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Distribution Systems

Distribution Systems

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Published by Amila Balasooriya

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Published by: Amila Balasooriya on Nov 13, 2010
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03/17/2013

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EE 2092 LABORATORY PRACTICE III

PRACTICAL 03 SPEED CONTROL OF DC MACHINES

CONDUCTED BY : Ms G.N.T Silva

NAME INDEX NO FIELD GROUP DATE OF PER DATE OF SUB

: BALASOORIYA B.M.A.N : 090040D : EE :G2 : 8-10-2010 : 20-10-2010

Objectives  To determine the voltage distribution in a y Uniformly loaded distributor y Uniformly loaded distributor y Uniformly loaded ring main distributor Apparatus  05 models of uniformly loaded distributors  02 variacs  01 digital voltmeter .

B. Distributor I is connected only at one end to substation through a feeder at point A. The feeder is in close loop form and looks like a ring. a fault on any of these two . the consumers at the distant end of the distributor face serious voltage fluctuations. Ring main distribution system Another system of distribution which eliminates the disadvantages of the radial systems is used in practice called ring distribution system. As consumers are dependent on single feeder and distributor . Similarly the end of the distributor nearer to the substation will get heavily loaded than the end which is too far away from the substation. . still the consumers will keep on getting continuous supply. The system is advantageous only when the generation is at low voltage level and substation is loaded at the center of the load. Hence if there is any fault on any part of the feeder . When the load of the distributor changes. Similarly the consumers at the distant end of the distributor would be subjected to the voltage variations and fluctuations as the load of the distributor changes. BC. There would be an interruption of supply to all such consumers. CD. Each distributor is supplied by two feeders. y Preferred when the substation is located at the center of the load. if the fault occurs either on feeder or a distributor all the consumers connected to that distributor will be affected.Discussion  Advantages and disadvantages of radial and ring distribution systems Radial distribution system When the distributor is connected to the substation on one end only with the help of feeder then the system is called radial distribution. D and E. Due to such system . The feeder is in the ring fashion is divided into number of sections as AB. causes interruption in supply to all the consumers connected to that distributor. Advantages of radial system y Simplest as is fed at only one end. DE and EA. The various distributed are connected at A. In such system the feeder covers the whole area of the supply in the ring fashion and finally terminates at the substation where it is started. Disadvantages of radial system y y y The end of the distributor that is nearer to the substation gets heavily loaded. y The initial cost is low y Useful when the generation is at low voltage level. C.

The feeder can be fed at one or more feeding points.B and C. The part AB of the feeder can be isolated and repaired.For example if the fault occurs at point P at the section AB of the feeder still the consumers connected to the distributors at A and B will get supply from the sound feeder sections AE and BC . . 02. The great saving in copper is another main advantage of ring distribution. In this system the distributor is fed at number of points with the help of feeders. How to improve the voltage profile in the distribution systems In radial system a fault on a feeder or distributor causes interruptions in the supply to all the consumers connected to the distributor. In the figure the feeders from the substation are feeding to a single distributor at the points A. Thus the disadvantage of radial system is eliminated through this system. This can be avoided by modifying the radial system as shown in the figure.

DC ring main distribution with interconnector Double ring distributors or ring distributor with interconnector is used to reduce the voltage drop between two points.  It requires less maintenance  Accidents caused due to breakage of overhead line conductors are eliminated due to the use of underground cables. The gas or oil is not required for overhead lines. The only drawback of underground cables are the extremely high initial cost and insulation problems at high voltages.  The voltage drop in underground cables is less  The life of underground cables is long compared to overhead lines  The beauty of cities and towns get maintained due to underground network of cables. Hence from safety point of view the underground cables are more advantageous.  Long distance transmission is possible by overhead lines  The conductors in overhead lines is less expensive  The size of the conductors in overhead lines is less than underground cables due to good heat dissipation in overhead lines  The insulation cost is very less as the air itself acts as insulation between conductors. Still the overhead lines also have some advantages compared to underground cables. Its use is almost compulsory at locations where use of overhead lines are not practicable due to the safety reasons such as congested urban areas. Thus use of underground cables is mainly for the distribution of electric power at low and medium voltages.  The overhead lines use bear conductors which is unsafe thickly in populated areas. 03. crossing of wide roads . For high voltage spacing air can be adjusted in case of overhead lines to obtain proper insulation. The supply interruptions due to lighting storms and other weather conditions are eliminated because of the underground cables. . near gas plants and refineries . near substations etc. Comparison of underground cables and overhead lines Compared to overhead lines the underground cables have following advantages  It ensures non-interrupted continuity of supply.

 The erection cost is much less in overhead lines. Underground cable laying is difficult and complicated .

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