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ELASTIC
FOUNDATION 
. '.
Theory with application in the fields of
. .
civil and mechanical engineering
) .. ._/ . .t_/.'
~EAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
I THEORY WITH· APPLICATIONS IN THE FIELDS OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BY
M. HETENYI
~
,. ,
,q
.' .
. 1 .
\
~NN ARBOR:
I
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS
Eleven th prin ting 1979
Published in .the United States of Am . b ' .
Tl u· . enca y, '
. I; mversuy of Michigan Press and sImultaneously
In exdale, Canada, by John Wile & Son C . .
Manufactured in the Unhed State; of Am:ric:nada, Limited
V~iv~l'si~~' of Michigan Studit:s SC1dnrijic &n'es
Vo{um~XVI
, ,
I
PREFACE
The subject of this book is the a.na1ysis of elastically supported beams. The elastic support' is provided here by & loadbearing 'medium, referred to as the ·'founda.tion," distributed continuously along the length of the beams. Such conditions of support can be found in 'a. large vari(lty of technical problems. In some of these problems the identity of the beam and thefowidation can be easily established, as in the case of actual foundation structures or in the case of the railroad track." In other problems, however, which constitute perhaps the most, fruitful field of application or this theory, the concept of beam and founda.tion is more of an a.bstract na.ture.' .Bueh conditions we find in networks of beams and in 'thinw·alled tubes, shells, and domes, :where the elastic founda.tion for the beam part is supplied by the resilience of the adjoining portions of a continuous
, elastic structure. Apart from' the diversity of technical applicatiotis, there is a considera.ble variation possible in the fundamental subject itself., The flexura.l rigidity of ,the beam or the elasticity of the foundation may 'be .a variable quan, tity; the axi's of the beam ma.y be straight or curved or the character of the , applied loading may.be axial, transverse, or torsionsl, in addition to a combination ot,end conditions to which any of these beams may be subjected. On the
whole, however, ali these problems are closely related through an affinit.y in their mathematical formulation. This renders the entire Subject matter eminently suitable for a comprehensive' treatment, which is the aim of the present volume.
, In the course of this work much help was derived from the numerous publica, tions on the subject, including several monographs in Gerinan and Russian, to which references are made in the footnotes. In attempting to form a comprehensive unit of all this material it has been found that many questions of
, ' interest to research men, and practicing engineers have not yet been answered.
This made it necessary to dev,elopnew solutions, to work out new cases of loadings, etc., the result of wbicb.lstha.t!s. siza.ble portion of 'the material contained in this volume is of a kind that has not beenpublished before. Among theSj. new developments we may 'mention <in particular the use of endconditioning forces for producing beams of finite 'length under any combination of loading, the reduotion of the problem of axially symmetrical deformation of conical and spherical shells to that of bending of beams on elastic foundation, and the introduction of the concept of foundation layers' representing partial continuity.' in the material of the foundation. .In addition to these a large number of new
, formulas for specific cases of loading and end conditions were worked out, together with illustrative examples, which appear interspersed throughout the text. Though the problems discussed are chiefly in the field of statics,' the solutions developed in this connection may also be employed in other fields of mathematiQal physics, particularly in vibrations and acoustics.
There are two basic types of elastic foundations. The first type is 'characterized by the fact tba.t the pressure in the foundation is proportional at 'every point to the deflection occurring at tha.t.point and is independent of preseures or i v
vi
PREFACE
deflections produced elsewhere in the foundation. Such a correlation between pressures and deflections implies a lack of continuity in the supporting medium, just as if it were made up of rows of closely spaced but independent elastic springs. The second type of foundation is furnished by an elastic solid which, in contrast, to the first one, represents the case of complet.e continuity in the supporting medium. Though the first type is mathematically simpler, onc should not regard it, as some 'investigators do, as an approximat.ion or an "elementary" solution for the elastic solid foundation, because it, has its OW11 physical characteristics and significance. ,Foundations of the first, type have by far the wider field of application in physical sciences, and most of the problems mentioned above can be reduced to elastic supporting conditions falling under this classification. For this reason t.he larger part. of the book, nine chapters out of the ten, is devoted to problems arising in connection with such an essentially discontinuous type of foundation, and only the last chapter deals with cases in which the supporting , body is an elastic continuum. Problems of continuity are introducedIn the tenth chapter with a discussion of foundation layers which, with their varying and adjustable degree of continuity, form a useful transition he tween the two basic types of foundationslllentioned above.
In the mathematical notation of this text a minor depurturo was made from existing practice in that capital initial letters are used in the otherwise customary notations for hyperbolic functions. The need fOI' this arose from the fact that, owing to the nature of the subject, solutions often appeared in lengthy and sometimes perplexing combinations of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. Thus it became highly desirable to accentuata the difference in notation between these two types of functions. and the use of a capital initial for the latter type was found to be a simple and effective way to achieve the purpose ..
The first manuscript for this book was prepared in 193637 during the tenure of a Horace H. Rackham Postdoetoratn Fellowship at the University of Michigan. Since then the material has been revised several times and enlarged until.it has assumed its present form. The author takes this opportunity to express his deep appreciation and gratitude to the University of Michigan for granting the generous fellowship which made this undertaking possible and for supporting the publication of the ensuing results. During the work much encouragernantvand benefit were derived from personal contacts with Professor Stephen P. Timoshenko, who first, aroused the authors interest in this subject and who proved to be a constant source of inspiration. It is also apleasure to acknowledge the valuable assistance received from Professor Edward L. Eriksen, Dr. Merhyle F. Spotts, and Dr. Stewart Way. The author is greatly indebted to Dr. Eugene S. McCart,ney, editor of the University of Michigan Press, for his care in steering the publication through the press under wartime conditions .and for the many constructive suggestions that, both he and Miss Grace Potter, former assistant editor, have eontributed.
M. HETENYI
CONTENTS
...................
PRE~'ACE : .••• , , , , .
CHAPTER I
GENERAL SOLUTION OF THE ELASTIC LINE ......•....... ' .
1 The Differential Equation of the Elastic Line ': , ,
2: Interpretation of the Integration Constants .
3. Method of Superposition , .
CHAPTER II
BEAMS OF UNLIMITED LENGTH ; , . , , .•
1. The Infinite Beam .
4. Concentrated Loading : , .
5. Uniformly Distributed Loading .
. 6. Triangular Loading : .
7. Various Loading Conditions on the Infinite Beam. , .
II. The Semiinfinite Beam , '.' .
8. The EndConditioning Forces: .
9, Particular Cases of EndLoading. .
Ill. Applications .
10. The Railroad Track ' , .. : . , .
11. Cylindrical Tube under Axially Symmetrical Loading , .
12. Examples , .. , .
CHAPTER III
BEAMS OF FINl'l'E. LENGTH , ' .
13. General Method of Solution for Beams of Finite Length .
14. Beams with Free Ends , , , .
15. Beams with Hinged Ends , , , .
16 Beams with Fixed Ends, , ..
17: . Classification ~f Beams according to Stiffness .
18. Example., ;.' , , . , ..
CHAPTER IV
PARTICULAR CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS , , .. , ..• ,
I. Solutions of the Differential Equa.tion of the Elastic Line , .
19. Beams with Free Eads .
20. Beams with Hinged Ends , , . , .. , , .. , ..
21. Beams with Fixed Ends, , .. :' , .
22. Cantilever Beams. . . .. . . . . . .. . ,.
:.;!3. Partially Supported Beams ,
vii
PAGE V
1 2 6 9
10
10 10 14 17 18 22 22 24 27 27 30 33
38 38 38 43 44 46 47
50 50 50 59 62 64 67
viii
CONTENTS
PAGE
1[. Solutions in the Form of Triqonomeiric Series " . 69
24. Beams with Free Ends r " 69
25. Beams with Hinged Ends " 75
2G. Beams with Fixed Ends........ . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. 80
II I. A pplicaiione , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 81
27. Examples :.. . . . . . . . .. 81
CHAP.TE~ V
BEAMS OF V AHIABLE FLEXURAL RIGIDITY AND VARIABLE· MODULUS OF
FOUNDA TION ............•............ , '. . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . .. 97
28. Variation in Steps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 97
29. Continuous Variation " " ;. 98
30. Linearly Varying Moment of Inertfa: the Circular Plate. . . .. 100
31. Linearly Varying Modulus of Foundation , 108
32. Beam of Linearly Varying Depth , 112'
33. Cylindrical Tank with Linearly Varying Wall Thickness 114
34. Conical Shell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 119
CHAPTER VI
STRAIGHT BARS UNDER SIMULTANEOUS AXIAL AND TRANSVERSE LOADING.. •. 127
35. Bars under Axial Tension :. " . . . . . . .. 127
36. Bars under Axial Compression , . . . . . .. 135
37. Expressions in Terms of Trigonometric Series 136
38. Examples '.' J •••••••• " ••••••••••••••• 138
CH:A:PtER VII
ELASTIC STABILITY OF STRAIGHT BARS .•... :.: .....•...•
39. General Considerations , , .
40. Bars with Free Ends ; .. < ••
41. Bars with Hinged Ends .
42. Bars with, Fixed Ends ' .
43. Partially Supported Bars .
CHAPTER VIII.
TORSION OF BARS .
44. Bars of Unlimited Length .
45. Bars of Finite Length : '.
46. Torsion of Rails : .. : . :. , t ','
. CHAPTER IX
r:IRCur,AR ARCHES .. / " : , .
47. General Solution of the Elastic Line  .. _._ .
48. Circular Ring .......•... : : : _ .
49. Spherical Shell _ . : .
50. Approximate Solution for Flat Arches : __ .
.tiJ. Corrugated Tubes '.' _
141
CONTENTS
ix
CHAPTER X
I'AGE
F N . ' . . 179
. CONTINUITl.: IN THE OUNDATIO .. .. .
. 52. Partial Continuity: Foundation Layers '.' . . . . . . . . . . .. ~ 7;
53. Interconnected Girders .. ' , , , . '.' 1~2
54. Grillage Beams ; : ,'. 7
55 C . lete Continuity: Elastic Solid Foundation. . . . . . . . . . . .. 19 56: T~:infinite Beam Supported 011 an Elastic Solid and Loaded !
. by a Concentrated Force ; '.' . . . . . . . . .. 20
TABLES
, 215
TABLES IIII .
Tables I. sin~, cos x, Sinh x, COihx,l e", ex, A", B",C", .Dx ;~~
Tables II. EI, Ell, F I, F II·· ';' '.' , ' .
Tables III. Zl(X)., Z2(X), dZt(x)/dx, dZ2(x)/dx, .. . 245
Z3(X), Z.(x), d~(x)/dx, dZ4(x)/dx ; .. : '.' .
141
142
144
146
148
151
151
152
151
156 I
156 :.1
159
163
171
1711 , CHAPTER I
GENERAL SOLUTION OF THE ELASTIC. LINE
In the major part ofthis work the analysis of bending of beams on an elastic foundation is developed on the assumption that the reaction forces of the founda ' tion are proportional at every point to the deflection of the beam at thl!t point. This assumption was introduced first by E. Winkler* in 1867 and formed the basis of H. Zimmermann's clasaical work t on' the analysis' of the railroad track, published in 1888. Though theearly investigators thought chiefly of soil as the supporting medium, it was later found that there are other fields where the .eonditions of Winkler's assumption are much more rigorously satisfied. Two such fields of application were discovered to be of particular importance, and they are discussed in detail in the course of this book. One .of these, is' con
, ,
, cerned with networks of beams, which are characteristic in the construction of
floor systems, for ships, buildings, ~nd bridges; the other deals with thin shells of revolution and includes such subjects as pressure vessels, boilers, and containers, aswell as largespan modern reinforced concrete halls and domes. While the theory of beams on elastic foundation holds rigidly for most of the problems mentioned above, its application to soil foundations should be regarded only as a practical approximation. The physical properties of soils are obviously of .a .much more complicated nature than' that which could be accurately represented by such a simple mathematical relationship as the one assumed byWinkler. There are, however, some important points which can be brought up in supporting the.application of this theory to soil foundations. Under certain conditions the elasticity of soil is undeniable; it can propagate. sound waves, for instance. Also, the second, a~d most. debated, part of Winkler's aasumption, that the foundation deforms only along the portion directly under loading, has, since A. Foppl's classical experiment, t often been found to be true for a large ' variety of soils. .If we take these things into consideration, there is reason to believe that the Winkler theory,in .spite of its simplicity, may often mo'rii accurately represent the/actual conditions existing in soil foundations than do Borne of the more complicated analyses advanced in recent years and discussed in the last chapter of this book, where the foundation is regarded as a continuous isotropic elastic body., Which one of these theories to apply, and how much continuity in the .supportlng medium to assume, can be decided, however, in a given case only by physical testipg ofthe 'material of the foundation under
, consideration ..
• Die Lebre von der Ela8tizitat und f'e8tigkeit (Prag, 1867), p. 182.
t Die Berechnung de8 Ei8enbahnoberbau68 (Berlin, 1888; 2d ed., Berlin, 1930).
* A. Filppl, Vorle8ungen ,tlbtt t6chni8c~e M 6chJJnik (9th.ed.; Leipzig, 1922), III, 258.
1
2
, '
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'l'IeN '
1. The Differential Equation of the Elastic Line
Consider a straight beam supported alO!lg its entire length by an elastic medium and subjected to vertical forces acting in the principal plane of the symmetrical cross section (Fig. 1). Because of this action the beam '~'ill deflect, producing continuously distributed reaction forces in tlie supporting medium. Regarding these reaction forces we make the fundamental assumption that their intensity p at any point is proportional to the deflection of the beam y at that point: P ,:"ky The reaction forces will be assumed to be acting vertically and opposing the deflection of the beam. Hence where the deflection is directed downward (positive) there will be a compression in the supporting medium," but, on the other hand, where the deflection happens 'to be negative, tension" will . be produced; for the present we suppose the supporting medium to l:Ie able to take up such tensile forces.
The assumption p = ky implies the statement that the supporting medium is elastic; in other words, that its material follows Hooke's law. Its elasticity, therefore, can be characterized by the force  which,
distributed' over a unit area, will cause a deflection equal to unity. This constant of the supporting medium, ko Ibs./in.3, is called the modulus 'of the
foundation. \
Assume that the beam under consideration has a uniform cross section ana
. that b is its constant width, which is supported on the foundation. A unit <> deflection of this beam will cause reacticn bko in the foundation; consequently, at a point where the deflection is y the int.ensity of distributed reaction (per unit length of the beam) will be
p lbs.jin. = bkoY.
to"~",':r
j A if,'
a 11 e lJ
Y . "pky .
FlO. 1
For the sake of brevity. we shall use Uie symbol k Ibs./in.2 for b in. X ko Ibs./in.3• in the following derivations, but it is to be remembered that this k includes the effect of the width of the beam and will he numerically equal to koonly if we deal
with a beam of unit width.. . ", . .
While the loaded beam deflects, it is possible that besides the vertical reaetions there may also be some horizontal (frictional) forces originating along the surface where the' beam is in contact with the foundation. .The influence of such horizontal forces on the deflection line will be shown in a later chapter; for the present their (possibly small) effect will not be considered, and the reaction forces on the foundation will be assumed to he vertical at every cross section.
Let us take an infinitely small element enclosed between t\VO vertical * cross
* By this we assume that the slope is so small compared to unity that cross sections ,(normal to the elastic line) can be replaced by vertical sections. Such approximation cannot be used when investigating the effect of axial forces on the deflection of the beam (Chanter VI).'
(a)
O"F.'~ER~SOLUTION OF THE ELASTIC LINE
I
~3
.' d' t dx apart on the beam under consideration. Assume that
sectlOns a IS ance . . t db' a
this element was 'taken from a portion where. the beam was. ac e upon ~
. distributed loading q lbs:!in .. The force~ exerted on ~~ch Il
an element are shown ill Figure 2. 1 he JlP~ard:actmg shearing force, Q, to the left of the .C1'OSS .lie~tlOn IS considered positive, as is the corresponding bendl,ng moment, M" which is a Clockwise moment. ~ct~ng from. the lef~ .on the element (the moment of a positive 9)' These posl~lve directions for Q and M will be kept m all laterdel'lv~tions. Considering the equilibrium of the element. m
F· 2  we "find that the summation' of the vertical
19ure , " .
forces gives
, FIG.,2
Q _ (Q + dQ) ,+ kydx  'r{d:J; 0,
\
whence
dQ .
 = ky  q. dx
Maki~g use of the relat.ion Q = dM / dx, we can ",rite.
dQ d2M .
 =  = ky  q.
dx dx2
U . the known differential ~quation of a beam in betiding, EI(d2yjdxl) =
smgnow, .. .•.
~M, and differentiating' it twice, we obtain
Hence by using (c) we find
. rty· .
EI  = ky + q.
dx" .
1
~hi~ts the differential equation forihe deflection curve of a beam support:ed .~. an elastic foundation. Along the unloaded parts of the beam, where no distri 
uted load is acting, q = 0, and the equation above wiH take the form .
ty
EI  = kyo
dx"
It will be suffi~i~nt to consider below only the general solutio~ of (2},Jroin ~hieh solutions will be obtained also. for oases implied in (1) by adding to It a partiClrlar integral 'corresJlonding to q in (1).
~b)
(0)
(d)
(1)
.(2)
\.__."
\,,'
BEAMS 0.1\ ':LAS'l'IC IWUNDA1'ION
Substituting y  em",. (2) I' . .
 III , we 0 otain the characteristic equation
which has the roots
,4/T .
m3 = 1I4EI (1 + i) == X(I + s),
m2 = m. = ¥4;I (1 + i) = X(1 + i).
The general solution of (2) takes the form
where
x _ ,40  'V 4El
Using
jAr .
e = COS XX + i sin Xx,
iA:t'
e = cos Xx  i sin Xx,
and introducing the new constants C C CdC
1,2,. a,an .,whcre
(AI + A4) = CL, (A2 + A3) = C3 ,
i(AI  A4) = C2 , i(A2  Aa) = C4 ,
we can write (e) in a more convenient form:
y = e~"'(CI cos AX + C2 sin AX) + eXZ(Ca cos Xx + C. sin AX) .. (3a) Here X ~ncludes .the flexural rigidity of the beam as well as the elasticit of th supporting medium, and is. an' important factor influencing th h Y e elastic. line: For this reason the factor X is called the charact . t' e Sf tahPe of the and since Its di " I hi' ens woe system
h :'. . .' imension IS engt , the term I/X is frequently referred to as th '
c macte'Ns!tc length. Consequently, Xx wiIlbe an absolute numb' e
E~pressI~n (3~) represents the general solution for the deflec:;~n line of a straIght. pl'lsma~1C ~ar supported on .an elastic foundation and subject d t transverse bending forces, but with no 'q loading. An additi Lterm i e 0 sary wh . th . d' ib mona erm IS neces
. ere ere IS a istri uted load. By differentiation of (3a) We get
(e)
(f)
GENERAL So.LUT.ION o.F THE ELASTIC LINE 5
~ ~ = i"'[C1(cos Xx  ~in Xx) + C2(cos Xx + sin Xx)]
 eX"'[Ca(COS Xx + sin Xx) . ...: C.(cos Xx  sin Ax)],
1 d2y
2X2 dx2 = i~(CI sin Xx  C2 cos Xx) + s=«, sin Xx  C, cos Xx) (31rd)
1 d3y
2X3 dxa = i"'[C1(cos Xx + sin Xx)  C2(cos Ax  sin Ax)]
+ ex",[Ca(cos Xx'  sin Xx) + C4(cos Ax + sin Xx)] •
.....
Knowing that
_ EI d2y = JItI, and  EI ~y = Q .
dx2 . dx3'
dy
dx = tan IJ,
(g)
we can obtain the general expressions for the slope IJ* of the deflection line as well as for the bending moment JItI and the shearing force Q from (3 bd). The intensity of pressure in the foundation will be found from (3a)' to be p = kyo
In applying these general equations, or corresponding ones including the term dependent on q, to particular cases the next step is to determine the constants of integration C1 , C2, C3, and C4• These integration constants depend on the· manner in which the beam is subjected to the loading and have constant values along each portion of the beam within which the elastic line and all its derivatives are continuous. Their values can be obtained from the conditions existing at the two ends of such continuous portions. Out of the four quantities (y, 8, M, and Q) characterizing the condition of an end, two are usually known at each end, from which sufficient data are furnished fur the determination of the
eonstanta C. .
When a beam is subjected to. various loads the elastic line must be resolved into. continuous portions (for example, A a, ab, bc, and cB in Fig. 1); then at the intermediate points the consideration of the material continuity of the beam will furnish the data for determining'fhe integration constants for each of these
portions. .
Although from the point of view of mathematics' the problem can be completely solved in this way.] the procedure is laborious and not well fitted to practical computation, The' work can be considerably simplified, however, .if the general solution is written in such a form that the integration constants obtain a physical interpretation in terms of the end conditions, This method of solutionwill be discussed in the next section,
• On the basis of the approximate bending formula used above in the derivation (d)
it is permissible to put tan 8 = 8. .
t This method was used by :K. Hayashi in his book Theoriedes Tragers auf elastischer Unterlage 1tnd ihre Anu,endttng aUf den Tiefbau (Berlin, 1921). '
I· \\~N~Inrtf SOLU;ION OF THE ELASTIC LINE :: 7
2. Interpretation of the Integration Constant I '.. . .. ."
Ass m b bi . . 8 on the basis of (c) is termed the rnethod of initial conditions; * because the simple
and dis~ri~u~ed e~:dsu) J:~!ed to val'lou~ ~oadmg (such as moment M, force P, I interpretation of the integration constants it has a considerable advantage over
left end of th b &. ) take the ongm of an x, y coordinate system at the the method outlined in the previous section. . .
In (3 <1; earn I Ig.3. " . A mom generalized form of (c) can oe obtained through the following reason
of a bea: in b~~~il: ex~:es~ion~ were obtaine~ for the u, 8,111, and Q quantities ing:A.ssume that the.,_Yo, 00, Mo, and Qo quantities are known; then we can
at the I ft d f gb akmg m these equations x = 0, we get the conditions proceed from the leftend of the beam toward the right along the unloaded
e en 0 our earn as portion Aa until wearrive at the point where the first load is applied to the beam. Assume that the first loading is a concentrated momentM, as shown in
Figure 3. Evidently this moment M must have an effect to the right (x > UM) of its point of application similar to that which the initial moment M« had on the Aa portion (0 < x < uMYof the. elastic line.
I Seeing Irom (c) that tlie. factor of M« was _ (l/},?EI)F3(Xx), we can .conclude that the moment M at a should have a modifying effect of  (1/X2EI)F3[X(x  uM)]M on the elastic line to the right of point a, where x > UM. Consequently, we obtain the deflection curve on the portion ab by adding this last expression to (c).
In 'a similar way we find that the force P will have an influence (I/X3EI)F4[X(x  up)]Pt on the deflection line to the right of point b. Finally, since the distributed loading q can be regarded as consisting of infinitesimal concentrated forces, we can conclude that 'its effect for the x > c portion must be
(1/X3EI) f qF4[A(x  u)] duo For x > d the upper limit of the integral becomes d. Summing up these results, we find the equation of the deflection line for ..such a case as that shown in Figure 3 t to be
6
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOU~DA'1T6N
D /l ,o.e.
M=~=~+~, )
[dY] I
dx .0 = ()o = A(C! + C2  Ca + C.), .
[. EI d2y] . )
 dX2 x_3 = Mu = 2X2 EI( Cz + C.), 1
[ EI~~ 10 = Qu = 2X3/fI(C!  c,  C3  cs.
Expressing the C's as unknowns, we have, from the equations above
,
C  ly +.1 () + 1 Q
I  2 G 4X 0 8X3EI u,
c, = _!. ()o  _1_ M _ 1, Q
4X 4X2EI 0, SX3El 0,
C, = !Yo  _!_ (J _ . 1 Q
4A 0 8AIEl 0,
C·  1 1 1 J
~()u+·JI1
4X 4XZE! e. 8xaEI Qa •
Substituting these expressions for the C's in (Sa) and putting 1.( Ax + ~r) _
Cosh Xx and 1 ( Ax Az) S" , e e 
I " .2 e  e = . inh Xx, we find that the general equation of th
c astie hne will take the form " ' . e
F() 1 1 ' 1 .
Yz = Yo 'I Xx + \" OoF,(Ax)   lIfoF,(Xx)  _._ Q F (\_)
1\ >,_2J£l h J E I. • 4.u; •••
where
FI(Xx) = Cosh AX cos ~t
F2(Xx) = !(Cosh hX sin hX + Sinh ).z cos >.J:), F3(Xx) = !'Sillh AX sin >.x :: f
, ,
F.(Xx) = HCosh Xx sin ).z  Sinh:>.x cos Ax).
It is seen that ill (c) the generall:lolutionwaspu~ I:n: :a,: .'{' (.: . '/"hi h h '.
. t . • onn.m,l\' c t e prevrous
in egration constants were replaced by the 71 8 :JI '_._..J r1" • • "
• t tl I . D t. O. O. iIW.IU ."" quantities existing
a ,. ie em x = 0 of the beam, On aceoun .. t ... o .: f .... this. fea .. w.re th ..... e· .', m thod d I I
.,.': .: : :', ': : e eve opec
(a)
(b)
(c)
FIG. 3
1 .. 1 1
'1/" = yoFJ(Xx) + ~ ()OF2(XX) };.2EI MoF3(XX)  X3EI QOF4(XX)
1 '1
 };.2iI MF3 [X(x  UM)] + X3EI PF4[X(x,  up)]
1 lX" .
. + X3El c ,qF4 [X(x  u)] duo
(4a)
* This method wits developed largely: in Russia. See. A. A. Umansky, Analysis of Beams on. Elastic Foundation, Central Research Institute .of Auto.Transportation (Leningrad, 1933) i and idem, Special Course in Structural Mechanics, General Redaction of Literature of Building .(LeningradMoscow, 1935), Part L These publications contain nlso bibliogra
phies Elf earlier Itusslan works.
t Here the sign of the term taken from (c) had to be changed, since the downward
acting force P represents a negative shear for the portion to the right of point b ..
+ The expression for the deflection line could be generalized in a still larger sense by including among the loadings concentril.ted changes in the daflection ordinates and in the slopes, and also by regarding distributed moments as a loading type. Expressions for such cases are to be found ill Umansky. opera cit.
8
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIO~
This equation includes the effect of M, P, and q acting on the beam between the left end (x = 0) and the point under consideration ,(x = x). If any of these loadings are. absent on this port~on of the beam the corresponding term in (4a} should be disregarded. By taking the consecutive derivatives of the equation
above and putting ,
dF1 '
 = 4XF.
dx .,
dF2 = XF
dx 1,
ar,
 . = XF2 and
dx '
dF4 = XF~
dx '
we obtain the expressions below for slope, moment, and shearing force:"
1 '1 ' '
O. = ,00F1(Xx)  XEI MoF2(XX)  X2EI QoFa(Xx) ..., 4XyoF4(Ax)
1 l'
 >..EI MF2[>..(x  UM)] + X2EI PFs [X(x  up)]
1 t": '
+ >..2EI 1. qFs [X(x  u)] du, ,
,~
"
M,. = MoF1(XX) + ~ QOF2(XX) +}2 YoFs(XXY+~3 OoFt(Xx)
(4b~) ,
11('"
+ MFd>"(x  UM)] _, X PF2 rX(x  up)]  X 1. qF~(>.._(x : un du;
o. = QOF1(XX) + ~ YOF2(Xx) + ~2 00 Fa (Xx)  4XMoJi'4(Xx)
 4XMF4[X(x  UM»)  PF1[X(x .up»)  "tqF1[~(X '7.", u») duo
It is seen that the initial condition's appear in equati~ns (4 ad). according to a systematic scheme. In each of these equations aIr the four initial conditions are present and the order of their succession is shifted by one place at a time as we proceed from (4a) to (4d). The same systematic shifting can be observed also, in the F functions connected with the loading terms M, P, and q.
Putting x = l into (4 a~), we obtain the YI, 01, MI ',and QI quantities for the right end of the beam as expressed in terms of the initial conditions and the loadings. These relations can then be used to determine the unknown initial conditions. As we have said, out of the four quantities which define the condition of one end of a beam, two are usually known at each end in every' case. There remain two unknowns at each end; altogether there are four, unknown
quantities which can be determined from (4 a~). "
Consider for instance the beam in Figure 3 with both ends free. Here we have J.lfo = 0, Qo = 0 and MI = 0, QI = O. Substituting these values in (4 a~) we find that the lefthand 'side of (4c) and (4d) will be zero, while the righthand side will contain only two unknown initial conditions, Yo and 00. From the two simultaneous equations the two unknown quantities can be, determined; then,
" ; ,I
G~RAL'LjLUTlON OF THE ELASTIC LINE
,,J
substituting these, in turn, in the general expressions (4 a~), we can proceed to calculate the y,., 0,., M,., and Q,. values for any intermediate point on the beam. The outstanding feature of this method is the simple physical interpretation of the integration constants and the systematic order in which these constants appear in the equations. For practical computation, however, the
I method can be considered only if there are numerical tables of the F functions available, and even then more complicated loadings involve lengthy and intricate
I calculations.
3. Method of Superposition
, In the precedingsections two different methods have been presented, both of them aiming to determine the integration constants from the prescribed end,
, conditions of the elastic line. It has been seen that the main difficulty in applying the general solution to particular problems arises in the determination ' of the integration constants, which involves a considerable amount of work in
both methods discussed. ,
These difficulties can be largely avoided by using the method of 8uperposition_.*
, The advantage of this method lies in the fact that the determination of the integration constants for a beam of unlimited length (an infinitely long beam) is very simple and that, consequently, the equation of the deflection line for any loading on the infinitely long beamcari be obtained in a concise form. Such deflection formulas will be derived in Chapter II; in Chapter III it will be shown that by superposing the formulas obtained for the infinitely long beam solutions can be derived for beams of any length and with any loading and end conditions. This procedure will prove to be the simplest in the application to p.articular' problems; it can be used also when, in addition to the lateral loads, axial forces, or twisting" moments are acting on the beam.]
• The application of the method of superposition in the solution of beams of finite length on an elastic foundation was first proposed by the writer in ~ paper called "Anal~siilof Bars on Elastic Foundation," Final Repqrt of the Second Internattonal Congre88 for Brtdge ,
and SCructural Engineering (BerlinMunich, 1936). , '
t The scheme in the method of initial, conditions loses its periodical character when '
axial forces, in addition to the transverse loading, are acting on the beam. '
CHAP'l'ER II
BEAMS .OFUNLIMITED LENGTH
I. The Infinite Beam
4. Concentrated Loading
Consider a beam of unlimited length in both directions (an infinite beam) subjected to a single concentrated force P at point a (Fig. 4). Because of, the apparent symmetry of the deflection curve we need to consider only the half which is to the right of point 0, the origin of the z, y rectangularcoordi
nate system, .
In § 1 we found that the general solution for the deflection curve of a beam subjected to transverse loading can be written as equation (3a):
y = eX:r(CI cos AX + C2 sin AX) + e=«, cos Ax + O. sin Ax). . ..• (a)
In the present problem, dealing with a beam of unlimited length, it is reasonable to assume that in an infinite distance from the application of the load the geflection of the beam must approach zero, that is, if x + C!O,thcn y + O,This condition can be fulfilled only if in the equation above theterms connected with. /:r vanish, which necessitates that in the case under discussion 01 = 0 and C2 = O. Hence the deflection curve for the right part (x > 0) of. the beam will take the
form . . '. ,," " i", ",
. """M",",,"'",,"'r,mfllmmml';;
!I '
Fro. 4
From the condition of symmetry we know that'
[clY] '2 i~: ;'.
dz ,0 rn, ..••
that is,  (C3  (,'4) = 0, fJ'OIIl which wefi[jJ,', of the equation
can be obtained from the consideration . ibrium with' the loud P
2
~AMS OF '~NLIMITED LENGTH
I '_____" 11
Since2kC f' ex:r(cos AX + sin AX) dx 2kC(1/A), from 2kC(1/A) = P we get
,C= PA/2k, and, substituting this 'in (c) above, we have
PAX,,( '+")
y = _ e cos I\X sin "x ,I,
2k . . ,
. which gives the deflection curve for the right side (x.~ 0) of , the beam. This deflection curve is a wavy line with decreasing amplitude (FIg. 5a). The dpflection under the load is yo = PA/2kj the zero points of the line arc where cos AX + .sin AX = 0, that is, at 'the consecutive values of AX = !7r, t7r.
¥7r, etc.· .'. '
Taking the successive derivatives of y (see [d]) WIth respect to a:, we ohtain
the expressions for 8, M ,and Q on the right side of the beam as '
dy = 8 = _PA2 ex:r sin AX,' )
dx· k
(b)
(c)
d2y . P A:r ( , ' . ~ ,)
_ EI , =111 =  e 'cos I\X  sm "x ,
dx? 4A
The curves represented by the equations above are shown in Figure 5. They have all the features of damped waves." At the point of application of the load (x = 0) or, to be precise, infinitely close to the right of it, we have the. values 11 = 0, M = P/4A, and Q = P/2. In the derivation of the general solution for the elastic line {see p. 3) the positive directions were defined
for the shearing force Q (positive e c!ocK.J7'5C when acting upward on the left
of .the elemental section) and
for the bending moment M (the '* uPFr momenton t~e left of the ele~~nt =rr": in the direction of the positive
'shearing force). 'As an extension
of this convention, w@ shallJ:egard_
as positive quantities the downward~cting loa~ing (P), d,~wnward de~ectiQn
(y), and the angular deflection (0) rotatmg clockwise. Equations (d g) give the
• This 'is the reason why the characteristic}. is sometimes cal~~fl the damping factor.
iy EIda·3
, P A:r
Q = e cos AX; , 2
p
__ x
FIG. 5
(d)
(eg)
J
'1
I~'
f
I
,I
i
12
''./ BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
values of y, 0, M, and Q for the right side (x > 0) of the beam according to this practice. On the left side the y and M curves will keep the same signs (y: = y_: and M: = J.L,,) , but 0 and Q will change their signs (IJ: = 0_: and Q" = Q,,), as is shown in Figure 5. In calculating the ordinates of these curves the value x is always taken as positive.
Introducing into (dg) , the symbols e~"(cos Xx + sin Xx) = AA:, e~"(cos Xx  sin Xx) = CA:,
we can write
~" . B}
e SlnXx= Az,
~"
e cos Xx =DA" ,
PX
y = 2k Ab,
pX2
0=  TBb,
(5 ad)
J
The A, B, C, and D functions of Xx above will be frequently used in the'rest of the text when solving different problems connected with the theory of beams on elastic foundation; therefore, in order to facilitate their application, tables are attached at the end of this work, giving the A: , B" , C" , and D" quantities as functions of a parameter x.* These functions are essentially all of the same type, since by properly shifting the origin we can obtain one from the other. Through simple trigonometrical transformation we can find that
where
XXI = Xx  7r/4,
and
a = e,,/4 sin 7r/4, (3 = e"/2 sin 7r/2,
These four functions form a periodical scheme
'Y = ear/4 sin 37r/4.
We find that
* Such numerical, tables were first given by H. Zimmermann in his principal book on this subject, Die Berechnung des Eisenbahnoberbaues (Berlin, isss. 2d ed., Berlin, 1930).
(h)
(j)
'," '''"
BEAMS OF UNLIMITJ;;D LENGTH
,__,/
13
The zero points for A are located at Xx = (! + n)7r, for B at Xx = n7r, for C at Xx = (1 + n)7r, and for D at Xx = (! + n)7r; similarly, the extreme values (maximum or minimum) of these functions are found (outside of 'the origin) for A at AX = n1l", for B at AX = (1 + n)7r, for C at Xx = (! + n)7r, and for D at Xx = (! + n)1I", where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, etc
An important feature of these functions is the rapidly decreasing amplitude.
As may be seen from the appended tables (see pp. 217239), when Xx > 1.511" the value of any of the four functions is under 0.01. This means that the manner' in which t~le beam is supported in a distance of x = 1.57r/X (or even x = 1I"/X) from the application of the load will have only ,a small effect on the formation of the deflection line, or, in other words, a beam of the length l = 27r/X loaded with a concentrated force P at the middle will exhibit approximately the same deflection curve as the infinitely long beam shown in Figure 5. Since elastically supported beams with large Xl values are frequently applied in engineering constructions, these considerations will permit us to derive approximate solutions for such problems, using the results obtained in this chapter for beams of unlimited length.
Returning to the discussion of the curves given by (5 ad), we find that y as well as 0, M, and Q is proportional to the loading P, hence it follows that the principle of superposition and the reciprocity theorem are directly applicable to the system. We encounter here the most general applicability of the reciprocal theorem, since it holds in this case not only for displacements, but also for angular deflections, bending moments, and shearing forces. If at point 1 a force PI and at. point 2 a force P2 are acting, it is apparent ,either from ,the curves of Figure 5 or from (5 ad) that YI,2 =Y2.1, (h.2 = ±02,1 i * furthermore, ,1111•2 = M2,1 and Q1,2 = ±Q2.1.* This states the reciprocity theorem in the most general form and' proves that the y, 0, 1.11, and Q curves of Figure 5 are at the same time influence lines for deflection, angular deflection, moment, and shear.
So far we have been dealing with the situation in which a single concentrated force P is acting on the beam. Fron{ the formulas here obtained the deflection line can be derived also for the case when a concentrated moment 11110 is applied at point 0 on the infinitely long beam (Fig. 6a). This concentrated moment
" can be regarded as a limiting case of the
___ x loading shown in Figure 6b, if we as
".,.,.,."""..,.".,""'.+.,.,.,.., 1~1"';71Tl'!"'n17~7~717Tj"li sume that while a is approaching zero (a ~ 0) Pa will simultaneously approach the value of 1110 (Pa ~ 1110). Using (5a), we can write the deflection line for the loading in Figure Gb as
FIG. 6
PX Pa'A Axr=+al  A~z
y = 2k (A~(:+.l + .th,,) =  2k a .Tor ,x> o.
• Plusminus sign according to the convention adopted (see p. 11).
.•... ' •. 11'······
iii
~:,~
"::"
i~ i
f I
,
I I
I
,
i
\
l I
14
BEAMS ON ELAS'l'IC FOUNDA'rlO~
Since
[A~(.t.)· A~'J  d A'  2J\!JA;.,
a ..... ')  (IX b
and at the same time.
[Pa]a .... O = Mo,
we get the deflection line due to the Mo clockwise moment as Mo'A2
Y = k B~%.
Taking the consecutive derivatives of y, we have
ely = () = Mo>,} C
dx . k A< ,
Eltf_y = M = Mo])
dx2 2 A< ,
FIG. 7
The equations above present the v, 0, M, and Q curves, according to the sign convention established,
, for the right side (x > 0) of the beam. To the left of, the point of application of the moment Mo the sign of y and M must be reversed (see Fig. 7). When the Mo moment is acting counterclockwise, opposite to the direction taken here, naturally the signs of all the curves in Figure 7 on both sides must be reversed. The arguments of the functions are always taken as positive, no matter on which side the point under consideration IS located.
. (6. b d)
(6a)
5. [/nijormly Distributed Loading
Consider a uniform loading distributed over an A B portion of the infinitely ~ long beam and find the effect of this loading at an arbitrary point C, which is.a distance a from the left end of the loaded portion and a distance b from the
right end.
The distributed loading can be regarded' as consisting of infinitely small concentrated forces qdx. The deflectionprodiIced at point C by such an element can be obtained by substituting qdx for P in (d) on page 11, which gives
• qdxAA%( inXz) uy = '2k e cos AX + sm AX ,
(a)
The total effect
where X denotes the distance of the qdx element from point c. of the distributed loading can be obtained by integrating the expressions above within the ab limits of the loaded as;y!. . ..."..,d.wJMW.J.~~f.IJ;J~WJ,...!".,,'l)'7 :part of the beam. Here we shall distinguish three cases, based on whether the point C is (a) within the loaded part, (b) to the left of it,or (c) to the right of it .
a. When Point C is under the Loading (Fig. 8a)
In Figure 8a the distance a. to the left can be regarded as negative, and so
the deflection at C, as the integral of (a) above, will be
Flo. 8
= 2qk [(1  eAa cos,Au) + (1  eM cos Ab)].
(b)
Hence we can write
(7a)
In a similar way, substituting qdx for P in (5 bd) and integrating within the assigned limits, we get expressions of (), M, and Q at point C as
(7 bd)
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'l'IO~'/
\._/
II. When Point C is to the Left of the Loading (Fig. Bb)
In the problem in Figure 8b both a and b distances will be considered positive.
By the sign convention adopted on page 11 we obtain now by integration
q .
Yc = 2k (J)~a  DM),
qA
Oc = 2k (A~.  A~b),
(8 ad)
c. When Point C is 10 the Right of the Loading (INg. Be)
Formulas for the situation in Figure 8c can be obtained from (8 ad) by interchanging' there the symbols a and b, and, furthermore, reversing the signs of 0 and Q, as was done in dealing with a concentrated loading.
In this way we get for the point C *
Uc=  2~c (D~a  DAb), qA
Oc =:= 2k (AAa  AAb) ,
j
(9 ad)
The correctness of the formulas derived for the three different positions of point C can be checked by substituting a = 0 and b = l in (7 ad) and (8 ad), and thus we get terms for point A. from .either side equally:
(c)
• These formulas differ only in signs from the ones given by (8 ad) and are reproduced here merely for convenience.in deciding signs.
I ~
BEAMS OF UNLIMIT:ED LENGTH
17
From (7 ~d) and (9 ad), bysubstituting b = 0 and a = l,we obtain, in both ways agam, the same expressions for point B:
qA
Os = 21c (1  AM),
Qs = i  4~ (1 ~ CAl).
6. Triangular Loading JiJIdX
We can distinguish' again three. fJ. 9;,
'll. ~
cases according to the position of' ~7'm77Jiii7n"" or .......
.J1 B 177F/7",u·
the point C, where the effect of the, a l'I
loading is sought. !. ~10
a. When Point C is under the bl ''Tt1lrrm::llm,,'''I'm' ",,'9:' '~~IJH..w,J.JJ.IJ.I.II,I.J, __
Loading (Fig. 9a) m7flm'c;;~~m7M"""
Counting x from point C, we, ~ .
have in the region AC in Figure 9a . . r,
q. = (qoll) (a  x), and in the' c'.."".,.".,.,' mtffl[,lfflI#1l~IffiJ~~~..,_ ........ region CB, q= = (qo/l) (a + x), so 17ffl1771!4~Vmc?mM7
that the total deflection at C will be a ==1
FIG. 9
qOA {La ( ) ~%( , .
Yc =. 2kl 0 a  x e cos AX + SIll Ax)dx
+ r (a + x) eA%(cos Ax + sin Ax)dX}. (a) Carrying out this integration, we have
(lOa)
and in a similar way we obtain
qo 1
Oc =  2k I (DAa + DAb + AlAAb2),
qo 1·
M c =  8A3l (A,Aa : AAb  2AlBAb),
(iObd)
. .
'I
I 1 I
1
!
I !
, .,_,/
18
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
In the same way, by integrating between the limits a and b, with attention to signs, we can obtain expressions for the other positions of point C. Below, only the results of these integrations are given for the second and third positions.
b. When Point C is to the Left of the Loading (Fig. Bb) Yc = 4~k i (C~a  CM  2~lD~b),
qo 1 ( D
ec = 2k l DXa  Xb  XlAxb),
Me =  :~3 i (Axa  AM  2XlB~b), Qc =.  :~2 i (Bxa  BXb +XlC~b). J
c. When Point C is to the Right of the Loading (Fig .. Bc) Yc = 4~k i (C~fJ  C~b + 2XlDxb), 1
ec =  i~ f (DXfJ  DXb + XlAM),
Me =  8q~3 i (AxfJ  AAb + 2XlBxb),
Qc = :~2 ~ (BxfJ  BXb  XlCM).
(12 ad)
(11 ad;
A trapezoidal loading can be obtained by superposing two reversed triangles of different heights. If the two triangles a~e of the same height we get a uniformly distributed loading over the portion A B.
7. Various Loading Conditions on the Infinite Beam
When the infinitely long beam is subjected to a group of concentrated forces, then, according to the previously established law of superposition, the deflection, slope, M and Q, at any point can be obtained by summing up the effect of the separated forces on the point under consideration.
The deflection, for instance, for any point can be obtained by use of (5a), as
where Xn means the absolute distance of the force P n from the cross section where
the deflection is sought. .
(a)
<:» . .._./
BEAMS OF UNLIMITED LENGTH
<::
19
Let us assume that positive and nega~ive forces are acting on a beam (Fig. 10) and denote the upwardacting negative forces by R. The deflection for any point . can now be written as
R ..
FIG. 10
. (13)
:rhe R forces can be looked upon as concentrated reactions, and their values can ;:; be determined from the conditions assigned to the points where they are applied. ii: We may require, for instance, that at any i point where such an R, force is . n: acting the deflection should be zero (y, = 0), or we may assign such a condition ,I'
I,' that at each of these points the reaction R, should be proportional to the de
flection y, occurring at that point, that is, y, = R;/ Ai , where Ai (spring con. i stant) denotes the elasticity of the ith support.
In each of the cases above we can write as many equations of the type of (13) as there are R forces acting on the beam, and from that system of simultaneous equations the values of the unknown R's can be determined.
Such a system of equations can be solved most easily by a method of suecessiveapproximation.* Since the deflection line due to a single concentrated force has a rapidly decreasing amplitude (Fig. 5a), at the ith point the R, force will have the greatest influence on the Yi deflection, and hence it is permisrible, for the first approximation, to neglect the effect of .the other R unknowns.
Making this first approximation, we shall find the ith equation to be
(b)
. where Yi = 0 (rigid support) or Yi = R,/ Ai (elastic support). In both (lases the equation above for Yi will contain only one unknown, that is, R, , and in this way the first approximate values of all R's can be obtained from a corresponding number of independent equations. By means of these first approximate values the process outlined above can be repeated until the required accuracy is obtained.
In the same way solutions can bfl derived when the bar is subjected to a combination of concentrated and distributed loads and when certain conditions are assigned to the elastic line simultaneously at a number of points. This method, based on the principle of . superposition and on the dampedwave character of the elastic line, is adaptable to obtaining solutions for ali problems of the type.
• See E. T. Whittaker and G. Robinson, The Calculus of Observations (London, 1924), p, 255.
20
'_/
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'l'lON
So far we have been discussing the effect of single concentrated forces and moments. From Figures 5 and 7 it may be seen that a concentrated force causes discontinuity in shear and that a, concentrated moment causes discontinuity in moment at the point of its application. In order to complete the investigation in this respect let us examine now the type of loading which will' cause discontinuity in slope, or in deflection, at the section where it is applied.* ' Here we must have recourse to the curves shown in Figure 5. That these curves represent influence lines for deflection, slope, moment, and shear has already been estah ' lished, and use of this property of the y and () curves was made in § 4. Now we shall utilize in the same way the M and Q curves.
As we know from the theory of structures, if at one point on a beam, between two neighboring cross sections, a concentrated angular distortion is produced, the deflection line originated thereby will, give the influence line of bending moment for the point where this relative distortion was produced.] Such distortion can be, caused at point 0 by two moments V, applied in the manner shown in Figure 11, where the' beam is assumed to be hinged at 0; so we can conclude that this type of loading, which we shall call double moment, will produce a deflection line similar to the M curve in Figure 5. Since
y = Ce~X(cos Xx  sin Xx),
FIG. 11
t.he C constant can be determined from the condition of statics that
v = Ck [0 xe~x (cos Xx . sin Xx)dx = Ck 2~2'
Hence C  2'VX2/k, and we get the deflection line for the loading shown in
Figure 11 as
2V,2 2l~2
"~%( . ') "c
y =  k e cos Xx  sm "x =  k ~x •
From the consecutive derivatives we obtain for the right side (x > 0) of the beam
4VX3 1
TDAx,
VA~",
Q = 2VXB>.x.
()
(14 bd)
M
• See the papers by P. Nemenyi : "Eine neue Singularitatenmethode fUr die Elastiaitiitstheorie," Zeil8chrift fttr a,ngewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 9 (1929),488:490; and "Tragwerke auf elastisch nachgiebiger Unterlage," in the same periodical,11 (1931),450
463. '
t This statement can be proved by the reciprocity theorem. The theory, developed on similar conslderations, is termed the kinetic (kinematic) theory. See the book by D., A. Molitor, Kinetic Theory of Engineering Structures (New York, 1911).
(c)
(d)
(I4ar
I
'v :
BEAMS OF UNLIMITED Lj<j1\GTH
21
These curves are shown in Figure 12. ,"Ve find that as r __. 0, ill __. V and Q __. O.
In a similar WIt)" we can conclude that. the influence line for shearing force is a deflection curve caused by a double shearing force IV (Fig. 13) acting at point 0, where the beam if; assumed to be cut, and producing there between t.he two neighboring cross sections a distortion which is related to t.he shearing force. The deflection CUlTe due to these IV',; will haw the same form ali tho Q CIIITr in Figure 5, that is,
y = Ce~T 'COR X:r. (e)
From the 'consideration of oquilihrium we know that
MVA,.l.r
FIG, 12
(f)
from which (.' = 2WA/h:, and 1'0 we have for tho right Ride of the hearn
21;:>" J)~%, (15a)
f
FIG. l!l
and hom this,
211'X2 .
(I =  I.~ A~, ,I
I
IV l
.II = x lAx, (
I
Q= WC~% . ) (Hi b· d)
The curves representing the equations above are shown in Figure 14.
The loadings .r and IV are the, ones which produce concentrated change ill ~Iope. and deflection, respectively .. , Their action has the followingsigniflcanco:
If ill IS the bending moment caused hy any loading at one section on the infinite Learn and we apply (~ that point. a double moment V =  111, as discussed ~bove, we cancel the M moment at t.his section (producing, however, no change III shear), and the entire effect of these V forces will be the same as if we had inserted a hinge in the bar at the point where we made them act. We may therefore call such a place It hing,c for moment, since it. releases moments ht;t
22
<:> BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
resists shear. On the other haud, when' we apply at one point the TV =  Q forces of the type'discussed above we cancel the shearing force which: because of some loading, existed at that point before, but produce no change in the bending moment. Hence we can, say, by analogy, that now a hinge j01: shear has been introduced at the point.
We have now discussed all four types of loadings by which we can fulfill conditions required for deflection, slope, moment, or shear at any cross section of the infinite beam. It has been seen that these P, M, V, and lV loadings correspond to discontinuities of the beam in shear,
l'IG. 14 moment, slope, and deflection, re
By combining these loadings we can get a large variety of conditions.
II. The Semiinfinite Beam
wt
x
spectively.
S. The EndConditioning Forces
, . '11 b d f . a beam which has unlimited
The term semiinfinite beam WI e use 01 . Thi d .
. . I . t int A a finite end IS en rna),
extension in only one direction, raving a P~I '. "'r; 15 bd It
under different conditions, be (a) free, (b) lunged, or (c) fixed. (Fig. I b)'· d
diti I t n can e arrive
will be shown that under any loading or end con I Ions so u .10 d . 1 for
at for the semiinfi.nite beam by using the formulas obtame previous y I
the infinite beam.
FIG. 15
a. SemiinJi,nite Beams with Free End (Fig. lob)
Consider an infinitely long beam and assume that because of some loading we have at point A a bending moment lJ.1 A and a shearing force Q.4' :
Thus M A and QA maintain the continuity of the beam at A. The removal' of 111 A and Q.I 'will have the same significance rOJ: the right side uf the beam as the removal of the whole purtion to the left. In other words it will create a semiinfinite beam 'with a free end at' point A .. ' Hence 0111' problem is reduced to making M.l and Q.l vanish on the
i '...._"I
\_J '..._/'
BEAMS OF UNLIMITED LENGTH
23
infinite beam. This can be done by applying at A such a moment Mo and force Po as will cause a bending moment M.l and a shearing force QA at that section. Because of the singularity ill moment and shear (Figs. 5d and 7c) let us make the distinction that we require Po and M« to produce a moment and shear  M A and  Q.{ at the section infinitely close to the right of their point of application; or, in other words, we shall apply Po and Mo infinitely close to the ll'ft of point A. (Fig. 15a), where we want to cancel the moment and shear. According to the condit.ion for a free end (M = 0 and Q = 0) we must have at A, using (5 cd) and (6 e:d),
MA + Po + 1110 = 0 and
4h 2 .
(a)
getting thus
Po = 4(AMA + QA), ]
u, = ~ (2AMA + QA).
Po and Mo applied on the infinite beam in the manner shown in Figure 15a will create at A the conditions of a free end (M =0, Q = 0). Hence, under the action of the load, together with Po and M« , the part of the infinitely long beam which is to the right of point A will behave in every respect as if there were a free end at A. Briefly, the situations. shown in Figure 15 ab are identical, provided Po and u, are determined from' (16).
In a similar manner we can determine Po and M; so as to fulfill any other requirements at point A. In every case these forces must be applied at the place where we want the inti.nitely long bar to terminate. Since these quantities Po and 1110 create the required end conditions at the assigned point they will be referred to henceforth as the endconditioning forces;"
(10)
b. Semiinfinite Beam with Hinged End (Fig. Joc)
The conditions for A are y = O,and M = 0. Hence ifthe load produces at this point a moment MA and a deflection YA , the endconditioning forces Po and M« have to produce here MA and YA respectively. Using (5 a, c) and (6 a, c), we can write these conditions as
Pol. Po Mo
YA + 2k = 0 and MA + 41. + 2" = 0,
(b)
from Which we get the expressions for the endconditioning forces;'
. 2k
Po = >:YA,
(17)
• This will be used as a collective term, in which we shall include the moment M 0 as well as the force Po.
\._..,
24
BEAMS ON ~J,ASTIC FOUNDATION
Giving such values to Po and M 0 , we shall obtain for the right side of the beam (Fig. 15a.) a Rituation identical to that shown in Figure 15c.
1:. Semiinfinite Beam with Fixed End (Fig. 15d)
In order to. fulfill the conditions y = 0 and 0 = 0 for point A, if the loading produced YA and o.{ at this point of the infinite beam the endconditioning forces Po and lifo would have to produce YA and 01. at the same place. This eondition can be written, by use of (5 ab) and (6 ab), as
Po>" MoA3 )
YA + 2k = 0 and 01. + k = 0, (c
frum which we obtain the endconditioning Iorcesas
PII = _~ YA ,I
. A I
~
Mo = .». OA .J
A3 .
If Po and Mo in Figure l5a have these values, the right'part'of the beam will behave in exactly the same manner as the fixedend beam shown in Figure l5d.
u _x
p. V'" ""''''' Ii .• "" t t t t t '"
. ,
9. Particular Case« of End Loading
The formulas developed above for the elldconditioning forces can also be used for deriving expressions for a semiinfinite beam subjected to various FIG. 16
, types of end conditions.
Let HIl conllider first the situation show in Figure lG, Here the end conditions for point 0 are M = 0 and Q = PI, Putting MA = 0 and QA = PI into (16), we obtain the corresponding endconditioning forces Po = 4]>1 and 111 0 = _ (2/A)PI, If we apply these Po and ilf 0 on the infinite beam, using (5 ad) and (n ad), we get the solution for x > 0,' '~e result "ill he
2P1 A ')
. Y = k. Di«, I
l
(19.ad)
~r[' PI ]'
lV' =  X >x%,
QM,
~ _.
~'''''''''7'')'7'~
In order to reach the solution' for the situation shown in'l!~igure 17 we have to put lilA = MI and Q" = 0 into (Hi), which then gives Po = 4AMI and Jl 0 = 4M 1, Applying these endcontlit.ioning forces at point 0 on the infinite' hoam, \\'C huve for values of x > 0:
... " ..... 1"!
(18)
2M A2 1
y = 1_ C'
k x%,
4M A8 I
0 I D
k x~, t
ill = MIAb, I . Q = ,2MI ABA:.:, I
1£ in the example above a hill ed s ' ' ,
corresponding endconditioning f g,. , upport IS, assumed at. point 0, then the
M . 01 ces are obtained b tt'
,. = !If I into (17) which then ield Ip Y put ang YA = 0 and
d" , , ' .' YJ,e s 0 = () and 111  2~1
con itioning forces give the sol ti I 0  "' I, These end
. . 1I IOn(. or the case shown in Figure 18:
2M A2 1
.Y = + BA%,
(20 ad)
FIG, 18'
(21 ad)
111 = MI Dx%,
• Q = Jl.f1XAb'
. In case of a displacemen t d '
infinite beam, the deflection aYnodasnt 11 rotation 00 of the end x = 0 of a semi
• resses can be de' db'
and O,{ = 00 into (18) Thi , . P rive y puttmg YA = Yo
, ' IS gives 0 = (2k/X)y d 11K (k/
III turn, when applied to the infinite b ' ,0 an 1: 0 = . X3)00, which, shown in Figure 19: earn, furnish the solution for the case
: ~ _. py.Ab+~'.B ...
9; ~""''''')i'''''''' • ~ ",y.B .. '+ "e"". (22.d)
__ iltf = 2XEI(Xyo CAli: + OoDA .. ), FIG, 19
, Q = 2X2EI(2XYoDb + OOAA .. ),
,In the same manner formulas can be den~~d ,al~o for situations in which the: semiinfinite beam is loaded withir th \
d . n '. e I
en x = 0, Taking, for instance a I
semiinfinite beam loaded by a c~n: centrated force P at a distance a from the free end, as shown in Figure'20 '
b ' ,~e
c~~ 0, tam the corresponding endcon, ditioning forces by putting on the basis
of (5cd), ,,,1
&'
o .
~V,);;J');(}}
a I
V .
FIG, 20
26
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIO~
into (16). This gives
Po = P(C)... + 2D)...) and lifo = f (C)". +D).,a),
which, when applied to the infinite beam at poi~t 0 ~at a distance a to the left of the force P), yields the equation of the deflection line as
Y = ~ [(C)". + 2D).,.)A)..x _:. 2(C)". + D).,.)H,,% + A).,(._%I]. (23a)
2k .
If the notation C).,. + 2D).,. = a and C).,. + D)... = {3 is used, the expressions for slope, moment, and shearing force will take the form
. px2 1
8 =  Tc· (aB).." + ec; ± BAI.,,!), f
M ~ :,. (ap,. 2PD .. + C"~I),
Q = ~ (aD).."  {jA"" ±. D"I._"!~' .
The last term in each of the equations above represents ~h? effect of the concentrated force P on the infinitely long beam .. The ax difference should b~ t k lways in absolute value. In the last terms of (23 b and d) the upper,
. p~u:~s~n refers to poirits with x > a, while the minus sign should be taken f~r .
points for which x < a. '. b' ith f d
F' '11 let us determine the solution for a semiinfimte . earn WI ree en
sub'eI:~lto distributed loadingq, as s~own. in Figure 2~. I.f th~ be~m had;
J infinite extension III both directions, at
/q point 0 at the left end of the loaded
o~~ .. x ~,/,;j"m" portionl,a~COrdingt20(7c.d),abend~ng
. moment 111 = /4X )B)"I and a shearing
!I , . force Q = (q/4>.) (1  C).,I) would be pro
, I<lG. 21 duced. The endconditioning forces,'
which are to cancel this moment and shear a~ 0, can be ~btai~ed by putti~ M A = (q/4X2)B)"1 and QA = (q/4X) (1  C)"I) mto (16), which grves .then Po 
. (q/>.)(l ,+ B)..i C)"I) and Mo = (q/2X2)(1 + 2BAr  C"I). A~plymg 1110 and
Q th infinite beam simultaneously with the distributed loading q, we have.
o on e ., bsci I 0 < x < l'
the equation of the deflection lme f()r.a scissa va ues .' .,
.' ,
~ = .!L [(1 + B~I  C)..I)A,,%  (1 + 2B)..I  CM)B,,% + (2  D)... r: D)"(I_%)~]' 2k
At the same time for x,.> l we have, according to (9a),
y ='!J_ [(1 + B"I  CM)A)..%  (l + 2BAI  CM)B).,.  (D".  D",%_I»].
~ . .
F '1 for 8 111 and Q in the problem above can be obtained by .successlve
m~Mm" . .'
differentiation of (24') or (24"). .
(23 bd)
<::'
"'n1i:AMS OF UNLIMITED LENG'l'H
27
III. Applications
10. The Railroad Track
The theory of beams on elastic 'foundation found its first application in the calculation of stresses and deflections of railroad tracks.* Actually, in the modern crosstie systems only the ties are continuously supported by the roadbed, while the rail itself rests on the ties, that is, on closely spaced elastic supports. Investigations have shown, however, that an equivalent continuous elastic foundation can be substituted with good approximation for such supports, and in this way the theory canbe applied to the analysis of the rails themselves.
If two equal forces N, corresponding to the rail pressures, are symmetrically applied to a tie, and they cause u; ~deflect.ion at their point of application, then the elasticity of the support, which is furnished by one tie to the' rail, can be .
characterized by the . .
N
D=,
Y ..
(a)
factor (spring constant). If such elastic supports are sufficiently closely spaced along the rail they can be replaced by a' continuously distributed imaginary foundation.] the modulus of whichIs taken
D
,k = .,
. a
(b)
where a is the spacing of the ties and D is the spring constant to be determined experimentally. Introducing this modulus kinto the previously derived formulas of the infinitely long beam, we can use those formulasfor the analysis
of rails. .
Under a single. wheel load P the maximum bending stress will then be, from (5c), .
_ 111m"" _ . P _ P . /4EI Urnnx  T ; 4>'S"C" Is 'V k'
where S denotes the section modulus of the rail. Introducing the crosssectional area A of th« raili~to (c),wecan write
(c)
(d)
The second term on the right side of the equation is constant for geometrically similar cross sections, and the third term does not depend on the dimensions of the rail. Hence we can conclude that the maximum bending stress in the mil 
*E. Winkler, Die.Lehre t'~n der Elastizita; lmci Festiqkeit (Prag, 1867), pp. 182181; and Zimmermann, op. cit.
t This approximation was introduced by S. Timoshcnko in a paper on "Strengt.h of Hails," Transactions of the Institute of "!alls of Communication (St. Petersburg, HJ15).
. i. ' • •
?i ~ ;:; ~ Lo~motwe L,,~.
" , 'i' '\' "
~ ~ ~ to) '!IUK",/".
.... ·os ... ~
, , , , 28
BKAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATI~
can be kep't constant if ,,;ith the increase, of the wheel load P the oroeseeotional
area A (i.e, the weight of the rail) is also proportionally increased. * .
It is seen from (c) . that an error in the determination of the modulu~ k Will not influence substantially the value of O"max. Putting, for instance, 2k'mstead of kint,o (c), we find that the 100 per cent difference introduced in k causes only 16.5 per cent" that. is, (1  l/{I2), deviation in the value of the maximum bend
ing stress. . . . '. '
The approximation achieved by substituting acontmuous elastic support
for the separate ones is not restricted to the analysis of the railroad track, but may find application to various engineering structures. As a rule, .sep~rate elastic supports may be replaced by an imaginary continuous foundation If we have at least four of the supports in the characteristic wave length l = ?r/A of the deflection line. This means that for such cases we must satisfy the
formula'
(e)
where a denotes the spacing and D the elasticity of the supports, and where RI indicates the flexural rigidity of the supported longitudinal beam.'. " Figure 22 t shows the moment diagram ofa beam of unl.imited length subJect~d to a single concentrated 'force and analyzed, first, as resting on separated ela~t.lc .supports (polygonal moment. diagram) and, secondly, as supported on an CqUlYlt,
FIG. 22
lent' elastic foundation (continuous moment curve)." The ~gi'eeI?ent between the deflection lines, calculated by the two different assumptiona, )s a close one and the differences are quite insignificant.
"See the paper by S. Timosheilko and ,B. ~ •. Lang~r, ;CStresses in Railroad !ra~,~:
Tran8actions of the American Sociew of Mechamcal E,ngmCeI'8, vol, 54 (1932),Apphed e
chanica Section, pp. 277302., . . . , t Figur~22 was taken from A. Wlt8i~tynskl, Recher~hes exp~n~nelltale8 8ur le~ d~form~. '
tions ~lastique8 et Ie travail de la supel'structure des,chemms defer, ill Annales de I Academte de8 Seienoe« technique8 d Varsovie, Tome IV (1937).
~BEAMS 0,1' UNLIMITED LENGTH
29
In the case ofa railroad track the ball~st and especially the underlying subsoil represent II. certain continuity between the deflection of neighboring points. Such continuity was not considered in the fundamental assumption (equation . [a], p. 2) on which the present theory is based, but its influence can be taken inte account if the value of D in (b) above is determined in the following experi
mental way. ' ,
Suppose that the rail is subjected to a
Wheel load P and the deflection ordinates of 'the rail are meaenred at every tie (Fig. 23). Assuming that the spring constant D is the same for every tie, from the consideration
) of equilibrium we' get P ,,= ,D L y, and
hence '
.~'
~
; .,:  I :. I
~
FlO. 23
(f)
Such .experiments 'have been done recently by A. Wasiutynski (~p. cit.), who points out that the value of D determined by means of (f) is about half the value obtained when only a single separate tie is loaded (equation [a], p. 27). The reason for this difference is that on account of the continuity in the subsoil the deflection of the neighboring ties to the right and left of point i facilitates the deflection of the ith tie, and, in consequence of this, one tie in such an assembly
, will be about twice as flexible (half as large as D) as a separate single tie under the loading. The value of Ddetermined from (f) corresponds to, the situation' actually existing in the railroad track. Putting this D into (b )aud introducing' the modulus k so obtained into the formulas for the infinitely long beam, we find
 ~
, SIJf} , t.6IJ
8 "fill 1(If)
751 1001
caIcuJoIed T A~ ,'n. ,~
.' <, \./r'\, T A\. /1 \ \ ,T \., r \\ ,'I'
~ ... i,..J '1.1/ ";\ , :'\\ 1/ 1\ IV' " .il'
.~ .". III If] \II . 1
~ "i ~ If
Str.esse8 in eIB' 30
~ BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
the calculated results to be in remarkableagreemEmt with the actualstress and deflection measurements. Such' a comparison, taken from the work of WiLsiu~ tyziski cited on, page 28, is shown in Figure 24. One can observe that the stress measurements usually check more closely with the theoretical results than do the deflection measurements. This might be expleined by the fact that an inaccuracy in the determination of k: has greater effect on the deflection line than on the moment curve. While a 100 pel' cent difference in the value of k would cause only 16.5 pel' cent deviation im.'crm.x (as shown on p. 28), it would produce, from equation (5a), a 40 per cent difference, that is, (1'  !\l2), in the value of the maximum deflection ordinate of the beam under a single concentrated
force.
The elements of a normal track have in general the following dimensions:
ties, length 89 ft., cross section 8 X 69 X 7 in., spacing 2430 in. on centers: ballast (crushed stone), average depth 14 in. Experiments carried out. on such tracks (under simultaneous loading of several ties) gave for the elastic coefficients introduced above the average values
D = 48,000 Ibs./in.  GO,OOO lbs./in.
and
k = 1400 Ibs./in.2  2000 Ibs./in.2*
From such measurements also the ko modulus of the foundation of the ties can he derived. this ko if; found to have a value (when several neighboring ties arc simultaneously loaded) of ko = 110  HIO Ibs./in.2 pel' inch.
11. Cylindrical Tube under Axially Symmetrical Lpading
Consider a thinwalled cylindrical tube subjected to radial forces uniformly distributed along an nrhitmry circle on the tube (Fig. 25a).
Because of the symmetry of such loading every section normal to the axis will remain circular, while the radius R will undergo a change, IlR = y, different for each cross section. The radial displacement y can be regarded as deflection for 11 longitudinal element of the tube, and hence it is seen that the as§.!.!med
loading, will set up hend .
ing stresses if! the lo_!!:: ,gitudinal elements. On account of the symmetry, we .have to consider the deformation of only one element. Let it be .:iB, shown in Figure 250., and assume its width equal to unity.
FlO .. 25
* For further details see the Progress lteports of the Special Committee on Stresses in Railroud Track (under the direction of A. N. Talbot), published in the Transactions of the A.merican Society of Civil Engineers, Vols. 8283, 86, 88 (1918, l!J20, 1923, 1925); and in the .1merican Railwa!/ Ena;neering Association noueu«, Vol. 31, No. 319 (1!J2g).
\~/.
31
',,,'TlEAlIfS OF UNLIMITED LENG'l'H
The radial displacement. y must be accom ani db' .
pression y I R of the tube which in " p .e ' y a CIrcumferential comN (Fig, 25b) havi ' . turn Will give riseto compressive hoop forces
, . avmga magnitude of.
.N = Ety R
(a)
, ~:~s u:;\~:n~~~eOf t~~ A B ~!em:n7 ~ being the middle radius and t the thick
. and be of the value e resu an 0 t ese forces N will have a radial direction
(J == P!>f ~~ A/ =: Oi::: ll:/..
, 1 ~ ,
P=Nj=W~ ~
It is seen that this force P opposi th d flecti .'
to theideflection Et/R2' b'., t~ng e e. ectl?n, will also be proportional
" "emg e proportionality factor Hence we rna
c~nclude that a longitudinal element ofa eylindricai tube lo~ded sy tri /
~~:hr::~~~~: :~ ~~ic~~iS can be regarded as a beam. on an elasti~ %~:d~~~o:'
Et
• ' k = R2' (25)
d~~e~ds on the cr~sss~ctional dimensiOI~s and on the material of the tube "Th .:~i:y, of the longitudinal element in the derivation above was takene~ual t~
tha~~en dealin~ W:thhthe~ending of a longitudinal element we must consider
.' n accoun 0 t e axial symmetry of the deformation' of th . b
sides of each longitudinal element will not be able to rotate in d e :u e, ,t~e the Iateral extension or compression of the longit di I fib' bor er. 0 permit
. 11 I' ;. 1 U ina ers ut Will have to
, ~emal~ para e with their original (radial) directions. This restrai . fl
is equivalent to a bending, moment ,mmg m uence
'Me = p.M x " ( )
.' c
, in the circumferential ring where M denotes th b di .
di ' , e . e en mg moment m the I .
. tu mal beam and p. is Poisson's ratio for the material The stiff '. ff ongiMe on the bending d f . ti f '. enmg e ect of
,. . e orma IOn 0 the longitudinal beams can be taken int
~~~i~u~/t(olY ~nc~e)asmgd tthhe momelnt of inertia of each beam of~nit width in\h~
, p. ,an us we lave
t3
I =
, ' 12(1  p.2) • (d)
Using the expressions above for k and I we shall obtai th h ..'
for the tube as ,am e c aracteristie X
. ~'k
, A _ i, 4 1
, " ," :4EI = y3(1 ,:p.2): V7ft .
, ~f steel (p. = 0.3) is the material of the tube we have
1
A = 1.285, _ 1 v tu:
(26)
(e)
32
'~ BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
Since any loading which is symmetrical with respect to the axis of the tube can be regarded as composed of such concentrated elements of loading as that shown in Figure 25a, from the principle of superposition it follows that the same method may be used equally well in the general case when the load varies in an arbitrary manner along the axis of the cylinder, provided that in each nor
.' mal section the radial loading is uniformly distributed along. the circumference of the cross section, which means that the axial symmetry of. the loading is preserved. In problems of this type the deformation and stress in the longitudinal elements can be obtained from the elastically supported beam formulas as y" , Oz, Mz, and Qz, respectively, by taking k and X as in (25) and (26). At the same time the stress in the circumferential direction is obtained by adding to the normal hoop stress, I1n, the stress caused by the circumferential bending moment, I1b. Thus we have as extreme fiber stress in the circumferential direction
E 6
110 = I1n + I1b =  y" ±  J.lMz,
R t2
where the plus and minus signs on the right side give the fiber stresses at the' inside and at the outside surface of the tube respectively, tensile stress always
being regarded as positive. .
If we assume a thinwalled cylinder without external load to be subjected to a change of temperature, constant in any uf the crORS sections but varying arbitrarily along the axis of the cylinder, we have again a problem of axially symmetrical deformntion to which the theory ?f beams on elastic foundation applies.
Let To denote the initial uniform temperature of t.he tube and'T the temperature .after heating has taken place, assuming the latter to he uniform in each cross section and to vary only along the axis of the tube. The radial displacement yoI' the element AB (Fig. 25a) will be accompanied by a unit strain y/R in the eircllmferent,ial direction; this strain is due partly to the circumferential compressive forces N and partly to the temperature change (1' ~ To) in the cross sert.ion under consideration. Denoting by a the coefficient of linear ex:
pnnsion for the material of the tube, we have '
(27)
II _ N _ (1'  1',,), R  Ht a
Irom which
iV lEt I F (7' T)
1 = R Y  a ~l  U·
The e.orrcHponding radial forces acting' on 01(' element .1B will he
1 Et Et ,.' .
/' = N if = 112 l' + a H (7  T,,)
(f)
(28)
(g)
DEAMS OF UNLIMITED LENGTH .
33
d ill b I EI dey .
an WI e equa to  1 _ J.l2j d:t4' as IS known from the bending theory of
beams. Hence we have the differential equation for our problem
EI d4y '. [Et Et ]
1  J.l2 dx' =.  R2 Y + a R (T  To) (29)
Comparing this expression with equation (1), on page 3, we find that the second ~rm o~ the right side of the equat~o~ ~bove correspo~ds to a distributed loading
q actI~g on. a beam of flexural rigidity EI/(l ' J.I) supported on an elastic foundatl_on wlt~ th: modulus k = Et/R2. Hence the distribution of thermal stresse~ ill a cylindrical tube due to a variation of temperature (T  To) along the.axl.sof the tube can be determined by simply takinga(Et/R)(T  To) as a distributed load on the tube." Any of the previously derived formulas for beams on elastic foundation will then give the solution fOI' deflections moments and shears in the longitudinal elements of the tube, while the 'circumferential forces N willbe determined by (28).
12. Examples
1. Because of the wavy course of the moment influence line on an infinilt'· .: ?eam (Fig. 5<.'). it. is possible to place on the beam a number of equal forces P
m such It manner that the" resulting maximum bending stress will be less than
that caused by a single force Palone. . . . .
A single force P 'on" the infinite beam will' prod lice a maximum bend.jng moment, fl70m (5c), equal to 111 =
8) P /4X (Fig. 26a). From the'tofluenc~ line for moment shown in Figure 5c we see that another force, P, applied at "II distance x = 11'/2>.., will reduce th« fanner maxirnummoment to .:
M(l + CAr_r/2) = M(1  0.2079) = 0.792.1 M (Fig. 2Gb).
FIG. 26
If one more P load.is added to the pr~vious two with the same spacing, x = .1I'/2X, the bending moment under the center loan will be
\
J'I(1 + 2CA_r/2) = .11(1 0.4158) = 0.5842 ill;
while under the side loads we shall have the value
M(l + C~%_;/2 + CAzr) = jJ[(l  0.2079  0.0432) = 0.7489 jll (Fig. 26c).
• See S. Timoshcnko, Strength of Material8 (2d ed.; New York, 1941), Part II, p. 174; and also J. P. den Hartog, "Temperature Stresses in Flat Rectangular Plates and Thir Cylindrical Tubes," .Tournal of the Franklin Institute, 222 (1936). 149181.
34
/ BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
i , ".1
2. Consider an infinite beam loaded as shown in Figur.e 27. Let us set the problem of finding for the beam the value of I whieh gives such a pressure distribution in the foundation that the ma.ximum pressure ,at the center of the loaded portion will equal iq. Using (78), we ,can write this requirement as
, , 1
711'hi77'?TilTiW~0h,,"'m
 , p __ ftj
(1 M'/! ' Xl) 1
pm.x= q  e : COS'2 = 4Q,
FIG. 27
or, putting x = !Xl and r: cos x = D", we find that the condition mUlt fulfill the equation .
D"  0.7:> = O.
Such equations can be solved most easily by Newton's approximation."
As a first approximation for x we have from the tables (p. 221} Xl ~O.25, which gives
f(x) = PZI  0.75 = 0.7546  0.7500 = 0.0046
and
0.9472.
Hence the second approximation for x will be
0.0046
X2 =. 0.2500 + 0.9472 = 0.25485.
Since
x = !Xl = 0.25485,
from X= {lk/4EI = (2/l)0.25485 we have the expression for the required moment of inertia as ,
kl~ I = 3.704 E'
• If :1:1 denotes the first approximation of the root of equation j(:I:) ... 0; a second improved value for the root can be obtained all
This step can be repeated until the required accuracy in the value of,x is secured. This method is especlally adapted to solving equations involving the A, B, C, and D'functions, since 'they are derivatives of one another (see the equations 01'1 p. 12), and consequently
.' j(xl) andj'(:l:I) can be taken out of the same table.
DEAM,s OF UXLIMITED LENGTH
35
!,3.' A beam of flexural rigidity EI is supported on the free ends of a series of' cantilevers, each having bending stiffness Enlo, and loaded with It distributed load q (Fig. 28). Assume that the spacing e of the cantilevers satisfies the condition (e) on page28 and the longitudinal beam can be regarded as one supported on a continuous elastic foundation, the modulus of which will here be k = Die = 3Eolo/ea3. If the flexural rigidity of one of the cantilever beams is increased, a concentrated reaction force R will be produced at that place, causing , bending in the longitudinal girder. Let us find the value of R pro
, FIG" 28 duced if the value of Eolo for one
, of the cantilevers is 'doubled.
If all cantilever beams had the same E'oIo value, the deflection of the main girder would be constant, Yo = q/k = q(ca3/3Eolo). If the flexural rigidity of one of the cantilevers is doubled the deflections at that point must satisfy the requirement
'( X 1)
Yo = R  +
2k' ke'
from which wehave
R _ . 2e ·qXe+2'
where A = {lk/4Jn and lc is as given above. '
,4. If a circular tube of unlimited length is subjected to an internal pressure P, we find, from considerations of statics, that there will be produced in the wall of the tube a uniform circumferential stress (1c = pRlt, where R denotes the middle radius and t the wall thickness of the tube. Because of this stress the tube will expand radially by the amount 0 = pR2/Et. Suppose that at one place a socalled reinforcing ring is applied to the tube which prevents the expansion at its point of application (Fig. 29). The effect of this ring will be the same as
R' I P the cffect of it concentrated force pro
_),I.:!_}~__ I _ ~uci~g deflection y = pR2 / Et on an
of ~ r infinite beam supported on an elastic
tift f I I II! it 1 f t tkt f t, foundation having the values of k
" '.L
         : t  p  ,    and X defined by (25) and (26). The
\ I II I I I I I ~ lit t j~t t t t maximum bending'" moment due to
___________ ._ , r this action can be determined from
!p , (5 a and c), and so we get (using
F2!l IJ. = 0.3) for the maximum bending
IG. stress ~
r ~~=~~
(1,""" = (il1[ .. 0" = 1.82 pR •
r t 3P ,a
(J"",y "" X J...' =1. 8/68 :t.
It is seen that this bending stress, which occurs under the reinforcing ring ill the longitudinal fibers of the tube, is 82 per cent larger than the circumferential . stress existing before the application of the ring."
JceTIl
__  0
FIG. 30
Since for the tube
JlEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
5. Consider a circular tube with one end built into a wall made of the same material as the tube (Fig. 30a) and assume that the. temperature of the tube is raised by T degrees with respect to the temperature of the wall. By the fixing of the end Aa radial extension 6 = aTR of the tube is prevented, a denoting the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material and R the radius of the tube. At the same time, owing to the fixed end, the slope of the 1ieformation curve at A must also be equal to zero. Putting Yo = aTR and 80 = 0 into (22c) , we obtain the maximum bending moment at A (x = 0) as,
Mmax = 2aTREIX2.
t3 2 ~ / 1
I = )" and X = v 3(1  JJ.2) Rt '.,
. 12(1  JJ.2
we can, by using I.l = 0.3, write the expression for the maximum bending moment as
Mmax = 0.303a7'.El.
If we assume such fixing atAas permits a rotation of the end (Fig. 30b), an" expression for the ilL curve can be obtained by taking Yo = aTR and [lIflrO = 0 in (22c). This gives 00 = XYo, and now we get, using the expressions above for I and A, the equatiun of the bendingmoment. diagram as 1~1 = O.303aTEt2eAx sin X:l', the maximum value of which, at. a distance x = 7r'/4X from point A, will be
6. Consider a cylindrical tube of unlimited extension heated along a circumferential circle to a temperature of T degrees. Assume that from point A of the heated circle the temperature decreases on both sides linearly along a length l until it reaches the uniform
. initial temperature To of the tube (Fig. 31). Such a condition can occur when two tubes. are buttjoined by welding.
FIG. 31
. ... In spite of their stressraising effect, reinforcing rings are frequen~ly used for con
structional reaaons, such as to increase the stiffness of the tube, to 'provlde support, and 80 on.
''"''
BEAMS OF UNLIMITED LENGTH
37
Th~ problem is to find the therm~l stresses set up in the tube. The solution cnn be obtained if, according to (29), we subject the tubeto.a triangular loading.
whose maximum ordinate IS equivalent t<1 .
. qo = "'01 ~t (T  To).
Substituting this qo value ill (1Oc) and putting.>.. = {/3(1  JJ.2)(1/VRt) ,'a. = l, II == 0, we have the maximum bending .moment occurring at A (the value given by [We] is doubled because of the double triangular load):
II  0.1~0 (T ;_ T )E 16 AAI  1.,. " A.  (1 _ ,.,,2)3/4.01 0 v Rt l '
the maximum .longitudinal bendin~ stress will be (if ~. = 0.3)
Umax"= 0.707a(7'  To)Ev'RtAAll 1.
The deflection at point A 'is obtained from'(lOa), with k = Et/R2, as
, "
YA = 0.389a(T Tu)v'R3t CAl + ~Xl  1 j
and for the normal hoop stress u" , after substituting in (28) the YA value above, we have
. un= ~A = a(T _ 7'o)E(1 _ 0.~89v'Rt CAl + ~Al  1).
This normal stress is acting in the" middle plane of the wall of the tub~: The extreme fiber stress in the circumferential direction is obtained (according to [27)) by adding to. the Un value above the stress produced' b~' bending in the
circumferential direction: .
Ub!= 6JJ.lIfA/t2.
CHArTER III BEAMS OF FINITE LENGTH
13. General Method of Solution for Beams of Finite Length
For a beam of finite length the' correct solution is the one , .... hich, besides fulfilling the differential equation of the elastic line, also satisfies the .required conditions at both ends of the beam.
The previously derived elastic curves of the infinite beam all satisfy the differential equation of bending. In consequence of the principle of superposition any 'combination of particular loadings will also satisfy that differential equation. Hence it follows that, if we find such a combination of loadings as fulfills the conditions prescribed for certain points (end points) of the elastic
line; we shall thus obtain the solution for a beam of finite length. .
Assume that an infinite beam is subjected to a given loading P and q. as shown in Figure 32. Because of this loading certain values of y, 0, M, and Q will be produced at points A and B. By superposing on this loaded beam two pairs of concentrated forces and moments (Mo.~ , POA. and MOB, POB) we can modify the elastic curve in such a way that at points A and B the required end
. conditions will be fulfilled. For each end (A and B) we can prescribe two '
conditions.
Since the four quantities Po .• , .Mo .• and POB , MOB create the.required condi
tions at A and B, they will be collectively termed, In the discussion which follows, the. endconditioning forces. This endconditioning principle was used in the preceding chapter when we derived solutions for the semiinfinite beams .. The present use differs only in that now we must consider also the influonoe ' of these endconditioning.forces on each other, for Po.~ and Mo.~ will have an effect on the conditions existing at B; and similarly POB and MOB will have an influence at point A. Thus the correct value for these endconditioning forces must be determined from four simultaneous equations, representing the simultaneous fulfillment of the end conditions at points A and.B. It will be assumed
" that these endconditioning forces are applied infinitely. close to the outer side 'of the A B portion. Iri this way anyuncertaintv which might arise from the singular character of the points of application will be eliminated. The assumed
. positive sense for the endconditioning forces is shown in Figure 32. The procedure for finding their values in any particular case of end conditions will be
discussed in the following sections. .
. ·14. Beams with Free Ends
Consider an. infinitely long beam subjected to a given loading, as shown in Figui'e 33a. Our aim will be to obtain from it a solution for the beam of finite
38
<:» \._,/ .
BEAMS OF FINITE LENGTH
. )
 39
length which is under the same loading and has free ends at A andB (Fig. 33c). In the beam' in Figure 33a there' are bending moments and shearing forces . M'~rlI'rrt;11.,m~W#.~"",,,m,,;,;~.
produced at A and B, but in that in
Figure 33c we have M = 0 and Q= 0 FIG. 32
at those points. Our method will be to make the moments and shears vanish at· points A and B on the' infinite beam, by applying the endconditioning forces
POA, MOA and POB, MOB at those '
points. Accordihg to the reasoning . ~. I p .' , AI, .
previously presented, the infinitely Il;Ylm1h""~edllm7l~~W)MJij}J{,7':i!~·m»"1";
long bar under the action of the ' ~ 1 r=' ~
given loading and the endcondition b, .~l!lf? .. M",
ing . forces (Fig. 33b) will behave ""m·Iii~1h i71mi~ifJJ·wmm' )}»>1m.
between points A atld. B. exactly in C; Ip ~1~1II"IIIW9'
the same manner as If ,It had free A f'JlIhmm 'imiJihili1'!!la
ends at these points (Fig. 33c).
The endconditioning forces must produce  M A.,  QA,  M Band QB at the points A and B. HaviJig altogether four conditions for the two ends, we can determine the value of the four endconditioning forces.
By use of (5 c4i) and (6 cd), the conditions above for free ends can be written as .
FIG. 33
M + POA + ]>08 C + MOA. + MOB D' = 0
A. 4X 4X AI 2 2 AI ,
Q POA. + POB b XMoA. + XMoB A '  0
AZ Z AI2 2 AI,
M + POA C . +' ~O!!_ + MOA D + MOB = 0
.B, • 4X Al 4X 2 AI 2 '
, ,
(30)
QB  POA DAI + POB ._ XMOA AAI + XMOB = O.
2 ,2 2' 2
By solving such a. system of equations we can determine the values of the end" conditioning forces in eachcase, But an explicit form for the unknowns in (30) . would lead to complicated expressions.
In order to simplify the solution of these equations we shall resolve the original loading (as a simple example consider that shown in Fig. 348.) into two parts, a symmetrical part (Fig. 34b) and an antisymmetrical one* (Fig. 34c) • . By resolving in this way any givenloading into symmetrical 'and antisymmetrieal
* This method is sometimes referred to in the literature as the "AndreeHerska method." See W. L. Andree, Zur B_erechnung statisch unbestimmter Systeme, Des BU Verfahren (MUnchenBerlin, 1919). .
40 ,.~
<:. \,,,' 'BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
components we actually resolve the system of four equations 'shown in (30) into two systems with two unknowns in each. Thus in Figure 34b, as well as in Figure. 34c, the moments and shears 'at the end
c, points A and B are equal in absolute
'M?!i.m;m'1JT.mmrm'1!:'lrm,""mmj.;m;m1!'l'l!fI value and differ only in signs, as
is shown there. Hence in each of
FIG. 3t these situations' the endcondition
ing forces will be of equal value too, and their calculation will need, in each instance, the solution of only two simultaneous equations.
Since a considerable simplification in the .computing work is attainable by this procedure, we shall make extensive use of it in the future. The consecutive steps in applying the method will be: (a) resolving the original loading into a symmetrical and an antisymmetrical part, (b) determining the endconditioning . forces in each of these parts, and (c) adding them toget.her afterward ,at each end point. By this means we obtairi the total value of the endconditioning forces for the original given loading.
The sign convention will have considerable lmportance in this procedure, and so we shall decide now * that M A , Q A and M 8 , Q 8 wiII denote the moments and shears at points 11 and B due to the original loading (Fig. 34a); that M~. , Q~ will represent the moment. and shear at A. due to the symmetrical loading (at B the values are the same: only, the sign of the shear is reversed, as shown in Fig. 3l:b); and that .1(: , Q~ will indicate the moment and shear at!l due to the antisymrnetrical louding (at. B they are of the same value, but the sign of the moment is reversed; see Fig. 34c). Any of these symbols may denote negative quantities. For example, if when computing the shearing force at, ,1 this happens to come out negative; then QA will indicate a negative quantity.
According to this notation, it, follows. from Figure 34 ac that .
.lEA = .M~ + M~ , QA = (J~ + Q~ ;
M8 = ill:  ,M~, Q B =  Q~( + Q~ ,
and, therefore,
.11: = HM.t + ,il'I B), ,,}f~: = HMA  M B),
Q: = HQ .•  Qa), }
Q~ = HQ,t + QB). .
J laving determined the 1lI A , M B , Q., , Q 8 values due to the original loading ou ',he infinite beam, we can find from (31) the corresponding M'~ , Q~ and M~. ;.?~ values for the symmetrical and antisymmetricalloadings respectivelv,
• In addition to the general conventions established on p, 11.
(31 )
.___"I
BEAMS OF FINITE LENGTH
4l
The next step will be to remove
moments and shearing forces at points A and B by applying at these points p~, M~ in' the symmetrical case and p~, M~ in the antisymmetrical case, as shown in Figure 35 be, Both these figures indicate the assumed positive directions for
· the endconditioning forces. By BU, perposing the symmetrical and .antisymmetrical components we' shall , obtain the endconditioning forces for the original case (Fig. 35a), in which
FIG. 35
Pe: = p~ + P~' , Ps» = P~  p~ ,
,,, , ."
Jl/o .• ,= Mo + Mo , j}[08 = Mo  J.1o .•
In order to remove the moments and shears at A and B on the infinite beam we
· shall require that Pe« , Mo,. , POB , and MOB should produce a~togethe~  M .. ,  Q .• at A. an}l  M B,  Qn at B, which they will do if: Po and Mo produce
,  J1(.,  Q~ at, A find M:, + Q~. at B, ' (n)
and if p~ and M~' produce
. " '" "Q" B (h)
 M.l"  QAat 11 . and + M .• ,  .• at .
From conditions (a) and (b) above the values for the endconditioning forces . can he determined separately for the symmetrical and the antisymmetrieal cases:
a. Symmefrical Case
(5 c.d) and «j ('d), we can write the conditions in
P~ Jl~'
_;_ (1 + exl) + '2 (1 + DAI) .j.}..
(1\) above 8!"
(e)
 Q~ •.
· From this ,~'e have
. p~ = 4El[Q~(1 + DXI) + }..M~(1  AXI)],
(32"
where
• In another form:
1 e~t
E =  . __ 
1 :? Sinh >.1 + sin >.l '
1 eU
}1" z:::   ._.
=u 2 Sinh >.1  sin >.1 •
42
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'.rION
b. Antisymmetrical Case
Using (5 cd) and (6 cd), we can put the conditions in (b) in the form
/I 1
= MA'
= Q~, J
. (d)
from which
P~' = 4EII [Q~ (1  DM) + >'M~ (1 + jh,)] , }
/I 2 /I /I
Aio = X EIl [QA (1  CXI) + 2>.MA (1 + Dxl)] ,
(32")
!
where
At the end of this book a table of E functions is given. The E quantities as well as the other multiplicators of the Q's and M's on the right side of (32') and (32") are functions of >.l only; consequently, these coefficient.'! have to be established only once for each beam and can be used for determining the endconditioning forces for any type of loading.
If (32') and (32") give a negative value for an endconditioning force, it wiII mean that the direction of that force should be opposite to the one that was assumed as positive (Fig. 35 be). In any particular problem it is advisable . to show in a sketch the way in which these endconditioning forces are acting, separately in the symmetrical and the antisymmetrical cases, in order to avoid any mistake in signs when adding them together at the end points A and B respectively.
This procedure gives the solution for a beam of finite length subjected to any lateral loading. It includes also the particular situation when forces are acting only at the ends of thc beam. From
.' , ,
(32') and (32") it follows that Po
and 11{~ on the infinite beam (Fig. 36a) will create a situation between points A and B which is identical with that in which the beam of finite length AB is ~cted upon at the ends by  M~ ,  Q~ and  .i11~ , + Q~ end loads (Fig. 36b). Simi
FIG. 36
* See note on page 41.
,BEAMS OF FINITE LENGTH
43
larly, Figure 37 ab gives an identical situation on the, .:1B portion for the antisymmetrical case. In (32') and (32") we can assign any value to the quantities ill A, Q .• ; consequently, in this way we can derive the solution for a beam of finite length subjected to any end loading.
15. Beams with Hinged Ends
For a beam with hinged ends, such as that , shown in Figure 38, the conditions for both ends arc
FIG. 37
Y = 0 and M'= O.
Extending the sign convention previously adopted ' 'I I l 'R
(p. 40) for deflections and slopes, we shall.denote A ;{P/2 ~~ .
by Y.l , 8A, YB, 8B the deflections and slopes pro E l.'t
duced by the loading at points A and B respec 'A4'.7m; N:?+n
tivelv on an infinite beam; by y~ , 8~ the deflection }' 38
•. 'IG
and slope in the symmetrical case at A (at B the . ..
"': " "
values remain thc same, but the sign of 8 is reversed); and by Y.1 , 8 .• the deflec
tion and slope in the antisymmotricul case at A (at B they are of the same value, but the sign of y is reversed). As .was pointed out before, any of these symbols may denote a negative quantity. From the notations above it follows that
y.l Y~{ + Y::, M,\ ilf~ + }11~ ,
" Y.I,
, y ..
1lf1J
Y,B
and, therefore,
'y~. = !(Y,l + YIJ), " l( I ) y,[ = '2 YA  YB ,
\Ye shall again split the original loading into a symmetrical and an antisyrnmetrical one and shall determine the endconditioning forces separately for ouch.
(33)
a. Symmetrical Case
P~ and M~ must produce  y~ and  M~. at points A and Bon the infinite beam. That is, by (5 a and c) and ,<6 a.and c),
P~>. M~>.2 . . , ) 211. (1 + AX!) I r B~I = Y.{, J
(a)
p~ (1 + CAl) + JlI~ (1 + DXI) M~.
4A 2
i
:j'~:'
44
\......
BEAMS ON ELASTIC l'OUNDATION
From this we have
r; = 4XFI[M:BAI  2X2EIy:(1 + DA;)]' }
M~ = 2FI[M:(1 + AAI) + 2X2Ely~(1 + CA~J,
where
1"1 =
b. Antisymrnetrical Case
J>" dM" d "d M" .. ,," ",
o an .I. 0 must pro lice  Y.I an  A at A and + YA and + MA at B.
tIsing (5 a, and c) and (6 a and c), we can write the conditions above as
p'" M~X2
~(1  AAI)   BM =
2k k
'p~' . M~'
4X (1  CAl) + "'2 (1  DA1)
from which
where
Hi. Beams with Fixed Ends
For a beam with fixed ends, such as that shown in Figure 39, the conditions for both ends are
y = 0 and 0 = O.
According to our adopted signconvention (p. 43), we shall have in this case for the infinite beam
. I ,."
1/ .• = y" +' !fA ,
OA = O~ + O~, OB = O~ + O~,
I II
liB = 11A  1/.1 ,
• In another form:
1 eA1
PI =  ;~
2 Cosh Xl + cos 'AI'
!i'IG. 39
1 eA1
Fit =  .
2 Cosh 'AI  cos Xl •
See tables of E and F functions on page 241.
(34')
(b)
<:»
BEAMS OF FINITE J,~;NGTH
,..__.,ri
45
and, therefore,
.v~ = !(Y~ + YB), lI~ == !eYA  Y~),
O~ = !COA  OB), } O~ =:= t(OA + OB)'
(35)
Having determinedon the infinitely long beam the y'.~, YB, '0., , and OB values due to the given loading, we can obtain the y~, , O~ and y~ , O~: values from (35) for the symmetrical and antisymmetrical components, respectively, of the given loading. They will be used in the formulas derived below,
a. Symmetl'iral Case
p~ and M~ must produce  Y~ and  0: at A (at B, consequently,
and O~, will he produced). This c;mdit.ioll requires that. .
, I
Y,'. 'J
2 3
1)' X B + ',.I' A (J ' C,~,'), lJ
ok AI . ,VlO k n = .VA •
(a)
From this we have
p~. = 8'A2EIEl[0~BAI lI:X(1  CAl)], }
u; = 4XRIEIIO~i(1 + Ax,) , y~2XBAzl, where HI is the same as before (see p. 41).
b. Antisymme.trical Case
" ./I . • ' . II " II I
Po and Mo will produee s YA and  0.1 at A. (thus at. B, + l!A and OA
willbe produced). This condition requires that
(36')
" A 4 . ) ,,x2 B
fo 2k (1  • AI , Jlo k AI
I
2 3'
>"X IIX ( )
=P« T~ B~I +.J.l{o k 1 + CAl
(b)
. From this we get,
p~' = 8X2EIEl1[(J~BAI + Ay~(1 + CAl)], } j_vI~ = 4XEIEl1[0~(1  "hi) + y~2ABAll, where the symbol Ell denotes the same expression that was given on page 42.
In an analogous way, the endconditioning forces can also be determined for other kinds of end conditions than those of free, simply supported, and fixed
ends which have been' discussed so.far. .
}
(36")
\._./ \,.._ ..... /
BEAMS ON l~LASTIC FOUNDATION
I ,
""
, BEAMS OF FJNJT}~ LENGTH
47
From the four quantities y, e, M, and Q we can select two and ascribe any value to them, establishing in this way the conditions fo~' an encl. From these four quantities six different types of Emd support can be derived; a circumstance which, if we consider both ends of the beam, permits of twentyone different types of beams. Of these, six will be symmetrical, and of those six three have been investigated above. For the remaining three symmetrical beams the analysis can be carried out in the same manner, the general solution being resolved into two pairs of simultaneous equations. But when we deal with' different end conditions at the two ends (a situation which admits of fifteen types of beams), such simplification is not possible, and, as a rule, all four equations of the type expressing the foul' end conditions (see [30]) will have to be solved simultaneously.
17, Classification of Beams according to Sti,O'ness
We have seen that it was the Al quantity which characterized the relative stiffness of a beam on' an elastic foundation, . This Xl quantity determines the, magnitude of the curvature of the elastic line and defines the rate at which the .. effect of'.aloading force dies out in the form ofa damped wave along the length, of the beam. According to these Al values we may classify hoarnsInt« . three. groups:
1. Short beams: Xl < 11'/4;
, II, Beams of medium length: 7(/4 < Xl < '/I'; Ill. Long beams: Al > 11'.
The limits established above for. the classification of the beams" are not definite." 'Theyd~pend on the accuracy required in the computation; Aroll~d these limits the suggested approximations will give results differing only by a few percent from theexact ones. If we want greate.r~ccu,rll,Cy we should put. the upper' limit of group I at Xl = 0.60 and the lower limit ef gr~up I!I at X,l = D.OO. . But 'beyond these limits use should be made of the approximations, since then the difference from the exact results willbe negligibly small.
In the example below the exact analysis required for group II is used for a bea~ which has a value of Xl larger than 11'. This is done in order to show how the .aecurate solution can be arrived at, but it should be noted that satisfactory final results for practical purposes can be moresimply obtained by making use of the. approximations.
18 .. Example
Consider a beam with free ends, its dimensions and loading as shown in Figure 40. Find the deflections at the ends and the deflection, moment, and shear at C, in the middle. The modulus' of elasticity of the material of the beam '(wood) is E ee . 1.5 X lOB lbs.Zin," and the modulus of the foundation, ko = 200 , Ibs.z'in." We shall have k = bko =.10 in. I = 10 X 83/12 = 426.7 in . .,.
~~~..,~.
. :0 4 .' 2000Ibs./in.2 = 002973 in.1
.X = l' 4ET . 4 X 1.5 X 10& Ibs./in.2 X 426.7 in.' . .
= 0.02973 in.~l X 120 in. = 3.568.
First we have to calculate the bending moment and shearing force values produced by the given P and q loadings at points A and #on the infinitely long beam. Force P will produce, according to (5 cd):
FIG. 40
X 200 Ibsjin.3·= 2000 Ibs.Zin.', .
This classification is made from a practical point of view, since it offers till! possibility of using approximations and of neglecting certain quantities in par.
ticular instances. .
For beams belonging to group I we can neglect, in most practical prC!l>lcms" the bending deformation of the bar, since this deformation will be so small ~,". to be negligible compared with the. deformation' produced in the. foundation. ' , Hence, computing beams of Al < 11'/4, we can assume them to be absolutely rigid., consequently, the position which they take on the foundation, when subjected to loading, can be determined from' simple considerations of statics ..
Group II comprises the situations in which aecurate computation of the beams is necessary. The characteristic of this groupis that a force acting at one end of the beam has a finite, and not negligible, effect at the other end. Consequently, when a beam. of such length is derived from the infinitely long one, . the countereffect which the endconditioning forces have ?n each other has an important role, and no approximation is advisable.
Beams belonging to group III have a Xl value such that the countereffect
. of the endconditioning fo;'ces on each .. other .is a diminishing. one. When investigating one end of the beam, we may assume that the other end is infinitely far away. Forces applied at one end will have a negligible effect at the other. In other words, Xl is so large that we can take in all the formulas Ax/. = Bx/ ,=" CXl = DXl = 0, which greatly simplifies the computation.
atA. (x = 30 in.): M~ = ....:. 2548.0 in. lbs.,. at B (x = 90 in.): M; = 3889.0 in. Ibs.,
Q~ = 643.2Ibs.; Q; = 153.8 Ibs~
The distributed load q will produce
at A . (a = ~2 in., b = 100 in.), according to (8cd):
M~ = 5787.0 in. lbs., Q~ = 129.1 lbs.;
68 in.,b ~ 20 in.), according to (9 cd):
M~=' 5402.4 in. lbs., Q~ = 272 .. 91bs.
Altogether th~re will be produced
M A = 8335.0in. Ib;S., QA = 518.1 lbs.,
MB = 9291.0 in . Ibs., QB = 119.11bs.
48
"" ''"
lU;.\,MS ON 1':LASTlC FOUNDATION
Putting these values into (31),' we obtain for the corresponding symmetrical and antisymmetrieal components:
.1[.', = 8813.0 in. IIlH., ,V" 1,8 () in II)s
, .1.4 .,.. • •.• ,
o: =. 318.0 II>H.,
Q~ = 199.5 Ib:>.
Substituting these values in (32') ami (32") and taking the ..tAl, BAI , ete., values from t,hl' table" (p. 235), using interpolation, we obtain the values
P;, = 158.3 lbs., p~' = 854.0 lbs.,
Jl~ = 15400.0 ill. Ib8., M~' = 15130.0 ill. II>H.
~() we shall huve the endconditioning forces
at A: p"" = p;' + p~' = .1012.0 lhs. (downward), JI"., = Jl~ + M~' = 265.0 in. lbs. (clockwise): at B: PilI< = p~  P~' = (j95.7Ib~. (upward),
M('I< = M~  M~' = 30530.0 in. Ills. (counterclockwise),
These forces and moments applied close to the left of A ant! to the right of B on the infinitely long beam will produce, according to (5 cd) and (6 cd),
at A: M" = 8335.0 in. lbs., at B: "AI" = 929l.0 in. lbs.,
' Q.I·=  518.l lbs.:
Q" = 119.1Ihll.
Thus, if we apply the endconditioning forces 011 the infinite beam simultaneously with the given loading, the deflection, slope, 111, and Q will he the same at any point between A and B as in the original problem of Figure 40. This part of the calculation can be carried out conveniently in the following
tabular form ,.
a. Deflections
YA in. vc in. UB in.

On the infinite beam:
P 0.02141 0.02141 0.00113
q 0.00140 0.02797 0;01286
POA 0.00752 I 0.00097 0.00028
Mo.4 0 0.00002 0.00000
POB 0.00019 0.00066 0.00517
MOB 0.00016 0.00222 0
On the beam of finite length: 0.03036 0.05193 0.00628 :'1
BEAMS OF FINITE LENG'l!H
49
h. Pressure in the Eoundaiion, p = kay lbs.Zin."
PA = 6.07Ibs./in.\ Po = 10.39Ibs./in.\ PB = 1.26Ibs./in.2
c. Bending Moment and Shearing Force at C
CHAPTER IV
PARTICULAR CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEA:\IS
I. Solutiom of the Differential Equation of the Elastic Line
In this chapter we shall give ready formulas for a number of simple cases of loading on beams of finite length. These expressions were derived' by the previously presented method of superposition, by which solutions for any other loading or end conditions can also be obtained. In the formulas, wherever the symbol A is used, it denotes V'k/4EI, where k = bko ; ko·lbs./in.3 is the modulus of the foundation; and b is the constant width of the beam in contact with the foundation; and EI is the flexural rigidity of the beam. .
19. Beams with Free Ends
a. Equal Concentrated Forces at Both Ends (Fig. 41)
2PA Cosh AX cos AX' +. Cosh AX' cos AX
Y = If: Sinh Al + sin Al
Deflection at the end points:
2PA Cosh Al + cos Al YA = Yn= If: Sinh Al + sin AZ'
FIG. 41
Deflection at the middle:
AlXl 4PA Cosh 2 cos 2
Yo = k Sinh Ai + sin Al .
The deflection Yo = 0 when Al = 1f', 31f', 51f', etc.
(J ~ 2PA 2 1 l (Sinh AX cos AX' + Cosh AX sin AX'
k Sinh Al + sin A
~ Sinh AX' cos AX ~ Cosh AX' sin AX).
Slope at the end points:
2PA 2 Sinh Al ~ sin Al (JA = ~(Jn = =:« Sinh Al + sin Al'
P Sinh AX sin AX' + Sinh AX' sin AX M=
~X Sinh Al + sin Al
50
(37a)
(37b)
(37c)
,,,' ,,,'
CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
Bending moment at the middle:
S· hAL . Al
2P in 2 sm '2
~ Sinh Al + sin Al . JlJ c = 0 when Al = 21f', 411", 611", etc.
Me is negative when Al < 21f'.
Jll c is positive when 21f' < Al < 41f'.
Mo=
Q =.p S' h l ~ . Al (Sinh AX cos AX' ~ C~sh AX sin AX'
in A sm· ,
,
+ Cosh AX' sin AX ~ Sinh AX' eos AX).
·b. Equal Concentrated Moments at Both Ends (Fig. 4£) y = ~ 2~oA2 Sinh Al ~ sin Al (Sinh AX cos AX' ~ Cosh Ax.sin AX' + Sinh AX' cos AX : ~osh~' sin AX).
. Deflection at the end points:
2.MoA2 Sinh Al ~ sin Al
YA = YB = ~k Sinh Al + sin Al'
4Mo.A3 Cosh AX cos >.:x' ~ Cosh AX' cos AX
() = ~k Sinh Al + sin Al
Slope at the end points: /.
(JA = ~(Jn = "4MoA3 Cosh Al ~ cos At
k Sinh Al + sin Al .
M = Jlo S' h II . l (Sinh AX cos Ax'·+ Cosh AX sin AX'
, m A + Sill A
+ Sinh AX' cos AX + Cosh Ax' sin AX).
Bending moment at the. middle:
. xl Al·. ii , Al
Smh  cos  + Cosh  sm 
.2 2 2 2
SinhAl + sin Al
M« =. 2Mo
51
(37d) .
(38a)
(38b)
(38c)
BEAMS ON ELAS'):'1C Foukrri·J'ION"../
M c = 0 when cos ~ =  sin ~ , that is, when Al ,;.. f'll'", i'll'", J.,}'II'", etc., if we: assume that at these Al. values Sinh Al == Cosh Al. '
Sinh AX sin AX'  Sinh Xx' sin AX.
Q =;: 2MoA Sinh Al + sin At" .
The deflection Y B = 0 when Al values Sinh Al == Cosh Al.
o = _2PA2 1. [Sinh Al (sin AX Cosh AX"+ cos Ax Sinh Ax')
k Sinh" Al  sm2 Al . .
+ sin Al (Sinh Ax cos Xx' t Cosh.X.1: sin Ax')J. (39b)
tn, t'll'", etc., if we assume that.' atthe~e )"l
c. Concentrated Force at One End (Fig, 43).
2PA Sinh Al cos AX Cosh AX'  sin Al Cosh Ax cos AX'
Y = T Sinh2 Al sin2. Al
Deflections at the end points:
2PA Sinh Al Cosh Al sin Al cos Al
YA = T Sinh2 Al  sin2 Al 
2PA Sinh At cos Al sin Al Cosh Al YB = k Sinh2 Al  sin2 Al
. ~.:lC~.""'. ~W""J ...
'ffl17 P! __ , B
I
A, l' ~
(39a)
. Slopes at the end points:
2PA 2 Sinh2 Al + sin2 Al OA = T Sinh! Al  sin2 AI'.
4PA2 Sinh Al sin Al
OR, =  If: Sinh2 Al  sin2 )..1'
The slope OB = 0 when Al = '11'",2'11'",3'11'", etc.
P Sinh Al sin AX Sinh AX'  sin Al Sinh AX sin AX'
M = . x Sinh2 Al  sin2 Al
Q = P 1 [Sinh Al (cos Xx Sinh Ax'  sin AX Cosh. AX')
Sinh2 Al  sin2 Al .
 sin Al (Cosh Ax sin AX'  Sinh AX cos Ax')I.
d. Concentrated Moment at One End (ng.44)
Y _ 2MoX21. [Sinh Xl (Cosh AX' sin Aa.:  Sinh AX' cos Ax)
_ k Sinh2 Xl  sm2 Xl
+ sin Xl (Sinh AX cos AX' ,Cosh Xx sin Ax')J. (40a)
FIG. 43
'..._;·'...._.6ASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
53
Deflectioris at the end points:  Q AI, . . .
,, _2'::A'~::~:::::~, ~'~' ~_FB .
:J _,H'i'lWfffrE:;_
4MoX2 Sinh Al sin)"l . :Ie '. l·:Ie .:...
YB = k Sinh2 Al  sin2 Al . FIG. 44
. The deflection YB ,,;, 0 when Al= '11'",2'11'",3'11'", etc.
4MoA3 Sinh Xl Cosh AX' cos )..X + sin Al Cosh AX cos Ax'
o = k  Sinh? )..1 sin" Xl
(40b)
Slopes at the end points: i
4MoA3 Sinh Al Cosh Al + sin At cos Al OA = k' . Sinh" Xl  sin2 Al
4M 0 A 3 Sinh Xl cos Al + sin' Al Cosh Al
OB = k Sinh! Xl  sin? Xl
The slope OB 0 when Al !'II'", 111", J:i1I", etc., if we assume that at these Al
values' Sinh Al = Cosh Al ..
111 _ 111 1 [Sinh Al (Sinh Ax' cos Ax + Cosh AX' sin AX)
 0 Sinh" Al  sin2 'Al
 sinAL (Sinh AX cos Ax' + Cosh AX sin )..x')J. (40c)
Sinh 'AI Sinh Ax' sin Ax + sin Al Sinh 'Ax sin AX' (40d)
Q = 21110A Sinh Al ... sip.2 'AI
e. Concentrated Force at the Middle (Figs. 45:46)
Y = PX 1. [Cosh >..1: cos A(l ' x) + cos Ax Cosh A(l  x)
2k Sinh 'Al + sin Xl .
,  Sinh' AX sin A(l  z) + sin )..X Sinh A(l x)
+ 2 Cosh Ax cos AX). (41a)
Deflection at the middlet 
PX Cosh Al + cos Al + 2 uo = 2k . Sinh Al + sin Xl
Deflection at. the end points:
Al At
. 2PA Cosh 2" cos '2
Y.4 = YB = T Sinh Xl + sin AI'
The deflection YA = YB = 0 when Al = 11",311", 511", etc.
'./ \., BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'fION'
The deflection at the end points is positive when 'Al < 11"; 'Al = 11" defines the .. e.tTective length of the beam subjected to a concentrated force in.the middle .. (Fig. 46).
p
FIG. 45
FIG. 46
PX2 1 .
8 = _. . ·l {Sinh Xx [cos Xx I cos 'A(l  x)1
k Sinh Xl + sm 'A. ..
 sin Xx [Cosh Xx + Cosh·A(l  x)]}.
(41b)
Slope at the end points
. 'Al 'Al . u 'Al
2PA2 Smh "2 cos "2  sm2 COsh.2
T Sinh Al + sin Al
8,1. = 88
M = P 1 {Sinh Xx [sin Xx  sin A(l  x)1
4X Sinh Xl + sin Xl ..
 Cosh 'Ax [cos Xx + cos X(i  x)1
. ,
+ sin AX [Sinh AX  Sinh x(1 x)]
+ cos AX [Cosh Xx + CoshA(l  x)] J.
Maximum bending moment at the middle:
M _ P Cosh Al  cos Al
. c  4X Sinh Xl + sin Xl .
Q = ~ 1. {Cosh Xx [sin Xx  sin X(l  x)1 ..
2 Sinh Al + sm X.l .
+ cos AX [Sinh Xx  Sinh ACl  x)] J.
f. Concentrated Force at ·an Arbitrary Point (Fig. 47)
The following formulas for the deflection, slope, bendingmoment, shearingforce curves are for the AC portion of the beam, where x < a .. same formulas can be used for the .8C . section, where x. < b, by measuring x from end B and replacing a by band b by a,
Y = PX .. 2 1 . 2 {2 Cosh Xx cos Xx(Sinh Arcos Xa Cosh M
. Ie Sinh Xl  sm. Xl . .
(41c)
_ sin xl Cosh Ad, cos Ab) + (Cosh Xx sin Xx
+ Sinh AX cos Ax)[Sinh Xl(sin Aa Cosh Ab  cos Xa Sinh M) +. sin Xl(Sinh AU. cos M  Cosh Xa sin Xb) II·
"'. CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
55
Deflection at the point of application of the load (x = a):
PI. 1 .
Yc = k Sinh" Xl _ sin" Xl. [(Cosh2 Xa + cos" Xa)(SinhAb Cosh Ab
 sin Ab cos Ab) + (Cosh2 Ab + cos" Xb)(Sj~h Xa Cosh Xa  sin Xa cos Aa)] ..
o _ ~PX2 1. .
 k Sinh2 Xl _ sin" Al (Cosh AX cos Xx
. [Sinh:Xl(sin Xa Cosh Ab.  cos Aa Sinh Xb) + sin Al(Sinh Xa.cos Xb  C~sh Xa·sin Xb)]
. '
'.: ;. (Cosh AX sin Xx  Sinh AX :~.qs Xx)
. (Sinh Alcos AaCqsh xb .,' sin Ai Cosh Aa cos Ab) I ..
I . .1
(42b)
. P 1 .;
M = 2X Sinh2 Al _ sin2 Xl (2 Sinh Xx sin Xx(Sinh Al cos Xa Cosh Xb
 sin Xl Cosh Xa cos Ab) t. (CoshXz sin Xx
 Sinh AX cosX3()[Sinh ~~(sin Xa Cosh Ab  cos Xa Sinh Xb)
:+ sin ~1(Sinh Xacos Xb  Cosh Xa sin Ab)]J. (42e) Bending moment at the point ofapplication of the load (z == a):
P , 1 ... ... . ..
Me = 41. Sinh2 xl _ sin2 XZ;[(Cosh2 xa  cos" Xa)(Sinh 2M.:: si~ 2M)
+ (Cosh2 Xb  cos2Ab)(Sinh.2Aa 8in~Aa)J
. 1 .. . .. I
Q = P Sinh2 xl _ sin2 Al {(Cosh AX sin Xx +Sinh ~x, c~ Xx)
~ i
'. (Sinh Xl cos Aa CoshXb...,.. sin AlCqsh Xaco.s,Ab) + Sin~ Xx sin .Xx[Sinh Xl(sin .Aa Cosh Xb _:_ cos Xa Sinh Ab)
I sin Al(Sin~ Xa cos Ab  Cosh Xe sin Xb)]t (42d)
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNbn:fION \,",'
Shearing force directly to the left of point C:
Qc = !'. 2 1 2 (4 Sinh Xl.Sinh Xa Cosh Xb  4 sin Xl sin Xa cos Xb '
4 Sinh Xl  sin Xl '
_ Sinh 2Xa sin 2Xb + sin 2Xa Sinh 2Xb).
g. Two Equal Concentrated Forces Symmetrically Placed (Fig. 48) Deflection line for portion AC (x <. a):
PX 1
YA_C = T Sinh Xl + sin Xl {2 Cosh Xx cos Xx[Cosh Xa cos X(l  a)
+ Cosh X(l  a) cos Xa] + (Cosh Xx sin Xx + Sinh Xx cOS Xx) . [Cosh Xa si~ A(l .,.a)  Sinh Xa cos A(l  (I)
+ Cosh X(l  a) sin Xa  Sinh X(l  a) cos Xall· (43a')
:1C PIP
_.0_ , 
FiG. 48
'With the aid of the formula above the deflection line for the portion CD (a < x < 1  a) can be expressed as
YCD = [YA~c]%>a + ~X [Cosh X(x ' a) sin X(x ' a)
_ Sinh X(x  a) cos X(x  a)]. (43a")
Particular values of deflection ordinates:
2PX Cosh Xa cos A(l  a) + Cosh A(l  a) cos Xa YA = Y8 = T Sinh Xl + sin Xl •
yc = YD = PX S' h I ~ . X'l [2 Cosh2 Xa(cos 2Xc + Cosh Xl)
, 2k III X SIll
+ 2 cos' Xa(Cosh 2Xc + cos Xl)
+ Sinh2Xa(sin 2Xc  Sinh Xl)  sin 2Xa(Sinh 2Xc  sin Xl)],:
PX 1 ' ]
Yo = T Sinh Xl + sin Xl {Cosh Xc[cos X(l  c) + cos xc
+ cos xc [Cosh A(l  c) + Cosh Xc]
_ Sinh Xc sin A(l  c) + sin Xc Sinh X(l  c) I.
I..__. , __ J CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE' BEAMS
57
Angular deflection along A C (x < a):
2PX2, 1 ' \
OAC = k S' h 'I + ''':IJ(Sinh Xx ,cos Xx Cosh",Xx sin Xx)
In" sm,,' ,,,,,,,
. .'.
, . [Cosh Xa cos X(l a) + Cosh X(l a) cos Xa]
+ Cosh Xx cos Xx [Cosh Xa sin X(~  a)  Sinh Xa cos X(l  a)
+ Cosh 'X~la) sin Xa  SinhX(1 , ,a) cos Xa]l. (43b')
For portion C:...D(a <x< I  a) we have'
2PX2 • ~.
OCD = [OAc]:r:>a  k Smh X(x  a) sm X(x  a).
(43b") ,
Particularvaluee 9f 0:
" 2PX2 1 ' '
OA = 08 = k Sinh Xl + sin Xl [Cosh Aa sin X(l:. a)
. . .~"
", ~ Sinh Xa cos X(l  a) + Cosh X(l  a)siIi~a .; Sinh X(l  a) cOB xal
" ,'/
8e = OD = 2PX2 Cosh2 Xa sin 2Xp  cos2 Xa Sinh 2Xc
k Sinh Xl + sin Xl
The condition for Oe = 0 (a matter very important in railroad ti~s) will be Cosh Xa _ ~'jSinh 2~c
cos Xa  11 sin 2Xc' 
This condition is approximately satisfied when, a, = 0.82c.
Bending moment along portion AC (z. < a):,
P 1 .' • ,"',
,MAe ,~ 2X Sinh Xl + sin~l {2 Sinh Xx sin Xx[Co8h Xa cos A(l  a)
+ Cosh X(l  a) cos Xa] + (Cosh Xx sin Xx
_ Sinh Xx, cos Xx)[Cosh Xasin X(l~ 'a)  Sinh Xa ,cos X(l  a)
i i + Cosh X (l  a) sin Xa ;:.Sinh X (I  a) cos Xall. (43c')
i·:
, !';:"For portion C':"D (a < x < I  a) we have
',MeD= [MAc1%>~  ~ [?o~h X(x ;_ a} sinX(x .,. a)
+ Sinh X(x  a) cos >.(x  a)]. (430")
( ",,' Particular values of 111:
. P 1." 2 ' " , ,
Me ,= Mf) = 4 S' h Xl + . xl [2 Cosh Xa(cos 2Xc + Cosh >"1)
, X III sm '
 2cos2 Xa(Cosh 2Xc + COS Xl)
 Sinh 2Xa(sin 2Xc + Sinh Xl)
, ' sin 2Xa(Sinh 2Xc + sin Xl»).
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNl"n:'fION <:;:
lifo = 2P S' I l ~ . Al (Sinh Xc[sin Xc + sin X(l. c)]
X mn A sm
+ sin Xc[Sinh AC + Sinh ACl  c)]
+ Cosh AC cos XCl.  c)  cos Xc Cosh ACl ~ c) I.
Shearing force along A C (x < a):
QAC = P . . I l 1 . l (CSirih Xx cos AX + Cosh Xx sin Xx) 8m} A + sm A
. [Cosh Xa' Cos ACl  II) + Cosh ACl  a) cos Aa] . + Sinh Xx sin Ax[Cosh Aa sin A(l  a)  Sinh Aa cos A(I  a)
+ Cosh A(l  a) sin Aa  Sinh. A(I  a) cos Aa]}. (43d') For portion CD (a < x < l : a) we have
QCD = [QAC]z>a + P Cosh A(x  a) cos ACx  a).
C43d")
Shearing force directly to the left of point C:
Qc = ~ 1 [Sinh 2XaCcos 2AC + Cosh Al)
2 Sinh Al + sin Al.
+ sin 2Xa(Cosh 2AC + cos Al)
 2 Sinh2 Xa Sinh Al + 2 sin" Ail sin AlJ.
h. Symmetrically Placed Uniformly Distributed Loading (Fig. 19) Deflection line for portion A C (x < a):
YAC = 'l.. 1. l (Cosh AX cos Ax[Cosh Aa sin XCt·  a)
k Sinh Al + Sill A .
;  Si~h Aa cosACl  it) + cosxe Sinh ACl  a)  sin Aa Cosh A(l  a)] + (Cosh Ax sin AX + Sinh AX cos Ax) [sin Aa Sinh XCl  a) r Sinh Xa sin A(l  a)]I. ,
. . (Ha') .
With the aid of the formula above the deflection line for ,the portion CD can be expressed as
YCD = [YA~]%>" + ~ [1  Cosh XCx  a) cos ~(x~ a)]. '(44a") Deflection at the end points:
 Yll = l{ 1 [Cosh Aa sin ACl  a) ...:... Sinh Aa cos ACl ~ a)
Y.t  k Sinh Al + sin Al
+ cos Aa Sinh X(l  a) ~ sin Xa Cosh X(t  a)] .. '
,GASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS \,:
59
Deflection at the middle:'
. [ (.. Al. Al)]
_ I{ 1 _ 2 Smh Aa cos AC Cosh 2 + sm Aa Cosh AC cos "2
Yo  k . Sinh Al + sin Al
Expressions for slope, bending moment, and shearing force can be derived by differentiating repeatedly with respect to x the formula ([44a'] or [44a"J) for the deflection line . This yields . the particular values below.
. Siopc at the ends:
2qAsin An Sinh ACl  a)  Sinh Aa sin ACl  a)
OA = Oil = T' Sinh xl + sin xl .
FIG. 49
Bending moment at the middle: .
h Xl S· h " + S· I' . Xl • , sin AC Sin  III sa . inn sc sin 2 sm sa
q 2
Mo = X2 ·=rS;oin'I~}~A'l.;+,;~i'n;A~l
20. Beams with Hinged Ends
a. Concentrated Force at the Middle (Fig. 50) .
Y = PA . [cos AX Sinh ACl  x)  Cosh AX sin XCl  x)
2kCCosh Al + cos Al) , . .
+ sin'X;t; Cosh XCl  z)  Sinh AX cos X(l  x)]. (45a)
Deflection at the middle:
PA Sinh Al  sin Al Y.c = 2k Cosh Al + cos Xl •
o = _~~2 1 iSinhXxsinXClx)+sinXxSinhA(li)]. (45b)
k Cosh Xl + cos AI"
Slope at the end points:
S' I AI:. Xl
, 2PX 2 III 12 sm 2 .
OA = On = T Cosh Al + cos Ai'
M =!... 1 . [Cosh AX sin ACl  x)  Sinh AX cos XCl  x)
4X Cosh Al + cos Al . .
+ cos'xx Sinh XCI  :1')  sin AX Cosh A(I  x)]. (45c)
60 "'~
BEAMS. ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'~..__,i<
Bending moment at the middle:
Me = P Sinh Xl + sin Xl 4X Cosh Xl + cos Xl •
P 1 ' '
Q =  2 Cosh Xl + cos Xl [Cosh Xx cos A(l z) + cos Xx Cosh A(l  x)J. (45d)
From this we can obtain an expression for the reactions A = B =  [Q].,,_1/2 ; if positive values thus denote upwardpointing reaction forces, we have
Xl Xl
Cosh  cos
A=B=P 2 2_
Cosh Xl + COR Xl'
A' =' B = 0 when Xl = 11", 311", 511", etc. FIG. 50
The first root Xl = 'It corresponds to the socalled effective length discussed on
page 54. .
b. Uniformly Distributed Loading over the Whole Span (Fig. 51)
Y = ~ (1 _ Cosh Xx cos Ax' + Cosh Xx' cos Xx) . (46a)
k Cos~ Xl+cos Xl . "
Deflection at the middle:
. ( . Xl Xl\
2 Cosh  cos 
q . . 2 2
Ye =  1
_ k. Cosh Xl + cos X),
FIG. 51
9 =.~ Cosh Xl 1+ cos Xl (Sinh Xx cos Xx' +. Cosh Xx sin Xx'
 Sinh Xx"cos Xx  Cosh Xx' sin Xx). '
(46b)
Slope at the end points:
8.1. ,,;' 88 = tE:. Sinh Xl  sin Xl. k Cosh Xl + {lOS Xl
M = .!I.. Sinh Xx sin Xx' + Sinh Xx' sin Xx
2X2 Cosh Xl + cos Xl .
Bending moment at the middle:
S· h' Xl '. Xl m ~ sm
Me == CJ.. 2· 2
X2 Cosh Xl + cos Al .
Q =  ~ Cosh Al1+ cos Al (Sinh Xx cos Xx'  Co~h AX sin Xx'
+ Cosh Xx' ,sin Xx  Sinh Xx' cos Xx). (46d)
SES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
<:: ',~, ~/
Hence we obtain an expression for the reactions A = /3. = [Q]oi '
.'';'"
A = B' =..!L Sinh Al + sin Al
. 2A Cosh Al + cos Al .
c. Equal Concentrated MOments at Both Ends ·(Fig. 52) . _ 2MoX2 Sinh AX' sin AX + Sinh AX sin AX'
Y   ,=~....';,....,.::::"";_~
k . Cosh Al + cos Al
,61
(47a)
(47b)
"
(47c)
(47d)
A = B ,;. "":'M~A Sinh 'Xl ...,. sinAL
.' " Cosh Al + cos Al'
d. Concentrated Moment at One End (Fig. 53)
_2Mo,A2 Cosh Al Sinh AX' sin AX  cos Al Sinh Ax sin AX'
Y _ _k' . I Cosh" Al  cos2 Al
2MoA8 . 1 "
0= .k Cosh2 Xl _ cos2 Xl.lCosh Al(cosAx Sinh AX'  sin Ax Cosh Ax')
 cos Xl(Cosh ~ sin Ax'.  Sinh AX cos Ax')]. (48b)
(46c)
Deflection at the middle:
S· hAL . Xl . 4MoX2' m"2 sin 2"
'. Ye =  =,.......,"..=
. k Cosh Al + cos Xl •
FIG. 52
o 2MoA3 1 ( . .,' .
= k Cosh Xl + 'cos Xl Coshxe sin AX' , Sinh Ai cos AX'
 Cosh Ax' sin AX + Sinh Ax' cos A~).
Slope at the end points:
9 .. = 98= 2MoA3 Sinh Al + sirl Al
.' k Cosh Xl + cos Al .
if = Mo Cosh Ax cos Xx' + Cos11 ~x' cos Ax
, Cosh Xl + cos Xl
Bending moment at the middle:
AlAl Cosh  cos 
. 2 2
Mc.=' 2Mo •
Cosh Xl + cos Al
1 :
Q = M.~~ Cosh Al + cos Al. (Sinh Ax cos Ax~+ Cosh Ax sin AX'
!.... sin:Ax Cosh Ax'  cos AX Sinh Ax').
. Reaction forces:
(48a)
',.__/. ,
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUl, ,'ION,
'./
Slopes at the end 'points:
2MoX3 Cosh Xl Sinh Xl  cos Xl 'sin Xl
8A = k Cosh! Xl  cos2 Xl '
2M 0 A 3 Cosh Xl sin Al  Sinh Xl cos Xl
88 = k Cosh" Al ..:.: cos! Xl
1 "C h '
M = M; C h2 ~l 2 ~l (Cosh Xl cos Xx os Xx
os 1\ cos 1\ ,
 cos Xl Cosh Xx cos Xx'). (48c)
Q   Mo X h2 1 2 1 '[Cosh Xl( cos Xx Sinh Xx' + sin Xx Cosh AX')"
:, , Cos Xl  cos X '
+ cos Al(Sinh Xx cos Xx' + Cosh Xx sin xx')]. (48d)
w~' «: r~
J '.:d~",""H'h'~, B
, lol
FIG. 53 ,
Hence the expressions for the reaction forces arc
Cosh Xl Sinh Xl + cos Xl sin Xl
A MoX Cosh2 Xl  cos2'Xl '
B _ M X Cosh Xl sin Xl + Sinh Xl cos Xl
 0 Cosh" Al  COl:j2 Al "
21, Beams with Fixed Ends
a. Concentrated Force in the Middle ,(Fig. 54)
Y = PA , 1 {sin AX Sinh A(l  z) +r Binh Xx sin ACl , x)
2k Sinh Al + sin Xl , "
, cos Xx[Cosh Xx  Cosh X(l  x)]
 Cosh xelces xe  cos;>,(l ~)l}. (4!)1l)
',,' CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
63,
Particular values of M: '
S· h u. Xl
P III ~ Sill 2
X Sinh Xl + sin Xl'
p
MA = 1118 =
Me = P 90sh Xl  cos Xl
, 4X' Sinh Xl + sin Xl . FIG. 54
P 1
Q = 2" Sinh Xl + sin Xl {Cosh Xx[sin Xx + siuX(l  x)]
..
+ cosXx[Sinh Xx + Sinh X(l x)l}. (49d)
: Hence the expression for the reactions is:
»i , Xl Xl.Al
Cosh  Sill  + cos  Smh
A=B=P 22 2 2
Sinh Al + .sin Xl
, b. Uniformly Distributed Loading over the Whole Span (Fig. 55)
, y = ~ T 1  Sinh Xl ~ sin Al (Sinh Xx cos AX' + sin Xx Cosh Xx'
'4Sinh Xx' cos Xx + sin Xx' Cosh Xx) ] . (50u)
FIG. 55
Deflection at the middle:'
_ q [ 2, (Sinh ~ cos X,i + Cosh ~ sin ~)J
Ye   1  ,,'~;;,''::~:::~~___:::L
,k Sinh Xl + sin Xl .
() = _ ~~ Sinh Xx sin Xx'  sin Xx Sinh A.'C'
. k Sinh Xl + sin Xl )
 2~2 Sinh Xl ~ sin Xl (Sinh Xx cos Xx' + cos Xx Sinh Xx'
 sin Xx Cosh Xx'  Cosh, Xx sin Xx').
(50b)
111=
(50c)
Particular values of M: '
q Sinh Xl  sin Xl lilA, ,= M8 =  2X2 Sinh Xl + sin Xl'
. Xl C h Xl ,Xl S· h Xl
sin e os cos m
life = !l. 2 2 2 2
'X2 Sinh Xl + sin Xl
Q = qCosh AX cos Xx'  cos Xx Cosh Xx'
 >; Sinh Al + 'sin Al
(50d).
. .._..... \ '
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION ~
Hence the expression for the reactions is:
A =B=g:CoshXlcosXi_ , X Sinh Xl + sin Xl
22. Cantilever Beams
a. Concentrated Force at the End (Fig. 56)
2PX Sinh >.x cos >.x' Cosh Xl  sin Xx Cosh >.x' cos Xl
Y  (51a)
 T  Cosh" Xl + cos' Xl
Deflection at the end B:
PX Sinh 2Xl  sin 2Xl Ys =T Cosh" Xl + cos2 xl'
8 = 2~X2 Cosh2 Xl 1+ cos2 Xl [Cosh Xl (Cosh >.x cos >.x' + Sinh Xx sin ~.x')
 cos Xl(cos Xx Cosh >.x'  sin Xx Sinh Xi')]. (5Ib)
Slope at the cnd B:
8s = 2PX2 Cosh2 Xl  cos2 ~l k Cosh' Xl + ccs2X{'
M = P Cosh Xx sin Xx' Cosh Xl I cos Xx Sinh Xx' cos Xl
 i;, Cosh2Xl + cos2 >l
Bending moment at the end A:
P Sinh Xl cos Xl + Cosh Xl sin Xl
M» = >; Cosh2 Xl.+ cos2 Xl '
P. ' '
Q = ~ Cosh2 Xl I cos" Xl '[Cosh Xl(Sinh ,AX sin Xx'  Cosh Xx cos Xx')
.  cos Xl(sin >..1: Sinh Xx' + cos Xx Cosh Xx')]. (5Id)
,
Reaction force at thc end A:
QA= P 2 Cosh Xl ,cos Xl_
I Cosh' Xl + cos2 Xl •
b. Uniformly Distrilnued Loading ovel~ the Whole Span (Fig. 57)
{'I
y = ~ 1  Cosh2 Xl + ,C082 Xl [Cosh Xl (sin Xx Sinh AX' + cos Xx Cosh Xx')
 cos Xl(Sinh Xx sin Xx'  Cosh Xx cos XX,)]}. ,(52a)
(51c)
CAS!!.::; OF LOADING ON FINITE nEA~S
65
Deflection at the end B:
y _ q (1 2 Cosh Xl cos Xl ')' 8  k i '  Cosh;' Xl + cos' Xl •
8 :: :_ 2qX Sinh >.x cos Xx' cos Xl  sin Xx Cosh Xx' Cosh Xl
k  Cosh! Xl + cos" Xl, (52b)
Slope at the end B:
88 = _ 2qX Smh. Al cos Xl  Cosh Xl sin Xl
k Cosht Xl + cos2 Xl
M=!L 1 . ','
2X2 Cosh" Xl + cos2 Xl [Cosh Xl(sm Xx Sinh Xx'  cos >.x Cosh Xx')
+ cos Xl (Sinh Xx sin Xx' + Cosh >.x cos Xx')]. (52c)
.~:.
Fla. 57 . Bending moment at the en:d A:
MA = .!L Cosh' Xl  cos2 Xl
, 2'112 Coshs Xl + cos2 Xl'
Q = [ Cosh Xx sin :AX' cos Xl + cos Xx Sinh Xx' Cosh Xl
X Cosh! Al + cos2 Xl (52d) ,
Reaction force at the cnd A:
QA = !L Sinh 2Xl of sin 2Xl 2X Cosh' Xl + cos2 Xl'
" c. ,Triangula,· Distributed; Loading over the Whole Span (Fig. 58)
= ~ (1 r) + '2~~k Cosh2 At ~ cos2 Xl (Sinh >.xfcos >.x + cos X(2l  x)]
, +8in XZlCosh >.x + Cosh X(2l  x)]
+ 2Xlfcos X(l  x)· (Sinh >.x sin Xl : Cosh AX cos Xl)
 Cosh }"(l , x)· (Sinh }..l sin >.x +Cosh}"l cos >.x)JI. (5311.)
, __ ~+~ 1 ".'
'1  kl ,2kl Cosh'}"l + cos' Xl [Cosh xeleos Xx + cos X(2l  x)]
+ cos }..xfCosh }..x + Cosh X(2l  x)] + Sinh }..x sin }"(2l x) : sin }..x Sinh X(2l  z) +2Xl[sin ~(.posh Xx + Cosh X(2l  x»
 Sinh X~(cos Xx + cos X(2l ' x»]}. (53 b)
:;;
66
',' ',__./
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
.!J!l_ I! . (cos Xx[Sinh Xx  Sinh XC2l  x)]
 4X3l Cosh" Xl +. cos Xl
.  Cosh Xx[sin Xx  sin >.(2l x)] .
+. 2Xl[Sinh X(l : x)· (Sinh Xl cos Xx  Cosh Xl sin Xx) +. sin X(l  x)· (Cosh Xx sin Xl  Sinh Xx cos Xl)]}.
Bending moment at the end A: . 2 . 2
. 2Xl Sinh 2Xl +. 2Xl(Sinh Xl +. sin Xl)
qosm 2Xl"
MA = 4X3l. • Cosh'' Xl + cos
qo 1.. [COSh Xl[sin Xx Sinh X(l  x)
Q =  2>..2l Cosh! Xl +. cos2 Xl )]
. . +. cos Xx Cosh XCl  x
+. cos >..i[Sinh Ax sin A(l . z)  Cosh X~ cos .X(l x)] • . ]
+. Xl {Cosh Xx[sin Xx  sin >"(2l  x)] + eos Ax[Sinh Ax  Sinh X(2l  x)l} . . . . . (53d)
Reaction force at the end A:' .' . 2 . 2
. qo Xl(Sinh 2Xl +. sin 2Xl)  (Smh Xl +.sm Xl)
QA = 2>,,2l Cosh! Xl +. cos Xl ..
From the formulas above si~ple approximate expressions can. be derived for cases where Xl is relatively large (Xl > 5).· Such large val~es of >..l ~re most frequent in the design of cyl.m
dri I tanks and containers, which
nca,. . .
constitute an important applIcatl?n of these formulas. It has been pointed out in §17, page 46, that when Xl> 5 the beam can be considered for. p~'ac .
F 58 . I rposes as one of unlimited
IG.. tica pu M' I '.
. . ut Sinh Xl = Cosh Xl = e and to neg eet.
length, when it is perm)ss~ble to p. n with the hyperbolic functions of the
the sin Xl and cos Xl terms in c~mpal.rfilsot' 'pressions(53 ad) will take the
t With these simp I ca Ions ex
same argumen . .
following form: 1
 .!l!!... [>..(l  z) :.... XlA~z +. B~z],
Y  We .
(J = qlkO (1  2XlB~z  CAz) , I (54 ad)
M   s: (XlCH  DH), ' I
 2X8l
o = ~ (2XLDM  AM)' J
.. 2X2l
M=
(53c)
FlO. 59
CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
67
Here the same notations were ussd as in Chapter II (p. 12):
Ab = Db +. B~,", . CAz = DAz  BAz,
I
BAz = e~z sin Xx and DAz = e~z cos Ax. At point A we shall now havethe following values:
M» = ~ (Xl  1), 2AIl
QA ,= 2~!l (2Xl  1). 23. Partially Supported Beams
a. Concentrated Force at the Middle oj a Free Span (Fig. 59)
For points A and B (see Fig. 59) respectively the following values can be derived:
~1 = M = .!... X2L2(Sinh2 'Al  sin" Xl)  4(Sinh2 Xl +. sin" Al) ]
J A 8 8'11. AL(Sinh2 Xl  sin2 Al) +. Sinh 2Xl +. sin 2Xl '
1 W
Qd Q8 = 2 P.
these values of Q and ill in place of P and Mo into (39 ad) and (40 ad),
can obtain the complete solution for the side portions A C and BD respeoFor cases where Xl > 7r the following approximate formulas can be for the side spans:
PX
y = 4k [4Db  (2  XL)CAzJ,
PA2
(J = ± 2k [2AAz  (2  XL)D~",],
f
P .
M =  8X [tBA.:  (2  AL)AAz],
P
Q. = ±4 [2Cb  (2  >'L)BbJ,
(55 ad) .
x i~ counted from the end of the free span, as shown in Figure 59. For points A and B we have now the following values:
P>. .
YA == Yo = 4k (2 +. >'L),
68
iEAMS ,ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
1 th t M and M' are positive
It ie seen that M.4 = A18 = 0 whe~ XL == 2, anc a ,A B
if )..L < 2 and negative if XL > 2.
, , , F 'ee Span (Fig . 60)
b, Uniformly Distributed Loadzng over a, I, .
For points A and B (see Fig. 60) respectively the following values can be
deri ved : . 2 • 2 Xl) 1
qL X2L2(Sinh2 'Xl  sin2 Xl) : 6(Smh Xl + ~m ,
M A = M 8 =  [U XL(Sinh2 Xl  sin2 Xl) + Sinh 2Xl + sin 2Xl , (b)
QA =  Q8 = q; . J
M . I of P and Mo in (39 ad) and (40
Substituting these values of Q and., in p ~~e side sans AC and BD respec
a.,d), we can obtain complete. solutiO~s ~or \ e formufas ca~ be used for the side tively. ' If Xl > '11", the followmgapPlOxlma e
M
spans:
X2L
o = ±~k (A~~. 2cxD~z),
_ qL (B~~  cxA~~),
2;"
Q
where
6  X2L2
ex = 6(2 +" XL) . l"IG: 60
and x is measured from the end of the free ~pa~l, as show~ in Figure 60.
For points A and B we have now .the following values,
, qXL (1  a)
:fA = YB = k '
qX2L )
(JA =  OB = ye (1  2a ,
qD JfA =llfB = 2X a,
qL QA = Q/J = 2"
, _ 0 if XL = VB = 2,45, and that MA and M B are
It is seen that M A =_ M 8  I, . ' _ r _ /'
iti if \ L < v' 6 and negative If XL > v 6.
pOSI 1Ve I 1\ ,
L
CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
69
I,
If the portions to the left of point A and to the right of point B are also loaded with a uniformly 'distributed load (let it be p), then we must add a ~Yo= p/k value to the expression of y in (56a)" while the values of 8, M, and Q in (56 bd) will remain unchanged.
II. Solutions in, t~e Form of Trigonometric Series, 24. Beams with Free Ends '
In the literature on bending of beams * frequent use has been made of the , , fact that any elastic line which passes through the points x = 0, y = 0, and x = I, y = 0 can be represented in, the form of a trigonometric series, as
ee '. n'iTX
y = L: an sin "T .
nl
This series, with some modifications, can also be applied in the analysis of beams on elastic foundation.
Taking a beam with free ends, supported on an elastic foundation and subjected to loading, we find that the conditions above, concerning the deflections at the ends, are generally not fulfilled. Displacements will occur at both ends and the deflection diagram will look like that in Figure 6L In order to be able to apply the series method to problems of this type, the deflection diagram in Figure 61 will be regarded as having originated in three steps, We may suppose (1) that the whole beam was displaced, so that it was parallel with itself, by a constant Yo ; (2) that it was rotated by an angle a around its center; and (3) that it underwent elastic deformation, as shown by the A" C" B" curve in Figure 6l. Since this elastic line will have zero ordinates at x = 0 and x = Z, it wiII always be possible to express it by a sine series like the one in the equation above.
Adding together the three deflection components, we obtain for any deflection ordinate the expression
y = Yo + j G  x) + ~l an sin n;x .
',:
p
FIG. 61
(57)
In order to simplify the solution of this general case we shall split it into two parts, the symmetrical and the antisymmetrical loading components, as, was done before.
* See S. Timoshenko, Strength of M aterials (2d ed. ; New York, 1941), Part II, p. 44.
70
BEAMB ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
a. Symmetrical Case (Figs. 6263)
. From the symmetry of the deflection curve we can conc~de at o~~:tt~~!. (01' this case we shall have in (57) the term a = 0, an:, furt er~~r;~r the de~ sine series will contain now only odd terms. Hence t e expressr
flection curve will be
Y = yo +
00 . n1TX
:E. an sin l :
nl,3,6,··· .
Denoting the modulus of the foundation by ko and the width of the beam by b, and putting kob = k, we kno~ that the distributed reaction p caused in the supporting medium by a deflection y will be
p = kyo
p
p
Assuming that the beam is loaded with two symmetrically placed concentra~ed
FlO. 62 forces as shown in Figure 62, according
to the conditions of equilibrium we must have
. 2P = T.~ J.' ydx = k L' (YO + n_,t .... an sin n~X)dX
( 2l co 1)
= k Yo l +  :E  an .
1T n_l.3.5 •• ,.. n
From this we ha ve
P 2 00 1 (b)
o = ~   :E  an .
y .kl 1T n_l.a.6 ... • n
. . (b) by considering the strain energy
We shall determine the coeffiCl~nts an in f b nding of the beam will be
of the whole system. The strain energy 0 e
I 4 EI 00 4 2
1 '11 2 '_ Ell, III dx ' 1T_ L n an. (c)
V _ . M u.c = 2 y  4l3. n_l.3.6 ....
1  2EI 0 0
The strain energy of deformation in the foundation will be 2
~2 =}k { y2 dx = lkf [2: ~ nl~'''' an (:1T  sin n~x) ] dx, (d)
.. ilib . the work done by the external forces
Since the whole system 1& ~ e~u ln~~, line must according to the principle, by any small change dan III tee as IC I dl . ariation in the strain energy"" of virtual displacements, equal the correspon mg. v . ,
of the system; that is, .
. a avl·· aV2 da (e)
2P YP daft =  dan +  n'
aa,. iJan iJan
~
CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
71
Determining each term in this expression from equations (a)(d), we can write
Win~fu~ .
2P (,' n1TC _ 2) _ (41T4EI.+ lk) 4lk 1, ~ 1
smZ _,  an n 3    L.... ;ai.
n'll'.. . 2l 2 r n ;1.3.6 .... l
(a)
(59)
(58)
With the aid of this formula we can determine as many a terms as are necessary for the required accuracy in the deflection line. In every case we shall have a system of linear equations with the an terms as unknowns. Putting. numbers instead of the symbols nand i into (58), we get the scheme
(. 1TC 2) (1T4 EI lk) 4lk 1
2P sm    = al . +   ~ (al + ~a3 + Sa6 + ... )
l 'II'2l3 2 r~. ,
( .) (' 4 )
. 31TC 2 4 1T EI lk 4lk .
2P sm T  31T = a3 3 213 + 2 "'7 Hal + !aa + !a, + ... ),
. 2P (Sin 5;C_ 5:) = a6 (5·1T~~I +~)  ~ Hal + ia3 + !a, + ... ).
From this we can determine the coefficients al, aa, a6, and from (b) we can obtain the quantity Yo. Putting the latter into (a) we have the formula for the deflection line:
2P ~ ( 2 . n1TX)
Y= L.... an sm
, kl nl.3.6.... n1T l'
this is completely defined by the a terms obtained above.
The system of equations in (58) is such as can readily be solved by the of successive approximations.
When the beam is loaded a:t the center or at .the ends (c = l/2 or c = 0) good approximation of the deflection line can be obtained by taking only the first term (al) from the series in (58), and thus w~ get:
al = 2P(sin T  ~)
?r4EI + ~ _ 4lk
213 2 r
Substituting this in (59), we ge,.t
y = ~  al (~  sin ~x).
The slope of the deflection line can, be obtained in any case by differentiating general equation (59) with respect tox. Instead of taking the higher derivaof the elasticline, .we can 'derive expressions for shearing forces and mo;ments in a more accurate way by the following reasoning. The beam can be lregarded as loaded not only by the external forces, but also by the distributed ':~action p = ky of the foundation, which keeps equilibrium with the external
(60)
72
''./ ', ,
BEAMS ON ELASTlCFOUNDATION
loading. Thus, ·knowing all the forces acting on the beam, we canobtaintheQ. and M curves by integrating (59). This integration can be carried out nu. merically or graphically. Application. of trigonomctric series is sometimes economical in determining deflection curves' (for instance, in dealing with railroad ties), but ,ve must do considerable additional computing whenM and' Q curves are required. Therefore, if.a complete analysis is needed, it is usually simpler . to use directly the exa~tanalysis presented' in the preceding sections. i For this reason we will not discuss at this place other cases 'of loadings besides that involving two symmetrically placed equal concentrated forces. FOI' mor.~.i! complex loadings the application of thi&sclles methodis not eQon~mical because: too many terms have to ibec()mpu~ m.order ·to define .the elastic curve ao
curately.· .. . .
. From the solution 'above for concentrated forces we can derive an approximate expression for the case when the . beam is loaded with concentrated moments (Fig. 63). Using only one term
of the series, as in (60), we first take!
. .FIG. 63 two downwardacting forces P at a die«
tance c' from the ends s ?'.t then two forces P of the same magnitude acting upward. at a distance c" from the ends. Superposing the two on each other, we have
'(''lrCI 2 .c'lrCII,,2) .
2P sm,sm+,..
, l 'Ir' .Z 'Ir
al =
'lr4 EI lk 4lk
2l3 +2" '7"
'Taking the lin~it when the two forces approach each other (c' ~ c" and c" . c) . nnd at the same time putting P(c'  c") = M«, we have
.' 2'1r . 'lrC
, MOT cos T
a = .
1 1!:_'EI+ ~ _ 4i1,;'
213 2 ' 'lr2
and thus the approximate expression for the deflection curve of the beam. in
Figure 63, since 2P/kl 0, will be '
(2 . 'lrX)
Y = al :;;.  sin T .
.b . .A~!isyT}t,metrica! Case (Figs. 6465)
The beam will now have a deflection curve ofthe form shown in Figure Bl; . We can deduce ,t once tha~ here yo .=' 0, ~ndthatJhe E!er,~es ,v.:ill.include pnly .9';~n'
terms., Hence we can write t.1:)P. deflection curve as  .'
( l )' ~ ;', .• n'lrx
y = a   X I ,(;,., a"stn l .
. 2 fI_2,.,6,··~" , . .
(lASES .OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
73
Considering the equilibrium of moments, for the type of Ioading shown in Figure
64, we have the relation ; .
pel _ 2c) + k[ YXo.x' = O.
(g)
'Putting in (g~ the expression for y from (f) and carrying out the integration, we get
_ 12 [l'(l 2£:) .: l2 . ~ . n'lrx]
a  "3 .   L., a" sm _. _ .
l .. ' k 'Ir n2.4.6.... • l
(h)
. Substituting this in (f) ~'e have the equation for the deflect,ion curve in Figure 64 as .
11.",' . ;
. !' ... = .. .l2P(l  2C)( l _ .•. ) [12( l ). J' ~ . n'lrl: .
,y ,.'. kl3. 2 X ; l'lr 2  xI L., . an sm  ..
. ,. ,,2.4.6 '. l
(62)
Thea" 'ter~s can be determined in the same way as in the symmetrical case, by equating the change in' the strain energy of bending. of the bar a~.d in that of the deformation in the foundation to the external work done . by the loading during' a virtual dis
placement. In this. ~ay we obtain for the present problem the general formula
p
p
FIG. 61
2p[Sinn;c .: n:z(l 2C)J' = a,,(n4'1r42El:I+ lkl)_12k;,'f ~,ai' (63.)
. n'lr '2.4.6., .. t
front which, as from (58), 'any number of. a" terms can be computed.
In somecases satisfactory approximation is obtained by taking only the
fir~t .term. (n = 2), from (63)~getting thus . .
;2P (Sin ~  ~ (l  2C») 16 'lr4 EI'+ ~Tll _ 3kl
213 2 C 'lr2
The. shearingforce an? 'bendingniome~t curves can be obtained most easlly by auccessrve integration of the deflection curve, as has previously been sug
~~.' .
By making use of the first term (~) alone an approximate expression can.be derived also for the case when the beam is. subjected to two conce~tl'ated moments, as shown.in Figure 65. Taking forces P at distances 0' from the ends
. .!
, ;,
BEAMS ON ELASTIC F(jUND~N\_./'
and for~es ~ at distances c" from the ends, the limiting case of e' . c" . e
and P(e  e ) . Mo leads to the formula .
411" 211"e
MOT cos "t: a2 =
1611"4EI+ ':!:. _ zu'
213 2 11"2
which then gives' the approximate deflection curve as
..
[6 (1 ) . 211"X]
Y = a2 ;Z 2  z  Sill Z. •
It is seen that the application of trigonometric series, so far as beams with free ends are concerned, becomes rather cumbersome and ordinarily does not
seem to offer any advantage over the previous solutions based on the differential equation of the elastic line. Sometimes, however, just the first term of the series solution will give
FlO 65 a good approximation for the de
flection curve of the beam and in su?h ?ases. the use of the method becomes profitable. In order to ~xamine this situation, let us find the necessary length of beam which, when loaded with It concentrated force' in the middle, will exhibit no deflections at the ends
(Yo = 0). .
From (GO), putting e = 1/2 and x = 0, we have
;~_.__:_"~ID
Yo = 2P _ ~ 2P (1  ~)
k1 11" 11"4 EI. let 4let
2[3+2"11"2
Fro,m this expression we obtain the required length as Z = 3.072 ({l4EI/k) 01', III aJ~other form, ~1 = 3.072. The exact answer to this problem (the effective
length) IS, as was pointed out on palTe 54 Al ~ 11"  3142 the diff b .
2 3 ' . ': '.  : ., I erence emg
. pel cent. According to th~ reciprocity theorem, this value l = 1I"/A will
also be the len~th of a beam which, when loaded with equal concentrated forces at the ends, will have no deflection at the middle.
. Th~ value At = ~ is close ~o the upper limit for beams of medium length, * Ioi which the de(ieet~on ana~ysis has the greatest importanee. Thus we can say that the first t~rm of the senes alone will t ve good approximate results over the' whole range of beams of medium length providing the beam is loaded by concentrated forces at the ends or in the middle. These loadings, however, com.
* See §17 on p. 46.
(64)
CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
75
prise a great share of the practical problems for which the use of the series method is most convenient.
In the cases where only one term is necessary to give the required accuracy, the series method also has a: particular advantage over the exact analysis, for, as is seen from the corresponding formulas, in the series method the dimensions of the beam (E, I, and 1) and the modulus of the foundation (ko and k = bko) appear separately, and are not included in trigonometric and exponential functions through A, as is true of the exact method. This feature of the series method makes it applicable in solving problerr.s when one of the dimensions of the beam or of the foundation is unknown and must be determined in such a way as to satisfy some specific requirement ret up regarding the elastic line. The procedure to follow in such design problems can be illustrated by the numerical example below.
Consider a beam having E = 2 X 106 Ibs.jin.2, I = 32 in . ., and k = bk; = 100 Ibs.yin." and being leaded with a concentrated force P in the middle. Let us set the problem of finding what the length Z of the beam must be at which thc deflection at the middle will I e twice 8S much as the deflection at the end, that is: 2yo = Yo+ al or Yo = all. Frem (GO) we can write this requirement in the form
2P (2 .) 2P 2P( 1  ~)(1 + ~)
kf  ;. + 1 al = kl  11"4 EI(~ _ 4k)' = 0,
213 +l 2 11'2
which gives for the unknown length of the beam
l = .! EI = 3 14 • /2 X 106 X 32 = 88 86 .
7r 11 i: . . 11 100 . Ill.
Taking this value for l, we have from (60)' the deflection 'at the end as Yo 0.138 X 1O3p and the deflection at the middle as y. = 0.276 X 1O3P.
The exact formulas fliOm,(41a) give for this case
Yo = YA = 0.140 X 1O3p and y. = 0.283 X 1O3p,
which are in the ratio 0.283/9.140 = 2.021, differing only about 1 pel' cent from the required proportion.
25. Beams with Hinged Ends
1
The method of expressing the deflection line by trigonometric series is ospecially adapted to beams hinged at both ends. A sine series of the form
: ~ • ll1rX
. y = c: an sin Z'
,,1
will satisfy completely the conditions of a' hinged support (y = 6, y" = 0) at both ends of the beam. Proceeding in the same way as in the previous section,
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
we can determine the an terms of the series from the consideration of the strain
energy of the system. .
a. One Concentrated Force
Assuming the sine series form above for the deflection line we find the strain
energy of bending 'of the beam to be '
V  EI 11 ,,2 d _ '11"4 EI ~~ 4·2
1  2 Y x  4l3 .L.." n an .
o nl
The strain energy of deformation in the foundation will be
Ie 11 2 kl ee 2
V:2 = 2 Y dx = 4 L an .
o nl .
If a small variation is produced in the an term, the resulting change in the strain energy will be
ev aV1 aV2 'II"'EI « kl
aan dan = aan dan + aan qan = 213 n an dan + 2" an dan.
At the same time, because of the change dan, the assumed loading consisting of a force P at a distance c from the left end (Fig. 66) will do work of the amount
a . n7rC
P iJa,. u» dan = P sin T dan.
Equating this change in potential energy to the change in the strain. energy of the system derived above, we have
P . n'll"c _ '11"4 EI 4 kl
sm T  2f3 n an + 2" an,
from which the formula for any a" term can be obtained as
. n'll"c 2Pl3 sm 'T
'11"4 EI 4 kl4 n + ~EI
Consequently, the expression of the deflection curve for Figure 66 will then
become .
. n'll"c . n1rX
2Pl3 ee sin T sin "T
y   L ,_
~EI n_l , kl4 .
n + 'll"4EI
If, instead of the symbolic notation for the series in (65), its individual terms are. written out fully, we have the expression for y in the following form
. = 2Pl3 [Sin ('II"c/l) sin ('II"x/l) + sin (27rc/l) sin (27rx/l)
y ~EI 1 + lel4/7r"*EI 16 + kl4/~EI .
+ sin (37rc/l) sin (31TX/l) + ... J. 81 + kl4/~EI
(65)
. ',",,'
CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
77
Th~ series is suitable inthe form above for the computatio~ of ~eflection lines; the convergence of th~ solution, however, can be substantially increased
hy the following reasoning.f .,
The hingedend beam of Figure 66 can be regarded as acted upon by ~he concentrated . force P and b,:y the distributed reaction forces of the foundation p = ky, where y is to be taken from (65) above. Consequently, the final deflection of the beam can be resolved into two parts, the first (yP) being produced bv the force P, the second (yP), by the distributed preactionforces, both loadings acting on a beam simply supported at.its ends while the elastic foundation
. be thought of as absent. The deflection yl' is obtained in a finite form bv
can inedbv int ti
the elementary polynomial Iormula, and yP can be determme . ~ III egra .mg
foul' times the fundamental equation EI(d4yP /dx4) + ky = .0, u~mg for ~ the
. n given bv (65) In this way we obtain the deflection hne for FIgure
expresslO. .. . . .'
66 in the form
. A~C x~. ~..~=. D
"''''_'7"r;,,1I,1' ~
~l~ .
!I
FIG. 66
. n7rC . n1TX
p 2Pl3 ec sm T sm l
y = y  4 EI L ( 4 E1I) .
'II" n_l« 1 + 4 7r
n n lJI
The series part of this expression is rapidly convergent, and its convergence will be good even after successive differentiation, which will yield the corresponding expressions fOI' fJ, M, and Q in the forms
(66a)
. n7rC n7rX
2Pl2 <>0 sm T cos "T'
{J = oP   L: . 4 )'
7r3EI n1 3(1 + 4 ~ EI
n n lcl4
(66 bd)
. n7rC . n7rX
. . P 2Pl ee, sm l sm Z,
M = M _ L . 4)'
, '11"2 n_1 2 (1 + 4 'II" EI
n n kl4
I .
. n7rC n7rX
.'p 2P t sm Z' cos l
Q = Q  ;;: n_1 (1 + 4 '11"4 EI) .
. n n kl4
In the expressions above, y'p, {JP; MP, and QP denote the d~flect.ion, slope, an~ so on produced by the concentrated force .p on the beam WIth hinged ends, WIthout the presence of. an elastic foundatl~n.
. • See also the article by Th. von Karman, "Use of Orthogonal Functions in Structural
Problems," Stephen Timoshe,nko 60th Anniver8ary Volume (New York, 1938). .
i:
78
BgAl\IS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
If
p PZer 3
X < e, Y = 6EI Z. (2Z ~ e)cx  X ];
X > c, yP = 6~I1 [(Z2  (2)(Z  X)  (l  x)aJ.
b. One Concentrated Moment
if
A~' 00 ~.=~
c 7'7fflr;';·
~l~ !I .
From (65) of the previous section we can derive an expression for the deflection curve produced by a single concentrated bending moment 1110 (Fig. 67). Taking simultaneously a downwardacting force P at .a distance c' and an upwardacting force P at a distance c" from the left end of the beam, for the limiting case when c' ~ c and c" ~ C we shall have
FIG. 67
• n7l"c' . nee" 2 n1T"(c'  c") n7l"c
SIll l . sm r = 2l cos l'
Taking at the same time P(c'  c") = M«, we obtain the deflection line due to the moment loading of Figure 67 as
n7l"c • 1171"X
2M OZ2 00 n cos T Sill Z
Y =  L c
7r'EI n_l 4 + ld'
n ·7I"4/!"1
'(67)
The convergence of this formula can be increased in the same manner as in the loading with one concentrated force. This will lead now to the expressions
(68 ad)'
n7l"c • 1171".1:
2M 00 cos Z sm I .
!vI = J1fM  _0 L _
. 71" ,,_I (·1 + '4 7I"4EI)'.
n n "'Z4
n7l"e 1I71"X
2M 00 cos "T co'! Z
Q=(t'(_0_L .
Z n_i 471"4EI '
1 + n kZ1
CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
79
'where yN, s", MM, and QN denote the deflection, slope, bending moment, and shearing force produced by the },fo loading of Figure 67 on the beam with hinged
ends, without the presence of an elastic foundation. .
If
M1
= ~E~ 1 [(2Z2  GZe + 3(2)x + x3] j
= (j~~ ~ [(Z2  3c2) (Z  X)  (Z  X)3].
if
x .. :> e, v"
c. Uniformly Distributed Loading For uniformly distributed loading we can again derive the deflection curve from (65), by putting qdc instead of P and integrating between the limits Cl and e2 (Fig. 68), which gives
A~~:~~
. ~~~~ ~
y .
FIG. 68
, f<2 . n7l"c ql (n7l"Cl n7l"C2)
q sm " de = . cos   cos  .
.1 l n7l" Z I
Substituting this expression instead of P sin n7l"cjZ in (65), we have the deflection line for Figure 68 as
( n7l"Cl n7l"C2) • n7l"x
_ 2ql( . 00 cos Z  cos 1 sm 1
y L ) .
'~EI."_l ( 4 + kZ4
n n 7I"'EI
,(69)
The convergence of this solution can be increased by the same reasoning used in the two previous types of loading, which will give now the complete solution for the situation in Figure 68 as
. ( n7l"CI . n7l"C2) . n7l"x 1
q 2qZ( 00 cos 1  cos 1 sm z
Y=Y :.L ( 4) I
reI n_l 5 471" EI
n 1 + n kl4
( n7l"C, n7l"C2) n7l"x
2qZ3 "" ('os l  cos Z cos T
'EI L ( 4) ,
71'" I , . nl 4 1 ( 71' EI
n +n kl4
( n7l'CI n7l'C2) • n7l"x
2 12.. cos l  cos l sm l
M = Mq  ~ L ( (EI)
n_l 31,+ 471'
n n kl4
, (n7l"CI n7l"C2) n7l"x
2l 00 cos l  cos l cos 1
Q = Qq  _!j_ L 4'
n2 "I 2 ( 4 71' EI)
n l+n kl4
(70 ad)
J .
80
\,JIl~'\MS ON I!;LAS'flC FOUNDA'fION
where ~o, 0", M", !~ntl QO de~ote quantities produced on the beam with hinged ends, without elastic foundation, by the qloading. With the notations CI + O,z' = 2a, l  a = b, O,z _. Cl = c, shown in FigureBx, we have . .
for
q q be II (2 . 2 2 3
.y = 24EI T 4 l  b)  C lx.  4x ),
yO = .s: ~ {14(l2 _ b2) _ .2J _ 4 3 +' l(x Cl)4}
24EI l C x x . b I
C .
> q qacII(2 2\ 2 3
X C2, Y = 24EI T 4 l  a)  C l(l  x)  4(l  x) !.
for
x < Cl,
for
26. Beams with Fixed Ends
The deflection line can here be assumed as a trigonometric series of the form
~ 1 ( 21£1l"X)
Y = 6 2 an 1  cos Z"
every term of which satisfies the end conditions (y = 0, y' = 0) at both ends
of the beam. ..'
p
p
Since everyterm of thlssedes is symmetrical with respect to the _,center line (x = l/2) of the beam, . formulas can be developed from it only for symmetrical loadings.
If we apply the strainenergy method in. the same manner as was beams, the assumption above will Iead to the
's
FIG,69
done in the previous types of deflection formulas below.
a. Two Symmetrical Concentrated Forces (Fig. 69)
_ Pl3 .. (1  cos 2nt)( 1 l.cos 2nti:)
y  L (71)
4~EI nl 4 + 3 kl4 .
n 16 ~EI
b. Two Symmetrical Concentrated Moments (Fig. 70)
. 2n1l"c ( 2n1l"X)
Ml2 ee nsm l 1  cos l
y =  L . (72)
. 2rEI n_l 4 + 3 kl4 .
n . 167r4EI
1I
Fla. 70
<:» \~,
CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
81
c. Symmetrically Distributed Loading (Fig. 71)
(z ' .. ' 2 +' , Z .• 2n1l"C) (1 2.1£1l"X)
Y = _L i: :', C n;;. sm "t:  cos Z
8~EI n_l 4 + 3 klt .
" . 1£ 16 ~EI
(73)
,', I! In Figure '72 is shown the cross section of an aqueduct. In the direction perpendicular to the plane of the paper this section is assumed to continue in ;t.hp. same form; thus We can
oonsider the' object as a two
'dimensional problem. The.
ouestion is to find the pressure distribution in the subsoil and the moment diagram for the bottom plate. The modulus of elasticitv of the structure (concrete) is E = 2.5 X 106 Ibs./in.2; the modulus of foundation, ko = 165Ibs./in.3 The bottom plate cart be J'(,garded as a beam on elastic foundation, with a uniformly distributed loading (the weight of the bottom plate itself and the water pressure along its whole length) and subjected in addition at its ends to concentrated forces (weight of the
. side walls) and moments (due to' the hydraulic pressure Oil the side walls), Computing these loadings. i for a section' of unit width, 1 in., <if the structure, we have:
Weight of the bottom .plate:
,1I
. 27. Examples
FIG. 71
III. Applications
8in.
8in
PR.ESSfJRE DISTRIBUTION'
{O
5
1M'
2000
30011
MOMENT DIAGRAM . FIG. 72
8 in, X 0.0875 IbR./in.3 ~. 0.70 Ibs./in.2;
82
<c::
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
Weight of the water:
84 in. X 0.0361Ibs./in.3 = 3.04Ibs./in.2,
Weight of the wall:
p = 86 in. X 8 in. X 0.0875 lbs./in:
Moment of the hydraulic pressure:
M = t X 843 X 0.0361 = 3570 in. lbs.jin.
q = 3.74Ibs./in.2;
60 lbs./in.;
Hence ou'r problem is to find the deflection and moment curve of a beam, 01) elastic foundation, subjected to the loading shown in Figure 73. The distributed, loading will. cause only a uniform com '
pression in the foundation, of the value P = 3.74 Ibs./in.2 The deformations and moments produced by the P and M end loadings can be computed from (37 a and c) and (38 a and c) respectively. The result of this computation
is shown in Figure 72. The maximum pressure is at the ends: pmax = 11.47 Ibs./in.2, while the maximum value of the bending moment, Mmax = 3830 in. Ibs./in., occurs at some distance from the ends, as shown in Figure 72.
In connection with this problem we shall nOW illustrate the. previously
. mentioned applicability of the series method to design problems. Let us suppose that the P"""x soil pressure obtained above is' greater than the pressure permissible for the subsoil under consideration and let us, set the problem of finding that value I for the bottom plate which will secure a more uniform pres.sure distribution under the structure and will lower the value of pmox to 8 lbs.Zin.' Subtracting from the given 8 Ibs./in.2 the uniform loading of the intensity q = 3.741bs.jin.2 (Fig. 73), we obtain p = yok "",' 4.26 Ibs.jin.2 as the maximum permissible pressure due to the concentrated loadings at the ends.
Using (60) and (61), we can write the requiremeut above as
p
FIG. 73
Substituting the given numerical values ill this equation and expressing I as unknown, we have the answer that the moment of inertia, satisfying our condition, must be I = 140 in." which corresponds to Ii. thickness t = 11.9io.. for the bottom plate instead of the 8in. thickness used in the example. Checking this conclusion by exact formulas derived from ,(37a) and (38a), corresponding to I = 140 in." we obtain the pressure at the ends due to the end loadings as P = 4.46 Ibs./in.2, and adding to this the uniformly distributed 3.74 Ibs./in.2 loading; we get the maximum pressure as pmax = 8.20 Ibs./in.\ which exceeds by only
8.3
''~ ~\SES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
2.5 per cent the required limit Tho h l .
which is beyond the range of ba;'s of m~~' ill I this, example we had Al = 4.20,
series method are still accurate enough ~um engtt~cal' the results obtained by the
. . . or prac 1 purposes.
2 C "
. o~sider a thinwalled cylindrical tube subject d t . .'
and supplied at equal intervals.I with "d . f . e. 0 internal pressure p
74. In § 12 (p, 35) we have already :~~Iy::~n ~rcmg rmgs, as shown in Figure ring was applied to' the tube Th f d he problem when only one rigid internal pressure p the maximum e:et we .ou.n tth at,. while in a plane tube under . xunum stress IS m e eireumferenti I di ti d
Its value is a ; = pRjl t denoting th 11 thi kn a irec Ion an
f h "e wa cess and R th . ddl r
o t e tube, upon application of the' b di . e rm e rae IUS
longitudinal fibers of the ,beam and thi;mt a .en mg stress IS produced in the
, ,s resa IS (1m 1.82 pRlt. The problem
I'
_______________ 3~/t
FIG. 75
we s.hall investigate now will be the effect of the snaci .
maximum bending stress in the t b pacing of the rings upon the
If u e .
a series of rigid rings is applied at e ual l .
spacing is increased from zero to very lar q I mt;rvals to the tube and the
Um stresses must increase from zero I ge;a ues 0 l, we find that the (Te and respectively in the manner indicated i;;: ~5(1· ii: pRjl and (1m = 1.82 pRjl be a .oartain spacing lo where the maximu ~ d" ence we see that there must ~ill be just equal. to thecircumferenti: s~:s~g stres~ produced by the rings .internal pressure. ' This 10 spacing of th .. value m a plane tube under way. " e lings can be determined in the following
A longitudinal element of the tube betwe .. .
regarded as a beam fixed at the 'two end b .en /~o remfo~'cmg__rings will be
loading; p and supported, at the same ti~~ su lee ~ to ~ umforml}CJlistributcd.. foundation. The modulus of thO f d t' alon~ Its entIre length on an ela.stic
2 IS oun a IOn WIll be d'
,EtjR and the moment of inertia'of the beam 1= t3/12 ~ceor 2mg ~o (25), k = the. wall thickness and R the middl di f h ( f), WIth t denoting the condition (l,n =(1. for lo can 'be :r~~t:~sa; t e tube. ' 13y means of (50c)
'liMA = Q_ p~ Sinh Xlo  sin Alo pR
T t2 2X2 Sinh >.[0 + 8i~ u, = T'
= 0.3,
A' {III
"7 3(1  J.l2). _ In.R = 1.285 y'"
vnt RI
84
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIO\'~
Introducing this expression in the equation above we have the condition in the simplified form:
S~nh >.lo  s~n >.lo = . , ~.  ;2 == 0.5505. Sinh >.l{J + Sill Xlo 1Ia
By the trialanderror procedure we find this equality is satisfied bya value of >.lo = 1.899, from which we have the required spacing
lo = ~:~~: vRt = 1.478 VJrt.
If the spacing is larger than lo given by this equation, then the application of the' rings will increase the maximum stress value in the tube. A decrease of stress will occur only if l < l«, It is seen from theformula above that, compared 'to the radius of the tube, lo will have a rather small value ..
3. Though the relationship between stresses and deformations in earth foundations is, in general, of a very complex nature, not infrequently we find subsoils which follow the simple law assumed for our elastic foundation (p. 2) accurately, enough to permit a mathematical analysis to be developed on this basis. If this is the case, stresses and' deflections occurring in sheet pilings and similar structural elements can be readily calculated by the formulasgiven in the first part of this chapter. Sheet pilings, for instance, may.be regarded as cantilever. beams partly surrounded by an Elastic foundation, as shown in Figure 76. Under! the action of the loading, which is usually applied at the unsupported part of the cantilever, the be!1ID will deform elastically and will assume a position in which the active and passive earth pressures arising from the displacement.'!
, in the subsoil maintain equilibrium with the external loading.
According to the Rankine, theory, if there is no cohesion between the elementary particles of the soil, an active earth pressure of the amount Pi ='Yx·
L" (1  sin <p)/(1 + sin <p) is present at a depth x under the surface; the resistance of, the soil against displacement, that is, the passive earth pressure at the same depth, can be expressed as P2 = 'YX'(1 + sin <p)/(l  sin <p), 'Y denoting the specific weight of the earth under: consideration and <p representing its angle of friction. The value P2  PI = 'Yx·4 sin <p/(l  sin" '1') defines the maximum pressure which can be resisted by the soil and determines the limit of its static . equilibrium. This point should be taken into consideration in the analysis of· sheet pilings and similar constructions. If the modulus of foundation k is assumed in such cases to increase proportionally with the depth x, the pressure distribution along the beam will be defined by P = kxy, where y denotes the transverse displacement of the beam. This pressure ji must stay at every point within the maximum resistance, P2 ,.... PI , of the soil.
The deflection curve of the types of beams under consideration will be such that its maximum ordinate will occur right at the surface of the earth, where, to a certain depth Xo , the pressure P = kxy will necessarily exceed the resistance :
<:> c',"S OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
) . <::: 85
PI 7.'" Pl. For thi.s reason, along the length Xo , where the static equilibrium is
overcome, the resistance of the earth will not be considered and tl ) t'
foundation will b t k . t ., ,le e as lC
: e II; en m 0 account from point A on at which poi t h
p '= P2  PI • ' m we ave
/~he cn;se ~hen the. modulus of .foundation varies proportionally with th :t , ~h!Ch ~s compatible with the Rankine theory of earth pressure will b:
cusse in t e next chapter. At this place only the method of soluti~nwhe~
the modulus of foundation ill constant will be fll t t d '
Th ti AB· . iuustrated.
, , e porion  of the beam (Fig. 76) with a length t = L  .' I .
the unknown depth . b' d' Xo , mvo ving b d'xo, IS su [ecte at end A to a concentrated force P and ~
en mg moment Mo =, P(1t + xo). The requirement that at. point A
kYA = 4 sin <p
1  sin2 <p 'YXo
can be written from (39a) and (40a) as
2PA ' .
Sinh2 Al  ,sin2 >'l [Sinh >'l Cosh Al  sin >.l cos >.l
'i ).. .
+ >. (h + xo)(Sinh2 >.t + sin" >'l)]
4 sin <p
1 . 2 ·'YXo.
 sin tp
From this equation, by a trialanderror .. procedure the unknown ' 'b d
term' d H . . '. ,. Xo can e. e
, me. avmg It, we can obtain diagrams of deflection
f th A B . b ' moment, and Soon
or e  portl~n y using (39ad) and (40 .
ad) ", As a numerical example, let us assume the' following values: L = 72 in.' It = 36 in . E _
2 1 6 b . 2 ., '.1·
:. 0 I S./l~. {= 140 in.': ok =, 180Ibs./in.2; 'Y.~ O}O lbs.Zin, , and <p = 25. Hence we have " = {Ikf4El = 0.020 in.l By trial and error' . we.find that Xo = 19.5 and l =L  Xo = 52.5 ~tlSfy the equation above. Having the unknown Xo and. ha;mg. computed the deflection and pressure distribution along the portion AB from i!~a)(40a), .we get the result shown in Figure
, ;4. Consider an arrangement in which two m.ain longitudinal beams are supported by closely laid transverse bars and the whole 'structure' is plac?d on an elastic foundation (Fig. 78). The lengitudinal beams 'are assumed to be infinitely
long!, and the problem is to'determine the de FIG. 76
flection surface of this infinite strip under a concentrated load Pat' t .
A on one of the main longitudinal beams. . ' c mg a point ,
llEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUND',"N
:Ii
",/ASES OF .LOADING ON' FIXI'n; Uf:AMS
86,...._./
The dimensions of the construction are shown in Figure i8. The trensverse bars are assumed to be 1 in. wide. We shall take for these bars E = 5.0 X JUK Ibs./in.2, and for the foundation, ko = 241l
Ibs./in.3 The first step will be to determine the deflection of one transverse bar under symmetrically and antisymmetrically applied concentrated forces P = 1000 lbs. The values of the deflection ordinates were computed by (37a) and (39a), and the results are shown in Figure 77. Since in our structure the main girders are supported at the ends of the transverse bars, the end deflections shown in Figure 77 will define a modulus of foundation for the main girders in symmetrical and antisymmetricalloadings.
Let us first consider the situation when the two main beams are subjected to equal and downwardacting forces P /2 at points A and B (case I). In this symmetrical case the modulus k for each of the main beams will be, from Figure 77a,
I'
~ 1'.10000/OS.
I
p
.D.
I I I I I I I I I
FIG. 77
k 1000 lbs, . h ' 8130 lb /. 2
'1 = . per Inc = s. In. ,
0.123 m,
which, if we take E = 1.25 X 106 Ibs./i"n.2 for the modulus of elasti~ity of the
main beams, gives .
<trL e.g.(26) ,4/ . 8130 . . 1
.>.,== ~4€i AI = 11 4 X 1.25 X 1Q6 X H20)3 = 0.019~ in.
In the corresponding antisymmetrical loading, where there is a dowmvardacting .force P /2 at .11 and an upwardacting P /2 at 13 (case II), the deflection of each main girder can evidently be computed, from Figure 77b, with
1 1000 lbs. . 3900 lb /. 2
"II = 0 2 6' perm. = s. m . . 5 lll.
and
,4/ 3900· 00164' 1
AlI = 'V 4 X 1.25 X 106 X 1(20)3 =. in.
Computing the deflection of each of the main beams, first with the kl , Al and then with the kii , All values, and superposing cases I and II, we obtain the deflection surface in Figure 78 as the answer to the original problem. In each case the deflection line of the transvel,'se bars will be similar, proportional to the end ordinates, and in every instance points of zero deflection will lie on a straight line parallel with the main girders. Superposing cases I and II, however, we
88'.../
BEAMS ON NLASTIC FOUND'JtTioN \,,,
obtain a threedimensional solution. In Figure 78 the dotted linea connecting points of zero deflection illustrate the threedimensional character of the problem.
5. It has been shown in Chapter II, page 30, that a longitudinal el~ment of a cylindrical shell under axially symmetrical loading can be regarded as a beam on elastic foundation, in which event the modulus of the foundation k and the
characteristic A are
k Et' ,_4/ 1
. = R2 and A = v 3(1  p.2) vRt'
where R is the middle radius,t the.·thickness of the cylinder, E the modulus of elasticity, and p. Poisson's ratio for the material.
. On this basis many' stress' problems in con
nection with cylindrical containers and pressure vessels can be analyzed. In the general Calle, when a cylindrical body. is joined to a flexible drumhead (Fig. 79), the calculation can be carried out in the same manner as' for statically indeterminate structures. The container will first be pictured as cut up into its two main structural parts, the cylindrical body and the head, and it will be assumed that each of these parts , can freely deform under the action of the load . QA ing, which usually is an inside pressure on the
container walls. As a result of these 'deformations we obtain along A:_A a discontinuity in displacements and rotations between the neighboring ends of the cylindrical body and the head. In order to maintain the continuity' of the material (continuous displacement and slope) in this region, we shall have to apply shearing forces QA and bending moments M A , uniformly distributed along the circle of juncture A~A. The values of MA and QA can be determined from the two simultaneous continuity requirements mentioned
above.* .
To be able to d,etermine these unknowns, M A and' QA , we must know the
deformation of the cylindrical body and the head due to the internal pressure as well as that due to the unit values of the M A and QA quantities respectively. Stresses and deformations attributable to internal pressure can be determined for each part separately by. simple considerations of statics, which, since the bending resistance of the elements is usually neglected in such cases, furnish the socaned membrane stresses and deformations. Let us assume that this mem
FJG.79
'",,,,'.
CASES OF LOADING. ON FINITE BEAMS
89
brane analysis gives a radial displacement d .
part ~nd Yh and (Jh values for the head alon;~~: ci:c~Z~~,;t (J"i0r,thhellcYhlindrical at this place a discontinuitv y _ y • di I . . e sat en have
D' , ..c h m ISP acement and (Jc  (J in sl
Isplacements and rotations of the end A of the lir d d h o~e.
.)f QA and M A can be determin d f ,cy m er ue to umt values be denoted by yO (Jo dM e /om (39. a and b) and (4U a and b) and will
spherical head ;~' i/::d yy), , (J(J:it respebctlvely. Corresponding values for the
• " h h , h, can e computed from e ti (150
m Chapter IX. If we are dealing with a flat plate head th . disoh Ion 800),
can bed obtained from a?y book concerned with the theory ~~eth::pp~:~meni;al~es cirele a:ta' we can write the' continuity in deflection and slope alon~ the a~~l
(y~ + y~)QA + (y:' + y~)MA = Yc  u«,
«(J~ +(J~)QA + «(J:' +e:)MA = e,  e«,
from which the unknown QA and MA quantities can be determined T'
se~ up b;y QA and M A are usually called discontinu' . he stresses
primary importance in the design and strength of con:~rn:!:e::~, and they have
In the general case when we deal with fl ibl pressure vessels .
. must be carried out a~cording to the s:hem exi e container heads, t~e analysis
greatly simplified, however, if the construct~o:b~;~he ~~: c~mput~t~9n will ~e deformation, m comparison withthat f the cvli d IS so rigid that ItS. In such a case an axial strip of the l~ d .e clYhnd~r, becomes negligibly small.
d . ' , cy m nca portion A B in Fig 79 b
regar ed as a cantilever beam fixed at th d A . ure. can e tion and loaded b ' . . e en , supported on an elastic founds
according to the ':a:u~n~~r:,~o~n~ trlalIlgular (hy?raulic) distributed loading,
I.loadi erna pressure m the container I ith
case 0 ' oading the solution can be readil obtain d f . n ei er
, for cantilever beams in § 22. ' Y 1 e rom the formulas developed
. As an example, let us consider the eylindrical tan~ in Figure 80, with the. dimensions:
R.= 360 m.; t = 14 in.;h = 312 in.; material: B
remforced concrete E = 4.25, X 106 lbs /. 2.
02 " . In. ,
~ =_ . 5; tank filled with water, specific grav
It! 'Y = 0.0361 lbs./in.~ Tpe bottom plate will be assumed to be, perfectly rigid, and thus. an element AB ca~ be regarded as a
, c~ntllever beam subjected to a triangular dis FIG. 80
tributed load with a maximum value at A of q  h W h '
,. ," 0  'Y. eave
k = Et = 4.25 X 106 >< 14 '. 2
R2 .' (360)2 = 4581bs./m.
* In addition to the loading MA and QA shown, there will also be a distributed axial force around circle AA due to the reaction of the head, but the effect oHhis axial force on the displacements due to MAand QA in the cylinder is quite negligible in most engineeriDI
structures, 118 is shown in Chapter VI, p. 138.
,
A  4/3(1 2) 1 ~ _4/ 1
v  p. vRt = v 3 X 0.9375 V360 X 14 = 0.0182 in.1
90
IlEA:\IS ox ELASTIC FOUNDATION
Since All = 0.0182 X 312 = 5.68 is sufficiently large, accurate results can be obtained by' the simplified formulas in (54 ad). Pl1ttirig'l = II. and qo = I'll, we have for the unknown ;.If., and Q.~ quantities.
]1 = _l (AIL  1) = 14,000 in: lbs.Zin.,
• ,I 2A3 .
QA = 2~2 (2,h  1) = 5O'1Ibs./in.
The distribution of bonding moments and shearing forces along A B can he computed from (54 c and d) respectively. The circumferential hoop force N
,
i
Ihs.iin. ('1111 he obtained from the deflection formula (54a) as N = .kyR. The
results of these computations are shown in Figure 81. It should be noted that in I'llieuinting the maximum streHl; in the circumferential direction we must add, nccording to (2i), to the eil'cllmferen!.ial normal Rt·rP.!:'R the effect of. circum
frl'f'lltilll bonding u,· = .v/t + 6J1M It . .
(i.Figlln~ 82 shows. schernnticnllv the construction of It commutator for an ; olcct rirul machine. The copper commutator bars with mica layers between thrill ure held together h~· the radial forces which result as the bolts arc tightened lip Oil tho F rings shown ill the figure. Because of this manner of assembly
Jf 1II16s/in..
FIG. si
~ 16s./in..
./VMs./In.
'.../' ' i!ASES OF LOADING ON FINI'f}; BEAMS
91 
such a commutacor construction is referred to as the archbound type. Since the overhanging parts A B of the bars are portions of a cylindrical shl1l1, they can be computed as beams on an clastic foundation. . In the calculation it is to be assumed tnat the commutator is built up of two materials, copper and mica; consequently, the modulus of foundation k == Et/R2 used when calculating cylindrical tubes will need some modification in this case .
Denoting by B; and Em the modulus of elasticity of copper and mica, and by be and bm the width of the copper .bars and mica layers respectively, we get
FIG .. 82
j he unit compression produced bv a circumferential pressure p between till' burs ns
Ee
p be' p i; . P be + Em i:
~   +   =  .;;
s, be + b.. . En. be + b;" Ee be + bm
lienee the compressibilitv of the composite tube will be the same as thai .,1 I homogeneous tube with an dlastic modulus:
\ This is the value of It which will have lJtl be used in the formula for the modulus k, . Taking the dimensions be = 0.500 in. and bm = 0.025 in. from Figure 82 and .. ~s"uming* EtlEm = 3, we have E = 0.912 Eo. The same effect. is considered
• The use of the actual, nonlinear, stressstrain relation in mica would have only a negligible effect in this. calculation.
(c)
\ __ ) t ES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS
,~) 93
92
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATltrN
be 1 X ta t
I = be + bm 12 = 0.952 12'
Taking H =.5000 lbs. per inch Circumference, we have p. = 17,300 lb.s./in., since t = 2 in: and tl = 5 in., we get a = 2.987. Using these values and = 16, X = 0.184, Xa = 1.288, we have from the formulas above
when computing the moment of inertia of the AB beams, by taking for unit; width
With these values we have
.4jk . /'3 X 0.912 1· 1
X = 11 4EeI = 11 0.952 VRi = 1.300 vRt'
PX YB = 0.094,;
and
QB = !P(l  0.826} = 0.087P = 1500Ib./in.
Taking R = 25 in., t = 2 in., and a = 7 in., we get
X'= 0.184 in.1and Xa =·1.288:
The middle part BB of the commutator bar can be assumed to be perfectly rigid, and thus the overhanging parts A B can be looked upon as cantilever beams fixed against rotation at the base B. In the stress calculation two main types of loading will be considered: the assembly forces and the inertia, forces due to rotation. ..
Denoting by H the assembly force produced by the bolts perlin. run of the circumference, if friction is not considered at the contact area under the V ring, we see that a unit width of the bars will be subjected to a radial compressive force P = 2H cot {j (Fig. 82). Let us assume that because of this centrally applied force P the rigid middle part BB will undergo a uniform radial displacement YB' This will correspond to a uniformly distributed reaction 2cakllB
along the length BB, where the factor . .
u = ~ + V3(tl  02
t 2ct
The bending moment in sections Q canbe calculated from (41c) as M = 4310 in. Ibs./in., which then gives as the maximum bending stress produced by the assembly forces
r a7m. .. I
'Yt 2 q=wR
g ,
. ';,:
4310 ' 2
ITo = t2 = 6790Ibs.jin.
0.9526
The circumferential pressure p  kyR/t maximum at B (and the same over rigid .center portion), 'where its value is
PB = 0.094PXR/t = 3740Ibs./in.2
'I
, I
takes into account the increase of area along BB in comparison with the uniform area along the bsama A B, The rest of the reaction,
P  2cukYB = 2Q»,
will be transmitted in the form of a shearing force QB to each of the two flexible beams AB. The deflection of these beams at points B must equal the value YB, which condition can be written from (41a) as
2QB X Cosh2 Xa' + cos2 Xa .
YB = k Sinh2Xa + sin 2Xa'
Substituting here the expression above for QB , we have the deflection YB as n function of the loading P:
XP 1
YB = ,; 2caX + Sinh 2Xa + sin 2Xa .
Cosh Xa + cos" Xa
At the end A, since from (41a), YB/YA= 3.530, the circumferential pressure reduces to PA = 1060 Ibs./in.2
Stresses due to inertia forces can be' computed by assuming the portion AB as a cantilever beam on an elastic foundation, fixed at the end B and loaded with a uniformly distributed loading .
1310
(Ie :::: tt = 2060 lbs.Zin,"
'0.9526
where 'Y is the specific weight of 'the bars, g the gravitational acceleration, and w the
angular velocity of the commutator. FlO. 83
Taking the speed of rotation 'equal to 450 r.p.m., we have w = 47.12 sec.l The~ putting v = 0.320 Ibs./in.3 and g = 386 in/sec.2, we have q = 92.1Ibs./in. per mch. The bending moment in section B calculated from (52c) will be j){ = 1310 in. lbs.Zin., and will produce a bending stress
.curve was measured, from which, by a method of graphical differentiation, the stresses were derived. Since in Lehr's publication no attempt was at an analytical solution of the problem, such a solution will be demon' , .... strated here by using the dimensions from one of his' examples. In order 'to be } 'able t.o compare the com?utation with the experimental results, we Shall employ . ... ; the kilogrammeter system. '.' ...The dimensions of the experimental setup shown in Figure 85 are: l =' 15 i icm.;L = 2?cm.;ko = 30kg.jcrn.3;k :=_blco = 60kg./cm.2;E'= 23,000kg.jcm.2; l i cm. Hence we have A = \lk/4EI .= 0.149 cm.:\ and Xl = 2.235,
}.L = 2.980. The distributed loading q = 1 kg.jcm. above the side portions AC and BD will cause onlyuniforin compression and displacement. The loading above the free span, on the other hand, will produce a bending of the beam. Using the given dimensions, we have from equation (0) on page 68 .
,'.: Putting these values info (39 ac) and (40 ac) we obtain the deflection (pres) and bendingmoment diagrams which are shown in Figure 85, in com pariwith the experimental results. The high local curvatures in the experilundingrnoment diagram and the presence of bending ordinates at the
94
'.___..'
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
The circumferential pressure, 01' pressure relief in this case, produced at point by the centrifugal forces can he calculated from (52a); taking p.( = (kR/I)y we then get
YA = 0.719 ~
and
PA = 0.719 qR = 830Ibs./in.2
t .
Adding up the centrifugal and assembly stresses, we obtain. the maximumbend;'i ing stress at B as .' ..
a = (fa + (f.'= 6790 + 2060 = 8850Ibs.jin.2
The circumferential pressure between the bars will be constant p = 3i40 along the rigid center portion BB. Along beams AB the centrifugal will cause a release in p, and we shall have its minimum value at A as
p.( = 1060  830 = 230 lbs.Zin.'
Tho distribution of bending stresses a and arching pressures p along the A B is shown in Figure 83. These curves have been calculated from (1)2('.) and (41a), (52a), respectively. '
i. Let. us assume that in coal mining n gangway is driven into. It scam of coal which is support
. ing a rock layer of limited thick~ II(,SS, as shown in Figure 84.", By driving the gangway the orig ... , inally uniform stress distribution: , is disturbed, for in the coal layor close to the gungway an increase: of prt'HRIII'C is produced, and iI~'"
as [1 bourn in this cuse, bending"
Fw. 8~
the rock layer, which can be regarded . stresses are set. up.
As a rule, the modulus of elasticity for coal (E.) and for rock species (E,) .
. can be definitelyesta blished in any particular situation which makes feasible .. the stress calculation in thc' elastic mrigo. Since E,. is usually much larger Y E. , we can disregardin nn approximate analysis the continuity in the coallaycr},:
This assumption then reduces the problem to the simple case of a beam .• ,
supported on an elastic foundation of the p = ky type unrl loaded with a ..
Iorrnly distributed loading, the solution of which is given ill § 2:3 (p. (8).
The same problem has been investigated experimentally by E. Lchr." .
his experiments the upper laver,  of rocks was replaced bv a hard rubber laid on various foundations 'of hard and soft rubber representing the sublayer of coal. The bar was loaded with a ~lDif~rml~' di~tributl'd loading and the deflection
_ • "Modellversuchc an Blllkcnllur'elasHscher Uncerlage zur Kliirung ocr teilung im Hangenden von Avbau5rten," Forschungshqft 372, Beilugc zur dem Gebiete des Ingcnieul'1ve.~ens, Ausgpbe B, Bond 6 (MnyJune, 1(35), pp. 2233.
<:» cx.rls OF LOADING ON FINITE. BEAMS
95
BEAM' H.lRD IWBBot E.tJ(J()O ,fp.lc",~ FOUNbATI()N 'SOFT RUBBER E  Jo/<.?'/cm.a
/. '1My/""'.' • .
~~~~~~~r~~~~~~~if~2~ DIem.:
~,_~TO~~T6
(
l
J
4 5·/f!!/cIII<.
JO
sa
16
16
!O
JO
FIG. 85
.11.( = ill 8 = 5.60 kg.zem.
and
Q_( = Q8 = 10.0 kg.
96 ,~.
, BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDAf:r6N
free ends C and D seem to show experimental errors. In view of these errors:: and of the fact that in this case there was a. definite material continuity in the!l: foundation which our theory, in tum, did not take into account, there is ail' remarkable agreement between the analytical and experimental results.!J.i.
If the side spans AC and BD are considered infinitely long, which moreJi, CHAPTER V
closely approximates the actual situation in the' mine, the computation takes al'l~ BEAMS OF VARIABLE FLEXURAL RIGIDIT,Y
still simpler form, and then (56 ad) can be used.;:':i,
Ludwig Prandtl* has suggested the theoretical analysis of all experimenta1::ii, AND VARIABLE MODULUS OF FOUNDATION
setu~ of this same arrangement to i?ves~igate the f~ilu~e of brittle. ma.teri~ls in"ll 28. Variation in Steps
tension. If we merely reverse the direction of the distributed loading In Flgure.!,!i' , '
85, so that it now represents tensile forces, and imagine the AB span to be an',:)! A beam w.hose flexural rigidity varies in steps can be regarded as composed
initial crack in the material, we have a situation similar to what may exist in theH of s~orter prismatic beams, formulas for which have been developed in the inside, of a brittle material in tension. The maximum tensile stress will then :I!: prevlOu~ chapters. Thus the problem can be analyzed by the usual method of
occur at the A and B end points of the crack and its intensity will be increased~:!: 'i computl~g statically indeterminate structures. "
as the A B distance increases. Prandtl, reasoning in this way, explains several"ir :,Imaglne that the beam,which is subjected to the given loading, is cut through phen~mena (v:hy l~nger crac~s spread more easily, and so on) observedin;;:i! ,;Ilt~he pl~ces where there is an a~ruPt . variation in the cross section (Fig. 86). I
experiments WIth bnttle materials. ','[i:1 ,:This c~ttmg produces separate priamatie bars, the deflections of which we can
, , :'1 j detennme from the formulas previously developed At int of '
• "Ein Gedankenmodell filr den Zerreissvorgang IIpi'Oder Korper," Zed8chril' jUr:ili: " '. " . • every pomt 0 separa. .. ,
angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Band 13 (1933), Heft 2, pp. 12lH33. 'iii !: tion there will be, because of the loading, a relative displacement and slope dif :
';1 Ierence bet~een the ends of the neighboring bars. Denote these quantities at
/ the kth point of separation by
'I .. :'i~!;:t!~h~: ~~:~ . ~~_~ !L ~_~ 1_~~~ . __
'),!,'i ,: change' of deflection or slope be r: r." '"
<ii/ i. tween the neighboring sections "",:' J.t'., >.Z.'
,::: can occur; instead of these dis X..., :.\k., ~" .\A..,
'!!: : placement quantities, moments FIG. 86
':', ~ and shearing forces act to bring' .
,;1 about and maintain the continuity of the bar.
'I , De~oting t!:ese'"shearing forces and moments acting at the kth point * by .
J X" Yk a~d X~, Yk, ac.cording to whether they act on the left or on the right jii! ends meeting at the pomt k, and denoting the deflection and angular displace:;:: me~t due to unit val~es of each of these forces by 8f.~_, , B:'~:"'I' and so on, in !:~ which the first subscript shows where the force is acting and the second shows ,i'i where the .deflection is produced, we can write the equations of continuity for
L.! • the kth pomt as .
; ::~ i . .'
;\i~ i.t~18:~;.k + y~,8r_:;,k + Xk(8~~ + 8:'~'~ + :c:k(8r.~ ~. 8L::,.' ; }
i::: i + Xk+18k+1.k + Yk+18k+I.k + 80k = 0,
11:,1 :x'L'8:..::.t + Y~IBr~;.k + XIr{B:'~ + B:'~,') + Yk(BI.~ + Br.~') (74)
:':1 i ' x: I y'
!,a i + Xk+1Bk+l.k + Yk+1Bk+l.k + BOk = o.
lif!!'. ~ These forces dift'eronly in sign: IX.'IIX."I Xund 1.Y.'Ily."1  Y" as Ihown
!iijll Figure 86. '
'i:1 ' 97
:1;1, (
PX 1 yo = T D'
<;:« ,,,,'
BEAMS OF· VAIUA.BLE FLEXURAL RIGIDITY
9U
98
<:::
REAMS. ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
Forces acting at the k '201' k+ 2 points have no effect on the . . "
, g at point k For each puint where there is a step in the cross section
occurl'm ' , (74)'
we can write two equations of continuity of the same sort as those 111, "
accordingly there will be two unk~own quantities (X and Y) to de~ermllle ~t.·. e~ch of these points, These equations are of the sam~ type as the "ellkn~\\ll, thr _ ioment equations. The scheme of the equation system so obtained .•••.
lee n . , ,X" x', f ther , OX .' =
will have a diagonal symmetry, since likI,~ ;= lh,kI, u~ :elmOle, kI,~_.
oIk1 = liLl,k = li[,kI , and so on, All these li andO quantities due to, XI . id Y = 1 can be obtained from (39 a and b) and. (40 a and b), Since the nn equatio~s of continuity. at the first step from either end of the beam contain only four unknowns instead: of six, the possibility is presented ol solving the system of such equations by the method of successive. approximation, 'The same proce', :
FIG, 87 dure can be followed when, instead,
oi' the cross section, there is 3, stepwise variation in the mudulus of the founda.
tionA' mecial instance' of the problem discussed above we can c~nsider the
s a speer 1ft ngs where
, ' h 'F" 87 This figure represents co umn 00 I s,
situauon sown 111 igure , , , lv izid iddl rtion
fl ibl flanges are attached on both sides of an infinite y rigi nu . e pu , '
e~1 ef I (41) we find by considerations of statics, that the deflection
Using ormu a a , , .
of the middle portion will be
Substituting 'in the· differential equation of bending d2y'
EI"'dx2 = M,
(a)
the relatiun between the hendingmoment ill and the distributed reaction forces
, p of the foundation, .;
. d2At!'! 1> = k",y =  d;t;2. ,
(b)
we obtain
(c~
which, after the assigned differeritiation has been carried out, takes the form: d4y + ~}1I% d3y_ + ..!_ d2Iz d2y + 3.!_ 1 = 0,
dx' I", dx dx3 I", dx? dx2 EI", y (d)
Ifonly the modulus of the foundation varies with x and I is constant, theoquation above reduces to
(i6')
_ Sinh 2Xa + sin 2Xa + 2Xc .
D  Cosh Xa + cos" Xa
h ' for at points a and b can be obtained as Q. = Qb
The l:l eanng ;ce, this value we can compute the elastic line of the flanges
HP  2chkYc)'h d av:ng m ~f lengtil 2a loaded bv a concentrated force 2Q. at
as thoug we a a oea .,
middle,
29, Continuous Fariation
Let us now consider the case in which the flexural rigidity of the, beam and the modulus of the foundation kz are both continuous differentiable
tions of the variable x,'"
A differential equation of similar type can be established for variable I z but constant k by differentiating (b) twice with respect to x and substituting
.the result in cquntion (a), Thus we get .
dtM k
d:r'" + EI~ M = 0, (i6")
By comparing (i(j') and (i6"), it: is seen t.hat,whenevel' a solution is fuund for variable k and constant I, one can always find a corresponding case of variable I and constant k where the same type of solution will apply,
Rigorous solut.ions of differential equation!' of the types (76') and (i6") can generally be derived in the form of power. series; which are sometimes expressible in terms of Bessel functions, Approximate solutions for problems of this kind can be obtained most conveniently by either the Ra,\'leighRitz'" analytical method or the VianelloStodola t graphical method,
.Thc RayleighRitz method consists in 'assuming a set of functions each term of which satisfies the boundary conditions of the problem, Tho unknown
where
inz di 'th t only I varies as a function o(
. • It will be assumed in the f~lloWmg ,1:';?:~I~o c:nsidered to be a variable of x,
The procedure remains the same, . iowever, I 1.. . . ..:'
• Lord Rayleigh, Theoru oj Sound .(2d ed.: London, 1929), I, 111, 287; WalLher ltit7., lElIl'l'es (Paris, 1911), p, 265,
t Luigi Vianello, "Untersuchungen der Knickfestigkeit gerader Stabe," Z~it8chr;lt de« Vereins deulscher Ingenieure, 42, pt. 2; (1898), 1436; A, Stodola, Steam and Ga, Turbine, (New York, 1927);'f, 449, See also A, Foppl, VorleslIngen lther lerhniBche Mechanik (9th ed.; Leipzig, 1922), III, 264,
100
~ BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
multipliers of the functions can be determined from the requirement that the total potential energy of the system have a minimum value in the equilibrium position. The procedure is the same as that applied in the case of constant I and k on page 75, where the elastic line was represented in the form of a trigonometric series.
It is seen from (76') and (76") that the problem of bending of a beam onan elastic foundation can be looked upon as that of finding the deflection curve which is proportional to the distribution of the loading of the beam, the .proportionality factor being in general a. function of x. The VianelloStodola. method obtains' this . equilibrium position by successive approximations, as" suming first the distribution of the loading and then determining graphically the deflection curve due to it. The deflection line leads to a corrected form the corresponding loading, and the procedure, when repeated, will converge to the true solution, where the deflection curve, multiplied by the proportionality factor k, in (b), will coincide with the loading distribution curve on the beam.
Both of these approximate methods can be used advantageously in practical
. applications. In the following sections, however, only those problems wlll be discussed in which a rigorous solution of the differential equation of the elastic line has been obtained, and approximate formulas will be mentioned only if they',
constitute special forms of a rigorous solution. '
30. Linearly Varying Moment of Inertia: the Circular Plate
The most frequently occurring example of a beam with linearly varying moment of inertia is a wedge the width of which is a linear function of x (Fig.':
88). Here, however, on account of the]
P, variable width of the beam, we shall haveI to deal also with a linearly varying value;! of k. Thus we shall have
k = kebo:r,
and
I = Is»
where boand 10 are the width and thei
1"10. 88 moment of inertia of the beam at unit'!
distance from the origin 0, respectively, and where ko is the constant modulus: of the Ioundation.. A rigorous treatment of the bending of such a wedgeshapedI lleam will require the application of a system of polar coordinates. Thusthe.11 problem becomes analogous to that of 8; circular plate supported on an elastic:1 foundation and subjected to a loading distributed symmetrically with respec~i to the C611ter 0., Under. such conditions, the circular plate can be regarded as:1 consisting of wedgeshaped elements, each of which is deformed in the same' manner. The only difference between the beam and the plate problemsis tha~+ . in the latter the deformation of the cross section is restrained on account of the:!
. continuity of the material in the circumferential direction; thus opposing m~:;i ments would act on the sides of each wedge element. From this point of view:' the beam problem can be considered as a limiting case of that 'of a bent circular)
plate; this will be the approach used In the following discussion. ,.il
. , ' ~.I'
:"~
<:: <::'
BEAMS OF VARIABLE FLEXURAL RIGInll'Y
101
. ~h~. different~a~"equation .of bending of the plate can be obtained from the equilibrium ~?ndltlOns of an mfinitesimal element of the .plate (Fig. 89). Such' an element. will be acted upon, per unit length of its sl'des by b . di .
"~f I h . f' ,en mg moments
J. r. anc f!l eanng orces Qr in the radial and bending moments M in th .
cu~ferential dir~cti.on, while unit areas of its upper and lower sur;a~es W~l c~; subjected ~o ,a distributed loading q and a distributed reaction of the foundation. p, respectively, Other force components vanish on account of th d'
,symmetry of the loading. ' e assume
A eonl'liCIerat.ion of the equilibrium of the moments in the radial plane gives dMr + Mr _ M., _ Q = 0
dr r r r , (a)
while the equilibrium of the for~es in the vertical direction requires that
dQr;+ Qr
dr: r + q  p = O. (b)
Denoting by w the downward positive deflection, we can express the chan s of curv~ture of the element due to bending in the radial and tangent'al di l' ge
respectively as I irec Ions
1 dw
K=
r dr'
.' (0)
while the cOl'1'esponding bending moments pel' unit length will be .
ill. =  D(K,. + P.K.,) and
M., = D(K., + P.Kr), (d)
where D = Eh3/12(1 .,.... p.2) . is the flexural rigidity of the zV ,!I'=~'_1#JH
plate, h is its thickness and p. is Poisson's ratio for the
plate materia]. By means of (c) tile bending moments can be expressed I}s
M, ~ LD(~; +~~;), )
M = 'D(! dw + d~W)
., , r dr p. dT' •
Substituting these formulas in (a), we have for'the shearing force
o. = _D.(ifw +! d2~ _ .!. dW),
. diJ r. dr2 T' dr •
The substitution of this expression in(b) gives
d4w + ~ d3w _ .!. d2w 1 dw _ q _ P
drt r diJ T' dr2 + 13 dr  n
i"lG. 89
(e)
(f)
102
.'._./ BEAMS ON ~;LASTlC FOUNDATION'
where according to our fundamental assumption, p= kow. The distributed loadin~ q can be eliminated from this equation by a ?hange iI~ the dep~ndent : variable, and thus the problem of the axially symmetrical bending ~f a C1rcu.lar plate on an elastic foundation reduces to the solution of the differential equation
a~w + V'1I) = 0, (77)
.where a,. denotes the differential operator
Ar = d2 +!.!!_ dt" r dr
and
v =
,,/ lp, we can transform (77) into ~ a;w  w = 0,
which in turn can be resolved into either of the two following forms:
'By putting .vl'
01'
Ap(Aptv  tv) + (Apw  w) = O.
Hence it is seen that the solution of (77) can be obtained as the sum of thc solutions for the two following differential equations:
and
The first of these equations is the same as the .known Bessel equation with zero parameter value; the second can be tr~nsformed into th~ same form by changing the variable p to if. The solution of the Bessel equation
d2w 1 dw ~w+w= ++tv=O
p dp2 p dp

is known to he
w = ihJo(p) + A2No(p),
where Jo(p) and No(p) Me Bessel functions of the first kind and se~ond kind (Neumann function) respectively, both of the zero order.
In a similar way we have the solution of
d2w 1 dw
Aww=+tv=O
p dp2 p dp
in the Iorm
tv = AaJo(ip) + A,No(ip).
Thus we obtain the complete solution of. the original equation (77) as the HUJIl of the two solutions above in terms of the original variable r:
10 = A1JO(±v1'Y +i) + A2No(±Jlry +i)
+ AaJo(±vI'Y i) + A4Nq(±vry:,t).
'._./' ._/BEAMS OF VARI.,\BLE FLEXURAL RIGIDITY' ._/
103
For calculation it is more convenient if the solution is expressed in real functions of the argument V1', instead of in the form above. This .can be achieved by introducing the following functions: *
+~ [Jo(vry +i) + JO(Jlry m, ~ l.!o(JlrV +i)  Jo(vTV' i)},
Za(vr) = Zl(vr) + ~ [No (vry o  No(vry i)],
1 I
(g) .
Z,(vr) = Z2(Vr) + ~ [No (vry +i) + No(vry i)], J when the solution of (77) will take the final form
(78)
The Z functions have the character of exponential waves; Zl and Z2 increase rapidly with increasing argument, while Za and Z, decrease as the argument increases, ' If we denote the argument by x, these functions can be written in l.he form of power series as follows:
(x)' (X)8 (X)12
1_2 + 2 _ _!_+
2!2 4!2 6!2
(79)
" These Z functions were first introduced by F. Schleicher and tabulated in his book, Kreieplatten au] elasti8che1' Untel'lage (Berlin, 1926). A table of these functions is also given at the end of the present work.
The Z functions can likewise be expressed as the real and imaginary parts of Bessel functions of the first kind, J .(xvi), and third kind (Hankel function), H!l) (xvi), in the following manner:
ZI(X) = Ite J.(x,li)i Z.(x) = Re H~I)(xVi)i Z2(X) = Imi.(xVi')i Z.(x) = ImH!Il(xVi).
The functions in these forms, together with their first derivatives are tabulated in E.
Jahnke nnd F. Emde, Tables of F~tnctions (3d ed.: Leipzig, 1938), pp. 246257.
104~
''" BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
where
~ = (~)2 _ tp(3)(~)·e + 11'(5) (:)10
1 2 . 312 2 512 2
R, = 'P(2) (~)' _ 'P(4) (~)8 + 'P(6) (~)12'
212 2 , 412 2 612 2
111 'P(n) = 1 +  +  +  +
2 3 4
1 + , n
and log. "( = 0.577216. Between the Z functions and ,their derivatives there exist the following relations:
.d2~~X) = Zt(x) _ ~d~x) , d2ZZ(x) = Zl(X) 1 dZ2(x)
d3;2 x~'
d2Z,(x) = Z,(x) _ ~ .dZ,(x) ,
d3;z x d3;
d2Z,(x) dX2
Z,(x) _ ! dZ,(x) •
., ,x dx
In what follows we shall use, for derivatives of the Z(x) functions with respect to the variable x, the simplified notations: Z~(x) = dZ1(x)/dx, Z~'(x) =
rfZ1(X)/d3;2, and so on. '
In limiting cases when x  0 or x  00, the Z functions and their derivatlves will approach the following asymptotic values:
lim Z(x) lim Z(x)
·s,;"o S,",:"oo
'. Zl(X) , +1 +a cos IT'
Z.(x) x2 a sin IT
 ....
'4'
 
Z,(x) +! +pein T'
,2
Z.(x) 2 "(x :f3 cos T
+log.
'II" 2' (80) ,
lim '(21'l1'Q.) + Po = O.
.... 0
<::> <::» :
BEAMS OF VARIABLE FLEXURAL RIGIDITY
105
lim Z'(x) lim Z'(x)
,,"'0 ., .....
dZ1(x) x3 a
(IX 16 + v2 (cos IT  sin IT)
, dZ2(x) x a
(IX '2  V2 (cos IT + sin IT)

liZ.(x) , x' "(x + :2 (cos T  sin T)
=s: +;log'2
.
dZ,(x) +.! .+ :2 (COST+ sin T)
=s: 1I"X
, " (81)
" _1_"zlV:2
a ,= V211'xe ,
, (81):
The Z functions have, been tabulated up to the value 6 of the argument x. ,For .z >, 6 the asymptotic formulas for x  00 can be used in the computation and , will give an accuracy of five 01' more decimal places, in the value of the functions. This general solution fora eirouplate on an elastic foundation, be applied now to a few practical problems. Let us first consider the case when a plate of infiniteextension is subjected to a single concentrated force * Po acting at the origin 0 (Fig. 90). The four constants of integration in the general solution in (78) can be found from the boundary conditions of the problem. The consideration that at an infinite distance from the .application of the load both wand dw/dr must vanish leads to 01 = 0 and O2 = o. The condition that at the origin·~~/dr = 0 can be satisfied only if 0, = O. The .laSt of the constants 0. can be obtained from the requirement that
• The solution for this case is due to H. Hertz,who was the first to analyze plates on elastic foundation in his paper "Uber das Gleichgewicht schwimmender elastischer Platten," Wiedemanm Annale,n der Physik uoo Chemie, v. 22 (1884), 449. Further references and dlaeusaion of a variety of problems eonnected with plates on elastiefcundetlon can be found in S. Timoshenko'a book, Theory 01 Plates and ShelZ,'(New York, 1940).
lOG <:»
DEAMS ON' ELASTIC FOUNDAWN
Subst.it uting here from equation (f) (p.1Ol) the expression for Q,. and into account that lim [vrZ~(vr)l = 2/7r, we. have'
)lJ'O
Po .
C3 = 4v2D'
and thus the elastic curve for an infinite plate under a single concentrated force Po tan bp expressed as
. Po
w = 4v2 D Za(vr),
where, W'; stated above, v = vko/Dand]) = Eh3/12(l ~ /). The deflection under the load will be
Po U'o = 8v2D'
Substituting this solution for to in equations (e) and (f) (p. 101), we can calculate the values of M,., !vI", and Q", and hence the stress distribution over the entire plate,
Another problem of interest arises
Po when a circular plate of radius a is SI,I1>[ected to uniformly distributed loading Po pel' unit run along the circumference (Fig. 91). Here the conditions that at 'I" = 0, dw/dl" = 0, and Qr = 0
FIG, !ll necessitate that, C3 = C4 = 0 in '
general solution stated in (78). the equation of the deflection curve of the plate becomes
The two remaining integration constants can be determined from the conditions' that at r = a, 111,. = 0, and Q" = ~ Po bv using the corresponding expressions from oquntions (e) and (f) (p. 101). Thus we get,
1 ~ J.t '
Zl(va) + _ Z2(lIa)
Puv va
.t« ~(va)Z~(va) ~ Z;(va)Z2(va) + 1 ~ J.t [Z;2(va.) + Z~2(va)1' va
C' 2
,
, !
\.....J '>L/
UEAMS OF VARJAULI'; FI,EXURAI, lUGIDITY
107
the same circular plate of radius a is loaded by uniformly distributed
. moments 1110 per unit length along the circumference (Fig. 92), since the conditions at r =:= 0 will be the same as in the previous case the ex . pression for w will also take the same form:
FIG. 92
(84)
but now the two integration constants will be determined so as to satisfv the
requirements JJ1 = M« and Q _ = 0 for r = a. This will give, then, .
,.
Z'( )Z() IJ.L'2 '2
 1 va 2 va. + r  [Zl (va) + Z2 (va)]
va
~2 = ilIo l Z~(va) _
ko Z( )Z'() Z'( )Z( )1' 1 ~ J.L'2 r""
1 va 2 va  1 va 2 va +  [Zl (va) + Z2(Va)]
. . va
From the three loadings discussed above (Figs. 9092) one can, by means of superposition, derive solutions for any plate of finite diameter .loaded with 11 concentrated force at the middl~ and subjected to given boundary conditions along the circumference. The principle to be applied here is the same as that used in deriving finite beams from a beam of infinite length, and in the cal
culation the edge loadings Po mid lifo are to be regarded as endconditioning forces.
After this treatment of the circular plate, let us now return to the discussion of the bending of the wedgeshaped beam shown in Figure 88. Putting L, = Isx and k% =: kol)o.T into the differential equation of flexure, oquntion (d) Oil pagr 99,
gives '
d4,y +~ d3y + bOh:°1
dx4x dy3 Elo Y = O.
('
The third derivative of y in this equation can he eliminated by the following , change in the dependent, variable:
lj<2/r)dr • /":
Z = yc· =u v x,
which, if the ensuing lower derivatives of yare neglected, leads to the approximate differential equation of the deflection line below:
d(! ! + bE~Iko z = 0,
:r !o 0
108
'' ',../
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
the solution of which (expressed as the original variable y) may be written as y = ~x [i%(C, cos AX + C2 sin AX) + e>'Z(C3 cos Xx +C4 sin Ax)],
where
, = '~,boko
" 'Villo .
The same expression for the deflection line can be derived if in the general solution of the plate problem (see [78]) the asymptotic expressions of the Z functions for large values of the argument are substituted from (81). This proves that the approximate solution above will be very accurate for large (Xl: > values; incidentally, such cases are most frequent among the applications of this theory to foundation plates and similar structures.
In calculating circular foundation plates for tanks 01' containers the displacements along the edge of the plate are 'of primary importance. If we take be = 1 and To = h3/12(1  !l2), the asymptotic formulas furnish the following simple expressions for these socalled infiuencefactors due to uniformly distributed edge loadings Po and M; pel' unit length of the circumference of the plate of radius a:
Deflection of the edge due to Po lbs.j'in.:
PoX2Xal wpo = To Xa  f j
Rotation of the edge due to Po lbs.Zin.:
o __ 2POX2~.
Po  ko Aa  1 '
Deflection of the edge due to Mo in. lbs.Zin.:
2MoX2 Aa
WMo =  k; Aa ...., 1 ;
Rotation of the edge due to M, in. lbs.Zin.:
e _ 4MoX3 ~
Mo  ko Aa  1 .
31. Linearly Varying AI odulus of Foundation
Consider a beam of constant cross section supported on an elastic foundation, the modulus of which varies according to a linear law k; = kA  ex, where' kA Ibs./in.2 and c lbs.Zin." are constants and x denotes the distance alongfhe • beam from the fixed point A.,
Using the expression above for kz in the differential equation of bending, we " have
~
Bl'~AMS OF VARIABLE FLEXURAL RIGIDITY
109
EI cry + kA , ex = 0
kA dx4 kA Y .
'By introducing a new variable,
~ = kA  ex
, kA'
(a)
(b)
we have
ity 'cry (d~)4 ty (e)4
dx4 =d~4 dx = d~4 ~ ,
and thus (a) takes the form
, where
(86)
k~
a = cIEI'
In seeking .the solution of this differential equation let. us first substitute in it y = ~m. This leads to the expression
m(1t/  l)(m  2)(m  3nm4 + a~m+1 = 0, from which we can conclude that there will be four series of the type
y = lliJ~m + almH + ... + ak~m+5k + ... , (c)
in which m = 0; 1,2, and 3, respectively, that will satisfy (86); consequently, the general solution of that differential equation will consist of the sum of these 'four series, each one multiplied by a different integration constant.
By putting the generalform of these series, equation (c), into (86) we get the relation between any two consecutive coefficients ak and ak+! 3.'!
a
(m + 5k + 5)(m + 5k + 4)(m + 5k + 3)(m + 5k + 2) ak •
By means of this recursion formula the foul' series YI, Y2, Y3, and Y4 which
comprise the general solution '
y = C,iI, + C2Y2 + CaY3 + (:41/4 (87a)
can be written as, 0
2" 3 4
, = 1 _ ~ t6 + 6a tIO._ 6·11·0! tlij + 6·1l·16·a t20 _
YI 51" 101" 15!", 201 "
2a,Jl 2·7·a2 11 ,2·7·12·a3 16 2·7·12·17·a4.21
Y2 = ~  6! I; + lIr ~  16! ~ + 211 ~
,t 3a; 3·8·a2 12 3·8·13·a3 17' 3·8·13·18·a4 22
Va = 217f~ + 12fJ  171t + 22! ~
t 4a 8 4·9·a2 13 4·9·14·a4 18 4·9·14·19·a4 23
Y4 = 3i  Sf ~ + l3I ~ , '" . 1.81 ~ + 23! ~,
110
In;A~IS ON ELASTIC FO{JXDA'I'ION
From the expression above f'or the deflection line one can obtain by successive differentiat ion the ungulur deflection 0, bending moment, JI, and shearing force '
o at anv point of the l.eam us Iollows: '
(870d)
Hence it is seen that the integral ion constants in tile general solution represent tile end conditions u«, On, ill 0, and 011 of the beum ut the point where ~ = 0, that is,
(88 ad)
[dY] = C, =  ~~, 0,1,
d~ E=n' c
[Mlzo = 0,
[JiJr1 = 0,
[Q]zo = P,
These end conditions Cl):JI be written '0,\' means of (88 a··d) us Iollows: 45.88 C,  41.52 C2  14.08 C3  2.H6 C4= 0,
, 124.49 Ct ....:8.89 C2 + 342.02 C3 + 48.98 (:4 = 0,
P (k )3
+234.02 C,  66.18 C2  57.95 C3  18.60 C4 = ~ EI f
7.023 C,  0.723 C2  0.039 C3 + 0.998 C.
P (k .. )3
+  EI c
I. ,
'J" '
1Ir;.\1\IS OF'VARIADI,E FLl<;XURAL H1GIDITY
The solution of these four simultaneous equationR for the C'e gin's
c. = +0.0345 :1 (~~y
C2 0.0609 :1 (~J '
C3 =
J
P (ki)3 .
0.1619 jn .;; . '
+ 1.2113 t: (~)3 EI c
III
p
p
[d2~], = C3 = _(~)2 ill" ,
d~ !=o c. EI
[c!.J!.] '. = C. = (~:.!):I ~CI •
d~a ,..u, C E1
As It numerical example of the solution developed above let us consider the problem shown in Figure 93, where the constants of the beam are assumed to be: I = 144 in.'; E = 2.5 X 106 lbs.yin,"; k., = 700 lbs.yin."; c = fi lbs.Zin."; l = 120 in.; ex = k~/c4BI = 74fi.98. 'rhe Iour integration' eonstants will be defined bv the end conditions
Hence for the deflection line of the beam we have the expression
U = :1 (~y (0.0345  0.0609 ~  0.0810 ~2 + 0.2019 ~a  0.2:148 ~. + 0.1264 ~6 + 0.0720 ~7  0.0898~8
. + 0.0319 ~tO _ 0.0119 ~11
_ 0.0045 ~'2 + 0.0039 ~J3 _ 0:0007 ~J5 _ 0.002 ~J6 + ... ).
DEl"LECTfON LJNE 110. _P_/.l£tfJ a EI(cj
,O/!$
I
.O(S
.Q20
PRES$VRE D{S17U.lJI/7'EON
Pk ,]':,p ;:&{f ", EIP:7
5
k,;f
The deflection line calculated by this FIG. !l3
formula is shown in Figure 93, together
with the corresponding pressure distribution in the foundation, p = k,y.
It has beenshown in § 29, by way of comparing (76') and (76"), that whenever a general solution of a problem involving constant I and variable k; is known, it will also give the solution .of a corresponding case or' constant k and variable l:. , which I z , however, will be inversely proportional to the K; of the first case. Hence we know that the solution discussed above for constant I and linearly varying kz can be used where k is constant and Iz = (l/x)Io varies inversely (hyperbolically) with :1'.
The differential equation for the bending moment M will now have the same Iorrri, according to (76"), as: had the differential equation of the deflection line , in the previous problem; it, wlllbe
d'M k
, d~ + Elo xilf = 0, (d)
and its solution can be written readily in the form found for ri in (87a).
In foundation works beams are frequently haunched at points of concentrated loadings, in which ev~nt the distribution of the flexural rigidity along the beam can be closely approximated by the assumption of a hyperbolic variation
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
in I. In considering such a finite beam with a concentrated force at: . the middle (Fig'. 94) the calculation will be made more convenient if we introduce a new variable,
I: = 2x
~ l'
FIG. 94
taking at the same time I .. = (l/~)Iu, where 10 denotes the moment of inertia of the beam atthe place ~ = I, that is, at the ends. In terms of this new variable, equation (d) will become
d411f
d~4 + IX~lvI = 0,
where
kl'
IX = 16EI~'
The solution of this differential equation can be written at once, using the same scheme as in (87a). Expressions for Q, y, and (J can be obtained by successive differentiation of the general solution for M. The series will rapidly converge in every case, since the new variable is always less than, or equal to, unity.
32. Beam of Linearly Varying Depth
If the depth of the beam is a linear function of z, its flexural rigidity will vary proportionally to the third power of x, I" = IQX3, and thus the differential equation of the deflection line, according to epuation (d) on page 99, will
be, if the modulus of foundation is constant, '
ad4y 2d3y . d2y k
x dz4 + 6x dz3 + 6x dx2 + Elo y = O.
A substitution of y = xm in this equation gives m2(m2 _ l)X",l + ~ xm = 0,
o .
Which suggests that the differential equation can be satisfied with power series of the form
where m is any of the four roots of the equation m2(m2  1) = O.
The discussion below applies not to the general solution, but to the solution of the particular problem illustrated in Figure 95, where the beam can be re.garded as an idealized form of a column footing. The major problem in such It structure is to find its effective length, that is, the limiting case when at the ends
(89)
(90)
(a)
113
of the beam the deflection and, eonse ,
quently, the pressure in the foundation vanish. This end condition of y = 0 at x = 0, in addition to the [Mlo and [Ql .. u requirements of a free end, is satisfied only by that series, equation (a), of the general solution which belongs to
the root m = + 1. F 9
' IG. 5
. Hence the solution of the problem,
after a convenient change in the independent variable x = ~l, will be given
by the series .
y = ~ + ai'r + a,,~3 + '" + ak~k+l + ... ,
which, when substituted in the differential equation leads to the recursion formula'
, where
.' IX
ak+1 = ; (k + l)(k + 2)2 (k + 3) a", ,
(b)
kl a = Elo'
By means of this formula the solution can be written as
(. 2
y=au~_·a /:2+ a 3
.(1.2~.3) ~(t.22.3)(2. 32.4) ~
.  (1.22.3)(2.;:.4)(3.42.5) t+ ... ). (c)
This .s?luti~n will ha;e to satisfy, by a proper choice of IX and au ; two more end conditions involved III the problem, namely, the conditions that at the center of the beam the angular deflection (J = 0 and the shearing force Q ==  P /2.
The conditi th t dy dy
e con 1 Ion a at ~ = 1, (J = dx = ld~ = 0 requires that
o 1 IX a2 al
= , 6,+ 12·24  12.72.60 + ... ,
which gives the value of a =" kl/Elo = 7 or 10 = kl/7E. Since according to ou~ assumption, !o . = bhl/12ZS! where h is the height of the beam' at the center (FIg. 95) and b IS Its constant width, the effective length of the beam will be reac~ed only if the height h is chosen in such a manner as to satisfy the following
, relation: •
(d)
* This condition was .establishad by Adolf Francke "Einiges uber ~undamente.'!
.schtoeizeriBche Bauzeitung,.35 (1900). 145. '
114
'..../' <:::
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
Putting 0: = 7 into (c), we can determine the last constant ao from the condition
[d3y' d2y] P
[Qhl = Elo d~3 + 3 de ~_l = "2'
which gives
1.6P ao =kr'
By substituting these an and a values in (c) we have the final form of the deflection line
1.6 P ( 7 2 72, 3 73 4
Y = kl ~  12 ~ + 12·72 ~  12·72.240 ~
+ 74 ~6 _ )
12·72·240·600 "',
in which case the maximum pressure at the center C will be
0.75 P
pm">: = kyo = l'
'These formulas can be applied also when ithe central part of the beam is rigid and not deformable (Fig. 96). Denoting by Ql that part of the P loading which is transmitted in the form of a shearing force to one of the side portions Aa or bB, we can write from (f) that
, 0.75·2Q,
pm"x = l .
FIG. 96
Since equilibrium requires that 2Q, + pm "X . C = P, we have
2Q, = _P_
c 1 + 0.75 [,
, (e)
(90)
(f)
Knowing Ql , we can calculate the deflection line by using the solution obtained .above in (90).
33. Cylindrical Tank with Linearly r arying Wall Thickness
Let us assume a cylindrical container with linearly increasing wall thickness toward the base and subjected ,t.o an internal hydraulic pressure." Choosing
• This problem was first investigated by H. Reissner, "Uber die Spnnnungeverteilung
in zylindrischen Behliltcrwiinden,":Beton und Eisen, 7 (1908),150. '
See also W. Fliiggc, Statik lIni:L ()ynaltti.k del' Schalen (Berlin, 1934), and S. Timoshenko, op. cit. (see p. 105).
<:> "'BEAMS OF V AllIABLE FLEXURAL RIGIDITY
the origin of the x coordinates as, shown in Figure !)7, we can express the linear law of variation of the wall thickness as t = ax, 0: being a numerical factor. Accordingly, the effective moment of inertia of a longitudinal element of unit width will be I = a3x3/[12(1  Jl2)J. The modulus of foundation for' such a, longitudinal element is, from (25), k = Eax/ R2, and the hydraulic loading per unit length of this clement is q =  'Y(x  xo), where 'Y is the specific weight of the liquid in the container.
Putting these expressions into the differential equation for bending,'
o
115
es  .M
T 8
I
i
i
h. I
i
i
i ~:.,_"';{  !'I"
f2R. ~
FIG. 97
d2 ( d2y)
;]X2 EI dx2 + ky = q,
we have, by suitable arrangements of the terms,
d2 ( 3 d2y) 12(1  Jl2) 12(1  j.L~)
dx2 X dx2 + o:2R2 xy =  Ea3, 'Y (x  xo).
(a)
I t is seen that a particular integral of this differential equation will be [l2'Y x  Xo
Yl =  Eo: x·
(b)
This particular integral represents the deformation which takes place when the cylindrical walJ is not restrained at the base and is free to expand because of the notion of the internal hydraulic loading. The deformation will result at the end 11, where x = Xo + h, ill a radial displacement
R2'Y h
 Eo: (xo + it)
and in,!tn angular deflection
(c)
(d)
As a result of this deformation the end conditions at the base (YA 0 and
OA = 0, for instance, if the base is rigidly fixed) are not fulfilled. In order. to satisfy the end conditions '\'e must apply around the base circle distributed forces and moments. This part of the solution, implying bending deformations, can he o~)tained from the homogeneous form of (a), that is, from
~~~2(X3~~) + 12(!2_R/2) Y = o. (e)
It ran he shown by differentiation that
. ~ ;;2 (X3 ~~r) = ~ ~~ {X2 ;r [~~~r (X2 ~~)]},
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDAoN ,,_./
which makes it possible to resolve (e) into two conjugate equations of the second order:
1 d ( 2 dY):.!: ),2 _ 0 xdxXdx ~Y,
where
Taking the first equation in (91), the one with the plus sign, and carrying out the assigned differentiation, we have
d2y dy 2
X dx2 + 2 dx + ~A y = o.
Now putting y = 'II/Vx and ~ = 2XVx and using the notation ~vi = W.J we find that the equation above becomes
2 d2'11 d'll (2 )
W dw2 + W dw + w  1 '17 = 0,
which is a Bessel equation with a parameter value of unity; its solution is known ~~ ,
where Jl and N, are Bessel functions of the first and second kind respectively, both of the first order.
The second equation in (91), the one with the minus sign, can be transformed in the same manner, yielding the solution
Consequently, the general solution of (91), as the sum of these two solutions' can be written as
By the use of the known relations
and
N1(w) = dNo(w) a;;;
this solution can be expressed by means of Bessel functions of the zero order. reducing thus to a form similar to that encountered in the circular plate problem in § 30. By the same method employed there, that is, by introducing Schleicher's Z functions (equation [g), p. 103) of the real argument ~ = 2XVx, the
(91)
(92e)
V B~MS OF VARIABLE FLF.XURAL RIGIDITY
117
general solution of (91) can be written in the final form
1 , , , .,
y", = Vx {C1Z1W + C2Z2W + C3Z3W + C4Z4(~)1, (92a)
where the prime denotes differ~ntiation with respect to the argument ~.
By successive differentiations one can derive from the equation above the expressions for the angular deflection (Jr, bending moment Mz, and shearing force Q", :
8. = ~~ = 2X~X {Clr~Z2W  2Z~Wl  C:![~ZlW + 2Z~W)
+ C3[~Z4W  2Z~WJ  C4[~Z3W + 2Z~WJ}, (92b)
d2 y Ea3. ;_ 2' ,
M", = EI dx2 = 48(1 _ p.2) V X {Cl[~ Z2W  4~Z2 W + 8Z1Wl
I
 C2[~2 Z~W  4~ZlW  8Z;Wl,
+ C3[f Z~W  4~Z4W + 8Z~W],
 C4[~2 Z~W  4~Z3W  8Z~Wl}, (92c)
Ea2'A2 _ ,
_. 2,1(1 _ p.2) VX I Cl[~ZlW + 2Z2(~)1
+ C2r~Z2W  2Z~ml + C3[~Z3W + 2Z~Wl
+ C4[~Z4W  2Z~WJ}. (92d)
The hoop forces N arc also known from the radial deflection y, since, according to equation (a) on page 31,
Eax
N=/TY'
'., while the bending moment in the circumferential direction is obtained from equation (c) on page 31 as
(920
Equations (92 af) represent the complete solution for the problem of the axially symmetrical bending o~' a cylindrical tube with linearly varying wall thickness. The four integration constants occurring in these equations can be determined from the four end conditions, which, two at each end, are known in
'advance in every problem. I
Applying (92 af) to the problem in Figure 97 we find that here the conditions fora fixed base at A and 'a free end at B require that, for
and Qx = o.
B at x = Xu,
for
A at x =. :1."0 + h , Yx = YA and 8x = 0,4 ,
and
BEAMS .ON ELASTIC FOU~!·IOJ:Ii\./
<::> \._/
m;AMS OF VARIABU; FLEXURAL lUGIDITY
11 !J
where Y.4 and {J.t denote the expressions given by equations (c) and (d) on page 115.
Since the functions Zl , Z2 , and their derivatives increase with increasing values of the argument, while Zu , Z4 , and their derivatives decrease at the same' time, the constants C1 and C2 will be determined mainly by the conditions existing at the lower end of the cylinder, while Ca and C4 will be determined largely by those at. the upper end. The tables at the end of the present work give the values of the Z functions and their first derivatives up to the value of the argument ~ = G. If ~ > G, then the asymptotic formulas of the Z functions (see pp. 104105) can be used in the calculation.
Consider, for example, a cylindrical tank with these dimensions: R =f' 360 in.; II = 312in.;t.t = 14 in. (wall thickness at the base); tB = 3!in. (wall thickness at the top). The material is reinforced concrete E = 4.25 X 106 lbs.Zln.', iJ. = 0.25, and the tank is filled with water, specific gravity"( = 0:0361 lbs.Zin.'
I L is seen that the dimensions of the tank are the same as those in the example 011 page 89, except that, whereas there the wall thickness was constant, t = . 14 iII., here the wall tapers off from that value at the base to 3! in. at the upper
end. .
The dimensions assumed above give
c = R2"( ._h __ zss: [e!!y2  /2'~J
E  / + I v 71'" t2~yzo+ij .
ayXo t.
Substituting these values of the integration constants in (92 cd) and putting numerical values in for the dimensions, we .get the bending moment M..t and UI(' shearing force Q" acting per unit. length of the circumference at the hasp. of tho
tank: .
M.4 = 13,8nO in. Ibs./in.
and
QA = 527 lbs.Zin.
If we compaTe these results with those obtained for the same container but with eonstantz = 14 in. wall thickness (M A = 14,000 in.Ibs.zin. and QA = 564Ibs./in., 90), it is seen that the tapering of the wall had no appreciable effect on the magnitude of the maximum stresses around the base of the tank; thus the Ul;O
of this structural feature proves to be t.ruly economical. .
Xo = _.l!:!!!__ =. 104 in., t .•  t/l
a=
!'! = 0.0336,
Xo
Problems involving axially symmetrical deformation of conical shells can also be reduced, in a way analogous to that. used for cylindrical shells, to our fundamental problem of bending of a beam on an elastic foundation. The wall . of the conical shell will be regarded as consisting of a large number of longitudinal tapered beams supported on transverse elastic rings .whoso diameter increases in proportion to the distance from the apex of the cone. This picture, though representing closely the actual conditions in the shell, omits one of tho
'. stress components, namely, that due to the circumferential bending of the
, hoop rings. On account of the lateral contraction of the longitudinal elements, bending moments will be set up in tho transvorso rings, nnrl such )J10 III en t.1< , • because of the tapering, will have components in the principal plano of l.he . longitudinal beams. Those components, however, which are taken into account in the rigorous theory for thin' shells, * have significance onlv in extremolv flat shells, which could be well calculated as circular plates. \Vith such exceptions t.he rest. of the shells ran be conveniontlv annlvzed hy the present approximate method. The degree of accuracy and the range of applicability of this method will be discussed later on in this section.
Let us consider a eon (cal shell with constant wall thickness 0 small in PI'Oportion to the other dimensions of the shell (Fig. 98). The modulus of tho foundation furnished by the hoop rings, per unit length of circumference of the rings, is, according to (25), ko = Et/R\ where R = x sin a and where t = o/co~ a t.he thickness of the rings in the direction normal to the axis of the cone. Hence
A =
Since even for the upper end ~o = 2AVXo = 10.72 > 6, it is permissible to take Z. = Z4 =0 and use for the rest of the calculation the asymptotic expressions 1'01' Z, und Z2. Thus the conditions to be satisfied at the base of the tank can be written ItS
1 {et/Y2 [' ( . '( ~ 'IT) (~71')) .
2\/(:'0 + h)3 V271'~ c. ~ sm V2  8  2 cos V2 + 8 .'
( ( ~ 71') " . ' (,,~ 7I'))'J} R,2"( Xo
 C2 ~ cos V'2  8  2 sm V2 + '8 t2~yzo+h = Ea (xu + h)!'
Solving these equations for C, and C2 , we have
C, = ·0.862C and C2 = 0.958C,
* The most comprehensive study of the exact solution for conical shells has been published by F. Dubois, Uber die Festiqkeit del' Keqeischale (Dissertation, ZUrich, 1(17). SeC' also Fliigge, op : cit, (see p. 111), and Timoshenko, op. cit. (see p. 105).
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDX'.rION \~
the modulus per unit length of the longitudinal beams will be k ~ bk«, where b = boX is the width of the beams increasing linearly with the distance from the apex. Thuswehave
At the same time, the flexural rigid' ity of one beam will be
EI = boxE03 ,
12 cos3a '
the effect of Poisson's ratio of the. material being omitted on account of the nature of the approximation mentioned above.,'
Putting these values of Ii, and EI into the differential equation of bending
!_ (EI d2y) + ky = 0,
dx2 dx2
\yp cnn write the result in theform
x 02 • 2 d2 ( X d2 y) _ _'y
sm a     .
~ 12 dx2 cos a dx2
FIG. 98
Putting
we have
boEo
k = bo xko = :. :'x sin" a cos a
x d2F
p = V, cos a dx2
where
II . 2
p = 12sm a.
Assuming now that F = wy, we find that these equations become x d2y
= wy cos a dx2
and
X d2y
 pw . = v,
cos a dx
.J
\._...., '"'"
DF;AMS OF VAlUABLE FLEXURAL RIGIDl'!"
J2J
or
±(i/Vp)y, which, when substituted in (b) yields
d2y ',2 0
z 32' :± u. Y = , (IX
(c)
where
x _ ,4/12
 11 02 tan2 a .
Thus, as a result of the transformat.ions above, the original differential equation of the fourth order (a) is resolved in.to two' simultaneous conjugate equations of the second order. By putting 5' = ~vi, where ~ = 2XVx, as suggested bv E. Meissner," we can again change these resulting equations to a form
d2y 1 dy ,
d5'~  t Jf ±y = 0,
(d)
the solution of which is known to be expressible in terms of Bessel funetions.] Equation (d) with the last term positivehas the solution
(a)
where J1(5') and N1(r) denote Bessel functions of the first and second kind respectively, both being of the first order. Equation (d) with the last term 'negative yields the solution
. Consequently, the general solution of the original differential equation can he
obtained as the sum of these two equations. Since '
and
dNo(5)  df
the solution can also be expressed in terms of Bessel functions of the zero order. This makes it possible to introduce the Z functions of Schleicher (see equation, [g] on p. ]03), which will then give the result in terms of the real variable ~ =
'!\ 2AVX as
;1 .,
i2. 0:'
(93a)
i I !
* "Beanspruchung und Formiinderung zylindrischer Gefiisse mit linear veriinderlicher Wandstiirke," Vierteljahrsschrift del' naturforschende Gesellschajt in Zurich, 62 (1917), 153. 'See also F. 1{l1nn,"KegeiformigeBehiiltcrboden," Forscherarbeiteti auf dem Gebiete de« Eisenb~lons, Heft 29 (Berlin, 1921).
1 E. Jahnke and F. Emde, Tables qJ Fllllctions (3d cd.: Leipzig, 1938), p.146.
122
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'l'ION
\ __ / ''l../
lIl<;AMS O~' VARIABl,b: FLEXURAl, RIGlDl'lT
12a
displacements and rotations along the ed es 0' "
not. comply with the boundary requi gt' f the shell.rwhich, 111 general, will
I '. • iremen s Imposed by the t f 1
em, In order to satisfy the boundar i ' , . • na ure 0 t Ie probmoments and for 'II h ,} conditions, umformlv distributed
'. olCes WI ave to be applied at th b dari • '
an axiallv symmetrical bending def ti "e oun aries, thus producing
tl I:' orma IOn of the shell Thi d
ie so ution, that is, the bending analysis is I ,. IS secon part of to haw the compl t . ture' " . t ie one discussed above, In order ., e epIC ure, expres
810ns \\'111 now be derived for the rnemforces caused by' distributed surface loadings on the shell.
Let us denote by N", the circumferentiaJ membrane forces and bv T  th~ radial membrane forces actin~ p:;', unit length of the respective elements of the shell, and assume that the SUI'' face of the shell is loaded with normal fOl:ces Z and tangential forces x pel' unit area, distributed uniformly with respect. to the axis of the cone (Fig,
9~, ,
. Under such conditions the' static equilibrium will require that along an,'.' hoop circle
I at a distance x from ·111'.
apex we in ve •
In addition to this there will be another normal force, T«, acting in the direction of the genel'l1,tor, which can' be ohtained as a component of the shearing force Q%:
1'. = Qx tan a, Equations (H3 af) give the complete solution for the stress system produced in a thinwalled conical shell by equilibrating forces 01' moments uniformly
distributed around anv hoop circle of the shell. 'On account of the approxima 7' 1 J
". =  xc~o"s::;' (X cos a + Z sin a)x dx, (9
tions involved in the derivation these formulas yield accurate results only if the ~ 4)
argument ~ = 2AVX > G, Thus the Z functions in the equn.tions can be reo The hoop force N", can be derived from the e uilibri ,....
placed by their asymptotic expressions from pages 104105. The four constants perpendicular to the surface, which gives di~ect.lyllUm condition III a direction
of integration in the geneml solution are to be determined from the conditions
existing at the edges of the COile, two conditions at each edge always being defined ...' N m =  Z:l' tan a, (95)
ill any particular problem, When the cone is closed at the vertex we have . With N m and '1'", known over til tir I 11
Ca = C4 = 0, and the two remaining constants can be found from the conditions :is completely defined, e ennre S ie , the membrane stress condition
prcfwribed along the base circle. " A~ an example, let \IS consider a
,If the conical shell is subjected to symmetrically distributed surface loading, .' conical shell of uniform wall thickness
the complete solution call be resolved into a membrane and a bending analysis 0 = 2 in" basecircle radius Ro = 30
ill the manner exemplified by cylindrical shells. First we assume that the shell in., and full angle of opening 20: = 1200
acts as a membrane, without any bending resistance, 'in which case the sub~ec!ed ~o a normal pressure p = 1
due to distribut.ed surface forces can be calculated purely from COIIISI1:1er'atlons ,,!~ .. lb.Zin. uniformly distributed over its of static equilibrium. As a result of this membrane analysis we shall . surface (Fig. 100). The shell is all
Here Yz is the displacement normal to the generator of the cone; x is the distance from the apex; and the derivatives of the functionsZ are to be understood as being with respect to the argumenb.L Successive derivatives of the line Yx with respect to x give general formulas for the angular deflection 8. , bending moment M.«, and shearing force Qx, the last two being referred to a unit length of the respective hoop circles, Differentiation of the Z functions can be carried out according to the correlations stated in (80). Thus we have
The hoop force N. wiII be proportional to the deflection y., , and, according to equation (a), page 31, its value per unit length of the generator will be
Eo
N., = t Y%' X an a
(93e)
d .
dx ('1'mx cos a)
which gives
FiG. 99
;J:(X cos ex + Z sin a),
2RfilJin
FlO. 100
124
. ...._../ \_/ BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
sumed to have supports which prevent horizontal displacements along the base circle, but which introduce no restraint in rotation around the edge. The material of the shell is reinforced concrete, for which we assume a Poisson's ratio
value of IJ. = t.
The shell will be considered first as a membrane, when the forces T m and N .. due to normal loading Z = p Ibs./in.2 can be obtained from (94) and (95):
,
Tn! = !p.t: tan a;
Nm = p:c tan a.
The maximum values of thes~ membrane forces occur at x when', because p = 1 lb.yin.', we have
Xo =
Tn. = 30.00Ibs./in.
and
N •• =  60.00 lbs.zln.
This force system will be accompanied by the following horizontal displacement
1/11 along the base of the shell: '
'_ R« (Ar _ T) __ 810.
y,.  Eo H m J.L In  E m.
Since the supports of the shell do not permit horizontal displacements along the base circle, the bending forces will have to produce a horizontal displacement (y" cos a]z_zo = 810/ E, y" denoting the normal deflection of the shell due to bending, from (93a). ' In addition to this we shall have another condition, namely, that lilfzj,,zo = 0, which expresses the fact that the rotation of the edge of the shell is not restrained.
Br means of (93 a and c) these two boundary conditions can be written as
und
where
~o = 2" V;; and ,,=
12
02 tan2 a'
Substituting here the asymptotic expressions of Z; and Z; for large values of the argument from page 105, we have
( ~p , 'Tr)' . (~o 'Tr) 810 1 ' . '1 !0/v'2
01 cos V2 + 8,  C28m ./2 + 8 = E cos a./xo v2'Tr~oe ,
.(~o 'Tr) (~O''Tr)
01 sin ./2 + 8 + O2 cos ./2 + 8 = O.
, The solution of these simultaneous equations gives
01 = 0.7640
and
O2 = 0.6450,'
<::
'"
BEAMS, OF VARIABLE FLEXURAL RIGIDITY
125
where
810 ' 1 ,
C = E' _ ~ ./2'Tr1: eh/v'2
cos av xo ~o, •
Substituting these values together 'with 08 = 04 = 0 in (93 af) w h . th fi 'I results f th b dl , ve ave e na ment ;; e, en mg analysis; This gives, for instance, for the bending mo
" and hoop force N", thefollowing expressions: ,
ilf" = 81Oo~,,2 • /T[;\(~)ii eChn/v'2 '[07'64' . (_t_ 'Tr)
12Xocosa'JI \~) .,' . sm V2+8
+ 0.645 cos (J2 + ~)J,
Nz = 8100 /(~O)3 (Eo')/v'2' [ ( ~ )
 Xo sin a 1 ~ e ' • 0.764 cos v2 + ~
. . .  0.64.5sin ( J2' + i) J.
SUh?Shtltutmg numerical values in these formulas, we obtain the following values
. W lC are also plotted in Figure 101 for M; and Nz: . ,
x in.: . 34.64 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00
';'" l~' lbs./in.: 0 10.72 10.79 5.79 0.97 1.09 ~:~~;
"s./in.: 54.00 27.73 6.00 4.59 5.64 ,2.14
0.63.
J
II ~
II .~ \
, \
If
~ '\
+
I.
0 ,
<,  ~;
Z I
f.G4 in; J(J ,tS Zfj IS 16 $ 6
x
<,
<,
\ .... , .....
,
<, ~ ... N_,..f)
,
K "
'"
+ ""
"
, ,
''1 ....
~  : 60
Sf)
;'0
,20
16
6
FIG. 101
12<l
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'rION
TI fins 1 value of the hoop force N will be obtained as the algebraic ~um 0r;he
ie ~a . above and the previously derived membrane orce "' .
quantity N% given 1 b '. I the hoop force almost vanishes, except for a
It is seen that along tie ase CllC e . .
small· value due to the later~l contracti~n o\th=b~~:~:~' also been analyzed by For the sake of compauson, the exa~_p e .' I shells * The result of this
ns of the existing exact theory fOI' t lin c.omca . ,
m. ela I ti gave for M and N. the following values:
ea cu a IOn %.
25 00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00;
. 34.G4 30.00 .
x m.: I /. 0 10.86 10.84 5.79 1.01, 0.98 0.63;
l'[.in.l)s.m;: ' 51520' 040
n • • 52 3.94 . . ':t ••
N% Ibs./in.: 54.00 27.95 6.
d h imate values is so small that.
The difference between the exact an t .. e appro?, F' 101 At the apex of ,
. th ale of the diagrams in 19ure .
it cannot be shown III esc . '. : 'I f M and N on account
h ( 0) both methods give infinite va ues or % •
t e cone x  I .
of the' asymptotic formulas used in the calcu ation,
.,Sce the references given on page 119.
CHAPTER VI
STRAIGHT ,BARS UNDER 'SIMULTANEOUS AXIAL AND' TRANSVERSE LOADING
35. Bars under Axial Teneion
, A bar on an elastic foundation will now be assumed to be subjected not only . to the vertical loading, but also to a pair of equilibrating horizontal tensile forces
N acting in the center of gravity of ' ,
"t,he end cross sections of the bar. IJ !II:
If we cut out of this bar an infinitely small' unloaded element
bounded by two verticals a distance N
dx apart (Fig. 102a), the equilibrium ~jI."II
. of moments leads to the equation
(M + dM) 11'[ + N dy 
, Q.dx = 0
!I
or
FIG. 102
dl1'[ + N dy _ Q. = o.
dx dx
Here by Q. we denote the vertical shearing force, as shown in the figure. The normal shear Qnacting in the plane of the section normal to the deflection line can b~ obtained. (see Fig.' 102b) as,
Q" = Q. cos 0  N sin 0,
and from this, making the usual assumption that since 0 is generally small, 1 and sin 0, = tan 0 = dy/dx, we get
"
dy dM
Qn = Q,  N  =  .
, , dx dx
(b)
In the following dedvations we shall use mostly Q. , but, if need be, we can return ~fl:;m this to Q" by using (b), where we can also take dy/dx = 6.
Putting M = EI(d2y/dx2) into (a), then differentiating with respect to 1, and making the substitution dQ./dx = ky, we obtain th« differential equation of the elastic line for 0\11' problem as
(96)
(a)
128
,,_/ ~
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
Substituting y = emz, we have the characteristic equation Elm4  Nm2 + k = 0,
the fum roots of which .can be written in the following condensed form:
7nl.2.3.4 = ±/2~I ± i V;I.  (2~IY' (c)
Thus the general solution of '(96) is obtained as
In order to take further steps in the solution we must know whether the exprossionunder the smaller square root in (c) is p~sitiv~, zero,. or negative. According to this we shall distinguish three cases, WhICh will be discussed separately below.
CASE I. N < 2v'kEI.
In most. of the practical problems the forceN has a value in the region covered
In this case. .
• The expression under the smaller square root in (c) will now be positi:ve. and the four In roots will form two pairs of conjugate complex numbers,' which can he put as mJ .2.3.4 = ± (a ± i(3), where
a = 1R4~I +4~I ='/VA2 + 4~i' 1. p / v.iI ~ ee VA'  4~r 1
With thiH notation the general solution, equation (d), will take the form
y = (Clcax + C2cax) cos f3:c + (C3ear + C4cax) sin B», (e)
Applying the equation above first to infinitely lon~ bars, we can again conelude, from the trivial assumption that if. x ~ 00, then y ~ 0, and 111 + O. that Ci and C3 must equal zero.
The two remaining constants can
N be determined' in any particular case of loading from the conditions of equilibrium and from the symmetry of the elastic line. In this way we obtain for an infinitely
long bar loaded at 0 with a concentrated force P (Fig. 103) the following exprossions for the right side of the beam (x > 0):
p
FIG. i03
'_'
BARS UNDER AXIA~ AND 'l'RANSVERSE LOADING
129
P "A,2 az( +')
y = 2k a{3 e ' f3 cos {3x a SID {3x ,
. (J PI_ax.
=  4EI a{3 e sin I3x,
(98 ad)
(d)
M P 1 a;( ')
= ::1 a{3 e {3 cos {3x  a sin f3x ,
o P 1 'ar[ ( 2 2,
~,. =  J cx{3 e 2a{1 COS {3x + a  (j ) Sl~ f3XJ. J
Under the action of a clockwise moment lifo at 0 (Fig. 104) the deflection line and its derivatives for x > ° will be
11Io 1 ar. .
Y = 4El a{3 C S1n f3x,
(J u, 1 arC .) =;= _  e{3 cos f3x  a sm (.Ix
4EI af3 . f.J ,
M .Jlo 1 ax[2 .'( 2 • 2 •
= T a{3ea{3 COS {3x  a  (3 ) sm{jxj,
Q. Mo ').,2 «(.I +')
• = "2 af3 f.J cos {3J.: a sin f3x .
(99 ad)
From these expressions formulas can be derivedby integration forany distributedJoading on an infinitely 'long beam,
It is seen from (98 ad) arid (99 ad) that,' although an axial force N h present, the deflection line and its derivatives remain proportional. to the trans verse loading P and Mo. The
principle' of superposit.ion will thus be applicable with regard to transverse loading; consequently, by superposing end' conditioning forces on .the infinitely long beam; solutions for finite lengths can be derived in the same manner as was .done when no axial force was present (see Chapters IIIII).
: The only difference now will be that in the present case two types of shear·ing forces are distinguished, Qn· and Q., and this distinction will have to be
. through when we are making statements concerning end conditions volving shear.
The conditions for free ends, for instance, will now be
FIG. 104
M = 0 and Q. = dM + N dy = 0.
dx dx .
Thus a free end will be produced at any point of an infinite beam l,>y~pplying such endconditioning forces as will cancel at that point the bending moment M ' find the vertical shear Q •. ' It is to be noted' that, though Q. will vanish, normal shear of the value Q" N(dy/da:) = N·8 will main at the' free ends.
Applying in this manner principle of superposition, we obtain' for a semiinfinite bar
subjected to a concentrated end force P (Fig. 105) t.he following expressions:
130
<:> BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'l'ION
p
FIG. 105
1
I
P 2x2 a%' t
M = {3 3012_: {32 e sm {3x, .\
Q. = _!? e [(3012 _ '(i){3 COB {3x  (3~  0(2)01 sin 13xl'
{3 3012  {32 r I
a. = Q.  N ·8. J
P 2X2 a%[2 + ( 2 (.j2)' (.j 1
s= _ e a{J cos {3x a  '" em I"X ,
13k 3012  (32 ,
P 1 1 ar(R' . R + . R)
8 = '_  e '" cos "'x a SID ",x ,
EI 3012  {32 {3 ,
. 1
(104)
''...,_/,_____,/
BARS UNDEIt AXIAL AND 'l'RANSVI';nS}; LOADING
131
, By the method of superposition explicit formulas can be derived also for beams of finite lengths. This has been carried out for a few elementarv loadings .
and theresults are given below.  . ,
~l.: Freeend Beam with Equal Concentrated End Loads (Fig. 107)
~Y g
 f '
II A/WW~';=;;;8 II
FlO. 107
J) 1 '
y = 2X2BI DJ [2a{J(Cosh aX cos {3x' + cos (3x Cosh ~x')
+ (012  (J2) (Sinh ax sin {Jx.' + sin (Jx Sinh ax')], (102) (3(3a2  (32) Sinhal + a(3{32 _ (2) sin {3l.
whereD,
'b.PreeEnd. Beam with Equal Concentrated End Moments (Fig.tOB)
N
In .a similar way, when a COil' centrated clockwise moment Mo is acting a,t'the end of the beam
/. ''''
o (Fig("'106) we shall have ' ,
,.._/ .
FlO. 108
FIG. 106
/
Mo 1 ea~. , .
y =  ({3 cos {3x  a sm (:Jx),
EI 3a2 {32 {3
8 = 1yIn 1 ! ear[2a{3 cos f;Jx  (a\ (32) sin {3x],
EI 3a2  {32 {3
M = Mo 1 ! ear[(3a2  (32){3 cos: {3x  (a2  3(32)a sin {3x], l
, . 3012  {32 {3 r
Q .. = Mo 1 ! eaz[_4(a2  (32)a{3 cos {3;t I
3012  {32 {3 I
+ (a4 _ 6a2{32 + (34) sin i3x], I
Q. = Qn + N ·8. J
M 1 '
y = E; Dl [a(Qosh a:v . sin {3x' + Cosh a;t:' sin (Jx)
 {3(Sinh aX cos (:Ji + Sinh' ax' cos (3x)], (103)
where DI is as above.
, c~' FreeE'ul Beam with Concentrated Load at One End (Fig. 10.9)
N
IJ
N
x,' ', __:_x'.,~
..l ",::::j,
FlO. 109
where F, DI and D2 ate as shown on .next page.
·· .• 'i,
I
i :1
"
ii
132\
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUND.\"r:r6N""
P = {,8(3,,?  ,82) Sinh al[2a,8 cos {Jx Cosh ax' + (a2  ,82)' sin ,8x Sinh ax! I  a(3,8~  (2) sin ,8l[2a,8 Cosh ax cos ,8x' + (a2 ..:.. ,a2) Sinh ax sin ,8x'] J, Dl is as before and D2 = ,8(3(l  ,82) Sinh al  a(3ri  (2) sin ,8l.
d. FreeEnd Beam with Concentrated Moment at One End (Fig. 110)
N
FIG. no
Y = ~; D~D2 [,8(3a2  ,82) Sinh al (a' Cosh ax' sin f3x  ,8 Sinh ax'cos ,8x)
+ a(3,8t  (2) sin {3l(,8 Sinh aX cos fjx'  a Cosh aX sin ,8x')1, (105) where Di and D2 are as above.
e. HingedEnd Beam u:ith Equal Concentrated End Moments (Fig. 111)
FIG. 111
Mo 1 Sinh ax' sin f3x + Sinh aX sin ,8x'
y = EI 2af3 Cosh al + cos' f3l
(lOG) ,
J. HingedEnd Beam with Concentrated Moment at One End (Fig. 112)
N
+ __ ~_X~/~ tl:li
FIG. 112 ,
lifo 1 r Cosh al Sinh ax' sin fix  cos {ll Sinh ax sin {lx',
~ = EI 2a:~ J Cosh" al  cos2 pl
(107) "
'.._/ ~~ UNDE~ .AXIAL AND' TRANSVERSE 'LOADING .:»
133
g',lHingcdEnd Beam under Uniformly Distributed Loading (Fig. 113)
N~U~ ·b~~8.
FIG. 113
y = ! {I ,2af3(COSh!l + cos f3l) [2a{l(Cosh ax cos,8x' + cos f3x Cosh ax')
+ (a2  ,82)(Sinh aX sin,8x' + sin ,8x Sinh aXf)1}. (108) h" FixedEnd Beam under Uniformly Distributed Loading (Fig. 114) ,
, i.
FIG. 114
y = ~ [ 1  ,8 Sinh al ~ a sin ,8l (a Cosh ax sinfjx' + fj Sinh ax cos fjx'
+ a sin ,ax Cosh ?X' .+ f3 cos f3x Sinh ax') J (109) The notations in all the formulas above are the same as those introduced' previously, namely,
./,/ k N
,8 = 11 11 4EI  4EI'
where k = bk«, ko being the r6.odulus of the foundation and b the width 01 the . beam; EI is the flexural rigidity of the beam, and N is the axial tensile force . . In each of the loading cases above expressions for slope, bending moment, or shearing force can be obtained by differentiating the equation of the deflection line with respect to the variable z,
CASE II. N = 2ykEI
Thus far the discussion has been limited to Case I, where it was assumed that N < 2VkEi. The solutions obtained there can also be applied, after some transformations which will be discussed below, in the two other cases" that is, when N is equal to or larger than 2v.kEI.
i:; ;.~; .'
DEA~S ON ELASTIC FOUNDA~N <::
Case II can be represented as a limit of Case I by putting N = 2y'kEj into
the expressions for a and fJ in (97), by which we get .
a t V 2~I = a and fJ t. 0,
By substitution of these values for a and fJ in any of the formulas previously derived they can be directly transformed for use in the present case. By such a substitution the equation of the deflection line of an infinitely long bar loaded by a concentrated force P, for instance, can be obtained from (98a) as
y = .::c aea'"(l + ax),
and, similarly, if the same bar is subjected to a concentrated clockwise moment Mo , the equation of the elastic line for x' > 0 can be obtained from (99a) as
u,« a," Y= 4k e x.
It is seen that because of the stretching effect of the axial tensile force N
elastic lines exhibit no more negative ordinates. .
From equation (c), on page 128, it follows that in this case we shall havr >Ii' real m roots of the charaoteristic equation. It can be shown that any formula. "I derived in Case I can be directly transformed into .Case III by putting instead of.·, fJ the term ifJ, in which
 V' N flr' /N
{3 = =  _},,2
. 4EI 4EI 4EI .
The term a 'will remain as given by (97). In this manner we get from (98a) Cor an infinitely long bar loaded at point 0 with a concentrated force P the do
flection line (x > 0): .
y = ~ ~; e"'Z(fJ Cosh fJx + a Sinh fJx),
and for the case when a concentrated clockwise moment M« is acting at 0 we get, from (99a), for x > 0 the expression
Mo 1 "''"S' h
Y = 4EI afJ e m fJx.
CASE III. N. > 2YkE{
This substitution will lead to the' transformations
cos ifJ;t = Cosh fJl:,
Cosh ifJx
cos fJx
and
sin 1:fJX = i Sinh fJx,
Sinh ifJx = i sin fJx.
(112)
(113)
(114)
\._/ BA __ ,UNDER AXIAL. AND TRANSVERSE LOADING
135
36. Bars under Axial Compression
. The differential equation of bending for the problem when the axial force is compression can be obtained simply by changing the sign of the axial force N in' (96), by which we thus get
d4 \ d2
EI J + N _Jt + ky = O.
dx4 dx2"
The general solution of this equation can be written in the same form as, in equation (d) on page 128, but we must distinguish agai~ t?ree cas~s according to the three different types of roots of the characteristic equation, These cases will be discussed separately below.
(115)
. CASE 1. N < 2ykEI
With the same expressions for a and fJ as those introduced in (97) and used
in all the formulas in § 35, t~at is,
a=lv~+~=~'
fJ • / • /k N  • /'2  _!!_
= 'V 'V 4ID  4EI 1''' 4EI'
the general solutioq of the differential equation (115) for the present he written as
.8 fI%) +(C~%+cfl%)'
y = (C1f: % + C2e cos aX 36 46 sm ax.
case can
(a)
It is seen that this solution for axial compressive force differs from the one for axial tension, equation (e) on page 128, only in that the f~ctors a an~ (3 have changed places, By this rule we can obtain formulas for axial compression from those derived in the previous section for axial tension.
Thus we have for an infinitely long bar loaded with a concentrated force P at 0 and subjected to an axial compressive force N the expression for the deflection line:
)'1
P '},,2 fl% '.).
y =  ' e (a Cos.aX + {3 sm aX ,
. 2k a:fJ
and when a positive moment Mo is applied at 0, the deflection line will take the form
(116)
Mo efl% • •
y = 4EI~sm aX.
In the same manner, all the formulas given by equations. (lO,Oa)(109) can be applied to cases of 'axial compression by simply interchangmg 111 those equa
tions the symbols a and fJ. (
(117)
l3C
.c:>
CASE II. N = 2y'kEI
If we take an infinitely long' bar subjected to a transverse force P and an axial compressive force N belonging to Case II because of its magnitude, the, equation of the deflection line can be obtained by interchanging first a and (3' in ,(98a), which will give (116), and then putting
a ~ a = 12~I and fJ ) 0
This transformation gives
y = C cos ax,
where C is found to be an undetermined coefficient of infinite magnitude.' From this result and from the fact that the deflection line is represented now by' a periodic curve, we can conclude that the limit
N = 2 VkEI
, , ,
represents that critical value of N under which elastic buckling of the infinitely, . long bar may occur. Hence at this point we arrived at problems involving elastic stability, which subject is reserved for the next chapter, where it will be discussed in detail.
CASE III. N > 2y'kE:1
Deflection line 'formulas for values of the axial compressive force N belonging to this case can be obtained from (102)(109) first by interchanging there a and fJ, getting thus Case I for compression, and then transforming Case I into Case III by putting instead of {3 the term i{J, in which, as in (112),
~
fJ =  _)0..2
, 4EI .
Having obtained in this manner deflection line formulas for bars of finite length we find that for each bar there is a limiting value of the axial compressive force: upon the application of which a deflection of the bar can occur without the action of any transverse loading. Such critical values of N for bars of finite
, length will be determined in Chapter VII, which' deals with problems of elastic stability.
37. Expressions in Terms of Trigonometric Series
It has been shown in Chapter IV (§§ 2426) that the deflection line of beams ~nder transverse loading can I:e readily obtained in the form of trigonometric series in a 'large variety of loadings and end conditions.' The same method can also be applied in the present case when, in addition to transverse loading, the bar is subjected to an axial force N. The effect of this axial force can be taken into account by calculating the work done by this force under the deformation
'._..' ll,h/UNDER AXIAL AND TRANSVERSE LOAD1NG
137'
of the har and adding this work to tho potential energy of the whole system (equations [c] and [d] on p. 70). When the loaded bar assumes its deflected position the distance between: the ends .1 and B will change bv the amount
1 t': •
si = 2 10 y"dx,
(a)
and consequently the forces N applied at thc ends will gain a potential energy of the value
(b)
Once the loaded ham has found its state of equilibrium, a small change, da; , from this state will leave unaltered the total energy of tho system, which C011 .sists of the sum of the potential energy of the loads and t.he strain energv of deformation. This property has been used in the derivations in § 24, but now, in addition to the previous terms (equation [e] on p. 70), we must consider also change (aV3/Ban) dan in the potential energy of the axial loading N .. '
. On the basis of an axial tensile 'force N this additional term has been com . puted for the main types of loadings discussed in the preceding paragraphs; the final formulas are given below.
,.A. BAR. WITH FRF~E ENDS. SUlJJECl'ED '1'0 A PAIR OF SY~IME'l'nrCALLY ,I'LACED P FORCES
general equation for any a term is not represented now by (58), but the form
(. n1l'c j) ( 4 ,lEI 2 1I'2N lk) ilk I"' 1
2P sm :l   = an n  + n  +   :;  L . ai .
\ non: 2P. 2Z 2 11". n {1.3.5 .... ~
(118) By this formula any number of a terms can be computed; substituting them (59), we obtain an expression for the deflection line.
II;' BAR WITH HINGED ENDS
a. Concentrated P Load at Distance e from Lc]t Support
. n1l'c . nlT:c
3"' SIllz sin z
y = 2PZ nfu .... n411'4EI + n211'2l2N + kl4 •
b. Uniformly Distributed q Loading o~cr the Whole A~an
(119)
. n1l'x
 , 4 '" I SIn :l
y = 4ql L, 5~EI + 3~l"N + kl4'
"1.3.5: .. · n.. n· TIlT •
(120)
<:» ·138
; ~"'j BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNl)ATION
C. BAR WI'l;H FIXED ENDS
a. T7VO Symmetrically Placed Concentrated P Lo~s at Distances c from Left and
Right Supports RespectweZy .
00 (1  cos ~C)(l  cos 2nt) .
y = 4PZ3 nl~.... n41611"4 EI + 4n211"2Z2N + 3kZ4
b. Uniformly Distributed q Loading over the lVhliZe Span'
00 (1 ~ cos ~)
y = 2qZ4 nl~ •.•• n416~ EI + 4n211"2l2N + 3kZ4 .
In formulas (118)(122), N has been assumed to.be a tensile force; if it is
've we must reverse its sign in these expreSSiOns. '
compreSSI ." .
38. Examples .
1 : When computing stresses in a pressure vessel the first step l~tO sepa~~~ the head and the cylindrical part and consider each part a m~~ rane W .IC ~. expands on account of the internal pressure,. but ?lasl 11anVoereaSI~;:~:n:g:~~~e
. . . Tb mbrane expansiOn WI. ,
~:;~~~~ ~;f~~::t~:~ts, a~~ :~sequently a disconti~udit~ in diSpltaCem~n~t ~~~ '.
. mble the head and the cylm ei we mus app y .:,
result. In order to reasXse d. ts Y which will cancel the difference m ... '
di oinin edges forces an momen ., di the '
ad' Jig ts (and slopes) but will produce at the same time, by ben mg, . e
ISP ace men , socalled discontinuity stresses (dis
cussed in § 27, page 88). Since a meridional strip of the cylinder (see § 11, p. 30), as well all of the head (see § 49, p. 163), can be reg~rded as a bar on an elastic foundation, the problem can be analyz~d on t~is basis. Inspecting the situation (Fig. 115) more closely, however, we find thaf'for both parts a constant axial force N, the axial reslIltantof the pressure on
FIG. 115 . the surface of the head, is present.
On the basis of the previously derived formulas the effect of this axial force can.
be ~::nai~:~;~~~~::i element of unit width of the cylinder the value of the axial force will be
N
N
'kas UNDER AXIAL 'AND TRANSVERSE LOADING
13,9
where q denotes the internal pressure lbs.Zin." and R is the radius of the cylinder. , Substituting this value of N in (97) and putting there >..2 = .y3(1  ,.,.2)(1/Rt), :i( according to (26), we get for the analysis of the cylindrical part
ex = ,yV3(1  ,.,.2) + 3Rq
. Rt .: 2Et3'
With these ex and (3 values we can proceed to compute the deformation of the cylindricalpartdue to end forces X'and moments Y, using the formulas previously derived in this section. When substituting numerical values for q, R, and
t of such magnitude as is at present applied in engineering practice, we find that ' the second term on the right side of the expressions for ex and f3 is very small in comparison with the first one, which makes the effect..of the.axial force.Non
, bending stresses negligible. With increasing Rand q and decreasing t; how: .ever, the second term gains importance. Thus it seems likely that in the future ' these dimensions may obtain. such values that the analysis here outlined~vill be necessary, especially since the tendency of this axial tensile force N is to stiffen the .. adjoining parts against deformation and thus increase the discontinuity
'~tresses.
2. Consider a. bar supported by an elastic foundation against vertical displacements and, in addition, having its cross sections elastically restrained against l'ntntion. Taking these restraining distributed moments at every point proper. tIll' slope of the deflection line at that point, Me = C(dy/dx), from the , ."1 "f an infinitesimal element of the bar, we have
dM + cdy  Q. = 0,
dx dx
Ilrhich gives for the differential equation of the elastic line
,i d4y d2y
':1 EI dx4  C dx2 + ky = o.
:(:Comparing this equation with (96) we find that the problem above results in the same deflection curve as when the bar is subjected to an axial tensile force il N= C, which has the dimension of the distributed moment Me (in. lbs./in. =
lbs.). ..:
Problems of this type are found in building or ship construction when a longitudinal girder supported on closely spaced transverse beams may be computed as a bar on elastic foundation. Since there is usually a connection between the longitudinal girder and the transverse beams, the torsional resistance of the transverse beams will oppose the rotation of the corresponding
cross section in the longitudinal girder exactly in the manner assumed in the
present discussion.* .
* The frictional resistance o~ the foundation can be considered in a similar manner.
Such an attempt has been made by A. Francke, "Beitrag zur Berechnung des EisenbahnOberbaucs," Zeitschrift des Architekten und IngeniellrVerein %u Hannover (1894), p. 467. See also Hayashi, op. cit; (sec p. '5), p. 31.
dx
 = v eonst,
dt .
CHAPTER VII
ELASTIC STABI~ITY OF STRAIGHT BARS
140
~ BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
3. The differential equation of vibration of a rail regarded as a baron an '. elastic foundation can be obtained by adding to the statical equation the inertia forces, which will be of the magnitude (qjg) (d2y jdt2) , the term q denoting the weight of the rail per uriit length and g representing the acceleration of gravity." Thus we have
We can also write
and
General Considerations
If a straight bar is subjected to purelyaxial compressive forces of increasing magnitude, at a certain critical value of the compression a sudden lateral deflection (buckling) of the bar will take place. The purpose of the present chapter is to discuss the conditions of buckling for straight bars supported on an elastic foundation and subjected to various types of restraints at the ends. It '. will be assumed thatithe elasticfoundation surrounds the bar completely, so that whenever the bar deflects laterally a corresponding deformation in the foun.dation will necessarily be produced,
The. critical :value. of the axial compressive force can be obtained directly from the deflection formulas presented in the previous chapter, where the bar was assumed to be acted upon by simultaneous axial and transverse forces. The numerator of those deflection formulas was always found to be proportional to the transverse loading on the bar (P, Mo or q), whereas the denominator consisted of terms which were functions of the axial force N only. It is evident that the deflection of the bar may also have a finite value if, while the numerator . approaches zero (that is, approaches the condition when no transverse load is acting), the denominator approaches zero too.. By setting the den~minator thus equal to zero it ~ ields an equation which defines that critical value of the compressive force Ncr, under whose sole action, without any transverse loading lateral deflection or buckling of the bar may occur. This method will be used iI~· the followingsections to determine the buckling load of bars with various end conditions and axial load alone. Its application will be shown first for beamsof infinite length.
The equation of the deflection line of an infinitely long bar subjected to an .axialcompressive force Nand a.transverse force P was obtained in (116) as
. P'A2 ';'(J%( •
Y = 2k a{J e·., a cos ax + (J BIll ax),
If we consider a concentrated load P moving with a constant velocity v the rail, we have
Putting these values in (b) and then substit.uting the result in (a), we obtain
d' 2 d2
EI _}{ + q~ _}{ + Ii = 0
d.'C" 9 dx2 cy ,
, .
which is the differential equation of the deflection line of a rail under the assumed P force, moving with a constant velocity v. Comparing (d) with (115), we find that the dynamical effect of the moving P force is equivalent to an axial compressive force
qv2 N=. g .
Investigations show, however, that with ·t.he v values used at present this dynamical effect on the deflection of the rail is very small.]
* The mass of the vibrating foundation is here neglected. t This problem has been investigated by S. Timoshenko, "Method of Analysia of Statical and Dynamical Stresses in Rail," Proceediaqs of the Second International Congress Ior Applied Mechanics (:aiirich, 1926), pp. 407418. . ."
The case when the rail is under the action of a P force having constant velocity, but a harmonically varying magnitude (due to the counterweight on the driving wheel), has been discussed by B. Kelsey Hovey, Beitrag zur J)ynamik ,';s geraden E.i8enbahngleis6s (Dissertation, Gottingen, 1933). See also J. Dorr, "Der unendliche, federnd gebettete Balken unter dem Einfluss einer gleichformig bewegten Last," Ingeni6urA.rchiv, 14 (1943), 167192.
a=.I.IT+N 11 11 4EI . 4EI'
According to the method described above, the buckling load Ncr will be defined here by the condition that a{3 = 0, which, after the values above for a and B 141
<::» <:::
B~~AMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA1'IO;l;
have been substituted, gives
~(~~J=O.
Hence It bar of unlimited length loaded axially will have the buckling load
N<I' = 2VkEi. (123)
The deflection line of a semiinfinite l.ar subjected to an axial tensile force N and a concentrated force P at its cnd was obtained in (100a). This equation can be transformed into one in which the axial force is compression simply by interchanging thc terms a and {1, getting
P 2>..2 P"12 + ( 2 2)' J
y = "0';' e a{1 cos ax {1  a sin aX .
ak 3{1  a,
The critical value of the axial thrust will thus he defined by the condition 31i  a2 = O.
Substituting here the expressions for a and {1, we obtain the buckling foad for thc semiinfinite bar as
which is exactly half of thc value of N CI' obtained above for the infinite bar.'
40. BaTS with Free Ends
As was pointed out previously, any deflectionline formula derived in the preceding chapter under the assumption of an axial tensile force can be applied to a corresponding case where the axial force is compression simply by interchanging the terms a and (3 throughout. Carrying out this transformation on the freeendbar formulas, equations (102)(105), we obtain in the denominator the two types of functions D, and D2 , that is,
D1,2 = a(3(32  a2) Sinh (3{ ± (3(3a2  (l) sin al, (a) I
where the plus sign on the right side gives Dl and the minus sign gives D2,
The function D, alone OCClll'S in those deflection formulas, equations (102)(103),where th~ elastic line is symmetrical with respect to the center of the bar, indicating that D2 will . correspond to an antisymmetrical deflection curve. According to these two t.ypes of deformation, DJ will furnish the condition for the symmetrical buckling deformation, that is, when the two ends of the bar move
N
(124)
''_; ~
ELASTIC STABILITY OF STRAIGHT BARS
out in the same direction (Fig. 116a), whereas D2 will give the criterion [01' a.ntisymmetrical buckling (Fig. 116b). 1'he two criteria D, = 0 and D2 = 0 will yield two values for Ncr in every case, that is, for each given ratio of the modulus of the foundation and the flexural rigidity and length of the bar. It is evident that of these two 'values the smaller one will actually be the critical load, and this will determine, also, the nature of the corresponding buckling deformation (symmetrical or antisymmetrioal), as well as the number of waves in the buckling formation.
Putting D1,2 = 0 in (a), we have
sin (Xl. = =ra(3{l  a2)
Sinh {3l {3 (3a2  fJ2) •
(b)
Substituting here. the expressions for a and {3 and introducing the new variables
• /kl4
_ y = 11 El'
(c)
and
in which N. denotes the Euler load for a hingedend bar of length l and flexural rigidity EI, we can write the buckling conditions of (b) in the form
sin !V2y + 1r2X = =r(Y  1r2x)V2y + 1r2X
Sinh tV2y  1r2X (y + 1r2x)V2y  1r2X'
(125)
where the minus sign stands 'for symmetrical and the plus sign for antisymmetrical buckling. Equation (1~5) can be used for calculating critical loads. For any value of y the corresponding value of X, which is to satisfy the equation, can
Vih
1211
100
. ~ A ~
6 "
~ 6 "
,
,
#! _,.
 (vd/sgmmdrlcoJ
l 41:: __
4r:;.< 71 
_ , l'.s!lmmeft.icaL
~ tan.}' h' I
t 1/ 12 4(J
1f(J
I(J
2(J
o
12:1156789 (J
FIG. 117
be determined by a trialanderror procedure, A graph of the relation between X and y has been calculated from (125) and is shown in Figure 117.* Of the
• Figure 117 and also Figures 118 and 119 were taken from J. Ratzersdorfer, Die Knick
featigkeit von Stdben und Stabwerken (Wien, 1936). . .
144
'/ ',../' IJEAMS ON l';LASTIC FOUNDA1lON
two curves in the figure one corresponds to the symmetrical, the other to the antisymmetrical, buckling form, according to the minus and plus signs, respectively, in (125). The curves were drawn alternately with full and dashed lines, the full lines showing in each section the (smaller) critical values of N cr for the corresponding values of y. It is seen that for large values of x and y the ratio 1//x approaches 7r\ or, in other words, the critical load approaches the value N" = VicE!, which is the buckling load for a semiinfinite beam with a free end. The points where the two curves intersect the line y = 7r2X can be determined from (125). Substituting y = 7r2X, we find that the equality can be ' satisfied only if sin 1V2y + 7r2X = 0, or 1V2y + 7r2X = n7r (n = 1,2, 3, ... ), which !l;i\'eH for the successive points on the y = 7r2X line the following coordinates:
" !! 2 Y = 'lfn 7r,
where n = 1, 2, 3, ....
and
Thus we find that for values of 1/ < 47r2/3 (n = 1) antisymmetrical buckling with one nodal point will give the smallest value for Na• For values 47r2/3 < y < 167r2/3 the buckling will be of the first symmetrical mode (n = 2), and for still higher values of y, up to Y = 127r2, the antisymmetrical form of buckling will again be critical, but in this case with three nodal points, as shown in Figure 117.
41. Bars with Hinged Ends
The conditions for buckling of a bar of finite length with hinged ends can be obtained from the deflection formula in (107). Interchanging a and {3, we can transform that formula from tension, Case I, into compression, Case I, getting thus
Mo 1 Cosh {3l Sinh {3.isin aX  cos al Sinh {3x sin ax' y = 
EI 2a{3 (Cosh {3l + cos al)(Cosh (3l  cos al)
Here the plus and the minus signs in the denominator correspond to symmetrical
and antisymmetrical deformations respectively. '
When no end moment is applied, the bar may have finite deflection only if the denominator of the expression above vanishes, This can occur if afl = 0, which gives Nc' = 2VlcEI, obtained previously as the critical load for an infinite beam. Since this condition does not take into account the finite length of the bar it iH not the complete solution; therefore other possibilities of buckling must be considered. From the same denominator another condition is obtained:
Cosh {3l ± cos ol = O ..
Since Cosh {3l > 1 and cos oi < 1 this equation cannot .be satisfied by real values of a ami (3. Hence it is seen that buckling of a hingedend beam cannot, occur in CUHC' I when N < 2vfA'], and the true value of the critical load is t.o he sought in th« range defined b~' Case Ill, that is, when 'N > 2viCEi. A~ Will' pointed out, previously, an)' formula can be transformed from Case I into CU>'l' III by put ting, instead of (3, the termi,8, where,8 = V(NI4EI)  Vk/4EI,
(a)
:: ::
ELASTIC STABILITY OF STRAIGHT BARS
145
Doing this, we get Cosh i,8l = cos fIl, and the conditions for buckling in (a) will accordingly take the form
cos ,8l ± cos al = 0,
(b)
which is satisfied by
(a  l1)l = n7r
(c)
, if 'n = 1, 3, 5, ... is taken for the plus sign and n = 2, 4, 6, .,. is taken for the minus sign in (b), according to symmetrical and antisymmetrical deformations respectively.
Substituting in (c) the expressions for a and ,8, we obtain the following formula for the critical load:
, 2 2
N _ 2 7r EI + 1 kl cr ; n l2 22' n 7r
(126)
In every case (for given values of k, l, and EI) !L should be determined in such a way as to make this expression for Ncr a minimum. The condition dN "I dn = 0 gives
(d)
Taking for n an integer number which is the nearest to the value determined from the equation above and substituting that number in (126), we get the value of the critical load. ' In each instance n determines the number of waves in the deflected form of the bar after buckling.
., Ncrl2 n; ;kl4•
Substituting x = EI =  and y =  III (126) we, have
7r2 i N. .EI ' ,
4 2 1 2
n  n x + ~y = o.
(127)
For successive values of n till.s equation gives a family of curves, shown in Figure 118, representing the relation between y and x, that is, between the dimensions of the bar and the modulus of the foundation on the one' hand and the buckling load values on the other hand. The curves intersect the x axis at points where x = n2 and have a common tangent y' = (7r2/2)x, the coordinates of the points of tangency being x = 2n2 and 'y = 7r2n2• T'he coordinates of the points of intersection between two consecutive curves (n and n + 1) are obtained from" (127) as x = 2n(n + 1) + 1 and y = '/r2n(n + 1). Thus we find that for values of y < 27r2 buckling will occur in a single wave en = 1); for27r2 < y < 67r2 the smallest critical load will correspond to an antisymmetrical deflection form (n = 2), and its value will be from five to thirteen times larger than the Euler load for the same bar, For 57? < y < 127r2 the corresponding values of x will be 13 < x < 25, and buckling will again take place in a symmetrical form with three waves, as shown 'in Figure 118. It is seen that in any situation the
146 '~
~.
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
critical load will differ only slightly from the value Ncr = 2VkEI, which is tho buckling load for an infinitely long bar.
,fkii m .
5"
16
(J I
FlO. 118
The criterion of buckling for bars with hinged ends can also be readily obtained from the trigonometric deflection formulas, equations (119)(120), for beams subject to simultaneous axial tension and transverse loading. Changing the sign of N in these formulas and putting the denominator equal to zero, we have
which gives the same expression for Ncr as that obtained above in (126).
42. Bars with Fixetl, Ends
The condition for symmetrical buckling of a fixedend bar of finite length can be obtained from (109) after transforming that formula for axial tensils . force to one of compression by interchanging the terms a and {3. Equating to zero the denominator of the expression so obtained, we have
a Sinh {3l + {3 sin ol. = O.
By way of comparison with previous cases it is found that the condition for antisymmetrical buckling can be obtained by changing the plus sign in the equation above into a minus sign. The resulting equations
sin al = T~
Sinh f3l {3
cannot, however, be satisfied iJy real values of {3 and a, which means that buckling of fixedend bars will not take place in the region covered by Case I, when N < 2VkEI. This criterion of buckling can be transformed from Case I into Case III (N > 2VkEl) by putting {3 = i{j, which gives Sinh 1'{jl = i sin {jl; accord
,
(a~
(b)
'~
ELASTIC STABILITY OJ" STRAIGHT BARS
147
ingly, (b) will 'take the form
(c)
where
• / N' • / k 'V4EI + IV 4El
In terms of the. new variables
.
and
a=
NOTe NCT d • /kf'
x = rEI = N. an y = 'V El'
where N. is the Euler ioad for a hingedend bar of length l and flexural rigidity
El, the conditions of buckling in (c) can be written as .
sin tVi2x + 2y =T V 11"2 X + 2y, (128)
sin tvrx  2y V1l"_2X  2y
where the minus sign on the right side corresponds to symmetrical and the plus sign to antisymmetrical buckling deformations. Assuming various values for y in (128) the corresponding values of x can be calculated by a trialanderror procedure. In this way we have the pair of curves shown in Figure 119. These two curves have the same points of intersection with the line y = (1I"2j2)(x  4). The coordinates of these points can be calculated by putting , sin tv rx + 2y = 0, which, after the value above for y has been substituted,
gives
z = 2(n2 + 1)
and
.Thus we find that for values of y < 311"2 the critical load will be from four to ten times larger than the Euler load for the same bar with hinged ends, and buckling will occur in a single wave, as shown in Figure llQ. For values 311"2 < y < 8,..2
'(JO+~.+~
FiG, 119
14~
'. __ .... / "~' BEAMS ON' ELASTIC FOUNDATION
we get 10 < x < 20, corresponding to an antisymmetrieal buckling form with a nodal point in the middle of the bar; for 811'2 < y < 1511'2 we have 20 < x < 34, with a threewave symmetrical deflection form, and so on. It is seen in Figure 119 that the curves always stay close to the straight line y = (7r2j2)(x _ 4)i thus the buckling load for any fixedend bar with finite length can be taken with good approximation as
7r2EI _ 1_
Ncr = 412 + 2vkEI.
43. Partially Supported Bars
A. CANTILEVER BARS
Consider a semiinfinite bar on an elastic foundation with a free unsupported
cantilever end, which is loaded at the end point 0 by an axial force N and a . transverse force P, as shown in Figure 120. Since the bending moment at a distance x < l from point 0 is
P M", = Px + Ny, the differential equation for the elastic line of the cantilever will be
d2y N P
dx2 + El Y = _ El x,
FIG. 120
and its general solution:
y", = A sin ex + B cos ex ~ x,
where
c=~.
From the condition thaty = 0 at x = 0 we have B '? 0; thus the expression for y", above will take the form
A' P
y", = sm ex  N x.
The consecutive derivatives of this equation give P
H", = Ac cos ex  '
N
and
Mz = AN sin ex.
, The integration constant A can be determined from the condition that the elastic line must be continuous at point A, or, in other words, that the slope
(n)
(b) .
(c)
'" ELASTIC STABILITY OF STRAIGHT BARB
149
of the elastically supported part (from A to the left) and that of the free cantilever must have the same value at point A.
We have for point A a shearing force Q = Pand, from (c), a bending moment M = AN sin el. Putting these values into .(I00b) and (lOlb), we get, after interchanging the terms a and fI, the slope at the end A of the semiinfinite bar as
H", = ~l 3(p ~ a2 (P + AN2{3 sin cl),
(d)
" 1
which must have the same value as the slope at A, obtained from (b) as P
H", = Ac cos cl _,.. Jij' (e)
Equating expressions (d) and (e), we can determine the value of the integration constant, having thus
p [~~ (3(l  ci) + 1J
N' 
A = El(3{32 ' a2)e cos el  N2{3 sin ci'
(f)
Substituting this expression for A in equation (a), we find that the cantilever bar may have finite deflection without any transverse loading if, while P + 0, the denominator of A approaches zero also. Thus the. condition for buckling is obtained as
El(3{32 _ a2)e cos cl _ N2{3 sin cl = 0, which can also be written as
3{32  a2
2{3 = e tan d,
(g)
where a and {3 denote the same quantities as in the previous sections. stituting
Sub
f. 2
_ N 4l .: Ncr
X _ cr 7r2 El _ N.
,
and
• / kl4 y = 11 El
in (g), denoting this time by N. the Euler buckling load for a cantilever bar of length l and flexural rigidity El, we have
7r2 X
Y =  ,
4 1  sin ~ Vx 2
(129)
, .
from which for any assumed value of z the corresponding value of y can be readily computed."
* This formula can be usedIor calculating buckling loads for piles. Investigations of this nature," analytical and experimental, have been made by Hjalmar Grundholm, On the Elastic Stability of Piles Surrounded by a Supporting Medium, Ingeniors Vetenskaps Akademien, Handlingar No. 89. (Stockholm, 1929).
<:.:
150
'._./ <:»
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION.
B. RARS WITH FREE MIDDLE SPAN
Consider an infinitely long bar with a free unsupported span AB loaded in the middle with a concentrated force P, while the bar is subjected also to an axial compressive force N (Fig. 120. The elastic line of this bar can be determined by assuming frictionless hinges at points A and B and thereby resolving the original system into three parts, a simple hingedend beam in the middle joining two elastically supported semiinfinite beams, whose deformations can be calculated independently from formulas (lQO ab) and (101 ab). The resulting
p
N N
__';';~~k=L=::'::::;;:;;~~"
''',:: A  lJ
~l~~
FIG. 121
deflection line will show discontinuities in slope at ,4 and B, and it can be demonstrated by the usual method of computing indeterminate structures that the continuity of the elastic line can be reestablished by applying at.4 and H bending moments of the following value:
. 1 (l)21COSU
P 3{32  012 2u cos U
2 2{3 l
3{32 2 + 2 tan U
,(X U
where (X and {3 denote the quantities given previously and
Lateral buckling uf the bar will occur under the sole action of the axial compressive force N if the latter takes ~uch a value that the denominator * in (h)
vanishes, that is, when .
2{3 l
3{32 _ 012 + 2u tan 'U = O.
Putting
and
.fkf' y =11 EJ'
we can write the condition for buckling in equation (i) as 7r2X
Y =
7r _ r 1 + cos 2 v x
For any given value of y the corresponding value of x, which is to determine the buckling load, can be ohtained from (130) by successive approximation.
• Expressions for M and y have the same denominator.
(h)
(i)
(130)
44. Bars of unlimited Length
CHAPTER VIII TORSION OF BARS
Assume a prismatic bar supported on an elastic foundation and subjected to a concentrated torque To at section O. The problem is to establishexpressions for the variation of the twisting moment T and angle of twist rp along the length of the bar. It will be assumed that the foundation can resist tensile and compressive forces equally well and that at any point where the cross section of the bar is twisted through an
angle rp a corresponding deformation is produced in! the foundation.
Ascribing the positive sign to the torque whose vector points in the + x direction (Fig. 122) and assuming that, the direction of the positive angle of twist coincides with that. of the positive torque, we can write the fundamental formula of torsion as
FIG. 122
T = GJ drp dx'
(a)
where GJ is the torsional rigidity of the bar, G being the modulus of rigidity for its material and J a function of its crosssectional dimensions." Since the
* When the cross sectlen is rectangular (width c and depth h) we have from Grashof's approximate formula
J = c3h3
3.6(c2 + h') .
For any shape of cross section Saint Venant's formula can be used with good appr~ximation. This gives
A' J= 40Ip'
where A is the crosssectional area of the bar and Ip the polar moment of inertia of the CroS8
section. '
151
152
<::; \,,!
BEA"MS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
change in twisting moment will be due to the'elastio resistance of the foundation
we have ..
where leo is the modulus of the foundation in Ibs./in.3 and c is the width of the bar
Eliminating T from (a) and (b), we have' .
d2 leo 3
GJ _!!  ~ 'P = °
dx2 12 '
the general solution of which is
where
• / koc3 a = 'V 12JG'
For an infinitely long bar, from the condition that if z ~ 00 then tp ~ 0, we have A = 0, whereas B can be determined from the equilibrium condition
k 31"
To = 2~ 'Pdx
12 o· ,
which gives for the integration constant B the value B = ~ 1'0.
. koc3
Th.us, for an infinitely lon~ bar subjected to a torque To at x = ° the angle of
twist '" for x > 0 values IS obtained as .
Tn 6a a",
'P = .LO koc3 e . (133)
Substituting this expression fortp in (a), we get the formula for the twisting moment T at any point where x > ° as
It is seen from the equations above that in an infinitely long bar loaded with a concentrated torque at x = 0 the values of '" and T decrease asymptotically as x ~ 00 and do not change signs anywhere in the region ° < x < 00'. .
45. Bars oj Finite Length
Solution!'; for bars of finite length can be derived from (133) and (134) by means of superposition. It is easily seen that the condition of a free end (T = 0) can be produced in any section of the infinitely long bar by the application of an endcondiiioninq torque which will cancel the twisting moment produced
(b)
(131)
(132)
(0)
(d)
(134)
TORSION OF DARS
153
in that section by the given loading. If, instead of a free end, a builtin end is required, the endconditioning torque has to be determined in such a way as to cancel the angle of twist .« produced by the loading in that section of the infinitely long bar. In this manner, by the application of one endconditioning torque, a semiinfinite bar can be obtained; in order to produce a bar of finite length, however, two endconditioning torques are necessary, and in that case the counteraction of these torques on. each other also has to be taken into consideration.
As an example of this latter case let us derive by the method of superposition the solution for a finite bar of
length lwith two free ends 'subjected /J ':4
to a concentrated torque To. Witl;
the end points A and B at distances a FIG. 123
and b respectively from the point of
loading (Fig. 123), the endconditioning torques Toa and TOb which are to produce free ends at A and B have to satisfy the following simultaneous equations:
Toeaa r; + T al 0,
abe
.  Toeab T, al + TOb 0.
Oae
The solution of these equations gives
Cosh ab and Cosh aa
Toa = To Sinh al TOb = To Sinh al . Applying .these endconditioning torques to the right and left of points A and B respectively on the infinitely long bar loaded by To , we obtain the case of a bar of finite length with free ends at A and B. The twisting moment at a positive distance x from the 'point of loading (Fig. 123) will then be
T", = tToear + t'1'obea{b+r)  tToaea{ar).
Substituting here the values obtained above for '1'oa and TOb , we have T _ T, Cosh ab Sinh a(a  z)
'" : 0 Sinh al .
(135')
By interchanging a and b in this formula, we obtain an expression for the twisting moment in the OB region o! the bar, at a distance x' from the point of application of the loading 'torque, . as
T ,'= _TCosh aa Sinha(b  x')
'" 0 Sinh al .
(135")
The equations above are now differentiated with respect to the variables x and z', according to equation (b) on page 152, and the following expressions are
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA\'TdN ', '.../
obtained for the angles of twist tpz. and tpz' in the respective portions, OA and OH, of the bar:
T. 12a Cosh ab Cosh a(a  x)
°koc1 . Sinh al '
T. 12a Cosh· aa Cosh a(b ' x')
o koc3 Sinh al .
(l36')
( 13G")
46. Torsion of Rails
The torsion problem of a rail with free ends, subjected only to two equal and opposite twisting moments, offers no particular difficulty and can be solved by the general torsional theory. If the ends of the rail are fixed, however, while fl. concentrated loading torque 2To is applied at the middle of the rail, the problem is somewhat more complicated and involves, in addition to the twisting of the cross section, a bending of the head and the base sections of the rail.* Thus the torque To transmitted to one half of the rail will be taken up partly by simple torsion TI and partly by bending action T2• The first of these torque components, T1, will simply be proportional to the rate of change of the angle of
twist tp: .
. T C dtp
1 =  ·dx'
where C = GJ represents the t.orsional rigidity of the rail and J can be calculated by the approximate formula of Saint Venant, given in thenote on page 151.
The second torque component, '1'2, will he equivalent to a moment Qh, where Q is the shearing force due to bending
1/ of the head and base of the rail and h is the distance he tween .++4+.,'10:
the centroids of the head and base sections (Fig. 124). Neg
lecting bending of the web, we can determine the position of the center of twist C, around which the cross section will rotate, by the distances
and
FIG. 124
where II and {2 denote the moments of inertia of the head and the base sections respectively with regard to the axis of symmetry of the cross section.
An expression for the shearing force Q can be determined from the equation of bending for the head section of the rail as follows:
d3y aatp
Q = Ell dx1 = Ell hi da;3 . (c)
* The solution of this problem is due. to S. Timoshenko, op. cit. (dee p: 140). See also the paper by Timoshenko and Langer, op. cit. (see p. 28).
(a)
(b)
'J'ORSION OF BARS
155
Substituting here the value obtained above for hi , we have for the torque T2 resulting from bending
'/' = QI = Eh2 1112 aatp
2 .! II + 12 dx3 .
According to the requirement that the components TI and T2 keep equilibrium with the loading torque T«, we have the resulting differential equation of the problem:
(d)
'T '1' ·C·'. dtp + Dh2 aa tp
1'0 = 1 + 2. = dx dx3 '
(137)
D _ b'Ij12  ,It+ 12'
The solution of this differential equation for a rail of unlimited length is
dtp _110 (1 _ e'YZ) ,
dx C
(138)
. WhNC
7=~'
This solution shows that with an increase of the distance x from the point of application of the loading torque, the second term in the parenthesis will lose its significance and the equation will then approach the form obtained for simple torsion (equation [a] on p. 151). The bending of the head and of the base has thus only a localized effect. on the torsion of the rail.
Let UR assume now that. the rail, while subjected to twisting under the conditions described above, is also supported along its entire length by a continuous elastic foundation. The elastic resistance of this foundation, causing the change in torque along the rail, will be proportional at every cross section to the angle of twist of the rail at that section, Thus, denoting this proportionality
factor hy "1, we can writo 
dT d2 cp 2 t tp
dx =, k1tp = C dr1 + Dh dx"
the right side of which was obtained by differentiating (137); lienee we have the differential equation oftorsion of a rail supported on an elastic foundation:
.tcp d2cp
J)h   C  + kl tp = O. (139)
dx' dx2
(e)
This equation is of. the same t,\~c as that derived in (96) for beams subjected to simultaneous lateral bending and axial tensile forces, the solution of which was discussed in detail in § 35~
CHAPTER IX CIRCULAR ARCHES
47. General Solution. of the, Elastic Line
Let us assume that a prismatic beam whose neutral axis in the un deflected state forms an arc of a circle of radius r is subjected to bending forces acting in the plane of curvature of the beam (Fig. 125a). We shall assume that the reaction forces in the foundation will be normal to the axis of the beam and proportional at every point to the radial deflection y of the beam at that point,
that is,
p = koby = hiJ,
where p denotes the reaction of the foundation per 'unit length of the beam, b the width of the beam, and ko the modulus of the foundation in Ibs./in.3
FIG. 125
An infinitesimal element of this beam will be acted upon by shearing force Q, normal force H, bending moment 111, and reaction of. the foundation pdx, whose positive directions are shown in Figure 125a. From the conditions of equjlibrium of the f~)rces on this element we shall have in the radial direction,
( ,dV> (" d") " cb'l,"\_(QI·d,:;J)=,O
,p<.,(_,,'·SIII.Z' "./ "1,,)1/1';::' V pd»  Hdtp = dQ;
in the tangential direction, d(P_o
,I O;N.~!?:r:·· ,)J,irjt _(;_'V;,(u\)),rli1~[!!_{tv'J.d,j)CtJ<l;0 d~ = dN;
while the moment pquilibrium condition will require that
, ,J r "fJJ ") d.'))r d(j) ()
';k'c/.tvl)'NI {>( •• '.~' ~{I\'~' (I, ·'z'= dM = Qrdtp. .
Putting p = k.lf and r dl{! = dx into the equations above, we have
N dQ d~ M
ky  r ='dx = dx2
156
(a)
CIRCULAR ARCHES
157
.and
g == dN r ' dx'
which give, after elimination' of Nand Q,
k dy _!. dM == aa M
i d» r2,dx a.xa'
(b)
(c)
At this point we make use of the known differential equation' of bending ofa circular arch of radius of curvature r and flexural rigidity El, W11l1Ch, by neglecting the axial deformation due to the normal force Nl , we can write in the form
El (d2y + 1f.) = 111. (d)
dx2 ,.2
Differentiating this equation three 'times with respect to the variable x and equating the results to the lefthand side of (c), we have
1
d5y +~ iy + (!:_,+ !.) dy = 0 (e)
dX' r2 dx3 El r4 dx ' ,
which is the fundamental differential equation of bending of circular arches supported on an elastic foundation.
In terms of the variable cp = xjr this equation can also be written in the form
(140)
where
Equation (140) can be solved by the substitution of em~ for y, which gives the characteristic equation
. m: + 2m3 + r/m = 0, the five distinct roots of which are
and
±(a ± (ji),
where
(141)
and
With these notations the general solution of (140) is thus obtained as ,Y = Co + (Cl Cosh atp + C2Sinh'acp) cos {jcp
: + (Cs Cosh acp + C, Sinh acp) sin {jcp. (142a)
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUN\ __ /ON
Substituting in (a)(d) the respective derivatives of the foregoing equation of the elastic line, we have the following expressions for the bending moment and the shearing and normal forces in the beam:
11{ = _E; (Co  2a,6[(CISili~a~ + C2C08ha~) sinfjl'"
r '
 1 C3 Sinh 0'1" + C4 Cosh 0'1") cos fj<pl} ,
Q = 2afj EI [(aCI + fjC4) Cosh (XI" si~{J1"
, r3
(142 bd)
+ (fjCI  aC4) Sinh a<P cos (jrp + (aC2 + flC3) Sinh,a'P sin fj'P + «(jC2  aC3) Cosh all' cos (j~J,
N = ac, + 2afJ ~ [(Cj Sinh all' + C2 Cosh ~<P) .sin fj'P'
 (Ca Sinh 0'1" + C4 Cosh' 0'1") cos fj'P).
The angular ·deflection 8 due to bending can' beobtained as the integral of the elementarv rotations M / EI along the arch, starting from a suitably chosen origin (x = '0 or I" =0), where the value of 8 = .80 is known:
lx ill,' r 1"
8 = ~ dx + 0(, = EI " Md'P + 80 •
o EI 0
By the aid of the expression for 8 so obtained the horizontal and vertical displacement components, 1l and v respectively, can also be determined at any point, of the arch. If the angle I" is measured from a vertical where I" = 0, the displacements 11 and v can he obtained as
tz = U,I  i" 81' sin 'P d'P
and
1'" '
1! = 1.'0  o 81"cOS I" (['P,
where Uo and Vo denote the values of these displaeements at the origin I" = O. It can easily be shown that the components 'II and t.' are connected with the radial deflcctiony in tho following manner:
11 sin 10 + II cos <p = y.
The integration constants which occur in the general expressions above can be determined in each separate problem from tho prescribed end conditions of the arch. Some of these integration constants are often defined in advance by the known character of the deflection line. Taking, for instance, the most frequent, casea symmetrical arch subjected to a symrnrtricallv distributed loading
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
CIRCULAR ARCHES
159
if the axis of Symmetry is assumed to be vertical and the variable angle I(J is measured from this axis, we shall have for the center section (I(J = 0) of the arch
[~~J~ ~ 0 and [QJ .. _o = O.
These conditions, when substituted in (142 ac), give
aC2 + (jCa = 0 and fJC2  aCa = 0,
equations which are satisfied 'simultaneously only if C2 = C:i = O. The conclusion is, therefore, that for any symmetrical type of deformation the integration constants C2 and Ca;will vanish.
Further simplifications can be obtained in symmetrical cases from knowing Lhat at <p = 0 we shall then have 80 = 0 and Uo = O. Thus, carrying out the integrations assigned in equations (f) and (g), we obtain for the angular deflec, tion D and the horizontal displacement component. u the following general expressions:
 «(jOl + aC4) Sinh al(J cos 111"],
2afJ J
u = Co (sin ip  c,Ocos 1")  0'2 +fj2 [(aC1  fJC4)II  «(j01+ aC4) 12 ,
(143) (144)
where
II = i" Cosh oe sin (j<p sin 'Pdl{'
= 4~{Sinha<p[(j,~ 1 cos «(j _; 1)1"  (j ~'1 cos «(j + l)I(JJ
+ Cosh a<P[sin «(j.  1)1"  sin (fJ + 1)1(J]} • i. = f' Sinh al(J cos (j<p sin 'P ~'P
= ~ {COSh 0'1" [(j ~ 1 sin (fJ + 1)1"  fj : 1 sin «(j  1)1" ]
.  Sinh a<P[cos «(j + 1)'P .:_ cos «(j  l)<P]}'.
48. Circular Ring
As an application of the general formulas derived above let us now investigate the case when the curved beam forms a complete ring and is" subjected to It concentrated force p, at its vertex (Fig. 126). This problem is the same as that
BEAMS' ON .ELASTIC FOU~ION ~
of a pipe line surrounded by anelastic foundation and loaded at the top with a line loading of constant intensity along 'the length of the pipe. *
. • As in previous problems, the foundation .
will be assumed to resist tensile and compressive forces equally well. The radial deflection y will be considered positive when producing compression in the foundation, and the positive directions for the forces Q,' N, and bending moment M will be those shown in Figure. 126. The radius of the center line of the ring will be' denoted by r, the thickness by t (the width will be assumed equal to unity), and the bending rigidity by EI = EN12; the variable tpin radians will be measured from the base of the symmetry line having for the vertex tp = 11'.
From a consideration of the symmetry of the problem we find that the deformation and ring will have to satisfy the following eondi
p
I
FIG. 126
the stress distribution in the
tiona:
1. ~~ =. 0 at <p = 0;
3. Q = 0 at tp' = 0;
r lr
~. EI 0 M dtp =
2. dy = 0 at <p = 11'; d<p
P
4. Q =  '2 at tp = 11';
11r (d2y) .
 _  + y d<p = O.
r 0 dtp2
The last of these equations expresses the condition that there can be no relative rotation between the base and top sections of the ring.
It is seen that the five conditions above will completely define the values of the five integration constants C when substituted in the general solution in (142 ad). Making this substitution, we shall obtain tho first four of these conditions in the following form:
1. uC2 + {3Ca = 0;
2. C1(q Sinh 0'11' cos {311'.  (3 Cosh 0'11' sin f311')
+ C.(a Cosh 0'11' sin fJ1I' + fJ Sinh 0'11' cos fJ1I') = 0;
• This problem has been investigated by A. VoeJlmy, "Erddruck auf elastisch eingebettete Rohre," International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Publica • tions,4 (ZUrich, 1936),591611. .
If the circular ring is regarded as a cross section of a pipe line, its bending rigidity EI should be increased in a ratio 1 : (1  ,..), Poisson's ratio for the material of the pipe being denoted by ts ,
.'..../
CIRCULAR ARCHES
161
3. fJC2  aCa = 0;
4. C1(a Cosh 0'11' sin fJ1I' + fJ .. Sinh .0'11' cos fJ1I')
.  C.(a Sinh 0'11' cos fJ1I'  fJ Cosh 0'11' sin fJ1I')
From conditions 1 and 3 we have
(a)
whereas the simultaneous solution of conditions 2 and 4 gives the following' expressions for t~e constants C1 and C. :
C1 =  I: !!_ a Cosh 0'11' sin fJ1I' + fJ Sinh 0'11' cos fJ1r J
4ElafJ 17(Sinh2 0'11' + sin2 fJ1r) ,
C. = _p_ ~ alSinh 0'11' cos fJ1r  fJ Cosh 0'11' sin fJ1r
4ElafJ 17(Sinh2a1l' + sin2 fJ1r)
(b)
The last of the constants Co can be determined fro~ condition 5 hi h b r means of (142b), can be written in the form ' w IC, J
lr( 1 .
o Co 2afJ  C1 Sinh atp sin fJ<p + C. Cosh atp cos fJ<p) d<p = O.
Substituting here the expressions obtained abovefor C and C and .
out' the assigned integration, we get 1 .• carrying
(c)
All the five integration constants having been thus determined they' b
b tit d i h ' can e
BU s I ute m t e general solution expressed by (142 ad) and will gi th
th fi I f 1 ' ive, en, e na ormu as f~r the deflection and force components along the circum
ference of the elastically supported ring in Figure 126.
Introducing the notations' .
A = a Cosh 0'11' sin (311' + fJ Sinh 0'11' cos fJ1r 17(Sinh2 0'11' + sin2 fJ1I')
B = a Sinh 0'11' cos {311'  fJ Cosh .a1r sin fJ1r ~(Sinh2 at: + sin2 f311')
,J;7=l 11 z,
f3 =.I4J,
and
17
0'=
1G2
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
CIRCULAR ARCHES
p,.
1"10. 127
It h~ been demonstratedcin previous chapters that axially symmetrical defOI:matJOn of .cylIndrIoal and conical shells can be analyzed by the theory of b~ndmg of straight beams on. an elastic foundation. In It" similar manner it will be shown now that the bending analysis of spherical shells can be reduced to the problem of flexure of elastically supported curved beams.' The curved beam
in this case will be a meridional element of the shell, of variable width since it tapers down to ze~~ at the vertex; the modulus of the elastic foundation, repreented by the resilience of the hoop elements in the shell, will also vary' on ecount of th~ decreasing rad\i of the hoop circles toward the vertex, '
Th~ shell will be assumed to.be under the action of an edge loading consisting 0: horizontal forces ,Po and moments Mo uniformly distributed along the' base drcle of the, shell (FIg, 128), T,hedeformation produced by such a loading will be symm~tl1cal with respect toths aXis of the shell and can be den ned in terms of only one l?depe~dent coordinate, for which purpose the angle f{' will be chosen.
easured m radians from the axis of the shell. .
In order to describe the bending ,deformation of the shell, let us assume on e, undeformed meridional circle two points, A and B. which in terms of the I nable I(J are spaced an angle; df{', = 1 apart (Fig. 129),.These two points, ter the deformation of the shell, wll)' be in the positions A' and B', respectively.
we can write the final expressions as
In these wheels the external loading is balanced by the resultant of the spoke forces, which is transmitted' through the axle, The stress analysis of this problem is but a direct application of , the formulas obtained aboveIn (145 ad),
PrS (2a{3 B S' , /'1)
Y = ~ _' _  A Cosh af{' cos {3f{' + inn al(J sm fJl(J ,
4a{3EI 7rrp .
M =  Pr (_!_ + A Sinh al(J sin {31(J + B Cosh af{' cos (3cp) , 2 7r712
49. Spherical Shell
(145 ad)
Q =  ~ [(aA  (3B). Cosh al(J sin{31(J + ({3A + aB) Sinh al(J cos {31(J],
N = ~ (712  1  A Sinh al(J sin {3f{'  B Cosh a<p cos (3~) ,
. 2 7r712
For the point of application of the load (<p = :11') the formulas above give the following maximum values for deflection and bending moment:
Pr3 (2a{3 _ {3 Sinh a7r Cosh a7r + a sin {37r cos (37r) 1
[Y]OP_7 = 4a{3EI 7r712 71(Sinh2 a7r + sin2 (37r) ,
J (146 ab)
, _ _ Pr (_!_ a Sinh a7r Cosh a7r  ~ sin {37r cos (37r) ,
[M].,..7  2. 7r712 + 71(Sinh2 a7r + sin" (37r)
It is easily seen that by putting P = 1 the equations in (145 ad) also give the equations of the influence lines of y, M, Q, and N for any cross section of the ring, The force P = 1 acting at I(J = <po will produce, for instance, the sa~e amount of bending moment in the section at <p = 7r. as the force P = 1 acting at <p = 7r produces in the section at <p = <Po, On the basis of this r~lationship we can determine the force and displacement components at any point on the
elastically supported ring due to any combination of radial l~ading, .
In addition to its use in the problem of pipe lines, the elastICally supported ring has structural applications also, The assumptions n:ade in o,ur analrs,is regarding the nature of the elastic foundation are truly realized, ~or mstance, ,m a ring which is reinforced by a large number of closely spaced radl,al spokes (~lg, 127a), If initial tension is put into the spokes they are able to resist compressive '18 well as tensile forces, and the force produced in the spokes by the external 10ading on the ring will be proportionai . to t'le radial deflect~on ,o~ th~ ring a; every point. This sort of structure is used for bulkheads III rigid ~lrshlps; a more everyday example occurs in certain types of vehicle wheels t (FIg,
FIG, 128
* See L. H, Donnell, H. B. Gibbons, and E. L, Shaw, "Analysis of Spoked 1Rings," Journal of Applied M echanic8. Tran8actio.ns o.f the American So.ciety
Vol. 63 (1941), Paper Ac68, , ' . '
t See A, J, S. Pippard and W, E, Francis, "On iI. Theoretical and Expe~lmental Inv~stl.
gation of the Stresses in a. Radially Spoked Wire Wheel under Loads Applied to the Rim, Philosophical Magazine, Seventh Series, 11 (1931), 233285,
163
1 1 1 1
.1 1
\ 1
1
FIG, 129
164
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
but the distance Letween them, ds = rdI{J, will remain unchanged if only the bending deformation is taken into account and the change of the arc length due
to normal forces is disregarded.
If we denote the horizontal displacement of point A by u, taking it as positive
when accompanied by an increase of the radius of the hoop circle, the horizontal displacement for point B will be u + du/drp. By means of these horizontal displacement components it is possible to express the change of slope of the meridional circle 8 due to bending. Assuming that 8 is small, so that we may put tan 8 = sin 8 =8 and cos 8 = 1, we see from Figure 129 that
8 = _1_ du
, ~sinrpdrp'
its sign being positive if, like the displacement u, it is accompanied by an tension of the corresponding hoop circle.
By means of 8 we can obtain the meridional bending moment Ml as
(b)
denoti.ng by EI the flexural rigidity of the meridional beams. Since the sym ! metry of deformation prevents any lateral (crosssectional) deform3,tion of these] beams, in place of EI we can put in this formula Et3/[12(1  l)], where t is the! thickness of the shell and !l is poisson's ratio for its material. As a result of this!, lateral restraint, M 1 will always be accompanied by a bending moment acting! normally to the meridional beam, that is, in the direction of the hoop circle, i and the value of this hoop bending moment will be ,I
The bending moments MJ and M2 in the equations above ~i1(be assumed to" act on unit lengths of the respective hoop and meridional circles. Accordingly' their dimension will be in. lbs./in. and will be considered positive when producing"
compression in the outer fibers of the shell. •
So far we have expressed both 8 and M in terms of the horizontal displace,
ment component u. The next step will be to find a relationship between u' and some of the force components in the shell. Since horizontal displacement] can take place only if accompanied by a stretching of the corresponding hoop' circle we find, in a hoop circle of radius r sin rp, the displacement u as a function;
of the hoop normal force N: '
u = r sin rp (N  liT).
Et ..
'~'
CIRCULAR ARCHES
165
The dimension of N in the formula above' lbs.z'i .
per unit length of the meridional "I Thi s,/m. and Will be assumed 'to act
the elastic foundation against ho~~~netal d:s I force re~r~sen~s the reaction of count for the change in shearing f Q f Phaceme~t.' It will, therefore, ao
, orce 0 t e meridional beam:
N = dQ
,~,~ W
The shearing force Q can also b d '
Me expresse in terms of th idi I
moment J by a consideration of' ilibri ,e men rona bending
the meridional beam (Fig, 128);q~, I n~m of the moments in the plane of
beam is proportional to sin ",' at e v a m~ tmto account that the width of the
T ery pom , we have '
d'
drp (Ml sin rp)
~Qr sin rp.
(f)
The I~st of the unknowns iri the shell analysis, the meridional normal force ~ Ibs./in. (Fig, 130), can be obtained Simply as a component of the shearing force Q:
T = Q cot rp.
(g)
(c)
In the seven equations (ag) :we have all t~e data necessary to derive ex
~r~sslOns for the seven unknown quan . '
titles (forc~s Q, N, T, moments MJ , FlO. 130
M2 , and displacement components 8, u) which d' ,
deformation of a spherical shell B ' efine the axially symmetrical
ti from thos ,y successive elimination f th kn
quan ities rom these seven equations th bl ' 0 e un own of one differential equation contai , e pro em can be reduced to the solution
I. h h mmg one unknown quantity I d
accornp IS t is let us first substitute in (b) the ' I y: n or er to
[ng out the assigned differentiation we ca it exPhresslOn for 8 III (a). Carry
, uuecenuauonv we can W1"1 e t e result as
Et3 '( 2
_ d u cos rp dU)
12(1  p.2)r2 drp2 + sin rp d<p = Ml sin <po (h)
Differentiating theleft side of ~his eq at' '
result, according to (f) will be lUt I?nw Qlth, respect toe, we find that the
it ' ie equa 0  r sin <p Substit ti h
1 S expression in (d) where accordin t () N' I U mg t en for u
deri , " ' g 0 e = dQ/d fi d h
el'lva~lves of u can be expressed in terms' of th ,<p, we n t at all
operation we obtain one different' 1 ti ose of Q., ,As a final result of this
force Q: ' ia equa IOn contammg only, the shearing
tQ + 2 cos rp d'Q 1 + sin" <p d2Q dQ
d 4 •    ' + cos <p r2
rp sm '" drp3 sin! ",: drp2 sin <p d<p + 12(1  p.2) i2 Q = 0, (147)
106
BEAMS. ON l<~LAS'rIC FOUNDATION
A general solution of this equation would give us the ;ariation of Q ~lo~g the meridional circle. In deriving an approximate so~utiOn, ~oweve~, It IS ~ot necessary to take into account l'!ll derivatives ~f Q l~ the differential equat~on above. It has been observed in experiments WIth th~n shells that the bending action of edge forces is concentrated mainly in the region around the edge of the
h 11 Because of this character of the deformation the amplitude of all force :n~ 'displacement components 'will decrease rapidly toward the vertex 0: the shell and their higher derivatives will be of numerically much greater ma~rutude than the lower ones which can even be disregarded, without much affectl~g t~e accuracy of the results. Such an approxim.atio~ will be made use of III t (l present case. It can be shown that by puttmg III (147)
1  Q = : / . Q,
'V sm 'P
the terms containlng the third derivative of Q will cancel.out, and ~hen only ~be lower derivatives will have to be neglected in order to bring (147) into the sim
plified form
(148)
where
2 2) r
X4 =,3(1  JJ "j2'
It' that the expreRsion thus obtained is the same as the differential equation IS seen,· d'· d iu I tion therefore of bending of straight beams on an elastic foun ation, an I s so U 1 " . ,
can be written directly as
Q = CX"(C1 cos A'P + C2 sin A'P) + c=«, cos A'P + C4 sin Acp).
Assumi . that weare dealing with a spherical shell which is closed at the
summghnow . F' . 128 we see that Q and its second derivative will have
top * as sown III IgUle , , , . '11 . tl t'
, . th .' of the vertex of the shell winch WI require 13.'
to approach zero m e region ,
we put in the equation above
C' C and C2 = C4•
'I =  3
In ,determining the two remaining integration con~tants from the condit~o~~ at th base of the shell it is convenient to introduce in place of 'P a new v~l'la e w e1 tI t = '  ~ where 'Po is the half angle of opening of the shell ~Flg. 12~). ~~~'\n~a d~ne ~:lis" ';'e can, after some trigonometrical transformation, write
. . I . t the top the four integration constants will all
• If the shell has a circu ar opemng a h t ti r
, . 1 nd will have to be determined in sue a way as 0 so. IS y
have, as a rule, dlfferend~ ~a ues, a ib d by the nature of the problem for the upper and the simultaneously the con it.inns prescri e
lower edges of the shell.
CIRCULAR ARCHES'
167.
the solution of (148) for the original unknown, the shearing force ,Q, in' tiw.;" following form:
eX"
Q == C :v. ( ) sin (Xw + if;),
, sm cpow
where C and if; are the constants of integration. This approximate formula for Q is the same as the one obtained in the theory of thin shells by al~ asymptotic integration of the differential equation of bending.*
(149a)
. .. The exact form of the differential equation for Q, derived first by)J, Reissrier ("Spannungen In Kugelschslen," Mul7.erBreslau Festschrift [Leipzig, 1912], p.1S1) fI:1Mll. the flexural
theory of thin shells, is .
d'Q 2 COd ip d'Q . 3  sint '" d'Q cos ",(3 + 2 sin' "') dQ
,+ _ . + 
d",' sin", d'fl' ai,n' '" d",' sin' '" d",
+[<1 ., 11') (1 + 12.~)  ~J Q = 0
t' sm' '" '
.It has been shown by E. Meissner ("Das Elastizitii.tsproblem fUr diinne Schalen,' Physik, 14 [1913],'343.; also ·'tJber Elastizitii.t und Festigkeit dunner &!halen," Viertetjahre" schrift der naturforschende Geeellschaft in Zurich, 60 [1915], 23) that a rigorous solution of this equation can be obtained in the form of hypergeometrie series; In this solution, however, the thickness of the shell appears under negative exponents, thus rendering the series slowly convergent for small values of t, which are of particular interest in engifieering practice. In order to obtain a more generally applicable solution O. Blumenthal ("Dber die asymptotische Integration, " .," Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik, 62 [1914J, 343:358) was the first to use tlie method of asymptotic integration. His first approxima.tion, by canceling out the third deriva tive of Q and then neglecting the lower derivatives, leads to the same formula for Q as the one obtained in (1400.). This identity of results is naturally due to the fact that the coefficient of the fourth and third derivatives in the exact differential equation for Q is the same as those derived here from the Ilexnrul theory of elnstically supported curved beams, equation (147), Using this solution for Q in deriving
, expressions for the other unknown quantities, however, we shall find that the shell theory will give somewhat different, and more accurate, results than those obtained in (140'bg) by the beam theory,since the latter disregards the effect of some of the 'stress components present in a thin shell. A complete solution of this problem, by means of asymptotic formulas derived from the shell, theory, has been given by the writer in an earlier publication ("Spherical Shells Subjected to Axial Symmetrical Bending," International Association for Bridqe and Structural Engineering, Publications, 5 [ZUrich, 1938], 173185).
There is still another approximate solution for the problem, introduced by J. W .' Geckeler ("tJber die Festigkeit achsensymmetrischer Schalen," Forschungsal'lJtJiten auf, dem Gebiete des Ingenieurwesells [Heft 276], who Iias shown that for extremely thin shells with large angle of opening it is. permissible to neglect all but the highest derivatives in the differential equation of bending. This approximation is equivalent to replacing the spherical shell with a cylindrical one of the same radius and wall thickness. Geckeler's formulas are somewhat less accurate than those derived above from the curvedbeam theory and can be obtained from (149 ag) by simply putting sin ("'.  w) = 1. The expressions for the displacement and rotation of the edge, equations' (150 ac), are, however, the same in both cases,
169
CIRCULAR ARCHES
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
HjS
as shown in the second part ,of the analysis, to the edge of the shell, thus producing bending which can then be calculated by the formulas developed above. So we .see that for a complete analysis we still need to have the ·solution for the membrane problem, which will be developed briefly in the following paragraphs.
Let us assume that the surface of the shell is loaded with normal and meridional . forces, Z and X, per unit area of the surface, which, being distributed symmetrically with respect to the axis of the shell, will be functions of the angle 'I' only. The membrane forces produced by this loading in the directions of the hoop and meridional circles will be denoted by N m and T m respectively and will be assumed to act per: unit arc length of the corresponding circles. The positive directions for these components are shown in Figure 131.
Considering the equilibrium of the shell in the vertical direction, parallel to the axis, we find that along a hoop circle of the circumference 21TT sin 'I' the vertical components of the meridional forces T m sin 'I' will have to balance the sum of the vertical components of all surface forces between the heop circle and the vertex of the shell. This requires that
Substituting this expression for Q in (ag), we have the formulas for all the other unknown quantities in' the shell problem:
Ml = 2T, C V . e~)." ) [cos (hW + 1/1) + sin(>.w + 1/1)],
" sIn '1'0  w
:M2 = p.M1,
>'t~"
N = C V' ( ) [cos (>.w + 1/1)  sin (>.w + 1/1)),
smtpoW
(149 bg)
T =  Q cot ('1'0  w), _ T sin ('1'0  w) N
U  Et '
2>.2 e)." .
8 = Et C _ r: ( ) cos (>.w + 1/1).
I VSm'l'ow
. From the equations given the following formulas can be derived for the horizontal displacement Uo and the angular deflection 80 of the edge of the shell (w = 0) due to unit values of edge loadings Po and Mo , respectively:
P 2>'Tsin2 '1'0
Uo = E '
It
80P M 2>.2 sin '1'0
= 1lo = Et '
FIG. 131
21TT sin 'l'T m sin 'I' =  {' (X sin 'I' + Z cos 'I')21TT sin 'I' rde, which gives
(150 ac)
T ·1'"
Tm = '2 (X sin 'I' + Z cos '1') sin 'l'd'l'.
SlUtpo .
(15J a)
Thus far we have discussed the problem of bending produced by forces and moments uniformly distributed along the base circle of the shell. This bending analysis forms, however, only part of the complete solution of the general problem of axially symmetrical deformation, when the shell may be loaded with distributed surface forces and subjected at the same time to certain boundary conditions required by the character of support at the edge of the shell. In such a general case the stress calculation will have to be resolved into two parts, the first of which is the membrane analysis and the second the bending analysis, in the maimer described in previous chapters for cylindrical and conical shells.
In the first part of the analysis the shell is assumed to be a thin membrane, without any flexural resistance, exerting only normal forces, which are in equilib
, rium with the external. loading distributed over the surface of the shell. Because of this membrane stress system, however, displacements and rotation take place at the edge of the shell which, in general, may not be oompatible . with the edge conditions required by the nature of the supports. In order to satisfy the boundary requirements forces and moments will have to be applied,
Once an expression is obtained for T m , the other membrane force can be derived from the condition of equilibrium in a direction perpendicular to the surface
of the shell, which can be stated as .
1
(Nm + Tm) = Z.
T·
(151 b)
The displacements and rotations produced by this system of membrane forces can be calculated by the standard methods of the elastic theory.
Let us consider, for example, a spherical shell of radius T = 90 in., wall thickness t = 3 in., and angle of opening 2'1'0 ::; 70° subjected to a uniformly distributed radial pressure p = 1 Ib./in.2 while the edge of the shell is rigidly fixed against any displacement or rotation (Fig. 132). For the material of the shell we shall assume reinforced concrete with a Poisson's ratio J.I.= i.
If the shell is first regarded as a thin membrane free of any edge restraints,
I ,' . \___./ BEAMS ON. ELASTIC FOUNDATION
its edge will, because of the constant membrane forces Non = Ton = pr/2 = 45 Ibs./in., move inward horizontally, without rotation, by the amount
' rsin cpo'(N T)
=r :»: ",J.l",
645.0. =r »
Since the rigid support of the shell does not permit. any displacement of the edge, we shall haveto superpose on the membrane stress system such edge loadings as will produce an outwardly directed horizontal displacement of the value Uo , without causing, however, rotation at the edge of the shell.
The condition that [0]",_0 = 0 defines the value of one of the integration constants, namely, the value of .p in (149g), where we shall havs v = 7r/2. The other integration constant, C, can be determined from the condition that in (149f)
FIG. 132
which gives, after putting A
_rsincpoC A
l?t ~sin CPo
Vi3(1 '~Ii?2J1!2/t2 = 7.16,
645.0 =r:
645.0t
C =  \ _ / . = 3.97 Ibs./irr.
1',,·V sin <Po .
'By substituting these values for C and", in (149 ag) the forces, moments and displacements set up by the bending of the shell can readily be calculated. For the meridional bending moment, llfj und t.he hoop 1I00'nut! force N we thus have the following values:
.~' 
o
30
5
10
15
20
25
. _    ' '   
ill, in. lbs.yln. N Ibs./in.
32.92 37.49
5.64 0.92
4.28 30.00
6.96 15.84
8.20 4.89
2.68 2.04
0.50 3.15
'=.c_. __ ..... ~~=~~=~=~=~==========
The final stress system in the shell will be obtained by a superposition of the bending and the membrans analysis.' As is shown in the table above, the equations in (149 ag) give infinite values for the unknown quantities at the vertex' of the shell. This singularity is due to the asymptotic character of the approximation used, has influence only in the immediate neighborhood of the vertex, and can be disregarded in practical stress analysis.
For the sake of comparison the values of 1111.and N were calculated also by
CIRCULAR ARCHES
171
Meissner's exact solution* for this problem, by means of hypergeometricseries. The results of this calculation are as follows:
. 5 10 15 20 I 25 30 35
5.76 ;;~~I~~;;
31.90 17 .. 26 5.95 0.02 2.17 2.50 2.46
,.0 II 0
MI in. Ibs./in~II37.68 'N Ibs./in. 38.92
. ib ti f th M and N valuesalong the meridional circle, as obtained
The dlhstn u Itonnod th: aplproximate solu tio~s, is shown in Figure 133.
from t e exac a .
" The amount of numerical calculation 10
needed for the exact solution was about twenty times more than that for the J(J approximate solution. I~, isto be noted 20 that the spherical shell ill our ~~amplc, 10 with a ratio of I'/t = 30, exemplifies ~ne of the thickest types used in modern .rem
f~rr.ed concrete structures. FOI' t hmnet: ___ _ _
I If .' ""\:iiEimlUNEHooP iVm£N,. 15"'5/'"
shells 01' for shells with a arger an~ e 0 .f0
opening the accuracy of the ltPproxunate JO solution is increased.
MERIDION'!/' BENDINa MOMENTS
50. Approximate Solution for Flat Arches
to
HOOP FORCES
DUE TO BENDINa Nibs/VI
Frequently we find problems the arch and the foundation of
tl t· tile expression proportions ,13. III
with such
FlG. 133
).
1} =
35
'"
d t . t In such rases it is
the first term on the right side is large compare 0 um y .
permiRsible to put in (141)
. . 4/,).4f ~ (a)
a = {j = 'V 4EI = "I' = p,
where x den~tes the san~e quantity used previously. in solutions for bendin~., of straight beams., . 2 < 600 we find that a
D r ith flat arches where the angle of openmg l' ,
, flirth:; ~:p;:ximation is ~osRible, namely, that. we may also omit the term
.' '0' • ( '16)' see also Timoshenko, op . cit'. (see p. lO5).
• p. CIt. Bee p. I, .
<:: ,i BEAMS ONELAS'l'IC FOUNDATION
y/r2 in comparison with d2y/dx2 in the expression for M (equation [dJ on p. 157). Thus we shall have
On the basis of these simplifying assumptions we obtain from (142 ad) and (143) the following general solutions for symmetrically loaded (C2 = C3 = 0) flat arches:
Y = Co + C1 Cosh p<p cos p<p + C4 Sinh pcp sin pcp, 111 = 2X2EI(CI Sinh PIP sin pcp  C4 Cosh pcp cos pcp), Q = 2X3EI[C1(Cosh pcp sin p<p + Sinh pcp cos pcp)
 C4(Sinh pcpeos pcp  Cosh pcp sin pcp)], (152ac)
N = rkCo,
o = C1X(Sinh p", cos p",  Cosh pcp sin pcp)
+ C4X(Cosh pcp sin pcp + Sinh pcp cos pcp).
For the horizontal displacement u we shall now have, in place of (144), the following formula:
where
II = '11 (Sinh p", [__!!_1 cos (p  1)",  p_, cos (p + l)",J
'p p p+1
+ Cosh p", [sin (p  I}",  sin (p + 1)", J),
12 = i (cosh p", L ~ 1 sin (p + 1)",  p !:_ 1 sin (p  '1)", J
 Sinh p", [cos (p + l)rp  cos (p  l)rp J).
A few applications of this approximate method will be shown below, by . deriving formulas for flat arches subjected to symmetrical end loadings.
t,,\
(152f)
173
CIRCULAR ARCHES
a. Equal Vertical Forces at the Two Ends. (Fig. 134) The end conditions! for rp = 'Yare
Q cOS'Y + N sin 'Y = P, Q sin 'Y .N cos 'Y = 0,
and
JlI = O.
. . f M Q and N from (152 bd) we
Substituting here the general expreSSiOn or " , '
have for the integration constants
C _ p sin 'Y
o  rk'
4p cos 'Y Cosh P'Y cos P'Y
CI = P rk Sinh 2n + sin 2py ,
4p cos 'Y Sinh P'Y sin P'Y
C4 = P ;;r Sinh 2n + sin 2py .
Hence the equation for the radial deflection FIG. 134
of the arch will be
_ ~{sin 'Y +. 2p cos ~ 2 [Cosh p('Y + "') cos p('Y  "')
y  rIG. Sinh 2py + sm P'Y l
+ Coshp('Y  rp) cosp('Y + "')]f' (153)
the radial deflection at the ends will he
p ( Cosh 2P'Y + cos 2p"y)
YA = YII = ac sin 'Y + 2p cos "Y SInh 2p:Y + siii 2p"y '
and the deflection at !the middle,
p ( . Cosh P"Y cos P"Y ) •
Ya = rk sin 'Y + 4p cos "Y Sinh 2P"/ + sin 2P'Y
The deflection at the middle will vanish if
Cosh P"Y cos P'Y tan 'Y = 4p Sinh 2P"'/ + sin 2p'Y'
f ·h··h ti fi s the equation above will determine the socalled
That value 0 P'Y w lC sa IS e f
ff ti I th of the bar It is seen that we must have a value 0 2p"{ > 11",
e ec ive eng .' 1'" d' b ill b larger than that
.hi h means that the effective length ror curve earns WI e ' .
;:/~traight beams under the same loading conditions (see pp. 50, 54). If the
. d h . I th  2r'Y of the arch and the modulus of the found a
radius r an teal c eng s  '.
ImAMS ON ~;LAS'l'IC FOUNDATION
tion k(1 (k bk; , from equation [aJ on p. 2) are given, the condition 2fYY
eun be fulfilled hy choosing the height of til(' arch It in such n way that.
8V2~S ;. ~s
It =   = 0.318 _ .
rr rrE' . E
This value for It is proposed in the design of foundation arches." With it; the deflection at the middle of the arch will he
) sin I' y(.' = J _; 1'1.
while the dctlection at the ends will J:c
P ( . + rr '1' Jrr)
!I.t = YB = ~ Sill I' .:y cos I' an 12 .
At the same time the bending moment at the middle of the arch will have the following value:
]>8 cos I' rr Cosh ~
In the general case, for any value of It the bending moment at the middle of the arch can be obtained as
M = _ P 2r cos I' Sinh PI' sin PI' (155)
1 C P Sinh 2P1' + sin 2n .
llIc=
]>s cos I' . 7.88
b. EqualHorizontal Forces at the 1'wo Ends (Ft·g. 135)
The end conditions for 'I' = I' are
N sin I' + Q cos I' = 0,
PI cos I' _ (J sin I' = P,
and
ill = o.
The conditions are satisfied bv the following values of the integration constants:
C ' P cos I' 0 T'
=P 4p sin 1'. Cosh PI' cos PI' ,
rk SInh 2n + sin 2pI'
C4 =  P '!P sin I' Sinh PI' sin PI'
rk: Sinh.2n + sin 2n
71.
• See Adolf Fra.ncke,."EinigeB tiber Grundbogen," Schweizerische Bauzeitunq, 36 (1900),
= 11'
(154)
,..._",I'
CIRCULAR ARCHES
175
Thus we have for the radial deflection of the arch the equation
. !
p { _ 2p sin 1'. [Cosh p(I' + tp) cos p(I' ' '1')
Y = rk cos I' Sinh 2P1' + sm 2pI' }
. + Cosh pCI'  <fJ) cos p(I' +'<fJ)J •
(156) ,
Hence the radial deflection at the. ends will be
. P ( . . <20sh 2P'Y + c~s 2PI'). ,
Y.. = Ya = Tk r. .... q I'  2p sm r Sinh 2n + sm 2n
and the deflection at the middle,
. P ( . Cosh pi cos PI' .).
uo = Tk cos 'Y  4p sm I' Sinh 2pI' + sin 2pI'
At. the same time the bending moment at the middle of the arch will he
. 21' sin I' . Sinh PI' sin p:y
Me == p p.  Sinh 2n + Rin 2P1' •
c. Equal Concentrated Moments at the Two Ends (Fig. 136)
The end conditions at <fJ = 1', namely.
N = 0, Q = 0, and M = lifo, give in ~his case the following values for the integration : constan ts :
(15i)
C« = 0,
FIG. 136
. 4/ Sinh PI' cos PI'  Cosh P'Y sin fYY ,
C1 =  ~o 1'2 k Sinh 2p'Y + sin 2P'Y .
4p2'Sinh PI' cos PI' + Cosh fYY sin fYY
C4 =  M 0 r2 k Sinh 2P'Y + sin 2pI'
Hence the equation for the deflection of the arch in the radial direction will be
4p2 1
Y = Mo 1'2 k Sinh 2p'Y + sin 2pI'
. [(Sinh PI'COS P'Y  Cosh PI' sin P'Y) . Cosh P<fJ cos p<fJ
+ (Sinh PI' cos P'Y'+ Cosh P'Y sin fi'Y) Sinh P<fJ sin P<fJj·
(158)
The radial deflection ~t the ends will be
2M 0/ Sinh ~Pl'  sin 2fYY VA. = YB =  ~ Sinh 2P'Y + sin 2P'Y '
<:> '\'/
DEAMS ON ]~LAS'l'IC FOUNDA'l'ION
and the deflection at the middle,
_ 4M 0 / Sinh P'Y cos P'Y  Cosh P,} sin fYY
Yo _   . _,;,.,='' _ __:c_;
r2 k Sinh 2P'Y + sm 2P"/ .
. The bending' moment" at the middle of the arch is obtained as llf = 2M Sinh rrI cos fYY + Cosh P'Y sin fYY
c 0 'Sinh 2p'Y + sin 2P"/
(159)
51. Corrugated Tubes
It has been shown in § 11 that a longitudinal element of a cylindrical tube under axially symmetrical loading can always be regarded as a straight beam on an elastic foundation by taking the modulus of foundation k = EtjR2, t being the thickness, R the radius of the tube, and Ethe modulus of elasticity of its material. On the basis of this analogy one may anticipate that circum.ferentially corrugated tubes, in which a longitudinal element is composed of a series of arches, can be analyzed by the flexural theory for curved beams on an elastic foundation. In the curvedbeam theory developed in this' chapter the foundation was assumed, however, to resist radial displacements of the circular arches, while in corrugated tubes the resistance of the foundation wiII be proportional to the displacement normal to the axis of the tube. The difference between these two types of foundation wiII be small only in flat arches, that is, for shallow eorrugations of the tube, and therefore the investigation wiII be limited to such cases in the following discussion. In order ·to obtain sufficiently accurate results by this approximation it will be required that the angle of opening for each corrugation be such that 2"1 < 60°, and, furthermore, that the thickness of the tube t be small with respect to the radius of the corrugation r and that this quantity again be small compared to the radius of the tube R.
One of the main reasons for the technical application of corrugated tubes is that their flexibility and compressibility in the axial direction are many times larger than those of plain tubes. It will be shown below how this increased flexibility of corrugated tubes can be calculated by means of the general solution for elastically supported flat arches in (152 af).
Let us assume that the corrugation of the tube consists of a series of alternating concave and convex circular arches, as shown in Figure 137, Subjecting this tube to an axial compression P lbs.jin. per unit length of the circumference of the tube, we find that because of the symmetry ofthe corrugation the end points of the arches, A and B, will not deflect normally to the axis of the tube; furthermore, that the bending moment will vanish at these end points and that' the axial component of the normal force in the arches will balance the external loading P. The problem is thus reduced to the analysis of a circular arch (Fig. 138) supported on an elastic foundation, the modulus of which is ,k = EtjR2, while at the ends of the arch the following conditions prevail:
CIRCULAR ARCHES
177
",
[vj.v =0 or
[Ml,...,. = 0 and
[y  u sin Io'J.v = 0, [N co's 10' Q sin 1o'1"..'Y = P.
Subs~i~utin? her~ the general expressions from (152 af), we can write the end .conditions m the following form:
Co + Cl Cosh fYY cos P'Y + Ct Sinh P'Y sin. P'Y
, + p sin 'Y[(Cl  Ct)Il  (CI + Ct)I21 = 0,
CI Sinh P'Y sin n ~ C4 Cosh P'Y cos P'Y = 0,
rkCo cos "I  ;>.. sin 'Y[Cl(Cosh P'Y sin fYY + Sinh fYY cos P'Y)
(160)
 C4(Sinh fYY cos P'Y  Cosh P'Y sin P'Y)] = P.
A simultaneous solution of these three equations will determine the integration constants Co, Ql, and C4• Substituting, then", these C values in the general
FIG. 137
FIG. 138
solution, equations (152 af), we have the final formulas, from which all force and displacement components. can. be readily calculated.
~h.e applicatio~ of the m~thod. ,":i~l be illustrated now by a numerical example r~qull'l~g calculation 0: the' flexibility of a corrugated tube of the following dimensions: t = 0.065 m., R = 5.330 in., 1 = 0.670 in., and h = 0.235 in. 'A tube with these dimensions was tested for flexibility by L. H. Donnell" and is used here in order to provide a direct comparison between experimental and
theoretical results. ..
* "T~e Flexibility of, Corrug~t~d Pipes under Longitudinal Forces and 'Bending," Transactions of the Amencan Soctety of Mechanical Engineers Vol. 54 (1932)· "AppJi d
M h 'S ' " ' e
ec a~IC.s. ectlOn~ pp, 6975. In .this paper Donnell developed formulas for calculating
the flexibility of triangular and semlcircular corrugations by means of the minimum strain ener~y method, expressing the deflection line of the corrugations in the form of trigonometric series.
<:::
178
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
In the calculation we need the following constants,. which are d~termined by the dimensions given for the tube: r = 1.072 m.; p = \/r4k/4EI ::: \/3(1 _ J.L2)r4/R2tl = 2.34; A = p/r = 2.18 in.I; 'Y = 38°40' = 0.675 radians, P'Y = 1.580. With these data we have from ~152f) II = 0.3810 and.I2 = 0.0865, and hence can write up the end conditions in (160) in a numerical form, as
follows:
Co + OA08CI + L641C, = 0, 2.324CI + 0.023C, = 0,
P Co  0.428C1  OA36C, = 522.0 E'
The solution of these equations gives
P Co = 413.0 E'
.p C, = 252.2:E'
and
Substituting these values in (152f), we have for the axial displacement c~mponent [ujl'"Y = 277.5 P /E, ~hich means that.the total span of one corrugation, 2l, will shorten, because of the axial c.ompresslOn on .thetube, by t~e amount 555.0 P /E. Since in a similar tube WIthout corrugation the shortenm.g of a 21 distance would be (2l/t) (P/E) , or 20.6 PIE, we find that the corrugatIons pro. duced a 555.0/20.6, or 26.95fold, increase in the flexibility of the t~~e. This increased flexibility can also be interpreted as if the mod~lus o~ e~astIClty of the steel tube were reduced from a value of E = 30 X 10 lbs./m. for a smooth tube to a value of E' = E126.95 = 1.12 X 106 Ibs./in.2 for th*e con·~gated on:. For this "reduced modulus of elasticity" of the tube Donnell obtam~d expenmentally E' = 1.51 X 106 Ibs./in.2 in axial compression, and in ben?I~g of the tube he found about the same value, getting E' = 1.45 X 106 Ibs.Zin." These values of E' are seen to be in fair agreement with the one obtained above from
the theoretical solution.
The same method can be used for calculating the flexibility of other types of corrugations composed of flat circular arches; only the end conditions of the arches will then be of different character. Taking for instance the corrugation shown in Figure 139, we find that at the end of each arch the angular deflection and the component of the normal forces perpendicular to the axis of the tube will vanish, while the component of the normal force
parallel to the axis of the tube will equal the external loading P.
FIG. 139
* As cited on p. 177.
I •
'../
CHAPTER X CONTINUITY IN THE FOUNDATION
52. Partial Continuity: Foundation Layers
In treating the various problems related to beams on elastic foundation ~ have thus far alwavs assumed that the pressure in the foundation is prQPortional at every point to the deflection of the beam at that point and independent of the wessure .or deflec~ion ~ecurring in other parts of the foundatjon This assumption, which was first introduced by E. Winkler,* is mathematically by far the simplest that one can make regarding the nature of a supporting elastic ~edium. It assume!; a complete lack of continuity in the material of the foundation as if it consisted of a series of independent springs which deflect when directly loaded
..hut with no movement of the adjacent material (Fig. 140a). We have seen thet there are cases, like that of the cylindrical tube subjected to axially symmetrical loading, when this simple assumption provides at the same time the mathematically rigorous formulation of the problem; in many other technical problems t~e solution developed on this basis, though not exact, is still the only theoretical approach for a stress analysis. This theory has proved adequate for calculating stresses' and deflections in railroad tracks, but no particular claim .has been made that the deformation or pressure distribution in actual earth foundations could be predicted by this method. The mechanical behavior of subsoils appears to be much more complex than that of any elastic material, and as yet it has been found impossible to establish any mathematical law which would conform with the observations made on these materials. t In , some instances, as in the experiments of A. Foppl.] we may find subsoils of such ; character that the deformation in the foundation is localized mainly in the loaded region. In such cases, naturally, we may expect good agreement with a calculation based on Winkler's assumption. For the other limiting case, where the material of the foundation is completely continuous, we also have certain methods of solution available, which will be discussed in the latter part of this _ chapter.
~ But there is still a need to bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and to find a means of calculating foundations where the deformation 'is partlv localized and partly continuous In the present section a method will be presented for treating problems of this nature. The partial continuity of the
* Die Lehre von der Elasiizitdt und Festigkeit (Prag, 1867), p. 182.
t See O. K. Frohlich, Druckverteilung im Baugrunde (Vienna, 1934).
t Vorlesllngen abeT tecbnieche M echanik (9th ed.; Leipzig, 1922), III, 258.
179
180
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION ',,,'
f d ti w· '111 be realized by assuming a continuous beam imbedded in the
oun a Ion inuit Wh
material of the foundation, which is itself without any eontimn ~. e~ SUch
a foundation is loaded by a distributed load q over a short section dx ~e find that the deflection under the load will consist of a discontinuous part YI and also of a continuous deflection curve Y2 ,as shown in Figure 140b. It is seen that by proper selection of the foundation moduli k, , ~ and the bending rigidity. of the beam within the foundation El2 any ratio between YI and Y2 can be reproduced by such a mechanical model, while the total compressibility of the foundation l/kl + 11k'!. may still be kept constant. The bending analysis of beams supported o~ such a composite foundation will be discussed below.
Let us assume that the upper and the lower layers of the foundation have the respective moduli kl and k« , that the beam . bedded between these two .layers has a
1m h' .
bending rigidity E12, and that t ~s. entire
foundation is resting on a rigid base and supports a beam of bending rigidity Ell subjected to a number of concentrated loads (Fig. 141). Denoting the deflection ordinates of the upper and lower beams bv YI and Y2 respectively, we find that
FIG. 141 the distributed pressure in the
. * k (  y) and under the lower
foundation under the upper beam IS PI = I YI t' 2 the lower beam is
_ ~ while the resultant pressure ac mg on .
beam, P2:: k Y2 .. , .' ~)Y2 _ kIYI.· Since, according to our assumption, these
~~e:Su:els fur~ ~h~ only distributed loading on the two beams, we have from the flexural theory
FIG. 140
El d4YI I dx4
* The dimensions of kI and k2 are in lbs. per in.! and those of PI and p. in lbs, per in.
181
,The pressures in these . cases' are considered positive when accompanied by positive (downward) deflections. From (a) we have
Ell d4YI
Y2 =   + YI (c)
kl dx4
· PI'
(d)
~!
If we substitute these expressions in (b), Y2 will cancel out, and we shall have the differential equation of the elastic line of the upper beam:
~~I + A ~:41 + BYI = 0, (1,61)
kl(ll + 12) + kdl E1112
A
The general solution of the equation above can be obtained by putting YI
· r. The result of this substitution is a characteristic equation of the eighth
order, the roots of which ?re . . ,~~, .. .
(±1 ± i)~ a~d mo.S.7.S = (:£:1 ± i) R,
ml.2.3.4
where
,~ 13=V4B.
Thus, by
introducing the notation
,j'aTI .
V ~ = AI and
(a)
the general solution of (161) can be written in the following form:
· t= eAI%(CI cos AIX + C2 sin AIX) + eAI%(C3 cos AIX + C4 sin AIX)
+ eA2r(Cs cos A2X + Cs sin A2X) + eA2%(C7 cos A2X + Cs sin A2X). (162) Substituting this expression in (c), we have t.he general solution for the deflection line of the beam within the foundation:
V2 = [1  (a + 13) ~~IJ [eAI%(CI COSAI X + C2 sin AIX)
. +eAI%CC3COSAIX + C4sinAlx)]
+ [1  (a  (3) E~lJ [i2%(c. cos A2X + c, sin'A2x)
+ eA2%CC7 cos A2X + Cs sin A2X)]. (163)
(b)
182
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION"
The general solution obtained a~ove will now be applied to a par. ticular case, when both beams are of unlimited length and the upPe one is subjected to a concentrat~ force P at z = 0 (Fig. 142). Here the condition that at X= eo th deflections and all their derivativ~ in both beams must vanish requires
FIG. 142
that we put in (162) and (163)
C, = C2 = CD = C« = O.
The foul' remaining integration constants are determined by the .conditions at ;(; = 0, where we have
1 (dYI) = O· 2. (dY2) = O·
dx ' ax .'
3. { (lay,) P 4. ( d3Y2)
st, dX3 = 2' ; El2 dx3 = O. The first two of these conditions, when expressed in terms of the derivatives of (162), require that
and
which give
and
.._
i,:·
,~"
I <:» <::
i¢. CONTINUITY IN THE FOUNDA •
if . . TIOh 183
:ahearmg force Q along th b
" . e earns Th· . F'
~folutlOn for the problem in the fOliowingU~o~~: igure 142 we have the complet.e
e<:x p
Upper beam:
'1,
;~i'
If' P [ A,,,,
'ir=16Ell/3 DleAf (COSAlx+sinAlX) 1
I "_ D, '~" (0"" A,. +,;n >,z) J'
_ P (. D e~'z A2Z)
_~ 8El,/3  1 1:f sin AlX + D2 e A~ sin A2X ,
M  P.[ e~,:r
. *; 1 = 8/3 Dl 1;; (cos AlX  sin AlX)
. .

(164 ad)
Lower beam:
(16.'i ad)
Substituting these C values in (162) and (163), we have tbe~ final expressions fo he distribution of pressure under th
the elastic line of both beams. The successive derivatives of these deflectio vely, can be calculated as Pl = k ( e ~per) and lower beams, Pl and P2 respec
lines will define also the angular deflection 8, the bendi~g moment M, and th e formulas above have the foll YI. Y2 and P2 = l0.Y2. The notations in
/ . 0 oWI~g values:
,I
184
''.._..' BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
kl
VI = Ell  (a  (3),
D2 = ;~l  (a + (3);
. /A2 f3=V4"B;
and
1
a  (3,
4
The formulas in (164 ad) and (165 ad) give the values of ~he ~nknown quan,
" I th beam to' the right of the point of the application of the load
tities a ong e ' d '
(x > 0), The sign convention adopted here is the same as that use p:evIOusly
f h ' I beam (see p 11) The curves for y and M are even functions of x,
or t e simp e '"", " ,F'
hil e d Q "re odd functions just as they were for the simple beam in igure 5,
\V 1 e an . ,. , 'd" ibl t deri b
F. the s 1 ti on above for a single concentrated loa It IS POSSI eo enve, y
10m e so u, di ib d Ioadi th
if . combination of concentrated or istri ute oa mgs on e
superposi ion, an:' , ' fini 1 h
, '1 I b am Similarlv solution for beams of mte engt can
infinite y ong upper e " . , . . .
b btai d by determining the integratIOn constants m (162) and (163) m such
eo .. arne . h bl
a manner as is required by the nature of t e pro em.. ..,
In order to show by an example the effect of the partial contI~Ult~ dls~ussed
I id the case when the upper laver of the foundation IS subjected
above et us eonsi er '. A
the ti of an infinitelv rigid punch loaded by a umform pressure q. s
to e ac !On.' .' di ti
. h he izid unch has an unlimited extensIOn m one irec ion, we can
summg t at t ~ 1'1",1 pu calculate the pressure distribution
under the corner of the punch in a particularly simple manner. Let us first suppose that the beam within the foundation is cut through in the vertical plane at the corner of the punch (Fig. 143). The result of this will be that the part of the beam under. the punch will displace vertically by an amount t;,.y = q/k2, while' the other part of the beam will remain at rest. Since the natme of the problem necessitates the conti~uit\' in the foundation beam. we shall have to apply at ~he point of separa~j()n. co~centl'ated forces Po and moments Mn in order to reestablish the contmUltv III deflection and slope at this point of the beam. The problem is thus reduced to the calculation of semiinfinite beams under end loadings, which can be carried ouf bv means of (19 ad) and (~O ad). The part of the beam under the punch wiil have a modulus of foundation ka = kl + k«, while the othe~ will have the modulus k , = k«. Denoting":; (kl + k2)/4EI by A. , and \lkd4EI
illlllll!WI!I!!III!I!llll
'\.1 '%
FIG, 143
<·_/(:O~ .••• .,4UITY IN THE FOUNDATION
. by Xb , we can write the conditions of continuity for displacement and slope at point A in the folIo~ing form:
2Po (~ + ~b)  2Mo (~! _ ~) = E
k; kb ka kb kb'
Po (X!  ~) _ 2M 0 (X! + ~~) = O.
ka kb ka kb .
Determining the values of Po and Mo from the equations 'above and calculating the change of pressure distribution in 'the foundation due to the action of Po and Mo , we find that the pressure under the corner of the' rigid punch is considerably increased as a result of the continuity produced in the material of the foundation by the imbedded beam.
Taking for a numerical example kl = 30 lbs.Zin.", ~ = 1 Ib./in.2, EI= 100 ; Ips. in.2, an9q =:=.11b./in., we have Po = 2.670 lbs. and Mo = 3.450 in.lbs. and
find that for such proportions in the foun . dation the pressure at the corner of the rigid punch will be 5.58 times larger than the average loading q (Fig. 144).
53, Interconnected Girders
Let us consider a construction consisting of two parallel main girders supported on a series of cantile:vercross beams, as shown in Figure 145, and assume that under loading the main girders will deflect only in the vertical principal plane of their cross section; thus resisting any twisting action which may be due to their rigid connection with the cross beams. Under such conditions each span (dl and ch) of the crossbeams will act separately as a beam restrained against rotations at both ends, whereas the ends are displaced vertically with respect to each other by an amount corresponding to the difference in the deflection between the two main girders or the second girder and the builtin ends of the crossbeams respectively. The flexibility of each crossbeam can be characterized by the amount of load necessary to produce a unit relative deflection between the two ends of the beam. This load under the given conditions, for a beam of length d and flexural rigidity El«, will be equivalent to 12Elo/d3• If the crossbeams are sufficiently closely spaced, their resistance can be replaced by distributed reaction forces acting along the main girders. The intensity of this distributed reaction p will be proportional at every point to the relative displacement of the ends of the crossbeams t;,.y at that point, p =:= kAY, the
I
:J 2 / O. I
I I I=t:
FIG. 144
186
BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
proportionality factor per unit length of the main girder being 1c= 12Ela/cd3 where c is the spacing 'of the crossbeams. '
. Denoting by YI the d~flection of. the oute.r m~in girder of flex~ral rigidity Ell and by Y2 the deflection of the mner mam girder of flexural ngidity EI: we find that the distributed elastic resistance of the crossbeams on each of th .. girders will be PI = kl(YI  Y2) and P2 = k2Y2 , respectively, where k, = 12EI leeds;
d 3· 0, 1
an ~ = 12Elo/cd2. On the assumption that the external loading on th
girders consists of concentrated forces, the only distributed loading will be th~
FIn. 14.5
pressures PI and P2 derived above, and hence we can write, according to the flexural theory of beams,
and
It is seen that these equations are identical with equations (a) and (b) of the previous section (p. 180), from which it follows that (164 ad) and (165 ad) will be the solution also for the structural problem shown in Figure 145, in which the inner beam does not have any concentrated loud.
The analogy between interconnected girders and layers of heams and foundations is a quite general one and can be extended to a variety of problems, including the system of beams in the hulls of ships * and the structure of longitudinal and cross girders applied in bridge constructions.] .\H an illustration of the application of the method we will discuss riow, the solution of a problem of the latter type.
Let us consider a bridge construction, consisting of fou I' main girders and a large number of closely spaced crossbeams, loaded by a concentrated force Po on one of the inner girders, 3." shown in Figure 116. The ends of the erosshcams
• Application' of this method to ship construct.ions wus first made by .J. G. Boobuov, Theory oj Structure oj Ships (St. Petersburg, 1913) (in Russian). See also W. Schilling, Staiik del" Bodenkonstruktioii del" SeMITe (Berlin, 1!J25).
t See A. J. S. Pippard and J. P. A. De Wuele; "The Loading of Interconnected BridgeGirders," Journal oj the Institution oj Civil Enqincers (London, Hl38), pp. 97114, The example in § 53 is taken from this publication.
\~_' \., ./
CONTINtrrTY IN THE FOUNDATION
'~wiJl be assumed to be rigidly connected with the main girders. Denoting the . deflection of the four girders by Yl , Y2 , Y3 and Y4 and assuming that the two outer "girders and the two inner ones.are in pairs of the same flexural rigidity, Ell and J312, respectively, we have, according to the theory developed above, the follow~ing expressions for the distributed reaction of the crossbeams along each of the
"main girders: .
~
I
t f
I
I:
it Yl (
Elldx" = k Y2  YI),
~P2 = EI2 cfY2 = k(YI  2Y2 + Y3). dx"
d4Y3
ps = El2 d;4 = k(Y2  2Y3 + Y4),
Ell d4Y.4 = k(Y3  Y4),
dx"
FIG. 146
where k = 12Elo/cd3, d being' the span, c the spacing and Elo the flexural rigidity of the crossbeams.
FIG. 147
The solution of these four simultaneous equations can be considerably sirn.. plified by resolving the load Po into symmetrical and antisymmetrical components in the manner shown in Figures 147 a and b, respectively.
It is seen that in the symmetrical loading we have
YI = YI and Y2 = Y3,
. while III the an tisymrnetrical case I
t
,
v. = Y4 and Y2 = Y3, which means that the solution for each of the loading components will involve only two simultaneous differential equations. The solutions for these symmetrical and antisyrnmetrical loading components will be discussed separately below. By superposing these two cases the solution for the general case of Figure 146 may be obtained.
I
f
', '.._/
188 BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
a. Symmetrical qase
From the equations
and
we have, after elimination of Y2 ,
By using the notation
we can write the general solution of (166) in the following form:
Yl = A + Bx + CX2 + DX3 + E Cosh AX CQS AX + F Sinh AX sin Ax
+ G Cosh AX sin AX + H Sinh Ax cos AX, (167)
while at the same time for the inner beams we have
 ~ (E Cosh AX cos AX + F Sinh AX sin AX + G Cosh AX sin AX
+ H Sinh AX cos Xx). (168)
The eight integration constants occurring in these equations can be determined from the conditions of the system. Since the deflection and bending moment above the hinged end supports of the main girders must vanish we have
A = C = E = F = O.
The other four constants are determined by the requirements that deflections, slopes, and bending moments be continuous through the loaded section (x = a) of the girders, while at the same time in the shearing force of the inner beams there be a step of Po/2 at the points of application of the loads. The integration
. constants satisfying these conditions have the following values:
With these values for the integration constants the expressions for the deflection y, bending moment M, shearing force Q, and distribut.ed reaction palong the outer and the inner girders (i and 2 respectively) will be, for values of X < a, as follows:
PobX[X2  a(l + b)] . .
Y1 = 12lE(I1 + 12) + G Cosh AX sin AX + H Smh AX cos AX,
. Jl1 = P;~X (11 ~.[)t 2A2 EI1(G_ Sinh.Ax ~~.s_Ax
 H Cosh AX sin AX),
Q1 = ~lb (11 ~ I) + 2X3EI1 [G(Cosh ~x cos AX  Sinh AX sin AX)  H(Cosh AX cos AX + Sinh AX sin AX)],
P1 = 4>..' EI1(G Cosh AX sin AX + H Sinh AX cos AX);
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. ._/ '"
CONTINUITY IN THE FOUNDATION
Poab(l + b) 12lE(I1 + 12) ,
B=
Cosh Al sin Al(Sinh Ab cos Ab  Cosh Ab sin Ab)
G .;, Po  Sinh Xl cos Al(Sinh Ab cos Ab + Cosh Ab sin Ab)
2 4A8E(I1 + 12) (Cosh Al  cos" Al)
Sinh Al cos Al(Sinh Ab'cos Ab  Cosh Ab sin Ab)
H = ~ + Cosh Al sin Al(Sinh Ab cos Ab + Cosh Ab sin Ab)
2 4>..3E(I1 + 12) (Cosh Al  cos2 Al)
PObX[X2  a(l + b)] 11 .'
Y2 = 12lE[I1 + 12) . 12 (G Cosh AX sin AX
+ H Sinh A:x cos AX),
Pobx ( 12) 2 (S'
M2 := 2f 11 + 12 '2A Ell G inh AX cos AX
_. H Cosh AX sin AX),
·Q2 = ~t (11 ~ I)  2A3EIdG(CoshAxcosAx  Sinh AX sin AX)  H(Cosh Ax cos AX + Sinh AX sin AX)], . P2 = P1 = 4A' EI1(G Cosh AX sin AX + H Sinh Xx cos Xx).
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The solution above can be used also for values of X > a, if a and b are interchanged and X is replaced by x' = l  z.
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