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Numerical

Numerical

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-ro.~ le.

r \h eOI(~ ~_

------

(J\:t- » l

• (MI) I

\ E(cor \ ~ MaX \ ~ U) IlX-Q)r\~

c b:e..b . .oeey, a ~ X

~ .'II;, ~ ll'\~ 1) 1 .j. t('('or"'

· £nL~'

---

-

~,J tn ... ')

~to.} +.rlQ) lx-a." -\:, ....... '1- \ (C,) LX-Q.\I'\ -+ ~ (C.) (x_o.)n.-tl

rL! l_fiA0 ~

III

_J_

-~-- --~-------- ---- ---

0.1

e.. ~ '-t 0.1 ..,.o.oJ a

c

error e (o~ootl < I ~t;.3 G

c G[O,o.l]

c. .. e

UPpe.rbo<AAC( FoY' u>'or e,_co.cot) ~3(O.901J ~ 0.0005 .

, b

- ~u:) ts Co(\'h'nous

L.. bt.tw!!.en ~ Ca) o..nd C (b ) ~ lb 1 '----------:71

- Tn en '3 c.. € (0..\ b) S Llc.h H"l&d= f cc ) :=. L L L----------?I

bel3ono

. - ~ tA) f~ eooHnouS

- ~ ( q,l ':. t lb) < 0

- Tn f...r\ '3 c. b (at b) s\J.CJ\ \-~i-:. ~ (t) = 0 ~(QI

-

m~ value. +hecreK\1 CM vrl - ro:) is CaJ\.\.{nol.A~ 0 n tct. bJ

- ~ U) is dir~ e.r-e,....h'abk:. 0 r'l Ca., b 1

,

- +h~ "3 c. G. (ct ~b) ~u.cJ\ t~at. t tt.) :::: ~ (b) .. ~lA)

b"'Q

II

-2-

C. b

Section l.~ ~f,(OY' Q¥\Q\\;isis

Del- sv.p?O~e.. +ho.t p"-, S o.n opproXimatiJ::>n ~o P The.. e"rrOr \'5 E:p -::. ? _ pi\.

the.. y"'e.,\(lHve... exco r- Rp:' ~ - p_ en. p p

~ \. le.t x -=- 3.' Y \,:>q 2.

)/\,= ~. \ Li ~ ~.P L:. c.Ji t:.. \"

b)(-= !>.'4'5C\2.. ... ~·\Lt '= O.OOlsq2..

R x -:. 0.00 \5'\2. ':: 0.000::' o::j.

3. l"-l' ~ql_ .'

2. 'e.t ~ = \,000; 000

.....

';111: qqq, a.q'

b \t -;:. a;

-a -(.

R)! -= y = '-i ~ 10

\,000.000

3. 'e.t e-=-o. 000 ,0'2.. -i:.~ c,.ooo.oo9

t:. "'1:. -=- c- 000, 003 R-e-=- o.2S

normaliSed ~ec.irnaL Form:"! o. dd:l2. d ~ ... )( IOn. dL=F 0

Co= ~ = I.~ 2-

C I =- f 11• 'S :.,. '2 '='

C 2.. =- t+ ,.2. OS l 1 ""Ie. \

2. =.~.J:: 0'\\254fID

;"'jL ~ .

. .

i. )( -::. :3. \4 15 q 2- "

)( ~ 5·1'-1

~)l = S.\41SQ2.. - '3.\4-=-o.Oolsq?.

R. x. -_ o· Q 0 } s q '2. = ' 0 . 00 0 IS 01- ~. 1'1 lSQ2.

2. I R xl-=- e- 0 0 \ 0 I 4 ~ 'u; 3

-e, I().""

2 IR~ 1 = 8 oK 10' c:::. U;J

I O~ 2.

10-3

. iC-'i··- .

~

10

3. 2 IR~l::: 0·5 t leJ

r) 0 51'S rh'ff~nt lo.· '=s .

• i ~ Po:"!. o. d, da, '., an dn+ I )(' lOr'\. ,5; the norMalised

Oec..'rna L torW\ o~ -the. nvm~ P, dL =F 0 J the..n. fhe.. \-c"'~ d\8'~ c.hopped ~loal:.in~ ~oint ~Ye~e¥\ ta+,'Oh or ? is

~.t C.p):::: ~ o. d\a2.. ~ , ... d\'t, ~ Ion

chOp ,

+he It. +h d.S it round off floatin~ ~o in\- f"eprese.n~a+.on D ~ ~ is,

~ t (p) ~ 1. 0 .d.d2_. ". dL1:-1 r\'t. X IOn

round

whe<c 'rtt. If> obtained .?-= O.\2~'-tJ 44~t.!4S

'-f ci,~,~ Chapped

~ it ~ ) '=- OJ 2. 3 Y

(..hoc

~tLP) = O,I2.~':> round

I=",'oaL n~

- use '1_. di8 its arthnjatJ' c.

-\ -+ t -t (*) ='??

.

21

.. .,. - '.'

~;..,~ cv _;;... J~J.-.u cJ;~'L

,

OV" ~ -t O·CSqb 1 -11. ~

""1 f l~ o:.? ~

2\

(o.Li2,H6 -t o· Cjq '"+J -t o.1-3?>3· RJ

~-

e ": '-tX

p)('~ 1 + ~ -+ Xl" ~ + ,~ .

v ~.H

. I( - "0"

e ~l+)(, '\

... e.h~\-+h. £rror = h. "2.

A-. I

'.

£rror % C.(o.\)~

">V c (0.00\) ~ 103

- 'Gin ~ ~ 'h,.' LU't:.h e.rror 0 (h'lt),

~ \ n h ~ n - h 3 w ; ~h e, Yro"" 0 C. n ? )

::it. _~ •

5 UppOSe..

e~~ \-4-\.,.

sin ~ '::: n..- ~ 81

I

e \c. 4 '5ih h....... 1 +2h. .. ~

"" a J

.

~ 1 ..... '2h -t Ok.h'l.}

Erfor: oth'l..) {o.ol} t.'ror-= Olne;} (o.o'ttOol)

;, ~.v, - uJl'th EYro~ 0 (n"l..)-t 0 ~) ')J ~ ~,~ ~.ul

there.. exi~i-s So +hctt.

\ f l'h \ - ? (h) I ~ M ror ~~/J h..

I h" I -

we. s~ Pth) approximoJe.. ~ <..lo)l wibh o~ ot CA.pP'r~)(iMaf,'on o C hn) o..nd we, tJJr H:e t lh 1.:: P lh) of 0 (h")

l ~ l" \ - PlhH ~ M \ 'hft,l r c h 1 - ~ l'h) ~ c l" n

j_ 0 f + Ln J .:. ~ h u.)\tb ,_ _ _

M.c Show thai _ pL~) =- __ J~ _b. .es+irYlql:e. __ .. -. ,

" '

order ot, h'2.. )

or h ~

shou.:> that e;::. f-f:- h+ ~(_h )_

e "': 1+ h.. T h ~ + h.: -r • ~ ~

'7-1 3)

. .

h.:z..

1/2 • I .. 112. ::1

exe.rd~~ Sthow t-~

1 - Sin \-L. = h.. - ~ -t' alhe) J :i

"&.'

n ~ n. ... )

2.- +-lh}::: 'i, ~th) xl1. '"t- 0 en:

\&.b

) lhf.D14:- ~

.

assume 4hat. rlh}: ~c..h)-+ o (J{')

~lh)= ~Lh)+ Oc...h"')

o..Y\(j ("'= Min [mJn]

~he.n

~lh) '± ~LhJ ::: ~lh)+ ~thJ -+ 0 (hI') ~lh) .. ~lh) ~ Plh) 2Lhl ;. 0 lhr}

rU,} - ~th) -t 0 lhr) aL" L<~l"l + O.

3lh) 8lh)

.. ,------- -

c. ~ .. -

. - _~.Lot "-'ilh) = P(h) + oth3)

~ l h ) = f4lh) _,. 0 l h 2. ) Jill ~ ~Lh) + Olh'l.)

~lh) Jalh)

<Lx ~- (Io~ ot Si~nir,~ca.n-l:J ~U) =: ,'( ( V-x-+ I ' "'t ~ ) ca lX) == _x.....__ __

VX-tl' -t vr

tJ5e. f, dasit5 Q.l'~f\'\Q.Hc CU\d (OlAnd ~ .rlnd rCSOO) \ ~t~oo)

~ cs 00) = 1000 l V 5~ - \1500)

- £ 00 ( '22. 3'630 - '2 2,.. :36 0 ~ )

== e; 0 0 ( Q. 0 2 23 2) 0 Q) -=. 11. t 1500 .

~ lSoa) -::. 5..00... Goo -=- J I . 1"1- 4 g»

~ -t V~ 2'2.. ~~30 -t '2.'2...3601-

eXau- CA.nslJJe<-= l l- 1"+ Y f's 5 ~ ~_

ciI..!t.lJt ~ - UJ\ -- , l.il

0LAl1_L:r ulJ ~ l ~.. ~r«

siSI\ifi8o.nt ~~ e,jJJ -~

dl'Sit:.s

~obe:;_

p= P'-t ~p ~ -:. ,? -t ~,9

Pot 2: P+~+~pTE.~ -::. P + ~ + f.f;~

F. ~ :. C. P;. t p) ( ~ ;. €,9 )

::. P2'" + Pe.~ +~ G.p + bp~~

-- -. 1 • j • ~,,..,, _ I ... -L.oo: I

=P~-t€.P2

(; "'I

• P'::.q.~.t'lo -t36x10

ff =- :3 • b Jc 101--+ '2..4 -k 109

Chapter-2..

Se.c..tion 2.2.

rCX)=o

SUPPOse. 3c Eo (alb) soc..h\-hat:. tc.c..)=o e.s~imaf;e. c. ??

. .

"'

Ssc..tion2. '2..

- -we.. estimate c.. b~Blbe..c:.tiOY\ Me.+~od

- \A1t.. aSSUMe.. ~c..a..). f lb) <, 0 J t ,~ (of\tinov,

• c:: a .... b 2.

• F I 'n d ~ cc, )

- it teL) -= 0 ~ I'S Done..

- i~ ~<al' rOC) < 0 '4> I" b [a, c.]

- Else. r €. [" c; b1

*i i I

10\, C. b

8isecl~o{)

le.I= [ao ... boJ = [a I b] C.o -:.. Q.o -+ 00

2-

r;nd ~(c.o)

j ~ r <.c.o) =0 Done...

else.. i ('l r'\ (')

1" + (a 0). t- c.c.o) <.. 0

e.lse, [a,. br] ";. [Co,bo)

. ....

Coo bo b.

+hen [Q. J b. J _ [q

- 0, Co]

f\+h S-i-ep.

n~1 ~tep f C'-h)

l~ ~ (en) -;:.0 Done.

e,1~e. i ~ +' (an) . ~ (en) <'0 +~ [Qr>t" b n .. ,l" [Qn, 4IJ rise [afl.( I :1",., .. , J == [Con, bnJ

"ii. ~op if I <:.n .. I - c., I .t!.. 10 '0

o V" - r 10

s~o~ ',. l bn - a,,) <"'10"

or stop if I ~Cc,,)1 <. /';'0 D

'b, • a ,-:::.. 60 - ao 2..

b 2. - Q'2.. ~ .L lb ';~,'

'- t-Ot) -::. r; (bo - 00)

• b n - an = J._ (bo -0 )

~n 0

• ~o ~QI ~Q s: .

-c :z. -..;: '" ~ ao ~ '" ~r ~ ., .lS'an~bn~· " ~ 'o2~ b I

, fo o.l~

~ ,;b'.5

,

, QD

""

Co bo b,

(l. '0 I

or

"

re.. bl). :: rao, bo1

o , -:. CO -::. qo-+ bo "7 qo±oQ ::. ~ ::::

.2. 1, ;, 2.' 2... QO

C\ I > Qo bo"'Qo

_ a,:::. QO

... __ i- -..J>" r"'

T"H.O('~ 8i secticn -theoret11 : -

ft.- ('\.. J I ~\o(ll \l1el'e eXI~15 o YlvM~ "fE-LQlbl

1\ SSUfY)e. ~na l \ E- C.L a, b 0f10 ' J -o

s~'c-11 that. ~l( l zx: 6, ; r fca) - rl b-)<O ().fld (c_,.,} 'et-"-Es"",ts-lhe

(I='O

seq v.w<-e. ot mid poi n -Is ~erem re:J b'J -\-he. b I sec+ io(\ PI' 0 tf_S$ -\h\"¥i

\v_~\ ~ b-G\ I , ;i'HI

n,:- 0, ',L. . ..,._

· 'x C,\' "X-l - 0 .

SO\ve. X~\(lX == I.... Q 11

~ Lx) -=- X "f::,i 1'\ X - 1 .

~ lO)~ - ,

rl2)=O.~lSSqS

f o

I , r-

I.~ .2

Co -=- ~::.: f ~

\'u):::. b~\-\ =-o.I'5~-::'2q.

radian

[q I I bll:. L I I L- ] c., -_ l-+cO ~ \.S Q

~ U.S) ~ SIf\'·S -,

-:::: O.Lj q b2.Lj~

[ ~ 1.. b 2] =- [t) I. S 1 ' C2~ '-t-I.s -= ,.2S "2-

~tI,25-) -

C'1= ~ ,II =f f Sis e.g ~ /.1132 h>12...S

I I

6-Q .' -,S ~i

-_..:...... . ..::::::::. Ib' := ~

~/)~I .

b f) ,

,_Q < ~).-t

e..

l.rl. b -Q < In+ n en Q) . e.

(yt-tl)~ Ln~)

Ln2

n. -=- lOt:. [ ~ l~]

Cn2

It

rL-t I > f 6 .. 1

n, = 16

j' () e,K;omple..

,... -: '"L [ lK) 'd 7

1(",.. '"\'; _~ _

. Ln2. ~

10 .

YYlethod

e tca) · tlbj <0. o r ib ContinOU5

~ lope. -=- -\-' l b ) - 0 = ~ l b) ~ ~ (cd

b-~ b-Q..

~lb) Cb-a) ~ (tlb)-~(a.l)(b-c.)

6- C ~ rLb) (6-0.)

~ lb) - ~ (Ct )

c.~ b- ~(b) (b-a) ~Lb) -~(a)

--------- -_ .. - ..

SeLt iDt) -d .. 1

~ i" J:.ed ?9\r)t dtera+ ion

0:1 To So\ve rCx\ =0 we So've »: -=- ~ (x) ~he,.-e.. t ex) -=. "J. - Su<)j ~

[V.-xed ?Ol()t:] "

Ll e, to rind +he.. ('oots or F ~ We tind l+ie, t IXW ~in+ o\=" g CO .

,

is a

r • @LX\-::..L

x.

r;x.ec1 po i n+s I, - I "

~tP)=~.

-k = ~ --==b ~2.= \ ~ P -=- ""t. \

;)D ~(X)::: X~'" No tixed po\n-ts

"o~ ~(X)~)(. q\\ pa\nt~ ore. tixe_d pa\rd-s.

_'De~,,_ ["xed _pc?in1- it.emtjo(\~-

s to r t with ~ J P r1-t, -::: ~ (. Fh) J n ~ 0) (, 2., 3.. '-', PI = ~L~)

P2. = <a (PI)

l};eorem;

iF the.. V'-Xed Doj()~ itteratio(\ gon\J~es to P I ~-he,.n i> is. the- t,·xec} ~'In+ Ot ~"

...

~~or I' lh (}') [DtoJ~J":: [olb]

/"

Co =- bo - ~ tbo) (bo - Qo-)

~\bl)) -~(Oo)

~ ((sj)

ir ~((o) -==-0

Q_ I~e ,'v ~ (eo)

clone.. '

to ~ ( (\0 ) «: 0 =J> [a I I b 11 -=- [Q OJ Co]

als e, Co, I b,] ~ [Co I boJ

Cr) -::: b I') - f Lbn) (bn - Qn) ~ tbl\) - ~ (on)

... eXGHb?le

;:)0 \ ve, X. '& i t'\ X ;:: I

\ lX ) -=- X co,nx -t .

~(o)=-I '

~ tz, ) _ _ _~', ~ I g ~ q L.f ~ •

C.o~ bo - tlbo) (bQ-QQ) ~lbo) - ~(ao)

- ~ _ Q. g I ~sqLJ gS (~-o) ~ '.0 qq 1-5 0\ ~ -

o,~Ig-Sql.4 fS'S- (-I)

V ((0) =- ,. 0 qq 150 It S\() (, ,0 q q -=f ~ 1=1 ) - I

-' - O· 0 ~ 00 I q 1:2. . [allbI1:. L,·o9q=J'5ol=})'d]-

C,':. b, - ~lb,) (bl-cttl -= ~- ().RI~SqLi~S(d- i.OqCj15uli)

flb,) - ~ {al} 0 • RI0'5Q 4 as - (-0 'oQI06IQ,::( )

~ '.tQI&"JLfo14

~ (el) =: O. 0 Q9 s 3 Y b1

[ a ,-'2 I b 21 =- [, '" 0 q q =[- So' ~ I r. , Q I a Y 0 1 t.iJ oJi~ 0 ~ ci-::,. \I Li, 6120

C.3 -:.. I. ll4' 5 1 I 4

.....

~r()o\ '.-

(\=' \if¥) f'!"'I: t:' -=t>( \\~ 'Pr' \ -:: \iff) ~lP('l) :::: ~ ( lim fh J -= ~l~)

, '" -t. a. f'l1- I n ~ Co 1'\ -!!l> Q;;

SII'lte... ~ :=. o.l ~ )" - ~' .'

f\-II C1 If' = ~ .

exa 1Y)p1e ~_

solve x 2._<x -3:=. 0 r-'

~ tuc)=o.

(x -3)(X-+ I) =0 .

)(:.3.

X~-1.

X 2 .:2X+6 .

X. ~ \fQ)(+3 1 = ~(X).

if ~=~

?, = ~ ( y) ~ 9l Po ") -=- \11"\\::· 3 . .3 I 6 62.. .

P'2.. -:::. ~lf\ ) 7: @ l 3·3\ 662..):::. \jq.6s~i5 ~ :5 .l031S r~ ~ 3..03 Lj 3 q

Py:: 3· ol\9Lj

., tJo-\e... \h:lb 3 i s, a -rixeq ~c\r\"t· 0 \ ~LX)-=- ~ d>4~ b~ ~L~) ~3

..

. ~2_l:. X. >- ~

d i \.b."B a rv:e.. .

'2 X. z: X 2._3-

X ~ )( 2_ 3 -= ~ (X) . .2..

?o-=-<-j

f\ -:: ~ l4 ) ~ 6.S .

~2. ~ ~ l6·S) -=- \ q , b2S . p~ -= lcq .. 01 .

·WCl.M3;

X LX - 2.. ) ~ 3 ~ X -:;......:L ~ ~ LX) -

)(-2

Po~Y

~-=- ~l4) ~ ~ ~ '·5 .

r2.. -=- - 6

~ ~ -0.3=/ S

Py-::. -1.2G3IS . Ps -= - o. q J q 3S~

P6= -'·0 Q1-b2 P7= -0 ·Q9o ~1-6

,

lheorem:- (f,'xed pOind Theo(€.JfY)"T).

assume. ~ e c[Q/bj .it @u) E: La t h1 tor aU X e;[Q1bj iheo ~ ha~ 0\ \i'Xed ~olrd" \1\ [alb] VvdherrYlQrc: i~ rg~X)1 ~ \')_~r tor all x E(alb) 1~~ ~ has (l unique ri xed ~O\(\t .

_ Ib-

~,lc \e '-

if ? is 8ivefl we CoN\ re-l'iGlce.. -the. OI::o'Je- \ lUO (000",01\<;. h~

I. i~ '~'l~\ <:.1-+ -Ihe t"N" CoI\'1(l~r .

a. \ ~ \ gl L~ ) ,~, _. -\ he If ~ I d \ va ~ ,

\

D< ~ tx)< I

Monv'\" 0 nE:..

. Co f\ \Xi. '«Q,8'\SC

, - ..

I

-1 <- SC~)<o

n \+e'( f'\(l.t l~ Co Jyvov-ge'f!:e.

· e.Jo rop1e. iO\JQsti8Qie. -the Mfure 0 t -the -rfS.l aryj .show 'jour Dn,sluer bj exa~p\es ~or

~Ct ) :=. ,+ X - X 2.

- . -Lf ". .

5o\ubon

X ::. ~(X) .

K::- , -tX - X2. y.

XL=Y

X ::: t ~ (ri xeO ~oi(\ts.) l.()h~ X -:: ~ ,

~\X)=-I-.L

2.

l ~\2) J = 0 <4 CoY\vargance_ tlxed ~Inb. r o-Hro<Ji~ tlXed poin"l,)

40. <show that;_

le b- % ~ ,. b '

?, ~ ~(1.6) = '·96 - P2. ~ ~ (I,Q6) -=- i.qq 6 .

IT Pn·---fjoo 2. .

~o-::. Q·S. p\ ~ gtZS)

, .

\

~ 1'(1 ~:2-

._---_._---

a.6 x-=--.2

~ '~'(-2) 1 ::: ~ ,>l

~D -=- -2 ,oS.

p\ -=- ~L-2,~).:::: -2 . \ P2. = CJ l ~ 2 , \) = - 2 .2. .

d\\lurge... ~ ~ Pi. c11Vo.f£je.... . (R~r-u\s..i \.e \\xed ?o \Y\*:) .

b~ rne(~r, Va Itt.e.

f?cocf:- £.

\ f\ -~J z: \ ~ tRJl - ~(?j I =- 1~ \(~) 1 \ if'0 - p) «po -~)

<.\ , ,I r

--+ P, I 'S c.IOse.,..... tD p fy 0 ((\ f6 . PD f'. P PI

I ?o ~~.? J ~J.f i ~ \ .

\ \:::'~"\ - ? l =: \ ~ l PIl-.!) - ~ l ~ ) \ ~ I ~ ~ ) I (~J) - i. - .~-) ~ \t_ l P () -, - p ) < tt ~ P., - i." ~ ,

< iL. O-J ~hjJ J ~..-L> " ~ t[

T'I . ~ K.. tt . \"l \ t'n -"3> -.p\

----J) \~r) _" ~ I ~ \-'1, \ Fb - ~ 1 :=

" (\

~ K_ \ ~o -P] .

~ !;J), F;\ -=- P . " -fl.t::e>

Theor~:_ a.

I Pn i p, -% l't f\ l ~o - P'1 error.

(\

b. 'P(')-PJ·~\t lA-fbi

1- \L .

I~ IS ihe upper- boord . ~

~ .J~ ~1:. -:; 3\-~) 1. ~ ~ I~ \

llpper bound toref'(oY' ?

-4t we Ca..n t:o()nd n.

( e~cer Ol&e )

e.. xa frt ple.1-

)c3_X+c:) =.0·

USe_ yt:.:'{xed pOint. itle.lu,h'on +-0 tind

~,

1i..~6J:(A..~~~ .

L~~~.

\:- c v) _y~:S ,

'" - /' -x..,..~

\. to ) -:=,

\- ( - I -) -: f,~ VC-2..i-=.-/\

.r ['.2 )::=- \ '

. :3.. t'-----.

X:> \, K--+5 - C X--\- 5 ) ns

~ ex)--=.: x '

,_ '. .-2 13,

?l Lk) =- ~ i x. + S )

~OY'" x>o . '1--+6 .> £>

r ~<"'l .<.0 ~ lei

2

... - ~- _.., .I~ ._

\L' I'"L=

L s-

.....

........ _ .... _ .. _

[;4\,2.'] .

~~ri'

'i 2

X - 3)( .. 3=0

Po:. 1 X '-'I~ '3). 1.;. ~ .

'"\ 1

X -;.. \J 3xl;.3.

f\ ~ ~ l \) -: 't« = ,. 5 b £:, 0 ~

P2,. ~ \."1-q '35 s _f~ =L~~-~qS r",,:= \_ q 2 2. ~5

Lr.so S' ~eV'Qt to 0 n. u, jJ ~ y_, ,.;~

Ps-::. ,.9315' r,,~ / .... JC\~6lf

7:(202.) t;

c. Pn = f>ti .. , - Pn_1 -i-

S ~:I

~ lX ) = X..)(S _ =lS)(~

ca U) =. ')( - ~UC)

-\ IU)

~lX\ = A-A+3:...._ s SX4 ~ LX ) ~ ~ + __ 1:_

5 5):'4

,

~ Lx) -::. .Y.. - 21 *

~ C;)C a

"S. )(' -;. T

)t ~= =I-

XS .. "'la..(,) •

~ LX ) :. ~ ~4O 1-

)t. = \:.o.n)t. ~ 'ca.n t)C -Ii} :;:- ~o..v-. tlC-+ If) ';i ~ CCUl\ (x. _ "Ii )

t~l)( ~ X~1T

.. I

x; -:. l:c.w\)C ot TT

Fb:..~.~ . \

~t =. ~.4,~!t2. J J P2., c L.t. '1Q ~'i 2.

--~~--~~~~-r~~T-~-

l "'5)

8 ( 1 ~ ~ .. _2.'_;;;::2;,.___

'5 (1115 J ~

~ '::l - 2."

~ ---

S.1-

x= ta.n X i1\ [4. 6 J .

9 tr\ e 5e c, 2. X > t •

. '

)(.;:: l;o..n )(

.'

9lX) ~ lo..ri)(

Q\x) :. t ~ f

. CI toot X4

_ ........ _ II

~o ";.. '"'I.e... .

.. I

P, -=. ~ L4.')} .. '

. .

. . ~ 1. 3 t? 2.1 '2..,.

o _,

r: 2.. ~ tll..n (Pt 1

-= 0 .q~

I. \ p .. Po \ < €.

'2. \ Cn.t. _ en J < E. "5 . I ~ ( fh) I <-E

tr')e.~hod ~r I

t'\'£.L4:) t:.ol"\ ft'\e..thod.

\

~or n>' t)-:? \000 .

..... -

00

PI") -=- ~ .L

K:.

I't= I

5 ncco t~ 1:0 P (\ dillQ'5 e e..ue.,-, thD ~ h

- --""

hl)tmonic. set" ,'CS,

(d{V~~el

l-+ ~ ~ '"- ..... L ) _ r

- n-l - r\_

o .

C. t'\ '::. QO+ b f\ S to? . 2-

~ (CK\ ) ~ €.. crt c..n - c..n -. 1 ~ C2.

StO~ 1 t ~(n) ~ €:. a..,d c..n _ c.c..n -I J C.(n .. ,)

_, ~ I ~ La

'l. )( 3)t .. e.. :.0

~lO) 'C -,

~ c., ) =. 0 · 2.~ ~ 0

~ L2.) -=- 12- e 7. > 0

r t~) ':. ~":} - e.. ~ > 0 r(}·-f,) e, Lf~ - ell .c: 0 .

. --

. .. ~ ........' -- .... _ -- ,

N ell) to n (Y) e.l:::ho d

\,,1

(fh)::::: ~lfh)_o

f>o ._ Pi

Po - p\ -:.. ~ ( Po) f'Lfh) F\ -: ~o - ~l~9)

tilPu) P:l_"_ ?,_ ~

f'lf.)

P"'-t I -= Pi) - r l P" )

~ I LPn)

x - ~ ex'

~

&:\LX) +-

~ewton \,'xed ~oi~ r line. f,'lft1' - .

Jh:- tJe.wton 'Raehson -\he.ore.m

o.SSUI'I')e.. \ E.. ~[u, b] ~ '3 PG [0, oj So("\'\ 'her': ~(P) .. o ,f·

J ,\-

R'tp)=f=O --\net) -there. ex~s.1 Q b>o SL~Lh \hat -the 'S.e9uc,nce.

'i. PI\: {" u)hic\l is de\.'oed b~ P,'t. ~ ~l P.c.-,) " P.l:-' - ~l P'i-. )

• ~ 0 . . r I ( P''L _, ')

~,1l c.on\lo.~e to ~ \oY'" o.J)~ \01 \:,aL 0f:>p~-C)l.\matiN\ p, E \"

o L P-o, P"-t&1

~x&tN'\elf, ~eSt,'mote

3_ t;+

J<~S3lt

X 1_ 53

~ LX ') == x 1- - '2t5 ~\~ ~o- ~l~h)

\' 'UbJ

.., ....

b ~ 10:,)= t X

Po .:::.2_ 1", =k. b_) -+ L2.s z: 1.1. 42.."

t "'(2.-)b

P:l._ ~ k. ( ',1 "-ilQ )+ 11..':> 6 _ 2,11

T 1(1~1142.qj

Procr ~e.~

~..:: ...

-, -, "" ~'[xY= ox. _ ~(X\

t\()

~ 'o }:_ I - t IU) .pj(~) _ ,Cd ~ \.11;-)

(~\.d _) 2-

~ 'lot)= f LX) \ I'(x)

l ~ 'Llt)) '2..

~ \ ~) -::: tHY) f'1\_~) s: 0

( \' 'LI») <.. 'th<.c~ .

. , ~ '-4> it\e ---+ b~ \= ,')(ec,\ pOinT

'l.lIed poir1+ \t-\cro.f,C,' W,'lJ (o'(\\o.r8e .

. i ~

De. f"oi ticl\

po j's o rued o~ (y)(.ni;~li(_a~ tv1 at \CX) \\'

hq:~).::j--o _

- ~ Lt):::: X 3_ "3,)( + 2..

t ,'s 0.. (' 00 + 0 +" ~' ex)

Loho.l: j~ the. M U I~" p\\ ut:'d .0 ~ I?

A-I J x3 _ 3)(-t 2.. - )( 3. i)C 1..

x"1. ~ ~ X 4:- 'L_ ~ )(' L~X

- :.2..x+ 2._ +:l..X:'2. o·

_I. -S;Z:; :2

- X 2"!,)(

2. X --2. 2)( __ L

o

\\ ( ) ~ (x-,) C x 1._1 X --2..)

. " -', I hQS - OiOt~1~\ILI'~ 2. C-il~qdr(lbc root) M=2

- 2 I'~ 0. ~Irnple ("oo-l ( \V\ :::. I} .

]hecryi::.

f" ~s 0. roo!:. 0\ I'YIVI11'~iicd:~ M Ot ~(n j{'f.

~{j'I"'O. t 't!>l:o ~ ("\-1 I

I .. ~ - ( P) --0 but-

t~~PIe.!_

¥ L.t )=..J( 3. -~ u

- ~-f- 2

¥(')-::.o

r f (x)= ~X7._ ~ V ' c i ) ==0

~ 11(_J\}.:: bJ( rIIU)::"b

M -:;. ~

~rH I ;::J t\ e(\

\ \(Y\ ef) .. l .= A __. \,neo..r CO'(\\J(\rQence .

(\ ~~ e", <J

De~lnibior>;_ o~ ot (01\\)""'] U\ce.

-

OSSlXhe. fh·~ p a.Y"'lCI en -=: p_ i~ ,I ~ the(e.. e.t\·~ts tu:o ~osd ite numlx_r-s A, R. z,och ~ h« t

\ i 1''1 1 efH \ t = A

n ..... C()

l ervl R.

"The.() the: Secluonce.. \~ sold to

(clive, ~ e nee,. R, A I s coiled +he,

. Cut\ Vo'Z1e 10 ~ WIth cJllier o\:

As~mpJch c... e.rrcr (cnstan-! .

if R..=-f • we CGiI it \,(lettr CCI'\var'jQilC€.

i ~ R. ~2 I We Cn /I it <1 u(lcirahc.. [on \.10 'Btl. YlCe ,

eJraOj pte. ~_ 6hCLG thelt

( \i{)') .fl__)8 _ I

n-tl - .

-L

(n-t1j3 - \ i ()') I~ __J__ - - ()~~ IN!) 3

f'\?>

... ....

~Xal'Ylp'e~_

fu)= J(IC~ \00

X - Jt+ I ,;i,

QttJ-o

ICO '-1q

~ I 0, ) ~ 10' X _ lC o X _ I

~\t)~ \01- ICO -t -='6 .

{\ II I. ,Ciq (J .... q ~

\" l.r) -='\Jo~( iCC) X ~(.oo) qq ;"I.

\- I \ I) *0

1'--'1::.2.

-n:\eotern:_ Convaraence Ot- C)wtcn me..\hod

, ,'~ lA:e 1.'Se. T1eLL."ion .-\-1 \ f'n t I on J

\ ~ I'r f::' i~ a ~{f\I~\e. fco'=: J th~

, I t'Y\ I en-+ I I . =: \ f "l~ ) '\

n -I) "0 \ ~ 12.. .2.. ¥ I (_~ )

2" \' \' p nC\ ~ r'Y)V It i ph'(_ll~ \ dn \ En-t I I

(\-41>1>0 \eA)\

eXAmli?le

~o:) =- X3_3X +2 ~'U)= .3):'--3.

~lX)-:. ()(_\)2(X4-2) ~"lX) = 6 x

- 2 is Q 0\Mple foots

Co V'\va ~ f!\rJ cz, i s ~O't:.t-

\\

~ = ~ L- 2-") 1.:::: \ - 12.. 1

g~I(_-2) 2lQJ

( \~()+,\ I ~~~) \)

R.-2 \~nP- - ~J\.

-. 2

- -

3.

p_ 1M-=- 2

linear

CCi'\vo..~o..n(e ( p= \ ) lefl.-ld = h-

I,M

t'I_ ....

0.0161904; 0·4161 ----

I

0.6642 ~~ 3

\.:2. -0,2

.,

~ SloW Co i'\\p'ifgo.nce.

A____" 1- 2..

"],.,-

_-----

~eo'"8 ~ - D.c.c.elQrntea fle.<.UttH'1 VYethod

1t p i~ 0 V"ooc of "'1of'hpJ i C;t8 M then the ,teY"Obon

?rl _M~l~fI)

.\" If'l'\)

_Vc~

to"\ the ?'e.viou<;, e.xnrn.p\e_. ~ lK ) -::.. Cx-I) '- c.x+2..")

, hQ~ 1'V1U\·\')p\\c.tt~ d f ,\ u..x::. U~ -the Occ.e.Ia.Yo.~ed JJe..W toniHe.ro.b'Ch

Pry t = p!,\ - 'd ~(f'n)

(oi H ge_t quadratic ~\.Pn)

n. ~() I ~rrtll
~ e.() 1
- re..nl2
0 1.2. - 0·2

I I. Qo·6a6 0.6 - -o . o 0 Co 6
~ .... '_'_L .' ~ 0.15
.f) l.ooooo6ot'J -0· 00000 60 ~ 1-
0.15
I Secant method:_

f'\ - P:l_ -== ~ (e) (PI - 'f'o)

~ (__ PI ) - ~l flo)

f'2,. -=. f\ _ ~(f\) (PI - Po) KP.) - ~ lPc]

~3 - P2...- ~(_P:L) (PL-f'.)

~ I,.J)2- ) - ~ If\ )

?f)~ ?o-, - ~LPfl-l)(f>fI-,-fh-l)

~ It>n-I) - ~ L p(\_'t.-) .

~~-9- R.-=.., I. b,g - l-+IJS Q.

Ut-

~ ex ) -=. lX-+ '2- ') LX _ I) 2.

~o -.::. -.2.lf.) PI = -2. Y

o.nd we USe '&::.a:u·'\t rnethocl,

n, Pf\ er"\ 1 e.!:)-H I
len,I'bli
0 \ - 2.6 0·6
I - 2·4 0·4
\ -
2 -2,\o65Qg o,lo6'S<{8
-
3 - 2.()226Y 0,022.&4
y -2.0015\ 0.00161 _.. --_ .. -------_._-- _- - -- _-- ---"----,.- ---

speed ' • G '2.
\ 2-
• Coast
_--
\J~ a (LuxC). \ e d. epeY)d S 0 Y\ de~ends on
_ Con~Qnce. Po) PI ~o • ~.b

X2CoS~ -+ ~ Sin x ~ 10 \\tAlx-+ x2CDsg -:::. 5

'i'-'2.._~ L~ I

- -

.. ---- ~ - X 2... -l. ~ 1.- -=-- 2_

--

2X'L:=: 3-

X 7_-:. ~

'2---

x~ -: ~ 2.

)l. ~ ~ I ly. ~ ) ~;::; CSZ.cxJt\)

( Po, ~D J

t\ ~ ~ I CPa J 2D J P2. -=- ~ f-- (Pi I 2.)

~. -c, CJ 2.. \ f>o d~ 0 ) ~ 2 ~ ~ 2. ( PI. $ll )

Pf")-ll ~ ~l l Pf). ~f)) ~ II -t 1-=--92.- ( Po, fin)

ceo ~ini':.toT\:_

(PI 2) is 0. \="lXe.& PO-I"t 0 ~ -{he sgs.tem

>( -= '6 ' ex. ~) I ~ =- S ~~( X I ~) I ~ p~ -= ~ I (PI ~) a",d <i4 =- 32- (P, 2)

~~~-

f"ixed ~I(\+ iHe-r-o.t,'DO for ihe s~stefYI

x-=- @, (x, ~) • ~ -;. ~2 ( x, ~) IS 3i'wen ( Po J ~o) -the.n

?(\-tl -=: ~\ l fh, ~r'I ) ~ ~-II -e, 9 2 (.pn ,S n )

u:-

~. (_)(r~) -= XL_ 2X -~ -1-0,5'::::0 ~2 (_XI~) =- X2-+1I~? -~~o. ~

esh'mo I:e. the Solutions ?

X2 .... l.l2}~=.y ~7..-I.~1.=-1 .

'X == X "2.-hl-+D.5 :=; ~, C.XIM)

2

<c1 ~ - X 2.._ 4 ~ 1.-+ 9 ~ + 4 r _ ~ ~ ex I z:1) .

g.

( Po ) ~u) -;: (0 d) ,

P. ~ ~ \ Co J I) -;::_ Q - 14 0, S .=: - 0 .2 'S 2

) 0 - (1-; i~ 4- -= I .

?l. -=;. <32- (O,I::_ ...,-

1S

-,

P4 =- - 0.22216 <&0 ~4 =- a ·QQ3 ~ 12.\

P.:::, = - 0·2 ?. 2 I q 4

~ ~ = 0 ,q q .~ 8 0 q S ,

(po, 2lc) -= (2,0) (c1 )

i vo.. ""g es .

P, -=<.. ~ I ( 2. 10) -::: ~ ,d S let.

$:\, -=. g2( 2.,O).:::c 0

~\ u\~)~ _XL-+~X-t~ _ a.s ?

$J 2 LX, eiJ =e, - X' 1.. _ L\ U z .

J - nX-f L!

"* \\-

tPol~)-=--l2J\) ---. Con\JC\~e.

l L 1\) -4 ( , . q 00 I 0, ~ n )

'2 I.

]1l;_ ~;xe_d ~O\Tlt ;\\ero,ion *oY"' '![,~'t::.teKY1 ot equaf:.30n:.

QS~0me. ~,(:(. ~) J ~2 is, ~ 1 ard \:.\1 eir porll'ct L dev-ivo.ti\.e QY-e.. Cof'lti nolYZ:.

Of) 0. r-e§lon tnot CoY'lto..in~i the.- ~,xed ~o\'(\t (P,~));f" ~k start-Ins p.oiflt (POI 20) i~ C\io5in3 "S.u,t;c..ie.ntl~ CJos.ed t-D (?,~) o.r0.

\~~ \ + \~I~' and

then the. '; Pl w i\\ Co\'\\ro.vge .

in

• Not.E. ... -

j·f [ P,~) IS given we QPPI~ the. CondItio),) at: l jOt t9) on\~.

to prOOt ~\~

,

\ d J~ \ ,. \ dd~\ _""_ 11\ ,.0.<; <. 1

o.S·v~~~

\ ~~1 .. 1 ~~ I = £~ 1- ~ \ _ ~ 1-< ~ + 0 • S <. \

~·P..J11 ~rl

oh Y I.S';r

o j..9- J ~ ~ diVa~nri(" '0'.; ~ 1 ~ I u)

• c::_j:9 ~I <JU. ..)p J ~ .b.;- ~.lJ _j 1

- 1\. -

~ (JLl:>

, - L__)I

~

8.:1'amp!e

(linear ~ Si~)

"B.\+2.~ + it"=- 10 ___..,.

2l(-t4~ -~='4 _.,

x -+ 5~, lOt;::. I ~

---+

p. -=- ~ I (fb I ac i '(o)

2 I ~ g z, (_ Po I 2 0 I r-!;) )

Y'r ~ ~ b l Po I ao I ro) ,

G- au $5 - ~id el, MeJd"od

# PD-t I = p() - ~lfh) ,r'Cfh)

~I lXl~)= 0

~2 U, ~)=o

'2r

~ 'IVe.n \", (_ X I ~) !:O 0) ~ 2. ()(I~) ~ 0 ,;#;

and tl (P, ~) ~ 0 l F 2 ( P, ~) == 0

-srorbng l..Dit.h (Po.20) Close to ( P. 9) then (J&i"r1B to~\o'(" eX~lDn in Tt.Uo dl1"YYen&. 10 (J 0 b l flo I ~~ J

-+ DirecJ method.

• Dlred method

- ,~ L~, ~nJ l T r D~ 1

L \="2- [Pn, ~f1) j = c) (Pn, ~i'\J L ~~ ~

D - F;; _. ?f)-ll :: b. ~+ Pf)

~x ... \fl...I.\ n

D~ eo. ~i)41 - ~n -+ ~l)-t, =- ~~ t ~(\

• _gXamE?le

SolVe. U'&ed JJeL()toY'1 Method. - "0 verse: Mell"lo d .

x-Z_ 2 X - ::1 = C.t; -\II ~ )('2._.2 X -~ - o.S '=- 0 -;... ~ I (.'(1 ~ ) X '2. -t Y ~ 1.. ~ 4 . ---t> X '- + Y 1:11. _ l.j";. 0 ~ fL ex I ~) •

\ I (..it I 0 11..5J :: C .t.-S

~2 (2,0.25) = O.2S ,

(I.tf062.'5\ O·SI2S). .

A =D::t:. -t t>o •

:=. -o·oq~1S T Q.

-= \,g o6c9'5 .

- O.2S I

-O.'Z.S

D2} -=- ~ I'" ~o

• p';"" ~- •.. -

. ~ I ~ ~ ~ -t ~o .

:::.. 0·06 2.S + 0·2'::, -::.. 6· 3\2S .

d i SC1J.S& i 0 I)

p

[]§J ~ LX)::. (x- p {rt hLX) .

(I"V\_I)

~ ~ ( P) ~ 0, ~ 't P) =:. 0 - - - - ~ ( \~) .:. 0

~(~) =0

I 11'\-1 L I

~ LX) z, (Y) ( X - ~} n 0") + (..x - ? {"'I r l.- l,k 'I .

~rU~):::O.

~(if» :.0 .

( X - pI ; ~ Q tQ (tor 0 '\-. ~ l.p) .

LX-I:)) "L I':::. 0 \='CfC1or 0 ~ ('I 'c ~') '" ~ ~

l!l \!jl xl=- X - M ~ (XliI:- WI tl Co \'1lJeA 'Be q vod rol:ie olf!j . to P

. ~ 'eX}.

p j"b 0. ("oot o\=. mvlh'p.\ic.i'11 'Mfof" Q ex) .

~ LX ) ~ ( x - p.) Mh U() , n ( ?) ~ D .

f I(x) ==- VY1 (K- p)M-Oh Lt \ -+ Cx- p"/\1 l-L' c.t.. ) .

9 LX) ~ X - (Y) (_ x - ~_M_h_~U~"J:____._ _

M LX ~Jm-f I... WI

- \ r I ex-} "i" (x -\JJ 'h I Cr) .

~ x - YVI Cx'_p) nCr)

M hU'·)..f Lx _p) \-\1 en

- eM htn + (x-l~\ hr 0') (rYl hu)+ lX.· \~}brCx I) -(V) (x- p) 'v!lx ) x~ L M hex) + (Y-P)hf(X)l '2..

_ Co(¥) h It:> j) 1.

I

3 LPO J ~ \

.z: 0 '

Q,

C\ LA. ad '(~t; C_Q u ~

;.~

- '2, n-t r Y)...)~
_::;
\\(n IE--n_ql \\yY) 10 -=- \ \ '(Y) hJ -
- -
n --& LV \ enl '2. n~ Q;;J - 2J:? T\.~ CCl I -2~q>
( 10 o .
b, Pn;::: -r/'[ , quadratI' (c;{g; .
ID _ J t> 0
I 156 Y-::..

~rop+er 3

linear 'S~&terY)E:.:.

lJ~o+ ine Me:t:ne,ds.

~--~----- .. -

'0 r,"xed t::>oint (tbru t10n 2, Gaus<; - SI"deL ('r) e th ad 3~ fJew~n f\'\e~J)OcJ"

• Dlred, l'Y) e-% dE, ~ - (~is Y) 0 " 8; "9 U <;qr ) .

I • G a us:; ioY] t I j ~e.., a bot) [fl', bJ --<> [u Je. ] + I3a GI'i. S u bsi tuU"" _ 51. Goose. - cloV'dCt r"\ [A\'b] _--I> [,:r\K]

S" I Il\.leve;e YY) e th ad x -::. rr I b

40 Gra Mer I~ :, XL: ~ lfu1

IAl

S, L - U l;ador"sab'ot\.

'Sec) l'O't 3. 3

• bQCj"t.. Sub~ H::<.Jtiob_

'Ox, + 2. X 2.. -t Y Xc =- 9

Lt x 2 + bX.3 '::. I D .

IOX3 ~ 10 .

~] J~ ]

10 10

io Ya =._ 10 ~§.= I l <"'1 X""2..-1 6)(3 = 10 .

Ll X2~ \ 0 _, .

y }I'-~Li ~ E"2..~ D "3 X I of 2 X 2.. of Y X'3 = q . j:x, ~ Q-'-I-2.

3 )( I -::. "8 ---t). ~r-:-)(-:-I-~--::I'j

0..'1.0..12 O'J()-2. 0,,1\-1 QII n

o

01)_, ,{).I X'n-, -\OO-I,nXr :: b'l"\_l .

v _ \0(\ _, - Q y\ - r • r"I X II

.1\ 0 ... \ -

b()

~.

X\"\...-:. b \'1:... - Ot... X \t.~ I \-'[ I \-t.+~

r'\..

)( \"<i_ ~ 6 \1:. - ~ a \'t ?<j

J-:.l'l~1 ~'L

Ste{>s -t l - x/~
~ 0 \
2 \ 2-
3 2 ~

¥i. \'i.-I \')_

n, n...-\ n,
_-
,
\o~l {o-I)ln \ fLc..n-+l)
-2. - ~.
I "3 LJ G . n bH m;f1o lior}

• -J aUss.~a

Ax =-10

[A\b] ~ [o\c J -+ bo't.\"[ ~o6 .

ROLD C':l pVra. bot) so".

I. fY) lJJtipl~ o..n~ '(oLO b~ 0. non 8ev<> Col')s,tcu-d: 2. ccwi tc.h (lI{\'O two row'S

s . Replace a:rl~ Vbw \o~ Qddi"'8 to i t: Cl n0t13ero mvltip\e. 0 ~ Qh')ot:h.ev- Y'Oll

roll.) v: : == ('OW r-+ c.. rcco ~ .:: ('0 W - m rot.() P r;f

X, + 2X2.+Xs-t liXy_ ~ 13 ..:2Xt + L.iX3-t-%Xl4 =:.- 2.8' L.fx.-t ::J¥2.+ 2~-t Yy-=- 20

- 3 X I + X 2. -t B)( a + '2 X4 -;:: {, .

p,vo~ t. c'l\,k)t ~LO

e.1WJe1\ _ _...-- \

I •

(1')2-, -=- G. 2, = 2::_ ~ 2 all I

('() .3 t -=- Q31 -::- ~ = <-I

a I( I

fYl'--ll ~ 95d.L _ - ~ = - '3

all (

4- piVot Q"w

. ii1 I'

O1B2. -=-~ -=- _u- = \.s Q2.t) "li

IY) 4 2:. E~lol2. ~.:±- :;, -"\ :::

0.. 22.HJ - 4

1:. x am f" lc:.

BD\ve~-

" +31,

- _,

\ 2l? I 2.0 I 6"

...,

'2 I Y ''0

-Ll 2-5 2. o -'5 - -:j,c, -35

o q.'=:>\').l~ 14R'5

,

R3- l.sR"" k'4-t 1.15 ~2

2- I Y
-l.\ 2. -os
d 0 -") -1-·S
0 0 Q -g - \. T'5

-

I~ X4~2
'2. X'6::: L..I
---It
-3s X2- - ,
- t& X, .,.. & WI..!

1-+ - X/~
t \ ~ )(3 "'3 + L()'3
2 \ ~Xl. ''2 -+ 3)("2..
'3 d X\ l+;;iX,
1
ectaL 20 -:2. -6 \ step

/

S~ep \ + / _

XI.:.:

1 Cn-I)n Cn-I)n +11-\

-

-

'2. (n-2) tn-. (0-'2..)(_n-')4;YI-2

-- -

p

l!l&\:; (O~ I)

5\-t.~_' ---t-----t---------

1\,.,

totaL + / -', i lil- p) (l1-P~,) P-_ \

n..,. \

X I-+-; 1.. l f1- ~ J ( 0- ~ -t') -+ In - ~ J

n...t n.-\

~ ( () _ p) ( '() _ Pot.) -::: ~ Cn - P) 2 ~ l'" - p)

~I p_\

I I~

Le t l"l. = (L - P

\ ~ f'~ 1 __...t.. Ii:. -=- (L - I

p._ n-I ___. Y-l..=- f .),'

total Xl/. - (;0- \ J en) (.20-\) + n.CQ.-l) o,,'c.n-I)
-+
G :2 .2
~I ~,
" ~rruxJ TotaL bi l (0.'--" )bwn.,~ -t (LUl-I) J-t Yl,ll1.-\ )
-
L. 2. Coo.St::: 4 Y"L 3 -t ~ n -,_ - -~ 1\ -t @f ~ Lt rt~ q n'--ln

b

UL

• Al§orjth~

LU i 11 ~ ~ore. ,he. A uS u men t e c1 \'Y)Q l:r ix' n

Store fhe CO ~G r I·O'€.r'it In o.rva~

'Swit.c.h V'oU)S it neCe.~c::.aY'~ so ehat (I)

~ " oJ '!\')'-" ,-- . Ch,l ~')'( . ri -e, 2 to Y'L

Q N(

~o t: C tro'fY1 2 1=0 n.,_,.

t 2.) , '"I ) c..~ )

Se.t rv ~ Q

\A r, c.. -=- a Y", c.. -:::. Y't\ c, I I J C

.~ \
an,l
and c.O \ II
l!')
Qt.1
0
0 D

I Y) 1l€11evu L

f'~ I S}ee

l!\ lq t ~)
QI11 ~ - ~ - Q',n I Ql,n.,
OIL,) (1. ) I Lt.)
1.:l, - - -- (;\'2..10 a'2.d)~ I
0 Q3c.3) ml (3)
'5 - -- al~l"\ Cl?'ln.l
.
• .
C) In) , <.n)
a'll n l Qn/n_1 C.r )

1\, ""'" 0

\:1.1,1 or

D o

c, )

o ; (011) l'l.) (l'l..,0t I

t "l.) C\3 J n-H

o

,

I (2.) On.'2.

I l £.) Qfl'r"Ht

D b:"rror

> 0 . 5 1- 20'0 "* G ") -;: ~ . 6 0 Y.~~ S ~ 'd. 6 0 4 t; a·123 4 S.;f- l-:t) -'=- o . '? 6 4 I S I>:!, O. ~6l.11S

~ I J:¥ .u.~ .u# r.:? J ~ ~ ._Ma.J 1 ~

1:.0 OVoid ~rDPQ8ab'on o~ error we.. USe -the. P\vot 'Q,lernent to be. the largest in the remaining 0\= the. Coloumn in \ Qyt-p\= rtlaXL\Qpf')L \p-lt)P>1

\ 0. I 1 0. 1 ] Q....V'I J. ~ w \'t: c}1 row r-; W l-th roc.v I~ /' ()

- --. f)_lIP' Y"lIP .- L "f

\'C"> P

T.lamj?> Ie -.._

CL 000, I. 000) \'S. 0 ~ol\Jb'oV\ J...o I I ~=> Y r:

'I L • ~;'::''''I-t "V'L2?1 X<._-:" 6.'114

2'-1.1LJX,_ /'2toX"" _ '"'

(.. - £..z...q£

t-o ,lh p i Ito ti rt ~ (1.vJ 01 L.o ,'Chou IS- 1'0 Ii )' t- i ?q

~D\V~ t..he above

6. . 2~1 1 \.2.10 (

~ C·~~~ t"::,.'l.S>1 0'Y'41
x 2=- \, o 0 l
-JJ1·1 - JJ 3.~ )(1 =o.QQS6
LtJ\'~h PI'voUn~
( 2.4.l4 - t, 2.10 ::~J
1.13s 6.~, m 2. f -::..--'." 3l.
2. ~.I4. -= 0 • c Y {, Y
6. '-il4
[ 24.,'1 -1."2.10 j ~2..q~1 )(, -=- t • 000
---&1 a .
t; . 3:3 ~ &S • ~j~ ..t z..-_ 1.00() _ LI Q_

Ax.:: b

I. Gou"S'Sioy) [Ji\bJ ----e-- L La.. \c] -t hoc..li::'5Ub~ih)tioY)

2. Gauss - ~ordCln f.\evninaE~;on

8 -t 3)(2.

:2

.

\

1\.

So\ve

BX.'--t :2.:t2..-t 4:x.-a ':. g X-t - 2:x:.Z +cx,3 ..... 2.

"3~t of Lf~? - =t..3. "::.. <;;

.'" -. . ...--. -

l' 2)3 'i 13

.. 0 I -51 ~

e:2 -5

'tAerci~e.

~iY)d the totaL Cca.s.t: ~or Gauss (ford e"HWiit)QClZ''l

t-JQ

41~ t31

(~513 -)

- 5 -3

~' 0 0'/ ~lJ

OlD A

DO J

-_. [; : :

J \ 0 0 J

0\0

o 0 I

Coo.s.b

Step 1-+ - \ ~/...;..
, 6X2 S .... 6X2..
2- £.,j )(1 (..{ + LfXl
"3 3 '.Y1. 3 + 3lt' 1..
, (2 ()-P)(t)-
,
(1 n - P -)(1'\-1 I

-I) -t (In-p)

~\ +1- ~ .
~
\ -
, L2n~I)X(Q. D L:l. 0 -\ ) + (.:tn -I j Lt1.-1 J
- -
2- 1/2.0-)..~ ll)o\ t~1') - ~1+ (20-2.) ((\-t J
I'
e7. nit' (n.l~ L;l.n-it) + (2n-~l(:n-' J
-
n, run-r) n, + n, In.- I ) /

Coast. =

y-. Cramer's «>etnod
XL -;:_ j~d
\~\
r,r'\ d. -the. coos-I; at
)( \ -= .Lful
\Pq
X'-~ '~L\
\~J
X~ '=- \A~\
\ f\ 1 Cramer'~ VY)etned ~ ... 0'*'0 Mcttrix. y \ ~ I ~x~ -t- 1._ c1e.le"rni('Clrrt; ~

,- 0.\\

0. I). t a~1

0.1'2. (\ 2.1- 002

::;. Q I, ( Q..1..'-Qi5 _- a 1.~ Q 32..) _

<l IL_ ( 0 1..1 a3~ - Ci 1. 3.Q~') 1 Q l ~ ( C\ 1..1 a 32.. - Q 12 Qll )

YX'3-t'2. ~ Iy

-9

e:

Coo st. -;. Y .l( (ly) -t3 - '5~

.~ . L=-- • .....:U=-_t~a_L_to_r_i-=~~O'_+_j_O_()

LU X -=- b

L Y b '\= '('wav--d wb'&ibllb'Ot1

I. =- --+ 0

'1 . U x = y ___. "'0<:'\'1::. word "'-0 b'l>i-tot;oYl (Coast = n."l. ) .

u

4:Je, -t"3.:t. 2 - Xt.,":. - 2...

- 2 =tl ~Lj.::t.z. -t ~.x! t:.. 2...0 ::c..., -t 2. =>c. 2.. -f 6.;:lc:. i, ":::. t

tB, :::. -2, ~2.:=' iq

~ 2,:: " (1

_ '?St -

• '=0 t:a L Coast ==. ~ow -.

,~n& n..:' _ fL

(Y.l U liipUCA~l«' J"3

boc,n:.wbS.i bJ l:Ioy\'

-t

+ fL1. +

x ~ -=- J.1_ :::; 2.. ~·s

X'2..::. - 4

Xl -=: ~

... ~L() Of>ev-a,ilon

,?.. cadd.+ion 1

'* 2(l. -'3n in.

b

-t ,601. -+ b02_bQ -+2n~-"'l,r\'-+n

6 6 6

q '2

Y n~ +\fjn -30.

_6_te.p I -+ /- ~ ~(+
.1.- CQ-t) Lrt.-t) c...n-1J -t en-I) Ln.-I)
-
'2 l V1.- '1 )Cn.1.) C. n.""L ) -\- en- 1..) Ln...-2 J
P (n.- P) '2. L t1. - p) -; Ln..- p) 'to. ~o bo..L -_ ~ll'1.- ?} 2 ~ <L u't-p) of U'L-p) z.. _ .9~lrt-~J '1. + l.,ln.-p)

- t;; Crt-,) In) l?o-t) -r (11..-\) UU

6 2.

~(a()~-on2.*n) ..;.J1't-n.

6 2..

q n.. ~ - 'n. '4- Q (l -+31') '1.-= ~n b

- 4rl.:~ -30.1.-rL

-b~

n

t~, "',)

xc •
,- L
:)1:.0 t10
J(.\ ~I
~2 l 'X.I)~)

.'

,

ap?lc)(\1l\a'ion ~

Wrve

, ..

;o~e,.-po laban ~- ,. S 6S1 imabot') ot: \:he. u" liVloWrl tUl'\dioYl b~ POI~ tOhiJ.? ~Q~~e_s t\t}rougn a H 81v~ PO\Y)t~

( YL-tl) 1..:...w. I j \

Poif\ts

(J/Q.) , (3; '5 J 1(1/10)

p J.. (~ ) =- 'A.x.. '2. t .B.:x: + c. P:l,. (_ I ) ~ A 1" f6 + C__-::. 2.

p 2 (.3 ) ~ q A,. e:, ~+ c. =- '5

P:1. ('"}) -~ t:-t q II -f"f. Q

- '1 0-+ c ~ ro

• J

~ <JiVeK\ C::t.l:>d~~o) c..XIJ~I)

U)e. oeed to \-\Y'ld bne.

( ':Ln I ~11) ,

~o\Hr>cl'\1"cd.. PnC::::C) Which ~'tl~~.;es

r ~ n cxi) -=- ~ L I L -_ 0 I ._. ) r1}

~ g,iv~ (::X:O/~c,)' (:.:)(", ~,),

~ _ ~3 ~ t'Y) l=c.-~o)

~-~C)-:' ~.-~ :C:x.-~) _...e.. ~=' ~o-t ~\-'do (::r:."x.o)

~,_~I,) ~'-:lCo

::>GO _::c..

'-=c... - :xo. ~ I

-=::c. \ - :>c.o

(:::C-:'.C.I) (:x..~X2)··· (::c.-:tl\) ~-t (:x..o - ':lc...l) (:t_o -')(..~) . -- (:leo::l:J\)

( <:c..-::c.o) (:x..- .:-c.. '2.) ' .• , (x.-~~ I eX-I _.'Xo) (x., -'~2.) - - (~I- ~l

J...r'\ I l""-/' --~-

_ _ _ _ + ('X..-xo) ('X--::x.. ) (x.-:x. ) ,~ (x -~n j

. \i:-i l"t",l ~ 1-

( oc: t1...::x:o) (.x.I"t. - ::c ) (....... (. - .

~_~_---+.Q;-' ::c..\--t. - ~1"t.+I) .. - =<-~"

L...fLl \'t.

la9r~e. C0e-~ltJe.1t po\Hnomla.-l..

- -----------

_Prnot: -.1 Pn. (<XL) = ~~ ) ??

fl- -:;. \ ---9' ~ , eXt)") ::' ~o

F\ (~o) == So f \ C_.:>c.,\ \ = ~ I

~2. C~) -= ~o p~ (":)(;:.1) ~ ~ I

P 2.. c oc, '2.- ") -: ti 2.

~ c c

• b)faKY)ple \ ..

~iv~ ~(~)-:. Cot;'.:t. on LO) ltl'2]

r \4ncJ P, (::.c... ) ~ P2.. (:.t.) I P?I (.:x_) o.nJ Col'rlpare.. I;:he.. ClY\S\.L'er6

o ) 0 b) ~e exacl:.,

f\ (0.3'2:.), ':l,. ( o:~S , r3 (0 .: ~~ )

\

'R (~) ~ "'O'S'3333~ (:::c.-1\£.) + 0. 30tq6~ .:t:.

p~ (o·y:d = -O'~3'3333 (0 ,35-1.2.) .... ol30lQ 65 (0.3<0)

- o. cg ''-1 0 20 ~ e~Qcb -::. co~(o,~S) ~ o.q aq~ t2.1

P,,- ex ) ~ ("" -X- \) (-X. -"-?,l ';10 + (:1:.- ::.co) (x-~ ~ \ 1) \ + C:.:. _ .:;c~) C:>:...::,_, 2 ~2

( :t.o - x·d (~._ . .x l } C ::t.1 - :W) (-:LI ~ oX d ( :x_ 2 _ -:t:.:)) (::x...1... ... X.I)

C-:x.O) t)O) I {X\ f~' 1 I (..x.2..J th.J

(0 I Co~o)) ~ I (1.1, CcS(_I.1.).) (o'b, Cmc.6)

t 0 I I ) I (0 .0J o . 8:.l S s 36) J (I.l...) o,·~ 6 "2. 2. 5'$1)

P" (.cr.) co (;,,::. - 0.6) (-:.:: - ; .1.) (I) -t .ex,. 0) (::.:. - "1.) (O.!?2.C,33t 1 + 1 ""~)c""--<>~

(D-o.~} (o-I<2-} (O.b-o) (o.b-l.-l..} (L'l.-O)ll;Z...(

eO,~b~ - ~. 3 11 ~ aq (~-0.6) Ltx: - 1.2) - 2 ·2 q l. 6Qq :.xC:oc -1.2.) +o.<;ta;21 S ~ (::>t-<>el

P2.(O·~·::d== o. q 2 ~31f~ 0 ~.<,8

h, -= 1.1.-0.. -:=0.4 3

(OJI) ,( o- Y'o.Q21t6U I (o,'B ,o.,Q619'1- 1 (,.'1, O.:'b2.'2..S~)

f3 Cx)= (::.c. -0.4) (x-o .$) (:X-I •• ) (I) + (-::c.-oll:>~-o.SJ ('~'--I.1.} (O.Q2.It>61)

(0-0· .... 1) Co-o.~J le-I.'2.) (o.c..t-o)(o·4-0~) (o.y-t.2.\

- -

§'VBt") (](o.~o) (-x...I , ~d - -_ - I (xq. H~)

Pr. ex) "=. <t\. L (~) u -:. LI\ (x) ~ 1- Ln~X) ~l-\- .... - ... _,_ Ln,ntX) ~n

L o.\'[ ch'(, 1110 0

tt.::.o

LOdt (~.)::: CX-X'o) (x-X'd (K .. '2,) C(tt.-xo") (~rt-xJ (Xtt~X'l.)

.~ -- .. (x-Xtt_.) (X-)('I'L-i-,) "-~ (x_..rl\) - - - - (X1t- Xf(-<) ()( i "x',t ... ) _ -_ (~.xy

"1h ec(}) ~._

i ~ ~ c~· 1 = P W"\ lX ) + r;., LX )

t r\. t.x ) ~ Lx - Xo ) t,)! -x.) - - _ (x: _ X t'\ )

( fLt-,) ~ (3 )

Ez ()( }::: (x-~o) (X-XI) lx- ... K"l) ~ erg)

-

at

(01\) It O. b, 0 1~2_'O .3 ~6) f (I. 2, O.~b '2...3Z£ ]

(~) ["2 (X' ) = x ()( - 0 • t) (.x - 1.1.) ~ (tt) ,

6 r3)

["2 l o.3S) -= (t). 3'=» f.O:3.S - O.l) (o.3S _I.z) ..\' (C)

.... b

lf2.OrJI ~ \ x (x -0.6 ) lr- 1.2.)\ . \~'~ \

Krrax Cc)

c ~x<.vn

~(X)=(OSK ["0) t.2]

~ \.\'.}= - SlO't

1 \' l,t·)~. -Co~

o i\1 r

t (_ t' ) =- 'b I fl)( .

tna» l.ru~.r-) I:; bi()(L'2.)

0\< X,,,1.2 ::: 0 .Q32f)

j.1.

_ Fi1-

\ t 2. ex J (~ l x ( )( - 0.(;) (X-I. 2..) I ( 0 . q '3 2..0 ) 0

b

\ £2. (O'-~'=»' ~ t o.ss (0·25) (D. ES) (O·q 3lc>J {;

~' O·oliSS

p').. (lj·35i = 0.'1 '50lS . b\(oc.;l-.:. O.q 3 q '3i- 2.~ ,

~·{ror.:=- 0 100-62

l'heo ren1 :. - U () i rotm bound fey- Un"'torm parbi\:.ior"

h..= b-a n..

-e, )( a -)(0 Of' n. \

-----JC)I. X'rc ::. )to + \1: h. (n ~ Xo-+ n, h.

....

Lek f'.'\f) = tra« \~~~l'

a~ Y~h.

tn€¥\ r. \t\CX)\ -E- h,'- M2 ~f aU)( €, [;co/X,1

~

!.2. \ [2..(x'J I ~ h.. ~ N ~ ~Oy a II ~'E., [~-O,. k1..]

q~

3

- ((>, t) (0 . qa 2 C) ::: O. 03 6 s 1

cpr~

() P'P e«: ooo ('I deJ ~o{ Q\l x.

\ ttl>') I ~ ~ 7. "'h. ~

bo 5hoto l f,u} I ~ h '2j\e1l S.

b. • (V) -e, LX - x~) ()( -y,) M 2.

QI

.

Le~ ~ -_ x - )( 0

X-)(l-+t

-:... (~D ~ t}(l(o + h.)

~ u, ( - h.) -= - h ... 'l..

.2 -z.. --q-

Max l \-H..(o) \ ::::. ~

Li

\ t~ (y) \ .s n_3M3 9V3

)( 0 Yo-+ h

~ I

lel:: X. = Xo+ tl-t

...

o~< t ~2 co<l-

? LX) ~ 0n (X ) + £() (K) . then

U)+ I}

£1') (_ y) = c.:: x 0 J CK - )( r) _ _ _ e x - K n,} f ( cJ (n+ I) j

I

>Co

~O'l n...= I .

n Lx ,)

s: 0 "

Sucn that

h \ (_c..) -:: \1 01:) - YllXo) z: 0

I

>(- Xo-

( ) w th C( t-

8, m,' la V I ~ 3- C2 G :4, X I "Sue

h_' (( 2,)~ ")LlX.) - k1cn -:::. 0 X, - x..

S I rr) i Ia Y" I <J -a c €;. Lei, L'2) :s () c.~ t:-h C{ (;:;

~ lIe/') -::::. hi (c.'2.) _ h'cu) -:: Q, -0 z: 0 •

-{\ .._ C·2 -C4

C2 -c....

c..1 \ C'1.

r. , J

• piCOt'

X-: Xo-+c X\= Xo-t h XL: XO+2h

." "

• ,I ....

'3 ' ' J f~ (~l \ = (X-XO) (X-X,) (x.-Xl.) sr (c.)

, : 3l

, .

... ' ..

>, "

- .' . .

x , Xo =t.

X- XI.: I:. .. ~

'll. .. 'i4 = t. - .2. h

... -II ~ ,'~. ~ ,

I.. ~ '. " .: 0;. ... " ~_

. .'. , ,; - , " " ," . '

jb.Cxlj ~ tt) (l-h) (l-2h} 11~

!iI.< ... ,', r.

b~ 6+ '1'-;, LJ .., h.

- - y 6t)- -,x3Xl

c

b O.4~2b49i3 h

, b 1.5113S0~ 6'1 h_" '.

¢ it}:;, o:~ S''1Q OClI1q h 3 "

I &CXjl ~ ~.3g4~r]9 h.3N.a_' ' , 6

I f2(xJ I ~ 4; ~/113

Cf>lt)= I::U-hJ(l~~h) .. ' ".:-.'",:'

, . , , " ;-. ~", _. ,

:::: (E:.:l_tl)) Ct-2h) , , , 'r . ' • -,'

=t ~ - .2h[2 - 'h ~<: + i t,2. t'; £3_ 'eh-l2 + !lift

' , , ' " ,> .. ,., •• ' ~,

¢ (tb 3t~ - {,ht. +2.1)2. " , '" , ,', '

<1>'CiJ= 0 . '

b .' " .' ' .. ',' . ~ " ;.' .

'I •

, .

,. , "

. .

• proof I E3(x) J ~ h.4M4

2.4

4

E" 3(X)= (~-XO) (,X-Xl) (.x.- X2) LX- XQ) ~ CC.l

..' '11

. .

J £ aCXJ 1 ~ ex-Xc) ()£-X,) 6t. .. X2.) U.xaJ M4 .2.lI :

, ]'

. ' .

x.:::: Xo+ t-

x, = xo +n.. Xl..:: Xo+.2 h )(3 =- Xo+ ah

, L .. ,.

i ...

x.-Xo.:: t

X.)(" = b- n. X-Xl.:. l:.- 2.h

X-Xl.= -1:.- Bh

." ','_ D' • ..

• • " •• III "- ..

lt6CXll ~ (b) (e-nJ ct-2.h1 It--oh) My

, ,:::Z l.J., ' . ..', -,' -,"

Let. q,(t)= c U: .. h) It -2h) t~-~nJ ' =- Q:. ~-thJ ( 1:-2 h) l \: .. ~hJ

:=. ({:!. 2b2.h _c2h .... 2tn'3..).(b··oh1 .' - , ,

-==ll:.~- 3tl.h+2.chl.l (c·'1:.'n)·· .. ,- .

. _ sz, \:4_ b \1~ 'a. + \\-n,2.t'2. _- 6 h3t. .

, C:p\'l~Y= Li t S ':I~ lit ~:';"'2~ h2.'t· ';"~~h.~' .

cp' lie) =0

l: = 2.'1 se ~~o,'l'l n.

= 0.'3 g ,q 66 0 1\ h.

-::. o·osh.

<fJ (\;)=t .. ll-:.1

.. .... ~ ill

. .

. "'4 . .'

roY' qm) che max = n ~ b~ !J. ~I ~oy,~a,rq n

......... - ,

, -

.. ,

• "J- ,

- .

..

'. , ,

. \

OF" ..

. '

. ,

. ,

. - '

- £ \ ex) ((I:.-Xo) + (t -)(,) \ (Xo - x. ) (x->,.'j

- E I ex.) ( '2..)

\ \ \1

'rL (t..) -=:. ~ (-l:) - 0

...y

f.~ (I::) be£a.lJo"e

-Me ~Qnc..tio 11 ',CO \,()@Qr

. 1\ II n

VL (_ c) =. ~ (L) - 0( E. I ex)

lx_ .x 0) (x-X~)

=0-

.f I (x) ':: C X - X Cl ) ( x - X'd ~ \' ( C )

d.

h L t,) :::. ~ (-b) _ 1>2 l ~) - b 2 (..r ) (~-- X D) ( t - x d L t - =h) (x-xo) lx->o) ()(-'I1. \ •

h (. x 0 1 -= ~ (xo) - P2 LX 0 1 - 0

h.. Ot'l ) ... -'-. ~(XI) - P2. LXI) - 0 .

--'.

he >'1.) ~ ~ Lx'l.) - P2 l){l..) -0.

h.l~) -e, ~ ex) - P2. LX~ - .}: 2.. ex )_ c.y) -

.: 61-

, (_;i2-1 Cd 2 )

( )(11 I tj fl) ,

P, (_X) ~ 00 -+ q 1 Lx - X 0 )

f'2. U<)-=. f\L>\)-+Ci"2(X~Xo)(X-X\).

p~ (_ X) -:: r2 un ~ a ~ l'i - X 0) (x - X \) (I(. - X ?) .

p\ lXo) -=:. Q 0 + Q_ w (X D -Xc) .

~ \ lX\)) ~ Q 0 -_ ~ C.Xo J ~ ~o ~ ~ ~Qo -=- ~ 0 l

F, eX1) ::. ?cxo) + QI lX, -'Xed =: ~(_X\).

\\ 00

~{rsf. d~\JIJeJ cl'~~~Ce .

e()"2) z: p;;z. (V2) :.. ~CX&) -I- ~.[X()IXIJ (X2-Xo) -t-Q2('){z-)lc) lX7_-)(,)

~ lX, '\ -~. (xo) )(\ -Xo

o 2 -=

~~""2-) - ~(Xo) - ~ [xo, ~~) (Xt_-Ko) L.X"L-)'o) C XL. --\"'1 )

~ (y 2.) - ~ (x.) () (')

- .t (XI) -;: CXol )("2-)(1

a li: ~ ~ [Xc, .\'" .l!l_ -~ X ILl . I' ,; (: lL 1:" divided cl,' FFer~Ce. i

_ h?_

-------

eJe t i:l \ \: Ion

~'r)

f[X\'L] z: f (xtr.J ~ero d ividt:d d\'~~~<c _

\= [)('i-" :(\\:.1 00 h lid - ~ [x~~J s: ~ (x\'\:") - ~ (X''L-I]

'Xl"i: - X\'[__I

~ ,

I ~ d"Vt'ded d I' ~ t er-a.r, ce. .

nd D

2 d'\J,'ded oh~terence,

r[ X I{- 2 ,J(~_I ,x,el= ~T )(~_, , );"cJ - f [XK:-2 ' Xr;: ] X\£. - X VCL - 2,

ord divl~decl di ~ ~E<enc..e

~T X \'£- 3 / )(\'--2' X ",_, I\( I-i] - r [ X 1-;- 2 , X"'_, ' :x' \<. ] - f[ )('<:-3 ,X'11."Xt )( 11: - X YL-3

eXtLrnple 'b

C 1/3) } (2, S) ,(i-l,+) I ('a, 11) I ( q J 15 )

f[ 2,~, 'iS1 ~ ~[ Y,g] - h2,'-!] g-2..

J I-}~

- 12.

2

- ~()l) - ~(41 _ £(1.-4) - f(.ll

8-~ 'i-2.

-£"

=0

~

C [1,"2., l.,1,'>IJ = r[2'Y''''1- ~["L'4)

"8 - I.

:::. ~ ('-t,ll) -~(2,lj) -~S''-I) -£CII~J

3-2. '1_/

- 6.3-

X\-'i: I \

"':),_ , !

s rd ci'!v,'cttlo

\

--t-~--+-~~----_I_-;;-~ -+- _

-x- '-I kl'u) fcJc3, l{t.;J ~ [XL, )(3 ,XLjJ ~ [l(,,)(~, l6,X"J

-_J_----=-----t---.:---------r---.-- .. - - -.......... ..--- --.J.__~ __

~lXs) ~C.l(W, Xs1 ~[)(~/Xl.i/lcsJ HhX~,X4,J,;

I

eX~le.

Pnd Ale...> Co t'\ Ifl terp P. I p~, p), p._" _ _ fo ( th E' to 1/0"-1 i ~ tc.bl~

t,h
. 's i::. L1
X 1.0£
!/ PI LX) = Qo-+ Q I (x-:~QJ
-== -3-+ 3 CX- I )

2. 0 @f' P'l.. U)-:::._ f\ o{")..,. 0 2l>.'-)fu) lx. --t,
___ . ,
-=. -3.-+ ~ (x-,)~ 6lA-..If.:>l
~'S IS (X-'L)
'3 P3CX:h'P2.60·+ 1(X-I) ()(,-L)(.~_
3~ 9 P4 -=- P3
t-r6
L.t Cb=t 12. \ () P,:> ~P'-l-- p~
lot;
5 ~7- ,s c>
b I q 2. <t...r ror ~O'f n &.V to II " nt er fObt )' 0 n f'o\ tl no tl') " c, l eq ua (, . b 0

tn-e ~yto(' ~ r LcL~9 YQ~e beca.uoe -fh~ tb:>e.o the s.~c:

POJ8nomial ,

U~I~!"7

~timate. ~ (S .SJ using Newton '1 of pol~noi'Y);Ql, P'I Pl.)~; R

~ble.

XI"£.. ~ (X\'[,") I 'b \:-
,
3, // .-
<>
3 w·S Q,16 O"O::<~1

f>O')~ 00 .,. Q,l.X-Xc)

I

-z; ~ + o·-=ts tx- I) ,

P.< Lx)=- PI Lx)-+ a 2. (X:-')CX.~)

=- o.J31? 4f:, ()(-'JCx-~) -+~,LX)

-= '3 + 0.1-5 ('b.S-I )

-=. 6. ~ 'f-t:;

~'}_ (6. S) % P2(-C;.£)

~ T·q 32.bT-..-tO ,0 Stl-1.( ~·S -I] [t;, ~-3) ( t; ,S _ CJ .Le:,) ~ ~~t~ 1-~

" '

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t l ~ I S J -;::: P<..J LS, C; )

',~ g"13t~ +0. io2~-1- (4,S) (2,,:» (L'2/:> ) (-o.?f:::,) ~ '53. '31 s ,

__ t:t:.-

~ 00p\er Five. 6·\+~·2 Be§\- Fib

.... '

, . ' .

t·,e. ......

- "LL Sma\\e'&\- drs.raoce.. to '+he . 8\~ pohJT

the. curVe W lc.n

" ,

it e. ~- ~ C~'K ) - ~ it. ' Max e..rror Eoo C.f)=- \l~l\~.'-=',1ha)(\e.:h::' ' ~h:~\

A 1AlrfJe. error = ~,,~ I:::: \.1 t 1\ I = (i.lell:.I)J l\. """'_ __ , ---.;.... _

'. . .' " ' . .. . .. ' . .' 112.

RooH1ean '5cJ ucre, e.rrol".= h l t ):::: \\ ~ \\ 2.== ("2... \ ek:.12 I n J

, . . ~

. ~

...... . .

. '

Compare.. the 1110 X, error.', Qv~r~e etf'O~ ond f,:!M~ errer- '~r The line.o.r QPprOXi01at~oY1 ~ono::.,~,.6:.ct~.f, eo +be 'darq

( -I ).i6)'co;Q) t I) '1) l2.,~) ('?l/.4) C.4,~) (J:" 0) t6l "I) .

. . '., '. .' ", . " ' .

~ .

,!.,IIII.o , ~\t, I CXit.,} .. \e\ti. , e.\1.. '2..
-

\ \ 0.2. 0.04
\0 \0.2.
_\ .
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, '\ :CS • b 0·4 . 6. \(0'" ...
0
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, .
\
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~
3 Y 3·~ o.z, o.Ol.(
4 3 2..2 o,cg O,b4
- o of, O.b Oo~b
5 0
-I -I 0 \ 0
6 ~e\'t.~:2 "eb : . '.

Eoo (~):; o.i , ~, l~)~ '~\e\{,

.,' ~ ::: 2; 6 S

~ 0,'32'0

i:..e.J~ ,.'-1

{( '2..\"2.

E:2.lt)-\4f J

-:::: 0·42..

• -to rind the be~ rH+i~ c.urve we nee.d to rnfn\mj~" th~,\~&t ~ua.re. error t RM'5)

f\

E2._ln~ (~\ I ~ LX:) _~k:.'2.yl:z.

, '2. n. .

, ' ·ft £:ll~) ~. ~ (~Cxl1:) - ca1t )2

~l n.

E (? )~Cfc;) ~ CX~) - ~1c).2.

"

I. Tcit:"ind The be~+HHna line ~O()= "'~B

E. tAJ~):::.~ , (~X\C -t,~.)- ~n:.\ 2. ::'

'. ,.'\-t:, . :. ,_,'

s ~ ('1.1. ~.,. " ~ ~.. ~ '" ~ '"

.d.E_ -::. L -2 \,C nX~~'BJ :~~'~\ - "X~::: 0 - - - (~) " ~ "

0\ ~ \t.o;. \. ' . - ',.. " ' . .: . '". . '. .'

• :' ". ..'. ~ • t

~ ~ .

• r' it

d £. :: L 2. \ (Axn:.+ BJ - (eh't \ • t -::. 0 - - - (2.)

dB It.: 1

A t xli 4-& ~X\t.:~. -t~ 'il:.x\i:, - =i ,'., .", ,,' ....

It.-~', " '. . . "t:r .. ), . '. ,-:~\.. "; .' \ .' . ", 1 \, 0: ~mdL.

f\. 1- ~ - ~ N.. . ~ '.. .

(\ <:1\. 'X,lt. -+. fl:& ::: '2:. ''an: .; _~! ,.~UAtions

H L It.-:'I

.,:- " .

, • t

. ,

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l2) ~

It:: .. \

Qo.rnpt e... i.": . .... .

!j:'i~d +he: 'Des\- ritti~: \!ne ~ eX).:: (\lI'+ & ro'(" \he. da\-CI

C-IJ\61'(~lq)·C.\Jt) '(2"~S) (~JY) t"h~) ,<,,'=»0) (lq-lj. !

t ~... ~ '"

,

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,
. ';' I
-\ \0 \ -\D :
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t 1- \ +
5 . ".
'2. ' .'-l _ . \b
'3 4 9 \2.
'-l \ '3 \6 .\2..
. 0 !2.~
5 0,
6 -I ..
36 -6
20 ,3+ .q2.. 25 -
\
• ' .. -

'12 A -+ 20 B== 2'6

.. 2oA + '2B::. 31

~~·l~; ~ol \;: ~\

~m~le.

~r \-he ~\\OUJ\na ~ta t\nd -\he be&t Curve. ~ '\he f"orn1

~c: _A=t2

1'\

rc A)= cz_ (A ~ -calC) 2

\t.: I

Q... "

ct t: __ 2 L l A :t\ - <c1 '1: ) · ~~ := 0

dA k:.:r

- {:.Q ...

£..xgmple.

rind -\he. be:5.+ Fi n Ina ~Q fro. bolel . . . ~ Oc )=-A lc '2.+ ~c.

,

n

E LA I BiC,) ~ ?_ 'L (Ax~ -t ~\\:.:t c ) - ~ \t: 1 2..

\co:.,

n.

dec ': O:::,~ L l c.J'xl't2+B~tt..+CJ -~h: 1 ·?Clt'

dB' .' lu, , ' ' .'

.,

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• +

...

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-"1-1\;..

---

i ~

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- 6~-::2

\ ioeari mbo()

Vample~-

D~

~i(\d the best V;+Hf15 C-urve. 0(: ~he. ~rm ~(Xh C e

\'0...- the ~O"OWI~ l::oble, (o/l,t?)) ( 1,26) I (2,3,sL (3,5)., (YI1-,6)

l-c It. t-
I·S X~ '(~~Ln~~ )(tr. - )'tt~t(
0 0 ().'ioS4 ,S d 0
\ 2·S • a .qlb'2Q j , o,q,e'2.Q,
1
2. "3,S 2 \,'2.'S ,_ Lj 2.S
.3 S 3 ~'''b q
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Y t.s '2,·0'
LJ ~ tb s. lISq~ ......
-
~ \ '0 6.1QgS ~o 30 \ 6, ~()q.:Ji-l1 m g ~ -D:x.. -\--<..n C.--\, ;Y ~ ~X+By~ln~

X' -=- :x:.. D:::.A & c.. -== e

t:abte ~. y f"'om +-he t:ett hooJ"l.', -So A ~ 10 B :. I b~ 3oq~4a.

10 A + 5~ :::: 6"q8~bO

A:;::. 116. 3o'f1q 2 10 I

6, IQS860

_'1-1-

~ w ~ -;:::x:. .

~+B~ :

~:: fk +e..

'I ~ nx +B. y-:..L

M

x -::. 1-

oc.. .

A -e, A

B"7..B

,

0'" ~==~D~

~ -D~

_ -::::ce

oc,

R -:....L J

.J,D

D -=.L A

tn(!:.) ~loc -~::t

tn (~) ::. -Dx+-Lnc 'i ~ f-)~+ B-

y~ ln~)

x-::=..~

A -e, -D ~D~-A

B -::. l,f)C ~ c.. -; eR> .

, .

• l

§e..Ct io f) to .~ CI,)'bic. SpJj~

The. Cvbic... Sphne. is

i S a f.ubic. pot~r10rl1ioL

Met il:_s o~ +h/s l=Orm

-f C C (lI.- xc) ... de: Oil [xc, )(CfIJ 4'0< L ~ 0, " __ ) fl-I

Ond that Scti:iS,tie-s

Q. runc.t io n g(V) such ~ l·t. bet.tuee.n. e.u;.r(j two ("Jodes

&J, CX]: QCly'.)(l')~+bL(X_X'c.:)'

L-:.

0) - -. I (L ... '2. \.4\.-\ ') CondH::ron$

i ~ I h a ve: n, t l)Y.)c.h'o h ---+ 4 n.. un UtOo to n~

So ex,) 1:' ~ I (x,) ~ r LX'2-)"'" ~ 1- LX z,)

~n.2 (XI)., J -::. SQ-Z. LXf)) ,

- ct.()t;nDU~

-c:~1 ~

. ~\ v-.4J

I \
3. 8 c c X't:A'1 ) -_ ~ L4- t ex l.-' + J ) l ='- 0 i '._ 1 Yl~L .... (fL-\) lond it:ian .
\1
\\ ( 'x::C+l ) ::; 3c-t I (YC-I-' .J Cv-o , ( rt- t )
'1. ~ (,' - - 1 n.-2- -b (0 nd"-b'Of\ .... 8tif Sin ce.. § c Cre J ~ ~c' ~ dc' -= ~c

( llive..5

equatcio n :2) 0

lJ .. .,_, ~ ~,+. C~L+') "at' (lI,''', - Xc) :3.... b c ( XL +, - Jr'c) <--I c.. (lIl~' _ Xc) -+ cI,; *- - Qch.,,3+ be h./ + c,: he + dL'

LUhe,.,.-~ h. •. :=- (XL'+I - xc)

8 ~ ll);: 3QC Cx- xl') 2+ 2 b .... (X·~L) + cc

""l~_

1\

8 L l(}:: 6 Q.C Cx- Xc) -t 2.bL

, .

. if [ SG· =- SC I' (_!<C!J

s v b S i btd:~ ----"'l'-b-L-' ::;-~-~-.--"J USln2 #Je_ S:J..t-ne eq uab'cn . 1I I

8!...· L~L~r ) = bat' (k"l;-f r -xc ) +2.bL·

bL' + I e:. bQC' ~L + St.:

Q L =: Sc + , - 8c' b ftc

Subs; tOte. i V\ *"

cc.: = ~~r - "c: h.L."

- ~ h..1.' Sc +hi SC+I ·b

-+he..

5., SJ,. ~
S~ '6'1
==-1 2Cho-thd h.1 0
~ I-t" 2ChHh2) '-1.1.-
6 .... 3 0 a 11..'Z. 2. c.h.2-rh..v
...
'-
-, L. S. -+ 2(h_~/+I.h.dsc.:.+hLSfrl.'::: b[ ~(X'c:/xc+,)-~[{:.,IXCJ)

rLL_, <....,

~o y'" c.::::-.I J • - - ) 0. - I

' .......

-,

2 L lui." hn-~ h.n~ 0

n Ln-"2.) 2Lhn-z,hll-t) h.n-,

Sn - z. Sn-, !it) 50
0 c/ 0 +[.".,_. Y2.J -~[)I .1,
5l, -,
o CI 0 Ss., t[x~ /YJ] - tr~ l-
e) 0 0 rC.ra .. X4] -~[.\' ~ In...-IJ €..9UCI.-Cions Luebh Ul-I) Unb::nowl1'D

W hf.¥\ fL;.. I

x.

o

Yo

~ ~ (A) maW-i)( -'7> ~ JJ .5J_l~

.... ..

LtJ het-1

4)1,.e.(') rt. = 3
So .... a 5". SL S3~b.
)[0 X. "YL )r" .3 •
~, ] is' J e I ~ [~"""1- ~ (;co,>cu
'II::.
'rL. '1. In.. -t h.1.) Sz. ~ [Jc2.1 Y.!.J - ~ [ X. I X2]
Y I..l,Jner\ ~4
'5o_'b 51 S2. S3 54
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....
)(0 Drr X,_ Y'J )(4
'l. U1.O+ n..1 ) h...\ 0
5'] +[XI.I..v1-]- tL-t'J,X,J.
h... 2.lhl4hlJ h..'2..
Sz_ =-' j:" [Xl ,;I...3J- ~ [)(t ... Yl]
0 So!
h, 2 (h, .... h..s) F C~'3 ... -"'.(J- ~ [.~ 21 lr"JJ - fJ5-

t~ ~L
hOr 0 2
L.j·'-i366
hi I"~
'·1'34
ht (;,2; I ~.q'3o
~ ~ [OJr] ~ 2.4 3~

rei d·S].::. Lt·'6 S~6 r[I.S, z.S] = o , s q q S

S I -==- -< . 2.q .2 I a L =- '5t.±1 _ '&.: 6" t'tL'

ao -==- Sr - So ~ Gila

~·~q2.-0 ~D . .3~o bel)

QI ::: '?~ Q Z-= ~ ~

bt:::. ~ 2.

bo ~ boo =- a 2

bl= ~ = ,.146 2..

b 2...=- ¥ = 5· R2Sq

CL== . - -Co--==-.2 . Ot>4 6 Gr ~ a·2.oCJ'S c..z,=. b. 6866

dC=ch: d 0.= 2.

dl-:. 4.4215

c! 2.;:. b :=1l ~o

~ .

~ I Uk 3.II'lq (.)(_1)3 T I. IYb (X-I) -t '5 ;2.0'0 U-I) -I- 4.4366 . one I)' I.<;'J

C02-LX)= -2.~~~ Lx_\.~)3 + c;.~ 2~q Uc_,.<";,))'l+f>. b i66 'X. .. l'~)4 6.1lb4oni

I: I.~.,'~Z

s ( oo6G) :: 3·46SQ .; E"XQ,c...b: 3~1.l{3~ 3' .,

£ (1.1-6)= ~11og~ ~xad= $ '446'7f .: , - '-', '"

flatu 1'0 L S pH ne

~' • T

bO:O

~ • _. • ~r ~

~o~o 51

. ..

S1.· ,",Sac:o

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n.=4 <" St,- . " S1.: S! ' ~'='o ..
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• • •
- .. •
1to . )(, ;:, "i Jto X.4 !
,
.', . ,
--. . f ~(~~h~) .

q -

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, - ,

- 0

c :: ~_, ~ u.,1l.) -fOl.,16)

L :: . FUC2/l13l- t txl..x~)

f l i3/~):" Jf. CX1.J~

2 t b ...... h2.) ~

~ ,. .. !

\1'2.

! . ' ,

,

, ,

. ,'t~ (Xo)=- tl'

, .

. . r' ()en'): B ' ..

- ...... 2ho~ 4-no'Sl =: 6 [- .. ~ (xo 'J \t,) .. ..:.~] .

L c: J_" h - '~n= '6L f6- ·f"(Xn., >'Xf))]'

(2.) ___... fl 0-1 cJn-1 ,.. J... 0 .. 1

L_'_) SDHne'

• Clam~ po

ll)

.. . ~ . ..

, .

, .

. ..

.

. "

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~ Lx} == tao 0. .. Xo)~ 4 bo (Jc-Xa) 2. + Co C:x.-)(o) Jrr de

3 . '. .'

.. . •... 'c, '. - q I lx-x,) -t bl t)t-~) ~ + c.., tX':"XI) -t d ,

, .

......__-~.----- .

So txo l.:. ~o

~ \ lx,) =- 31

81 t~l.J-::.211..

for- n::::.
. ,
2. be ho 0 0 So f (xo JX\) _ ~
ho 2( nD-l-hl) h, 0 s, _ b ~ (x • .1)('1. )._ F (XOI X\)
-
0 hi 2thH02.) h2 52., ~ (1''2.1 ~~)~. r (Yl ,JX1.)
0 0 '02. 2h2 Sa e, .: ~ (XLI ~~).
'. . '"
e It '2.) C Jo.~erl 1:>\>line.

C.O J 0) C. 1 J 1 J (2, 2. J

5 ' Co) = J ' S' (:2..).: ,

~ lX).. SO()c}c 00 lX-o)3 ... bc(X_o)2. oj. Cot x-o) -I- do

)3 bl c.x_f)2. + c., ex..,) ~ d.' cal Lx) c Q, LX-I t

I .'

S DCl-:. 7 9o<.x}~ 00)(3+ bo)(2. -I- CoX -t do on U:I,.1.]

~ 3. llt) :dh tx_,)3+ hi 01-2.) =l+<;! ex- IHd.; o~ [:; .2.j .

,~ • I .,. .

~o (0) =clo::o S. (t) = c1l = I

, ..

\

~o tlr)= "&10)(2. -I- 2 bOl( +co

~o \ (0) -= Co:'1

. . .

, -

9,' LX)= '3 Q, c..x -,) 2 +. 'l b,( )(-1) -+ (.,

' " ::: '3' a, -t :i'b'4 Ct .~ 'i" ,

90\ (J) = S,'lt)

~a LX \)"2.. + 2. bt . L:X -1) 4- c..., .

300 ,,2. + :2. box +(0 .... u, _ .

~ c 0 4 2. bo + I = '3Q' (0) ,-t 2,b, (0) +.c...

, .

. ..

a \\ \\

()O t \ ') =- B, co

baoX -t 2.bo ==- 6Ch (X_I)2.1" 2bt 6' 0.0 +2 bo ':. 2.b,

»-:

~\ t~):: ~

'Q, + b, -+ CI ';. :;J- I

-II' .... •

, Q \ -+ bl + c... =. ,

, . ,

~o (L) = Sr0.)

~o + bo+ Co-t do=d, a 0 + bo + Co -=- I

> " '.

0 0 // /1/
1 \ /1/ . ,
-
\ 2- Q , ,
. . '. -. . .

hO':1 h.l-:.I

+ ' ••

L 1 '~i t1 L \~ \~,~ ::\1

So-::.()

S, -::. 0 52..:'0.

~ : . . , ...

~. :

,,.

.

. ,

, •. .Il..... '

, '

+ .... ~ b

~ ex) it~ own c\art)~ed "$a.~\'oe..' 'bu~' ,~. ~nnot be. ',t.f:, cicn

'free. '5~\ine ~ ~(j1) =

c..Ubi c. ;., t ~bJ\ C:;it .Jl ~.zF- t..rJ,,~ I cii.~ 1'1 J\

'50" S I· *" -661"0

i tcs,· not-, . ncttura L

. ...:.,90-

, ,

Q3*0

~CX)= QBX~+ bxl.4- c2..~+ dz

S' ttl:, '50~ ~2 4- 2.bX ~ C2., S'\ ex)::. 6Q&X. -\- 2. b2

." • t

-:. Q~' b2 ~ ~\ .)rJ... ~

Q3-=-0 ~~

L..J- unl'tr1own~

4 e!{U C Concl,~toft)

~o -=.. Q 0 lx- Xo) 3+ bo ( x., )(0) 2. .... Co (j(-~o) -4-d

\ • ~I • 0

~ Pd~ ~tJ.\,~ as?.b\il f:!J\

~

Ih:- _Ceotral diFf ertlnc.e.. toY"'('()vlo. 0+ order d(hl.) C fj) .

-

t

.\ on =- ~ l)(-t h) _ ~(_~- n)

!)h

rUfl:.her-more tnue e.Xi&t-::. (). ()vmber- c, E. [Q I bJ svch f:ha t t~

~ \x)-:::. ~a+h) - ~ Cll-h) _ h' f, (J

2.h. 6

(l.)

whe.c-e. the.. error lher) - h. 1. Q (l) ,50 ca\le.c/ -\he.. -\t'bI)(aHoYl ~ror o..nd b

Leb
t d
0·1 13,2.1
-
0.2, -
20.55
o.~ 2.'1.12.
0·4 2Q.=iq \H 0·2.) -=. d (D.~) - d Lo.1) Q (o.\)

= 24.12- (3.21 -= 64.b~ 0·2

I

\J l D· ~::. d (o·~ J - d (o·l) 0.02

\JlD.41 == uJt .JJ

\J \0'1) ~ 6~ u

..

-I-

I

.r (0.<6):;_ ~ (o.g+o'D .. ~ (o.r - 0 .01) ~ Co~do.1 i ) _ (o5(O."1Q)

:2£0.01) 0.02

.~\

-....

O'btlq 4 Ifrq3~ - O'1&03~qS 3Lb o.oa.

=- -~41.../'60,

o 'Derivat-. if) n

_ \ ,,11 ,.

C1 E: L.», X4- h.) .

t 3 f" \\\)

~ tx- n) - ~U<.- h)::= 2 h ~ lx') +. if- ( (C.,) -~ CGi}

{) ... t:," 3 t> \\)

~ (X"'" h) - fc,x-h 1 -::: 2 h f (~) 4 ¥ (2; cc..))

~ (J(-l- h \ - ~Cx- h) ~ h. 2. ~\\~c.) =- ~ I C;t) .

.2. h .. -6

~~

~I

~(fOf'.

Ce n+ra L d i ~ ~ erOtlc.e.. ~o'("(Y) U\ Q or 0 ( h 4)

'" r -.. ~ "

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o.ss'ume. ~ E.. C [a I b1 o.~d~:" ~h • 'X.-h,Uh I )(402..h ci. (a ,bl th~

~'c..x) = - +' C.>t4-'l.h) +s ~C.X-\-h) .. cg ~ ()C-h) ... ~ (X-:l.h) ',2 h _

w it-.h e.rror . - ,

. ,-'

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txarn~le .1.
Lef
g_' • >
t r ~.b;&.
-
j.:..J ._
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0·3 .21·'2.S
-
0.4 24·~o
0.'5 21.l2. "

~ .,.

• ." > ~ •• ~

,,\I (O.~)= :--d CO,.~)'-+ ~d (.0,4) ~,~d(O~2.)..:dLo.l. ''l. (0.1)

-=-2:}'·'1.+ ~ (2.4·30) -8 (1~·S34ta·1. '2

. ,

...

EXampJe. Q

PO) = Co-s,~,.., ': ,',,,,;

~ '(0.'2) us\n~ h = 0.0\

,

~ (0 .~) = - Co~ (O.g2) -I-- ~ Ctl5 (o.g, ) - 'S Co~ (o.1q) + Co~ (o:1-~) .

0.\2

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, ,

, "

-SinCo·i) -:. -0,1 r"t3~6oqr

error c.Co.ol)4 -= c. LIO'i) error- ~ 1 at- Iti=f aJ;~ 'I J· .... 4Z

\ n,.,,~~ ... ,~I . -~-

• Der'\ VatioD

lr) ~ C,) r..liU '

• ~ (S)

- ~ CX+2.h) 4- 'is' (~Cx"hl -8~ Wh) ... ~ eX-2h) = '2.~ 0) - =' s b ~ (c.)

'120 :

.. " ,- .-

.' 7" f(x.l.2.hl +f<'rCX-l-h) - i~ tl.<-.h) -+ ~ (It_~h)' + ~h 4t L:.) = J' Dc) . "

'-.t I~h ~ ';

. . ' b~t'ac.l~)h)

" ", "':. T _ ,_ •• ". • ,", ~~

~

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h_'O h...

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~'-r'-~~--

, 1

~hen h is 6malJer. L\)e. caeb bes} e&}-ima·tio~ ~or fc;cy. 1..

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h

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to )
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<: 0.5 * 100q

ft - o( l (') 'l. ca)

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~ h , 'r',

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Round off: Ht~.nCCA4t'on

error erroV"'

~ro'uri~C~h), 'f '(J\h)

tranc

. ..

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ToffiL

J f (~Jh)l :. J e,._e_t J

rob .2h

~ 26 QJ;

e.rror = E (~Jh) = E (~~h) + £ CD h)

tot round t)

t-Jb.nc.

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== 8 .... e ... 1 _ h r ee)

.::2h b

(aJ

+ I h2. ~b cq J

+ h~~"

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la) .' .

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..

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len 1< E:

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....

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. .... ~ .

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.. ,

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;. _', " .. '. Co.' 0 t . '.' . ,_ . .,.... "

.

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fort..)ard

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( "

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C\ l o. '1 ";. Centra L

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a. (o.~) = 2 d (0.3) _ ~ d(o~i) -4 4d lo.,l-"d·lo)

,

- t., = ~tx.n}=-- ~c..t) _h~'(X\+ b!:. ~nU:l~ h3 (~t

2..' -

. • ;31

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, - .(; <

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~

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, XI

c . l~),dX ~ * (~T ~,) lOi~ ~rro~~O~h3c fJcg

, ''2.

2. Simosiol'lrS .L Rule...

, 3 • - i

, ." ;"0

"

•• 0:,

X''l.

1 ~()C) dx .=:: ~ t ~o-t l.j~,-+~2. J

Xo

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b • •

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, ' ,\,_/._, .. '

!J. ~ i (Y)pson ' . - . \c_::; .)( f\ _)(~ -:::" 't?- _XQ -e, 1.-0 r ~ L

o 1. \ ' !"'L ~ 2.,' .,.. ,.:2.. . 2.

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c) , . :3 " . : "

=..L (1+'1 (I.E,t~'62.)-+~.1215q .)= 'tS2'~~ . 6

~xafY)p\e 2.

2.

-

c'" ' •

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20 . \

.:l6,.{'

b~ sl(npsol'1,' 3/1 Role. (becQ.lUSe LcJe ho~ Lf ~o\nh

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, J

or ~ tT"Qp eoidoL

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~ ..... 1-. \,'.. -. ~ , t ~. ",'" ~ .

De.rive -\TQ~io\daL' ~O)"l or R0le.

'~, x,

we. cse, p, c.x) and ~~~, dx., ~ ~ p, CJc~ ~~"

ta ~~' ,', " >(~ .~

c: S (~! ~ -I" )(; ·lto ~,) @,x . .)( ~ Xo-I- hot

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.:

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... .. ~

~ " ', ~ .. :

"

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.

~ ,,' t J •

•• + .' I

... , 0. ,

. '

_ .2.-

1he degree. of' pt1l!c\-Slon or" acc.u.ro.~ 0 ~ Q 9uaq I1l t.CAft;.. formula i5 4-he. larcae5+ po~iHve.. t~t~~ :." ~ suc;.h :th~t fhe:, toro')l]lCl ,'s exac.J for l(l't.J tc- OJ ','1, ...

£ Xa!'Y)pt~ s~'nd th~ dear~ c{ ~ (~o+ 4C,+ C2)

l§J ~[£--l~

)(

00 Ofmu a 'Y,ac
,
2. ..
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,
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3 ..... .
._
. _ .
, ~ ( 0+ Lt~~ .. ~.? =;2. ar" 'L~ ,
'X'-::)( .; .. ~ x dx = x.: l =- 2- < , ·0
O. 2.. b ._ .
. " .
.!- • • ~ ..
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a
3 e .3 I). 3
..
x! 1.. ( 0 .... 4 (.1) t 'a) :.=. "" 2~ ~ ~ \ -
x dx::t£. :::4 0
'& o '" 0
.
}('4 :2. - . _~ . .
.L ( 0+ '-t L,) ;-16) = ~ JX'idX., fi"~ as., 2.0 *'
3" . 3 s 3 0
~ .
, de3ree.. a}: Qcc.uraCj or SIMpson's i6 3 " tJQ~e~d~ree. ot Qcc..ura.r~ of d e8ree.. 0 t Q.cc.ura ~ 0 f. . de.eree 0+ aCLLtraCtj of

tRtpeoidaL if:> I s,'mpSor1.l i:::, '3 & . simpSotl 3i'B 1.5"3

If) eore.~ ~~

,'- ': (""'1): .

~rror= J~:. ~., (~), .' . J.J' - -

.. / k'.11"rX!.d~ ~~. oCa.~~

, .

+or- S(mpSon'5'..L ;me+hOd 3

£4)

~rror= 11:.. ~ (to)

PUO~ X4

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\,\\

~ t.JC) -: 2.4)( '(.41

~ C\:).: 2~

L~)

f;: t'fO,r. .:::. \1: ~ (f:,) . ,

.. . . "

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. ,--.~;- ." 't' I-

I ., .' _', ,. • • _ _

\1:.= -Jj'; X)J4" -- -qo ~

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X2.

S ~Lk)dx '

)(0

frror -;::. ~Xac..'c·. - .\=ormula

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.. . • '=>

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~

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qc

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