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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 The Background of the Study As we know that English is the most widely used language in the history of our planet. English is said to be a window. If one is good at English, he/she will be able to get more information especially in relation to cross world cultural understanding. English is also spoken in various international activities. As a foreign language, English is very important to learn because it plays an important part in our life. It becomes important for all people to learn in order that they are able to involve themselves in international communication. When we talk about language teaching, it means that we have to understand all of basic skill teaching method. There are four language skills in learning language namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing. We cannot separate them from various other aspects of human life. Sometimes people use language to express something they have in their mind. Those four basic element language skills could be a point of view among the language teaching materials. Listening is one of the most prominent activities in our daily lives. It is not as difficult as the other skills. The most important thing to keep in mind is that there are two aspects of effective listening. The first, and most obvious, is that listening involves understanding the message sending by our communication partner in the way that they intend. The second and frequently neglected aspect is that effective listening involves the articulation of our understanding to our

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communication partner. In other words, we demonstrate to the person that we clearly understand about their messages. We sometimes find some difficulties to teach the learners in order that they understand quickly. If we only trade on our speech, it would not increase the human resources to be a good one. Technology, in its many forms, has become a powerful tool to enhance curriculum and instruction. ³There are a few educators investigating the effective use of technology, some educators lack the support, the resources, or the proper motivation to fully integrate technology into their classrooms´, (LeBaron & Collier, 2001). Modern educational technologies have been conceived most frequently as instructional communicators, mediated teachers, and knowledge conveyors. Much of the research regarding the use of technology in the classroom has shown a positive impact on students¶ achievement. For this purpose the teacher should know how far students could catch our explanation in understanding material in line with their ability. Technology of multimedia is one of good facilities to help our teaching ability and give chance to the learners to expand their skill rapidly. In some instances and under certain conditions, it has been shown that technology of multimedia helps students learn more, learn faster and become more motivated. It also will make the students connected to the community and the outside world.

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1.2 The Reasons for Choosing the Topic The reasons why the writer chooses the topic is interested in teaching methods of listening subject which have typical difficulties for the teachers to increase the students¶ ability on it. As we can see that listening is one of difficult aspects of language to learn. Students cannot expand their way of learning listening because of limited facilities. So, it should be supported by facilities which can be helpful for the teacher and also the students to enrich their skills. In this term, those facilities are about multimedia technology which may have several influences toward students¶ listening skills.

1.3 The Problem Statements The research problems are focused on the following questions: 1. Is there a significance effect between learning by using multimedia technology facilities and non-multimedia technology facilities toward students¶ listening skills? 2. To what extend do they affect to the students¶ listening skills?

1.4 The Aims of the Study The objectives of the research could be formulated as follows: 1. To investigate the significant effect of learning by using multimedia technology facilities toward students¶ listening skills. 2. To investigate how far they affect to the students¶ listening skills.

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1.5 Significance This paper may provide certain finding in teachers¶ technique to improve teaching skills. The teacher may make the best use of multimedia technology in improving students¶ listening skill and solve the teaching listening problems. In theoretical, the significant of using multimedia technology facilities is important for the teachers to develop their techniques and strategies in teaching listening. For the students, these facilities are important to develop their knowledge of multimedia and improve their listening skills.

1.6 The Assumptions and Hypothesis
y

Assumptions The multimedia technology facilities will help the students enrich their

listening ability. It also will help the teachers develop their varieties of teaching listening strategies.
y

Hypothesis The writer proposes the hypothesis as follows: 1. Learner success rates with listening comprehension tasks would be greater by using multimedia than audio or video plus pen and paper. 2. There is positive influence of teaching listening by using multimedia technology facilities on enriching students¶ listening skills.

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1.7 The Research Design 1.7.1 Research Method The research method in this study is True Experimental Research by using Randomized Pretest-Posttes Control and Comparison Group Design.

Experimental research is a study to know whether there is an influence or not to the subject, that is given a treatment. ³Experiment has two criteria: (1) there are at least two groups included in the study, a control group and an experimental group; and (2) subjects are randomly assigned to one of those groups´. Yoyo Surjakusumah (2006; 3) The design of this research, the researcher will use two groups, they are experimental group and control group. In experimental group, listening subject will be taught by using multimedia technology facilities and control group will be taught without using multimedia technology facilities.

1.7.2 Instruments Instruments are some tools used when a research is conducted in particular method. The instruments used in this research are classroom observation and test. The researcher chooses the test because it measures the degree of students¶ understanding about certain material given with different treatment.

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1.7.3 Population and Sample In this research, the researcher chooses the research population and sample to determine the respondent. The researcher will choose the XII IS 2 and XII IS 3 grade students to be compared. The numbers of the respondents will take two classes approximately consist of 76 students. Respondents of this research are the first grade students of SMAN 6 Garut.

1.7.4 Data Analysis The data analysis is a process to find out and set result data from observes, interview, and other to increase the researcher about the study and make easy to understand by our self and other. Then, to find out the data, the writer used the sub statistic analysis that is Hypothesis Test which has following instructions: 1. Formulate the zero hypothesis (Ho) and alternative hypothesis (Ha). Ho : There is no influence of multimedia technology facilities towards students listening skills. ( )

Ha : There is an influence of multimedia technology facilities towards students listening skills. ( )

2. Decide the statistic test which suitable with the problems. 3. Determine the table statistic value. 4. Make hypothesis test criteria and analyze the data. 5. Make a conclusion.

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1.8 The Limitation of Problem In this paper, the writer takes two variables limit concerned to the topic. There are about multimedia technology facilities and listening skill. The writer conducted the research to the first grade of SMAN 6 Garut.

1.9 The Definition of Important Terms In order to give a clear view on this research, the researcher provides the definition of the main terms as follows: a. Technology, in its many terms, has become a powerful tool to enhance curriculum and instruction. Even though there are a few educators investigating the effective use of technology, some educators lack the support, the resources, or the proper motivation to fully integrate technology into their classrooms (LeBaron & Collier, 2001) b. Based on Brainy Quote, 2009. Technology is an Industrial science; the science of systematic knowledge of the industrial arts, especially of the more important manufactures, as spinning, weaving, metallurgy, etc. c. Technology is the art of using these symbol systems to control and organize unique events. Scientific observation is always a viewing of things through the refracting medium of a symbol system, and technological praxis is always handling of things in ways that some symbol system has dictated. Education in science and technology is essentially education on the symbol level. Huxley, Aldous Leonard.

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CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 General Remarks This chapter will present the theories of multimedia, teaching aid in language learning. The writer also will describe the whole part of listening skills such as types of listening, the phases of the listening process and listening with technologies. The Audio-Visual Aids (AVA) is also important to be known by the reader to complete the material which related to multimedia. All these theories will be described and drawn below.

2.2 The Definitions of Multimedia Multimedia is a general term used to describe any application or technology that can be used to manipulate text, audio, images, graphics, and video. Multimedia provides a level interactivity with each of these elements separately, as well as through a combination of different multimedia mediums. In business, there are hundreds of ways in which you may wish to apply multimedia technology, whether for means of efficiency or increased productivity. Multimedia is the use of technology to better communicate information. This includes the use of digital video, interactive programs, Internet content, graphics, audio, 3-D animation, 2-D illustration and any other computer-delivered media. PC provides classes that help you learn about all of these topics. The advanced class¶s help you fine tune your skills with computer graphics, digital

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video, and multimedia programming and sound exciting. And as new technology is introduced into the marketplace, additional opportunities for multimedia developers will present themselves. For example the computer you are using to view this material is capable of flashing text and beeping when there is a problem. It is already a multimedia computer - anything else is a matter of degree. In other words the more capable your computer is at handling sound, video and graphics the better your multimedia packages will look. Originally the term multimedia was used by institutions that run distance learning courses in which they deliver content via a combination of text, TV, telephone, audio cassette and the radio. So the idea of using multimedia for education is not new. What is new is the way in which we now use computers to bring these things together. The advent of high resolution screens and sound and video playback facilities for computers has resulted in the increased use of multimedia applications for education. According to Bambang Warsita, 2008. Multimedia is often defined as a group of media or at least consists of more than one media. It also can be defined as a series of computer which completed by CD-player, sound card, speaker which able to process moving pictures, audio and graphic in a high resolutions. As software, multimedia can be defined as an ability to create world of fantasy which the user can get interaction with the computer. Generally, the program of multimedia can be divided into four categories as follows:

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a) Entertainment such like games and interactive film and; b) Education for formal education needed, non-formal, enrichment, and refreshment. c) Reference such as encyclopedia and; d) Business such like company profile, financial program etc. Besides that, the used of tools like audio, television, video, voice slide and book which doing together to reach competence or certain learning goal is also called multimedia. Multimedia that¶s effective in learning doesn¶t simply consist of using multiple media together, but combining media mindfully in ways that capitalize on the characteristics of each individual medium and extend and augment the learning experience. Research shows how multimedia can extend and augment learning. Uses of multimedia vary, from practice to games to discovery learning. Designers should first determine what outcomes they are trying to achieve and then select elements well suited for these outcomes (for example, select audio to allow learner to hear differences in tone). Then they need to make sure that the multimedia elements are designed well and work well together. A designer with an information transfer view of learning is likely to limit the potential benefits of multimedia learning environments by continuously building drill-and practice types of environments even when these are not called for instructionally. On the other hand, someone with a knowledge construction view of learning may have such an expansive view of what is possible that the resulting multimedia environment may be frustrating or overwhelming for

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learners. In all cases, determining when to use multimedia and designing good multimedia require real consideration and benefits from a team of people with instructional design, graphic arts, information architecture, and usability skills. A typical multimedia application is characterized by the following features: ‡ the different media it possesses and makes use of ‡ the use of digital technology ‡ the interaction it demands of the user ‡ and the integration of sound, images, text and data into seamless applications A multimedia program is designed to support the learning process. Multimedia offers the experience of listening, looking and doing in a computermediated setting. It can be interesting; motivating, exciting and help students achieve understanding in new ways. The use of sound, photographs and video enables the user to observe real world situations which is just not possible with the more conventional methods of instruction. There is also a high level of interaction. Most packages expect students to make choices about what they want to do next and the way in which they wish to work through the material. They are not passive but expect learners to actively participate.

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2.3 Teaching Aids in Language Learning According to Stevick: ³Learning material which is relevant to the students¶ needs and interests will motivate them; so that the result of the learning and teaching process will be satisfactory.´ The figure below shows the Positive learning Cycle by Stevick (1976: 47).

Figure 1: A POSITIVE LEARNING CYCLE

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We can represent the cognitive affective interplay in form of a learning cycle as represented above. This can either be a negative or a positive cycle. A good and appropriate course will engender the kind of positive learning cycle. A teaching aid is a tool used by teachers, facilitators, or tutors to: 1. help learners improve reading and other skills, 2. illustrate or reinforce a skill, fact, or idea, and, 3. relieve anxiety, fears, or boredom since many teaching aids are like games. (Http:www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/referencematerials/GlossaryOfLiter acyTerms/WhatIsATeachingAid.htm). Using teaching aids in the learning and teaching process can give students the experience of study as it shown on the following figure.

Figure 2: THE CONE OF EXPERIENCE (Edgar Dale)

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The figure above describes the use of teaching aids in the learning and teaching process. Edgar Dale classified this experience of the study from something real to abstract. Hamalik (1999: 51) states: ³Alat bantu belajar erupakan alat yang dapat digunakan untuk membantu siswa melakukan perbuatan belajar, sehingga kegiatan belajar menjadi lebih efisien dan efektif.´ Based on the quotation above, the writer assumes that using learning media will be very useful not only for students during their learning but also for teachers during their teaching.

2.4 The Main Elements of a Multimedia Program. There are six main elements which make up a typical multimedia program: a) Text: This is the base to most applications - the on-screen display of words. The use of different styles, fonts and colors can be used to emphasize specific points. b) Images: Seeing a picture of an object has more impact than merely reading about it. Examples include conventional artwork, computer-generated artwork, photographs or captured video frames. c) Movies: You can present information which is normally outside the scope of the ordinary classroom, such as medical operations or archaeological excavations.

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d) Animation: Animations can render a procedure more accurately than that of a movie. For instance objects which appear blurred within a movie can be represented more clearly. e) Sound: Sound can be used in strategic parts of the program or during a movie to emphasize certain points. This may include speech, audio effects (e.g. applause), ambient sound (e.g. the background sound of the sea etc.) and music. f) User Control: There has to be some degree of user control so as to provide students with the option to leave certain parts of the application and thus prevent boredom. On-screen options should exist for them to visit other areas of the program. All of the above aspects are combined to produce a seamless application.

Figure 3: THE MAIN ELEMENTS OF A MULTIMEDIA PROGRAM

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2.5 Listening Skills 2.5.1 The Definitions of Listening Listening skills are essential for learning since they enable students to acquire insights and information, and to achieve success in communicating with others. Life within and outside school affords many listening opportunities, but some students fail to seize them because they let their minds wander or they may concentrate on what they want to say themselves rather than on what a speaker is saying. Teachers can show students why good listening is useful and even crucial in some situations. Poor listening can lead to unnecessary arguments and problems. As in the case of doctors, careful listening and questioning might even save lives. Students¶ listening skills may be enhanced and tested by asking them questions about what they have heard. They may be given practice in note-taking and could be asked questions about the facts and inferences that may be made from their notes. They can be taught to recognize the difference between the main points and incidental or less relevant ideas and information. Learners can also benefit from practice in recognizing the purpose of presentations and other information they hear. It can be useful if they are taught to set goals for what they want to learn from a presentation and to monitor how well they accomplish their goals. Students can be taught to listen selectively for specific kinds of information, such as the main purpose, the themes, the details and any implications. They can even be tested for their ability to identify the essential information in the presence of irrelevant material and distractions, as is the case in much of adult life.

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Gebhard (2000:144) states that listening comprehension activity involves two distinct processes bottom-up and top-down processing. Bottom-up processing in listening refers to a process of decoding a message that the listener hears through the analysis of sounds, words and grammar. Top-down process in listening refers to the process of using background knowledge to comprehend a message. The background knowledge can be in the form of previous knowledge about the topic, in the form of situational knowledge, and in the form of µschemata¶ or plans about the overall structure of events and the relationship between them. The schemata relates especially to our real-world experiences and the expatiations we have, based on our experiences, about how people behave. The schemata we draw from includes our experience in assigning specific kinds of interaction to an event, the way we categorize language, and the ability to predict a topic in discourse and infer a sequence of events. There are two purposes of listening: interactional function which is focusing on creating harmonious interaction among individuals, and transactional function which is focusing on transferring information and it is important for the listener to comprehend the content of the speaker¶s message.

We can provide the students with a variety of listening activities. The following are some of the listening activities for EFL students as suggested by Gebhard: (a) identifying linguistic feature, (b) a stress and rhythm listening activity, (c) a minimal pair listening activity,

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(d) responding to request and commands, (e) interacting as a listener, (f) eavesdropping, and (g) comprehending extended speech. Teachers should be familiar with some practical principles for designing listening comprehension teaching technique. We can take summarizes some of the listening teaching technique principles as elaborated in the following. First, in an interactive, four-skills curriculum, teachers should not overlook the importance of techniques that specifically develop listening comprehension competence. The second principle is that teachers should use techniques that are intrinsically motivating. In order to appeal to the students¶ personal interest and goals, teachers should take into full account the experiences, goals and abilities of the students in designing lessons. The next principle is utilizing authentic language and context to enable students to see the relevance of classroom activity to their long-term communicative goals. The fourth is carefully considering the form of listeners¶ responses to see whether or not their comprehension has been correct. Another principle is encouraging the development of listening strategies because most foreign language students are simply not aware of how to listen. The last principle in designing listening technique is that teachers should include both bottom-up and top-down listening techniques, because both of them can offer keys to determining the meaning of spoken discourse.

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2.5.2 Types of Listening Brown defines six types of listening performance: reactive, intensive, responsive, selective, extensive, and interactive. These performance types progress from simple (reactive) to the most complex form of listening (interactive). There is a parallel continuum when types of user performance with a multimedia system are examined. These range from simple reacting to on-screen or aural input (reactive) to complex interaction with material through manipulation and construction (interactive).

REACTIVE-INTENSIVE-RESPONSIVE-SELECTIVE-EXTENSIVE-INTERACTIVE

1. Reactive listening performance This performance focuses on surface aspects of the language, not necessarily understanding. A prevalent example of this kind of listening is choral response listening where students directly mimic or perform simple

transformations on what a teacher says. A multimedia example of reactive listening might be when a student is prompted to repeat or make transformations on what gets "spoken" by the system. This can be achieved by having students "speak" to the screen, type in what they hear, or click the mouse on a pictorial or textual representation of what is heard. 2. Intensive listening performance Intensive performance requires learners to concentrate on the component parts of what they hear. This may take the form of listening to a teacher repeat a sentence and indicating the form of the verb or intonation pattern she is using. A

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multimedia example of intensive listening is colorizing. In a multimedia presentation where text accompanies audio and/or video, the user can be prompted to focus on component parts of sentences when these parts are visually marked by color. The user can also be prompted to listen for specific components and type them in or colorize them to indicate successful discrimination. 3. Responsive listening performance This performance requires students to listen to a teacher's question or cue and respond immediately and appropriately, thereby indicating understanding. Teacher prompts can take the form of meaningful questions (Where were you yesterday?), commands (Please close that door.), clarifications (What did she say?), and comprehension checks (Do you mean she was sick?). In terms of meaningful questions, multimedia systems are limited. Computers cannot process nor respond to natural input. However, the system can certainly pose such questions, prompt the student to type in or record a response, and save these as files for a peer or teacher to assess. On the other hand, responding to commands is a performance perfectly suited for multimedia systems. The learner can respond to audio commands in any number of ways: clicking on the screen, moving objects around on the screen, starting and stopping an audio or video segment as commanded, typing in predetermined words or sentences, and the like. Responding to requests for clarification is also feasible in a multimedia environment. Requests for clarification (Are you sure? Do you mean X? etc.) can be simulated auditory, textually, and/or by a video character. The learner has only to provide clarification in ways similar to those suggested for responding to

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commands. Demonstrating comprehension is also readily feasible with this form of instructional technology. Comprehension can be indicated in response to multimedia prompts through typing or clicking with corresponding feedback provided. 4. Selective listening performance This performance requires learners to listen to longer stretches of discourse for the purpose of getting specific information from the aural text. Multimedia also accommodates this listening performance well and easily. Learners can be prompted to listen selectively for particular information, then to indicate successful identification of this information by typing in or selecting appropriate key words, pictures, or sequences from a group of possible selections. The learner can also manipulate elements on the screen in response to successful selective listening. 5. Extensive listening performance Extensive listening requires fuller understanding of lengthier aural texts for the purpose of in-depth understanding. This form of listening is especially well suited for multimedia in that the learner, unlike in real-time situations, can control the rate and sequence of the aural presentation. She can also make use of visual and textual clues available in a multimedia format to understand what she hears. On-line note taking capabilities, access to supporting information, and the availability of tools (key word guidance, a dictionary, and the like) add to the suitability of the medium for extensive listening. Learner performance can take

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the forms described in previous sections, only require more in-depth understanding. 6. Interactive listening performance Interactive performance calls into play the above types of listening performance in face-to-face interaction. As the full negotiation of meaning that takes place between human interlocutors is not realizable between a learner and a multimedia system, the option of using the technology as a springboard for student-student interaction becomes an alternative (see Pair work with Multimedia below). Individual work with listening skills development can, moreover, be viewed as needed rehearsal for human interaction in the target language.

2.5.3 General Principles in Teaching Listening Comprehension  Listening comprehension lessons must have definite goals, carefully stated. These goals should fit into the overall curriculum, and both teacher and students should be clearly cognizant of what they are.  Listening comprehension lessons should be constructed with careful step by step planning. This implies, that the listening tasks progress from simple to more complex as the student gains in language proficiency ; that the student knows exactly what the task is and is given directions as to ³ what to listen for, where to listen, when to listen , and how to listen .´  Listening comprehension lesson structure should demand active overt student participation. The most overt student participation involves his written

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response to the Listening comprehension material and that immediate feedback on performance helps keep interest and motivation at high levels.  Listening comprehension lesson should provide a communicative urgency for remembering in order to develop concentration. This urgency, which along with concentration is a key factor in remembering, should come not from the teacher, but from the lesson itself. This is done by giving the students the writing assignment before they listen to the material.  Listening comprehension lessons should stress conscious memory work. One of the goals of listening is to strengthen the students¶ immediate recall in order to increase their memory spans. ³Listening is receiving, receiving requires thinking, and thinking requires memory; there is no way to separate listening, thinking, remembering.´  Listening comprehension lessons should ³teach,´ not ³test.´ This means that the purpose of checking the students¶ answers should be viewed only as feedback, as a way of letting the students¶ find out how they did and how they are progressing. There should be no pass/fail attitude associated with the correction of the exercises. ( Paulston & Bruder , 1976).

2.5.4 The Phases of the Listening Process
y

Pre-listening

During the pre-listening phase, teachers need to recognize that all students bring different backgrounds to the listening experience. Beliefs, attitudes, and biases of the listeners will affect the understanding of the message. In addition to

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being aware of these factors, teachers should show students how their backgrounds affect the messages they receive. Before listening, students need assistance to activate what they already know about the ideas they are going to hear. Simply being told the topic is not enough. Pre-listening activities are required to establish what is already known about the topic, to build necessary background, and to set purpose(s) for listening. Students need to understand that the act of listening requires not just hearing but thinking, as well as a good deal of interest and information which both speaker and listener must have in common. Speaking and listening entail ... three components: the speaker, the listener, and the meaning to be shared; speaker, listener, and meaning form a unique triangle.
y

During Listening

Students need to understand the implications of rate in the listening process. People listen and think at four times the normal conversation rate. Students have to be encouraged to use the ³rate gap´ to actively process the message. In order to use that extra time wisely, there are several things students can be encouraged to do:  They can run a mental commentary on it; they can doubt it, talk back to it, or extend it.  They can rehearse it in order to remember it; that is, they repeat interesting points back to themselves.  They can formulate questions to ask the speaker and get the key words or key phrases.

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They can wonder if what they are listening to is true, or what motives the speaker has in saying it, or whether the speaker is revealing personal feelings rather than objective assessments.
y

After Listening

Students need to act upon what they have heard to clarify meaning and extend their thinking. Well-planned post-listening activities are just as important as those before and during. Some examples follow.  To begin with, students can ask questions of themselves and the speaker to clarify their understanding and confirm their assumptions.  Students should talk about what the speaker said, question statements of opinion, amplify certain remarks, and identify parallel incidents from life and literature.  Students can summarize a speaker's presentation orally, in writing, or as an outline. In addition to the traditional outline format, students could use time lines, flow charts, ladders, circles, diagrams, webs, or maps.  Students can review their notes and add information that they did not have an opportunity to record during the speech.  Students can analyze and evaluate critically what they have heard. 2.5.5 Learner Difficulties in Listening 1. Trouble with sounds Since most listeners rely mostly on production of sounds from the speakers, they are often themselves unaware of inaccurate speaker device options. Students¶ are sometimes have a trouble with the poor device which provided by the teacher

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because of limited facilities. In this term, sounds limpidity is the biggest influence to students¶ ears. There is no reason for listening comprehension subject to not be supported by suitable device. So the most important thing to pay more attention for the teachers is to provide the best speaker device to make the best result of producing sound. 2. Have to understand every word This is a very common problem, often unconsciously fostered by teachers and/or listening comprehension materials that encouraged the learner to believe that everything that is said bears (equally) important information. The effort to understand everything often results in ineffective comprehension, as well as feelings of fatigue and failure. We may need to give learners practice in selective ignoring of heard information²something they do naturally in their mother tongue. We should explain this point to the learners, and set them occasional tasks that ask them to scan a relatively long text for one or two limited items of information. 3. Can¶t understand fast, natural native speech Learners will often ask you to slow down and speak clearly²by which they mean pronounce each word the way it would sound in isolation; and the temptation is to do as they ask. But if you do, you are not helping them to learn to cope with everyday informal speech. They should be exposed to as much spontaneous informal talk as they can successfully understand as soon as possible; and it is worth taking the time to explain to them why. One of the advantages of teacher-produced talk is that you can provide them with this sort of discourse at

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the right level for them, getting faster and more fluent as their listening skills develop. 4. Need to hear things more than once There may be very good pedagogical reasons for exposing learners to texts more than once. But the fact remains that in real life, they are often going to have to cope with µone-off¶ listening; and we can certainly make a useful contribution to their learning if we can improve their ability to do so. We can, for example, try to use texts that include µredundant¶ passages and within which the essential information is presented more than once and not too intensively; and give learners the opportunity to request clarification or repetition during the listening. 5. Find it difficult to keep up Again, the learner feels overloaded with incoming information. The solution is not (so much) to slow down the discourse, but rather to encourage them to relax, stop trying to understand everything, and learn to pick out what is essential and allow them to ignore the rest. 6. Get tired This is one reason for not making listening comprehension passages too long overall, and for breaking them up into short µchunks¶ through pause, listener response or change of speaker. When you create listening exercises, keep these elements in mind. Discuss the dynamics with your students and ask them to respond to listening exercises when you have provided:

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Context (the setting, special vocabulary, specific information about characters, etc.)  Guidelines (specific listening tasks)  Designed in manageable segments (Dr.Valerio 1996) 2.5.6 Listening and Technologies A prominent artifact of older beliefs concerning the role of listening in language learning is the language laboratory. The rationale for language laboratories is tied to the belief that individual listening practice with audiotape can help build a learner's overall ability in the target language through selfinstructed comprehension practice. Technology continues to be perceived as an enhancement to the process of language acquisition. The large-scale infusion of computers in language instruction programs in the past decade attests to this belief. The rationale behind what is now growing support for Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is not unlike earlier enthusiasm for audiotape-based technologies. That is, individualized access to target language material under learner control provides needed exposure to and practice in the target language. Enthusiasm for CALL in general and multimedia in particular, however, differs from that of the audiotape laboratory as regards the breadth of expectations concerning technology's role and potential. Fast and powerful computational capacity in conjunction with the orchestrated video, text and graphics of today's multimedia learning systems would predict more sophisticated paradigms for interaction with the target language and, consequently, more effective learning. Arguments supporting

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multimedia for education of this kind have rung loud and clear over the past decade. Praises for the medium are, however, based largely on intuition: learning a language via individualized instruction with the computer -- especially when audio and video are involved -- is an extremely appealing proposition, one that has sold to many an administrator in search of instructional panaceas. Thus far, however, the extent of multimedia's impact on the language acquisition process remains an open issue. Is there evidence to suggest that listening skills development can be enhanced through this medium? The following section treats this question by examining potential correspondence between multi modal processing opportunities for language learners and how these can interact to complement listening skills acquisition.

2.6 The Types and Advantages of Using Audio-Visual Aids (AVA) in Teaching English. Audio-visual aids are devices that appeal to the eyes and ears of the learners. Audio-visual aids:
y y y y

motivating learners, saving the teacher voice, giving economizes teaching time, and helping teachers. (Http://www.geocities.com/stuncel2001/audiovisual.html)

Every teaching activity has its own advantages, so does using audio visual aids in teaching English. What students achieve after the learning process can be

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measured or evaluated to see how well the students are influenced by the use of audio visual aids. The audio visual aids in learning process are based on certain reasons and advantages; (Bety, 1982: 65) quoted by Hendri (2003: 10-11) shows the learning process as follows:
The advantages of audio-visual aids in learning process

To achieve the purpose

to get cleaning and productive
environtment

to represent
appropriate

It is easy to organize

To avoid long
explanation

to increase challenge

situation

Figure 4: THE ADVANTAGES OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS IN LEARNING PROCESS

1. To Achieve the Purpose Semantics is so difficult to find out an appropriate explanation of certain words because words can have more than one meaning; also, the word itself is considered insufficient to certain meanings. In this case it is appropriate to use audio-visual aids as the exact way to achieve the purpose. 2. To Get Clean and Productive Environment Teaching language is teaching to communicate. Communication will be successful if both listeners and speakers understand the situation; however, the situation in the classroom is somewhat different. Whenever communication is

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required, creating productive and meaningful environment can be alternative way to do. By means of audio-visual aids such environment can be created. 3. To Represent Appropriate Situation The use of Audio-visual aids can also represent any appropriate situation, one, visual aids can be used not only for one activity but also for others. 4. It is Easy to Organize Audio-Visual aids make it easier to organize than real things because the audio-visual aids can represent things, which are hard to get manually. 5. To Avoid Long Explanations Some words need a long explanation because of its inappropriateness to find the exact meaning, but explanation would not be enough so that it can cause students misunderstanding. Such long explanations can be avoided by using audio-visual aids. 6. To Increase Challenge Students are supposed to get productive skills by using vocabularies; they have known as language elements to support listening skills. The use of audiovisual aids can help students to increase challenge especially when working on groups or pairs in the learning and teaching process. This condition will be conductive to increase motivation. Arsyad in his book µMedia Pembelajaran¶ (2004: 30), he defines that: ³Teknologi Audio-Visual adalah cara menghasilkan atau menyampaikan materi dengan mesin-mesin dan elektronik untuk menyajikan pesan-pesan Audio dan

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Visual´. While Webster (1977: 74) defines Audio-Visual as: ³of or relating to both hearing and sight (an extensive-department of films and recordings).´ Briefly, the writer will use Audio-Visual in his study because of many reasons. The first, the writer thinks that learning by using Audio-Visual can make the students more enthusiastic in learning English especially in learning listening. The second, learning through audio-visual can create a fun-learning situation especially for students. As we know that learning situation is very important because it is one of the learning elements. Fun learning situation can give students motivation during their learning, and the most important thing is that learning through audio-visual can practice students¶ listening skills. As one of the learning media, there are several types of Audio-Visual aid. According to Leshin, Pollock & Reigeluth (1992 in Arsyad, 2004: 36) quoted by Nurlaela (2007: 11), there are four types of media: a) Media berbasis manusia (guru, instruktur, tutor, main-peran, kegiatan kelompok, field-trip); b) Media berbasis cetak (buku, penuntun buku latihan (work book), alat bantu kerja, bagan grafik, peta, gambar, transparansi, slide); c) Media berbasis Audio-Visual (video, film, program slide-tape,

televise);dan d) Media berbasis computer (pengajaran dengan bantuan computer interaktif video, hypertext).´

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From the quotation above, we know that there are several types of AudioVisual; televisions, films and slide-tape program as it ahown on the following figure.

Types of AudioVisual

Television

Film

Slide-Tape program

Figure 5: TYPES OF AUDIO-VISUAL 1. Television Http://en.wkipedia.org/wiki/Television defines that ³Television (often abbreviated to TV or telly) is a widely used telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. The term may also be used to refer specifically to a television set, programming or television transmission. The word is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots, meaning ³far sight´: Greek tele, far and latin vision, sight (from video, vis-to see, or to view in the first person)´. Television is electronic systems which send silent picture and life picture together with sound through cables or spaces. Based on the same researchers, we can find students who learn several lessons through television programs. Nowadays, LCD TV is very popular; for examples, as shown on the following figure.

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Fi

E

L Q

T L

L

L

T

There are some advantages of television: a) It can present good model and examples for st dents, b) TV is very interesting and modern for st dents because TV becomes a part of their daily life, c) TV can attract attentions from everyone, d) It can take the real world to the house and classes, such people, places, and phenomena, through the direct broadcasting or record, e) It can give the students chance to watch and to hear by themselves, and f) It can present programs which can be understood by students with different age and educational level g) So it was queered if much of the teachers used television for their teaching aid.

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2. Film and Video As a teacher always watches them and listens to their soundtracks before using them in class, you may teach vocabulary, grammar, culture, pronunciation, etc. though video films. There are many advantages of using video in classroom, such as: students can listen and see original speech, and at the same time they can see the positions of the lips, teeth, and tongue, things that help a lot of listening comprehension. (Http://www.geocities.com/stuncel2001/audiovisual.html). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film) defines that the origin of the name ³film´ comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) had historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, photo-play, flick, and most commonly, movie. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema, and the movies. Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. Films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Films are considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating-or indoctrinating-citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a

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universal power of communication. Some movies have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. Both of film and video are commonly used for entertainment, documentation, and education purposes. Films and video are also to present information, to expose process, to explain complex concepts, to teach skill, and to influence attitude. Using films and video in a language teaching has several reasons: a. Films and video are easily available, b. Everyone likes films although the types of the films may be varied from one to other, c. Films are easily applied into a language learning because the films are actually expressions of thought of kinds of feeling, d. Films and video may arouse student¶s interest and motivation, e. Films as natural resources for any other activities connected to language learning, f. Using films and video is easy to organize, and g. Film and video can lead into productive and receptive language skills. It is a crucial factor to choose what films to use in the language classroom as not all films can be used for this purpose; therefore, it is really a good idea to consider choosing the film. First, how much far the films relate with the students experience and interest. Second, how much practice can be exploited in terms of teaching objectives and the student¶s level of English. Third what language skills can be covered by more than one language skill.

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One of the requirements of the communicative approach to language teaching is the authenticity. This means that the materials must be an authentic one, which is not intended to teach languages. Magazines, newspapers, films brochures, advertisements are good examples of authentic materials because it is an expression of the minds, feelings of love, happiness, sorrowress while its language is created in such a beautiful rhyme and language. Video and films as one of authentic materials give several advantages in the learning and teaching process as a teaching aid: a. Films and video can describe a process exactly. b. Films and video can be showed to big or small group, c. Films and video can be used to teach the four language skills and language components as well, d. Films and video can be used supporting materials to teach structure, vocabulary, reading, speaking, and listening, e. Learning language through film can be a subconscious learning because when students watch films, they don¶t realize that they are learning language. What they feel is that they learn a film or just watch a film, f. Films can give fun to students; as result, they will be motivated, and g. All students in the class have opportunities to pronounce the words in the film free from feeling of hesitation. So it was a fact that video and films as a teaching aid gives a real advantages in the learning and teaching process.

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3. Slides ³A slide is a film transparency contained in a frame or mount. There are several slide formats, but by far the most common is the two-inch by two inch slide.´ (Gerlach, et.al., 1980: 292) Slide has some advantages as follows: a. Slide can be changed according to the need, b. The similar lesson content inside of slide pictures can be spread and used in different place together, c. The picture on slide can be showed longer and thus it can take the students¶ attention and build similar students¶ perception toward the concept or message which wants to be conveyed, and d. Slide can be used alone or together with sounds or recordings. From those types of Audio-Visual above, the write chooses films and videos as a media that will be used in this study. 4. English Computer Software Computer software, or just software, is the collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software is intangible, meaning it "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes and records.

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Examples of computer software include: a. Application software includes end-user applications of computers such as word processors or Video games, and ERP software for groups of users. b. Middleware controls and co-ordinates distributed systems. c. Programming languages define the syntax and semantics of computer programs. For example, many mature banking applications were written in the COBOL language, originally invented in 1959. Newer applications are often written in more modern programming languages. d. System software includes operating systems, which govern computing resources. Today large applications running on remote machines such as Websites are considered to be system software, because the end-user interface is generally through a Graphical user interface (GUI), such as a web browser. e. Testware is software for testing hardware or a software package. f. Firmware is low-level software often stored on electrically programmable memory devices. Firmware is given its name because it is treated like hardware and run ("executed") by other software programs. g. Shrinkware is the older name given to consumer bought software, because it was often sold in reatail stores in a shrinkwrapped box. h. Device drivers control parts of computers such as disk drives, printers, CD drives, or computer monitors. i. Programming tools help conduct computing tasks in any category listed above. For programmers, these could be tools for debugging, or reverse

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engineering older legacy systems in order to check source code compatibility. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_software).

Figur 7: A SAMPLE OF ENGLISH COMPUTER SOFTWARE

2.7 Criteria of Good Audio-Visual Aids (AVA) To make visual aids useful and to archive the purpose of the teaching vocabulary, teachers should consider the criteria of good visual aids, as follows: (Morgan Bower Bety, 1982; 105) 1. It has clarity of what it represents, so that it makes sense and gives clear meaning to the students, 2. It should be visible in any point of view; the size of visual aids should be in such a way that every students in the classroom can see them clearly, 3. It is interesting and simple, 4. It has multi purposes so that teaching aids can be used for any situations and necessities that concede with the material being carried out,

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5. It arouses interest; an example of original advertisements can arouse students¶ interest in doing the activities, 6. It is applicable, 7. It is meaningful and authentic, 8. It has sufficient amount of language, and 9. It is challenging. Based on the statements above, the writer known that there are some characteristics of good visual aids to make visual aids useful and to archive the purpose of the teaching vocabulary.

2.8 Multimedia as Teaching Aids Multimedia is a technology that has taken business, industry, and education alike by storm. The proliferation of educational and training materials, incorporation of digitized sound, speech, images, and full motion video, with high speed computers and videodisc players that break the paradigm of linear, teacherdriven instruction promises to revolutionize the way we learn. The effective application of this technology in education and training assists the audience in retaining most of the information they hear, what they see, and what they interact with. In multimedia presentation, learning occurs faster than with classroom instruction, and course content is mastered faster. Perhaps equally important is that when compared with classroom instruction, interactive multimedia learning also results in better training. Studies show that participants increase understanding, resulting in greater learning gains.

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Computer technology provides a prominent and multifaceted tool that can transform the way educators teach and the way students learn. Consequently, there is an improved ability to search for abstract or complex material with increased student comprehension and interest. Instructors should thus consider the nature of technology and the potential range of its uses in higher education. One potential use of computer-enhanced instruction at the university level is to complement lecture courses in ways in which the computer-enhanced instruction program reviews, reinforces, or adds to materials presented in class. This is accomplished by integrating a variety of media sources such as words, graphs, sound and visuals. The result is an improved ability to present abstract or complex material with increased student comprehension and interest. Research has shown that students usually learn more in classes in which they receive computer-based instruction and that they learn their lessons in less time with computer based instruction. Multimedia allow students to learn in their own style and at their own pace. An additional benefit is that CD-ROMs provide media and visually rich material that is more likely to correspond effectively with students¶ individual learning styles. Presentation programs offer college teachers the possibility of preparing educational materials that combine the visual as well as the auditory modes of learning. If the presented materials read clearly, the design incorporates a visual analogy, and the graphic presentation uses sound principles of emphasis and harmony, computer-enhanced instruction can dramatically portray new ideas.

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Learning is a continuous process. However, the way instructors teach and students learn must be constantly reevaluated and updated. Teachers should be aware of the importance of using visuals to enhance information. Computerenhanced instruction can be successful if faculty chooses to become leaders in the adoption of the use of technology to enhance lectures or presentations. The potential of technology is the ability of all students to learn at the highest levels with the greatest resources in order to have the promise of a future of real opportunity. Studies show significant links between multimedia instruction and achievement in traditional subject matter. Schools that integrate technology into the traditional curriculum have higher student attendance and lower drop out rates, which leads to better academic results. It is believed that technology will continue to increase and become a standard part of the educational model. As this occurs, educators will have to put some of their traditional teaching techniques to the side to make room for multimedia. The old model of faculty lecture note taking has shown to be unsuccessful in making efficient use of faculty time for allocating information to large groups of learners or for learning by students with diverse backgrounds and skills. However since students bring a wide variety of skills, backgrounds, interests, learning styles and motivations to the classroom, the challenge for teachers is to try to match the presentation material to such a diverse audience. Technology can address this problem in several ways. At a basic level, the variety of presentations provides a change of pace from a chalkboard or overhead projector. For example,

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a teacher could use technology to produce energetic animations, utilize computer models for complex systems, or to visualize three-dimensional data. Another benefit of using various forms of multimedia is that complicated topics can be explained and understood better with the aid of pictures, graphs, animations and simulations. It also provides the option to present complex concepts in small, chronological steps as a means to improve students¶ ability to comprehend information in a meaningful way. This concept is especially important for introductory classes that have students with assorted backgrounds and interests. Compared to the traditional presentation methods, multimedia has the capacity to offer instructors control over how and when information is presented to students. Besides, a good number of universities have become captivated with multimedia instruction as a means to improve student satisfaction, performance and learning. Multimedia use in classes significantly motivates students by increasing student interest, involvement, enjoyment, and liking for the material covered in class. The outcome of employing multimedia in teaching college students is a greater long-term retention compared to students taught by traditional classroom methods. It has also been observed that students taught with multimedia attend class more frequently and appear to be more interested than students taught without multimedia. Consequently, multimedia will continue to grow at a rapid rate. Lectures that were once supplemented with chalkboards and transparencies can now be

45

complemented with a large screen projection system that can handle the computer and the Internet. Multimedia offers educators the opportunity to place their lectures onto the computer, along with new graphics and sound to create an engaging classroom presentation. This technology can lead to more active learning and adventurous teaching. By integrating technology sources into the classroom, courses can become more exciting and stimulating and possibly meet the needs of students with different learning styles. Multimedia instruction increases learning content and retention, and reduces the amount of time it takes to learn material. Thus, traditional instructional and educational media must move to incorporate the concepts of multimedia. However, in order to maximize the potential of this technology, educators would have to be trained in the use of the most recent technology. This implies education not only in the available technology, but also the concepts governing effective production and usage, with a comprehensive curriculum providing both. This would thus facilitate teaching and learning for lecturers and students in educational institutions.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter depicts the design of the investigation, which includes a further description of the methodology of the research, population and sample, techniques for collecting the data, and the testing procedure.

3.1 The Method of the Research The method of the investigation used by the writer is an experimental design. This design refers to the description of the purposes of the investigation, such as the plan, the statistical procedure in an experimental study (Bailey, 1982: as in Richard. et al), so there are two groups in this study; an experimental group (EG), a group which receives a special treatment from the researcher in teaching listening using technology of multimedia, meanwhile a control group (CG) is the group of students which learn without technology of multimedia. In this terms, the researcher use English Computer Software as a teaching aid. The design used in experimental method is a pre-test and post-test design. Follows are some procedures of the research: 1. it has two groups of subject namely the experimental and control group; 2. two groups are compared with respect to measure or to observe the dependent variable; 3. the groups are measured twice; the first measurement serves as the pre -test and the second as the post-test;

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4. measurements on the dependent variable for both groups are conducted at the same time with the same test; 5. the experimental group is manipulated with the particular treatment. In this study, the experimental group is taught through multimedia facilities for learning listening, while the control group is taught without multimedia facilities when they are learning listening. This study seeks an empirical evidence of the independent variable; furthermore, it identifies the significance of the effect.

3.2 Population and Sample 1. Population In this research, the researcher chooses the research population to determine the respondent. Populations in observed are the third year of SMAN 6 Garut. It can describe as follows: Table 1 The Condition of the Third Grade Class at SMAN 6 Garut in the Academic Year 2010/2011. Number 1 2 Total 2. Sample The second grade of SMAN 6 Garut will be randomly selected as a sample. Of all available classes, the researcher chooses two classes as samples to represent all populations. Class XII IS 2 XII IS 3 Total 38 40 78

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Two classes from the population are taken as a sample of the study, namely, class XII IS 2 and XI I IS 3. The first class consists of 38 students taken as the experimental class, and the second class consist of 40 students taken as the control class, but 2 students were absent so the writer assumes that the total of students are 38. So the total numbers of the samples are 76 students. The two groups learned the same material, the same treatments, and the same test. Something that made it different was that the class XII IS 2 as an experimental group in teaching listening using multimedia technology facilities while class XII IS 3 as a control group teaching listening without multimedia technology facilities.

3.3 Techniques for Collecting the Data The activity of this investigation is directed more on the process in the implementation of learning teaching activity in the classroom and things which are supported to the performance of such activities. 1. Treatments The process of learning teaching activity in the control class as well as in the experiment class is conducted under the same manner, which means that the actual face-to face meeting with each class is conducted twice a week. 2. Teaching and Learning Activity a. Watching/listening Students¶ activities consist of:

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1) listening and watching some materials by using English software through Projector / Computer; 2) the students answer the questions by filling in the blank with the suitable words. b. Listening Students¶ activities consist of: 1. Pre-Listening a) Introduction of the subject manner, b) Introduction of the listening comprehension practice, 2. Post-Listening a) Planning of composition, b) Listening of composition, and c) Responses of listening. Subsequently, those steps are applied in the teaching learning process in the class. The general description on the teaching process in the class to the control class and the experiment class could be studied in the activities presented below. 3. Classroom Observation Classroom observation needs to be both well organized and focused because watching well-planed complex lessons can be overwhelming. Both the reviewer and reviewed have to discuss the purpose of the observation in terms of. For example, what is being observed, the problems presented by the class and what the main objective of the lesson are. To make classroom observations

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protocols successful everyone concerned has to get over their initial discomfort about being observed (headship secondary. December 2006). a. Classroom Activities for Experimental Class 1) These activities showed the material taken from ³Learn To Speak English´. It¶s an English software computer which provides English practices. 2) Duration : 2 x 45 minutes 3) Activities: a) The students watched carefully and pay attention to the instruction given by the native speakers on the program. b) The students were given a piece of paper consist of the questions based on the spoken dialogue; c) students were asked to memorize some important key words related to the dialogue; d) The teacher asked the students to listen the dialogue carefully with the pictures showed through projector/infocus; e) The students were asked to fill in the blank with the suitable word based on the dialogue (PART I), and answer the questions with the correct one (PART II). f) The teacher recorded the students¶ presentation. b. Classroom Activity for Control Group Class 1) The activities showed the materials taken from ³Learn To Speak English´. It¶s an English software computer which provides English practices.

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2) Duration : 2 x 45 minutes 3) Activities: a) The students were given a piece of paper consist of the questions; b) The teacher asked the students first to read and memorize some important key words. c) The teacher played the dialogue through tape recorder twice and asked the students to listen carefully and pay attention to the dialogue spoken by the native speakers. d) The students were asked to fill in the blank with the suitable word based on the dialogue (PART I), and answer the questions with the correct one (PART II). e) The teacher recorded the students¶ presentation. 4. Testing Procedure According to Suharsini Arikunto (1998:139) Test is a set of exercise or other instrument used to measure the skill, knowledge and aptitude of an individual or group. 1. Pre-test The pre-test was carried out to detect the setting skill of the students before the trial test of the appointed teaching model was conducted. The data taken from the result of this pre-test represented the controlled variable to see speaking skill equity in the controlled as well as in the experimental class through a matching test.

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2. Post-test The post-test was principally conducted similarly as the pre-test. The difference laid on the function of the data obtained in the result of test appraisal. The data of this pre-test was used to perform a hypothesis test of the investigation. The Implementation of this pre-test was conducted after the performance of the model trial test had been completed. This was intended to find out the extent of effectiveness of the teaching model using multimedia facilities to improve listening skills. The instrument used in this investigation was intended to dig and to elicit the whole relevant data. The instruments of its listening test were pre-test and post ±test. 3. Scoring system The writer works of the sample, for the experimental group and the control group are measured through the following categories: a) Relevance and adequacy of content, b) Adequacy of vocabulary for purpose, c) Responses. To give the scores on this categorization the writer formulate these following ways: Total score gained X 10 Total test ««««««

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CHAPTER IV INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

4.1 The Analysis of the Data The next step taken after collecting the data was to recognize and to present them in an understandable form in order to be processed easily. The writer continued computing and analyzed the result of the test based on the pre-test and post-test. 4.2 The Computation of Data Result of the Test As presented in chapter I the investigation was intended to answer the following statements, i.e. whether or not multimedia facilities give influence on the students¶ listening skills. If the answer is yes, that would be another question to give more specific result. The question was that to what extend do the multimedia facilities affects on students¶ listening skills. These questions would be answered through making computation in the following ways: 1. The Computation of Data Result of the Pre-Test a. Formulation of Hypothesis: Ho : There are not any differences of student¶ ability between class XII IS 2 and XII IS 3. Ha : There are some differences of students¶ ability between class XII IS 2 and XII IS 3.

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b. The Result of U Table 2 THE RESULT OF THE TEST 7 7 8 4 7 6 8 8 9 3 2 9 6 9 7 3 9 7 8 8 8 6 3 7 7 6 6 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 4 2 6 7 7 6 2 9 7 9 9 2 2 9
GROUP A XII IS 2

8 9 6 4

6 7 9 9

8 7 7 7

9 7 2 4

9 7 9 6

8 7 3 7

8 8 9 6

GROUP A XII IS 2

U1 = n1.n2 + 

± 1791 ± 1791

U2 = n1.n2 + 

± 1135 ± 1135

= 38.38 + = 1444 +

= 38.38 + = 1444 +

= 1444 + 741 ± 1791 = 394

= 1444 + 741 ± 1135 = 1050

From U1 and U2 we choose the smallest one become Uhitung So Uhitung = 394 c. The Result of Means and Standard Deviation µu = (n1.n2 ) and
u=

µu = (n1.n2 ) = (38.38)

u=

55

= 1444 = 722

= 

=

= 

=

=
= 96,26 d. The Result of Zhitung Zhitung =
—

—

=
= 

= - 3,40
e. The Result of Ztable =5% Ztable = Z =Z =Z  = Z0.4750 = 1,96 (1 ± ) (1 ± 0.05)

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f. The Criteria of The Test Ho is accepted if: - Ztable<Zhitung <Ztable -1.96<Zhitung <1.96

Rejection Zone - 3.40 1.96

Accepting Zone 1.96

Rejection Zone

Figure 8: CRITERIA OF THE TEST

g. Explanation Ho : µ1 = µ2 => There are not any significant differences between teaching listening using multimedia facilities and teaching without multimedia facilities toward the improvement of students¶ listening skills. Ha : µ1  µ2 =>There are any significant differences between teaching listening using multimedia facilities and teaching without multimedia facilities toward the improvement of students¶ listening skills. Based on the data computation above, so the result is: Because Zhitung located on rejecting zone, so : Ho : µ1 = µ2 x Ha : µ1  µ2 ¥

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So Ha is accepted = There are any significant differences between teaching listening using multimedia facilities and teaching without multimedia facilities toward the improvement of students¶ listening skills. Based on the result of test through the process of the investigation, the writer found positive influence of multimedia facilities toward students¶ listening skills.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusions After analyzing the data of this investigation, the writer provides the conclusion concerning the entire problem of this paper. Based on the data which are gathered, the writer can conclude the results of this investigation as follows: 1. Method of teaching listening is the most important tool. It is the key to other activities of language learning. 2. Multimedia facilities are important teaching aids for learning listening and they will be the best teaching aids to improve the students¶ listening skills into the best achievement. 3. Teaching listening by using multimedia facilities brings about a better result than teaching listening by using traditional facilities. It has been proved by the calculation of data which showed that students who learned listening by using multimedia facilities got high score, better than students who learned listening without using multimedia facilities.

5.2 Suggestions Based on the conclusions above the writer would like to give some suggestions. They are:

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1. Since teaching listening using multimedia facilities proves useful, the writer suggests this teaching aid should be used in teaching learning process. 2. It would be more useful for the students if the teacher also explain the way of using multimedia facilities in order to know more about technology so they can use these facilities anywhere and anytime. 3. Teaching listening using multimedia facilities is more effective than teaching without using multimedia facilities. The writer has suggested that it should have a priority in teaching listening.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Surjakusumah, Y. (2006). Areas of Language Teaching and Learning Research. Bandung. Spector, J.M and Anderson, T.M. (2000). Integrated and Holistic Perspectives on Learning Instruction and Technology. United State of America: Kluwer Academic Publishers. LeBaron, J.F. and Collier C. (2001). Technology in its Place: Successful technology infusion in schools. [Online]. Available:

http://www.mendeley.com/researchnetworks.html. [11 April 2010] Eulis, R. (2002). Lerning English Through film for Senior High School Students. Skripsi pada Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris STKIP garut: tidak diterbitkan. Warsita, B. (2008). Teknologi Pembelajaran. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta. Nandang. (2006). The Correlation Between Students¶ interest in English Songs and Their Speaking Achievement. Skripsi pada Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris STKIP garut: tidak diterbitkan. Nurlaela, E. (2007). Using Audio-Visual As a Teaching Strategy to Increase Students¶ Vocabulary. Skripsi pada Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris STKIP garut: tidak diterbitkan. Rohani, A. (2004). Pengelolaan Pengajaran.(2nd). Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta

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Sriyono, et al. (1992). Teknik Belajar Mengajar Dalam CBSA. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta. Suhendar dan Supinah, P. (1992). MKDU Bahasa Indonesia; Pengajaran dan Ujian Keterampilan Menyimak & Keterampilan Berbicara. Bandung: CV. Pionir Jaya. Sundayana, R. (2007). Dasar-dasar Statistika penelitian Pendidikan. Buku panduan perkuliahan pada Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris STKIP Garut: tidak diterbitkan. Tarigan, H.G. (1981). Berbicara Sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa. Bandung: Angkasa. Tarigan, H.G. (1980). Menyimak Sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa. Bandung: Angkasa. Tarigan, H.G. (1991). Metodologi Pengajaran Bahasa 2. Bandung: Angkasa.

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