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Prof. Greg Kovacs Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford University

**Design Note: The Design Process
**

• Definition of function - what you want. • Block diagram - translate into circuit functions. • First Design Review. • Circuit design - the details of how functions are accomplished.

– – – – Component selection Schematic Simulation Prototyping of critical sections

**• Second Design Review. • Fabrication and Testing.
**

EE122, Stanford University, Prof. Greg Kovacs 2

EE122 Parts Kit

EE122, Stanford University, Prof. Greg Kovacs

3

**Parts Kit Guide
**

LT1175 Adjustable Negative Voltage Regulator Sockets LT1011 Comparator AD654 V-F LT1167 Converter Instrum. Amp 7805 +5V Regulator MJE3055 NPN Power Transistor 555 Timer IRLZ34 Logic-Level Power MOSFET (N-Chan) LT1036 Voltage Regulator +12/+5 LT1033 Voltage Regulator 3A Negative, Adjustable

Yellow LEDs Bright Red LEDs LM334 Temp. Sensor CdS Cell SFH300-3B Phototransistor LT1056 OpAmps LTC1064-2 Switched Capacitor Filter

EE122, Stanford University, Prof. Greg Kovacs

4

Each set of five pins are shorted together internally so you can make multiple connections to one i.c. pin or component lead...

Each of the long rows of pins is shorted together so you can use them as power supply and ground lines...

Protoboards...

EE122, Stanford University, Prof. Greg Kovacs 5

preventing them from “talking” to each other and their own inputs! EE122. Stanford University.1 µF) from each power supply rail to ground. Greg Kovacs 6 .USE decoupling capacitors (typically 0. This is essential to prevent unwanted oscillations. The capacitors locally source and sink currents from the supply rails of the chips. Prof.

Prof.Point-To-Point Soldering On A Ground-Planed Board EE122. Greg Kovacs 7 . Stanford University.

..What Is an Op-Amp Anyway? OBJECTIVES (Why am I sitting in this classroom?) • To obtain a practical understanding of what operational amplifiers (“op-amps”) are and some applications they can be used for... Greg Kovacs 8 .." "We don't need need no education.. • To understand the basic op-amp circuit configurations. Stanford University. Prof. EE122. • To keep your parents happy! We don't no education. • To understand the basic characteristics (good and bad) of op-amps before measuring some of them in the lab.

EE122. 5) The output voltage is zero when the input voltage difference is zero.The Ideal Op-Amp V1 A(V2-V1) V2 + - 1) The input impedance is infinite . Stanford University. 3) The open-loop gain (A) is infinte..i.e. Prof. no current ever flows into either input of the op-amp.. 9 The Op-Amp produces an output voltage that is the difference between the two input terminals.e. 4) The bandwidth is infinite.i. multiplied by the gain A. Greg Kovacs . 2) The output impedance is zero . the op-amp can drive any load impedance to any voltage.

Greg Kovacs 10 . Stanford University. Prof.Types of Op-Amps • Single • Dual • Quad • Low power • Low noise • Low offset • High power • High voltage NICE HAT! Traditional costumes of analog circuit designers. • High speed EE122.

• SO. Greg Kovacs 11 . EE122. • Dr. • The first Op-Amps were invented during the time of the Second World War.. Stanford University.. • George A....A Bit of History.. Philbrick independently introduced a single vacuum tube operational amplifier in 1948... Prof. C. A. Lovell of Bell Telephone Laboratories introduced the Op-Amp.. Op-Amps are NOT new! • The ever-popular 741 monolithic Op-Amp was designed by Dave Fullagar in 1967.

7M 500pF -300 VDC EE122. Prof. Greg Kovacs 12 .1K 220K 2.5pF NE-68 . Stanford University.2M Vout 221K 120K 4.The First "Real" OpAmp -> The K2-W +300 VDC 510K 220K 680K 1M 7.Vin 12AX7 12AX7 NE-68 + Vin 9.

Prof.K2-XA EE122. Stanford University. Greg Kovacs 13 .

Parameters K2-W OpAmp 741 OpAmp +/.5X104 Gain Vout Swing +/. • Basic specifications comparison to 741 and LT1037.12 V/µSec 5X10 4 +/..7 mA none (SC protect) +/.50V Iout +/.The K2-W Tube OpAmp • Invented by Julie Loebe and George Philbrick (early 1950's) • The first "mass production" OpAmp. Stanford University..13.0.5 V/µS 30X106 +/..3 VAC (filaments) Open-Loop 1. Prof.00.15V LT1037 OpAmp +/.5 V 25 mA 2. 6. • Cost (in 1950's) approximately $22.7 mA none (SC protect) 15 V/µS 14 EE122.1 mA Idrain 5 mA (no load) RL(min) 50 KΩ Slew Rate +/...300 VDC. Greg Kovacs .12V 25 mA 1..15V Power Supplies +/.

linear-tech.intersil. Greg Kovacs 15 .com EE122.national.com • www. Prof.com • www.burr-brown.com • www.maxim-ic.Good Op-Amp Web Sites • www.com • www. Stanford University.

Every month the best design entry (judged by your peers). Stanford University.com Submit your favorite circuit or program.Cool New Project/Design Website: www. wins $100 in cash! Monthly winners are eligible for the $1200 Grand Prize! EE122. Greg Kovacs 16 . Prof.designnotes.

Prof. EE122. Charlie Kiers.Courtesy Mr. Greg Kovacs 17 . Stanford University.

Greg Kovacs 18 .Op-Amp Datasheets for EE122: Some Example Devices • LM741 (basic) • LT1056 (JFET input) • LMC660 (CMOS . Stanford University.low power) • LT1220/1221 (fast) • LM675 (medium power) • LM12 (high power) EE122. Prof.

The Ideal Op-Amp In SPICE Use a voltage-controlled voltage source: EXXXXXXX N+ N.NC+ NC. Greg Kovacs 19 .GAIN Eout 3 0 1 2 100K 2 V1 A(V2-V1) 3 1 V2 + - 0 EE122. Stanford University. Prof.

Feedback: What is it and Where Can I Get Some? NEAT THINGS YOU CAN DO TO AN AMPLIFIER BY USING FEEDBACK (OF THE NEGATIVE KIND. • The input and output impedances of the amplifier can be modified. • Nonlinear distortion can be reduced.. • The bandwidth of the amplifier can be extended.. • The effects of noise can be reduced.) 2 • The gain of the circuit is made less sensitive to the values of individual components. Stanford University. Prof. Greg Kovacs 20 . EE122.

• End global warming. • Save the dolphins. Stanford University. • Pay off the deficit. • Integrate signals. • Sum multiple signals. • Differentiate signals. • Make music very loud! EE122. • Buffer signals.WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH OP-AMPS? • Feed the hungry. • Amplify signals. • Heal the sick. Prof. Greg Kovacs 21 .

Prof. Greg Kovacs 22 .Jim Williams EE122. Stanford University.

Greg Kovacs 23 . Stanford University.Analog Hacker’s Bible EE122. Prof.

It has the best bandwidth of any op-amp circuit.)..THE VOLTAGE FOLLOWER V.V- What is it good for? Buffering a high-impedance signal to "beat" Heisenberg. Some op-amps need to be COMPENSATED for stable unity-gain operation (more later... You don't load it down when you measure it..... Prof.= VOUT VVIN V+ VOUT VOUT = AV+ . VOUT = 1 A V+ 1+A EE122. Stanford University. Greg Kovacs 24 .

terminal is referred to as a "virtual ground". V− = VOUT VOUT ≈ =0 ∞ A Due to NEGATIVE FEEDBACK!!!! THIS IS A KEY POINT!!! EE122.. Greg Kovacs 25 . Prof..THE INVERTING AMPLIFIER R2 VIN R1 VV+ i fb VOUT i in R2 AV = − R1 The V. Stanford University. Why is that? VOUT = A( 0 − V− ) thus.

Stanford University. EE122. Prof.Op-Amp Application: CLIPPER (or "Fuzz Box") Mellow Tunes Heavy Metal IN R2 OUT R1 Input signal must be large enough to turn on diodes. Greg Kovacs 26 ...

Prof.node is not a virtual ground in this configuration! The important thing to consider is that the voltage difference between V+ and V. Greg Kovacs 27 . R2 AV = 1+ R1 EE122.THE NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER R2 R1 VV+ VIN i2 VOUT i1 A key point to note here is that the V. Stanford University. V. In other words.is kept near zero.VIN.

THE SUMMING AMPLIFIER V1 V2 V3 V4 Vn R1 Rf i 1 R2 R3 R4 VV+ if VOUT Rn VOUT = −V1 or. Averaging signals (do you know how?). EE122. Prof. Greg Kovacs 28 . Stanford University. Rf Rf Rf − V2 − L − VN R1 R2 RN Vi Ri VOUT = −Rf ∑ i What is it good for? Summing multiple input signals in any proportion desired (determined by the relative values of the input resistors.

Noise Canceling Circuit EE122. Greg Kovacs 29 . Stanford University. Prof.

EE122. and Smith. Greg Kovacs 30 . “Microelectronic Circuits. set R4 = R3 and fix R2.” Oxford. C. S. K. Prof. • Gain can be set with only one resistor. R4 2R2 A V = − 1+ R3 R1 For one-resistor gain adjust.Instrumentation Amplifier • Very high input impedance. • Can optimize CMRR.. Source: Sedra. A. Stanford University.. 1998.

.150 Hz) Instrumentation Amplifier Source: Webster. Stanford University.” Houghton Mifflin. J.04 . “Medical Instrumentation: Application and Design. G. EE122.Op-Amp Application: EKG Filter (0. 1978. Greg Kovacs 31 . Prof.

Stanford University. Greg Kovacs 32 .provides magnetically coupled bursts of 5 kHz energy that mark the start of each heartbeat (i. you don’t get the actual waveform).com EE122. Prof..A Safe Heart Signal Interface Polar™ heart-rate transmitter . www.e.polarusa.

Stanford University. Greg Kovacs 33 .Polar™ OEM Receiver EE122. Prof.

Math (yuk) as it used to be done! What kind of filter is this? EE122.THE INTEGRATOR Need R2 to make the integrator "leaky".R2 VIN R1 What is it good for? Triangle wave generation.C1 v out d R1 dt vout = 1 R1 C1 vindt 34 .. For DC inputs: R1 R2 C1 VOUT = . Otherwise small DC offsets would charge it up (and up. Greg Kovacs VIN VV+ VOUT i in For AC inputs: iin = ifb vin = . Prof. Stanford University. and up!!!!).. Ramp generation ('scopes!).

Greg Kovacs 35 . Prof.TRAN 100uS 10mS .0S tran3 2mS 4mS 6mS 8mS TIME mS 10mS EE122.probe V(3) . Stanford University.OP-AMP INTEGRATOR SIMULATION Op-Amp Integrator Simulation *YOU fill in the component values! R1 1 2 ? CI2 2 3 ? R2 2 3 ? E1 3 0 0 2 100K Vin 1 0 pulse(-1 1 0 5nS 5nS 500uS 1mS) .0V -10V 0.end 10V R2 C1 VIN 1 R1 2 0 VV+ 3 i in VOUT V(1) V 0.

Greg Kovacs 36 .Insect Larva Containing Candy EE122. Stanford University. Prof.

Greg Kovacs 37 .R2 C1 dvin dt 1 2π R1 C1 fmax = What kind of filter is this? EE122. Stanford University.THE DIFFERENTIATOR R2 R1 is needed to limit the high-frequency gain (noise may be small. but it can have a very large derivative!). Prof. R1 C1 if VV+ VOUT VIN i in Design the circuit to be used below this frequency vout = .

0V -2V 10mS tran2 11mS TIME mS 12mS Why don't you get out what you put in? EE122. Prof. Stanford University. Greg Kovacs 38 .INTEGRATOR/DIFFERENTIATOR SIMULATION V(3) 2V V(1) V(6) V 0.

usually several MHz. Stanford University. the op-amp can drive any i. but is can be a few ohms in many cases! ohms in many cases! NO. 2) The output impedance is zero -2) The output impedance is zero i. but can be trimmed. but can be trimmed. but it is usually NO. usually several MHz. NO. but is can be a few NO.e. Prof. load impedance to any voltage.e. NO. but it is often GIGA or TERA !! or TERA NO. infinte. NO. but it is usually several million! several million! NO. EE122. 5) The output voltage is zero 5) The output voltage is zero when the input voltage when the input voltage difference is zero. 4) The bandwidth is infinite. 4) The bandwidth is infinite. 3) The open-loop gain (A) is 3) The open-loop gain (A) is infinte."REAL" OP-AMPS DO EAT QUICHE What You WANT 1) The input impedance is infinite 1) The input impedance is infinite --i. either input of the op-amp.e. Greg Kovacs What You GET NO. no current ever flows into i. offset voltages exist. no current ever flows into either input of the op-amp. 39 .e. difference is zero. the op-amp can drive any load impedance to any voltage. but it is often GIGA NO. offset voltages exist.

Prof.0V Simulated slew-rate-limited unity-gain amplifier with a UA741 op-amp 3.. the SLEW RATE! 2.0V Measuring the SLEW RATE of a lobster using a piece of Bungie-cord.5 V/µS 0. but you get a limiting rate of change.9 µS to swing 2 V gives a slew rate of 0. If you try an make them go faster.SLEW RATE Op-Amps can only swing their outputs so fast.0V -2.. Stanford University... they try. Greg Kovacs 40 . 0us V(1) V(2) 5us 10us Time 15us 20us Exit Add_trace Display_control Remove_trace X_axis Y_axis Plot_control Macros Hard_copy Cursor Zoom Label EE122.

1 VPP Squarewave Input (locally terminated into 50 ). Prof. 2k Load. EE122. Stanford University.Slew Rate Example . Greg Kovacs 41 .Rising LM741 (slow) and LT1056. ±15V Supplies.

2k Load. EE122. ±15V Supplies.Falling LM741 (slow) and LT1056. Stanford University.Slew Rate Example . 1 VPP Squarewave Input (locally terminated into 50 ). Greg Kovacs 42 . Prof.

“Ultra Stealth Airplane” EE122. Stanford University. Greg Kovacs 43 . Prof.

EE122. Prof.Gain-Bandwidth Product is Constant This animation shows the how the bandwidth of an op-amp in the inverting configuration increases as the gain is decreased. Stanford University. Greg Kovacs 44 .

0 10m 100Kh V(5)/ V(1) 300Kh 1. fT can be determined by using the GAINBANDWIDTH PRODUCT 100K 10K 1.OPEN-LOOP CHARACTERISTICS OF "REAL" OP-AMPS 1. For any other gain.0Mh 3. fu may be shifted to much higher frequencies Unity-gain frequency fT can be VERY HIGH (many MHz)! For unity-gain connected opamps.0h V(5)/ V(1) 3. If negative feedback is applied. Stanford University.0h 10h 30h Frequency 100h fu 100 1. Greg Kovacs fT fU = Closed − Loop _Gain 45 .0M 3 dB frequency fu is VERY LOW! This frequency is determined by the "Dominant Pole" of the op-amp.0Mh Frequency 10Mh fT EE122. Prof. fu is the same as fT.

Stanford University.STABILITY AND COMPENSATION With negative feedback. you will hit -180° phase! The key to STABILITY is to ensure that this happens when the gain has fallen off to less than 1! This can be accomplished by DELIBERATELY rolling off the amplifier using a COMPENSATION CAPACITOR! This effect is worse at lower gains because MORE SIGNAL IS FED BACK! EE122. This means that eventually. Greg Kovacs 46 . Prof. if the input of the amplifier receives a -180° out-ofphase replica of the output signal (via the feedback circuit) you end up with OSCILLATIONS!!!! All op-amps have a high-frequency roll-off determined by several poles.

69E6 ro1 8 5 150 ro2 7 99 150 rp 3 4 18.ends EE122.0E-18 Bf=62.11E3 vb 9 0 dc 0 vc 3 53 dc 2.500000 egnd2 99 98 4 0 0.500000 fb1 7 99 vb 10610000. Stanford University.000000 fb3 7 99 ve 10000000.000000 fb5 7 99 vln -10000000.16E-6 hlim 90 0 vlim 1K q1 11 2 13 qx q2 12 1 14 qx r2 6 9 100.957E3 rc2 3 12 7. Prof.664E-12 c2 6 7 20.model dx D(Is=800.000000 ga 6 0 11 12 137.740E3 ree 10 99 19.MODELING "REAL" OP-AMPS The WORSE the op-amp.model qx NPN(Is=800.0E3 rc1 3 11 7.7E-6 gcm 0 6 10 99 2.000000 fb4 7 99 vlp 10000000.740E3 re2 14 10 2.subckt UA741 1 2 3 4 5 * c1 11 12 4.957E3 re1 13 10 2.600 vlim 7 8 dc 0 vlp 91 0 dc 25 vln 0 92 dc 25 . the more work it takes to model it! IDEAL OP-AMP: Eout 3 0 1 2 100K CRAPPY.00E-12 dc 5 53 dx de 54 5 dx dlp 90 91 dx dln 92 90 dx dp 4 3 dx egnd1 98 0 3 0 0. OBSOLETE OP-AMP: * UA741 operational amplifier "macromodel" subcircuit * connections: non-inverting input * | inverting input * | | positive power supply * | | | negative power supply * | | | | output * | | | | | .574E-9 iee 10 4 dc 10.600 ve 54 4 dc 2.000000 fb2 7 99 vc -10000000.50) . Greg Kovacs 47 .0E-18) .

Greg Kovacs 48 . 100 10m 1.0h V(5)/V(1) 100h Frequency 10Kh 1.EXAMPLE OF USING A "REAL" OP-AMP MACROMODEL X1 1 2 3 4 2 UA741 Vplus 3 0 15V Vminus 0 4 15V Vin 1 0 AC 1 0 .0M NOTE: 1) You declare an "instance" of your macromodel with a name that begins with "X" 2) You have to explicitly define the power supplies.0Mh 10Mh EE122.end 1. Prof.AC DEC 100 1hz 10MEG . Stanford University.probe .

Prof. Greg Kovacs 49 .SPAM ZAPPED WITH PHOTONS! EE122. Stanford University.

• Op-Amps deliver a lot of performance for peanuts! • Op-Amp circuits are generally fairly intuitive if you remember the basic "rules" of op-amp operation! EE122.CONCLUSION • Op-Amps are useful for lots of things. Stanford University. Greg Kovacs 50 . Prof.

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