Dcsa ol'M hbe:d kfoDC C iSaw Modc Vap ta

Dcufl,,CoflmwCMM*n Mo5c

TAN S

i

Design of PWM Based Sliding Mode Voltage Controller for DC-DC Converters Operating in Continuous Conduction Mode
Siew-Chong Tan, Y. M. Lai, and Chi K. Tse Department of Electronic and Information Enginecring Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2766 6199 Fax: +852 2362 8439 E-Mail: ensctan@eie.polyu.edu.hk URL: http://chaos.eie.polyu.edu.hk

Keywords
Power converter, dc-dc converter, sliding mode control, pulse-width modulation, hysteresis modulation.

Abstract
This paper presents a simple approach to the design of fixed-frequency pulse-width-modulation based sliding mode voltage controller for DC-DC converters operating in continuous conduction mode. The design methodology is illustrated on the three basic DC-DC converters: buck, boost, and buck-boost
converters.

Introduction
Sliding mode (SM) controllers are well-known for their robustness and stability. The nature of the controller is to ideally operate at infinite and varyinig switching frequency such that the controlled variables can track a certain reference path to achieve steady-state operation [1]. However; variable switching frequency is undesirable for power converters [2], [3]. A method of ensuring constant switching frequency operation is to employ pulse-width-modulation (PWM) for the controller. This has been demonstrated on a buck converter in [4], [5]. Hence, in this paper, we extend the work in [5] to a unified approach to the design of PWM based SM voltage controller general for all DC-DC convefter types. Similar to [5], our aim is to present simple anid ready-to-use control equations for immediate implementation of the PWM based SM voltage controller. Since the focus of the paper is on proposing the design methodology, computer simulations suffice for the purpose of validating the designs. It is also worth mentioning that even though the discussion covers only the buck, boost, and buck-boost converters, the approach is commnon and applicable to all other DC-DC converter types.

The Approach
Detailed discussions of SM control philosophy, equivalent control method, and theory behind the relationship of sliding mode control and duty ratio control arc found in [1], [6], and [7].

HI3E 2005 - .5dl

ISBN 90-I71S08-1

R

De)si

n

of PwWM based Slding Mlode V oltage (Otrollerfor DC-DC Convercees Operatdig in CondtinuoLs CoadLtLoa Mod

TAN Sicw-Oloag

System Modelling
D

xI

(a) SMVC buck converLer

(b) SMVC boosL converter

0

L

V.

L

Ky

(c) SMVC buLck-boost converer

Fig. 1; Schematic diagams of die PWM based PID SMVC converters.

The first step to the design of the SM controller is to develop the state space description of the converter model in tenns of the desired control variables (i.e., voltage amilor current etc.). We consider all conver-ters to be operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The controller is a PID SM voltage mode controller. Figs. l(a)-l(c) show the schematic diagram of the three PITD sliding mode voltage controlled (SMVC) DC-DC converters used in this paper. The notations C, L. and RL are the capacitance, inductance, and load resistance of the converters respectively; ic' it, and ij are the capacitor, inductor; and load currents respectively; Vref, and 31ze are the reference, input, and sensed output voltage respectively; and u 0 or 1 is the switching state of power switch SV. Here, the control variables x may be expressed as
lj,
-

X

=

2

d(V=fd
Vc LX-..

(1)
)dt

dl111~d-

wheM Xlp X2, and x% represents the voltage e-ro;; the voltage er-o- dynamics (or the rate of change of voltage error), and the in-legral of ollhage error, respectively. The substitution of the converters' behavioral models under CCM produces the following control variable descriptions: auck. Xboost, and tuck-IO,t for buck, boost, and buck-boost converter, respectively.

110K 2005 - L)i--;c11i - 12'reeden DEl

ISBN :90-75815-08-5

P.2 i,.2

DCS~noEls'Mb.W SlidipSMod, VolikflDCC

DcuflhCoflm

ConMode

TAN S

i

XbUC.k

-

KLC + f Al(t~gi\
f xidt
Xbuck-boost =

Vref

-,3ll

Xboo,t

-

dvL

l'ref +

f x1dt

f Ay(vd adt

3Vo

;

3
-

LU7 x

Here v, I u is the inverse logic of u. Next, the time differentiation of the equations in (2) produce the state space descriptions required for the controller design of the respective converter.
For buck converter:
[Al
[0
I

Y dt>
*3-

(2)

Y2
For boost converter:

[_s

=[0

RL{

I

0

(

[X2
°0
o

L73i

-0

LC

o

(3)

1

1

[X
+

0

'~2
I

-~

0

.

LC

1l1

U.

(4)

For buck-boost:
[i'il
[0

I1

Kr1]

[2t

= O

[2'31

~1

R1LC
0

1

[0
+
[0

°
01

<21

WLC

UI

U

(5)

Rearrangement of the state space descriptions (3), (4), and (5) into the standard form gives

=-Ax+Bv+D
where
v

(6)

il or fl (depending on topology). Results are sumunarized in Table 1.

Controller Design

The SM controller has a switching function:
"

f0
+

I

whenS >O when S < O
as

(7)

where S is the instantaneous state variable's trajectory, alid is described
S
=

ctIXI

E2X2

+ (V3X3

=

JTxas

(8)

with JT = [a, a2 a3] and coefficients.

a1. a2,

and a3 representing the control parameters termed

sliding

HiE 20i 5 - Dxdc

ISBN

90-is71S=08-

1'.3

DCn inofl'Mhbd SLidisModc

Vklr.gc

hCoflmw oCMM* TAN S i CMOd

Table 1: Matrix Descriptions of SMVC Buck, Boost, and Buck-boost Converters
Converter
A
B

ID

v

Buck

0

tcRL

1 0

01
0]

0

OO OLC_ [tLC
3Vo _ 3V
O

it

Boost

_1

~0O- 1 c 0°
0

0 O

-

[-1

O

f

Buck-boost

°

RILC 010 0

°

~0 1

O 013LC7O °

Table 2: Existence Conditions of SMVC Buck, Boost, and Buck-boost Converters
Buck
Boost

0 < -BL
0 < 3L

(

P-LC) ic + LC -1] (Vf - bV.) +t < BVi BV
C1) ic - LCP' (Vrer-31W) < 3(T; - V)

(; -

Buck-boost

0 < BL I - H C) ic - LC 3

(

(Vlef - ,V) < 3v.T

Derivation of existence conclitions
To ensure the existence' of SM operation, the local reachability condition
linll ,s-o
must be satisfied. This can be expressed as

S S < 0.

(9)

K50+ =

=QJTAx0+:JTBl,

jTAX + JTB,590+ + JTD < 0
0-

+-JTD >

0

(10)

An illustration is provided for the boost converter
[tree necessary condiLions for SM coniLrol operaLion to occur. IL that thc state trajcctory at locaions near the sliding surface will always bc diroctcd towards the sliding surface. The other two necessary conditions are the hitting condition, which is satisfied by the switching funiction, and the stability condition, wlicl is satisfied duough dic proper selection of sliding coefficicnts.

tSaLisfanion of the existenice condition is one of Lhe

ensures

HEr 1005 - LSr

ISBN

90-IsS7

S-=s-

PA.

Dcsa ol'M hbe:d iSaw Modc Vap ta

foDC

C Dcul,hCoflm. CMM*n Mo5e

TAN S i

Example - Boost converter

* Case 1: S -+O+, S <0: Substitution of Vs+O+ = u = O and the matrices in Table 1 into (10) gives

-WC +a2RLC <+ as3(X7f - 31V.) < 0. + 3RC2 ic! -ai*

(11)

Case2:SO-,0S>O:

Substitution of vq30- -ua

I and the matrices in Table t into (10) gives

-al -c vi + a2R C2+

XC

a3(¾Md -4VO)a-2 LC + ~LC > 0. ) +LC °L2 LC° 9
ic - LC&3 (l, -3VW) <3(. - V).

(12)

Finally, the combination of (11) and (12) gives the simplified existence condition
0 <3L ('

(13)

Similarly, the existence conditions of other converters can be derived using the same procedure. The respective conditions are derived and shown in Table 3. Selection of sliding coefficients for the controller of each converter must comply to the corresponding inequality.
Derivation of control equationsfbr PWM based SM controllers
The derivation of the PWM based SM controller can be summarized in two steps. Firstly, the equiv0 [t]. Here, equating alent control signal usq, is formulated using the invariance conditions S O = JTAx + = 0 yields the equivalent control function S + D

JTBv0,

Veq

LJTB]

JT [Ax + D]

(14)

Secondly, the equivalent control function is mapped onto the duty cycle function of the pulse-width modulator (i.e. 0 < Ueq = D < 1) [5]. An illustration is provided for the boost converter.
Example - Boost converler

Since t. = V, we can derive the equivalent control function as

Tl,q

=

,'3 (V. VD

3L

(a2 RLC) i('
.

a,

t

&2/3 (V. - V) D I
I
-

c(3LC

Vi)

(15)
I -fq, the

where Ucq is continuous and 0 < Ttq < 1. Since u t substitution of (15) into the inequality gives
0< ttoq-1-

ii, which also implies uq -

(V. I ) (a2

RLC)

VL (t23- -3 VI) (Vrf -,31V) < 1. O-

(16)

HI3E 2005 - D.-cdcl

ISBN

90-I7Ss=s-s

1'.5

Din ofl'W'M ad SliSd Mod,Vapta

kflDCC

D

cfl,iCofiu

CoMuetio Mode

TANSwami

Multiplication of the inequality by ;3(1, - V) gives

0 < -3L(C'2

RLC) i + LC

(Ko f- 3V1) +f I (V - V) < ;3 (V. - ¾).

(17)

Finally, the mapping of the equivalent control function onto the duty raao control, where 0 < V1 < X,7,p, gives the following relationships for the control signal V, anid ramp signal 1rnp:

V,C =-BL
and

CI)ic (t2 1t2RLC} + LC"3 (Vef-{3VO) +,;3 (VO-Vi)
(l
-

(18)

(19) for the practical implementation of the PWM based SM controller. The control equations required for the implementation of the respective PWM based SMVC converters are tabulated in Table 3.
T .lp = f3

(V.-

)

Table 3: Control Equations of PWM based SMVC Buck, Boost, and Back-boost Converters
Converter Buck Boost

VK

T amp

-KpiiC + K,,2 (T ref- 31 ) + 11VO
+ -I%Iic + K1,2 (V14f - 3) ±3(1.-Ti)

3Vj
3 (V-Vi)

Buck-boost
*

+ ;31 -KpliC + Kp2 (l4ef- ;1,) o31,o

Kpi

aiid Kp2 aie parameters calculated usinig KpI = BL

-

and K2 -=3 LC.

Simulation Results and Discussions
Table 4: Specification of Buck Converter Rirameter Nominlal Value 24 V Input voltage Vi C 150 /tF Capacitance 21 rmQ r, Capacitor ESR L 22 pH Inductaiice Inductor resistaiice 0.12S l'L 200 kHz fs Switching frequency Minimum load resistance RL(miln) 3Q 12 Q Maximanw load resistance RL(rnax) 12 V Desired output voltage V.'I

Description

The derived PWM based conctollers' equations in Table II are verified through simulation. Tables IV, V, and VI show the specification of the buck, boost, and buck-boost converters used in this section.

HIE 2005 - Di

ISBN 90-I71S08-O

1'.6

DCsa ol'M be:cd Modc Vap t klrDCe Ccua Cofmw CMM*n Modc TAN S i i . SW

Inductor resistaice Switching frequency Minimum load resistance Maximnun load resistance Desired output voltage

Induetaunce

Input voltage Capacitance Capacitor ESR

Table 5: Specification of Boost Converter Parameter Nominlal Value Description
Vi
C
r,

L IL

RL(111,.)
Vd

RL(niin)

fs

200 kHz 48 Q 192 Q 48 V

12V lO )0 /jF 36 mQ 50 jtH 0.14 Q

Table 6: Specification of Buck-boost Converter Paramneter Nominal Value Description 24 V Input voltage Vi 1000 F C Capacitance 36 iniQ rcc Capacitor ESR
Inductance
Minimum load resistance (buck)

Iinductor resistance Switch7ing frequency

L rL

Minimum load resistanice (boost)

Maximum load resistance (buck) Maximum load resistance (boost) Desired output voltage (buck) Desired output voltage (boost)
Buck Converter

RL(mhi) RL(m,X)
V.d

RL( iiii)

fs

200 kllz 6Q 12 Q 60 Q 12 V

25 /IT 0.12 Q2

18 Q

11L(max) Vod

36 V

Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) show the steady-state behavior of the PWM based SMVC buck converter operating at nominal condition. Figs. 2(c) and 2(d) show respectively the graphs of DC output voltage against different input voltages and operating load resistances. It can be observed that the line regulation averages at -4.208 mVNV. It can also be concluded that voltage regulation of the converter is robust to load changes, with the load regulation Jo averages at 0.73 mV/Q.

4,1

Boost Converter
tion

Figs. 3(a)-3(d) illustrate the performance of the PWM based SMVC boost converter. The line regulaaverages at 64.25 mVNV. The load regulation averages at -0.92 mV/S.

dX°

Buck-boost Converter

Figs. 4(a)-4(f) illustrate the performance of the PWhM based SMVC buck-boost convelter. For stepdown operation, the line regulation ci averages at 12.67 mViV. Also, the load regulation dRL averages at -12.67 mV/S2. For step-up operation, the line regulation / averages at 36.92 mVNV. Also, load regulation (d averages at -3.10 mV/Q. dRL

HIEL 2005 - D sc

ISBN 90-7WS=08-3

Dc:~iga of PwWM based Sliding Miocd V oltage COntrollerfor DC-DC Convcrccix

Opcrtdn~g in Condatinoto CoadLLtcoa MdcxkIN

TAN Sicw-Oloag iw-hn

MD~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~....................................................

9B 9.92 9.9B4 9.9B6 9.98B 9.99

9.992 9.994 9.996 9.99S 10 Time x la'

9.9B2 9.98

v.986 9.988 9.99 v.992 9.904 9.0* v.998

T-irriexl

10

ci

C
9.99 9.992 Timo(s) 9.994 9.996 9.998

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~11.90
98

.

..............

&9 3

9.932 9.984 9.935

9.983

110

9 9.982M4 9.98S 9.988

nc0-D

9.99
ir

Z)7

9.992 9.994 9.996 9.998 r,

10

(a) VI, v;-atip, and ut
11.96,
I I -qcklj
......................................

(b) iLXaI4JV,
11.91U
--------------------------------------------------------------

11.95 11.94
-

...............................

11.91k
11.914

.............

............................

.......................

11.93
.............. ......... ........ ........

>:' ll.m

;ff
::,

C)

>1 11.912

. ............

11.91
11.90
...........
...............................

11.910

(. 11.89
1 1.88 11.87
1 1 .86

11.9c6 1.904
-------------

............................

.......................

----------------------------

-------------

.......................................................

1159C

I nput VoitageyI!) V

."
Load Resistance

RL. Cf

13

(c) Line, variation
Fig.
2: W

(d) Load wanadon
input

ramip

1,amp,

generated gate

putse

and

(b) iniductor

current

iL anfd
vottage

output

24 V mid RL 3 Qt mid thie graphs of DC output nominilal conditioni Vi 1%, againist (c) input vottage V7i and (dt) load resistance RL for the PWM based SMYC buck converter.

volttage

rippte

at

Conclusion
A

simple approach to the design of fixed-frequency PWM based SM voltage controller for all DC-DC conver-ter types operating in continuous conduction mnode is presented. The design approach has been
on

imiplemented

the buck, boost, and buck-boost converters. It

can

be concluded from the results that

the PWM based SM

voltage

controllers

are

feasible for

common

DC-DC conversion purposes.

References
[1] V. ULkin, J. Guktner, and

JLX.

Shi

,

Slidinig

Mode Control in-

Elecuronechawnical Systemts. Londlon,

U.K.:

Taylor

and Francis, 1999.

[2] B.J. Cardoso,

A.F
to

Moreirat,

B.R.

Menezes, atnd R.C. Cortizo,

medthods
tronics

Conjtrcnce antd Exrosition (APEC), pp. 403-410, Feb

applied

slidiing

mode

conitrolled

dc-dc

converters,,"

"Anatyvsis of switchinig frequencyv reduction in Proceedings., IEEE Applied Poiter Elec-

1992.

12K I2're.xkn Ellh 2005 - L)iv--;dc,-ii

ISBN :90-75815-08-5

90-75815-08-5

ItS ns

Dc:~iga of PwWM based Sliding Miocd V oltage COntroller for DC-DC Convcrccix

Opcrtdn~g in Condatinoto CoadLLtcoa MdcxkIN

iw-hn TAN Sicw-Oloag

..2.

..

-9B 9.92 9.9B4 9.9B6 9.98B

9.99

9.992 9.994 9.996 9.998

10

9.982 9.9Ws

0986 9.988

9.99

v.992 9.904 9.0* v.998

10

it)

.

.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~48.211.~~~8

Tim~o s)
(a) VI, v;-atip, and ut
49.0,

y1

4"R6 9.9ri2

9S 4

9.VSt 9.988 9.699 94E'2

9.994

9.993 9.9E'

10

(b) iLXI4MdV,
46.25

48.J

..........

..........

----------

>o

...............

---------------------------------------

...................

..........

480D5
-----------..................... --------------------------

47.E

4E 100
47,6
47,4
........................................ .................... ...............

...................

..

...-

47 .95
47.90

2.2---

2--

47.2'
Input Voltage

V,

14

15

16

17

40

W

60

70

80

90) 10
Lcoad

110

120

130~140

150

100

170

180

(')

Resistance

F?L

190

200

(.Q)

(c) Line variation

(d) Load varitation

Fig.

3:

Wavefonrms

of

(a) conitrol
at

iL

and output

voltage rippte v;,
(c)

siginal I42, input ramp nomindial cond(ition Vji
and

U17a1p. genierated
=

gate pulse
=

it

and

(b)

iiiductor

currenit

12 V and

RL

18 Q; and the graphs of DC output

xroltage V,,, ag,ainst
[3] P.

iniput

voltage Vj

(d)

load

resistanice

ThL for the PWM based

SM-VC boost converter.
for

Mattavellil,

L.

Rossetto,

conver-ter

applicattionis,"

in IEEE Power

(G. Spiazti, anid P. Tenti, "Generalipur-pose sliding-mnode controller Electronicis Specialists Confer-ence Recor-d (PESC), pp.

dec/dc

609--615,

June 1993.

[4]

'LM.

Nguyeni and C.Q.
IEEE

Lee, "Indirect
Power

iin Proceedings,
March 1996.

Applied

ii-npleniientattionis of sliding--niode control latw in buck-type coniverters Electr-onics Coqifer-ence and Expositioni (APEC), vol. 1, pp. 11I1- 1 15,
"'A

[5] S.C.

Tani,

Y.M.

Lai,

CILK.

Tse,

anid M.K.H. Cheuing,

pul se-width-modulation

for buck

converters"i,
2004.

in IEEE Power E/ectronics

Specia/lists

based sl iding miode controller Conf-erence Record (PESC 2004), pp. 3647-

3653,

Junie

[6]

H. Sira-Ramirez

anid

M. Itic,

'A

geomietric approachi
on

to the feedback control of
no.

switchi miode

DC-to-DC

power

suppliesj

IEEE

Tranisaction-s

Ciruiits
to

an-d Systems, vol. 35 niodutated

10, pp. 129 1-1298, Oct. 1988.
in nolinear

[7] H. Sira-Ramirez, 'A geometric approach
IEEE Transactions
on

pulse-widah
no.

conitrot

dynamicdat systems,"

Auitomnatic

Gontrof, vol. 34

3, pp. 184-187, Feb. 1989.

12K 2005 - L)iv--;dc,-ii I2're.xkn Ellh

ISBN :90-75815-08-5

P.9 1'.9

Dc:~iga of PwWM based Sliding Miocd V oltage COntroller for DC-DC Convcrccix

Opcrtdn~g in Condatinoto CoadLLtcoa MdcxkIN

iw-hn TAN Sicw-Oloag

..........................................

---------I----------

2 . ..........
..........I..........I..........I---------

---------- ---------- .......... ...........................

...................

8.98
1 t)
12.20

9.982

9.9W M86 9.988

9.99 9.992 9.994 9.996 9.998 Tirne C.;) x

le

10

12.lu

..1.
98 9.982

.

9.9%4 9.9%F 9.988

9.99

.99~2 9.994 9.993 9.998

10

(a.) V ,
IIP-pn.

andva (step-dowr)
I ?. I 1P.
........ ....... .......

(b) 'i,4 and X%, (step-downi)
1 2 .1 0
........................... ...........................................................................

12.1

-------------------------------

................................................................................................

..............

12.DS
........

121

ac~

12.04 .............. 12.D2
...............................................

.......................................

CL

12.DO . ......

.............

0

20

.....................................

..........................

............................................................................................................-

..................................

II EC

ii

Inp ut VoItage~Qj

Load Resistance

RL (a

(c) Line wiriation (step-down)
36.4i

(d) Load variation (step-down)
36.0
36.02
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

36.3

--------------

.....................................................................

3F3.2
3M.

.........................................................................

---------....................................... ......... .............................

.......... ..........
------------------------------------

35.98
...................
------------------------------------

........................

...........................

......... .....................

.......... ....................................
..........

35.8 35.7
35 -6

35.9E
...... ..... ......... ...... ..... ..... ...... ......... ..... ......

......... .......... .......... ..........

---------............

--------- .......... .......... ..........

35.86,
Input Voltage V (V)
(e)
Load

Resi~arce

(I

Linie

variaLion

(sLep-up)

(f)

Load variationi (step-Lip)

Fig.

4: Waveforms of PWM based SMVC buck-boost

coniverter
in

condition

VK,

=12 V

atnd 1Lk

6

Qt amid graphis
converter

of DC

output voltage agatinst

for the PWM based SMIVC buck-boost

operating

step-up

operationi

(e) and

(0).

(a) and (b) at nonilnal iniput voltage and toad resistance step-dowii oper-ationi (c) and (d), and operating in
in

step-downi operation

12K 2005 - L)iv--;dc,-ii I2're.xkn Ellh

ISBN :90-75815-08-5

itic 11.10

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful