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A SEMINAR REPORT On ³Global Positioning System´ Prepared By: Patel.Yash.M 5th I.T. 50 Submitted To
Department of Information Technology Nov/Dec 2010
Guided By: M.R.Gajjar.
Faculty in Charge Visnagar Date: . Visnagar in partial fulfillment of the requirement as a subject (Seminar) under the Gujarat Technological University during the 5th Semester.SANKALCHAND PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING VISNAGAR CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Seminar Report titled Global Positioning System is prepared and presented by Patel Yash Mayankbhai of the Sankalchand Patel College of Engineering.
Lecturer. I thank all those have contributed during the preparation of the topic including my parents and friends. M. SANKALCHAND PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.B. Patel Yash M.ACKNOWLEGEMENT y No Words can give an adequate expression to my feelings of indebtedness to my guide Mrs.Patel. y At last but not least. giving me the different aspects the topic and helped me in every steps performed during the Seminar Presentation. H. A work of this nature would not have been possible without the encouragement and meticulous attention received from her. y I express my sincere gratitude to Mr.R. . the head of computer department. Department of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING.Gajjar. and VISNAGAR.
U. and providing precise timing for endeavors that require large-scale co-ordination. Government. Standard positioning system: .It was developed by US Department of Defense & extended for commercial uses. and selected civil users specifically approved by the U. S. Its main advantages are shorter response time. Large Plants such as Reliance.Abstract y GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM: INTRODUCTION: . The models compute precise orbital data (ephemeris) SV clock corrections for each satellite. y TYPES OF GPS: Precise positioning system: -Authorized users with cryptographic equipment and keys and specially equipped receivers use the Precise Positioning System. S. utility services. Control segment consists of system tracking stations located round the world. . directing emergency vehicles to the scene of an accident. security against theft & others. The L1 frequency (1575. control segment & user segment.42 MHz) carries the navigation message and the SPS code signals. space segment. A GPS receiver converts SV signals into position. GPS application also includes keeping track of where fleets of trucks. for tracking sea.The military uses GPS for accurate information in missile calculations. Most receivers are capable of receiving and using the SPS signal. Public Transport segments such as Railways. control over unauthorized use of vehicles. y GPS SEGMENTS: It consists of three segments. Transport fleet owners. air and land vehicles. and other applications.60 MHz) is used to measure the ionosphere delay by GPS equipped receivers. y ADVANTAGES: . It can be used by Police force. mapping where a city located. The L2 frequency (1227.The SV¶s transmit two microwave carrier signals. Forest department & others. return on investments. ships or planes are. y SATELLITE SIGNALS: . certain U.It is basically satellite based all weather. time & velocity estimates. trains. The DOD intentionally degrades the SPS accuracy by the use of Selective Availability. can use the PPS. and Allied military. S. lower operating cost. Government agencies. y AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATION (AVL): AVL is technology used in tracking vehicles.Civil users worldwide use the SPS without charge or restrictions. round the clock precise positioning system . Four satellite signals are used to compute position in three dimensions & time offset in receiver clock. how fast they are moving.
42 MHz) L2 frequency (1227.GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM GPS SEGMENTS SPACE SEGMENT CONTROL SEGMENT USER SEGMENT TYPES OF GPS PPS (PRECISE POSITIONING SYSTEM) SPS (STANDARD POSITIONING SYSTEM) SATELLITE SIGNALS L1 frequency (1575.60 MHz) GPS DATA NEEDS MILITARY USES UPDATES POSITION & LOCATION SECURITY AGAINST THEFT \ .
which stands for Global Positioning System. the satellites have atomic clocks²pretty close. Thus by knowing where you are relative to these three satellites the receiver with a perfect clock can know where it is. the GPS can treat the center of the earth as a satellite reducing the number of required satellites by one. is the only system today able to show you your exact position on the Earth anytime. If you know how far you are from two satellites. For three-dimensional navigation you need to receive four satellites. There is no charge for use. The receiver measures how much it has had to shift the timing of its code to match the incoming code. and the other is not a reasonable solution ± somewhere in outer space.000 mile orbit and transmits a very weak signal. anywhere. Your distance from the center of the earth is the radius of the earth plus your altitude. Military. Light travels at 186. If you know how far you are from one satellite then you know that you are somewhere along an imaginary sphere around that satellite. it can then calculate the distance from the satellite. The receiver is also able to generate the same code. but it makes a good starting point. If you know your altitude. in any weather. Although no clock is perfect. What the GPS receiver does is to use a cheap clock similar to a digital watch and add one more satellite to the calculation to correct the time in the receiver. Each satellite is in an 11. This is why aviation GPS models have barometric altimeter input and you may occasionally see a handheld GPS ask for your altitude during poor reception conditions. The receiver shifts the time calculation back and forth so that all of the imaginary spheres around the satellites intercept at one point.S. The number may vary slightly as new ones are launched and old ones are retired. then you are somewhere where this third sphere intercepts the circle created by the intersection of the other two spheres. The receiver matches the incoming code to the internally generated code except that there is a delay caused by the signalµs travel time between the satellite and the receiver. To start with.860 miles. If the receiver time was off by 1/100 of a second the calculated distance would be off by 1. assume that all of the satellites and the receiver have a perfect internal clock. The clock in the GPS receiver is closer in technology to an inexpensive digital watch. The system is monitored and maintained by the U. How it works? The GPS system consists of 24 satellites. The sphere will most likely intercept the previous circle at two points. which is a circle. This is not the case. This is known as an over determined solution .000 miles per second. then you are somewhere along the intersection of where these two spheres. For each receiver to have its own cesium clock would make GPS technology prohibitively expensive and non-portable. Consider this signal to be like the peaks and ridges along the edge of a super long key. Think of it as one satellite for each dimension and one for the time.INTRODUCTION What is GPS? GPS. One of these points is where you are. For two-dimensional navigation you can scrape by with only receiving three satellites. The satellites only broadcast to the user and the user only receives. This code is generated as a function of time. If you add another satellite. Each satellite transmits a coded signal. Newer GPS receivers use the extra signals above the minimum that is required to further refine the position for increased accuracy. Since the receiver knows how much time it took the signal to reach the receiver and the speed of travel of the signal.
There are six orbital lier planes (with nominally four SVs in each). This constellation provides the user with between five and eight SVs visible from any point on the earth. .Segments of GPS There are three segments of GPS GPS SEGMENTS SPACE SEGMENT C NTR SEGMENT USER SEGMENT Space Segment y The Space Segment of the system consists of the GPS satellites. equally spaced (60 degrees apart). and inclined at about fifty-five degrees with respect to the equatorial plane. The nominal GPS Operational Constellation consists of 24 satellites that orbit the earth in 12 hours. There are often more than 24 operational satellites as new ones are launched to replace older satellites. Fig 1: Space Segment. The satellite y Orbits repeat almost the same ground track (as the earth turns beneath them) once each day. The orbit altitude is such that the satellites repeat the same track and configuration over any point approximately each 24 hours (4 minutes ear each day). These space vehicles (SVs) send radio signals from space.
Navigation receivers are made for aircraft. Surveying. GPS receivers convert SV signals into position. and other research. is another use for GPS. The SVs then send subsets of the orbital ephemeris data to GPS receivers over radio signals. Four satellites are required to compute the four dimensions of X. based on the precise clocks on board the SVs and controlled by the monitor stations. . time dissemination. Y. ground vehicles. which are incorporated into orbital models for each satellites. The Master Control station uploads ephemeris and clock data to the SVs. o o o . The models compute precise orbital data (ephemeris) and SV clock corrections for each satellite. o Navigation in three dimensions is the primary function of GPS. positioning. velocity. The Master Control facility is located at Schriever Air Force Base (formerly Falcon AFB) in Colorado. Z (position) and Time. Research projects have used GPS signals to measure atmospheric parameters. User Segment y The GPS User Segment consists of the GPS receivers and the user community. y Fig 2: Control Segment. and plate tectonic studies are examples. and for hand carrying by individuals. ships. Astronomical observatories. and laboratory standards can be set to precise time signals or controlled to accurate frequencies by special purpose GPS receivers. and time estimates. geodetic control. GPS receivers are used for navigation. Precise positioning is possible using GPS receivers at reference locations providing corrections and relative positioning data for remote receivers. These monitor stations measure signals from the SVs. telecommunications facilities. Time and frequency dissemination.Control Segment y The Control Segment consists of a system of tracking stations located around the world.
and express the value of two standard deviations of radial error from the actual antenna position to an ensemble of position estimates made under specified satellite elevation angle (five degrees) and PDOP (less than six) conditions. S. and selected civil users specifically approved by the U. and Allied military. Root mean-square (RMS) error is the value of one standard deviation (68%) of the error in one. PPS Predictable Accuracy o 22 meter Hori ontal accuracy o 27. U. For vertical and time errors 95% is the value of two-standard deviations of vertical error or time error. T pes of GPS Precise Positioning Service (PPS) y Authori ed users with cryptographic equipment and keys and specially equipped receivers use the Precise Positioning System. certain U. The DOD intentionally degrades the SPS accuracy by the use of Selective Availability. Most receive are rs capable of receiving and using the SPS signal.7 meter vertical accuracy o 200 nanosecond time (UTC) accuracy y Standard Positioning Service (SPS) y Civil users worldwide use the SPS without charge or restrictions. two or three y y . Receiver manufacturers may use other accuracy measures. or twice the radial error standard deviation. S. can use the PPS. The figures are 95% accuracies. SPS Predictable Accuracy o o o y 100 meter hori ontal accuracy 156 meter vertical accuracy 340 nanoseconds time accuracy y These GPS accuracy figures are from the 1999 Federal Radio navigation Plan. Government. S.Fig 3: User Segment. Government agencies. -distance rootFor hori ontal accuracy figures 95% is the equivalent of 2drms (two mean-squared).
or RMS figures. but it is good for guiding bombs and missiles. Selective Availability. Although I suppose that the military could turn it on again. SA no longer exists. This added some inaccuracy to the calculated position. selective availability was turned off. The C/A code repeats every 1023 bits (one millisecond). There is a different C/A code PRN for each SV.42 MHz) carries the navigation message and the SPS code signals. The PCode is a very long (seven days) 10 MHz PRN code. centered at the actual position that contains 50% of the position estimates. o The C/A Code (Coarse Acquisition) modulates the L1 carrier phase. SA SA is an intentional error introduced into the GPS signal to make it less accurate. The C/A code that modulates the L1 carrier is the basis for the civil SPS. Circular Error Probable (CEP) is the value of the radius of a circle.60 MHz) is used to measure the ionospheric delay by PPS equipped receivers. The C/A code is a repeating 1 MHz Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) Code. the unique identifier for each pseudo-random-noise code. The L1 frequency (1575. and LAAS take out much of the SA induced error. The P-Code (Precise) modulates both the L1 and L2 carrier phases. centered at the actual position that contains 50% of the three dimension position estimates. GPS Satellite Signals The SVs transmit two microwave carrier signals. The encrypted Y-Code requires a classified AS Module for each receiver channel and is for use only by authorized users with cryptographic keys. The L2 frequency (1227. drms. GPS satellites are often identified by their PRN number. Not only is GPS good for flying airplanes. Thus. that is the radius of a sphere. Thus a sophisticated enemy could negate the effects.dimensions. making those receivers appear more accurate than those specified by more responsible vendors using more conservative error measures. WAAS. This noise-like code modulates the L1 carrier signal. As opposed to 2drms. CEP and SEP are not affected by large blunder errors making them an overly optimistic accuracy measure some receiver specification sheets list horizontal accuracy in RMS or CEP and without Selective Availability. To prevent somebody else from doing this well. y Three binary codes shift the L1 and/or L2 carrier phase. In the Anti-Spoofing (AS) mode of operation. The P (Y)Code is the basis for the PPS. "spreading" the spectrum over a 1 MHz bandwidth. the P-Code is encrypted into the Y-Code. Spherical Error Probable (SEP) is the spherical equivalent of CEP. I mention it because you may see it in mentioned in literature on GPS. o . Error correction technologies such as differential GPS. the military added a little random time shift to the satellite signal available for civilian use.
Three six-second sub frames contain orbital and clock data. but a . A data frame is transmitted every thirty seconds. Each PRN code is a noise-like.Data bit sub frames (300 bits transmitted over six seconds) contain parity bits that allow for data checking and limited error correction. a receiver gathers new ephemeris data each hour.The receiver produces the C/A code sequence for a specific SV with some form of a C/A code generator. The approximate orbital data is used to preset the receiver with the approximate position and carrier Doppler frequency (the frequency shift caused by the rate of change in range to the moving SV) of each SV in the constellation. The ten-parameter almanacs describe SV orbits over extended periods of time (useful for months in some cases) and a set for all SVs are sent by each SV over a period of 12. Each frame consists of five sub frames. The receiver to set UTC to within 100 ns can use this correction. Almanacs are approximate orbital data parameters for all SVs.5-minute period. Clock data parameters describe the SV clock and its relationship to GPS time.o The Navigation Message also modulates the L1-C/A code signal. Sub frames four and five are used to transmit different pages of system data. Signal acquisition time on receiver start-up can be significantly aided by the availability of current almanacs. Normally. GPS Data GPS Data The GPS Navigation Message consists of time-tagged data bits marking the time of transmission of each sub frame at the time they are transmitted by the SV. A data bit frame consists of 1500 bits divided into five 300-bit sub frames. The ephemeris parameters are used with an algorithm that computes the SV position for any time within the period of the orbit described by the ephemeris parameter set. unique series of bits. clock corrections.Data frames (1500 bits) are sent every thirty seconds. Ephemeris data parameters describe SV orbits for short sections of the satellite orbits. Modern receivers usually store a complete set of recomputed C/A code chips in memory. and other system parameters. but can use old data for up to four hours without much error. but pre-determined. Other system parameters and flags are sent that characterize details of the system. The Navigation Message is a 50 Hz signal consisting of data bits that describe the GPS satellite orbits. Position and time from GPS Code Phase Tracking (Navigation) y y y y y The GPS receiver produces replicas of the C/A and/or P (Y)-Code. Each complete SV data set includes an ionospheric model that is used in the receiver to approximate the phase delay through the ionosphere at any location and time.5 minutes (at least). Each SV sends the amount to which GPS Time is offset from Universal Coordinated Time. SV Clock corrections are sent in sub frame one and precise SV orbital data sets (ephemeris data parameters) for the transmitting SV are sent in sub frames two and three. An entire set of twenty-five frames (125 sub frames) makes up the complete Navigation Message that is sent over a 12.
The C/A code generator produces a different 1023-chip sequence for each phase tap setting. Selective Availability (SA) SA is the intentional degradation of the SPS signals by a time varying bias. the spread-spectrum carrier signal is de-spread and full signal power is detected. position solutions or individual SV pseudo-ranges cannot be effectively averaged over periods shorter than a few hours. Other Bias Error sources. If the receiver applies a different PRN code to an SV signal there is no correlation. A phase locked loop that can lock to either a positive or negative half-cycle (a biphase lock loop) is used to demodulate the 50 HZ navigation message from the GPS carrier signal. In a memory lookup scheme the required code chips are retrieved from memory. This TOA is called the pseudo-range. Military and government users. Because SA is a changing bias with low frequency terms in excess of a few hours.The C/A code generator repeats the same 1023-chip PRN-code sequence every millisecond. In a shift register implementation the code chips are shifted in time by slewing the clock that controls the shift registers. A GPS receiver uses the detected signal power in the correlated signal to align the C/A code in the receiver with the code in the SV signal. Usually a late version of the code is compared with an early version to insure that the correlation peak is tracked. y The receiver slides a replica of the code in time until there is correlation with the SV code. S. Ephemeris data errors: 1 meter y y y y . As the SV and receiver codes line up completely. some signal power is detected. and so the resulting position solution is a function of the combined SA bias from each SV used in the navigation solution. and blunders. shift register. The potential accuracy of the C/A code of around 30 meters is reduced to 100 meters (two standard deviations). implementation can also be used. The same loop can be used to measure and track the carrier frequency (Doppler shift) and by keeping track of the changes to the numerically controlled oscillator. bias. Differential corrections must be updated at a rate less than the correlation time of SA (and other bias errors). PRN codes are defined for 32 satellite identification numbers. When the receiver uses the same code as the SV and the codes begin to line up.hardware. GPS Error sources y y y y y y y GPS errors are a combination of noise. SA is controlled by the DOD to limit accuracy for non-U. The SA bias on each satellite signal is different. SV clock errors uncorrected by Control Segment can result in one-meter errors. This TOA is a measure of the range to SV offset by the amount to which the receiver clock is offset from GPS time. carrier frequency phase can be tracked and measured. Noise errors are the combined effect of PRN code noise (around 1 meter) and noise within the receiver noise (around 1 meter). The receiver PRN code start position at the time of full correlation is the time of arrival (TOA) of the SV PRN at receiver.
This allows the main control station and the base station to monitor the entire fleet and manage the mobile assets. and humidity associated with weather changes. The Global Positioning System (GPS). the vehicular hardware suite can be opened up to support not only the tracking function. real- . Satellite communication is chosen for fleet management on an international or global basis. time and velocity continuously during any weather. Conventional Radio is typically used in tracking systems that are confined to region where the limited range associated with Conventional Radio is not a factor. Blunders can result in errors of hundred of kilometers. But the most crucial part of any tracking system is the data communication link. and Satellite Communication. User mistakes. there is more than one location (Base Station). word processing. can cause errors from 1 to hundreds of meters. The ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from 50 to 500 km that consists of ionized air.5 meters.y Tropospheric delays: 1 meter. As. the three prime media being used in vehicle tracking applications are Conventional Radio. The troposphere is the lower part (ground level to from 8 to 13 km) of the atmosphere that experiences the changes in temperature. Cellular. Today. The transmitted model can only remove about half of the possible 70 ns of delay leaving a ten meter un-modeled residual. AVL Information: Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) is a technology used for tracking vehicles. With Windows 95/NT. Each vehicle unit has a GPS receiver that reports its position to the base station over a communication network (VHF Link). Unmodeled ionosphere delays: 10 meters. the positional data received from a vehicle unit is retransmitted to a Main Control Station through a communication link. as the foundation. which provides data on location. but in-vehicle navigation. y y y y y y a. including incorrect geodetic datum selection. Receiver errors from software or hardware failures can cause blunder errors of any size. Multipath is difficult to detect and sometime hard to avoid. has revolutionized the capability to locate an object in 3D space. pressure. Cellular Communication is often chosen for a system in which the vehicles range across several regions or an entire continent and where the cellular network has a high level of homogeneity and few ³dead´ spots. Multipath is caused by reflected signals from surfaces near the receiver that can either interfere with or be mistaken for the signal that follows the straight-line path from the satellite. to the extent that the integrity of the tracking system is almost wholly dependent on the integrity of the communication system being used within it. Control segment mistakes due to computer or human error can cause errors from one meter to hundreds of kilometers. Multipath: 0. Complex models of tropospheric delay require estimates or measurements of these parameters.
GPS Commun Co GPS adio R Radio Commun Communication Workstation M obile C Figure The GPS receiver used in the vehicle has 12 or more tracking channels with parallel satellite tracking capability. The Controller Card (CC) serves as a link between the GPS Receiver. where all the Base Stations are linked through a communication link. The main PC runs software. obtaining and storing the current position fixes computed by the GPS receiver for the events commanded or regular interval transfer back to the base station. The CC would also allow the user in vehicle to select and convey messages back to the base station. The data received will also stored on the computer of the base station. that together will carry fleet management and mobile computing well into the next century. a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The Main Control Station is the controller of the network. the user in the vehicle and the communication system. Its functionality would include. the CC would also generate audiovisual alarms to attract the attention of the user. communication control software and dispatching software. which includes an efficient operating system. If required. which is further displayed on a geographical map of the . graphical software to display the positions of the vehicles over a local detailed digitized map. The positional data is received from all the base stations at a pre-determined time interval and the received data or the positional data of the vehicles are logged onto a database.time data transfer & a multitude of other mobile office applications. Control Station The Base Station is the nerve center of the whole system polling the vehicles for their positions and receiving and sending data message from and to the vehicles. Entry keys are designed depending on type of application. The system consists of three principle elements as indicated in Figure.
vehicle identification and any pertinent information or special needs. geographic coverage and cost. since the entire resources of the powerful computer is available to the operator. the control station will execute retries for a definite number of attempts. between all the base stations and Main Control Station. This data can be entered in a specific format to include vehicle description. The software provides zooming feature to enable a closeup view of the vehicle of interest and also an overall view by zooming out to be able to see all the vehicles on the screen. just by taking into account the application requirements. each vehicle¶s information is entered into a database at the control station. a particular vehicle does not respond the first time. Editing function on the digitized map provides demarcation of certain areas. Thus. The second. which can be preset by the operator depending on the importance of the vehicle in question. an audiovisual alarm is activated which the operator proceeds to convey to the specific errant vehicle. Multiple window views provide both overall view and a close up view on the same screen. throughput capacity. The basic data format employed for message exchanges between the control station and the vehicles should include predefined codes in the headers of each message to stimulate the desired response from the specific member of the system. The graphical software provides a host of features to enable the operator to make quick position related assessments. Based on these. Messages from the control station to the vehicles can be both predefined or free form entry. Communication Link At first glance. which is approximately at a distance of 45-50 Kilometers. The first link. Emergency messages from the vehicles can be made to generate audiovisual alarms at the control station. one or two technologies come into focus. which can be hazardous to the vehicles. to attract the operator¶s attention and demand an acknowledgment to ensure that the message has been received and read. The requirements mainly cover aspects such as reporting rate. The control station will poll the vehicles for their positions using their identity codes in a sequential manner to cover all the vehicles in the database. There are two different types of communication links required in this solution. and if a vehicle travel into such areas. The database software is also used to keep up-to-date information on the movements of the vehicles along with their defined schedules and destinations. the most common type of .state. In the first link. a real-time monitoring of the Police Patrol Vehicles can be done. the AVL market place may seem to offer a host of communication technologies for vehicle tracking applications. At the time of deployment of the system. However. between the vehicle units installed in the mobile vehicles and the base stations. If for reasons of communication link masking. the data is to be transferred to the next Base Station. if need be. the vehicles may have.
.1k ± Category: Science > Earth Sciences > Geomatics > GPS .html . some can accept differential corrections. multiple data files have to be sent and the range to be covered is more than 50kms.colorado. Military GPS receivers may cost more or be difficult to obtain.. and signal structure.html .Global Positioning System www. They are intended to operate in defined geographical regions.000). and the cost of specially trained personnel.. single-receiver PPS projects (20 meter accuracy) High-cost. o o o o y y Low-cost.. which will determine equipment cost.. .edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/gps/gps.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.org/ Sam Wormley's Global Positioning System (GPS) Resources at .Similar pages The Global Positioning System www.Cached . Category: Science > Earth Sciences > Geomatics > GPS . Project tasks can often be categorized by required accuracies. The frequency ranges normally used are VHF (136-175 MHz).. differential carrier phase surveys (1 mm to 1 cm accuracy) WEBSITES Automatic Transfer Global Positioning System (GPS) Notes. Have moved to the University of Colorado at Boulder at the following address: . Receivers that can store files for post-processing with base station file cost more ($2000-5000).2k . post-processing software.gps-society. GPS Techniques and Project Costs y Receiver costs vary depending on capabilities.. Other costs include the cost of multiple receivers when needed.utexas. Small civil SPS receivers can be purchased for under $200.Global Positioning System www. Both systems are owned and operated . Police Organization's existing wireless link shall be utilized for the same. Receivers that can act as DGPS reference receivers (computing & providing correction data) and carrier phase tracking receivers (and two are often required) can cost many thousands of dollars($5. orbits.000 to 40. differential SPS code Positioning (1-10 meter accuracy) High-cost. Category: Science > Earth Sciences > Geomatics > GPS - .. Conventional LMR are portable and can be dashboard mountable units. single-receiver SPS projects (100 meter accuracy) Medium-cost. common with the US' Global Positioning System (GPS) in terms of the satellite constellation.communication system used in AVL design is the Conventional Land Mobile Radios. In the second link.
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