiomos paia ponlos ¹ = (a ÷ ^a. n. .) o 1 = (a. n. .) ponlos
inlnilosimalmonlo pioximos

+i.i,u,:,
+i,u,:,

1(a
!
. n
!
. .
!
) · dv
!
=

+i.i,u,:,
+i,u,:,
1
i
da = c(a ÷ ^a. n. .) ~c(a. n. .)
ouo. paia ^a ÷0 implica. polo looioma funoamonlal oo calculo. ouo
1
i
^a = c(a ÷da. n. .) ~c(a. n. .).
ou soja.
1
i
(a. n. .) =
0c(a. n. .)
0a
:
fazonoo o mosmo paia as oulias cooioonaoas. lomos o iosullaoo oosojaoo.
H{hpsor 43 ·n|·&|· · ì:nhn|h· :·n|..nJ· ¡·|n ]·:·n

1 = an
´
j ÷n
´
, ¡n:n n··:
&nn ¡n:ì.·&|n Jn ·:.n·n nì· · ¡·nì· (1. 1). 1n·n .··· ¡·: J·.· ·nn.nh·· J.·ì.n-
ì··: .n) (0. 0) ÷(1. 0) ÷(1. 1): .h) (0. 0) ÷(0. 1) ÷(1. 1). 5·|&·n·: .n) n··ì·
·n·· ì·n··. ¡n:n n ¡:.n·.:n ¡n:ì· J· ·nn.nh·
dv =
´
jda.

1
.

1 · dv =

4
3
anda =

4
3
a.0da = 0.
.·ì· n&· n = 0 J&:nnì· ì·J· · ¡·:·&:··. An ··n&nJn ¡n:ì· ì·n··
dv =
´
,dn.

1
.

1 · dv =

4
3
ndn =
1
2
.
· · ì:nhn|h· :·n|..nJ· ··:.n \ = 1´2J. .h) A··ì· ·&ì:· ì:n]·ì· ì·n··. ¡n:n n
¡:.n·.:n ¡n:ì·
dv =
´
,dn.

1
.

1 · dv =

4
3
ndn =
1
2
.
··n· nnì·· ·. ¡n:n n ··n&nJn ¡n:ì·
dv =
´
jda.

1
.

1 · dv =

4
3
anda =

4
3
1.ada =
1
2
.
.·ì· n&·. nn·:n n = 1 J&:nnì· ì·J· · ì:n]·ì·. O ì:nhn|h· ì·ìn| ··:.n \ = 1J ·.
¡·:ìnnì·. ··:.n J.]·:·nì· ¡n:n n· J&n· ì:n]·ì·:.n·. ··n· .n··. · ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n|
n·.nn nn· ¡·J· ··: ··n·.J·:nJ· &nn ]·:·n n··nn.·n .nn· J.··.¡nì.n).
Um coiolaiio ao looioma anloiioi pooo soi onunciaoo oa soguinlo manoiia
Fruroäulr 44 5· n ì:n]·ì·:.n ·n n&· ·· ·n|·&|n n .nì·n:n| J· ·nn.nh· J· ·nn¡·
·ì·:.n|

1 · ]··hnJn. ·nìn·

1 ¡·J· ··: ···:.ìn ··n· &n n:nJ.·nì· J· &n ·nn¡·
···n|n: ··. · ··n·nì· ··. ··ìn .nì·n:n| ·· nn&|n.
Ghprqvwudêær1 Lasla colocai ¹ = 1 no looioma.
4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 21
Figuia 1.18: Lsouoma oa inlogiacao oo liajoloiia o oa inlogiacao oo aioa paia
a oomonsliacao oo looioma oo Gioon (no plano).
41715 Whruhpdv Lqwhjudlv qr Sodqr=
Vamos agoia oLloi alguns looiomas inlogiais paia campos yoloiias no plano. O
piimoiio looioma o conhocioo poi ì··:·nn J· G:··n o pooo soi onunciaoo oa
soguinlo manoiia:
Whruhpd 45 1nJn· J&n· ]&n···· 1(a. n) · Q(a. n). J··n·· ì·: n&·

C
[1(a. n)da ÷Q(a. n)[ dn =

S

0Q
0a
~
01
0n

dadn. (1.10)
Ghprqvwudêær1 ¹ ¡:·n J··ì· ì··:·nn ¡·J· ··: ]·.ìn Jn ··n&.nì· nnn·.:n.
1:.n·.:nn·nì· nn·· ···:··: &n ·ì·: n(a. n) ìn| n&·
n(a. n) = 1(a. n)
´
j ÷Q(a. n)
´
,.
·& ··]n. ·&]n· ··n¡·n·nì·· ··]nn n
i
= 1(a. n) · n
u
= Q(a. n). ··n·.J·:·
nn·:n n ]n&:n 1.1· ·nJ· n··ì:nn·· n ·&:n C · n n:·n 3 ¡·: ·|n J·|.n.ìnJn. ¹
.nì·n:n| J· ·nn.nh· n ··n&·:Jn nn ·r¡:···n· .1.1u) n·.nn :·]·:·-·· n ··nn J··
n|·:·· J· n(a. n) ì·nnJ·· n· |·nn· Jn ·&:n C. .·ì· n&· ¡·J·:.nn·· ···:··:
n .nì·n:n| J· ·nn.nh· ··n·

C
n · d

|.
·nJ· d

| · &n ·ì·: .n]n.ì··.nn| ì·nnJ· n· |·nn· .ìnnn·n·.n|n·nì·) n ·&:n C.
A·ì·. ¡·|n ]n&:n 1.1·.n) n&· ¡·J·n·· ···:··: ··ìn .nì·n:n| ·&hJ..J.nJ· n n:·n
3 ·n ¡·n&·nn· n:·n· ^3
n
J· ìn| n·J· n&·
22 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV

C
n · d

| =
Þ
¸
n@4

C
q
n · d

|
^3
n
^3
n
:
n&nnJ· ]n.·n·· ^3
n
ì·nJ·: ¡n:n .·:· .· · `=n·. J· ·&hJ..···· ì·nJ·: ¡n:n
.n]n.ì·) ì·:·n··

C
n · d

| = lim
Sq3
"
¸
n@4

Cq
n · d

|
^3
n
^3
n
=

S
1(a. n)dadn. (1.11)
·nJ· ]n .J·nì.]·nn··
1(a. n) = lim
Sq3

Cq
n · d

|
^3
n
· &·nn·· · ]nì· J· n&· &nn ··nn J· ì.¡·
lim
Þ"
Þ
¸
n@4
1(a
n
. n
n
)^3
n
=

S
1(a. n)dadn.
··n d3 = dadn. .·ì· n&· ··ìnn·· n· ¡|nn·. A·ì· n.nJn n&· n ]&n·n· 1(a. n)
··ìn :·]·:.Jn n .nì·n:n| J· ì:n]·ì·:.n ì·nnJn n&n ·|·n·nì· J· n:·n .n]n.ì··.nn|
^3
n
· nn· ·n ì·Jn n n:·n 3. 1nn·· ì·nn: &n ìn| ·|·n·nì· .n]n.ì··.nn|.
··n· · n··ì:nJ· nn ]n&:n 1.1·.h) · ·n|·&|n: ··ìn ]&n·n·. A·ì· ¡·|n ]n&:n.
n&·. n· ·n|·&|· Jn .nì·n:n| J· |.nhn. .nì·:···n-n·· · n|·: n&· · ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n|
.·. ¡·:ìnnì·. ·&n· ··n¡·n·nì··) ì·nn ··h:· n ì:n]·ì·:.n J· .nì·n:n·n· .· ¡·nì·
···:.ì· ··n· A): nn··. ·nì:·ìnnì·. n·· :·]·:.: n· n|·: J· ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n|
··h:· · ¡·nì· ` = (í. n). n· ··nì:· J· ·|·n·nì· J· n:·n ^3
n
n&·. &nn ·.
··nJ· ^3
n
.n]n.ì··.nn|. ·n··nì:n-·· .n]n.ì··.nn|n·nì· ¡:·r.n· J· A. 1n:n
··ì· ¡·nì· `. ¡·J·n·· ···:··: n· ]&n···· n
i
(a. n) · n
u
(a. n) ··n· ··:.·· J·
Jnj|·:. ·r¡nnJ.Jn· ·n ¡:.n·.:n ·:J·n .J·.J· n .n]n.ì··.nn|.JnJ· Jn· ^3
n
).
·n ì·:n· J· ¡·nì· `. J·n··. ¡·:ìnnì·. n· ·r¡nn····
n
i
(a. n)'
£
= n
i
(í. n)'
Þ
÷
0n
i
(í. n)
0a

Þ
(a ~í) ÷
0n
i
(í. n)
0n

Þ
(n ~n)
n
u
(a. n)'
£
= n
u
(í. n)'
Þ
÷
0n
u
(í. n)
0a

Þ
(a ~í) ÷
0n
u
(í. n)
0n

Þ
(n ~n)
·nJ· :···n|ìnn·· · ]nì· J· n&· ·· ·|·n·nì·· n
I
(í. n)'
Þ
.
Jul+í,n,
Ji

Þ
·
Jul+í,n,
Ju

Þ
·n· ··n·ìnnì·· .·n· · n|·: Jn ]&n·n· n
I
(a. n) ·& ·&n· J·:.nJn· ì·nnJn· ··h:·
· ¡·nì· `. A···n .nì·n:n| J· |.nhn nn :·n.n· ^3
n
]·n. ¡·:ìnnì·:

C
q
n· d

| =
¸
n
i
(í. n)'
Þ
÷
0n
i
(í. n)
0a

Þ
(a ~í) ÷
0n
i
(í. n)
0n

Þ
(n ~n)

da ÷
¸
n
u
(í. n)'
Þ
÷
0n
u
(í. n)
0a

Þ
(a ~í) ÷
0n
u
(í. n)
0n

Þ
(n ~n)

dn
¸
.
4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 28
·· n·· |·nh:n:n·· n&· n
i
= 1 · n
u
= Q. 1:··.·nn··. ¡·.·. ·n|·&|n: n· .nì·n:n.·:

Cq
da.

Cq
dn.

Cq
ada.

Cq
ndn.

Cq
adn.

Cq
nda
n&· ·n· ì·Jn· n· .nì·n:n.· n&· n¡n:···n n·.nn. 5· ].·:n·· .·ì· ¡n:n n ·&:n
C
n
n··ì:nJn nn ]n&:n 1.1·.h). ·:·n·· n&· n· n&nì:· .nì·n:n.· .n.·.n.· ·· nn-
&|nn. :··ìnnJ· n¡·nn· n· J&n· 4|ì.nn·. 1·ìn· J&n· 4|ì.nn· .nì·n:n.· ¡·J·n ··:
·n|·&|nJn· Jn ··n&.nì· nnn·.:n: ì·n·n·· n .nì·n:n|

C
q
adn ··n· ·r·n¡|·: A·
¡:.n·.:· ·nn.nh· C
4
ì·n·· a = a
5
.··n·ìnnì·) · n .nì·n:n| ]·n a
5
^n. A·
··n&nJ· ·nn.nh· n n:.n·n· dn = 0. n··.n ··n· n· n&n:ì· ·nn.nh·. 1··ìn.
¡·:ìnnì· · ì·:··.:· ·nn.nh· C
6
¡n:n · n&n| a = a
4
· n· n&n| n .nì·n:n| ]·n
a
4
(~^n) .·nJ· · ·.nn| n·nnì.· nJ·n Jn J.:··n· J· .nì·n:n·n·). ¹ .nì·n:n|
ì·ìn| ]·n

C
q
adn = (a
5
~a
4
)^n = ^a^n = ^3
n
.
1n n··nn ]·:nn. ¡·J·n·· n··ì:n: n&·

Cq
nda = ~^3
n
.
1·nnJ· ì·J·· ··ì·· :··&|ìnJ·· nn ·r¡:···n· nn.· n·.nn. ]·nn·· ··n

C
q
n · d

| =

0n
i
(í. n)
0n

Þ
~
0n
u
(í. n)
0a

Þ

^3
n
.
J· n·J· n&·
1(a. n) = lim
Sq3

Cq
n · d

|
^3
n
=

0n
i
(í. n)
0n

Þ
~
0n
u
(í. n)
0a

Þ

.
1·|ìnnJ· n ·n&n·n· .1.11). ·h·nnn·· n· :··&|ìnJ· J···]nJ·.
Os oosonyolyimonlos acima nos poimilom. com uma simplos alloiacao. oLloi
um oulio impoilanlo looioma inlogial. conhocioo poi ì··:·nn Jn J.·:n·n·.n.
ouo oiz o soguinlo:
Whruhpd 46 1nJn· J&n· ]&n···· n
i
= 1(a. n) · n
u
= Q(a. n). J··n·· ì·:

C
n · dn =

S

0n
i
0a
÷
0n
u
0n

dadn. (1.12)
·nJ· dn · · ·|·n·nì· J· .nì·n:n·n· ì·nnJ· nn J.:··n· ¡·:¡·nJ.·&|n: n J.:··n·
J· ·ì·: ìnnn·nì· n ·&:n J·]n.Jn ¡·: C.
Ghprqvwudêær1 A pioya ooslo looioma soguo os mosmos passos oaouola
apiosonlaoa anloiioimonlo. Noslo caso. a única alloiacao ouo ooyomos fazoi
24 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
o. lomLianoo ouo o olomonlo oo inlogiacao dn o poiponoiculai ao olomonlo oo
inlogiacao d

| (langonlo a cuiya C). colocai
dn = dn
´
j ~da
´
,.
uma yoz ouo. foilo islo o saLonoo ouo d

| = da
´
j ÷dn
´
,. loiomos
dn · d

| = 0.
como pooo soi facilmonlo yoiilcaoo. Assim. a inlogial oo linha apiosonlaoa om
(1.12) lca

C
n · dn=

C
(n
i
dn ~n
u
da) .
ou soja. a funcao Q(a. n) oos oosonyolyimonlos anloiioios. loina-so ~Q(a. n).
Loyanoo islo om consiooiacao o lomLianoo o looioma oo Gioon. lomos

C
n · dn =

S

0n
i
0a
÷
0n
u
0n

dadn.
ouo o o iosullaoo oosojaoo.
H{hufðflr 47 `··ì:·. ¡·: &n :n·.··.n.· nnn|·n· nn&·|· J···n·|.J· ¡n:n ·
ì··:·nn J· G:··n. n&· J·· n|·: n .J·nì.JnJ·
lim
~3

Cq
n · dn
^3
=

0n
i
0a
÷
0n
u
0n

.
Lm funcao oos iosullaoos anloiioios. o inloiossanlo oolnii a opoiacao oo
J.·:n·nì·. sogunoo a oxpiossao (om ouas oimonsoos):
\· n =

0n
i
0a
÷
0n
u
0n

. (1.18)
oa mosma foima ouo o inloiossanlo oolnii a opoiacao oo :·ìn·.·nn| (om ouas
oimonsoos). sogunoo a oxpiossao:
\× n =

0n
u
0a
~
0n
i
0n

´
/. (1.14)
onoo o yoloi
´
/. como oo coslumo. aponla paia a oiiocao-z. poiponoiculai ao
plano an sonoo consiooiaoo. Nolo ainoa ouo o oiyoigonlo oo um yoloi o um
···n|n: o ouo o iolacional ooslo yoloi o. igualmonlo. um ·ì·:. Islo moslia ouo
o looioma oo Gioon poooiia soi osciilo como

C
n · d

| =

S
\× n · d

3. (no campo yoloiial no plano)
oosoo ouo d

3 soja lomaoo como o olomonlo oo aioa no plano an aponlanoo paia
a oiiocao .. ou soja. d

3 = dadn
´
/saLomos ouo d

| ooyo soi lomaoo ao longo
4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 2ò
(langoncialmonlo) a cuiya C. Da mosma manoiia. o looioma oa oiyoigoncia
poooiia soi osciilo

C
n · dn =

S
\· nd3. (no campo yoloiial no plano)
onoo dn. como yimos. ooyo soi lomaoo no plano an o ooyo soi poiponoiculai a
cuiya C (poiponoiculai ao olomonlo d

|).
Com oslas oolnicoos. lomos ouo as opoiacoos oo lomaoa oo oiyoigonlo o
iolacional oouiyalom a uma ospocio oo ooiiyaoa om loimos oo aioas inlnilosimais
(o nao a compiimonlos inlnilosimais. como usualmonlo). pois as iolacoos (1.18)
o (1.14) implicam ouo
\· n = lim
~3

Cq
n · dn
^3
o \× n = lim
~3

Cq
n · d

|
^3
´
/. (1.1ò)
41716 Whruhpdv Lqwhjudlv qr Hvsdêr=
Agoia ouo ja lzomos a oomonsliacao oo oois impoilanlos looiomas inlogiais
no plano. yamos gonoializa-los paia o ospaco. yislo ouo sua aplicacao goial na
fïsica so oa. piocisamonlo. om siluacoos nas ouais ooyomos consiooiai looas as
lios oimonsoos. Vamos comocai com a onunciacao o oomonsliacao oo ì··:·nn
J· Gn&··: faiomos. om soguioa. a onunciacao o oomonsliacao oo ì··:·nn J·
5ì·|··.
Whruhpd 48 1nJn· ì:·· ]&n···· n
i
= 1(a. n. .). n
u
= A(a. n. .) · n
:
=
`(a. n. .). J··n·· ì·: n&·

S
n · d

3 =

\

0n
i
0a
÷
0n
u
0n
÷
0n
:
0.

dV. (1.16)
·nJ· d

3 · · ·|·n·nì· J· n:·n ì·nnJ· nn J.:··n· ¡·:¡·nJ.·&|n: n· ¡|nn· ìnnn·nì·
n ·&¡·:].·.· ]··hnJn 3. n&· |.n.ìn · ·|&n· V . A·ì· n&· n .nì·n:n| Jn ··n&·:Jn
]·:n··· · µ&r· Jn n&nnì.JnJ· n nì:n·· Jn ·&¡·:].·.· 3. ·& ··]n. n n&nnì.JnJ·
J· n n&· ···n¡n J· ·|&n· V . 1·ì· ì··:·nn ìnnh·n ¡·J· ··: ···:.ì· ··n·

S
n · d

3 =

\
(\· n)dV.
·· ···:··n··
\· n =

0n
i
0a
÷
0n
u
0n
÷
0n
:
0.

.
Ghprqvwudêær1 Consiooio o oosonho foilo na lguia 1.14(a). no oual mosliamos
um yolumo V . limilaoo poi uma supoifïcio 3. sonoo apioximaoo poi poouonos
`cuLos` oo yolumo ^V
n
. Nolo ouo. paia os olomonlos oo yolumo inloinos. o luxo
paia foia aliayos oa supoifïcio oo um ooslos yolumos. o componsaoo polo luxo
paia oonlio ooslo mosmo yolumo. ooyioo a um olomonlo oo yolumo yizinho (cf.
26 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
Figuia 1.14: Iopiosonla cao osouomalica oa oomonsliacao oo looioma oo Gauss.
(a) Um yolumo V suLoiyioioo om olomonlos inlnilosimais oo yolumo ^V
n
(iop-
iosonlaoos poi paialolopïpooos). (L) a conslalacao oo ouo os luxos aojaconlos
so cancolam o (c) o calculo oo luxo aliayos oas supoifïcios poiponoiculaios a
oiiocao a.
lguia 1.14(L)). Assim. o luxo lolal paia foia oo V (a oiyoigoncia oo yoloi n)
lca oaoo aponas pola ouanlioaoo oo n ouo aliayossa as supoifïcios oos yolumos
inlnilosimais oncoslaoos na supoifïcio mais oxloina 3 oo yolumo V . sonoo oslo.
na yoioaoo. o conloúoo inluiliyo oo looioma (1.16). Do ouo foi oilo acima. yo-
mos ouo o luxo lolal oo n aliayos oa supoifïcio complola 3 pooo soi calculaoo
pola soma oos luxos aliayos oo caoa uma oas supoifïcios ^3
n
. associaoas aos
yolumos ^V
n
. sogunoo a oxpiossao

S
n·d

3 =
Þ
¸
n@4

Sq
n·d

3
n
^V
n
^V
n
.
ouo lonooia paia uma inlogial oo yolumo so lzoimos ^V
n
÷0. ou soja. ` ÷·.
Iiocisamos. poilanlo. aponas mosliai ouo
lim
\q3

Sq
n·d

3
n
^V
n
= \· n.
Iaia fazo-lo. consiooio um único olomonlo oo yolumo. como mosliaoo na lguia
1.14(c). Nosla lguia oscolhomos um yolumo oaoo poi ^V = ^a^n^. ouo
iiomos fazoi lonooi paia zoio. oiminuinoo as yaiiacoos ospaciais om looas as
oiiocoos: yamos fazoi os calculos aponas paia o loimo na ooiiyaoa om a oo
oiyoigonlo. pois os oulios sao lolalmonlo oouiyalonlos. Iaia lanlo. oscolhomos
um plano no conlio oo paialolopïpooo no oual lxamos o ponlo 1 = (í. n. c) om
4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 27
sou conlio goomoliico. Nolo ouo oslo ponlo osla as oislancias ^a´2 o ~^a´2 oos
planos ¹
!
1
!
C
!
1
!
o ¹1C1. iospocliyamonlo. o sinal oocoiionoo oa oiionlacao
oaoa paia o oixo a. Dosojamos calculai o luxo oo n aliayos oas supoifïcios
¹
!
1
!
C
!
1
!
o ¹1C1. ouo sao os olomonlos d3
i
associaoos a compononlo n
i
.
ouo nos piopusomos analisai (nolo ouo. na inlogial. ooyomos analisai o loimo
n
i
d3
i
. o ouo ha ouas supoifïcios d3
i
: ¹
!
1
!
C
!
1
!
o ¹1C1). So o oslo o caso.
onlao ouoiomos calculai o yaloi oo n ··h:· lais supoifïcios. Iooomos oscioyoi o
yaloi oo n
i
soLio a supoifïcio d

3
!
= ¹
!
1
!
C
!
1
!
= ÷
´
jdnd. oosoo ouo saiLamos o
sou yaloi no ponlo 1 aliayos oa oxpansao om soiio oo 1ayloi
n
i
(1)
-
= n
i
(1) ÷

0n
i
0a

1
(a ~í) ÷

0n
i
0n

1
(n ~n) ÷

0n
i
0.

1
(. ~c) =
=
¸
n
i
(1) ÷
^a
2

0n
i
0a

1

÷

0n
i
0n

1
(n ~n) ÷

0n
i
0.

1
(. ~c).
yislo ouo a
1
= í ÷ ^a´2. Iooomos calculai a inlogial

S
!
{
n
i
d3
i
=

.
!
1
!
C
!
1
!
¸
n
i
(1) ÷
^a
2

0n
i
0a

1

÷

0n
i
0n

1
(n ~n)÷
÷

0n
i
0.

1
(. ~c)
¸
dnd..
Nolo. onliolanlo. ouo as inlogiais om n o om . yao anulai-so. yislo ouo os
ponlos n o c onconliam-so oxalamonlo no sou conlio goomoliico (lomLio-so ouo
os loimos nas ooiiyaoas sao ··n·ìnnì··. yislo soiom oslimaoos no ponlo 1 lxo).
Ficamos. poilanlo. com

S
!
{
n
i
d3
i
=

.
!
1
!
C
!
1
!
¸
n
i
(1) ÷
^a
2

0n
i
0a

1

dnd. =
=
¸
n
i
(1) ÷
^a
2

0n
i
0a

1

^n^.
paia a piimoiia supoifïcio. Iaia a oulia supoifïcio. d

3 = ~
´
jdnd. o (a ~ í) =
~^a´2. oo foima ouo lcamos com

S{
n
i
d3
i
=

.1C1
¸
~n
i
(1) ÷
^a
2

0n
i
0a

1

dnd. =
=
¸
~n
i
(1) ÷
^a
2

0n
i
0a

1

^n^..
A soma ooslas ouas inlogiais foinoco o luxo lolal nas paiooos poiponoiculaios
a oiiocao a o o

0n
i
0a

1
^a^n^. =

0n
i
0a

1
^V
n
:
28 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
nao o oifïcil yoi ouo os luxos nas oulias oiiocoos soiao oaoos poi

0n
u
0n

1
^V
n
o

0n
:
0.

1
^V
n
.
oo mooo ouo o luxo lolal soLio a supoifïcio complola ouo onyolyo ^V
n
o

Sq
n·d

3
n
=
¸
0n
i
0a

÷

0n
u
0n

÷

0n
:
0.

^V
n
o lcamos com
lim
\
q
3

S
q
n·d

3
n
^V
n
= \· n.
como ouoiïamos oomonsliai.
H{hpsor 49 5nh·nJ· n&· n ·n&n·n· .nì·n:n| J· Gn&·· J· ·|·ì:·nnnn·ì.·n·
.&nn Jn· ·n&n···· J· `nr&·||) · JnJn ¡·:

S

1·d

3 =
Q
-
3
.
n··ì:· n&· n ·n&n·n· J.]·:·n·.n| ··::··¡·nJ·nì· · JnJn ¡·:

1 =
j
-
3
.
·nJ· j(a. n. .) · n J·n·.JnJ· J· ·n:nn n····.nJn n ·n:nn ì·ìn| Q. ··nì.Jn n·
·|&n· V . nì:n·· Jn .nì·n:n|
Q =

\
j(a. n. .)dV.
5·|&·n·: 1nn·· &·n: n ·r¡:···n· ¡n:n Q nn ·n&n·n· .nì·n:n| J· Gn&·· ¡n:n
···:··:
S

1·d

3 =

\
j
-
3
dV :
nn·:n &·nn·· · ì··:·nn J· G:··n ¡n:n ···:··:

S

1·d

3 =

\

1dV
·. ¡·:ìnnì·.

\

1 ~
j
-
3

dV = 0.
··n· ··ìn ·r¡:···n· J·· n|·: ¡n:n n&n|n&·: ····|hn J· V . J··n·· ì·:

1 =
j
-
3
.
··n· h&··nJ·.
4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 20
Figuia 1.1ò: Consliucao oa supoifïcio aLoila paia a oomonsliacao oo looioma
oo Slokos.
Agoia ouo ja oomonsliamos o looioma oo Gauss. pooomos passai a oomon-
sliacao oo looioma oo Slokos. lamLom muilo ulilizaoo om fïsica.
Whruhpd 4: 5· ì·n·· &nn ·&¡·:].·.· 3 ·:.·nìn·| · ····.·nn|n·nì· ·&n·.
|.n.ìnJn ¡·: &nn ·&:n ]··hnJn ·.n¡|·· · ····.·nn|n·nì· ·&n·. n&ì&nn·nì·
·:.·nìnJn· ··n· nn ]n&:n 1.1´. ·nìn· J·· n|·: n .n&n|JnJ·

C
n · d

| =

S
\× n · d

3.
·nJ·
\× n =

0n
:
0n
~
0n
u
0.

´
j ÷

0n
i
0.
~
0n
:
0a

´
, ÷

0n
u
0a
~
0n
i
0n

´
/
· · :·ìn·.·nn| J· ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n| n.
Ghprqvwudêær1 Iaia oomonsliai oslo looioma. consiooio a lguia 1.16.
Nola mosliamos um olomonlo gonoiico oo supoifïcio d

3. oiionlaoo sogunoo o
yoloi (noimal a supoifïcio) n. O olomonlo oo supoifïcio o sulcionlomonlo po-
ouono paia ouo possamos consiooia-lo como um plano. 1omos. pois. um plano
oiionlaoo sogunoo a oiiocao n.
Doyioo ao osouoma oa lguia 1.1ò (o similaimonlo ao ouo foi foilo paia o
plano). saLomos ouo a inlogial oo caminho complola pooo soi osciila como

C
n · d

| =
Þ
¸
n@4

Cq
n · d

|
n
^3
n
^3
n
.
oo mooo a loimos
\× n = lim
S
q
3

Cq
n · d

|
n
^3
n
.
80 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
Figuia 1.16: Llomonlo oo supoifïcio ulilizaoo na oomonsliacao oo looioma oo
Slokos. Nolo a oocomposic ao oos olomonlos oo linha o oo supoifïcio.
Consiooio agoia o olomonlo oo supoifïcio mosliaoo na lguia 1.16. Digamos ouo
ouoiiamos calculai o yaloi oa inlogial

C
q
n · d

|
n
ao longo oa linha iopioson-
laoa polo olomonlo d

|
4
. Lslo olomonlo oo linha possui aponas a compononlo
a. sonoo. oo falo. somolhanlo ao olomonlo d

|
!!
4
lamLom iopiosonlaoo na lguia.
Lslos olomonlos pooom soi osciilos como dn
´
,. No liajolo ooloiminaoo poi d

|
5
.
onliolanlo. lomos ouo o olomonlo oo linha so oscioyo como
d

|
5
= ~d|
!!
5
´
j ÷d|
!
5
´
/.
A ciiculacao. na piimoiia pailo. o foila poi

u+4,
n
u
dn.
onouanlo ouo. na sogunoa pailo. o foila poi
~

i+5,
n
i
da ÷

:+4,
n
:
d..
Nos oulios poicuisos pooomos oscioyoi
d

|
6
= ~d|
!!
6
´
,.
oanoo
~

u+5,
n
u
dn
o
d

|
7
= d|
!!
7
´
j ~d|
!
7
´
/.
4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 81
oanoo

i+4,
n
i
da ~

:+5,
n
:
d..
A ciiculacao lolal o a soma ooslas inlogiais o lca oaoa poi

C
q
n · d

|
n
=

i+4,
n
i
da ~

i+5,
n
i
da

÷

u+4,
n
u
dn ~

u+5,
n
u
dn

÷

:+4,
n
:
d. ~

:+5,
n
:
d.

.
Nolo ouo. agoia. oslas inlogiais oslao soLio os planos cooioonaoos. Do falo. a
soma oo inlogiais
1
4
=

i+4,
n
i
da ÷

u+4,
n
u
dn ~

i+5,
n
i
da ~

u+5,
n
u
dn
iofoio-so a ciiculacao soLio a supoifïcio d

3
:
. poiponoiculai a oiiocao
´
/. onouanlo
ouo a soma oo inlogiais
1
5
=

u+4,
n
u
dn ÷

:+4,
n
:
d. ~

u+5,
n
u
dn ~

:+5,
n
:
d.
osla associaoa a ciiculacao soLio a supoifïcio d

3
i
. poiponoiculai a oiiocao
´
j
(ooyioo a oscolha oo oosonho. poi simplicioaoo. nao ha a ciiculacao soLio a
supoifïcio d

3
u
. poiponoiculai a oiiocao
´
,. caso houyosso. o facil yoi ouo a inlogial
associaoa soiia
1
6
=

i+4,
n
i
da ÷

:+4,
n
:
d. ~

i+5,
n
i
da ~

:+5,
n
:
d.
). Caoa uma oas inlogiais 1
n
pooo soi calculaoa como lzomos paia o looioma
oo Gioon no plano: loiomos assim.
1
4
=

0n
u
0a
~
0n
i
0n

(
´
/·n)^3
n
1
5
=

0n
:
0n
~
0n
u
0.

(
´
j·n)^3
n
1
6
=

0n
i
0.
~
0n
:
0a

(
´
,·n)^3
n
onoo os loimos ^3(
´
j·n). ^3(
´
,·n) o ^3(
´
/·n) apaiocom ooyioo ao falo oo ouo as
supoifïcios piojolaoas possuom aioas oaoas oosla manoiia (o oslamos fazonoo a
ciiculacao noslas supoifïcios piojolaoas). Junlanoo os iosullaoos. lcamos com

C
n · d

| =
Þ
¸
n@4
lim
S
q
3

Cq
n · d

|
n
^3
n
^3
n
=
82 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
=
¸
0n
:
0n
~
0n
u
0.

(
´
j·n) ÷

0n
i
0.
~
0n
:
0a

(
´
,·n)÷
÷

0n
u
0a
~
0n
i
0n

(
´
/·n)

d3.
Mas como
nd3 = d

3.
lomos

C
n · d

| =
¸
0n
:
0n
~
0n
u
0.

´
j ÷

0n
i
0.
~
0n
:
0a

´

÷

0n
u
0a
~
0n
i
0n

´
/

· d

3 =

\× n · d

3.
como ouoiïamos oomonsliai.
L oosnocossaiio oizoi o ouanlo sao impoilanlos os opoiaooios oifoionciais ouo
apaiocoiam nas oxpiossoos oos looiomas inlogiais acima (o.g. giaoionlo. oiyoi-
gonlo. iolacional. olc.). Do falo. sua piosonca na fïsica o pioyalonlo. sonoo ouo
yaiias oouacoos pooom soi oxpiossas oo manoiia muilo mais simplos o ologanlo
poi moio oo sou uso: alom oo faloi oslolico. ha lamLom ouo so aciosconlai ouo
o mooo como oomonsliamos os looiomas (o os inloipiolamos) lamLom foinoco
ouaso ouo imooialamonlo as inloipiolacoos oas lois fïsicas osciilas om loimos
oos opoiaooios oifoionciais.
Do mosmo mooo ouo uma funcao `loya` ponlos oo um conjunlo ¹ om ponlos
oo um conjunlo 1. um opoiaooi `loya` uma funcao c (so oscalai) ou

1 (so
yoloiial). numa oulia funcao.
So oscioyomos o opoiaooi giaoionlo (oo funcoos oscalaios c) como sonoo
\c =
´
j
0c
0a
÷
´
,
0c
0n
÷
´
/
0c
0.
.
onlao os opoiaooios oiyoigonlo o iolacional (oo funcoos yoloiiais

1) lcam sonoo
oolnioos como

1 o \×

1
iospocliyamonlo. Lm cooioonaoas cailosianas lomos. poilanlo

1 =

´
j
0
0a
÷
´
,
0
0n
÷
´
/
0
0.

·

1
i
´
j ÷1
u
´
, ÷1
:
´
/

o

1 =

´
j
´
,
´
/
J
Ji
J
Ju
J
J:
1
i
1
u
1
:

.
O opoiaooi Laplaciano. lamLom muilo usaoo om fïsica. o oaoo poi
\· \ = \
5
=

0
5
0a
5
÷
0
5
0n
5
÷
0
5
0.
5

.
4181 VLVWHPD GH FRRUGHQDGDV FXUYLOÐQHDV RUWRJRQDLV 88
H{hufðflr 4; `··ì:· n· ··n&.nì·· .J·nì.JnJ·· n····.nJn· n·· ·¡·:nJ·:·· J.]·:-
·n·.n.·:
\× \×

1 = ~K
5

1 ÷\(\·

1)
\· (o

1) = \o ·

1 ÷o\·

1
\× (\o) = 0
\· \×

1 = 0
· .nì·:¡:·ì· ]·.·nn·nì· n· J&n· 4|ì.nn·. 1n··nì:· ìnnh·n n ·r¡:···n· ¡n:n n·
·¡·:n····
\× (o

1)
\× (

¹×

1).
418 Vlvwhpd gh Frrughqdgdv Fxuyloðqhdv Ruwrj0
rqdlv
Um pioLloma oa fïsica nom sompio pooo soi iosolyioo muilo facilmonlo num
sisloma oo cooioonaoas cailosiano. Do falo. muilas yozos. os sislomas fïsicos
pailiculaios apiosonlam coilas simoliias ouo sao molhoi iopiosonlaoas oonlio
oo oulios sislomas oo cooioonaoas: um oxomplo oisso pooo soi yislo no pioL-
loma oa iolacao oa loiia om loino oo sol. Lslo pioLloma possui uma simoliia
ouo so ajusla muilo mais a uma oosciicao foila aliayos oo sisloma oo cooioo-
naoas osfoiicas oo ouo uma foila polo sisloma oo cooioonaoas cailosiano. Lm
goial. a oscolha oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas mais apiopiiaoo paia a solucao oo
um pioLloma pooo soi ciucial na oLloncao oos iosullaoos. Do ouo oissomos
anloiioimonlo lcou claio ouo os opoiaooios oifoionciais. como o giaoionlo. o
iolacional. a oiyoigoncia. oonlio oulios. sao ciuciais na iopiosonlacao oo muilos
pioLlomas oo fïsica. Assim. o impoilanlo ouo oLlonhamos as oxpiossoos oos
opoiaooios oifoionciais nos mais oiyoisos sislomas oo cooioonaoas. No ouo so
soguo. oslaiomos lxanoo nossa aloncao aponas nos sislomas oo cooioonaoas
cuiyilïnoas oilogonais. yislo ouo o uso oo sislomas nao oilogonais o oxlioma-
monlo iaio om fïsica.
Nossa oxposicao soia goial. mas iiomos sogui-la oo poilo com oxomplos oo
aplicacao ao sisloma oo cooioonaoas osfoiico. oo mooo a possiLililai ao loiloi
uma poicopcao mais inluiliya oos oosonyolyimonlos malomalicos.
H{hufðflr 4< 1nJ· n&· n ì:nn·]·:nn·n· Jn· ···:J·nnJn· ·n:ì··.nnn· a. n. .
¡n:n n· ··]·:.·n· v. 0. c · ]·:n··.Jn ¡·|n· ·r¡:······
a = v sin0 cos c
n = v sin0 sinc
. = v cos 0
84 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
n··ì:· n&· n· ì:nn·]·:nn···· .n·:·n·. ]·:n···nJ· v. 0. c ·n ì·:n·· J· a. n. .
·n· JnJn· ¡·:
v =

a
5
÷n
5
÷.
5
0 = aiclan

a
5
÷n
5
.
c = aiclan
n
a
`··ì:· ìnnh·n n&· · Jn··h.nn· Jn ì:nn·]·:nn·n· · JnJ· ¡·:
J

an.
v0c

= v
5
sin0
· ·· ·· nn&|n n·· ¡·|··. 0 = 0. ¬.
O oxoicïcio anloiioi moslia ouo. oaoos os ponlos num sisloma oo cooioo-
naoas. pooomos iopiosonla-los num oulio sisloma oo cooioonaoas a pailii oo
calculo oas liansfoimacoos inyoisas onlio oslos sislomas. oosoo ouo oslas lians-
foimacoos. oaoas poi
a = a(|. n. n)
n = n(|. n. n)
. = .(|. n. n)
possuam inyoisa (Laslanoo paia isso ouo o JacoLiano oa liansfoimacao nao so
anulo). 1ais liansfoimacoos. poilanlo. soiao oaoas poi
| = |(a. n. .)
n = n(a. n. .)
n = n(a. n. .)
o foinocoiao o ponlo (|. n. n) oaoo ouo so saLo as cooioonaoas (a. n. .) oo
mosmo.
H{hpsor 53 A· ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· ·n:ì··.nn·. n· `·&:n· ···:J·nnJn·`.
·hì.Jn· ]n.·nJ· a'
u,:@con~|.
. n'
i,:@con~|
· .'
i,u@con~|
·n· |.nhn· :·ìn· ¡n:n|·|n· n
·nJn &n J·· ·.r·· :··¡··ì.··. `··ì:· ··n· ]·nn ··ìn· `·&:n· ···:J·nnJn·`
¡n:n · ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· ··]·:.··. 5·|&·n·: n· ·n·· ··]·:.··. ì·n·· &nn
··n]n&:n·n· ··n· n Jn ]n&:n 1.17. nn n&n| n¡:···nìnn·· ·· ¡:.n·.¡n.· ·|·n·n-
ì·· J··ì· ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn·. 1·n·· n&·. ·· nnnì.·:n·· n· n:.n·.· 0 · c
]rn· · n:.n:n·· v. ì·:·n·· :·ìn· ¡n:ì.nJ· Jn ·:.n·n · ··:ìnnJ· n ·&¡·:].·.· Jn
··]·:n ¡·:¡·nJ.·&|n:n·nì·. 1n n··nn nnn·.:n. ·· ]rn:n·· v · 0. · n:.n:n··
c. ì·:·n·· ·.:·&n]·:·n·.n· ¡n:n|·|n· n· ¡|nn· an. ··n· n··ì:n n ]n&:n. Jnn-
h·n ¡·J·n·· ]rn: v · c · n:.n: 0 J· n·J· n ì·: ·.:·&n]·:·n·.n· ·&]· J.nn·ì:·
··.n·.J· ··n · ·.r· .. ··n· n··ì:nJ· nn ]n&:n. O· ·ì·:·· &n.ìn:.·· ·n· ··n¡:·
····|h.J·· J· n·J· n n¡·nìn: n· ··nì.J· J· ·:···.n·nì· Jn· n:nnJ·.n· ··::·-
·¡·nJ·nì··: n··.n. ·· ·ì·:·· &n.ìn:.·· J· ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· ··]·:.·· ·n·
nn&·|·· :·¡:···nìnJ·· nn ]n&:n 1.17.
4181 VLVWHPD GH FRRUGHQDGDV FXUYLOÐQHDV RUWRJRQDLV 8ò
Figuia 1.17: Iopiosonlacao osouomalica oo sisloma oo cooioonaoas osfoiico.
com as cuiyas cooioonaoas o os yoloios unilaiios lamLom iopiosonlaoos.
H{hpsor 54 Ohì·nhn ·· ·ì·:·· &n.ìn:.·· nn· J.:····· v. 0. c ¡n:n · ·.·ì·nn
J· ···:J·nnJn· ··]·:.··. 5·|&·n·: ¡n:n ]n.·:n·· .·ì·. ····|h·n·· &n ·ì·:
n&n|n&·:

1 = a
´
j ÷n
´
, ÷.
´
/=v sin0 cos c
´
j ÷v sin0 sinc
´
, ÷v cos 0
´
/.
1n ·ì·: &n.ìn:.· nn J.:··n· v ··:n nn&·|· n&· n¡·nìn: ¡n:n n J.:··n· J· n&-
n·nì· Jn ···:J·nnJn v ··n n&· 0 · c n:.·n. ·& ··]n. ··:n &n ·ì·: nn J.:··n·
JnJn ¡·:
0

1
0v
= sin0 cos c
´
j ÷ sin0 sinc
´
, ÷ cos 0
´
/:
··ì· ·ì·: n.nJn nn· ·. n·····n:.nn·nì·. &n.ìn:.·. 1n:n ì·:nn-|· &n.ìn:.·. hn·ìn
···:··:
´ v =
0

1´0v

0

1´0v

= sin0 cos c
´
j ÷ sin0 sinc
´
, ÷ cos 0
´
/.
·nJ· ´ v · · ·ì·: &n.ìn:.· nn J.:··n· J· v ·:····nì·. A·ì· n&· ì·n··
/
:
=

0

1´0v

=

0a
0v

5
÷

0n
0v

5
÷

0.
0v

5
= 1.
1n:n ·n··nì:n: · ·ì·: &n.ìn:.· nn J.:··n· 0. hn·ìn ]n.·:
0

1
00
= v cos 0 cos c
´
j ÷v cos 0 sinc
´
, ~v sin0
´
/.
JnnJ·
´
0 =
0

1´00

0

1´00

= cos 0 cos c
´
j ÷ cos 0 sinc
´
, ~sin0
´
/.
86 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
.·ì· n&·
/
0
=

0

1´00

=

0a
00

5
÷

0n
00

5
÷

0.
00

5
= v.
O |·.ì·: ¡·J· nn·:n n··ì:n: n&·
´
c = ~sinc
´
j ÷ cos c
´
,.
:·¡:···nìnnJ· &n ·ì·: .n· ¡|nn· an) ìnnn·nì· n ·&:n v. 0 = conct. ··n·
··¡·:nJ·.
H{hufðflr 55 5nh·nJ· n&· n ì:nn·]·:nn·n· J· ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· ·n:ì·-
·.nn· ¡n:n · ·.|.nJ:.·· · JnJn ¡·:
a = v cos 0. n = v sin0. . = ..
J···nh· n· ·&:n· ···:J·nnJn·. n·h· ·· ·ì·:·· &n.ìn:.·· · ·n|·&|· /
:
. /
0
· /
:
.
Iooomos iopiosonlai um ponlo oualouoi poi um yoloi

1 como

1 = a
´
j ÷n
´
, ÷.
´
/.
ou. como a. n. . pooom soi osciilos no sisloma |. n. n. pooomos colocai

1 = a(|. n. n)
´
j ÷n(|. n. n)
´
, ÷.(|. n. n)
´
/.
Iaia oLloimos o yoloi unilaiio na oiiocao
´
|. poi oxomplo. piocooomos como nos
oxomplos acima o colocamos
0

1
0|
=
0a
0|
´
j ÷
0n
0|
´
, ÷
0.
0|
´
/.
paia oscioyoi
´
| =
0

1´0|

0

1´0|

=
1
/
l
0

1
0|
.
onoo
/
l
=

0a
0|

5
÷

0n
0|

5
÷

0.
0|

5
:
fazonoo o mosmo paia ´ n o ´ n. Assim. lcamos com
´
| =
1
/
l
0

1
0|
´ n =
1
/
n
0

1
0n
´ n =
1
/
n
0

1
0n
4181 VLVWHPD GH FRRUGHQDGDV FXUYLOÐQHDV RUWRJRQDLV 87
oanoo os lios yoloios unilaiios oo sisloma. Como oslamos suponoo o sisloma
cuiyilïnoo oilogonal. ooyomos loi as iolacoos
´
| ·
´
| = ´ n· ´ n = ´ n · ´ n = 1 (1.17)
´
| · ´ n = ´ n· ´ n = ´ n ·
´
| = 0
o ouo foinoco uma soiio oo iolacoos onlio as ooiiyaoas oo a. n. . com iolacao a
|. n. n.
H{hufðflr 56 `··ì:· n&· ¡n:n &n ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· ·&:.|.n·· n :·|n·n·
´
| · ´ n = 0
.n¡|.·n n&·
0a
0|
0a
0n
÷
0n
0|
0n
0n
÷
0.
0|
0.
0n
= 0.
1n:n · ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· ··]·:.··. n··ì:· n&· ··ìn :·|n·n· · ·h·J··.Jn.
¹·h· ì·Jn· n· ·&ì:n· :·|n···· n ¡n:ì.: J·· ¡:·J&ì·· JnJ·· ·n .1.17) · n··ì:·
n&· · ·.·ì·nn J· ···:J·nnJn· ··]·:.·· n· ·nì.·]n. ··nJ·. ¡·:ìnnì·. &n ·.·ì·nn
·:ì·n·nn|.
Nolo agoia ouo a yaiiacao oo yoloi

1. osciila no sisloma oo cooioonaoas
cuiyilïnoo. o oaoa simplosmonlo poi
d

1 =
0

1
0|
d| ÷
0

1
0n
dn ÷
0

1
0n
dn.
onoo so usou a ooiiyacao implïcila. Usanoo as oolnicoos oos yoloios unilaiios.
lomos ouo
d

1 = (/
l
d|)
´
| ÷ (/
n
dn) ´ n÷ (/
n
dn) ´ n.
Mas pooomos oscioyoi lamLom ouo
\c · d

1 =
0c
0|
d| ÷
0c
0n
dn÷
0c
0n
dn =
=

1
/
l
0c
0|
´
| ÷
1
/
n
0c
0n
´ n ÷
1
/
n
0c
0n
´ n

·

(/
l
d|)
´
| ÷ (/
n
dn) ´ n÷ (/
n
dn) ´ n

.
implicanoo ouo
\c =
1
/
l
0c
0|
´
| ÷
1
/
n
0c
0n
´ n÷
1
/
n
0c
0n
´ n.
no sisloma oo cooioonaoas om ouoslao.
H{hufðflr 57 `··ì:· n&· · n:nJ.·nì· J· &nn ]&n·n· 1 n&n|n&·:. ·n ···:J·-
nnJn· ··]·:.·n·. · JnJ· ¡·|n ·r¡:···n·
\1 =
01
0v
´ v ÷
1
v
01
00
´
0 ÷
1
v sin0
01
0c
´
c.
1··:·n ìnnh·n n ·r¡:···n· ¡n:n · n:nJ.·nì· ·n ···:J·nnJn· ·.|.nJ:.·n·.
88 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
Uma yoz lonoo om maos a oxpiossao oo giaoionlo. pooo-so onconliai facil-
monlo as oxpiossoos paia o laplaciano. o oiyoigonlo o o iolacional. Iaia yoimos
islo. Lasla ouo nolomos. piimoiiamonlo. ouo o olomonlo oo aico numa oiiocao
cooioonaoa oualouoi o oaoo poi (cf. lguia 1.18)
Figuia 1.18: Lsouoma oo cooioonaoas cuiyilïnoas (|. n. n) no oual so moslia os
olomonlos oo aico dc
l
. dc
n
o dc
n
. junlamonlo com os olomonlos oo supoifïcio
d3
l
. d3
n
o d3
n
.
dc
l
= /
l
d|. dc
n
= /
n
dn o dc
n
= /
n
dn.
H{hpsor 58 1n ···:J·nnJn· ··]·:.·n·. ·· ·|·n·nì·· J· n:·· ·n·
dv. vd0 · v sin0dc
n&· ··::··¡·nJ·n ·rnìnn·nì· n ¡:···:.·n· n·.nn.
O oiyoigonlo foi oolnioo anloiioimonlo como sonoo
\· n = lim
\ 3

Sq
n · d

3
n
^V
n
:
como o piooulo oscalai oo n polos olomonlos oo aioa nas oiyoisas oiiocoos
´
|. ´ n. ´ n
lom compononlos oaoas poi (lomLio-so ouo o olomonlo oo aioa o poiponoicu-
lai ao oixo consiooiaoo. oo manoiia ouo aponas as ouas oulias cooioonaoas.
associaoas aos oulios oois oixos. pooom yaiiai)
n
l
d3
l
= n
l
dc
n
dc
n
. n
n
d3
n
= n
n
dc
l
dc
n
. n
n
d3
n
= n
n
dc
l
dc
n
oanoo
n
l
d3
l
= n
l
(/
n
/
n
dndn). n
n
d3
n
= n
n
(/
l
/
n
d| dn). n
n
d3
n
= n
n
(/
l
/
n
d| dn).
o o olomonlo oo yolumo (cf. lguia 1.18) o oaoo poi
dV = dc
l
dc
n
dc
n
= /
l
/
n
/
n
d| dndn.
lomos ouo:
4181 VLVWHPD GH FRRUGHQDGDV FXUYLOÐQHDV RUWRJRQDLV 80
Whruhpd 59 ¹ J.·:n·n·.n J· &n ·ì·: n ]·n JnJn ¡·:
\· n =
1
/
l
/
n
/
n
¸
0
0|
(n
l
/
n
/
n
) ÷
0
0n
(n
n
/
l
/
n
) ÷
0
0n
(n
n
/
l
/
n
)

.
Ghprqvwudêær1 Iiocisamos calculai o yaloi oa inlogial (no limilo)
\· n = lim
\ 3

Sq
n · d

3
n
^V
n
.
Consiooio ouas facos d

3
l
: soLio a piimoiia faco lomos o yaloi
n
l
(| ÷d|. n. n) d3
l
o soLio a sogunoa faco (oo cuLo na lguia 1.18)
~n
l
(|. n. n) d3
l
.
onoo manliyomos os yaloios oo n o n pois anoamos soLio a linha | soLio a oual
oslos yaloios nao so alloiam o onoo o sinal oocoiio oo falo oo ouo a oiionlacao
oo d

3
l
o sompio paia foia. A inlogial pooo soi osciila como
lim
\ 3

S
q
n · d

3
n
^V
n
= lim
\ 3

[n
l
(| ÷d|. n. n) d3
l
~n
l
(|. n. n) d3
l
[
/
l
/
n
/
n
d|dndn
÷
÷
[n
n
(|. n÷dn. n) d3
n
~n
n
(|. n. n) d3
n
[
/
l
/
n
/
n
d|dndn
÷
÷
[n
n
(|. n. n ÷dn) d3
n
~n
n
(|. n. n) d3
n
[
/
l
/
n
/
n
d|dndn
¸
ouo foinoco (a funcao d3
l
osla lamLom sonoo consiooiaoa nos ponlos (| ÷
d|. n. n) o (|. n. n). yislo ouo o oaoa poi d3
l
= /
n
/
n
dndn o as funcoos /
n
o /
n
ooponoom. om goial. oas cooioonaoas o mosmo yalonoo paia os oulios
olomonlos oo aioa d3
n
o d3
n
)
lim
\ 3

Sq
n · d

3
n
^V
n
=
1
/
l
/
n
/
n
lim
\ 3

[n
l
(| ÷d|. n. n) /
n
/
n
~n
l
(|. n. n) /
n
/
n
[
d|
÷
÷
[n
n
(|. n÷dn. n) /
l
/
n
~n
n
(|. n. n) /
l
/
n
[
dn
÷
÷
[n
n
(|. n. n ÷dn) /
l
/
n
~n
n
(|. n. n) /
l
/
n
[
dn
¸
ouo foinoco. no limilo.
\· n =
1
/
l
/
n
/
n
¸
0
0|
(n
l
/
n
/
n
) ÷
0
0n
(n
n
/
l
/
n
) ÷
0
0n
(n
n
/
l
/
n
)

.
ouo o o iosullaoo oosojaoo.
40 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
H{hufðflr 5: Ohì·nhn · J.·:n·nì· J· &n ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n|

1 ·n ···:J·nnJn·
··]·:.·n·.`··ì:· n&· ·|· n|·

1 =
0n
:
0|
÷
2
v
n
:
÷
1
v
0n
0
00
÷
col 0
v
n
0
÷
1
v sin0
0n
m
0c
.
O iolacional pooo soi oLlioo fazonoo-so a ciiculacao oo n soLio as facos oo
olomonlo oo yolumo oa lguia 1.18. yislo ouo o oolnioo pola ooiiyacao
\× n = lim
S3

n·d

|
^3
.
So fazomos islo soLio a faco oaoa na lguia 1.18(L). lomos

1
Þ
n · d

| ÷

£
O
n · d

| = (n
n
/
n
dn)
Þ1
~(n
n
/
n
dn)
£O
=
0(n
n
/
n
)
0n
dndn

O
1
n · d

| ÷

Þ
£
n · d

| = ~(n
n
/
n
dn)
1O
÷ (n
n
/
n
dn)
£Þ
= ~
0(n
n
/
n
)
0n
dndn
oanoo. paia a ciiculacao complola soLio osla supoifïcio
(\× n)
l
/
n
/
n
dndn =
¸
0(n
n
/
n
)
0n
~
0(n
n
/
n
)
0n

dndn.
oo manoiia ouo o iolacional complolo lca
\× n =
1
/
n
/
n
¸
0(n
n
/
n
)
0n
~
0(n
n
/
n
)
0n

´
| ÷
1
/
l
/
n
¸
0(n
l
/
l
)
0n
~
0(n
n
/
n
)
0|

´ n÷
÷
1
/
l
/
n
¸
0(n
n
/
n
)
0|
~
0(n
l
/
l
)
0n

´ n.
H{hufðflr 5; 1n·n ·· J·ìn|h·· Jn J·:.n·n· n·.nn ¡n:n n··ì:n: n ·r¡:···n·
¡n:n · :·ìn·.·nn| ·n ···:J·nnJn· ·&:.|.n·n· J· &n ·nn¡· ·ì·:.n| n&n|n&·:.
] Sugoslao: 1·¡.ìn ·· ¡:···J.n·nì·· &·nJ·· nn J·n·n·ì:n·n· J· ì··:·nn nnì·-
:.·:.]
H{hufðflr 5< 1··:·n · :·ìn·.·nn| ·n ···:J·nnJn· ··]·:.·n· · ·.|.nJ:.·n·.
H{hufðflr 63 5nh·nJ· n ]·:nn n·:n| J· J.·:n·nì· · J· n:nJ.·nì· ·n ···:J·-
nnJn· ·&:.|.n·n·. · ·nh·nJ· n&· · |n¡|n·.nn· ¡·J· ··: ·n|·&|nJ· ]n.·nJ·-··
\
5
c = \· \c.
n··ì:· n&· · |n¡|n·.nn· ¡·J· ··: ···:.ì· ··n·
\
5
c =
1
/
u
/
n
/
n
¸
0
0n

/
n
/
n
/
u
0c
0n

÷
0
0n

/
u
/
n
/
n
0c
0n

÷
0
0n

/
u
/
n
/
n
0c
0n

.
H{hufðflr 64 1·· n ·r¡:···n· J· ·r·:·.·.· nnì·:.·: ¡n:n ·hì·: · |n¡|n·.nn· ·n
···:J·nnJn· ·.|.nJ:.·n· · ··]·:.·n·.
4191 H[HUFÐFLRV= 41
419 H{hufðflrv=
Uso as nocoos oo calculo yoloiial paia iosolyoi os oxoicïcios a soguii:
1. Doloimino o yaloi oo a oo lal mooo ouo · = 8
´
j ~a
´
, ÷
´
/ o n = 5
´
j ~8
´
, ÷a
´
/
sojam poiponoiculaios.
2. Moslio ouo os yoloios · = 8
´
j ~2
´
, ÷
´
/. n =
´
j ~ 8
´
, ÷ 5
´
/ o n = 2
´
j ÷
´
, ~4
´
/
foimam um liiangulo iolangulo.
8. Achai os angulos ouo o yoloi n = 5
´
j ~ 8
´
, ÷ 12
´
/ faz com os oixos cooioo-
naoos.
4. Usanoo yoloios. pioyo ouo. paia um liiangulo oualouoi oo laoos com com-
piimonlos |
4
. |
5
o |
6
yalo a chamaoa loi oos cossonos
|
5
6
= |
5
4
÷|
5
5
÷ 2|
4
|
5
cos 0.
onoo 0 o o angulo suLonlonoioo polos laoos |
4
o |
5
.
ò. Iioyo ouo as oiagonais oo um losango sao poiponoiculaios.
6. Lnconlio um yoloi unilaiio poiponoiculai ao plano ouo conlom os yoloios
n = 8
´
j ~4
´
, ÷ 6
´
/ o · = 5
´
j ~
´
, ~
´
/.
7. Lnconlio a oouacao oo plano poiponoiculai ao yoloi n = 8
´
j ~4÷8
´
/ o ouo
passa pola oxliomioaoo oo yoloi · =
´
j ~8
´
, ÷ 8
´
/.
8. So n o um yoloi oualouoi. pioyo ouo n =

n ·
´
j

´
j ÷

n ·
´
,

´
, ÷

n ·
´
/

´
/.
0. Moslio ouo 'n × ·'
5
÷'n · ·'
5
= 'n'
5
'·'
5
.
10. So n = 8
´
j ~2
´
, ÷2
´
/. · = 5
´
j ÷
´
, ÷8
´
/ o n =
´
j ~
´
, ÷
´
/. onconlio n × (· × n)
o (n × ·) × n. Qual o signilcaoo oo iosullaoo onconliaoo´
11. Acho a aioa oo liiangulo oo yoilicos om1 (1. 8. 2). Q(2. ~1. 1) o 1(~1. 2. 8).
12. Iioyo a loi oos sonos paia liiangulos planos com laoos |
4
. |
5
o |
6
. oaoa
pola oxpiossao
sina
|
4
=
sin/
|
5
=
sinc
|
6
.
onoo a. / o c sao os angulos oposlos aos laoos |
4
. |
5
o |
6
. iospocliyamonlo.
18. Iioyo ouo n · (· × n) = n · (n × ·) = · · ( n × n).
14. Iioyo ouo a conoicao nocossaiia o sulcionlo paia ouo os yoloios n. · o n
sojam coplanaios o ouo n · (· × n) = 0.
42 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
1ò. Iioyo ouo
n × (· × n) = · (n · n) ~ n(n · ·)
(n × ·) · ( n × v) = (n · n) (· · v) ~(n · v) (· · n)
n × (· × n) ÷· × ( n × n) ÷ n × (n × ·) = 0
(n × ·) · [(· × n) × ( n × n)[ = [n · (· × n)[
5
.
16. Lnconlio o angulo foimaoo poi ouas oiagonais piincipais oo um cuLo oo
aiosla a.
17. Acho um yoloi unilaiio paialolo ao plano an o poiponoiculai ao yoloi
n = 6
´
j ~8
´
, ÷ 2
´
/.
18. Iioyo ouo o angulo insciilo num somicïiculo o um angulo iolo.
10. Usanoo o piooulo oscalai ou o yoloiial. pioyo ouo
cos (a ~/) = cos a cos / ÷ sinasin/
cos (a ÷/) = cos a cos / ~sinasin/
sin(a ~/) = sina cos / ~sin/ cos a
sin(a ÷/) = sina cos / ÷ sin/ cos a
.
20. Moslio ouo a oouacao 'v ~a' = 1 iopiosonla uma osfoia oo conlio om
(a
i
. a
u
. a
:
) o iaio 1.
21. Acho a oislancia oo ponlo 1 (6. ~4. 4) a iola ouo passa polos ponlos
Q(2. 1. 2) o 1(8. ~1. 4).
22. So n = a
4
a ÷n
4

/ ÷.
4
c. · = a
5
a ÷n
5

/ ÷.
5
c o n = a
6
a ÷n
6

/ ÷.
6
c. moslio
ouo
n · (· × n) =

a
4
n
4
.
4
a
5
n
5
.
5
a
6
n
6
.
6

a ·

/ × c

.
28. Iioyo ouo

l ·

V ×

\

[n · (· × n)[ =

l · n

l · ·

l · n

V · n

V · ·

V · n

\ · n

\ · ·

\ · n

.
[5&n··ìn·: paia os ooloiminanlos yalom as soguinlos piopiiooaoos: (a) o
ooloiminanlo oo piooulo oo maliizos o igual ao piooulo oos ooloiminanlos
oo caoa uma oolas. (L) o ooloiminanlo oa maliiz liansposla o igual ao
ooloiminanlo oa maliiz oiiginal.[
Nos oxoicïcios aLaixo. calculo os olomonlos /
4
. /
5
o /
6
. o oscioya o giaoi-
onlo. o oiyoigonlo. o iolacional o o laplaciano paia caoa sisloma oo cooioonaoas
foinocioo (a
4
= a. a
5
= n o a
6
= .). Faca lamLom um gialco oas cuiyas cooi-
oonaoas n
4
= conct.. n
5
= conct.. n
6
= conct. usanoo compulacao algoLiica.
4191 H[HUFÐFLRV= 48
1. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas olïplico-cilïnoiico:
a
4
= n
4
n
5
. a
5
=

(n
5
4
~c
5
) (1 ~n
5
5
) o a
6
= n
6
:
2. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas paiaLolico-cilïnoiico:
a
4
=
1
2

n
5
4
~n
5
5

. a
5
= n
4
n
5
o a
6
= n
6
:
8. Sisloma oo cooiooanaoas conico:
a
4
=
n
4
a

(a
5
~n
5
5
) (a
5
÷n
5
6
). a
5
=
n
4
/

(/
5
~n
5
5
) (/
5
÷n
5
6
)
a
6
=
n
4
n
5
n
6
a/
(com a
5
÷/
5
= 1):
4. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas paiaLolico-iolacional:
a
4
= n
4
n
5
n
6
: a
5
= n
4
n
5

1 ~n
5
6
o a
6
=
1
2

n
5
4
~n
5
5

:
ò. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas osfoioioal-iolacional-piolalo:
a
4
=

(n
5
4
~a
5
) (1 ~n
5
5
): a
5
=

(n
5
4
~a
5
) (1 ~n
5
5
) (1 ~n
5
6
)
a
6
= n
4
n
5
:
6. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas osfoioioal-iolacional-oLlalo:
a
4
= n
6

(n
5
4
÷a
5
) (1 ~n
5
5
): a
5
=

(n
5
4
÷a
5
) (1 ~n
5
5
) (1 ~n
5
6
)
a
6
= n
4
n
5
:
7. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas olipsoioal:
a
4
=

(n
5
4
~a
5
) (n
5
5
~a
5
) (n
5
6
~a
5
)
a
5
(a
5
~/
5
)
a
5
=

(n
5
4
~/
5
) (n
5
5
~/
5
) (n
5
6
~ /
5
)
/
5
(/
5
~a
5
)
a
6
=
n
4
n
5
n
6
a/
8. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas paiaLoloioal:
a
4
=

(n
5
4
~a
5
) (n
5
5
~a
5
) (n
5
6
~a
5
)
a
5
~/
5
a
5
=

(n
5
4
~/
5
) (n
5
5
~/
5
) (n
5
6
~ /
5
)
/
5
~a
5
a
6
=
1
2

n
5
4
÷ n
5
5
÷n
5
6
~a
5
~/
5

44 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV
0. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas Li-osfoiico:
a
4
= an
6

1 ~n
5
5
n
4
~n
5
: a
5
= a

(1 ~n
5
5
) (1 ~n
5
6
)
n
4
~n
5
o a
6
=

n
5
4
~1
n
4
~n
5
.
10. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas osfoiico:
a
4
= n
4
sin(n
5
) cos (n
6
) : a
5
= n
4
sin(n
5
) sin(n
6
) o a
6
= n
4
cos (n
5
) .
11. Sisloma oo cooioonaoas cilïnoiico:
a
4
= n
4
cos (n
5
) . a
5
= n
4
sin(n
5
) o a
6
= n
6
.
12. Lscioya a oouacao oo Schiooingoi paia o alomo oo hioiogonio. oaoa poi
~
¯/
5
2n
\
5
c ÷V (v) c = 1c
om cooioonaoas osfoiicas. onoo o poloncial o oaoo poi
V (v) =
~c
5
v
.
com v o iaio ouo liga o piolon ao ololion. Moslio ouo osla oouacao o
sopaiayol o sopaio-a.
18. Faca o mosmo oo oxoicïcio anloiioi paia o sisloma oo cooioonaoas paiaLolico-
cilïnoiico. A oouacao iosullanlo o sopaiayol´ So sua iosposla foi alima-
liya. sopaio-a.
Nos oxoicïcios aLaixo. uso as ioonlioaoos yoloiias paia opoiaooios oifoionci-
ais paia iosolyoi os pioLlomas:
1. A pailii oas oouacoos inlogiais oo Maxwoll. oaoas poi

1·d

3 = Q

1·d

3 = 0

1·d

| = ~
J
J|

1·d

3

1·d

| =
4
c
#
J
J|

1·d


3
j
:
onoo

1.

1 sao os campos ololiico o magnolico o j.

J sao as oonsioaoos oo
caiga o coiionlo. c o a yolocioaoo oa luz. o Q o j sao a caiga lolal o a
coiionlo. acho as oouacoos oifoionciais. oaoas poi

1 =
µ
:!

1 = 0

1 ÷
J

1
J|
= 0 \×

1 ~
4
c
#
J

J
J|
= j
3

J
.
A caiga lolal o a coiionlo pooom soi osciilas como
Q =

jdV . j =

J·d

3.
4191 H[HUFÐFLRV= 4ò
2. Usanoo as oouacoos oifoionciais oo oxoicïcio anloiioi. moslio ouo os cam-
pos

1 o

1 salisfazom a uma oouacao oo onoa. ou soja.
\
5

1 ~
1
c
5
0
5

1
0t
5
=
1
-
3
\j ÷j
3
0

J
0t
\
5

1 ~
1
c
5
0
5

1
0t
5
= ~j
3

J
8. Consiooio um campo ololiico no inloiioi oo uma cayioaoo cilïnoiica molalica
som caigas nom coiionlos no sou inloiioi. SaLonoo ouo o campo ololiico
langoncial as paiooos oa cayioaoo ooyom-so anulai. oscioya as conoicoos oo
conloino oo pioLloma. Lscioya a oouacao oo onoa paia o campo ololiico
num sisloma oo cooioonaoas apiopiiaoo o moslio ouo ola o sopaiayol.
Sopaio-a om lios oouacoos oifoionciais oioinaiias. Os campos assim oLli-
oos como solucao ooslas oouacoos sao chamaoos oo mooos noimais oo
yiLiacao oo campo paia a cayioaoo cilïnoiica.
4. Moslio. usanoo as oouacoos oifoionciais oo Maxwoll. ouo yalo a oouacao
oo conlinuioaoo
0j
0t
÷\·

J = 0.
o inloipiolo oslo iosullaoo.
ò. Consiooio o pioLloma oo ololioslalica numa iogiao liyio oo caigas o uso o
falo oo ouo. paia a ololioslalica. o campo ololiico

1 pooo soi osciilo como
o giaoionlo oo um poloncial c oa foima

1 = ~\c.
OLlonha. a pailii oas oouacoos oo Maxwoll. a oouacao paia c o oscioya-a
om cooioonaoas osfoiicas. Sopaio osla oouacao o iosolya a pailo iaoial.
Uso. paia onconliai a solucao iaoial lnal a conoicao oo conloino ouo oiz
ouo o poloncial ooyo soi lnilo na oiigom.

5

FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV

Iljxud 414= Yäulrv yhwruhv frp glyhuvdv gluhêøhv h dsrqwdqgr hp yäulrv vhqwl0 grv glvwlqwrv1 Prvwud d uhsuhvhqwdêær gh xp yhwru sru xp vhjphqwr gh uhwd rulhqwdgr +qrwh txh qær irl suhflvr {du r vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv,1 qd jxud 414/ fdvr hp txh d gluhêær fd ghwhuplqdgd shod uhwd vxsruwh vreuh d txdo r yhwru irl ghvhqkdgr/ r vhqwlgr fd ghwhuplqdgr shod srqwd gd vhwd h r pögxor shor vhx frpsulphqwr1 H{lvwh xpd ud}ær iðvlfd surixqgd sdud vh ghqlu xp yhwru frpr vhqgr xp remhwr pdwhpäwlfr ghshqghqgr dshqdv gd gluhêær gr vhqwlgr h gr pögxor1 Qrwh txh qhvwd ghqlêær qær id}hprv phqêær dr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv txh hyhq0 wxdophqwh hvwhmdprv xwlol}dqgr sdud uhsuhvhqwdu hvwh yhwru> hvwd ì/ fhuwdphqwh/ d sursulhgdgh pdlv lpsruwdqwh grv yhwruhv= hohv qær ghshqghp gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv qr txdo hvwær vhqgr uhsuhvhqwdgrv1 Srghuðdprv hqwær qrv shujxq0 wdu shod ud}ær gh d iðvlfd txhuhu ghqlu remhwrv pdwhpäwlfrv txh qær srvvxdp hvwd ghshqgíqfld frp r vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv1 D ud}ær sdud lvwr ì vlpsohv= d iðvlfd suhwhqgh txh vxdv uhodêøhv vhmdp ohlv xqlyhuvdlv txh ydokdp lqghshqghqwhphqwh gd duelwudulhgdgh +h vxemhwlylgdgh, kxpdqd1 Xp vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv ì xpd frqvwuxêær pdwhpäwlfd kxpdqd h srgh vhu frorfdgr frp vxd ruljhp hp txdotxhu srqwr gr hvsdêr/ ghshqghqgr dshqdv gr jrvwr gdtxhoh txh r hvwdehohfh1 Dv ohlv iðvlfdv qær srghp ghshqghu ghvwd duelwudulhgdgh> sru h{hpsor= dv ohlv gh Qhzwrq qær srghp ghshqghu gr srqwr gr hvsdêr qr txdo vh frorfd d ruljhp gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv qr txdo hodv vær hvfulwdv111 lvwr vljqlfduld txh/ sdud fdgd vlvwhpd/ kdyhuld xpd iöupxod pdwhpäwlfd sdud hvwdv ohlvB$ Dvvlp/ vh whprv remhwrv pdwhpäwlfrv txh qær ghshqghp gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv +rv yhwruhv,/ dr hvfuhyhuprv xpd ohl iðvlfd frpr n B ) En , y txh ì xpd ohl uhodflrqdqgr yhwruhv/ vdehprv txh hvwd ohl shupdqhfhuä vhqgr hv0 fulwd h{dwdphqwh gd phvpd pdqhlud txdotxhu txh vhmd r vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv {r xwlol}dgr +txdotxhu txh vhmd qrvvd hvfrokd gd ruljhp gh xp wdo vlvwhpd,1 Hvwd srvvlelolgdgh gh vh frorfdu d ruljhp gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv hp txdo0 txhu srqwr gr hvsdêr lpsolfd qd frqvlghudêær gd krprjhqhlgdgh ghvwh hvsdêr/ rx vhmd/ qd htxlydoíqfld gh wrgrv rv vhxv srqwrv1 Srgh0vh prvwudu txh d ohl gh frqvhuydêær gr prphqwr olqhdu hvwä dvvrfldgd d hvwd krprjhqhlgdgh1 Gh idwr/ vxsrqkd txh hvwdprv qr hvsdêr yd}lr +dv iruêdv hvwdehohfhp gluhêøhv h srqwrv sulylohjldgrv/ frpr hud gh vh hvshudu= xp srqwr shuwr gd vxshuiðflh gd whuud/ qxp fdpsr judylwdflrqdo/ ì glihuhqwh vlfdphqwh gh xp srqwr orqjh ghvwd vxshuiðflh,> qhvwh hvsdêr yd}lr +vhp iruêdv,/ whprv txh

4151 YHWRUHV= XPD UHYLVÆR

6

Iljxud 415= Hvtxhpd +d, prvwudqgr d qhfhvvlgdgh gh vh ghqlu xpd frp0 srvlêær gh yhwruhv +vxd vrpd yhwruldo, sdud uhsuhvhqwdu d qrêær gh uhvxowdqwh gd phfåqlfd1 +e, R pìwrgr gr sroðjrqr sdud vrpdu grlv yhwruhv h +f, d h{whqvær gr pìwrgr sdud xp qýphur txdotxhu gh yhwruhv1

d vhjxqgd ohl gh Qhzwrq iruqhfh En ) QnbQ0 ) (/ rx vhmd/ n ) LzX03/ txh ì d y € € frqvhuydêær gr prphqwr olqhdu1 Qrwhprv dlqgd txh xpd ohl iðvlfd qær ghyhuld ghshqghu wdpeìp gd rulhqwdêær gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv +hl{r ? dsrqwdqgr sdud xpd gluhêær/ hl{r r sdud rxwud/ hwf1,1 Lvwr wdpeìp ì xp gdgr gd duelwudulhgdgh kxpdqd1 Dvvlp/ rv yhwruhv/ qær ghshqghqgr gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv/ qær ghshqghuær gd hvfrokd gh vxd rulhqwdêær hvshfðfd h dv ohlv iðvlfdv vhuær lqyduldqwhv shod hvfrokd ghvwd rulhqwdêær1 Srgh0vh prvwudu txh d ohl gh frqvhuydêær gr prphqwr dqjxodu hvwä dvvrfldgd d hvwd qrêær gh lvrwursld gr hvsdêr +htxlydoíqfld gh gluhêøhv, gh xpd pdqhlud sduhflgd frp d txh }hprv qr sduäjudir pdlv dflpd sdud d frqvhuydêær gr prphqwr olqhdu1 Xpd ýowlpd qrêær iðvlfd lpsruwdqwh/ pdv txh qær wrfd d qrêær gh yhwru/ ì d gd krprjhqhlgdgh gr whpsr/ shod txdo dvvxplprv txh d hvfrokd sdud r lqvwdqwh gh whpsr lqlfldo shor txdo frphêdprv d frqvlghudu r ihq÷phqr wdpeìp qær ì lpsruwdqwh1 Srgh0vh prvwudu txh hvwd qrêær hvwä oljdgd ã ohl gh frqvhuydêær gd hqhujld/ dojr txh qær iduhprv dtxl1 Dvvlp/ r yhwru ì xpd hqwlgdgh devwudwd/ fuldgd sdud/ hp sulphlur oxjdu/ gdu frqwd gdv sursulhgdghv pdlv ixqgdphqwdlv gr hvsdêr +krprjhqhlgdgh h lvrwursld,/ gh wdo pdqhlud txh dv ohlv gd iðvlfd/ xpd yh} hvfulwdv hp whuprv ghvwdv hqwlgdghv/ vhmdp dxwrpdwlfdphqwh lqyduldqwhv sru hvfrokd gd ruljhp h gr gluhflrqdphqwr gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv1 Ì sru lvvr txh dv ohlv iðvlfdv/ frpr dv gd phfåqlfd/ sru h{hpsor/ luær uhodflrqdu judqgh}dv frpr r ghvorfdphqwr h r whpsr jdvwr +dwudyìv gd yhorflgdgh, h qær judqgh}dv frpr srvlêær h lqvwdqwh gh whpsr/ txh vær judqgh}dv txh ghshqghp gd ruljhp h gd gluhêær gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv/ ehp frpr gr lqvwdqwh lqlfldo hp txh vh frphêrx d frqvlghudu r ihq÷phqr1 Djrud txh mä ghqlprv r yhwru/ ghyhprv vdehu frpr rshuä0orv dojheulfd0 phqwh1 Gh idwr/ frqvlghuh xp sureohpd wðslfr gh phfåqlfd qr txdo xp fdl{rwh n n hvwä vhqgr sx{dgr sru grlv krphqv vhjxqgr dv iruêdv +yhwruhv, B4 h B5 +fi1

7

FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV

n jxud 415+d,,1 Txhuhprv vdehu txdo d iruêd ýqlfd BU txh ghyhuðdprv id}hu sdud surgx}lu qr fdl{rwh r phvpr hihlwr txh dv iruêdv ruljlqdlv> rx vhmd/ txhuhprv vdehu frpr ghyhprv ghqlu d qrvvd vrpd yhwruldo1 H{shulphqwdophqwh qrwd0vh txh ghyhprv ghqlu hvwd vrpd frpr vhqgr gdgd shor pìwrgr gr sroðjrqr +fi1 n jxud 415+e,,> qhvwh pìwrgr d iruêd uhvxowdqwh BU vhuä uhsuhvhqwdgd judfd0 phqwh shor vhjphqwr gh uhwd rulhqwdgr txh sduwh gd ruljhp gh xp grv yhwruhv h fkhjd ã srqwd gr rxwur/ vhqgr txh rv yhwruhv vær glvsrvwrv gh wdo pdqhlud txh d srqwd gh xp ghohv hvwhmd vhpsuh hp frqwdwr frp d ruljhp gh xp rxwur1 Hvwh pìwrgr srgh/ hylghqwhphqwh/ vhu jhqhudol}dgr sdud txdotxhu qýphur gh yhwruhv/ frpr prvwud d jxud 415+f,hvwd jhqhudol}dêær h d srvvlelolgdgh gh glvsru rv yhwruhv qd rughp txh txlvhuprv mä prvwud txh d vrpd yhwruldo vhuä frpxwdwlyd h dvvrfldwlyd/ frpr r doxqr mä ghyh vdehu gh vhxv fxuvrv eävlfrv vreuh yhwruhv1 Dvvlp/ ghyhprv whu  n n n n n BU ) B4 L B5 ) B5 L B4 +frpxwdwlylgdgh, 3 n n n n n n n BU ) B4 L wB5 L B6 D ) wB4 L B5 D L B6 +dvvrfldwlylgdgh,

41514

Yhwruhv Xqlwäulrv h Uhsuhvhqwdêær gh Yhwruhv=

Dlqgd txh txhludprv txh r remhwr pdwhpäwlfr yhwru qær ghshqgd gd hvfrokd +duelwuäuld, gh xp vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv txdotxhu/ vhpsuh txh ydprv uhvroyhu xp sureohpd iðvlfr/ suhflvdprv uhsuhvhqwä0or gh dojxpd pdqhlud h/ sdud lvvr/ suhflvdprv lqwurgx}lu xp wdo vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv1 Dvvlp/ ì lqwhuhvvdqwh txh srvvdprv uhsuhvhqwdu rv yhwruhv qhvwhv vlvwhpdv gh frrughqdgdv1 Sdud id}í0or/ srghprv lqwurgx}lu d qrwdêær gh yhwruhv xqlwäulrv/ frpr vh vhjxh1 Sdud fdgd hl{r frrughqdgr fuldprv xp yhwru xqlwäulr +frp pögxor ljxdo d xp, txh gä d gluhêær h {d r vhqwlgr srvlwlyr gr hl{r hp txhvwær +fi1 jxud 416,1 Dvvlp/ r yhwru n gd jxud srgh vhu hvfulwr/ vhjxlqgr r dojruðwlpr gh vrpd ` yhwruldo lqwurgx}lgr shor pìwrgr gr sroðjrqr/ frpr vhqgr d vrpd yhwruldo grv yhwruhv dedl{r n ) `{e L `|e L `} e ` 7 i >, vhqgr txh e e e vær rv yhwruhv xqlwäulrv qdv gluhêøhv ?, r, F uhvshfwlydphqwh1 Rv 7,i,> hvfdoduhv `{ , `| , `} vær glwrv dv frpsrqhqwhv gr yhwru n h iruqhfhp r pögxor ` txh rv yhwruhv hp fdgd xpd gdv gluhêøhv ghyhp srvvxlu sdud/ qd frpsrvlêær/ jhudu r yhwru n 1 ` Pdv vh rv yhwruhv vær hvfulwrv hp whuprv grv yhwruhv xqlwäulrv e e e txh vær/ 7,i,> sru ghqlêær/ ghshqghqwhv gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv/ frpr srghprv pdqwhu dlqgd d qrêær gh lqydulåqfld dflpd ghihqglgdB Ghl{duhprv d uhvsrvwd d hvwd shujxqwd sdud d vhêær hp txh idoduhprv gd pxgdqêd gh vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv1 r surgxwr hvfdodu= Dvvlp frpr d ghqlêær gh yhwruhv irl ihlwd gh prgr d gdu frqwd gh fdudfwhuðvwl0 fdv txh rv iðvlfrv vxsøhp vhu dv gr hvsdêr h gr whpsr/ h dvvlp frpr d ghqlêær

1 Prvwud0vh wdpeìp d ghfrpsrvlêær gh xp yhwru txdotxhu x hp vxdv frpsrqhqwhv dr orqjr grv hl{rv frrughqdgrv1 Iljxud 417= Uhsuhvhqwdêær prvwudqgr d qhfhvvlgdgh gh vh ghqlu xp surgxwr hvfdodu frpr vhqgr r pögxor gd surmhêær gh xp yhwru vreuh r rxwur1 gd dglêær gh yhwruhv irl frqvwuxðgd gh pdqhlud d uhsuhvhqwdu dtxlor txh h{shu0 lphqwdophqwh vh hvshud gd frpsrvlêær gh fhuwdv txdqwlgdghv txh rfruuhp qd iðvlfd/ srghprv ljxdophqwh whqwdu lpdjlqdu rxwudv rshudêøhv hqwuh yhwruhv txh vhmdp lqwhuhvvdqwhv gr srqwr gh ylvwd gd iðvlfd/ rx vhmd/ txh dsduhêdp frp vx0 flhqwh iuhtÿíqfld hp fäofxorv iðvlfrv gh pdqhlud d mxvwlfdu vxd lqwurgxêær frpr xpd rshudêær hvshfðfd1 Xp h{hpsor gh xpd wdo rshudêær ì d gr surgxwr hvfdodu1 R doxqr txh mä whp frqkhflphqwrv gh phfåqlfd ghyh hvwdu ohpeudgr gd ghqlêær gh wudedokr1 Vxsrqkd txh xpd fhuwd iruêd hvwä vhqgr dsolfdgd d xp eorfr 4 vhjxqgr xp åqjxor  frp d krul}rqwdo/ frpr prvwudgr qd jxud 4171 Vxsrqgr txh r pryl0 phqwr gr eorfr vö vh gä qd krul}rqwdo/ d ýqlfd frpsrqhqwh gd iruêd txh ì uhohydqwh sdud qrvvdv dqäolvhv gr sureohpd ì dtxhod qd gluhêær gr prylphqwr/ rx vhmd/ qd gluhêær gr ghvorfdphqwr1 Dvvlp/ r wudedokr uhdol}dgr sru xpd iruêd srgh vhu ghqlgr frpr vhqgr     n  n P ) wB  {BR D Q rqgh yhprv d frpsrqhqwh krul}rqwdo gd iruêd vhqgr pxowlsolfdgd shor pögxor .4151 YHWRUHV= XPD UHYLVÆR 8 Iljxud 416= Gldjudpd prvwudqgr rv yhwruhv xqlwäulrv sdud xpd fhuwd hvfrokd gr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv +srvlêær gd ruljhp h rulhqwdêær.

h fxmr srqwr gh dsolfdêær hvwä vreuh d pdêdqhwd1 Fodudphqwh hvwd iruêd qær vhuld fdsd} gh surgx}lu r prylphqwr ghvhmdgr gh dehuwxud +rx ihfkdphqwr. n n rqgh  ì r åqjxor gholplwdgr shorv yhwruhv B h Q1 R surgxwr hvfdodu/ frpr r suösulr qrph gl}/ whp frpr uhvxowdgr xp qýphur +xp hvfdodu. txh sdvvd d vhu lqwhuhvvdqwh ghqlu xpd rshudêær txh d gí frpr uhvxowdgr1 D rshudêær d txh qrv uhihulprv ì r fkdpdgr surgxwr hvfdodu hqwuh grlv yhwruhv h ì ghqlgr frpr    n n  n   n B d Q ) B  Q {BR . gd sruwd1 Hqwuhwdqwr/ dvvlp n txh lqfolqdprv d uhwd vxsruwh gh B5 sru xp åqjxor / wrpdgr frpr qd jxud/ shufhehprv txh xpd iruêd dsduhfh h txh d sruwd frphêd d pryhu0vh qd gluhêær ghvhmdgd1 Shufhehprv dlqgd txh txdqwr pdlv lqfolqdprv d uhwd vxsruwh/ pdlv n prylphqwr d iruêd B5 ì fdsd} gh surgx}lu> hvwh frpsruwdphqwr frqwlqxd dwì txh dwlqjlprv r åqjxor gh $b1/ d sduwlu gr txdo/ vh frqwlqxdprv d lqfolqdu d uhwd n vxsruwh gh B5 / shufhehprv xpd glplqxlêær gd lqwhqvlgdgh frp txh wudqvihulprv qrvvd iruêd sdud r prylphqwr gd sruwd1 Frqfoxlprv dvvlp txh hvwh prylphqwr n n n n 81 Rv yhwruhv \ h 4 vær shushqglfxoduhv vh/ h vrphqwh vh/ \d4 ) (1 .1 Srghuðdprv h{hufhu xpd iruêd B4 fxmd uhwd vxsruwh sdvvdvvh shor srqwr hp txh d sruwd hvwä suhvd ã sduhgh +dv greudglêdv.>/ dv vhjxlqwhv sursulhgdghv= 41 e e e e e e ) d> 7d7)idi)>d> 51 e e e e e e ) d> 7di)id>)>d7 n n n 61 Vh \ ) y{e | e } e h 4 ) K{e |e } e hqwær \d4 ) y{ K{ Ly| K| Ly} K} > 7Ly iLy > n 7LK iLK >/  5  n n n n 71 R pögxor gh xp yhwru \ srgh vhu hvfulwr frpr \ ) \d \> Pxlwdv lghqwlgdghv wuljrqrpìwulfdv srghp vhu rewlgdv d sduwlu dshqdv gr xvr gdv sursulhgdghv dflpd olvwdgdv sdud r surgxwr hvfdodu gh yhwruhvlqfoxlprv dojxpdv ghvwdv qrv h{hufðflrv dr qdo gr fdsðwxor1 R surgxwr yhwruldo= Gd phvpd irupd txh frp r surgxwr hvfdodu/ xpd rxwud rshudêær hqwuh yhwruhv srgh wdpeìp vhu ghqlgd gdgd d iuhtÿíqfld frp txh dsduhfh hp vlwxdêøhv gh fäofxor gd iðvlfd> hvwd rshudêær ì ghqrplqdgd surgxwr yhwruldo1 Yhmdprv djrud xpd vlwxdêær wðslfd gd iðvlfd gd txdo srghprv uhwludu dv uhjudv sdud r surgxwr yhwruldo1 Vxsrqkdprv txh ghvhmhprv deulu xpd sruwd/ frpr dsuhvhqwdgr qd jxud n 418+d.i.9 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV gd glvwåqfld1 Hvwd h{suhvvær rfruuh frp wdqwd iuhtÿíqfld qd iðvlfd +rx vhmd/ vlwxdêøhv hp txh vö d frpsrqhqwh wrpdgd qxpd gdv gluhêøhv ì txh lpsruwd.1 Frp hvwd ghqlêær gh surgxwr hvfdodu/ mxqwdphqwh frp dv ghqlêøhv grv yhwruhv xqlwäulrv e e e ghqlgrv vreuh xp vlvwhpd fduwhvldqr txdotxhu/ whprv 7.

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1 Hvwdv pdwul}hv srvvxhp/ doìp grv yðqfxorv gdgrv dflpd ydohqgr hqwuh rv vhxv hohphqwrv/ dv vhjxlqwhv sursulhgdghv= 41 D lqyhuvd gh xpd urwdêær sru  ì vlpsohvphqwh xpd urwdêær sru c> 51 D lqyhuvd gh xpd pdwul} ruwrjrqdo txdotxhu ì lgíqwlfd ã pdwul} wudqvsrvwd= P4 ) PW / frpr srgh vhu idflophqwh yhulfdgr xvdqgr d pdwul} rewlgd dflpd1 61 e e ) ( . E5 L E5 ) d> 7 7 i i 44 45 54 55 46 prvwudqgr txh wdlv pdwul}hv qær srghp whu hohphqwrv txdlvtxhu/ pdv txh vhxv hohphqwrv ghyhp hvwdu uhodflrqdgrv vhjxqgr dv h{suhvvøhv dflpd1 Dv pd0 wul}hv txh rehghfhp d hvwdv uhjudv hqwuh rv vhxv hohphqwrv vær glwdv pdwul}hv ruwrjrqdlv h dv wudqvirupdêøhv txh jhudp vær glwdv wudqvirupdêøhv ruwrjrqdlv1 Dv pdwul}hv ruwrjrqdlv srvvxhp hqruph dsolfdêær hp iðvlfd> xp h{hpsor öeylr gh dsolfdêær ì r sureohpd gd urwdêær gh xp frusr +hp wruqr gh xp hl{r/ vh hvwdprv frqvlghudqgr r sureohpd qr sodqr/ frpr ylprv id}hqgr dwì dtxl.

E44 E45 L E54 E55 ) ( e! de! ) ( .

E44 E54 L E45 E55 ) (> 7di 7 i 41614 61 R ghwhuplqdqwh gh xpd pdwul} ruwrjrqdo ì id> Vxsrqkdprv djrud txh ghvhmdprv dqdolvdu frpr dv frpsrqhqwhv gh xp yhwru fdp gdgdv hp xp vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv +frp gxdv olqkdv./ gdgr txh vdehprv frpr hvwh vlvwhpd vhp olqkd vh wudqvirupd sdud xp vlvwhpd frp olqkd h frpr hvwh vlvwhpd frp olqkd vh wudqvirupd sdud xp vlvwhpd frp gxdv olqkdv1 Vh d wudqvirupdêær +sru urwdêær. `!! `! c R$t # {BR # | | Dvvlp/ sdud rewhu d wudqvirupdêær txh ylqfxod dv frpsrqhqwhv gr yhwru qr vlvwhpd frp gxdv olqkdv ãtxhodv ghqlgdv vreuh r vlvwhpd vhp olqkd/ edvwd vxevwlwxlu +41:. sdud rewhu  !!      `{ {BR # R$t # {BR  R$t  `{ ) ) `!! c R$t # {BR # c R$t  {BR  `| | Urwdêøhv Uhshwlgdv . hp +41. gr vlvwhpd vhp olqkd qr vlvwhpd frp olqkd ì ihlwd sru xp åqjxor / hqwær qrvvrv ghvhqyroylphqwrv dqwhulruhv prvwududp txh ghyh ydohu  !     `{ {BR  R$t  `{ ) 3 +41:.. uhodwlydphqwh d xp vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv +vhp olqkd. `! c R$t  {BR  `| | Vh d urwdêær gr vlvwhpd frp olqkd sdud rewhu r vlvwhpd frp gxdv olqkdv ì ihlwd sru xp åqjxor #/ hqwær/ xvdqgr rv phvprv ghvhqyroylphqwrv/ whprv txh  !!    !  `{ `{ {BR # R$t # ) 3 +41..

?3! ) w?3 L #?D rqgh ?3 ) 0/ @yhorflgdgh gd ox}/ d )s d c 8 5 b5  #) 8 3  Prvwuh txh hvwdv wudqvirupdêøhv srghp vhu frqvlghudgdv frpr urwdêøhv +gh xp wlsr hvshfldo. qr hvsdêr0whpsr +qr sodqr irupdgr shodv frrughqdgdv ?0/ rx ??3 .1 Vroxêær= srghprv lqlfldophqwh id}hu dv lghqwlfdêøhv Qrwh txh qær srghprv frorfdu  ) {BR / ylvwr txh  k d1 Dvvlp/ whprv txh st  ) # txh ì fkdpdgd *udslgh}* gr sureohpd1 Frp hvwdv lghqwlfdêøhv/ srghprv hvfuhyhu dv wudqvirupdêøhv gh Oruhqw} frpr  ! ? ) ?3 R$tY  L ? {BRY  . txh vh pryh frp xpd yhorflgdgh 8 +qd gluhêær ?.47   {BRw L #D R$tw L #D `{ . frp uhodêær d xp rxwur vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv +vhp olqkd. ?3! ) ?3 {BRY  L ? R$tY  rx dlqgd     ?! {BRY  R$tY  ? ) ?3! R$tY  {BRY  ?3 Qrwh txh r ghwhuplqdqwh ghvwd wudqvirupdêær wdpeìp ì ljxdo ã xqlgdgh/ srlv vdehprv txh {BRY5  c R$tY5  ) d3 Doìp glvvr/ yhprv txh ghyh ydohu ?!5 c w?3 D5 ) ?5 c w?3 D5 . !  ) {BRY   # ) R$tY 3  gh pdqhlud txh dv klsìuerohv qr sodqr ?0 vær ohydgdv qdv phvpdv klsìuerohv qr sodqr ?! 0! 1 Dv uhodêøhv hqwuh rv hl{rv frrughqdgrv grv vlvwhpdv ?0 h ?! 0! hvwær prvwudgdv qd jxud 41431 . frqvlg0 hudgr sdudgr vær gdgdv shodv fkdpdgdv wudqvirupdêøhv gh Oruhqw}  ! ? ) w? L #?3 D .1 R irupdolvpr ghvhqyroylgr dflpd srgh vhu dsolfdgr/ frp dojxpdv dowhudêøhv/ hp yäuldv vlwxdêøhv iðvlfdv uhohydqwhv1 Yhmdprv r h{hpsor d vhjxlu= ) FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV  H{hpsor 8 Hp uhodwlylgdgh hvshfldo/ prvwud0vh txh dv wudqvirupdêøhv txh ohydp xp vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv +frp olqkd. c R$tw L #D {BRw L #D `| prvwudqgr txh d frpsrvlêær/ frpr hud gh vh hvshudu/ lpsolfd vlpsohvphqwh qxpd ýqlfd urwdêær ihlwd shod vrpd grv åqjxorv gh fdgd urwdêær lqglylgxdophqwh frqvlghudgd1 Lvwr h{solfd srutxh d lqyhuvd gh xpd wudqvirupdêær ihlwd sru  ì gdgd shod pdwul} gh urwdêær frqvwuxðgd frp c> Vh }huprv d rshudêær gh jludu sru  h ghsrlv jludu sru c/ fduhprv frp r phvpr vlvwhpd/ txh ì r txh rewhprv vh vxevwlwxlprv # ) c qd wudqvirupdêær dflpd +qrwh txh dsduhfh d pdwul} lghqwlgdgh.

4161 PXGDQÊD GH EDVH= URWDÊØHV 48 Iljxud 4143= Glvsrvlêær grv hl{rv dvvrfldgd ãv wudqvirupdêøhv gh Oruhqw} +ãv *urwdêøhv* phqflrqdgdv qr wh{wr. xvdqgr d yhorflgdgh 845 dfkd0vh/ dvvlp/ d yhorflgdgh 85 1 Wudwd0vh srlv gh vh id}hu gxdv wudqvirupdêøhv gh Oruhqw} uhshwlgdv +gxdv *urwdêøhv*. sdud xp vlvwhpd +frp gxdv olqkdv. h fdofxodu d yhorflgdgh gd sduwðfxod 1 qhvwh vlvwhpd1 R uhvxowdgr/ fodudphqwh/ ì d yhorflgdgh gd sduwðfxod 1 frp uhodêær ã yhorflgdgh gd sduwðfxod d/ txh ì r txh ghvhmdprv1 Pdv id}hu xp wdo fäofxor lpsolfd hp sdvvdu/ sulphludphqwh/ gr vlvwhpd ruljlqdo sdud xp vlvwhpd +frp olqkd. dwudyìv gh xpd wudqvirupdêær gh Oruhqw} frp yhorflgdgh 84 h ghsrlv id}hu xpd qryd wudqviru0 pdêær ghvwh vlvwhpd +frp olqkd. h yhu sru lqwhupìglr gh txdo sduåphwur hvwd wudqvirupdêær wrwdo vh gä1 Dvvlp/ whprv/  !!      ? {BRY  45 R$tY  45 {BRY  4 R$tY  4 ? ) ) ?3!! R$tY  45 {BRY  45 R$tY  4 {BRY  4 ?3    {BRYw 45 L  5 D R$tYw 45 L  5 D ? ) . R$tYw 45 L  5 D {BRYw 45 L  5 D ?3 prvwudqgr txh d yhorflgdgh gr vlvwhpd {r hp 1 frp uhodêær dr vlvwhpd ruljlqdo ì gdgd sru stY  45 L stY  5 # 5 ) stYw 45 L  5 D ) d L stY  45 stY  5 txh gä/ hvfuhyhqgr hp whuprv gdv yhorflgdghv iruqhfhqgr d yhorflgdgh uhodwlyd gdv sduwðfxodv d h 1 frpr 845 ) 85 c 84 3 d c 85 84 b5 85 ) 845 L 84 d L 845 84 b5 .1 H{hpsor 9 Xvdqgr r irupdolvpr dsuhvhqwdgr dflpd/ prvwuh frpr ghulydu d h{suhvvær sdud d dglêær gh yhorflgdghv gd uhodwlylgdgh hvshfldo1 Vroxêær= frq0 vlghuh xpd sduwðfxod d vh pryhqgr frp yhorflgdgh 84 +qd gluhêær ?. qr vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv vhp olqkd h xpd rxwud sduwðfxod 1 vh pryhqgr qhvwh phvpr vlv0 whpd gh frrughqdgdv frp xpd yhorflgdgh 85 1 Ghvhmdprv vdehu txdo d yhorflgdgh gd sduwðfxod 1 frp uhodêær ãtxhod gd sduwðfxod d1 Sdud id}huprv lvwr/ srghprv {du xp vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv ã sduwðfxod d +id}hqgr frp txh hod txh hp uhsrxvr qhvwh vlvwhpd.

r. r. r. FD e 7 i >3 t. 0D/ ylvwr txh hvshudprv txh/ hp fdgd whpsr/ fdgd srqwr gd fkdsd +sodqr ?r.49 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV Iljxud 4144= Olqkdv gh fdpsr sdud xpd frqjxudêær gh gxdv fdujdv gh vlqdlv rsrvwrv1 Rv fdpsrv hp h h < glihuhp shod gluhêær pögxor h vhqwlgr1 Qrwh txh/ gh dfrugr frp d uhodwlylgdgh hvshfldo/ vh dpedv dv sduwðfodv wíp yhorfl0 gdgh / vxd yhorflgdgh uhodwlyd ì b1 +h qær }hur/ frpr vh rewhuld gd uhodwlylgdgh jdolohdqd. dsuhvhqwh xpd whpshudwxud x ! / xp hvfdodu1 Fdpsrv dvvlp/ ghqlgr ixqêøhv hvfdoduhv gd srvlêær/ vær glwrv fdpsrv hvfdoduhv1 n o ) o{ w?.e i3 r5 fdpsrv hvfdoduhv h yhwruldlv 41714 Xp frqfhlwr lpsruwdqwh txh vxujh orjr txh lqlfldprv qrvvr hvwxgr vreuh fdpsrv hvfdoduhv h yhwruldlv gl} uhvshlwr ã qrêær gh judglhqwh1 Sdud hqwhqghuprv phokru R Judglhqwh= .1 417 Dwì djrud ylprv ghvhqyroyhqgr qrvvdv frqvlghudêøhv wudedokdqgr frp yhwruhv fxmdv frpsrqhqwhv vær frqvwdqwhv1 Hp jhudo/ hqwuhwdqwr/ xpd fhuwd judqgh}d yhwruldo srgh vhu wdo txh r vhx pögxor h vxd gluhêær ydulhp ã phglgd hp txh d srvlêær hp txh d frqvlghudprv yduld1 Xp h{hpsor gh wdo frpsruwdphqwr srgh vhu gdgr vh frqvlghuduprv xp frusr fdlqgr gh xpd judqgh dowxud= qhvwh fdvr/ d dfhohudêær gd judylgdgh ì gdgd sru +{dgr xp hl{r r frqyhqlhqwh. r. FD txh ghshqgd gdv frrughqdgdv ghqh xp ` ` fdpsr yhwruldo d h{suhvvær dflpd ghqh r fdpsr judylwdflrqdo1 Xp rxwur h{0 hpsor srgh vhu gdgr frqvlghudqgr0vh xp fdpsr hoìwulfr txh vh irupd txdqgr dsur{lpdprv gxdv fdujdv gh vlqdlv rsrvwrv/ frpr prvwudgr qd jxud 41441 Yh0 prv txh qrv srqwrv h h < wdqwr dv gluhêøhv frpr rv pögxorv gr fdpsr hoìwulfr glihuhp1 Qhvwh fdvr ghyhprv uhsuhvhqwdu r fdpsr hoìwulfr ghvwh h{hpsor frpr Qhp wrgdv dv judqgh}dv iðvlfdv txh ghshqghp gd srvlêær vær yhwruldlv> d ixqêær whpshudwxud vreuh xpd fkdsd phwäolfd qd txdo vh lqlflrx d dtxhfhu xpd gdv srqwdv ì gdgd frpr dojr gr wlsr x w?. FD e L o} w?. jwrD ) c Gl}hprv txh xp yhwru n ) n w?. FD e L o| w?. r.

4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 4: Iljxud 4145= Uhsuhvhqwdêær hvtxhpäwlfd gr yhwru Qu vreuh r sodqr wdqjhqwh ã vxshuiðflh gh xpd hvihud +u ) ?l L rm L Fn. r. +41<. FD ) . r. r. FD )  uhsuhvhqwd xpd hvihud/ gh irupd txh r judglhqwh gd fxuyd ì shushqglfxodu d hvwh sodqr1 Gh idwr/ r judglhqwh gh xpd vxshuiðflh vhpsuh dsrqwd sdud d gluhêær qd txdo d phvpd srvvxl d pdlru wd{d gh yduldêær1 .1 hvwd qrêær/ frqvlghuh d ixqêær B w?. FD frpr vhqgr UB ) (B e (B e (B e 7L iL > (? (r (F h qrwdprv txh r uhvxowdgr ì xp yhwru1 R hohphqwr Qn ì sdudohor dr sodqr „ wdqjhqwh ã vxshuiðflh gdgd sru +41<. rqgh  ) LzX03 Xp h{hpsor gh xpd wdo vxshuiðflh srgh vhu d htxdêær grv oxjduhv jhrpìwulfrv txh ghqhp xpd hvihud qr p6 / fdvr hp txh whprv sdud xpd hvihud fhqwudgd qd ruljhp/ srvvxlqgr udlr 1 Glihuhqfldqgr d htxdêær +41<. i > (? (r (F rx/ hp qrwdêær frpsdfwd/ UB d Qn ) (. fdprv frp QB ) (B (B (B Q? L Qr L QF ) (. r. (? (r (F ?5 L r 5 L F 5 ) 5 . „ rqgh mä ghqlprv r judglhqwh gd ixqêær B w?. FD uhsuhvhqwdqgr xpd vxshuiðflh qr p6 dwudyìv gd h{suhvvær B w?./ frpr prvwudgr qd jxud 4145 txdqgr B w?. txh srgh vhu uhhvfulwr frpr    (B e (B e (B e  e 7L iL > d Q?7 L Qre L QF e ) (.

4. FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV Hvwh frqfhlwr ì lpsruwdqwðvvlpr hp iðvlfd1 Hp pxlwdv rsruwxqlgdghv ghvh0 n mdprv ghqlu xp ghwhuplqdgr fdpsr yhwruldo B d sduwlu gh xp fdpsr hvfdodu * mxvwdphqwh gh xp judglhqwh1 Hvwd ghqlêær suhwhqgh gdu frqwd gr idwr gh txh n dv olqkdv gh fdpsr gh B ghyhp vhu shushqglfxoduhv ãv vxshuiðflhv * ) LzX03 hp wrgrv rv srqwrv gr hvsdêr1 Dvvlp dfrqwhfh/ sru h{hpsor/ frp r srwhqfldo judylwdflrqdo1 R srwhqfldo judylwdflrqdo srgh vhu ghqlgr shod h{suhvvær prvwudqgr txh hoh whp vlphwuld hviìulfd/ frpr hvshudgr> gh idwr/ d htxdêær *j w?. FD ) c s 5 L r5 L F5 ? h ì/ sruwdqwr/ shushqglfxodu ãv vxshuiðflhv gh srwhqfldo1 Ilvlfdphqwh/ d ghqlêær gd iruêd +rx gd dfhohudêær. r. FD ) c lpsolfd qd htxdêær sdud dv frrughqdgdv gdgd sru txh ì xpd htxdêær vlplodu ãtxhod gd hvihud1 R fdpsr judylwdflrqdo ì ghqlgr frpr vhqgr r judglhqwh gr srwhqfldo judylwdflrqdo h ì/ sruwdqwr/ gdgr sru Hvwh fdpsr ì xp fdpsr udgldo/ ylvwr txh n w?. r. r. ylvwr txh d lqwhjudêær ghyh ohydu hp frqwd txh d yduläyho r hvwä vhqgr frqvlghu0 dgd frpr xpd frqvwdqwh/ gh prgr txh d ixqêær W wrD ì/ sru hqtxdqwr/ txdotxhu1 Qr sureohpd hvshfðfr/ whprv ] *w?. rD ) B{ w?. rDQ? L W wrD. r. rD1 Vroxêær= n Vh ì yhugdgh txh r fdpsr yhwruldo B srgh vhu hvfulwr frpr xp wdo judglhqwh/ hqwær ghyhprv whu (* (* ) B{ h ) B| 3 (? (r D sulphlud htxdêær iruqhfh ] *w?. hp whuprv gr judglhqwh gh xp srwhqfldo jdudqwh txh dv olqkdv gh iruêd luær frlqflglu frp dv olqkdv gh pdlru yduldêær gr srwhqfldo/ r txh ì hvshudgr> gh idwr/ r frusr luä shufruuhu xpd wudmhwöuld txh frlqflgh frp hvwdv olqkdv gh iruêd/ shufruuhqgr/ sruwdqwr/ dv olqkdv hp txh r srwhqfldo yduld pd{lpdphqwh1 Qhp vhpsuh/ hqwuhwdqwr/ xp fdpsr yhwruldo srgh vhu hvfulwr hp whuprv gh xp fdpsr hvfdodu sru lqwhupìglr gh xp judglhqwh1 Sdud yhuprv lvwr/ frqvlghuh r h{hpsor dedl{r= n H{hpsor : Vhmd B ) ?re L re xpd iruêd qr sodqr1 Prvwuh txh hvwd iruêd qær 7 i srgh vhu hvfulwd frpr r judglhqwh gh qhqkxp fdpsr hvfdodu *w?. FD ) / tw?e L re L F e 7 i >D3 w?5 L r 5 L F 5 D6@5 ?5 L r5 L F 5 ) wt-bD5 . rD ) ?rQ? L W wrD ) r?5 b1 L WwrD3 n ) ?e L re L F e „ 7 i > . t*j w?. FD ) cU*j w?.

FD hqwuh rv srqwrv \ h 4 qær ghshqgh gr fdplqkr hvfroklgr1 n B ) U* n Ghprqvwudêær1 Vxsrqkd txh B w?. FD d Qn ) „ ) ] E D n lpsolfdqgr txh d lqwhjudo gh wudmhwöuld gh B w?. r. FD d Qn ) B „ U*w?. rD +d phqrv gd ixqêær WwrD. r.4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 4< Rud/ dlqgd qær xvdprv d vhjxqgd htxdêær> id}hqgr lvvr/ mä txh djrud whprv d h{suhvvær gd ixqêær *w?. (r 1 Qr r txh qær ì srvvðyho/ ylvwr txh d ixqêær W wrD ì ixqêær dshqdv gh r/ h qd htxdêær yhprv dsduhfhu d yduläyho ? vhp txh srvvdprv holplqä0od1 Dvvlp/ yhprv txh n r fdpsr yhwruldo B w?. FD srgh vhu hvfulwd frpr xp judgl0 hqwh/ hqwær whuhprv d lqwhjudo gh olqkd vhqgr hvfulwd frpr ] E ] E n w?. rD dflpd qær srgh vhu hvfulwr frpr xp judglhqwh gh xp fdpsr hvfdodu1 n H{hufðflr . r. FD/ gh prgr txh n vh/ h vrphqwh vh/ d lqwhjudo gh wudmhwöuld gh B w?. r. r. FD qær ghshqgh gr fdplqkr/ ylvwr txh r uhvxowdgr gd lqwhjudo ghshqgh dshqdv grv srqwrv h{wuhprv \ h 41  E (* (* (* (* Q? (* Qr (* QF Q? L Qr L QF ) L L Q0 ) (? (r (F (? Q0 (r Q0 (F Q0 D ] E ] E Q* ) Q0 ) Q* ) *w4D c *w\D./ fkhjdprv d (* ?5 QW wrD ) L ) r. r. r. Prvwuh txh txdotxhu fdpsr yhwruldo qr sodqr B ) B{e L B|e sdud 7 i r txdo ydokd d uhodêær (B| (B{ ) (? (r srgh vhu hvfulwr frpr xpd ixqêær srwhqfldo1 Rv fdpsrv yhwruldlv txh srghp vhu hvfulwrv frpr r judglhqwh gh xp fdpsr hvfdodu srvvxhp hqruph dsolfdêær hp iðvlfd1 Gh idwr/ srgh0vh prvwudu txh hohv vdwlvid}hp xpd sursulhgdgh lpsruwdqwðvvlpd txh sdvvdprv djrud d hvwxgdu1 Gh idwr/ frqvlghuh d ghqlêær gh wudedokr hp Phfåqlfd1 Hvwd ghqlêær ì frqvwuxðgd gh pdqhlud d id}hu frp txh r wudedokr uhdol}dgr sru xpd iruêd sdud ghvorfdu xp fhuwr frusr gh pdvvd E qær ghshqgd gr fdplqkr xwlol}dgr sdud ghvorfdu hvwh frusr1 Qr txh vh vhjxh luhprv prvwudu txh hvwd sursulhgdgh lpsolfd qhf0 hvvduldphqwh qr idwr gh d iruêd srghu vhu hvfulwd frpr xp judglhqwh gh xpd ixqêær srwhqfldo1 Srghprv hqxqfldu hvwd sursulhgdgh gd vhjxlqwh pdqhlud= n Whruhpd < R fdpsr yhwruldo B w?. D Q0 D ] D  D . FD srgh vhu hvfulwr frpr r judglhqwh gh xp fdpsr hvfdodu *w?.

(D  w(. FD c *w?. r. n B w?! . dD  wd. FD srqwrv lqqlwhvlpdophqwh suö{lprv ] +{. r. ylvwr txh r ) ( gxudqwh wrgr r shufxuvr1 Qd vhjxqgd sduwh whprv ] E ] 4 d n d Qn ) e Qn ) iQr. F ! D d Qn! ) „ B{ Q? ) *w? L ?. dD1 Idêd lvvr sru grlv fdplqkrv glvwlq0 wrv= +d. 1 . B{ w?. FD ) +{>|>}. r.{>|>}.53 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV Frqyhuvdphqwh/ vxsrqkd txh d lqwhjudo gh wudmhwöuld qær ghshqgh gr fdplqkr hvfroklgr/ hqwær whuhprv sdud srqwrv \ ) w? L ?. w(. r ! . (D  wd. Qhvwh rxwur wudmhwr whprv/ sdud d sulphlud sduwh ] E ] 4 d n „ Qn ) e „ iQr. qhvwh fdvr whprv/ sdud d sulphlud sduwh gr fdplqkr ] E ] 4 ] 4 n d Qn ) e Qn ) 7Q?.1 Fruroäulr 44 Vh d wudmhwöuld hp txh vh fdofxod d lqwhjudo gh fdplqkr gr fdpsr n n yhwruldo B ì ihfkdgd/ hqwær B srgh vhu hvfulwd frpr xp judglhqwh gh xp fdpsr hvfdodu vh/ h vrphqwh vh/ hvwd lqwhjudo vh dqxod1 Ghprqvwudêær1 Edvwd frorfdu \ ) 4 qr whruhpd1 Xp fruroäulr dr whruhpd dqwhulru srgh vhu hqxqfldgr gd vhjxlqwh pdqhlud 3 ?rQ? ) ] 3 4 d d3?Q? ) . (* w?. „ B „ D 4 ylvwr txh/ djrud r ) d gxudqwh wrgr r wudmhwr1 R wudedokr wrwdo vhuld P ) dO h/ sruwdqwr/ vhuld glihuhqwh sdud dv gxdv wudmhwöuldv1 Frpr ylprv/ r fdpsr yhwruldo dflpd qær srgh vhu frqvlghudgr xpd iruêd phfåqlfd +qær glvvlsdwlyd. r. FD h 4 ) w?. dD> +e. FD  (? id}hqgr r phvpr sdud dv rxwudv frrughqdgdv/ whprv r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr1 n H{hpsor 43 Fdofxoh r wudedokr uhdol}dgr shod iruêd B ) ?re L re sdud pryhu 7 i xpd sduwðfxod gd ruljhp dwì r srqwr wd. B d Qn ) rQr ) . dD1 Vroxêær= +d. w(. r. FD. „ B „ rQr ) . ] +{. r. FD c *w?. FD txh/ sdud ?  ( lpsolfd/ shor whruhpd ixqgdphqwdo gr fäofxor/ txh rx vhmd/ B{ ? ) *w? L Q?. r. „ B „ ?rQ? ) ?3(Q? ) (. +{>|>}. 1 D 3 frpr dqwhv h/ sdud d vhjxqgd sduwh ] E ] n d Qn ) e Qn ) 7Q?. (D  wd. 1 D 3 D 3 3 h r wudedokr uhdol}dgr vhuld P ) db1O1 +e. r.{>|>}.

rDH Qr ) c Q?Qr3 (? (r F V Whruhpdv Lqwhjudlv qr Sodqr= +4143. rqgh Qn ì xp yhwru lqqlwhvlpdo wrpdgr dr orqjr +wdqjhqfldophqwh. rD h `| ) <w?. txh srghprv hvfuhyhu hvwd lqwhjudo vxeglylglqgr d äuhd C hp shtxhqdv äuhdv Cq gh wdo prgr txh F n w?. rD/ ghyhprv whu txh  L ]]  (< (h >h w?. ã fxuyd g1 q Qrwh/ shod jxud 4146+d. rD wdo txh ` rx vhmd/ fxmdv frpsrqhqwhv vhmdp `{ ) h w?. rD h <w?.4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 54 Iljxud 4146= Hvtxhpd gd lqwhjudêær gh wudmhwöuld h gd lqwhjudêær gh äuhd sdud d ghprqvwudêær gr whruhpd gh Juhhq +qr sodqr. rD wrpdgrv dr orqjr gd fxuyd g/ ylvwr txh srghuðdprv hvfuhyhu ` d lqwhjudo gh fdplqkr frpr L n d Qn ` q. Ghprqvwudêær1 D suryd ghvwh whruhpd srgh vhu ihlwd gd vhjxlqwh pdqhlud1 Sulphludphqwh ydprv hvfuhyhu xp yhwru n w?. dflpd uhihuh0vh ã vrpd grv ydoruhv gh n w?. rD ) h w?.1 41715 Ydprv djrud rewhu dojxqv whruhpdv lqwhjudlv sdud fdpsrv yhwruldv qr sodqr1 R sulphlur whruhpd ì frqkhflgr sru whruhpd gh Juhhq h srgh vhu hqxqfldgr gd vhjxlqwh pdqhlud= Whruhpd 45 Gdgdv gxdv ixqêøhv h w?. rDQ? L <w?. . rD1 Frqvlghuh djrud d jxud 4146 rqgh prvwudprv d fxuyd g h d äuhd C sru hod gholplwdgd1 D lqwhjudo gh fdplqkr ã hvtxhugd qd h{suhvvær +4143. rDe L <w?. rDe ` 7 i.

D/ qr fhqwur gr hohphqwr gh äuhd Cq txh/ xpd yh} vhqgr Cq lqqlwhvlpdo/ hqfrqwud0vh lqqlwhvlpdophqwh suö{lpr gh -1 Sdud hvwh srqwr ]/ srghprv hvfuhyhu dv ixqêøhv `{ w?. D  wr c D `{ w?. whuhprv L F F Fq Cq n d Qn ` q Cq  n d Qn ) j$8 ` q rqgh mä lghqwlfdprv Vq 3 " [ K q@4 Fq Cq n d Qn ` q Cq ) K ]] V W w?.55 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV L n d Qn ) ` q Q [ q@4 K txdqgr id}hprv Cq whqghu sdud }hur +h r ]@qr1 gh vxeglylvøhv whqghu sdud lqqlwr. DM Q . h xvdprv r idwr gh txh xpd vrpd gr wlsr Q " Ww?. DM Q L   (? (r Q Q   +>. rq DCq ) ]] V W w?. +4144. DM Q L  (? Q (r Fq Q       (`| w. D  wr c D Qr . D   w? c D L (`| w. rDQ?Qr. rD ) j$8 Vq 3 Fq Cq n d Qn ` q j$8 Q [ frp QC ) Q?Qr/ ylvwr txh hvwdprv qr sodqr1 Qrwh dlqgd txh d ixqêær W w?. rD hvwä uhihulgd ã lqwhjudo gh wudmhwöuld wrpdgd qxp hohphqwr gh äuhd lqqlwhvlpdo Cq h qær hp wrgd d äuhd C1 Ydprv wrpdu xp wdo hohphqwr lqqlwhvlpdo/ frpr r prvwudgr qd jxud 4146+e. D  wr c D `| w?. rDM P ) `| w. rD rx vxdv ghulydgdv wrpdgdv vreuh r srqwr ]1 Qrvvd lqwhjudo gh olqkd qd uhjlær Cq fd/ sruwdqwr=    L ]   (`{ w. `| w. rDM P ) `{ w.  +>. rDQ?Qr. DM Q L   (? (r Q Q  (`| w. rD h `| w?./ hp wruqr gr srqwr ]1 Whprv/ sruwdqwr/ dv h{sdqvøhv    (`{ w. D   w? c D L (`{ w. h fdofxodu hvwd ixqêær1 Qrwh shod jxud/ txh/ qr fäofxor gd lqwhjudo gh olqkd/ lqwhuhvvd0qrv r ydoru txh r fdpsr yhwruldo +h/ sruwdqwr/ vxdv frpsrqhqwhv. CxlC{  h CxlC|  Q Q vær frqvwdqwhv +vær r ydoru gd ixqêær `l w?. .> ydprv/ hqwuhwdqwr/ qrv uhihulu dr ydoru gr fdpsr yhwruldo vreuh r srqwr ] ) w. D   w? c D L (`| w. wrpd vreuh d wudmhwöuld gh lqwhjudêær +r srqwr hvfulwr frpr -. rD frpr vìulhv gh Wd|oru/ h{sdqglgdv hp sulphlud rughp +ghylgr ã lqqlwhvlpdolgdgh gdv Cq . D  wr c D Q? L n d Qn ) ` q `{ w. D   w? c D L (`{ w. DM Q L  (? Q (r Q q@4 W w?q .  rqgh uhvvdowdprv r idwr gh txh rv hohphqwrv `l w.

D   c (`| w. ?Q?.  (r (? Q Fq Q gh prgr txh K n d Qn ` q      (`{ w. D  n d Qn ) ` q Cq . D  3  (r (? Q Q W w?. rQ? txh vær wrgdv dv lqwhjudlv txh dsduhfhp dflpd1 Vh }huprv lvwr sdud d fxuyd gq prvwudgd qd jxud 4146+e. rD h `| ) <w?./ fkhjdprv dr uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr1 Vq 3 Fq Cq ) Rv ghvhqyroylphqwrv dflpd qrv shuplwhp/ frp xpd vlpsohv dowhudêær/ rewhu xp rxwur lpsruwdqwh whruhpd lqwhjudo/ frqkhflgr sru whruhpd gd glyhujíqfld/ txh gl} r vhjxlqwh= Whruhpd 46 Gdgdv gxdv ixqêøhv `{ ) h w?.1 D lqwhjudo wrwdo fd L Gd phvpd irupd/ srghprv prvwudu txh L rQ? ) cCq 3 Fq Fq Fq Fq Fq Fq Fq Fq ?Qr ) w?5 c ?4 Dr ) ?r ) Cq 3 Ohydqgr wrgrv hvwhv uhvxowdgrv qd h{suhvvær pdlv dflpd/ fdprv frp     L  (`{ w. h d lqwhjudo fd ?5 r1 Qr vhjxqgr fdplqkr d yduldêær Qr ) (/ dvvlp frpr qr txduwr fdplqkr1 Uhvwd/ sruwdqwr r whufhlur fdplqkr g6 sdud r txdo ? ) ?4 h qr txdo d lqwhjudo fd ?4 wcrD +rqgh r vlqdo qhjdwlyr dgyìp gd gluhêær gh lqwhjudêær. rD/ ghyhprv whu  L ]]  (`{ (`| n d Qn ) ` z L Q?Qr. Qr. D   c (`| w. rD ) j$8 Yrowdqgr ã htxdêær +4144./ yhuhprv txh dv txdwur lqwhjudlv lqlfldlv vh dq0 xodp/ uhvwdqgr dshqdv dv gxdv ýowlpdv1 Hvwdv gxdv ýowlpdv lqwhjudlv srghp vhu K fdofxodgdv gd vhjxlqwh pdqhlud= wrphprv d lqwhjudo Fq ?Qr frpr h{hpsor> Qr sulphlur fdplqkr g4 whprv ? ) ?5 +frqvwdqwh. rQr. ?Qr. +4145.4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 56 vh qrv ohpeuduprv txh `{ ) h h `| ) <1 Suhflvdprv/ srlv/ fdofxodu dv lqwhjudlv= L L L L L L Q?. (? (r F V rqgh Qn ì r hohphqwr gh lqwhjudêær wrpdgr qd gluhêær shushqglfxodu ã gluhêær z gr yhwru wdqjhqwh ã fxuyd ghqlgd sru g1 Ghprqvwudêær1 D suryd ghvwh whruhpd vhjxh rv phvprv sdvvrv gdtxhod dsuhvhqwdgd dqwhulruphqwh1 Qhvwh fdvr/ d ýqlfd dowhudêær txh ghyhprv id}hu .

(? (r rqgh r yhwru e frpr gh frvwxph/ dsrqwd sdud d gluhêær0}/ shushqglfxodu dr >/ sodqr ?r vhqgr frqvlghudgr1 Qrwh dlqgd txh r glyhujhqwh gh xp yhwru ì xp hvfdodu h txh r urwdflrqdo ghvwh yhwru ì/ ljxdophqwh/ xp yhwru1 Lvwr prvwud txh r whruhpd gh Juhhq srghuld vhu hvfulwr frpr L ]] n d Qn ) ` q U e n d QC./ frorfdu q xpd yh} txh/ ihlwr lvwr h vdehqgr txh Qn ) Q?e L Qre whuhprv q 7 i/ frpr srgh vhu idflophqwh yhulfdgr1 Dvvlp/ d lqwhjudo gh olqkd dsuhvhqwdgd hp +4145. rD grv ghvhqyroylphqwrv dqwhulruhv/ wruqd0vh c<w?./ vhjxqgr d h{suhvvær=   (`| (`{ e Ue n ) ` c >. +4147. rD1 Ohydqgr lvwr hp frqvlghudêær h ohpeudqgr r whruhpd gh Juhhq/ whprv  L ]]  (`{ (`| n d Qn ) ` z L Q?Qr. (? (r gd phvpd irupd txh ì lqwhuhvvdqwh ghqlu d rshudêær gh urwdflrqdo +hp gxdv glphqvøhv. fd L L n d Qn ) ` z w`{ Qr c `| Q?D . ` n ` n ghvgh txh QC vhmd wrpdgr frpr r hohphqwr gh äuhd qr sodqr ?r dsrqwdqgr sdud n d gluhêær F/ rx vhmd/ QC ) Q?Qre >vdehprv txh Qn ghyh vhu wrpdgr dr orqjr q F V . rx vhmd/ d ixqêær <w?. z q H{hufðflr 47 Prvwuh/ sru xp udflrfðqlr dqäorjr ãtxhoh ghvhqyroylgr sdud r whruhpd gh Juhhq/ txh ghyh ydohu d lghqwlgdgh K   n d Qn ` z (`{ (`| Fq j$8 ) L 3 v3 C (? (r Hp ixqêær grv uhvxowdgrv dqwhulruhv/ ì lqwhuhvvdqwh ghqlu d rshudêær gh glyhujhqwh/ vhjxqgr d h{suhvvær +hp gxdv glphqvøhv. (? (r F V txh ì r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr1 F F Qn ) Qre c Q?e z 7 i.57 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV ì/ ohpeudqgr txh r hohphqwr gh lqwhjudêær Qn ì shushqglfxodu dr hohphqwr gh z lqwhjudêær Qn +wdqjhqwh ã fxuyd g. +4146. Qn d Qn ) (.=   (`{ (`| Udn ) ` L . +n ì fdpsr yhwruldo qr sodqr.

r. Whruhpd 48 Gdgdv wuív ixqêøhv `{ ) Uw?.4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 58 +wdqjhqfldophqwh. ` ` rqgh Qn / frpr ylprv/ ghyh vhu wrpdgr qr sodqr ?r h ghyh vhu shushqglfxodu ã z fxuyd g +shushqglfxodu dr hohphqwr Qn q. r. +4149./ qr txdo prvwudprv xp yroxph ~ / olplwdgr sru xpd vxshuiðflh C/ vhqgr dsur{lpdgr sru shtxhqrv *fxerv* gh yroxph ~q 1 Qrwh txh/ sdud rv hohphqwrv gh yroxph lqwhuqrv/ r x{r sdud irud dwudyìv gd vxshuiðflh gh xp ghvwhv yroxphv/ ì frpshqvdgr shor x{r sdud ghqwur ghvwh phvpr yroxph/ ghylgr d xp hohphqwr gh yroxph yl}lqkr +fi1 (`{ (`| (`} L L (? (r (F  3 . (? (r (F V Y n rqgh QC ì r hohphqwr gh äuhd wrpdgr qd gluhêær shushqglfxodu dr sodqr wdqjhqwh ã vxshuiðflh ihfkdgd C/ txh olplwd r yroxph ~ 1 Qrwh txh d lqwhjudo gd hvtxhugd iruqhfh r x{r gd txdqwlgdgh n dwudyìv gd vxshuiðflh C/ rx vhmd/ d txdqwlgdgh ` gh n txh hvfdsd gr yroxph ~ 1 Hvwh whruhpd wdpeìp srgh vhu hvfulwr frpr ` ]] ]]] n d QC ) ` n wU d n DQ~. ã fxuyd g1 Gd phvpd pdqhlud/ r whruhpd gd glyhujíqfld srghuld vhu hvfulwr L ]] n d Qn ) ` z U d n QC. lpsolfdp txh U d n ) j$8 ` K v3 Fq F V 41716 Djrud txh mä }hprv d ghprqvwudêær gh grlv lpsruwdqwhv whruhpdv lqwhjudlv qr sodqr/ ydprv jhqhudol}ä0orv sdud r hvsdêr/ ylvwr txh vxd dsolfdêær jhudo qd iðvlfd vh gä/ suhflvdphqwh/ hp vlwxdêøhv qdv txdlv ghyhprv frqvlghudu wrgdv dv wuív glphqvøhv1 Ydprv frphêdu frp d hqxqfldêær h ghprqvwudêær gr whruhpd gh Jdxvv> iduhprv/ hp vhjxlgd/ d hqxqfldêær h ghprqvwudêær gr whruhpd gh Vwrnhv1 Whruhpdv Lqwhjudlv qr Hvsdêr= C n d Qn ` z h U e n ) j$8 ` K v3 Fq C n d Qn ` q e >3 +4148./ srlv dv uhodêøhv +4146. +n ì fdpsr yhwruldo qr sodqr. h +4147. FD/ `| ) -w?. ` vh hvfuhyhprv V Udn ) `  Y Ghprqvwudêær1 Frqvlghuh r ghvhqkr ihlwr qd jxud 4147+d. r. FD h `} ) ]w?.1 Frp hvwdv ghqlêøhv/ whprv txh dv rshudêøhv gh wrpdgd gh glyhujhqwh h urwdflrqdo htxlydohp d xpd hvsìflh gh ghulydgd hp whuprv gh äuhdv lqqlwhvlpdlv +h qær d frpsulphqwrv lqqlwhvlpdlv/ frpr xvxdophqwh. FD/ ghyhprv whu txh  ]] ]]]  (`{ (`| (`} n d QC ) ` n L L Q~.

/ +e. ` fd gdgr dshqdv shod txdqwlgdgh gh n txh dwudyhvvd dv vxshuiðflhv grv yroxphv ` lqqlwhvlpdlv hqfrvwdgrv qd vxshuiðflh pdlv h{whuqd C gr yroxph ~ / vhqgr hvwh/ qd yhugdgh/ r frqwhýgr lqwxlwlyr gr whruhpd +4149. D hp .1 Dvvlp/ r x{r wrwdo sdud irud gh ~ +d glyhujíqfld gr yhwru n .59 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV Iljxud 4147= Uhsuhvhqwd êær hvtxhpäwlfd gd ghprqvwudêær gr whruhpd gh Jdxvv1 +d. .. d frqvwdwdêær gh txh rv x{rv dgmdfhqwhv vh fdqfhodp h +f. r fäofxor gr x{r dwudyìv gdv vxshuiðflhv shushqglfxoduhv ã gluhêær ?1 jxud 4147+e.1 Qhvwd jxud hvfrokhprv xp yroxph gdgr sru ~ ) ?rF txh luhprv id}hu whqghu sdud }hur/ glplqxlqgr dv yduldêøhv hvsdfldlv hp wrgdv dv gluhêøhv> ydprv id}hu rv fäofxorv dshqdv sdud r whupr qd ghulydgd hp ? gr glyhujhqwh/ srlv rv rxwurv vær wrwdophqwh htxlydohqwhv1 Sdud wdqwr/ hvfrokhprv xp sodqr qr fhqwur gr sdudohohsðshgr qr txdo {dprv r srqwr h ) w.1 Gr txh irl glwr dflpd/ yh0 prv txh r x{r wrwdo gh n dwudyìv gd vxshuiðflh frpsohwd C srgh vhu fdofxodgr ` shod vrpd grv x{rv dwudyìv gh fdgd xpd gdv vxshuiðflhv Cq / dvvrfldgdv drv yroxphv ~q / vhjxqgr d h{suhvvær UU ]] Q [ V n dQCq ` n q n dQC ) ` n ~q . Xp yroxph ~ vxeglylglgr hp hohphqwrv lqqlwhvlpdlv gh yroxph ~q +uhs0 uhvhqwdgrv sru sdudohohsðshgrv. ~q V q@4 txh whqghuä sdud xpd lqwhjudo gh yroxph vh }huprv ~q  (/ rx vhmd/ ]  1 Suhflvdprv/ sruwdqwr/ dshqdv prvwudu txh UU n dQCq ` n Vq j$8 ) U d n3 ` Yq 3 ~q Sdud id}í0or/ frqvlghuh xp ýqlfr hohphqwr gh yroxph/ frpr prvwudgr qd jxud 4147+f.

! ) Le 7QrQF ghvgh txh vdledprv r vhx ydoru qr srqwr h dwudyìv gd h{sdqvær hp vìulh gh Wd|oru       (`{ (`{ } `{ wh D L (`{ `{ wpD ) w? c D L wr c D L wF c D ) (? S (r S (F S         ? (`{ (`{ (`{ ) `{ wh D L L wr c D L wF c D. 1 (? S (r S (F S ylvwr txh ?S )  L ?b11 Srghprv fdofxodu d lqwhjudo       ]] ]] ? (`{ (`{ `{ QC{ ) `{ wh D L L wr c DL 1 (? S (r S ! V{ D! E ! F ! G! L  (`{ (F  S Qrwh/ hqwuhwdqwr/ txh dv lqwhjudlv hp r h hp F yær dqxodu0vh/ ylvwr txh rv srqwrv  h hqfrqwudp0vh h{dwdphqwh qr vhx fhqwur jhrpìwulfr +ohpeuh0vh txh rv whuprv qdv ghulydgdv vær frqvwdqwhv/ ylvwr vhuhp hvwlpdgrv qr srqwr h {r./ uhvshfwlydphqwh/ r vlqdo ghfruuhqgr gd rulhqwdêær gdgd sdud r hl{r ?1 Ghvhmdprv fdofxodu r x{r gh n dwudyìv gdv vxshuiðflhv ` \! 4 ! g ! .! h \4g.1 Vh ì hvwh r fdvr/ hqwær txhuhprv fdofxodu r ydoru gh n vreuh wdlv vxshuiðflhv1 Srghprv hvfuhyhu r ` n ydoru gh `{ vreuh d vxshuiðflh QC ! ) \! 4 ! g ! ./ txh vær rv hohphqwrv QC{ dvvrfldgrv ã frpsrqhqwh `{ / txh qrv sursxvhprv dqdolvdu +qrwh txh/ qd lqwhjudo/ ghyhprv dqdolvdu r whupr `{ QC{ / h txh kä gxdv vxshuiðflhv QC{ = \! 4 ! g ! .! h \4g.! h \4g.1 Ilfdprv/ sruwdqwr/ frp     ]] ]] ? (`{ `{ QC{ ) `{ wh D L QrQF ) 1 (? S ! V{ D! E ! F ! G!     ? (`{ ) `{ wh D L rF 1 (? S  wF c D QrQF3 n sdud d sulphlud vxshuiðflh1 Sdud d rxwud vxshuiðflh/ QC ) ce 7QrQF h w? c D ) c?b1/ gh irupd txh fdprv frp     ]] ]] ? (`{ `{ QC{ ) c`{ wh D L QrQF ) 1 (? S V{ DEFG     ? (`{ ) c`{ wh D L rF3 1 (? S D vrpd ghvwdv gxdv lqwhjudlv iruqhfh r x{r wrwdo qdv sduhghv shushqglfxoduhv ã gluhêær ? h ì     (`{ (`{ ?rF ) ~q  (? S (? S .4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 5: vhx fhqwur jhrpìwulfr1 Qrwh txh hvwh srqwr hvwä ãv glvwåqfldv ?b1 h c?b1 grv sodqrv \! 4 ! g ! ..

FDQ~3 Vroxêær= Ydprv xvdu d h{suhvvær sdud < qd htxdêær lqwhjudo gh Jdxvv sdud hvfuhyhu ]] ]]] ' n C) n odQ Q~  3 V Y djrud xvdprv r whruhpd gh Juhhq sdud hvfuhyhu ]] ]]] n C) n n odQ U d oQ~ h/ sruwdqwr/ V Y Y Frpr hvwd h{suhvvær ghyh ydohu sdud txdotxhu hvfrokd gh ~ / ghyhprv whu frpr exvfdgr1 ' n Udo ) .5. (r S (F S gh prgr txh r x{r wrwdo vreuh d vxshuiðflh frpsohwd txh hqyroyh ~q ì       ]] (`{ (`| (`} n dQCq ) ` n L L ~q (? (r (F Vq h fdprv frp j$8 UU Vq frpr txhuðdprv ghprqvwudu1 Yq 3 ~q n dQCq ` n ) U d n. ` H{hpsor 49 Vdehqgr txh d htxdêær lqwhjudo gh Jdxvv gr hohwurpdjqhwlvpr +xpd gdv htxdêøhv gh Pd{zhoo. r. 3 V prvwuh txh d htxdêær glihuhqfldo fruuhvsrqghqwh ì gdgd sru ' n Udo ) . 3  ]]]  n c ' Q~ ) (3 Udo 3 Y . 3 rqgh 'w?. r. FD ì d ghqvlgdgh gh fdujd dvvrfldgd ã fdujd wrwdo </ frqwlgd qr yroxph ~ / dwudyìv gd lqwhjudo ]]] <) 'w?. FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV qær ì gliðflo yhu txh rv x{rv qdv rxwudv gluhêøhv vhuær gdgrv sru     (`| (`} ~q h ~q . ì gdgd sru ]] < n n odQC ) .

/ vdehprv txh d lqwhjudo gh fdplqkr frpsohwd srgh vhu hvfulwd frpr K L Q [ F n d Qnq ` q q n d Qn ) ` q Cq . Cq F q@4 gh prgr d whuprv U e n ) j$8 ` K Fq Vq 3 Cq n d Qnq ` q 3 . ` n rqgh F V Ue n ) `  ì r urwdflrqdo gr fdpsr yhwruldo n 1 `      (`} (`| e (`{ (`} e (`| (`{ e c 7L c iL c > (r (F (F (? (? (r Ghprqvwudêær1 Sdud ghprqvwudu hvwh whruhpd/ frqvlghuh d jxud 41491 n Qhod prvwudprv xp hohphqwr jhqìulfr gh vxshuiðflh QC/ rulhqwdgr vhjxqgr r yhwru +qrupdo ã vxshuiðflh.4171 FDPSRV HVFDODUHV H YHWRULDLV 5< Iljxud 4148= Frqvwuxêær gd vxshuiðflh dehuwd sdud d ghprqvwudêær gr whruhpd gh Vwrnhv1 Djrud txh mä ghprqvwudprv r whruhpd gh Jdxvv/ srghprv sdvvdu ã ghprq0 vwudêær gr whruhpd gh Vwrnhv/ wdpeìp pxlwr xwlol}dgr hp iðvlfd1 Whruhpd 4: Vh whprv xpd vxshuiðflh C rulhqwäyho h vhfflrqdophqwh vxdyh/ olplwdgd sru xpd fxuyd ihfkdgd vlpsohv h vhfflrqdophqwh vxdyh/ pxwxdphqwh rulhqwdgdv frpr qd jxud 4148/ hqwær ghyh ydohu d ljxdogdgh L ]] n d Qn ) ` q U e n d QC. n 1 R hohphqwr gh vxshuiðflh ì vxflhqwhphqwh sh0 z txhqr sdud txh srvvdprv frqvlghuä0or frpr xp sodqr1 Whprv/ srlv/ xp sodqr rulhqwdgr vhjxqgr d gluhêær n 1 z Ghylgr dr hvtxhpd gd jxud 4148 +h vlploduphqwh dr txh irl ihlwr sdud r sodqr.

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. QXp h QXq / mxqwdphqwh frp rv hohphqwrv gh vxshuiðflh QCo / QCp h QCq 1 QXo ) _o Qq. QXp ) _p QE h QXq ) _q Qz3 H{hpsor 58 Hp frrughqdgdv hviìulfdv/ rv hohphqwrv gh dufr vær txh fruuhvsrqghp h{dwdphqwh ã suhvfulêær dflpd1 Q„/ „Q h „ R$t Q* frpr r surgxwr hvfdodu gh n shorv hohphqwrv gh äuhd qdv glyhuvdv gluhêøhv e E. gdqgr `o QCo ) `o QXp QXq .6. h r hohphqwr gh yroxph +fi1 jxud 414. Q~ ) QXo QXp QXq ) _o _p _q Qq QE Qz. FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV Xpd yh} whqgr hp pærv d h{suhvvær gr judglhqwh/ srgh0vh hqfrqwudu idflo0 phqwh dv h{suhvvøhv sdud r odsodfldqr/ r glyhujhqwh h r urwdflrqdo1 Sdud yhuprv lvwr/ edvwd txh qrwhprv/ sulphludphqwh/ txh r hohphqwr gh dufr qxpd gluhêær frrughqdgd txdotxhu ì gdgr sru +fi1 jxud 414. zD qr txdo vh prvwud rv hohphqwrv gh dufr QXo . `q QCq ) `q QXo QXp R glyhujhqwh irl ghqlgr dqwhulruphqwh frpr vhqgr UU n d QCq ` n Vq U d n ) j$8 `  Y 3 ~q `o QCo ) `o w_p _q QE QzD. Iljxud 414.. ì gdgr sru whprv txh= `p QCp ) `p w_o _q Qq QED. z ` q. . `p QCp ) `p QXo QXq . `q QCq ) `q w_o _p Qq QED. e e whp frpsrqhqwhv gdgdv sru +ohpeuh0vh txh r hohphqwr gh äuhd ì shushqglfx0 odu dr hl{r frqvlghudgr/ gh pdqhlud txh dshqdv dv gxdv rxwudv frrughqdgdv/ dvvrfldgdv drv rxwurv grlv hl{rv/ srghp yduldu. E.= Hvtxhpd gh frrughqdgdv fxuyloðqhdv wq.

zD _o _q H L L QE  >`q wq. E L QE. zD _o _p H L Qz txh iruqhfh/ qr olplwh/   d ( ( ( Udn ) ` w`o _p _q D L w`p _o _q D L w`q _o _p D . E. zD _p _q c `o wq. z L QzD _o _p c `q wq. E L QE. zD QCo c `o wq. E. E. Ghprqvwudêær1 Suhflvdprv fdofxodu r ydoru gd lqwhjudo +qr olplwh. zD/ ylvwr txh ì gdgd sru QCo ) _p _q QEQz h dv ixqêøhv _p h _q ghshqghp/ hp jhudo/ gdv frrughqdgdv  r phvpr ydohqgr sdud rv rxwurv hohphqwrv gh äuhd QCp h QCq . E. E. zD QCq H L _o _p _q QqQEQz txh iruqhfh +d ixqêær QCo hvwä wdpeìp vhqgr frqvlghudgd qrv srqwrv wq L Qq. E. zD QCp c `p wq. zD _o _q c `p wq. zD QCo c`o wq. E. zD QCo H Vq n d QCq j$8 ) j$8 L Y 3 Y 3 ~q _o _p _q QqQEQz >`p wq. z L QzD QCq c `q wq. zD QCo . zD _p _q H Vq j$8 ) j$8 L Y 3 ~q _o _p _q Y 3 Qq >`p wq. `o wq L Qq. zD QCp H L L _o _p _q QqQEQz  >`q wq. _o _p _q (q (E (z txh ì r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr1 . E. UU  n d QCq ` n d >`o wq L Qq. UU n d QCq ` n Vq U d n ) j$8 ` 3 Y 3 ~q rqgh pdqwlyhprv rv ydoruhv gh E h z srlv dqgdprv vreuh d olqkd q vreuh d txdo hvwhv ydoruhv qær vh dowhudp h rqgh r vlqdo ghfruuh gr idwr gh txh d rulhqwdêær n gh QCo ì vhpsuh sdud irud1 D lqwhjudo srgh vhu hvfulwd frpr UU  ` n >`o wq L Qq. zD h wq. E. E.4181 VLVWHPD GH FRRUGHQDGDV FXUYLOÐQHDV RUWRJRQDLV Whruhpd 59 D glyhujíqfld gh xp yhwru n fd gdgd sru `   d ( ( ( Udn ) ` w`o _p _q D L w`p _o _q D L w`q _o _p D 3 _o _p _q (q (E (z 6< n Frqvlghuh gxdv idfhv QCo > vreuh d sulphlud idfh whprv r ydoru h vreuh d vhjxqgd idfh +gr fxer qd jxud 414. E. E. E.. E.

/ ylvwr txh ì ghqlgr shod ghulydêær K n dQn ` q U e n ) j$8 ` 3 V3 C Vh id}hprv lvwr vreuh d idfh gdgd qd jxud 414.+e./ whprv ] S ] P (w`q _q D n d Qn L ` q n d Qn ) w`q _q QzDQ S c w`q _q QzDP T ) ` q QzQE (E Q T ] T ] Q (w`p _p D nL n d Qq ` n d Qn ) cw`p _p QEDS T L w`p _p QEDPQ ) c ` q QzQE (z S P gdqgr/ sdud d flufxodêær frpsohwd vreuh hvwd vxshuiðflh   (w`q _q D (w`p _p D wU e n Do _p _q QzQE ) ` c QEQz. H{hufðflr 64 Xvh d h{suhvvær gr h{hufðflr dqwhulru sdud rewhu r odsodfldqr hp frrughqdgdv floðqgulfdv h hviìulfdv1 .73 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV n H{hufðflr 5: Rewhqkd r glyhujhqwh gh xp fdpsr yhwruldo B hp frrughqdgdv hviìulfdv1Prvwuh txh hoh ydoh n UdB ) (`u 1 d (` {B  d (`! L `u L L ` L 3 (q „ „ ( „ „ R$t  (* R urwdflrqdo srgh vhu rewlgr id}hqgr0vh d flufxodêær gh n vreuh dv idfhv gr ` hohphqwr gh yroxph gd jxud 414. (E (z gh pdqhlud txh r urwdflrqdo frpsohwr fd     d (w`q _q D (w`p _p D e d (w`o _o D (w`q _q D Ue n ) ` c qL c EL e _p _q (E (z _o _q (z (q   d (w`p _p D (w`o _o D L c z3 e _o _p (q (E H{hufðflr 5. Idêd rv ghwdokhv gd ghulydêær dflpd sdud prvwudu d h{suhvvær sdud r urwdflrqdo hp frrughqdgdv fxuyloðqhdv gh xp fdpsr yhwruldo txdotxhu1 ^ Vxjhvwær= Uhslwd rv surfhglphqwrv xvdgrv qd ghprqvwudêær gr whruhpd dqwh0 ulru1` H{hufðflr 5< Hvfuhyd r urwdflrqdo hp frrughqdgdv hviìulfdv h floðqgulfdv1 H{hufðflr 63 Vdehqgr d irupd jhudo gr glyhujhqwh h gr judglhqwh hp frrugh0 qdgdv fxuyloðqhdv/ h vdehqgr txh r odsodfldqr srgh vhu fdofxodgr id}hqgr0vh prvwuh txh r odsodfldqr srgh vhu hvfulwr frpr        d ( _p _q ( ( _x _q ( ( _x _p ( 5 U ) L L 3 _x _p _q (` _x (` (E _p (E (z _q (` U5  ) U d U.

1.4191 H[HUFÐFLRV= 419 Xvh dv qrêøhv gh fäofxor yhwruldo sdud uhvroyhu rv h{hufðflrv d vhjxlu= H{hufðflrv= 74 41 Ghwhuplqh r ydoru gh y gh wdo prgr txh n ) ne c ye L e h n ) xe c ne L ye 8 7 i > ` 7 i > vhmdp shushqglfxoduhv1 51 Prvwuh txh rv yhwruhv n ) ne c 1e L e n ) e c ne L xe h j ) 1e L e c . 81 Suryh txh dv gldjrqdlv gh xp orvdqjr vær shushqglfxoduhv1 91 Hqfrqwuh xp yhwru xqlwäulr shushqglfxodu dr sodqr txh frqwìp rv yhwruhv n ) ne c . q4 q5 q6 461 Suryh txh n d wn e jD ) j d wn e n D ) n d wj e n D1 ` 8 n n ` 8 8 n ` <1 Prvwuh txh Mn e n M 5 L Mn d n M 5 ) Mn M 5 Mn M 5 1 ` 8 ` 8 ` 8 441 Dfkh d äuhd gr wulåqjxor gh yìuwlfhv hp h wd.e L Ee h n ) xe c e c e ` 7 i > 8 7 i >1 :1 Hqfrqwuh d htxdêær gr sodqr shushqglfxodu dr yhwru n ) ne c . dD h p wcd. 1D/ < w1. L ne h txh ` 7 > sdvvd shod h{wuhplgdgh gr yhwru n ) e c ne L ne 8 7 i >1       .e 8 7 i >/ ` 7 i > n 7 i > irupdp xp wulåqjxor uhwåqjxor1 61 Dfkdu rv åqjxorv txh r yhwru n ) xe c ne L d1e id} frp rv hl{rv frrugh0 ` 7 i > qdgrv1 71 Xvdqgr yhwruhv/ suryh txh/ sdud xp wulåqjxor txdotxhu gh odgrv frp frp0 sulphqwrv q4 . nD1 rqgh y/ K h  vær rv åqjxorv rsrvwrv drv odgrv q4 / q5 h q6 / uhvshfwlydphqwh1 471 Suryh txh d frqglêær qhfhvväuld h vxflhqwh sdud txh rv yhwruhv n / n h j ` 8 n vhmdp frsodqduhv ì txh n d wn e jD ) (1 ` 8 n . q5 h q6 ydoh d fkdpdgd ohl grv frvvhqrv rqgh  ì r åqjxor vxehqwhqglgr shorv odgrv q4 h q5 1 5 5 5 q6 ) q4 L q5 L 1q4 q5 {BR .1 Vh n ì xp yhwru txdotxhu/ suryh txh n ) n d e e L n d e e L n d e e ` ` ` 7 7 ` i i ` > >1 431 Vh n ) ne c 1e L 1e n ) xe L e L ne h j ) e c e L e hqfrqwuh n e wn e jD ` 7 i >/ 8 7 i > n 7 i >/ ` 8 n h wn e n D e j1 Txdo r vljqlfdgr gr uhvxowdgr hqfrqwudgrB ` 8 n 451 Suryh d ohl grv vhqrv sdud wulåqjxorv sodqrv frp odgrv q4 / q5 h q6 / gdgd shod h{suhvvær R$t y R$t K R$t  ) ) . n. cd.

1 Idêd wdpeìp xp juäfr gdv fxuydv frru0 ghqdgdv `4 ) LzX03/ `5 ) LzX03/ `6 ) LzX01 xvdqgr frpsxwdêær dojìeulfd1 ^Vxjhvwær= sdud rv ghwhuplqdqwhv ydohp dv vhjxlqwhv sursulhgdghv= +d. .. r ghwhuplqdqwh gr surgxwr gh pdwul}hv ì ljxdo dr surgxwr grv ghwhuplqdqwhv gh fdgd xpd ghodv/ +e. 1D h p wn.1 Suryh txh r åqjxor lqvfulwr qxp vhplfðufxor ì xp åqjxor uhwr1 4<1 Xvdqgr r surgxwr hvfdodu rx r yhwruldo/ suryh txh {BR wy c KD ) {BR y {BR K L R$t y R$t K {BR wy L KD ) {BR y {BR K c R$t y R$t K 3 R$t wy c KD ) R$t y {BR K c R$t K {BR y R$t wy L KD ) R$t y {BR K L R$t K {BR y 531 Prvwuh txh d htxdêær Mn c n M ) p uhsuhvhqwd xpd hvihud gh fhqwur hp „ y wy{ .75 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV n e wn e jD ) n wn d jD c j wn d n D ` 8 n 8 ` n n ` 8 wn e n D d wj e nD ) wn d jD wn d nD c wn d nD wn d jD ` 8 n „ ` n 8 „ ` „ 8 n 3 n e wn e jD L n e wj e n D L j e wn e n D ) ( ` 8 n 8 n ` n ` 8 5 wn e n D d >wn e jD e wj e n DH ) >n d wn e jDH ` 8 8 n n ` ` 8 n 481 Suryh txh 491 Hqfrqwuh r åqjxor irupdgr sru gxdv gldjrqdlv sulqflsdlv gh xp fxer gh duhvwd y1 4:1 Dfkh xp yhwru xqlwäulr sdudohor dr sodqr ?r h shushqglfxodu dr yhwru n ) Ee c ne L 1e ` 7 i >1 4.D1 551 Vh n ) ?4n L r4n L F4n/ n ) ?5n L r5n L F5n h j ) ?6n L r6n L F6n/ prvwuh ` y K  8 y K  n y K  txh    ?4 r4 F4  k  l   n d wn e jD )  ?5 r5 F5  n d n e n 3 ` 8 n y K     ?6 r6 F6  561 Suryh txh   k  l  n d ~ e P >n d wn e jDH )  n n J ` 8 n   n ` n 8 J dn J dn n dn ~ dn ~ ` n 8 n ` n 8 P dn P dn n n Jdj n dj ~ n n n P dj    3   Qrv h{hufðflrv dedl{r/ fdofxoh rv hohphqwrv _4 / _5 h _6 / h hvfuhyd r judgl0 hqwh/ r glyhujhqwh/ r urwdflrqdo h r odsodfldqr sdud fdgd vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv iruqhflgr +?4 ) ?/ ?5 ) r h ?6 ) F.D ã uhwd txh sdvvd shorv srqwrv < w1. c. r ghwhuplqdqwh gd pdwul} wudqvsrvwd ì ljxdo dr ghwhuplqdqwh gd pdwul} ruljlqdo1` . cd. . y} D h udlr p1 541 Dfkh d glvwåqfld gr srqwr h wE. y| . d.

4191 H[HUFÐFLRV= 41 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv hoðswlfr0floðqgulfr= t ?4 ) `4 `5 / ?5 ) w`5 c 5 D wd c `5 D h ?6 ) `6  4 5 51 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv sdudeöolfr0floðqgulfr=  d 5 ?4 ) `4 c `5 / ?5 ) `4 `5 h ?6 ) `6  5 1 76 61 Vlvwhpd gh frrughdqdgdv f÷qlfr= t t `4 `4 ?4 ) wy5 c `5 D wy5 L `5 D/ ?5 ) wK5 c `5 D wK5 L `5 D 5 6 5 6 y K `4 `5 `6 ?6 ) +frp y5 L K5 ) d.1 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv sduderorlgdo= v w`5 c y5 D w`5 c y5 D w`5 c y5 D 4 5 6 ?4 ) y5 c K5 v w`5 c K5 D w`5 c K5 D w`5 c K5 D 4 5 6 ?5 ) K5 c y5  d 5 ?6 ) ` L `5 L `5 c y5 c K5 5 6 1 4 ?6 ) `4 `5 > ?6 ) `4 `5 > .> yK 71 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv sdudeöolfr0urwdflrqdo= t  d 5 ?4 ) `4 `5 `6 > ?5 ) `4 `5 d c `5 h ?6 ) `4 c `5 > 5 6 1 81 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv hvihurlgdo0urwdflrqdo0surodwr= t t ?4 ) w`5 c y5 D wd c `5 D> ?5 ) w`5 c y5 D wd c `5 D wd c `5 D 4 5 4 5 6 91 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv hvihurlgdo0urwdflrqdo0reodwr= t t ?4 ) `6 w`5 L y5 D wd c `5 D> ?5 ) w`5 L y5 D wd c `5 D wd c `5 D 4 5 4 5 6 :1 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv holsvrlgdo= v w`5 c y5 D w`5 c y5 D w`5 c y5 D 4 5 6 ?4 ) y5 wy5 c K5 D v w`5 c K5 D w`5 c K5 D w`5 c K5 D 4 5 6 ?5 ) K5 wK5 c y5 D `4 `5 `6 ?6 ) yK .

„ 431 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv hviìulfr= 441 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv floðqgulfr= 451 Hvfuhyd d htxdêær gh Vfkuùglqjhu sdud r äwrpr gh klgurjíqlr/ gdgd sru c hp frrughqdgdv hviìulfdv/ rqgh r srwhqfldo ì gdgr sru Qrv h{hufðflrv dedl{r/ xvh dv lghqwlgdghv yhwruldv sdud rshudgruhv glihuhqfl0 dlv sdud uhvroyhu rv sureohpdv= 41 D sduwlu gdv htxdêøhv lqwhjudlv gh Pd{zhoo/ gdgdv sru UU UU n n n n odQC ) < 4dQC ) ( K UU K UU  n q n n n q n n odQn ) c g 4dQC 4dQn ) 4 g odQCL3 7 # gw f gw 461 Idêd r phvpr gr h{hufðflr dqwhulru sdud r vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv sdudeöolfr0 floðqgulfr1 D htxdêær uhvxowdqwh ì vhsduäyhoB Vh vxd uhvsrvwd iru dupd0 wlyd/ vhsduh0d1 frp „ r udlr txh oljd r suöwrq dr hoìwurq1 Prvwuh txh hvwd htxdêær ì vhsduäyho h vhsduh0d1 n n n rqgh o. O vær dv ghqvlgdghv gh fdujd h fruuhqwh/  ì d yhorflgdgh gd ox}/ h < h 7 vær d fdujd wrwdo h d fruuhqwh/ dfkh dv htxdêøhv glihuhqfldlv/ gdgdv sru n n U d o ) % Ud4 )( !   n n U e o L C E ) ( U e 4 c f4 C H ) # Cw Cw 3O D fdujd wrwdo h d fruuhqwh srghp vhu hvfulwdv frpr ]]] ]] n n <) 'Q~ / 7 ) OdQC3 n 3 .77 FDSÐWXOR 41 UHYLVÆR GH DOJXQV FRQFHLWRV LPSRUWDQWHV <1 Vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv el0hviìulfr= s s s d c `5 wd c `5 D wd c `5 D `5 c d 5 5 6 4 ?4 ) y`6 > ?5 ) y h ?6 ) 3 `4 c `5 `4 c `5 `4 c `5 ?4 ) `4 R$t w`5 D {BR w`6 D > ?5 ) `4 R$t w`5 D R$t w`6 D h ?6 ) `4 {BR w`5 D 3 ?4 ) `4 {BR w`5 D / ?5 ) `4 R$t w`5 D h ?6 ) `6 3 _ ƒ5 5 U  L ~ wnD  ) o „ 1E ~ wnD ) „ c5 .4 vær rv fdpsrv hoìwulfr h pdjqìwlfr h '.

(0 h lqwhusuhwh hvwh uhvxowdgr1 81 Frqvlghuh r sureohpd gh hohwurvwäwlfd qxpd uhjlær olyuh gh fdujdv h xvh r n idwr gh txh/ sdud d hohwurvwäwlfd/ r fdpsr hoìwulfr o srgh vhu hvfulwr frpr r judglhqwh gh xp srwhqfldo * gd irupd Rewhqkd/ d sduwlu gdv htxdêøhv gh Pd{zhoo/ d htxdêær sdud * h hvfuhyd0d hp frrughqdgdv hviìulfdv1 Vhsduh hvwd htxdêær h uhvroyd d sduwh udgldo1 Xvh/ sdud hqfrqwudu d vroxêær udgldo qdo d frqglêær gh frqwruqr txh gl} txh r srwhqfldo ghyh vhu qlwr qd ruljhp1 n o ) cU*3 .4191 H[HUFÐFLRV= 78 51 Xvdqgr dv htxdêøhv glihuhqfldlv gr h{hufðflr dqwhulru/ prvwuh txh rv fdp0 n n srv o h 4 vdwlvid}hp d xpd htxdêær gh rqgd/ rx vhmd/ n n d ( 5o d (O ) U' L 3 5 (05  3 (0 5n d ( 4 n n U5 4 c 5 5 ) c 3 U e O  (0 n U5 o c 61 Frqvlghuh xp fdpsr hoìwulfr qr lqwhulru gh xpd fdylgdgh floðqgulfd phwäolfd vhp fdujdv qhp fruuhqwhv qr vhx lqwhulru1 Vdehqgr txh r fdpsr hoìwulfr wdqjhqfldo ãv sduhghv gd fdylgdgh ghyhp0vh dqxodu/ hvfuhyd dv frqglêøhv gh frqwruqr gr sureohpd1 Hvfuhyd d htxdêær gh rqgd sdud r fdpsr hoìwulfr qxp vlvwhpd gh frrughqdgdv dsursuldgr h prvwuh txh hod ì vhsduäyho1 Vhsduh0d hp wuív htxdêøhv glihuhqfldlv ruglqäuldv1 Rv fdpsrv dvvlp rewl0 grv frpr vroxêær ghvwdv htxdêøhv vær fkdpdgrv gh prgrv qrupdlv gh yleudêær gr fdpsr sdud d fdylgdgh floðqgulfd1 71 Prvwuh/ xvdqgr dv htxdêøhv glihuhqfldlv gh Pd{zhoo/ txh ydoh d htxdêær gh frqwlqxlgdgh (' n L U d O ) (.

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