Part I. Business Texts Unit 1 - English Banks Unit 2- The Banking System (1) Unit 3 – The Banking System (2) Unit 4 – Financial Markets Unit 5 – The Euro Unit 6 – Money Market Unit 7 – Euromarkets Unit 8 – Banking Risk Management Unit 9 – Securisation Unit 10 – Money Laundering Unit 11- What is Business ? Unit 12 – Organization of Business Unit 13 – What is a franchise? Unit 14 – Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Unit 15 – Two Basic Concepts in Finance: Assets and Liabilities Unit 16 – What is marketing ? Unit 17 – The Stock Exchange Market Unit 18 – Functions of Commerce Unit 19 – An Export Transaction Unit 20 – Methods of Payment in Foreign Trade
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Part II . English Grammar The Noun Exercises The Article Exercises The Adjective Exercises The Numeral Exercises The Verb Exercises The Adverb Exercises Part III. Commercial Correspondence Addressing envelopes Parts of a letter References Enquires and replies Quotations, estimates and tenders Orders and their fulfillment. Printed Order Forms. Letter order Invoices and adjustments Debit and credit notes Statement of accounts Methods of payment Complaints Contracts Special business letters Memorandums Report Leaflet Notice Minute Letter of application Curriculum Vitae Banking and Home Business Transport
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I. BUSINESS TEXTS UNIT 1 ENGLISH - BANKS
There are a lot of banks in our tows and villages and even the internet offers you the opportunity to do “on line banking” as you can pay for goods and services with a little smart card. Speaking about the UK, one has to go back in time, three hundred years ago, to find the beginning of the banking system. The banks were subject to the provisions of the various Acts of the Parliament. The Bank of England was established in 1694 and it was nationalized in 1946 due to the Bank of England Act and got legal powers to enforce its directives. After the second world war, many companies set themselves all over the country, called themselves banks, had freedom to develop themselves but some restrictions were also imposed. The financial markets developed very quickly. London became an important banking town and started to attract international banks. In 1987, the Banking Act was passed; it peplaced another Banking Act, that of 1979, which, at its turn, answered to the 19731974 banking crisis. This crisis was caused by the fringe banks which got into difficult situations because of their short term borrowing and long term lending. These banks were not subject to rigorous supervision, they operated speculatively with the funds owned by their customers. The Banking Act abolished a two-tier system of the recognized banks; it licensed deposit-takers. Its purpose is the introduction of a prudential supervision. But it does not regulate the day to day banking operations. All the institutions that are banks are under the control of the Banking Act; there are other institutions that have the right to take deposits and they are subjects to the Acts of Parliament which are relevant to their operations. Banks and insurance companies are allowed to own stock exchange subsidiaries. A new electronic system has been introduced bringing the old fashioned banking system up to date. In fact the banks act as intermediaries between borrowers and lenders. This is done in different ways. 3
ca parte a pretului de vanzare a unui produs. institutie comerciala autorizata sa atraga depozite) Borrower( persoana care face un imprumut ) Deposit (suma de bani. care are valoare pentru posesorul sau) Bank (banca. Answer the following questions: When was the Bank of England founded? What acts control the banks? What happened in 1946? What happened after the Second World War? When was an important bank crisis and what happened? What did the Banking Act abolish and license? Does it regulate the every day operations? Who control the banks What o the acts of Parliament do? What are the banks? 2. suma de bani depozitata intr-o banca) Financial adviser (orice persoana care ofera consiliere pe plan financiar altei personae. Topics for speaking and writing 4
.Text Comprehension 1. in special in privinta investitiilor ) Interest(dobanda perceputa la imprumutarea unei sume de bani) Intermediation(activitatea unei banci… care actioneaza ca intermediary intre doua parti ale unei tranzactii) Liabilities(datorie. in scopul rezervarii acelui bun. credit) Payer(persoana sau organizatie care face o plata) 3.Banking vocabulary:
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Asset (orice posesiune. platita in avans de catre un comparator. obligatie) Loan(imprumut. tangibila sau intangibila.
they offer loans and different financial services. South Africa. What does the Bank of England do? 3. deposit accounts. London is famous for this. Do you know anything about the National Bank of Romania? 5
. What do banking and financial markets involve? 2. They offer banking services. Asia. Retail banks offer their services to the individuals and medium sized businesses. they act within a legislative framework and offer specialized services to individuals. There are banks which operate mainly overseas and are specialized in particular areas of the world: Far East. it manages the national debt. Foreign banks have branches everywhere. it regulates the monetary and credit conditions and supervises the banking system. especially in the large cities and important towns of the countries. and South America. The commercial banks are ruled by the Banking Act of 1987 and are allowed to take deposits and lend money on the retail and wholesale markets. governments. Let’s present some of them.Write a short composition about the bank you are working with Build up a conversation about a bank. withdrawal facilities as well as possibilities of transferring funds. companies. The Bank of England is the central bank of the kingdom. Text Comprehension a) Answer the questions: 1. They provide facilities to different types of account such as current accounts. It acts as a banker to all the other banks and government. you are a bank clerk and try to convince somebody to become the bank customer UNIT 2 THE BANKING SYSTEM (1) Banking and financial market operations involve special institutions and financial markets. it lends money to all the banking institutions. it issues the bank notes. They operate through branches which offer cash deposits. International banking is developing.
Can you describe some Romanian banks? 7. Are there Romanian banks abroad? Banking vocabulary:
Account (cont gestionat de o banca) Balance of payments (registrele care reflecta tranzactiil unei companii cu lumea din afara) • Bank deposit (deposit bancar) • Bank charge (comision bancar) • Bank draft (trata) • Current account (cont curent) • Drawer (persoana care semneaza o cambie) • Drawee (persoana careia i s-a tras o cambie) • Insurance (asigurare) • Liquidity (masura a lichiditatii activelor unei organizatii) • Market (piata) • Negotiable (negociabil) • Overdraft (plafon de creditare) • Penalty (penalizare) • Profitability (capacitatea de a face profit)) • Savings (economii) • Share (actiune. What can you tell about international banking? 8.Write a short composition (200 words). using the above given vocabulary
.4. What do you know about the commercial banks? 5. parte sociala) • Withdrawal (retragere ) 3. Are there international banks in Romania? 9.Topics for speaking and writing : . What do the retail banks do? 6.
UNIT 3 BANKING SYSTEM (2) Merchant Banks have their roots in the banking activity the merchants were involved in, as an extension of their own trading. They used to help foreign governments to get loans, to accept bills of exchange. Nowadays, they offer services including corporate finance, foreign exchange dealings, security trading. National Savings is a saving scheme supported by the government which aids government borrowing using a set of saving instruments. Some of these are the fixed-interest and indexlinked Savings Certificates. The National Savings, at the very beginning, offered deposit services to customers, through Post Office branches. It does not make loans. Discount Houses are specific to Britain and are an important element of the British monetary system. They are between the Bank of England and the rest of the banking sector; they promote the orderly flow of funds between the authorities and the banks. They receive the liquid money of the banking sector, lend to the government for the weekly offer of Treasury Bills. They trade on the wholesale money market. Investment institutions collect the savings from the persons and corporation sectors; they invest them in securities and in different assets. Some of them are: insurance companies, insurance brokers, pension funds, unit trusts, investment trusts. Special financial institutions operate in the public sector and in the private one. They offer loan finance and equity capital. The latter include finance houses, leasing houses, factoring companies, venture capital companies. Text Comprehension 1. Answer the questions: 1. Who founded the merchant banks and why? 2.Do we have such banks in Romania? 3.What can you tell about the National Savings ? 4.Does Romania have such a system and how does it act? 5. How do discount houses act? 6.What are the investment institutions? 7
7.Where do special finance institutions operate ? Banking vocabulary
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Acquisition accounting (proceduri contabile efectuate cand o companie este preluata de o alta ) Bill of exchange (un tip de cambie) Bill of lading (conosament) Charge (ipoteca legala asupra unui teren/ proprietate) Collateral (categorie de titluri de valoare) Commercial loan selling (tranzactie care implica doua banci si un client industrial) Due date ( scadenta de plata, de ex. data maturitatii unei cambii) Financial intermediary ( o banca care detine fonduri imprumutate de la creditori , spre a imprumuta debitori ) Finance house (societate de credit) Fund (fond comun de resurse monetare si de alt tip ) Funds transfer (transfer al fondului ) Home banking (sistem bancar national) Interest (dobanda perceputa la imprumutarea unei sume de bani) Liability (datorie, obligatie) Merger (fuziunea a doua sau mai multe firme) Principal (mandat; persoana in numele careia actioneaza un mandatar) Solvency (suma cu care activele unei banci depasesc obligatiile) Unit banking (sistem bancar, in care o banca infiinteaza o companie unica, fara filiale ) Wholesale (banking imprumuturi interbancare sau imprumuturi acordate catre sau de catre alte mari institutii financiare) 3. Topics for speaking and writing Build up sentences using the above given vocabulary Write a short composition (about 200 words) about Romanian
UNIT 4 8
FINANCIAL MARKETS One of the most important financial markets is represented by the stock exchange And the most famous one is the one existing in London. The exchange has a dominant position in international equity trading, particularly in the cross border securities. The security houses offer selling and buying prices for domestic securities, oversea securities; the prices are displayed on the information screens all over the world. London has regional offices. A great number of people own shares directly and indirectly (through collective investment schemes - pension funds, insurance investments). The market is coordinated electronically and operates in three markets: 1) domestic equities (they include listed securities of large corporations and unlisted securities for smaller and growing companies) 2) gilt-edged stock (gilts are issued by the Bank of England under the government control; they are traded in a secondary market through exchange) 3) international equities The money markets are directed between buyers and sellers which are banks, financial institutions, private persons. There is no physical market place; the negotiations are done by phone, automated dealing system, the financial instruments being CDs, bills of exchange, treasury bills, bonds. Parallel markets are to be found and are known under names such as: 1) inter bank market (it lets the banks to deposit surplus cash with each other) 2) CDs market (it involves large companies, institutions; it deposits large surplus sums for a given rate of interest) 3) Commercial bills market (it deals with unsecured promissory notes, short term ones; these are issued by the companies listed on the Stock market) 4) Euro currency market (it deals with currencies lent outside the domestic market place; London and Tokyo are famous for these dealings) 9
The Foreign Exchange Market conducts transactions through the phone and data links between banks. financial institutions. o plata. metale pretioase) • Clearing cycle process (proces prin care. How is the money directed? 7. argint. Do people own shares and how? 5. efectuata pe baza unui cec. How the money market managed and which is are its elements? 6. The quotes are given in many currencies for the buying and selling rates on a daily basis for all types of transactions. Can you describe the parallel markets? 8. What do the security houses offer? 3. Text comprehension Answer following questions: 1. How are the prices displayed? 4. este transferata dintr-un cont in altul) • Clearing house (sistem centralizat si computerizat de stabilire a sumelor datorate reciproc) • CD = Clearing deposits • Corporate bond (obligatiune sau titlu de valoare care reprezinta un imprumut obisnuit) • Creditworthiness (evaluarea capacitatii unei persoane/firme de a achita bunurile/serviciile primite ) • Equity (activele nete ale unei companii. What do you know about the Free Market Exchange? Banking vocabulary: • Affiliate (afiliere) • Bank branch (filiala bancara) • Bond (obligatiune) • Bearer ( purtator al unui cec sau cambii) • Bearer bond (titlu de valoare) • Bullion (lingouri de aur. firms. dupa ce u fost platiti toti creditorii) • Financial instruments (ocumente financiare)
. the brokers act as intermediaries. Where is the most important financial market? 2.
sucursala. titlu de valoare cu dobanda fixa) Subsidiary (iliala. parte sociala) Stock(stoc de active.• • • • • •
Gilt edged security (itlu de valoare cu dobanda fixa.) Writing Build up sentences using the above mentioned vocabulary
. emis de guvernul britanic sub forma obligatiunilor guvernamentale sau a bonurilor de tezaur) To issue ( a emite) Margin (marja) Share ( actiune .
The introduction of the single currency has three phases: 1. It has brought about a change in the life of the Europeans (businessmen. the launch of the EMU (early 1998) 2. marketing and organizational challenges. tourists.o. What have the banks done? 12
. lower transactions costs. The banks have completed the changeover and the national currencies have been withdrawn. Which is the currency used by the businessmen? 3.UNIT 5 THE EURO It is a strategic and technical challenge for the European nations. members of the European Union. the start of the EMU (1 January 1999) 3. it was established the legal framework that ensured the legallyenforceable equivalence between the single currency (euro) and the national currency units. Banks have been confronted with the losing of revenue streams due to the introduction of the single currency. a. euro is used in the EU countries. an easier flow of goods and services. The business has eliminated the exchange risk. What does the euro assure? 2. The Euro assures currency stability and an advance towards European integration. an euro area has been created. For this.s. Text comprehension Answer the questions: 1. The major banks have made the technology changes which have been required for euro compliance as they need to minimize the euro impact to their customers. new coins and banknotes have been issued. the single currency (begins with 1 January 2002) Beginning with this date. 1 January 1999 and 1 January 2002 was the period when the euro coexisted with the national currency.e. It has been set up a legal framework for the use of the euro which helps the market operators to have the legal security for contracts and obligations. The companies have faced important strategic. bankers.). The trade between EU countries is done in Euro. the functioning of markets has been improved (i. the impact of the new cross border payment systems.
6. intr-o zona determinate. pt dobanzile percepute clientilor) Bridging loan (credit punte) Business credit (imprumut facut corporatiilor) Capital (valoarea totala a activelor unei persoane. fara obligatiile aferente) Consumer credit (credit pentru bunuri de folosinta indelungata) Credit line (limita unui credit) EMU (European Monetary Union= Uniunea monetara europeana) EMS (European Monetary System= Sistemul monetary european) Exposure (riscul pe care il asuma clientul) Franchise (licenta acordata unui producator. pentru a oferi investitorilor venit fara risc) Open market operations (cumpararea/vanzarea de catre guvern a obligatiunilor guvernamentale. rambursarea unui imprumut. in schimbul banilor ) Personal loan (credit pentru nevoi personale) Ratio analysis (utilizarea indicatorilor pentru evaluarea activitatii operationale si stabilitatii financiare a unei companii) Revolving credit (forma de credit bancar. 5. currencies? 7. folosita ca referinta de catre banci.4. care nu este o rata obisnuita) Base rate (rata a dobanzii. mai ales la achizitionarea bunurilor in regim de vanzare in rate) Money market unit trust (fond de investitii finaciare care investeste in instrumentele pietei monetare.
What has the introduction of the euro bring about? What did the companies face? Was it a coexistence of the euro with the national Can you mark the main EMU phases ?
Ballon ( suma mare de bani platita pt. negociat pentru o anumita perioada) 13
. distribuitor… care le permite acestora sa produca/vanda un anumit produs/serviciu. pe o perioada stabilita) Installment (o plata dintr-o serie.
Secured (denota un imprumut /garantat/ in care creditorul obtine active de vandut ca despagubire)
Deals are transacted with a counter party. The new market has facilitated the settlement of debts resulting from the international trade. using computers. phones.UNIT 6 MONEY MARKETS In the last decades. in fact. customers. there are used short debt instruments which are financial instruments such as certificates of deposits. e-mails. commercial papers. New York. 5. Deals are effected by phone or electronic system. the dealer is doing this job. Money markets can be defined as market places for short term lending and borrowings (it means less than 90 days) and are. Trade. For dealing on such markets. 6. between commercial banks. banks. central banks. Foreign exchange traders make markets. Tokyo are famous for their money markets. 3. brokers. The capital flows from a country to another one easily because the fixes rates of exchange have been dropped and one currency is used in the EU. either directly or by means of a broker who gets a commission for this. speculate in different currencies. An inter bank foreign exchange market is created.e. treasury bills. Answer the following questions: Can you tell what the last decades look like? How are deals transacted? What do you know about bank foreign exchange What is a money market? What do you know about it? What do the dealers do? Vocabulary 15
. with borrowers and investors taking advantage of the arbitrage opportunities. market? 4. i. one may speak about a globalization of the economic activity of the European countries. it is a form of network. London. 2. The dealers are in constant communication with each other. financial institutions. banker’s acceptances. 1. networks of dealers and institutional investors. production and investment have become more international. customers who can communicate easily.
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Arbitrage (transfer non speculative de fonduri. oferindu-le acestora posibilitatae de a incheia un contract intermediat de el) Capital market (piata de capital) Cross rate (rata de schimb intre doua sisteme valutare exprimata intr-un al treilea sistem valutar) Currency backing (aur sau valori care mentin puterea internationala a unui sistem valutar Currency future (contracte futures in care se cumpara/vinde. de la o piata la alta ) Asked price (pret solicitat) Bid (pret la care un market maker cumpara actiuni) Broker (agent care pune in legatura doua parti. la o anumita rata de schimb) Dealer (comerciant de orice fel) Financial market (piata financiara) Foreign exchange (schimb valutar) Hard currency (sistemul valutar al unei tari care are o economie puternica) Hedging (operatiune facuta de un comerciant/ dealer care doreste sa protejeze o pozitie vulnerabila) Investment securities ( active financiare folosite pentru investitii) Maturity date (data la care un document ajunge la maturitate) Money market (piata britanica a imprumuturilor pe termen scurt) Primary market (piata care vinde pentru prima data titlurile de valoare) Secondary market (piata secundara care comercializeaza titluri de valoare existente) Spread (diferenta intre pretul de vanzare si cel de cumparare) Trader (persoana care face negot) UNIT 7 EUROMARKETS 16
it cannot be a national control over this market. there is a capital flow which seems to be uncontrolled. From the practical point of view. can be named Euro market. so. The bonds are payable to bearer without deduction of tax. Euro-notes are notes issued in bearer form and negotiable. Theoretically. It is a market that has developed itself in Europe. the investors may earn a higher return on their funds than it is available on bank deposits. it happens only for short interval of time. A note issuance facility is a credit facility. The international banks are the main operators. governments. the market the Euro is used for. A bank usually undertakes the issuing of these papers either directly or through dealers. The corporations can borrow more cheaply than via bank loans. Euro-notes. the market forces dictate the lending rates. London and Luxemburg have developed a secondary market in bonds which has become a supranational market.Euro is the currency used by the EU countries. they are purchased by investors. The market deals with US dollars as well and it can be named Euro dollar market. Currency is borrowed and lent by institutions located in different countries. the rates do not diverge from the domestic lending ones. Important sums of dollars have been deposited in banks which are outside the USA and many USA banks have branches overseas. multinational corporations. financial institutions are also allowed to enter the market. They are issued by bank consortia and are placed with investors (national industries. Text Comprehension Answer the following questions: 17
. it is not subject to normal domestic regulations but it is affected by the international events. Euro commercial papers. It has in view all the transactions done by the banks in Euro currencies. They are issued at a discount to the face value they have. the company obtains a loan underwritten by banks which issue series of short term Eurocurrency notes used for replacing the already expired ones. Euro notes are short term notes issued in US dollars. Commercial papers relate to short term promissory notes issued by companies. The Euro dollar market is complemented by Eurobond and makes longer term funds available. Euro bonds. municipal authorities).
document emis de debitor unui creditor) Ceiling (cantitatea cea mai mare de bani pe care o poate depune un client) Deficit financing (crearea unui deficit bugetar guvernamental) Direct investment (investitii in operatiile straine ale unei companii ) Eurobond (euro obligatiune ) Eurocurrency (valuta depozitata intr-o tara europeana.
What is the Euro market? What happens to the currency? Which complements the Euro dollar market? What do you know about Eurobond? What about the supranational markets? What are Euronotes? What is a commercial paper?
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Bond (obligatiune. 4. the former are including 18
. cambia) Underwriting (a garanta o emisie de obligatiuni. 3. 6. 5. 7. actiune realizata de catre o banca)
UNIT 8 BANKING RISK MANAGEMENT All the businesses are confronting themselves with macroeconomic and microeconomic risks.1. alta decat tara de origine) Eurodollar (dolari depozitati in institutii financiare in afara SUA) Eurocredit (imprumut intr-o euro-valuta) Money supply (masa monetara emisa de autoritatile monetare ale unei tari) Treasury bill (bon de tezaur. 2.
Bank managers are supposed to analyze the risks. interest rate risk. commercial failures of suppliers/ customers. environmental risk. natural disasters.different effects of recession. Banking transactions are to take into account the following type of risks: credit risk. Risks can become excessive because of hostile reactions of the institutions already existing and acting in the new area banks have moved in. Text Comprehension 19
. operational risk. The methods and instruments the banks use for carrying out this purpose are very different and are permanently changing and up dating. Risks can be caused by business transactions and processes of the banks with different customers. banks can get profits if they charge prices higher than the costs of delivering products/ services. legal and regulatory risks. They must create effective risk management systems which can manage the risks the banks are exposed to because exposure to risks reduces the value of future cash flows they expect. market risk. liquidity risk. The banks are supposed to manage the risks which arise from balance sheet business. the banks can move in other areas of higher profitability for them. wars. health and safety risk. The companies face breakdowns in technology. fraud. Competition among banks exists but it can be tempered by a strict surveillance which prevents banks to take excessive risks. If competition reaches a very high peak. for example. while the latter have in view competitive threats. economic bad management of the government. So the banks are supposed to identify the risks which are associated with each business they are running. Monetary authorities try to develop new and dynamic systems of controlling the banks’ money adapting them to the environment and seek to control the risks caused by new types of operations. banks have fee generating activities which do not appear directly on the balance sheet. political interferences. corruption and other problems that can affect the prosperity of the area the work in. find out new procedures to diminish them or to get rid of them. currency risk. Banks can also suffer because of the problems caused by the financial markets.
What are managers supposed to do under these circumstances?
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Vocabulary Bankruptcy (faliment) Bank cash flow (Flux de fonduri reprezentand miscarea fondului monetar prin banca) Cash flow (plati in bani lichizi) Credit risk (riscul ca o posesiune sau imprumut sa devina de nerecuperat ) Forfaiting (forma de rabat) Gearing (efectul de levier ) Gearing ratios( indici care caracterizeaza intensitatea efectului de levier ) Insolvency (incapacitatea de a onora datoriile) Interest rate risk (risc provocat de rata dobanzii ) Market risk( risc provocat de piata) Payment risk (plata facuta de catre un partener inainte de asi primi proprii sai bani) Price risk (bancile suporta preturile pe instrumentele negociate pe pietele bine stabilite) Risk management (management de risc) Risk of global banking (diversificarea globala a activelor permite bancii sa –si imbunatateasca managemntul de risc marind profitabilitatea si valoarea adaugata actiunilor) Sovereign risk ( se refera la riscurile pe care un guvern nu le indeplineste cu privire la o datorie pe care o are la o banca private) Systematic risk (posibilitatea ca esecul unei banci de a regla platile cu alte banci sa provoace o reactie in lant privand alte banci de fonduri) 20
. Which risks do banks face? 4.Answer the following questions: 1. What do monetary authorities try to do? 5. Is there competitions among banks? 6. What are banks supposed to do under these circumstances? 7. What are the businesses facing? 2. Do banks manage risks? 3.
a carei valoare poate fluctua rapid si frecvent)
Volatile (o piata/marfa/actiune etc.
the bank can sell assets and enhances its capital adequacy ratio retaining some of the servicing income. Securities offered for sale can be purchased by other depositary institutions. The process merges the credit markets and the capital markets. the mostly used form being the securisation of mortgages. The bank does not have to allocate loan loss reserves against these assets. The capital ratios are improved.UNIT 9 SECURISATION Securisation is a phenomenon according to which it is cheaper and more convenient for the borrowers to issue securities rather than to borrow money from the banks. The bankers consider the loan quality in terms of their marketability in the capital markets rather than the probability of their repayment by borrowers. It involves transfer of block of assets to a special purpose vehicle company (issuer) which finances its purchase by the issue of debt . Banks securitize and sell a broader base of loan receivables. it can grant new loans from security proceeds sold to investors. These arrangements are facilitated by an investment bank and involve a letter of credit guarantee from a foreign bank/ insurance company. in the USA it is more common and covers a greater variety of loans. non bank investors. Text Comprehension 22
. Some of the bank’s borrowers raise money in securities markets. Securisation is the conversion of bank loans and assets into marketable securities for sale to investors. If the securisation is successful. An institution that transfers the assets continues to manage them as servicing agent. The note holders are protected from risks associated with the assets. banks receivables are repackaged as bonds and other types of credit. In the UK securisation loses popularity. Securisation turns traditional non marketed financial assets into marketable securities. Activity banks tend to act as sellers of assets rather than portfolio lenders who keep all the loans in their own portfolio.
What is securisation? 2. Who facilitate these arrangements? Vocabulary:
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Borrower (persoana care imprumuta) Convertion (delictul echivalent al crimei sau furtului) Holder (persoana aflata in posesia unei cambia) Lender( persoana care imprumuta bani) Marketable securities (titluri de valoare ce pot fi vandute sau cumparate la o bursa de valori) Marketability (posibilitatea de a vinde ceva usor) Proceeds (bani primiti dintr-o vanzare dupa deducerea cheltuielilor ) Repack = to pack again (a reimpacheta ) Receivables (creante) Securities (gajuri/ ipoteci) Securisation (actiunea de transformare a imprumutului intrun gaj) Securitize( a trasforma un imprumut intr-o ipoteca/un gaj) Servicing agent (agent care achita dobanda unui imprumut) Servicing a loan (achitarea dobanzii unui imprumut)
UNIT 10 23
. What does this process merge? 7. What happens to note holders? 6. What conversion is it? 3. USA and Romania? 9. What happens if the securisation is successful? 5. What can you tell about securisation in the UK.Answer the questions: 1. How do the bankers consider this loan? 8. What does it involve? 4.
these proceeds are results of criminal activities. The laundering of the proceeds that result from criminal activity is done through the financial system. What is money laundering? 2. 7. they re-enter the financial system and seem to be normal business funds. Banks involved in such actions risk to lose their market reputation. the proceeds are placed back into the economy. It allows them to maintain control over the proceeds and provide a legitimate cover for their source of income. Such an action is done easily under these conditions of free movement of capital. How is money laundering accomplished? Which are the stages? Can you describe them? Is money laundering to be found in Romania?
. layering – it implies a separation of illicit proceeds from their source. Where does it come from? 3. integration – supposing that the laundering process was successful. Text Comprehension Answer the following questions: 1. The people who are involved in such an action exploit the facilities of the financial institutions of the world. 5. there are created complex layers of financial transactions meant to disguise the audit trail and they assure anonymity 3.MONEY LAUNDERING Money laundering is a process used by offenders who attempt to conceal the true origin and ownership of the proceeds. What do the people involved in laundering 4. Here they are: 1. involving numerous transactions of the launderers. 6. Money laundering is accomplished in three stages. placement – it means a physical disposal of cash proceeds got from illegal activity 2.
neachita)t Profit and loss account (cont de profit si pierderi) Reconcilement (reconciliere) Trial balance( balanta de verificare) Value data (data la care anumite fonduri devin disponibile pentru utilizare)
. la o banca britanica) Net margin (marja neta/ bruta ) Outstanding (expirat.Vocabulary
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Accounting (contabilitate) Arrears (bani datorati dar care nu sunt platiti la scadenta) Audit (examinarea independenta a rapoartelor financiare ale unei organizatii si formularea ulterioara a unei opinii) Balance sheet (bilant) Book value (valoarea contabila a unui active) Capital gain/ loss (castig/ pierdere rezultat/a din operatiunile de capital) Depreciation (diminuarea valorii unui active imobilizat) Financial accounting (contabilitate financiara) Goodwill (diferenta dintre valoarea activelor nete separate ale unei companii si valoarea totala a acesteia) Gross margin (diferenta dintre incasarile din vanzari ale unei firme si costurile bunurilor vandute) Money laundering (spalarea banilor) Net interest (dobanda platita la un cont de economii sau la unul current.
After a period of 25 yeas following World War II in which these countries enjoyed unprecedented growth and prosperity. Give synonyms for the following words : profit . that flash information on displays in seconds. More than ever. 26
.market economic system ? e) How can demand and supply affect prices? 2. to tighten financial controls and sometimes even to close plants or cut jobs. "smart" telephones" computers. video recorders.Besides these difficulties. people are wondering nowadays what the social responsibility of business is to the society it operates in. a speedy development of technological progress has brought forth some undreamed-of amusements and conveniences : robots. we can define business as all the work involved in providing people with goods and services for a profit. Text comprehension 1) Answer the following questions. people no longer feel assured of the living standards their parents took for granted . Managers have been forced to adopt new techniques. business implies an enormous variety of tasks.Though some of these difficulties now seemed to have lessened. These changes have affected to a great extent traditional ways of running business. some economic difficulties appeared in the 70's and early 80's . Is making profits the only goal of businesses? Should businesses strive for the achievement of some other goals as wellsuch as environmental protection or fairness to consumers? In a traditional and very broad sense. Western countries have been going through major changes. a) How can you define profit? b) How can you define business? c) What are the goals of businesses? d) What are the benefits of competition in a free. Defined as such.UNIT 11 WHAT IS BUSINESS? In recent years.
to demand Basic Vocabulary achievement = realizare to boost = a dezvolta rapid goal = tel. firma (mica) profit and loss = profit si pierdere environment = mediu inconjurator to purchase = a cumpara. to supply . purchase foundation . to boost. scop economic growth = crestere economica to lessen = a micsora. a scadea supply = oferta demand = cerere business= afacere . to lesssen .company. to strive . a achizitiona to run a business = a conduce o afacere to tighten = a strange labour market = piata fortei de munca Speaking and Writing Topics market 1) Speak about the advantages and disadvantages of a
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
economy 2) Influences of the speedy technological development on the labour market
Unit 12 ORGANISATION OF BUSINESS Legal and financial aspects are closely linked to business because. newspapers are in regular demand and where the market is local But there are also serious disadvantages since a sole trader's responsibility is great and the expansion of such a business is limited to the financial' resources of the owner. before any business starts. In the UK. capital must be obtained. water and by registration. gas. When further capital or specialization is needed this generally leads to another type of organization. by a special Act of Parliament (companies which are usually monopoly of public utility services such as railways. The amount and nature of capital. A partnership may consist of a small number of persons called partners that contribute the capital for the business. This business can succeed particularly where commodities such as foodstuffs tobacco. The partners who play an active part in the management of the business a known as active partners as distinct from the other sleeping partner Accountants. canal. either in equal or in agreed proportion. solicitors. the joint stock companies can be set up by Royal Charter of England). Registration is the most usual way and the companies in which the members are limited to the value of their shares are of two types: private companies and public limited companies. methods of raising it as well as the manner of its control obviously depend on the type of business organization The simplest form of business organization is the oneman business or sole trader (sole proprietor) who has control of his capital with almost complete freedom from external interference. A company is a more complex business organization consisting of an associate: of people who both contribute capital and agree to share the resulting profit or loss. the partnership. sweets. doctors and brokers usually work in partnership. They may take an active part in the management of the business but the share the resulting profit or loss as well. The private limited companies have the letters LTD after 28
temporary partnerships constituted for carrying out one particular trading objective are called joint ventures.e. members (shareholders).their name and consist of a number of. The partnership is dissolved after the venture is completed. The shares are held among their members companies are not allowed to invite public to subscribe shares or debenture. companies. Topic comprehension 1. to transfer shares is only with the consent of the directors and this restriction implies a high degree of risk. Answer the following questions Vocabulary Topics for speaking and written essays
.00 Another form of business. the shareholder can sell their shares to people who wish to buy on the Stock Exchange. i. Like the private . the PLCs have limited liability but. The public limited companies have the letters PLC added to their name and consist of a number of members and they can offer their shares for sale. The capital of the PLCs must amount a minimum of £50. unlike the former.
Franchising began in America already in the nineteenth century. Another drawback of franchises is that they allow very little independence . motels. the franchisee has the advantage of being able to buy supplies and to obtain credit and insurance at low costs.This: type of operation enables the company to establish outlets for its product o service without major capital in vestment. Still. Some will even mortgage their homes to buy franchises. in exchange for an initial fee plus monthly royalty payments .If the outlet does poorly. many people prefer to work fourteen hours a day. hotels.The franchise operation brings a corporation with a famous product together with an individual desiring to start a small business. At present the fastest growing franchise operations in the areas of foodstuffs soft drinks.If the business is so tightly controlled . feel like employees.some franchises might in the end. fast food establishments and even real estate dental care and video. At the same time the franchise faces less risks than an independent entrepreneur. The franchisor grants this franchisee the exclusive right to use the franchisor's name in a certain territory. But if accepted. most of the profit may end up going to the franchisor. because the large organization provides financial and managerial assistance. Training. as well as instructions in the routine day-to-day operations are also provided by the large company. seven days a week for themselves than eight hours a day. The franchisor unlike many independent proprietors has enough experience to estimate start-up costs realistically and therefore he will not grant the franchise unless the prospective franchisee has enough money for the start-up costs. According to some experts. Therefore buying a franchise seems to be the perfect solution because it brings together independence and a measure of security . five days a week for a large corporation. there are also some important drawbacks to be considered. during times of high unemployment people are more likely to buy franchises. Chief among the disadvantages is the monthly payment or royalty . taxes and other business matters.UNIT 13 WHAT IS A FRANCHISE? Although owning your own business has proved to be rather risky. 30
. advice on advertising. Franchising helps to solve two major problems the small businesses are constantly faced with: lack of money and of knowhow.
start-up company 2. Answer the following questions : .What are the duties of a franchisee? . they should be carefully considered before every decision is made.managerial assistance . Read the text carefully and try to explain the following key words: . Topics for speaking and written essays a) The bright side and the dark side of franchising b) Possible franchise businesses in the town you 31
.advertising .Has franchising any advantages for a large company? .franchise .lack .small businesses .Why do many people prefer to work on their own ? .Although franchises can offer the small business person a good way to set up a shop.mortgage .real estate .venture-capital . Text Comprehension 1.What is a franchisor? .Which is the perfect solution for independent businessmen without financial means? .grant .What kind of assistance does the large organization provide to the franchisee? -When did the first franchising businesses start in America? -Mention some drawbacks of franchising.royalty .
e. Society needs things such as: police. If the price of a certain product declines. UNIT 14
MICROECONOMICS AND MACROECONOMICS People involved in economic activities who want to start and run successfully their own businesses must understand both microeconomics and macroeconomics so that they may make sound economic decisions. Therefore. the supply of a product (i. But the prices have a great influence not only on producers but on investors as well. which the free-market system 32
. in our modern society.live
c) Advantages and disadvantages of small businesses as compared to large corporations. Price affects the supply of a product by helping business people to decide which industries to invest in . the government can use its power to change prices or change the way resources are allocated. By combining the demand and the supply. Microeconomics refers to the study of costs and revenues of individual enterprises . road building or satellite launching.Prices of individual items are set at the "microeconomics" level . the production) increases following a rise of its price.New factories and new companies came into being because the market price of a certain item signaled high profit potentials to managers and investors. it generates a greater demand. fire protection. by means of the demand and supply curves. the customers or the buyers are those who through their willingness to buy a certain product basically shape the allocation of resources and production of goods. the market places manage to establish a point of equilibrium where the ideal price of a product can be found. These signals come largely from the behavior of consumers. Whereas eighteenth century economists believed that all production and allocation decisions could be made by businesspeople on the basis of prices set by the free-market. Correspondingly.
What does macroeconomics involve? . they may make a go for it. businesses are consumers of labor and producers alike. Every year thousands of hopeful entrepreneurs launch new businesses. and purchase) depending on what goods and services are exchanged for money.This flow is measured in terms of the gross national product (GNP) which indicates a nation's economic growth and provides a comparison with the output of other nations. The circular flow shows the interrelations between all the elements taking part in the economic activity . households and governments . the economy carries goods and services on way and money the other .What are the effects of prices ? . if they manage to get enough financial aid to see them through the first difficult months or even years.What does the concept of circular flow mean ? . which provide workers. Money in this pattern appears under different names (taxes. Meanwhile. Answer the following questions . then businesses and consumer households can be regarded as two vital organs: the heart and the lung. The macroeconomic level helps us view a national economic system as a whole . Text Comprehension 1. the concept of circular flow illustrates the interrelationships among businesses. If they come up with a good product or service. Each needs the other to keep going just as the bloodstream carries in one direction and carbon dioxide in the other. supplying public goods and services.What is the role of the market places ? -What does GDP indicate? 33
. pay. the government is involved in the system as well.Consumer households pay money for the goods and services provided by businesses.If one looks at an economy as a giant circulatory system.cannot supply properly. as well as labor. This is where government intervenes.How can you define microeconomics? .At the macroeconomic level. It buys goods and services. Households. are producers and consumers at the same time. With this money businesses pay for raw materials and for the labor force which also comes from households. setting up taxes and duties to regulate business and making transfer payments.
to launch = a lansa .What is the role of government in a market-oriented economy? 2. Vocabulary .to be involved = a fi implicat .demand and supply curve = curba cererii si ofertei -to rise.cost and revenues =cheltuieli si venituri .entrepreneur = intreprinzator . potrivita . a ridica .sound decision = decizie corecta.allocation of resources = alocare de resurse .to raise (ed) = a creste..risen = a creste. How do supply and demand influence product prices?
. a mari.output = productie 3.raw materials = materii prime .rose. a se inalta .Topics for speaking and written texts Should governments intervene in economic activities ? When and why ? Give examples of good/bad interventions at macroeconomic level .customer = client -household = gospodarie . a se ridica.flow = flux .GNP (gross national product) = produsul national brut .
the higher its liquidity. Others include a company's accounts receivable. Borrowed money that must be paid back within the year is a prime example of a short -time liability. the sums that the company owes to other businesses or individuals. like for instance. the money that is owned to the company for items or services it has sold. The financial managers must be informed about interest 35
. Managing a company's finances means thinking in terms of two opposite categories: assets and liabilities. each with its own advantages and disadvantages.the total net income a company has earned over its life .minus the funds returned to shareholders as dividends. Raw materials.Liabilities are debts. The faster any asset can be converted into cash.e. i.This is often called owner's equity. or a short-time debt.ASSETS AND LIABILITIES Finance is the management function through which money is effectively obtained and used. Companies that may have excess cash on hand for short periods. must place it in short-term investments. salaries. plus retained earnings. If a company subtracts its liabilities from its assets . Inmost corporations shareholders' equity consists of common stock shares of ownership of a business) sold to thousand of individual investors through a stock exchange .UNIT NO. The short-term assets are often termed current assets and are defined as the resources that can be turned back into cash within a year. cotton. steel. and unpaid bills for raw materials. Dividends are sums of money paid to shareholders of the corporation out of earnings. Cash itself is a short-term asset. it knows exactly where it stands financially: the reminder is what belongs to the owner of the business . Assets' are the items 'of value that the company owns (including money itself). There are different kinds of assets and liabilities. or shareholder's equity namely the portion of a company's assets that belongs to the owner after obligations to all other creditors have been fulfilled. 15 TWO BASIC CONCEPTS IN FINANCE . or a warehouse of T-shirts ready to be dispatched to stores are all short-term assets. Other short-time liabilities include: rent.
How can you define assets? .Why are current assets important for a company? .What does equity consist of? .rates as well as the overall economy in order to time borrowing to their best advantage.Which are the short-term liabilities in a company? .Give example of short –term assets? .What are the advantages and disadvantages of long-term
Vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • assets = active accounts receivable = sume de incasat liabilities = passiv. datorii debt =datorie to own = a detine in proprietate ownership = proprietate equity = capital shareholder = actionar stock exchange = bursa de actiuni earnings = castiguri dividend = dividend interes rate = rata dobanzii short-term = pe termen scurt long-term = pe termen lung to substract = a scadea
. Text comprehension Answer the following questions .
.. Since World War II . They can indicate with reasonable precision how many people there are. he can go elsewhere . however. Then came sales-oriented marketing and it emphasized selling. Therefore the efforts of the company’s departments should be coordinated to produce what the consumer wants.. This concept relies heavily on marketing research activities .The total marketing approach gives The buyer has a say in what goods or services the company sells. c) what type of advertising. most large companies in the world have shifted to a consumer-oriented approach known as the total marketing concept. public relations and selling practices are most likely to appeal to the consumer.. for as one marketing consultant pointed out: "The customer is the most important product . b) what forms .. interviews or questionnaires to win the customers over Even such conservative industries as 'railroads and utilities are courting consumers.colours.UNIT 16 WHAT IS MARKETING? The business environment has been continually changing and business people are worried about keeping up with it. what they earn. Essentially marketing research gets -." Many companies are learning that they need not only good products but also marketing skills in order to succeed.. They must be able to identify consumer needs and to satisfy in a mutually beneficial manner. how they spend their money and where they live. As a result business people’s attention focuses on customers and they try by means of polls. packaging. At one-time. 37
. Population statistics are a basic marketing tool.. Marketing has changed radically over the past halfcentury. Consumer values change rapidly and competition in the market becomes fiercer. how old they are. Those people who want a given product and can buy it constitute its market. most firms were production-oriented and restricted marketing activities mainly to taking orders and shipping goods. because if he doesn't like what we have..... prices and retail shops they prefer .information about : a) what products or services the consumers want .
Emotional motives do not influence such buyers to a great extent . sociability and emulation.In what way are the industrial customers different from the individual ones? • • • • • • • • • • • 2. fear. a major banking institution wants to overhaul its entire computer system. usefulness.How has marketing changed over the years and why? . Businesses try to avoid investing in unnecessary services or products. based on its usefulness to the buyer. pride.The reasons why consumers decide to buy a product may be rational or\and emotional. Emotional factors are satisfaction of the senses.What is marketing ? . Besides individual consumers. there are also industrial consumers and the marketer has to adopt a different marketing strategy for them .Why do businesses today focus on customers? . a atrage skill= aptitudine.Which are the rational factors involved in buying decisions? .For instance. Text comprehension 1.Moreover the business buyer possesses technical background and negotiating skills that ordinary consumers lack. Rational factors include cost. dependability. The motivation for acquiring technical business equipment or services is usually rational. Vocabulary to keep up with = a tine pasul cu business environment = mediu de afaceri consumer needs = nevoile consumatorului fierce competition = competitie stansa/ feroce to focus on= a se concentra asupra pollls = sondaj to win over = a castiga de partea sa. Answer the following questions .Why do consumers decide to buy products? . talent to emphasize = a accentua approach = abordare to shift to = a se orienta spre 38
retail shops = magazine cu vanzare en detail
3. Topics for speaking and writing Compare the different approaches used in marketing. Give examples of emotional motives used by marketing strategies to sell their products. Ethical and unethical marketing strategies. Give examples of your own .
UNIT 17 THE STOCK EXCHANGE MARKET Securities market provides a means whereby investors can buy and sell stocks. They operate amazingly fast .The New York Stock Exchange boasts that once the order to sell has been placed, it can take less than one minute to dispose of a stock such as IBM. • The two kinds of securities markets are stock exchanges and over-the-counter (OTP) markets. A stock exchange is an organization whose "members join together and provide a trading room where members can meet to buy and sell securities for their customers .Stock exchanges provide a key service : they organize all the information that exists at any one moment about the price at which investors are currently willing to buy and sell particular stocks. They do not hold an inventory of stocks for sale, they are merely a place for matching a buyer with a seller .The second, very important kind of market place for stocks and other securities is the OTC market .This market consists of a network of registered stock and bond representatives scattered across a country who trade with each other by phone or teletype They provide stocks to their customers by holding stocks in inventory .They are also ready to purchase stock from their customers and thus they are said " to make a market " in that stock.. Many important national newspapers print reports of daily tradings in specific stocks and bonds, along with various stock averages. The best known average is the Dow Jones industrial index which represents an average of thirty leading industrial stocks from the U.S.A. The name of this average comes from two American economists C.H.Dow (died in 1902) and E.D. Jones (died in 1920). When the stock market is rising, we speak of a bull market. When it is declining, we speak of a bear market. The origin of these terms is rather uncertain, but you can remember which by recalling that a bull tosses an attacked upward with its horns while a bear wrestles downward to the ground. Business people and investors also carefully follow other news that may have a bearing on the market, including broad 40
social trends and the state of the national and international economies. Customers may also invest through a mutual fund or an investment company in which many investors pool their money to buy securities .Each investor owns shares in the fund and the fund uses the pooled money to buy stocks or bonds issued by various companies. These investment societies are especially useful for small investors who don't have time or experience to find investment opportunities .Due to their diversified portfolio, mutual funds diminish investment risks. They also offer liquidity to their customers that can turn their shares into cash whenever they want. Many business people are interested in the prices of the raw materials they use to produce finished goods .These raw materials, which are known as commodities, are traded on commodity exchange markets. These markets operate just as the stock exchange market. Text Comprehension 1. Vocabulary • Securities = hartii de valoare • Stocks = pachete de actiuni • Share = actiune individuala • Shareholder/ stockholder = actionar • Bonds= obligatiuni • OTC (over the counter- la vedere/pe tejghea) market = piata actiunilor necotate la bursa • Bearing = influenta • Average = mediu (adj.), medie (subst.) • A bull market= pata bursiera in crestere • A bear market = piata bursera in scadere • Commodities = bunuri de larg consum
2. Give examples of the way in which such events (wars. rising prices.Dow and E. earthquakes.
.H.) have influenced the stock exchange and the economic life as a whole. change in political regimes. . D. Jones ? Who influence the increase and decrease of the stock What is the OTC market ? What do investment companies do ?
Speaking and writing Stock exchanges all over the world react to various events whose nature may or may not be economic. Answer the following questions: exchange ? What are the functions of the stock exchange market? Who were C. . etc.
As the goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption. trade representatives. Communications are made possible through the postal and telegraph system. people who altogether carry it out. E-mail. telephones. Trade consists of Home Trade including Wholesale Trade and Retail Trade and Foreign Trade dealing with Imports and Exports. Also.UNIT 1 8 FUNCTIONS OF COMMERCE Commerce as a human activity is essentially the moving of goods from the seller to the buyer. sea or air as well as the work of agents. Warehousing also provides a central pool for goods from where supplies may be taken at any time so that the wide fluctuation of 43
. Moreover. travelers. This function not only enables goods to be supplied whenever they are wanted. the goods are produced in large quantities but used in small ones. While the manufacturer has a limited production range. each producer makes use of numerous depots at specially arranged places. Transport concerns the moving of goods by land. The main functions of commerce are as following. but also wherever they are wanted. facsimile (fax). their way from the producer to the consumer is a long and complicated one. namely the exchange and distribution of goods and services. wholesaler or retailer until they are required. Communications are generally linked to the commercial activity as a whole since no transaction is possible without communications.. without communications endless delays and hindrances occur in all stages of commerce. the consumer's requirements are almost unlimited in variety and it is the function of commerce to provide links between the stages of this process and the actual tools needed to make it work. usually at the consumer's reach. etc. Trade is essentially the general exchange of goods and services between producers and consumers. radio mobile systems and satellite. cables. In this respect. Warehousing is a major function in modern conditions as production is usually in advance of demand and goods have to be stored appropriately in the warehouses of the manufacturer.
Write briefly on one of the following
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • topics:
• the function of trade.prices caused by glut or short supplies can be avoided. shipwreck. • means of communications used in the commercial activity. etc. Text comprehension 1. • services the banks provide their customers with. since it enables the businessman or businesswoman survive losses by damage. Vocabulary Seller = vanzator Buyer =comparator Goods= marfa Production rang = gama de productie Requirement = cerinta To provide = a furniza Wholesale trade = comert en gross Retail trade = comert cu ridicata Foreign trade = comert exterior To deal with = a se ocupa de To carry out = a efectua Whare housing = activitatea de depozitare Damage = paguba Insurance policy = polita de asigurare 2. fire. • the need of storing goods in adequate places. Written work . • the importance of the insurance functi
. • transport function and requirements for an efficient transport activity. The risk of loss or damage in a business is covered by insurance policies which render trade secure and stable.
l. the carriage to the port.B. they are packed and made ready for dispatch.
. the insurance premium and the cost of the Bill of Lading. The staff in the exporting firm now has all the data required for making out the Invoice. C. the marks. This specification gives all the particulars of the goods in compliance with the Official Export List. If the price and terms are satisfactory and the goods do exist in stock. A Customs Specification is sent to the Customs Office of the point of shipment within six days of the clearance of the ship. and numbers of the containers and the total value of the goods. the freight and other shipping charges. insurance. (free on board) means that the seller bears all the expenses until the goods are loaded on board the ship. The goods are sent to the port of embarkation either by truck or rail way and the superintendent at the docks is informed of the dispatch of the goods by a Shipping Note. On the back of the Invoice is printed the Certificate of Origin certifying the origin of goods. packing. (cost. When the indent may require goods from several manufacturers it has to be split up accordingly and separate orders are placed with the various firms which are given instructions as to time and place of delivery.F.e. while under C&F the insurance premium has to be paid by the importer. i. If the Invoice is marked Loco it means that he importer has to pay all charges from the exporter's warehouse to his own. The goods are packed in lined cases (containers) which are sent to a Shipping Firm. This is usually made out in triplicate and gives all the necessary details of the goods. make-up. marks. The shipping agents charge a commission and relieve the exporter of a lot of complicated formalities. the exporter first acknowledges it.O. the charge for the containers. freight) means that all charges from the warehouse to the port of destination are borne by the exporter. etc.UNIT 19 AN EXPORT TRANSACTION When an exporter receives an order from an old customer. FRANCO means a free of charge delivery to the customer's premises. Then. The quotation F. the shipping company makes out the Freight Note which is sent to the exporting firm expected to pay the amount of freight to the company.
Answer the following questions? .What is the difference between F.What are the duties seller after he acknowledges receipt of an order? . .What is the function of the shipping company in an export transaction ? .F.I. C. Vocabulary Indent =comanda To acknowledge = a confirma Dispatch = expediere To be split up = a fi impartita Delivery = livrare Make-up = structura Shipping firm = firma de transport To charge a commission = a incasa un comision Amount =suma In compliance with = in conformitate cu To bear the expenses = a suporta cheltuielile Invoice = factura comerciala 2.Text Comprehension • • • • • • • • • • • • 1.B. and Franco delivery terms ?
.O.Who bears the shipping and insurance expenses in an export transaction ? .
In case of dishonour. The specimen given is the original Bill which is called First of Exchange having two more copies. both the organization and instruments are provided by the banks with their branches and correspondents all over the globe. For bank notes and coins the banks issue Traveler’s Cheques which can be mainly used for traveling and personal expenses. the day when it is presented to the drawee. When the Shipping Documents (the Bill of Lading. i. the Foreign Bill of Exchange must be protested in order to protect the creditor's rights in the Bill. 30 days after sight. 1. the payment can be made by Cable Transfer. 2. Depending on the arrangements between the importer and exporter. The Foreign Bill of Exchange is made payable either at sight.UNIT 20 METHODS OF PAYMENT IN FOREIGN TRADE
For the payment of debts and settlement of accounts in the foreign trade. On the other hand. The due date of the Bill is determined by the number of days after sight. thus recovering the use of his capital. Insurance Policy and Invoice) are attached to the Bill of Exchange they create a Documentary Bill of Exchange and it is then sent to the bank for collection. Credit Cards also meet the same needs. The bank is generally instructed not to present the Bill before the merchandise has actually arrived. 60. the documents which form the title to the goods can be handed over either against payment (D/P) or against acceptance of the Bill (D/A). The drawee accepts or pays the Bill and can either hold it until maturity or have it discounted in his bank. The oldest method of payment in foreign trade is the Foreign Bill of Exchange which differs from the Inland Bill in two important points: the payment method and the number of copies. e. if a 47
.g. in case of urgency. The banks provide an international system of Bank Transfers in place of the cheques system and.e. 90 days after sight or even later) and it is drawn in sets of two or three copies. or at a given period after sight(30.
Answer the following questions? . the importer can get possession of the documents by paying earlier.g. The correspondent bank will be then prepared to accept the Bill on behalf of the exporter. foaie de expeditie Bill of exchange = cambia . Vocabulary Payment =plata Bank note = bancnota Coin =moneda Payable at sight = platibil la vedere Drawee = tras.Which payment methods are given in the text for export /import transactions? . platitor In case of dishonour = in caz de neplaa Bill of lading= conosament .Bill is drawn 60 or 90 days after sight and the documents are to be released only against payment.Explain how the letter of credit works and what are the 48
• • • • • • • • • • • •
. e. Since the disadvantage of this method is that the exporter has to wait quite a lot before he receives the money. he often approaches his bank for an advance on the shipment which is generally granted on the signing of a Letter of Hypothecation. Text Comprehension 1. the importer consequently draws the Bill on the bank and not on his customer thus establishing an Irrevocable Documentary Credit which gives the exporter a complete protection.How does the Foreign Bill of Exchange differ from the Inland Bill of Exchange ? . The Irrevocable means that the Letter of Credit cannot be changed or cancelled without the agreement of all parties. trata Merchandise = marfa Letter of credit = acreditiv To cancel= a anula Irrevocable = irevocabil 2. 30 days after sight. For contracts that imply a large amount of money and time a Letter of Credit (L/C) is preferred as a secure means of payment.
advantages of such a payment method?
-dom: freedom.affixation: work-er. sound interchange: to feed –food. car. darkness. qualities. predicative. Syntactic functions: subject. I see a man. room. object: My father is a teacher.) shortening and abbreviation: exam/ examination. table. 50
. sleep. ex. the rich / rich(adj. obtained from different kinds of derivation: . departure. actions. lab/laboratory. friendship. house b) derived nouns: work-er. things. flower. -ness: darkness Grammatical categories: number and case. movement. to import-import.ment:movement. cat b) derived nouns.PART II ENGLISH GRAMMAR THE NOUN Definition: part of speech that denotes beings. On the derivational level: a) simple nouns : man. fish. rain. Stem building morphemes: -er: worker. conversion: (the) work / (to) work. states. courage. dis-agree-ment c) compound nouns: hand-bag. chair. penholder. -ship: friendship. relationships. fish. abstract notions. boy. friend-ship. phenomena. beauty. He spoke about his invention. snow-ball. ill-ness. Classification of nouns: On the morphemic level: a) simple or root nouns : man.
a somebody Classification of noun according to meaning: 1. cargoes Not to be applied to the foreign nouns: 51 by
. animate-inanimate: boy. a native’s house.c) compound nouns: composition of various stems: lamp-shade. Substantivization of other parts of speech: by conversion. qualities. (several fam.) Number: Singular. girl. (all the members) Many families are here. any part of speech may become a noun: a try. a go.(family= a single unit) My family are here.Bucharest. Italy Classification of noun according to number 1) countable (denotes countable objects): a book-two books 2) uncountable (denoting materials. phenomena): sand. pen-holder Substantivization of adjectives: a) wholly substantivized: native(adj)/ a native(noun). milk 3) collective nouns. country. book 2.Italians… b) partially substantivized Substantivization of Participle II: the accused. Italian. pencil –idea. heroes. Plural Plural formation: -(e)s added to Singular form Pronunciation : a) /s/ after voiceless consonants: lamps /lamps/ b) /z/ after voiced consonants: boys /boiz/ c) /iz/ after sibilants: classes /klasiz/ -es ending after sibilants and –o when the letter is preceded a consonant: potatoes. -tree. the singular form connotes either a singular or a plural concept: family-families My family is here. friendship 3. common-proper: city. concrete-abstract: table.
countries b) -y ys : boy.dice ox .oxen Foreign Plural kept in English: Latin: radius –radii. 52
.boys c) -f -ves: half halves d) -f -fs: cliff-cliffs e) -th -ths: bath-baths Irregular Plural Forms: woman – women man .men child – children tooth – teeth goose – geese foot – feet mouse – mice louse – lice die .a) foreign nouns completely adopted into English: cantos.phenomena French: bureau – bureaux Italian: bambino – bambini Hebrew: seraph – seraphim Most of them have already an English plural form equivalent. b) compounds with -man. phenomenon . stratum – strata Greek: analysis – analyses. editors-in-chief. passers-by. Frenchwomen. mothers-in-law. -woman. Plural Formation of Compound Nouns: a) the main element gets the Plural form fellow-workers. concertos b) shortened forms of longer words: photos/ photographs Spelling peculiarities: a) –y ies: country. change these into Plural: Englishmen.
c) when man-, woman- are the first, then all of them get the plural : menservants; womenservants c) the compound does not contain a noun, the plural ending is added to the last element: forget-me-nots, merry-goesrounds, Plural of Letters, Abbreviations and Words which are not Nouns a) without apostrophe: Write two ls. b) give with apostrophe: Write two t’s. c) their pronunciation: Write two els. d) add –s with apostrophe or not : M.P.s / M.P.’s e) –s is added to the end of the word or to the last word of the group, the spelling with apostrophe and without it varies: His life was full of ups and downs. I am tired of your ifs and buts. Singular and Plural Nouns - Agreement Problems 1) town names as Brussels, Lyons, Naples get a Sg. verb Naples is a seaport. 2) geographical names that usually get a plural form verb: 53
The Hebrides are situated near the West costs of Scotland. Countables a) used with uncountable meaning as nouns of material, no determinatives : a goose-two geese; I have goose for dinner. b) man used in the Sing., no article = human race: Man is mortal. c) used in the Plural with a non countable content to express an intensified concept: to stroll through fields and woods d) plurals of some countables : colour = culoare; colours = culori; steag/drapel e) have the same plural form identical with that of the sg.: sheep; deer; swine; The sheep is here/ the sheep are there. fruit Units of measure: foot, pound etc. have the plural form identical with that of the Sg. and it is used when the nouns are followed by numerals expressing their subdivisions: three foot/feet eleven high; two pound(s) tenHundred, thousand, million, dozen, score get the plural form when used without any numerals; hundreds of people; tens of books, but five thousand books Pluralia tantum nouns: scissors, spectacles, tongs, pincers, trousers; A pair of trousers is on the chair. Two pairs of trousers are here. Uncountables are with Sg. verbs : advice = sfat; furniture = mobilier; income = venit/venituri A number of nouns with non-countable content are found in the plural form. Such examples are: a) nouns which take the plural verb : alms, ashes, mortal remains, alms ; Alms are distributed b) nouns that take the singular form: news, billiards, measles, mumps; News is very interesting. c) nouns which take the verb both in the singular and in the plural: wages, Middle Ages, contents d) names of sciences: Mathematics, Acoustics Collectives : 54
a) nouns having two numbers: family, crew. The family is here. The family are here. The families are here. b) nouns expressing a plural concept: 1) denoting animals: poultry; cattle 2) denoting persons: police, cavalry Gender: a) Masculine gender: father, son, boy b) Feminine gender: mother, daughter, girl c) Neuter gender: chair, house Masculine and Feminine forms of nouns denoting living beings: 1) by adding –ess to the Masculine form: poet – poetess; exception are widow/widower; bride/bridegroom 2) feminine nouns are different from masculine ones: man –woman; son – daughter 3) combination with other words: he wolf- she wolf; landlord – landlady; billy-goat – nanny-goat Case Possessive case: ‘s added to the singular form of the noun the boy’s car; Kate’s book ‘ added to the plural forms of the nouns: the boys’ car(s) but ‘s after irregular plural nouns : children’s toys group possessive case: Tom’s and Mary’s books(each has books); Tom and Mary’s room (they share the same room) of possessive : the book of Peter; the toys of the children ‘s /’ Genitive is used with names of human beings, but there are some exceptions, such as: a) nouns indicating space and time, value and weight: three miles ’ walk; two days ’ holiday; two dollars’ book; five pounds ’ box b) names of seasons, months, days: a winter’s day 55
were) here a few minutes ago. How (much. and a sheep. You didn't give me (much. 6. the domestic circle or the house. many) furniture. town. guests are received in: You can have a drink at my mother’s. The scissors (was. 11. . few) advice. Have you observed the classifying criterion? 3. 12.home. The farmer has a hen. there (is. schools.The inspector will speak to the witness who has seen the accident. 10. Paul’s (Cathedral). are) a dangerous thing. many) people on the ship (was. Billiards (is. cinemas. few) knowledge (is. Turn the italicized nouns into the plural and make all the other necessary changes in the sentences: 1. were) getting seasick from the waves. sun. The businessman is considering the new taxes. many) information do you have about our new employee? 10. Last night a hostel was robbed by a thief. churches: St. 2. 4. were) lost yesterday. My brother r-in-law is an acountant. are) several means of accomplishing our aim.institutions of various kinds –colleges. 4. There (is. 8. The child in that family has bad manners. city. 6. 7. The birds were eaten by a fox. The housewife and the middle-aged woman are the principal buyers of this product. My cat never catches a mouse. Choose the right word from the brackets: I. 7. are) (much. many) chairs here. The news printed in that paper (is. a goose. and very (little. 2. . hospitals. butcher’s . We don't need to buy so (much. wind. 5. many) ideas about the job. 5. 9. 3. 56
. are) never objectively described . moon proper nouns. Exercises 1. (much. His luggage (was. 2. She has lost the key to her office. 9. 8.c) d)
nouns such as: country.business or places of business: tailor’s. A (little. are) his favourite game.. That knife should be handed in immediately. designation of tradesmen.
... 5.. of luck we can get rid of them. We are not deceived by (that woman. Use either the analytical or the synthetical genitive with the nouns in brackets: I. 8. the table).. With a . The neighbour gave the police a detailed (describe) ... The (advertise) . of good advice... 6. John is trying to fix the (leg... of furniture for their sitting-room. 6.. When he reached the (bottom. I'll always remember (the manager. slice. but also a good tennis (play) . of the novel was interesting. 8. for his (behave) . was rather . 2. 6. He is a fantastic (football) . piece. Your future depends on your (company.. item. are requested to sign their names in the book. This is a .. THE ARTICLE It is a form word and has a lexico grammatical meaning 57
. of news in today's paper. natural wonders). parents) were invited to the graduation. 9. She cut several . He painted only one (wall. of the accident. 4. The (students.. words). Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: bar.. bit. of bread to make some sandwiches. between the two educational systems.... 7. Have you seen (today. 8. Each passenger is allowed to take three .. The Grand Canyon is one of the (world. newspaper)? 10. Do you know the (earth.... of cold veal left over from yesterday's dinner. words). You can have that . 5. 7. 5.. 3... of soap on your way home. 7. 3. but the (end) .. future). They have bought a new . There is a great (differ) . He couldn't give a satisfactory (explain) . 3. 1.... 4. 2. the stairs) he heard a strange noise. of luggage. distance) from the moon? 4. 5.. 2. why won't you take it? 4..3. The (begin) . Don't forget to buy a ...... (visit) . office )... Fill in the blanks with nouns derived from the words in brackets: I. There are two interesting . was published in the evening paper.. Cats are said to have a great deal of (curious) .
with the uncountable nouns it marks a limited quantity: The water in the glass is cool.sometimes it takes the value of the demonstrative pronoun: Give me the book from the bed! (that one ) .its form is the both for the Sing.articles may be omitted for the sake of conciseness in newspaper headings. 3) names of persons in the Plural meaning the whole fam 58
. London BUT 1) names of persons accompanied by Indefinite Article. Use of Articles with different Classes of Nouns Proper Names : NO Article is used :John.it is used with nouns in the Singular only .it indicates that the object denoted is one of the whole class. an ice cream. Absence of the Article .its forms are : a/an : a book. and Plural :the girl(s). . etc. a boy. an apple . Smith. meaning a certain of.that of definiteness indefiniteness It has invariable forms: a /an : a book. Definite Article .it pronounced differently /ti/ apple . telegrams. the apple(s). an apple and is placed in front of the noun/noun equivalents: a table. a red book Classification of Articles: I Definite Article II Indefinite Article Indefinite Article .a noun determined by it may get a descriptive attribute: a woman with the black hair. one of: He is a Forsyte 3) both articles are used in front of names of persons when they are used as common nouns: He has the humor of a Dickens. an interesting book. stage remarks. / / book . no specification of its individual features is given: Give me a pencil! (any will do) .
lazy. Captain Scott. silly : poor John. or a permanent characteristic: NO Article when the attribute is expressed by one of the adjectives: young. the United Kingdom of Great Britain the Netherlands. England. speciality. France BUT the USA. occupation not used as title. Monsieur Laporte Geographical Names NO Article with the following names: 1)names of countries: Romania. old. mood. King Richard. the Lebanon. the composer Mozart BUT most English titles and some foreign ones have NO Article Queen Ann. the Mr. honest pretty. New York BUT the Hague 3) names of towns having a geographical or historical 59
. the Congo.4) names of persons used with Definite Article when preceded by an attribute expressing state. lazy Mary. the Sudan.the whole combination is preceded by Definite Article the girl Mary. London. little. the poet Byron. profession. dear. poor. Smith whom I know 6)when a personal name is preceded by a noun denoting state. the Transvaal 2) names of towns: Bucharest. the West Indies. dear Bob 5) names of persons used with Definite Article when theyare modified by a limiting attribute even if they are preceded by one of the above mentioned adjectives: the poor Bob of his youth.
St.when the names of the river are part of a compound noun Stratford-on-Avon 2) name contains an of phrase: the City of London. 60
. the English Channel. June. the Thames. London Bridge.when the Saxon Genitive is in the structure: St. rivers. channels. July Monday. the first part being a proper name: Hyde Park. southern Paris compound nouns of places. in(the) autumn 4) WITH Definite Article 1) names of oceans. the Suez Canal NO Article . loch. in (the) autumn. the Mall 6) names of months and days: May. lakes. the Gulf of Mexico. Loch Ness . the St. they get an Indefinite Article: I went there on a Wednesday. mostly with the preposition in. monuments. the Carpathians NO Article . during (the) winter. buildings. Chancery Lane BUT the Strand. the Atlantic Ocean. seas.with single mountain peaks: Mont Blanc BUT some exceptions: the Jungfrau. Michel’s Mount 3) names of chains of mountains: the Alps. Westminster Abbey 5) names of streets may/ may not get an article: Oxford Street. lough precede the proper names: Lake Leman. straits. the Straits of Dover. the Black Sea. during : winter was coming. Helen’s Island. the High Street. Tuesday when they get a descriptive attribute.attribute: ancient Rome. 7) names of seasons when the nature / season is expressed BUT with Article when a certain period of the year is marked. NO Article . the Leman. the Isle of Wight.when the words lake. Bernard.
the Riviera. Cape Cod 8) names of places. The Star (countable) Common Nouns 1) Countable nouns in the Sing. the Iseeum (club) 2) names of newspapers. the Channel 9) names of cardinal points: the North. Gotthard names of groups of islands: the Hebrides. clubs. the
names of capes : the North Cape. theatres: the Savoy (hotel). the Gobi names of provinces: the Ruhr. my book.when used adverbially: to sail north 10) proper name resulted from an adverbial phrase: the Argentina ( the Republic of Argentina) the Tate (the Tate Gallery) Other Proper Names with Article: 1) names of ships. this book 2) countable nouns used in the Sing. monuments which do not contain proper names : the Tower.when the noun cape precedes the proper name: Cape Horn. the Cape of Good Hope NO Article . The City. hotels. Life. the Globe theatre.4) 5) 6) 7)
the St. the East NO Article . buildings. generically (representing a whole class) both articles can be used: A lion (any lion) is a ferocious animal. the book. the Queen Mary(ship). magazines= attribute + common name the Daily Telegraph. must be preceded by one of the Articles if there is no determinative: a book. Time (uncountable) The Spectator. 61
. the Daily Worker BUT Punch (proper name). the names of deserts : the Sahara.
when they are used with the preposition at. aunt. by day.
brother. market.. jail.are used without articles when treated as abstract nouns and denote state. sea . nurse. table. evening. activities or the aim associated with them: to go school=to be a pupil to go to bed=to go to sleep BUT institute. dinner when used in a general sense BUT both Articles are used when the content of a meal/ definite meals are meant: The day of the dinner has come. from morning till night 5) names of meals get NO Article : breakfast. cook may be used as proper names by family members or friends not preceded by Article and written with capital letters: Where is Father? What about Baby? Cook has gone to the market. court.3)
mother. college. night get the Definite Article when a particular morning/evening/night is meant and is used with the preposition in : It is seven o’clock in the evening. hospital camp. nouns denoting members of the family :father. by at noon. in the Institute 7) the noun town used with preposition in the meaning of 62
. bed. baby. university are used with Definite Article: at the University. dark and dreary. prison.. at night. lunch. The day is cold. to give a special dinner 6) nouns school. 4) nouns denoting parts of the day :morning. afternoon.
The lion (the whole class) is a ferocious animal. NO Article .
…the rush of events. things get NO Article : Conditions were abnormal. right+ countable I took the wrong bus. sort of + Indefinite Article (wavers) She was now engaged as (a) governess. The idea was a great success. as. It is a nice town.8)
town life get NO Article : I’m going up to town. little girl? NO Article + predicative noun(adjectival character) + enough :He is not fool enough to believe all these. She married Peter Smith. Definite Article + adj.) are used with Article in exclamatory sentences and without article in interrogative ones: What books are you reading ? What an interesting book! NO Article is used with nouns in direct address: What is the matter. What kind of (a) woman is Mary? Indefinite Article may have a distributive value: Six lessons a day(per day) countable nouns ( in the Sing. kind of. He is the right man in the right place. events. wrong. son of late Professor Smith 63
. 16) NO Article + nouns denoting kinship used predicatively He was (the) son of a fisherman. matters. conditions. nouns like: circumstances. NO Article + predicative noun in adverbial clause
11) 12) Indefinite
13) 14) 15)
concession when the noun is placed at the head of the clause: Child as he was. It gets the two articles when it has the concrete meaning: Arad is the town where I live. he suffered much.
when used in a general sense.17)
NO Article + nouns denoting title. rank. . 64
. NO Article with homogenous parts of the sentence expressed by countable and connected by the conjunctions and. sugar-bowl and milk-jug. there is hope . to have a cold/ cough/headache/pain/ others with definite article: to have the toothache/ the measles/the mumps Collectives .names of illness are a special category: some of them are used with an indefinite article: to catch a cold .nor: Both books and copy books are on the table. either …or.the use of Articles depends on the general meaning of articles and on the aspect predominant in the given context: Mine is a small family. Uncountables .. It is more usual to use the Definite Article in front of the first noun of the sequence: I put the books. dignity used predicatively or in apposition: He is President of the Academy. pencils and copy books on the table. She took from the box tea-pot. they do not get articles: Where there is life. state..both articles may be used with nouns of material when they denote various sorts of the substance or the objects made of the material: It is a very good wine. is Rector of our University.when they are narrowed in their meaning. they get definite articles: the life that was behind him . both…and. neither. X. The wines of this region are excellent. Mrs.
the new house .Indefinite Article after the adverbs: quite. to get the upper hand BUT some set expressions are without article: by land. article + adjective: the last. by car. 2. such a thing.. 3) books yet. .. how so short a time.The family is small.both articles follow the words half.. to catch sight
Place of Article .the nouns of multitude are used with the definite article: The cattle are grazing.its usual place is in front of the noun: a long way. by train. on shore. too. The police are searching the house. double: Half a minute ! We paid double the value... door. Insert the definite article or the zero article: I. in view of to take place. article in set expressions: to play the piano/
/the fool/ to pass the time. Exercises I. . the second article + pronouns: I’ll take the other book. the next. milk is 65
. He ran into . 1) 2) shelf. and quite a child. house and locked . rather. as black a house inside as outside . just. . on board. The family are in the garden. 4) 5) 6) 7) violin Special Cases of Using the Article the + most + adjective: the most beautiful most+ nouns : Most of the books are on the article + numeral: She has not read the ten article + ordinal number: the third. rather lonely. to take part.. so.Indefinite Article after the attribute expressed by an adjective preceded by one of the adverbs: as. pronouns: both.
elephants are used for carrying . goods. We have .. . day.... Lizzie.. 13. genius of Edison is universally recognized. 6.. ... .. left . Eggs are 50 p... mistake in his translation. 3. difficult question... city in England.... 3. bread you baked is delicious.. 5. water used in this beer comes from a special spring. In .. 9. What . 66
... evening at ... auditor. II. butter. black dress and .. pair of ... .. water. The bank manager gave his client ..milk which I bought yesterday should still be good.. sincerity with which the witness spoke... refrigerator.. very good advice. loyalty are ..... breakfast rather early.. 6. wild animals... law. generosity and . Insert the indefinite article or the zero article: 1.. 2.... fresh milk tastes good... 13. III.. .. Please... In some houses . . silver in this ring is of inferior quality. 12.. 4. Would you do me . great embarrassment of the event.. lions are ..... The architect is consulting with . baby-sitter . silver is used for money and jewelry. Meeting your family has been . 4.... he lost ... 15.. 11... Manchester by . great pleasure.. Browns three weeks ago.. smoke.. We often go to . He is studying .. English. Sunday. After several attempts. bread has been called the staff of life.. .. . there's . night and told . train.. 5...good for .... 7. We all like to eat . .. . How many rockets have been sent to . dinner is ..... All the people in .. bad weather we are having today! 14. courage. 15. put . 8. 10........ 2. cinema. favour? 3. 10.. ... ... and .. Exeter is . fire. young boy on her right is . sincerity.. He speaks with .. church on . We all admire . One of Mark Twain's well-known works is "Life on . 14. 4.. good food. genius is 10% inspiration and 90% perspiration.. restaurant near me is very good... bread.... 9. He showed . They asked him . authority on urban development. children and elderly people. matching gloves..... The electric light was .. important invention. . .. we must have .. He came to his room late at . In order to survive. 8...... dozen. 12. Where there's . ... Uncle Rick how he had spent .He made . rare virtues these days.. 5.... She bought . . Mississippi".. Asia . food in . courage that surprised me. 8.. 7. village go to ... Everyone was impressed by . She wants to become . Supply the required articles: I.... biggest meal of ... .. 7...... eggs in . moon? 11. 6..
I wanted to go to .. before singular countable nouns..IV. careful. young... beautiful river in which you can bathe and sail . That little town lies in . historic. Stratford-on-Avon. theatre is near . England called .... Fill in the blanks with the required articles: Last year I stayed in . Dirty Duck". Black Swan"! V. Plaza cinema. River Avon. prewar. corner of ..... I spoke to him and asked him if he knew ". lovely valley. bread and . -ive.. . 2. advice.. boats.. -less.. courageous. I have . There was . . Could you give me ... inventive. old .. 9. The only 67
. THE ADJECTIVE It . Shakespeare.. unimportant. cup of coffee. street near .. It was just at . furniture for their new penthouse.. bottom of .... It was called "... un-. number.... door.. For breakfast I had only .. 4. theatre to see some of . .. 7. Fill in the blanks with the indefinite article a/an. name above . hammer and ... pre-.has stem building morphemes: -ful... main street. endless.. street. but I can't do the work for you..... -ish. house in my street... ... but no one knew it. nails to fix the picture on the wall. in-. Stratford.. snow on the high mountain. policeman at .. He laughed and told me that he knew it all right.. They are building .has no inflections for case. plays of . indefinite. gender. They have bought . hotel and read .. I walked to .. information about this university ? 6. I saw . bottom of .. 10I can give you . I asked many people where it was.. or the indefinite pronoun some...modifies a noun/ noun equivalent.. interesting...--ous. great.. 8... before uncountable nouns or plural nouns: 1..... He needs . 3. hotel called "... terrible headache.. 5.... little town in .. Dirty Duck". indicating its qualities: big... people are fonof telling stories.. but I couldn't find it. saw . -ic.. I was told to stay at . When I arrived in .. foolish.
clever. stronger.by using the words more. large. big. wooden. to grow older c) adverbs: extremely difficult. beautiful 3) compound adjectives: duty-bound B) According to their meaning : I. interesting.is an attribute or a predicative: a silent man. old.they are formed in two ways: 1) synthetically – by adding the suffixes: -er . more important. the strongest 2) analytically . Classification of adjectives A) According to their morphological structure: I. dangerous 3) compound adjectives: snow-white II. great. big. beautiful II. The man was silent. young 2) derived adjectives: unhappy. Romanian.is associated with the following parts of speech: a) noun/noun equivalent: a beautiful girl. the most important. strong. -est strong. Italian 3) time :monthly. short. Adjectives on the morphemic level 1) simple adjectives :short. earthen 2) place/country: English. an heir apparent b) link verbs : to be clever. Relative or limiting (express qualities through their relation to some other objects): 1) material: woolen. Adjectives on the derivational level 1) simple adjectives: black. the most important
Synthetical Comparison monosyllabic adjectives: big. dark.inflections are for the synthetic comparison short –shorter – the shortest . very interesting . great 68
. 2) derived adjectives: beautiful. Qualitative or descriptive (indicate various qualities): small. warm. weekly Degrees of Comparison .
the simplest BUT proper. ignoble.-ow.they are required by the addition of the comparison degree suffixes . more eager. the completest polite. content. the politest BUT . completer. -er. the tenderest • final –y is changed into –i when preceded by a consonant: happy. cleverer. happier.disyllabic adjectives ending in :-y. the most proper eager. the most eager c) disyllabic adjectives with stress on the last syllable complete. correct. exact . the narrowest simple. happier.foreign adjectives: antique.adj.disyllabic adj. -st fine. ending in two consonants: abrupt. simpler. insecure
Analytical Comparison all the adjectives which are not included in these groups Spelling Peculiarities . finest • single consonants are doubled after short stressed vowels hot. bizarre. • adj. finer . burlesque . the cleverest narrow. hotter. the hottest BUT it does not happen when the doubling does not take place after an unstressed vowel: tender.alive.-le happy. politer. narrower. tenderer. the happiest Irregular Degrees of Comparison 69
. the happiest clever. ended in –e get only –r. impolite.alone d) trisyllabic adjectives built with a negative prefix: unhappy.with the prefix aafraid. more proper.
the most little. John is less handsome than his friend. later. Peter is not so tall as Jim. better. the nearest the next( the following) late. more. • degree Emphasizing the Comparative by repeating the adjective in the comparative The days are longer and longer. farther.it is formed by associating the positive degree of the adjective with less. senior etc. older. worse. the last (nothing comes after it) old. have different forms for comparative and superlative good. the best bad/ill.to time) near. the least • some have double forms for comparative/superlative far. 70
. the oldest elder. less. have no other forms for comparative He was three years junior than me. Comparative of Inferiority: . the eldest Use of the Comparative Degree Comparative of Superiority . nearer.• some adj. inferior. junior. the latest( the most recent) latter. the furthest (it makes ref. the farthest (it makes ref.to space) further.it is expressed by the comparative degree followed by the conjunction than She was more frightened than hurt. BUT adjectives of Latin origin: superior. the worst many/much. Comparative of Equality: -it is expressed by means of the positive degree placed between the conjunctions as …as He is as tall as Peter.
Position and Order of Attributive Adjectives it precedes the noun/noun equivalent a good book • adj. • if a noun is modified by adjs. still worse. denoting age. imaginable Those are the best methods possible. He is (hardworking) student in the class. form. among which there are those denoting age. 3. by means of the words possible. "The Tempest" is 71
. size.it can be used both attributively and predicatively . 7. 4. I remember the smallest details of her dress. He was able to get (far) information at the police station. far more intelligent. Emphasizing the Superlative by means of the words very. material. color. 2. 5. nationality come next to the noun modified He preferred the quiet little Belgian city to either of its more noisy capitals.it is followed by a prepositional phrase or clause She was the tallest of the four. What is (late) news of him? 6. their order is the following: (1)determinative (2)various (3)age (4)size (5)form (6) color (7)nationality (8)material (9)noun a high-backed old green leather chair a beautiful large white Turkish merino shawl • Exercises I. Superlative Degree . nationality. Jamie is (good) cook I know. by far. a great deal earlier She is much better today than she was yesterday. These are my very earliest impressions. He is much (familiar) with modern architecture than with modern music.•
by using such words as :much better. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective: I. She is looking for a (big) car than the one she has now. material. color.
..... The (far) house from the village is Tom’s. The were . children. She earns much (little) money than her colleague does. 5.. and by far. IV.. She is . solution to my troubles. No . I. creature can do that.. (asleep/sleeping) The sight of the ... My work is bad.. He was . travelling. children moved him deeply. In the end he will pay a . He took a job because he no longer wanted to be dependent .. insects. anything she has done.. 8. Fill in the blanks with the intensifies: much..Shakespeare's (late) play.. 7. (alone/lonely/solitary) Mr Wilder is a . 9. Why do you feel inferior . he is (modest) than most people.. The weather in California is (hot) than the weather in Montana. 2. his parents. of what you might say.. Supply the right preposition after each adjective: 1. 10. Practicing sports is .. She has never been successful . a great deal.. He always tries to be polite . more experienced than the new one.? 12. your success. his employees. 7.. for the comparative. He had a word with a (little) personage in the police force.. tourist stopped by the well to drink some water. 14... the most talented student in his group. I'm proud . in the house. Richard is .. 4.... 3... Although he is a famous man.. 3. 8. 3. a good deal. Frogs feed chiefly on .. a lot. you. r II. 6.. what you say to the new head of department. 6.. old man.... look. when his parents returned from the meeting V... 12. 2. getting here in time. The new teacher is rather impatient . Her (old) brother is five years (old) than my husband. 11.. (afraid/frightened) The little girl gave the stranger a .. her husband. our experiment. 15... We had the greatest difficulty . You have found the best . I. If you want to get to the market.. III.. Alice is very fond ... He told me he was very angry . the most serious problem facing families this winter.. What are you afraid .. more interesting than watching TV. 4. Choose the adjective which best completes each sentence: 1.... 8.. She is quite different . far.. 9. I think your interviews are . possible.. (alive/living/live) Several witnesses to the accident are still . Change the following into compound and derived adjectives: 72
.. 2. We have all the equipment required .. but yours is (bad). This is . imaginable. better than hers. 4. take (near) turning to the left.13. The . 5. your schoolmates? 10. Be very careful ... Our old secretary is ... higher price for it.
2.7 I was given a (black. thirteen. i.a handmade carpet a play having success . That (dark. a day with much wind. expensive. I've bought a new set of (aluminum. You will practice on an (Steinway. the eleventh • grammatical invariability. 12. a moon red like blood. leather. seventeen. a story which breaks the heart. VI. 3. taking it into account. a person who is giving help. multi-purpose) utensils. a woman with a kind heart. 4. some of them are turned into nouns and get -(e)s ending. 14. 2. THE NUMERAL The numeral is a part of speech that is characterized by the following features: • a lexico grammatical meaning.Example: a girl with green eyes a green-eyed girl a carpet made by hand . Hundreds of books are in the library their place is between adjective and the noun: The five fine days have gone These four dolls are very expensive. small) bag on my birthday. 6. 5. the tenth. 9. white) piano.a successful play a student who works hard. according to this. nice. quantity or order • structure. fifty. Arrange the adjectives in brackets in the proper order: I. a blouse with long sleeves. Chinese. 10. kitchen. When will you sell your (blue. a gown which is cut well. terms which can be accepted. A (black. 6. tall) girl is a friend of my brother's. one may distinguish some specific suffixes used for numeral forming : -teen. -ty. delicate) figurines. a man who looks good. old) car.4. 7. a driver who is not taking care. 8. no modification. a man who has courage. a tree which is a hundred years old. it indicates number. 13. She greatly admired those (ivory. 3. -th. a man with a simple mind.e. little) puppy was lying on my door-step. 15. 5. forty. a man with a red face. 11. college. 73
7 seven. 3 three. eighteen besides these. twenty –ninety) • compound numerals (from twenty-one – ninety-nine ) • composite numerals ( one hundred twenty one) Taking into account their meaning and function.8 eight. have less modifications from the phonetic and spelling point of view: 20 twenty. it is an attribute The four days were exhausting. 60 sixty. 40 forty. 9 nine. 50 fifty.11 eleven. fractions and decimal fractions. the teen. 5 five. 10 ten. fifteen. They attend the annual meeting. the numerals may be classified into: • cardinal numerals (indicate numerical quantity) ordinal numerals (indicate numerical order) The cardinal numbers contain whole numbers. The tens. all of the teen numerals have double stresses: one is placed on the first syllable (a main stress) and the other on the /t/ of the suffix (a secondary stress). 70 seventy. 74
. from twenty to ninety. ty numerals (from thirteen –nineteen. 6 six.
The numerals may be classified according to their morphological structure into: simple numerals from one – twelve • derived numerals – are formed by means of suffixes. 2 two.•
in most cases. 30 thirty. WHOLE NUMBERS This group includes the numbers from 1 to 12 which get no suffixes: 1 one. 12 twelve The –teen numerals get the suffix to part of the above mentioned roots but bring about some phonetic and spelling peculiarities: thirteen. 4 four.
it corresponds to the Romanian variant 123. If the whole unit is less than one. duck. hundred. The decimal fractions contain a point after the whole number: 3.80 eighty.122 The numbers ten. The numbers between 1000 and 2000 may be read in two different ways: 1984 nineteen eighty four one thousand nine hundred eighty four Commas are placed after each group of three numbers: 123. million get no –s when they are part of a composite number: two thousand four hundred twenty four people but the –s suffix is added when these are transformed into nouns: Tens and tens of persons attended the conference.68 (corresponding to the Romanian 3.245. part of them are presented here: nought /no:t/ in Arithmetic zero measuring instruments use it /ou/ telephone numbers love.452.452. My phone number is two five /ou/ five ten six. a point is followed and then the rest of the numbers: 0. five sixth= 5/6 For ½ and ¼ besides one half and one fourth. The temperature is below zero degrees. nil in sports language Nought by ten is nought. ORDINAL NUMBERS 75
. Cardinal numbers form the common fractions having two numbers: cardinal numbers for numerator and ordinal ones for denominator: one third= 1/3. nought is playing the part of the whole. a quarter. 90 ninety The 0 sign is read indifferent ways. we may say a half. Millions of flowers are in the fields.68).122.
the eleventh. one may use the so called multiplicative numerals formed of cardinal numbers and the word fold: double. the thirtieth When the numeral is composite. persons have in a row. four cars. the seventh. the fifty ninth Showing the proportion in which a quantity increases. chapter 5. the sixth. If one wants to know how many times an action is performed. the twelfth If the tens are to be used. the second. so they are placed in front of the nouns they determine: ten students. three times. It is formed by means of the suffix –th placed after the cardinal: the first. modifications of spelling appear. twice. the tenth. the fifth. four fold.. Besides this function. the numerals may be: • subjects of sentences: The five told me the story. the thirty fourth.The ordinal numbers indicate the order of objects. • objects You can’t forget the first of October. the third have special roots. • adverbial modifier They came by twos at the party 76
. • predicative They were ten in the group. the –th suffix is added only to the last element of the group: the twenty first. -y is changed into ie because of the consonant preceding it: the twentieth. frequentative numerals are to be used: once. four times The numerals function as attributes. three fold. the ninth. five toys There are situations when the numerals are placed after the nouns they determine: room 200. while the other ones use the existing cardinal numbers: the fourth. the eighth.
17. a fi imbracat la patru ace) the seventh heaven( Rom.40. EU 25. chapter 34.264 2. Read the telephone numbers: 25-23-89. one may choose between the following variants: the 10th of August 1978. 79. 2.05 5. Read the numbers: 3. Do the sums: 17+6= 100:2= 105x 3= 3. 89. 389. 1978 Ordinal numbers are used for reading the days and cardinal ones for years. August 10. 53. chapter 1 – the first chapter chapter 3. Change the numerals according to the example: ex. 18. & 7. 1978. 10. page 321. lesson 23. $ 5.000. 35. Roni 3297. August 10th . 10 p.356. adolescenti) Exercises: 1.When reading the dates.963:3= 28-8= 15x6= 784-23= 20x10= 9x7= 570+24= 3x13= 570:2= 4. 103. lesson 10.0257-31-458 3.80. page 40. al saptelea cer) teen agers (Rom.penultimul) to be dressed up to the nines (Rom. 1. 1.000. $56. though the reading of the days is done as if they were ordinal numerals. 23.576. American English places the months first and then the days: August. Read the money: &2. 23. room 23. part 2. 56. 0212-23-67-90-89. 0257-23-67-89.789. 13. $45. 90. Numerals may appear in patterns such as: last but not least( Rom. 15. lesson 25. 54. $15. 60. 12 100. level 45. 10 th 1990 Modern writing uses cardinal numerals both for days and months. room 1012 77
. 10 August 1978.
waits a little then leaves. An action can be rendered in the present. Future and Future Perfect (express future actions) I write I have written (Present Perfect) (Present Tense) I will write (Future Tense) I will have written (Future Perfect Tense) Their auxiliary verb is in the present.THE VERB Indicative Mood English conjugation is built on two tenses: present tense. waited a little then left. The great majority of the English verbs are regular ones. I spoke I had spoken(Past Perfect Tense) (Past Tense) I would speak (Future in the Past) I would have spoken (Future Perfect in the Past) Being reported to the past. to be + present/ past participle). Past Tense has in opposition to it Past Perfect Tense (indicating a prior action) and Future in the PAST. the auxiliary used for their building is in the past. He rings the bell. there are: Present Perfect (a prior action). It is known that this form is used for building the simple forms. He rang the bell. the compound ones are build by means of the auxiliary verbs (will.present infinitive -as background of the conjugation. and Past Tense Indicative is built. to have to + past participle. of a regular verb: Active Voice to work Infinitive Present to work 78
. Let’s take Present Tense as reference. Here is the scheme of a simple conjugation. they use a form . so Present Tense. on the other side. would. Future Perfect in the Past which stand for future actions. Indicative is used. or in the past. and past tense. opposite to it. on one side.
(these two verbs indicate a temporary state) 79
.Perfect to have worked Participle Present working Past worked Perfect having worked Indicative Mood Present Tense Past Tense Present Perfect I work I worked I have worked he works he worked he has worked Past Perfect I had worked he had worked Future Tense Future Perfect I will work I will have worked he will work he will have worked
Future in the Past Future Perfect in the Past I would work I would have worked he would work he would have worked Present Tense I worked he worked Present Tense I would work he would work Subjunctive Mood Perfect Tense I had worked he had worked Conditional Mood Perfect Tense I would have worked he would have worked Imperative Mood
INDICATIVE Mood presents an action. sure. condition or existence expressed by the verb as being real. An import tense of it is PRESENT TENSE which indicates that the action of the verb is done in a present moment. • She wants to buy a book I think you might be right.
Present tense is unmarked morphologically. (sg. except for the 3rd person singular which get the suffix (e)s./s/. they speak The 3rd person singular creates some problems of writing and spelling that are to be taken into account: • -s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless consonants /z/ after voiced consonants to look . -ch get the –es which is pronounced –iz to dress – she dresses to mix he mixes to blitz – he blitzes to fizz he fizzes to push she pushes to reach he reaches • verbs ended in –y keep it if a vowel is preceding it. but changes it into –ie if a consonant is there 80
. (the two verbs indicate a state that may persist for a longer time) • to describe present habitual behavior She gets up at 7 o’clock in the morning. s.The table below indicates the values of the today’s currency The economists speak about increasing values of Euro. z. They have their coffee in the dining room every morning. -x. -sh.he taxis /z/ • verbs ended in silent –e preceded by the letters c.she takes /s/ to read .) we speak./dg/.he looks /s/ to take . pronounced /s/.) I speak./j/./z/ to face –she faces to rouge – he rouges to pledge – he pledges to purse –he purses to freeze she freezes • verbs ended in –s. you speak. you speak. -z. (d)g.she reads /z/ to taxi . he/she/it speaks (pl.
Two and two makes four. Exception to this rule is for the modal verbs.he tries
• verbs ended in o preceded by a consonant get an – es to do – he does to go – she goes and add only –s when preceded by a vowel to haloo – he haloos to radio – he radios In interrogative and negative. We work. She speaks. When rendering a present time. Must she learn well? No. Have they a new house? They have not a new house. to BE. Do we work? We don’t work.. When is the Present tense used? Present Indicative is used for expressing both present time and past or future time depending on context. the Present tense expresses: a general or universal truth: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. We are in the garden Are we in the garden. A friend in need is a friend indeed. an action or state that characterizes the subject: 81
. They have a new house. most of the verbs need an auxiliary verb. to HAVE: I can speak German. She must learn well. Do I go? I do not go. Can I speak German? I can’t speak German. Does she speak? She does not speak.to pay – he pays to play – she plays to cry – she cries to try . We are not in the garden. she must not learn well. that is TO DO which is conjugated in the present and the proper verb is in the short infinitive: I go.
is used in stage directions: There is a table there and Bob goes towards it.(Am uitat ce zi era. to understand. to be hold are used in the present tense instead of present perfect: I forget what day it was. ever. an action or a state that represents a habit or is repeated.•
He is a good speaker of English. and I come in and talk to her for a while but she seems not to listen to me and I am worried. Ben comes in.) 82
. is called Historic Present: Meg is in the sitting room. it exists but is not going on then: She says lots of things. adverbs are placed by them (always. the verb has a momentaneous character and does not express an action that is going on: She says the pupil is diligent boy. usually…) She always crosses the street there. Is she tired? Mary has left hands so she does not work very quickly. She cannot speak German. sits down. takes the newspaper and reads it. some verbs such as : to forget. everyday. She remembers the story I told her long ago. They like going to the theatre. We are happy that she is here with us. When rendering a past action: it gives more vividness to the text. an action or a state. introduces a quotation in a direct/ indirect way. in the moment of speech but has no continuous form: I see what you mean. an action or state that takes place in the moment of speech. They study a lot. Peter tells us his story. We usually work in the morning She often sleeps in that hotel. to hear (find out). often.
drank to put. read. you worked. to work (sg. • PAST TENSE Past tense. eaten. the two being simultaneous: I will go to the seaside when she is there too We will buy the house when we get enough money. the final consonant is not doubled: 83
.) I worked. you worked. The exam is on 21 May. to knit-knitted to prefer –preferred to regret . you were. he worked (pl. to read. double the consonant before ed suffix: to rub. • it is used in subordinate clauses. brought Speaking about orthography. to speak. one has to take into account some rules such as: • verbs ended in a consonant preceded by a single stressed vowel. exception is the verb TO BE and the irregular verbs.regretted In all the other cases. to eat. to bring.I am told he is very busy. The suffix -ed is added to the short infinitive of the verb which is conjugated. when the main clauses indicate future actions . put. spoke.(Mi s-a spus ca e foarte ocupat) When rendering a future action: it expresses a future expected or planned action: School begins in September. she. to cut. it was The irregular verbs have very different forms for their Past tense: to write. wrote.rubbed. cut.) we worked. they worked The verb TO BE has two different forms for the singular persons: to be I was. he. to drink. Indicative mood has one single form for all the persons.
The time used for expressing the action may be rendered in the following ways: • adverb of time or adjective like :yesterday. no matter where the accent is placed to equal – equaled to rival – rivaled to compel – compelled Exception to the rule is: unparalleled • ic is changed into -ick to mimic – mimicked to traffic –trafficked • -y. to hang-hanged. then.to seat – seated.tried when a vowel is before it. to order – ordered. done in a determined past moment or in a determined past period of time. when or any adverb that indicates 84
. Because of its meaning. it suffers no change: to play – played to disobey – disobeyed • silent –e is dropped in front of –ed to dance – danced to dye –dyed Past Tense Indicative expresses a past action or a state completely finished. this tense is used for narration. last week/ month/year.kidnapped
final l is always doubled. to pardon –pardoned Exception is to worship – worshipped Compound verbs. in a final position is turned into –i if preceded by a consonant: to cry – cried to try . is completely separated from the present through an interval of time. applied to the final word: to sideslip – sideslipped to kidnap. two days/a week/ a month/ a year ago. ended in –p obey the above mentioned rule. the action or state the tense makes reference to. In all the cases.
) He asked me how we were. As a boy. We saw him ten minutes ago.(Ne-a intrebat cum suntem). Ben asked Bob to take care of his house until he was away(Ben i-a cerut lui Bob sa aiba grija de casa lui in timp ce era plecat. just now. when we arrived. the day before. They asked for my help the day before. perfectul compus si imperfectul. at that time. the other day.•
the time in the past: as soon as. • according to the same sequence of tenses. • verb in the past: She was playing in the garden. I was there yesterday. the context when it expresses the speaker’s intention Did they work in the garden? Was she on duty yesterday? A new film was presented on the screen. Where did they go? Past tense Indicative may be used for replacing: • Past Perfect Tense They thought that they discovered(= had discovered) a new fairy land. it stands for a present tense. it is used for expressing a future action as opposed to the past action of the main clause: I was told to wait until Mary came there( Mi s-a spus sa astempt pana va veni Maria). The first two tenses are used for expressing past events when the action expressed by the verb has a momentaneous character: 85
. I used to play football.) Past tense Indicative is translated into Romanian by means of: perfectul simplu. when the verb in the main clause is in the past: He said that the book was on the table. when she rang at the door. Hardly did we arrive at home.(A spus ca cartea este pe masa.(Credeau ca descoperisera o noua tara de basm) • according to the sequence of tenses rules.
Taking into account the rules of sequence of tenses. Past tense Indicative may be translated by means of: • mai mult ca perfectul for rendering actions that took place before a past action • prezentul when the idea of present is rendered • viitorul when we speak about a future action as opposed to a past one I said that I would go in the mountains the coming week (First I told about the coming events. The 3rd is used with verbs whose actions are lasting or repeated: She sat there waiting for her mother.)
.We went to the theatre last week They called Peter and told him the truth. later. They used the books they found in the library. they will occur after the moment of speech.
its interrogative form is obtained by the inversion of subject and auxiliary and the negative one. it has cried we have walked. you have spoken. by placing the negative form NOT between the two verb components: Have I told? Has she been? Have they worked? Have you heard? I have not told. 87
. he drinks cup of tea. she has not been.PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Present Perfect Tense is a compound tense formed of two elements – Present tense of the auxiliary verb TO HAVE and Past Participle of the verb which is conjugated. I have told. no one is interested in the moment of its doing. they have understood Being a compound tense. you have cut. that has effects in the present Who has broken the flower vase? What have you brought here? Why have you opened the window? I have seen a beautiful landscape? an action or state. It is used in three main situations indicating: an action finished before a present one: In the mornings. she has written. it may go on during present unit of time and continue in the future no indication is given about the unit time length but it is supposed that it is up to the present moment: The pop concert has begun. When he has watered the flowers. begun in the past that still goes on up/ during the present moment. you have not heard Present Perfect Tense expresses a past action or state that takes place before the present unit of time but very close to it and sometimes it is translated with prezentul. they have not worked. he likes watching them. after he has finished reading the newspapers. he has worked. the result of an action done in the past.
How long have you been with us? They have graduated for two years. We have lived in this house since October 1997. expressed by a verb. 88
. She has never disappointed me since I have met her. Bob came here as a child and has been with us ever since. the beginning of the unit of time the action of the verb takes place in.
the length of the action expressed by the verb is indicated by adverbs whose meaning is connected to the present: just. They have spent their vacation during these last two years in the mountains. I haven’t seen you for ages. The adverbs ever. during the … days/weeks/ months/ years. of late. lately. From that day. since 20th June. the unit of time the action takes place in is indicated by another verb at Present Perfect tense and indicates a parallel action: He has not stopped writing since he has sat down on that chair. is preceded by for and followed by an adverb: They have lived here for ten years. minutes/hours/days/ We have just arrived. or from that day.She has visited all the museums of the town. recently. is expressed by a Past tense: Ben has been my friend ever since I was born.. these . never stress the idea: Have you ever been to the zoo? I have never traveled abroad.. length of the action. since Monday. we have never heard about him. this last year.. the beginning of an action mentioned by the verb is expressed by adverb beginning with since: since 19. from childhood I have learned English since I was ten. There is another form of the Present Perfect Tense.
as opposed to the Present Perfect Tense that indicates an ended action in the present. Peter has been teaching for two years. he had eaten. I have been stopping each passer by to tell the great news. (the action is begun. ( he is still doing it in this very moment) They have been waiting for the exam results. it still goes on) PAST PERFECT TENSE Past Perfect tense is a compound tense of the past. it is last winter) Peter has written a novel this year. formed of two elements: Past tense of the auxiliary verb TO HAVE and Past Participle form of the verb which is conjugated. she 89
. I have been eating your cakes waiting for you. ( not all the cakes are eaten. It also expresses a continuation of the action in the present moment maybe in the future. you had worked. Peter has been writing a novel this year. (the unit of time is mentioned. (nobody is interested when this action happened. A comparison of the already described tenses is necessary to see the difference between them: Peter has written a novel. (the action is begun and ended this year). important is the result) Peter wrote a novel last winter. there still left) I have eaten your cakes waiting for you. ( nothing is left) Present Perfect Continuous may indicate repeated actions: They have been meeting each Saturday for years. I had written.Present Perfect Continuous which can be used with durative verbs and stresses the idea of continuity or duration of an action finished in the present or near past. not ended yet.
she had not cut. yet I had just written the letter when she entered the room. 90
. perfectul simplu. it had not cried we had not translated. they had not understood The English Past Perfect tense has an equivalent in Romanian. and it is translated by imperfect: He said that he had worked there for two weeks. in mai mult ca perfectul and expresses a past action or state ended before another past action. (C) it is used with the adverbs just. you had put. When they had said good bye. they walked on . Past Perfect tense is used in the following cases: (A) it indicates that an action begun before a certain past moment. lasts a time period up to that moment. its interrogative form is built by placing the subject between the two verbs: Had I written? Had you worked? Had he eaten? Had she cut? Had it cried? Had we translated? Had you put? Had they understood? and the negative form consists of introducing the negative word NO between the two verb components: I had not written. Nick told me that he had not cut the flowers yet.had cut. rendered by Past tense Indicative. it may be translated into Romanian by mai mult ca perfectul. you had not put. (B) it replaces Perfect Future tense in a subordinate clause and is translated by viitorul anterior: The teacher promised he would bring the papers when he had corrected them. they had understood Being a compound tense. you had not worked. he had not eaten. it had cried we had translated. perfectul compus: I knew Peter but I had not met him since my graduation.
It is formed of the auxiliary verb will and the short Infinitive of the verb which is conjugated. she will not translate. they will not 91
. She tells me she will come in time. by introducing the negative word NO between the two verbs: I will not go.In Indirect Speech. FUTURE TENSE Future tense presents an action or a state that will take place after the moment of speech: I know he will help you. it will not play we will not cut. they will understand Being a compound tense. it will play we will cut. He said that she had told him the truth. you will come. Past Perfect tense may be replaced by Past tense in subordinate clauses introduced by before or in subordinate clauses which show anteriority : I carried the box with the shoes she had bought/ bought me. he will not work. you will not come. you will eat. “She told me the truth” Indirect Speech: He said that he had written the homework. the interrogative form is built by placing the subject between the two verb components: Will I go? Will you come? Will she translate? Will he work? Will it play? Will we cut? Will you eat? Will they understand? and the negative one. he will work. you will not eat. Past Perfect tense replaces Present Perfect tense and Past tense of the Direct Speech when the main clause verb is in the past: Direct Speech He said: ”I have written the homework”. I will go. The bus left/ had left before we arrived in the station. she will translate.
__ ? 9. __ ? 5.It seems to me he isn't very rich..We still have a lot of time. 8. 12. __ 16. __ ? 13. My boss plays tennis very well. __ ? 20.They hardly ever talk to strangers. __ ? 3..understand It is used for expressing: (D) a future action or state towards a present moment: I will work on Saturday. __ ? 7. She never drinks wine . ____ ? 2. __ ? 4. (E) probability of an action or state in the present or in the past: That will be Saint Paul’s cathedral. __ ? 15.They say she wears a wig. please stop! If any of you has eaten the cakes. __ ? 11. __ 18.She thinks we are very rude.You're not a certified accountant . He knows where she lives. This book belongs to you. He doesn't hire foreigners. They will come here next week.. __ ? 19. I think I'm the right person for this job. __ ? 17.I'm sure you know who sings that song. __ ? Il. __ 14.He has to work rather hard.____? 6.Write questions to the following statements: 1 .. __ ? 10.? 92
.Inflation appears to be rising again. You look horrible in these shorts. They usually have lunch at one o'clock.The police never catch any thieves.You must think I'm a fool. The Browns usually have breakfast at 7 a. You realize how much it costs. that will be Peter! Exercises with the English Verb I Supply the suitable question tags for the following sentences: 1. What time .m.
.. . He dances very well.. I wonder what's wrong.? 8. Our aunt bakes delicious cookies. His mother still washes his shirts. That music sounds good to me. Who . 12. The boys are very quiet. Why do you drive so fast? 14. 93
.. I hate this meat .. They only shoot birds.? 7. It smells.. Why do we always hurry to work? 9. How often. We want to settle down in Canada. . Use the Present Continuous where possible and translatre : 1.. My husband prefers to live in the country. This bottle contains some kind of beverage. They live together because she loves him. He teaches English and German 2...? 6. What.. 15. I suppose she wants a new opportunity . Do you believe in reincarnation? 8. The porters carry heavy bags.. 16. We have lunch at two o'clock. 19. . 13.... Do you recognize that man? 7. What. I'm afraid the child lies. Do you watch satellite television? 3. 17. . 18..? 5... She visits her sister’s family at least twice a week. Where.? 9. She agrees with you.2.. Why. He sells second-hand computers and hi-fi equipment... 10. 6...? III. The gardener mows the grass.? 4... 4. 5. How. He earns his living by playing the violin in the town square.... 11. We normally spend our weekends in the mountains Where. ..? 3...
. How..Make dialogues as in the following example : Can you play tennis ?
Yes. major Smith / fly a helicopter / he came back from Iraq 2.?b.? 3. What time. Why. his grandfather / speak Arabic / the last war 13.? 4.. they / speak English / they left America 8.. Who.... Who... Where..
IV.. a...? b.... a... What.? THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE V ... Mary is coming to see us on Sunday... your husband / mend a fuse / you moved to this house 6.? 5.?b. What. The players are moving slowly today because of the heat a. When. Which... you / ride a horse / years 9.? b. I'm meeting the new sales manager at the 10 o’clock meeting. .. you / kill a turkey / last Thanksgiving . Write questions to the following statements: 1. 1. 7. his wife / prepared good traditional dishes / as long as I can remember 94
. I suppose I can. your daughter / play the piano / five years 4.. The boys are bringing some wine and cookies. I think the Vienna orchestra is playing Mozart now. your cousin / sleep in the tent / he graduated from the university 10.? 2. Denise / ski / moved to Florida 11..? b. Pete / paint a portrait / his college days 12. a. '
well..... John / take a good picture / he bought a Polaroid camera 5... " a.20...... but I haven't played it for years.. you /ride a bike/ 10 years old 3..
4. We never go to school on Sundays. m. 2. She works from 5 p. your American friend / shoot an elephant / he returned from Africa 15. you / dive / many years VI. How long you (know) your employer ? 6. 4. Come to my office when you (finish ) your project. 16. Why you (not bring) your girlfriend with you? 13. till midnight. 14. The little boy is weeping. His father just (beat) him again. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Tense 1. 15. You (read) any poetry recently? THE PAST TENSE VII Turn the following sentences into the Past Tense Simple 1. 5. You ever (ride) a pony ? 5. 3.. Where you (be)? 3. I /drive a big lorry / I left the army 17. 12.. 19. The doctor (phone) yet? 10. My dog never (bite) anyone. You ever (eat) a sushi ? 2. 18. People always (admire) her talent. What shall we do ? 8. 7. she / bake a sponge cake / twenty years 18. 11. They only play classical music 95
. 17. you /row a boat / ages 20.14. Jack / wash the dishes / he got married 19. Now that you (leave) school you should find a good job. They live next door to my parents. he / design a country cottage / his first skyscraper was built 16. How much money you (spend) so far? 9. I never (speak) to him since we were in highschool. She never (work ) an hour in her life. We (miss) the last tram. The concert just (begin). It (not rain) here since last August . I (study) your plan carefully and I think it's rather unrealistic. He studies linguistics.
I (wake) up and (get) out of bed. VIII. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences: 1. Ralph never wakes up before 8 o' clock. 3. 12. 12. We travelled by plane 6.
. I (pay) in cash. The children kept asking me silly questions. They (be) $25. 1 1 . Put the verb in brackets into the Simple Past Tense 1. I feel embarrassed. 5.6. 5. 18. When he (see) me he (start) to scream. 13. 2. They chose 25 girls for the beauty contest. 2. They (build) this house 70 years ago. I (light) a candle and (walk) downstairs. I found these cheap shoes in a little shop in this village 3. 7. The shop assistant (say) it (be) reduced. She (wrap) it for me and (put) it in a bag 6. The shirt (cost) $35. When I (look) outside I (see) a guy dressed in pajamas. I (hear) a strange noise last night 10. I (pass) several shops on my way home? 7. 13. 10.. Who sings that song ? 9. She (leave) a large fortune to her grandson IX. 14. 15. . 16. 4. 11. 8. I (take) a big knife from the kitchen and I (open) the front door. 17. He (have) a big knife and a candle in his hand. Do they live in Romania ? 8. She sent postcards to her friends in South Africa . The Defense Minister entered the room at 12 o'clock. 4. 9. He never eats in the morning. I (see) the same shirt everywhere. We heard an explosion. He knows I work
company. We generally slept only 5 hours a day during the holiday 96
. I think she's wrong. I (buy) it yesterday. 7. The first owner (die) in 1945.
14. What you (do) last night between 8 o'clock and midnight? 13.50 12. When did you start to learn English? 2. 4. The teacher (write) something on the blackboard while the children (throw) paper balls at one another. 18. X. Put the verbs into the Past Tense Simple or Past Tense Continuous: 1. 9. Father (shave) and (sing) a silly song at the same time. 10. The bomb (go) off when the politician (give) a speech. 97
. 11. I liked his second novel best. 15. Cindy (lay) the table while her husband (dry) the glasses. He (peep) through the keyhole when the door suddenly (open). How did you spend last summer? 4. This T-shirt cost $4. 19. 13. She (break) down when she (hear) the news. 20. 5. Mother said "No” 14. Whenever I (come) to see them they always (quarrel). The ship (approach) the harbour when the storm (begin) 2. I went to the disco with my girlfriend Jane. 10. Answer the following questions: 1. How much did you pay for your shoes? 3. We lost our way because it was dark. 11. 6. 9. She taught English to foreign students. The plane (catch) fire when it (take) off.. My brother showed me this trick. Sam bought these trousers on the market.8. 7. Sergeant Briggs stood near the president 17. The cook used six eggs for the cake yesterday. I began my work in this bank ten years ago. 16. What time did you get up this morning? 5. Tim (crash) into a street light because he (drive) too fast. She didn't come to the party because she was ill. He drove at 100 mph. 3. He (not hear) the bell because the radio (play). 12. 8. She (cook ) dinner when the telephone (ring). When I (get) home everybody (sleep). When did you last read the local newspaper ? XI.
.. Fill in the sentences with the missing parts according to the example below : I... (dinner) 2.. Philip .. when the alarm went off. They (work) very hard when the auditor (enter). when a bear attacked them..... (herbs) 8. Professor Taylor . The boys .while the kitten was playing with yarn. XII.. when the students' riot began.. I (see) that famous actress in the theatre last night. when it started to rain. Put the verbs in parentheses into the Simple Past or the Past Perfect : 1.. 16.. (teeth) 7.. when he swallowed some toothpaste. 1. They . (lecture) 13... The old housekeeper . when she injured her wrist. We .... when the gas stove exploded. when the boss called her on the intercom. Jane ... The reporter .. (tennis) 6... (tree) 15. . She (take) a shower when the snake (creep) into the bathroom. (safe) 11.. (letters) 10... (injection) 4.. (sweater) 3.. (newspaper) I was reading a newspaper when the telephone rang... when the accident happened. The mountaineer .. when the needle broke.. We (fly) over the city center when the engine (stall).. I (think) about their proposal all night but I (not make) any decision. 17.. She (sit) in the first row.... The robbers . 19. (Berlin) 12. (Mount Ben Nevis ) 9. When we (reach) the airport. (orders) XIII. The secretary . (pictures) 14. Jill.. when the rope snapped.... when the telephone rang. The sergeant while the soldiers were carrying them out. The nurse.15... 18.. 98
. when the police put him under arrest.... (a dog) 5. we (find) that the flight (cancel)... The tyre (blow) up when she (drive) on a crowded highway 20... when the war began... The lumbermen .
5. or the be going to form): 1. 3. Present Continuous. 13. They (discover) a sack of gold jewelry which the previous owners apparently (hide) in the garden. You really (think) that I (do) that? 6. 14. 15. Before he (join) the army he (work) already for the CIA and the FBI. Jackson (not be) afraid of Banks because he (beat) him twice before. 16. He (feel) awful in the morning because he (drink) too much that night. 10. Put the verbs in parentheses into the most suitable future for ( Infinitive. They (have) no money because they (spend) everything on souvenirs in the airport. She (keep) looking at the boy wondering where she (see) him before. He (not understand) a word until they (bring) an interpreter. She (tell) me that she only once (see) a kangaroo in her life. They (bring) in a patient who (drink) some poison. 12. j 18. 17. She (watch) the film with interest because she (read) the book. When I (get) on the train I (realize) that I (forget) my ticket . 19. They (sell) two million copies of the novel before they (decide) to translate it into German as well. When the police (enter) the bank the robbers already (leave) 4.2. Why are you putting on your overalls? Because I (fix) the car. 8. 7. He (wonder) where he (put) his glasses. When I (see) you at the conference I (be) sure that we (meet) before. When he (see) some blood on the stairs he (come) to the conclusion that the murderer (climb) onto the roof. . 99
. 9. 20. By the time the ambulance (arrive) the wounded boy (die). WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE XIV. She (know) about the accident because someone from the office (telephone) her before I (arrive). 11.
is it? 12. 13. 7.2. I (come) round in the evening and show you if you want . 3. We (not go) away for the weekend. I (leave) tomorrow. You (give) me a hand? 10. These plastic dolls you're making are rather nice. I (be) right back. Mr. 9. say so and I (talk) to him. please. Tom (take) me to the opera this time. you go back to work and I (handle) it myself. 11. If you want me to talk to the boss. Can I offer you something to drink? Yes. please. The question is.
. I have no idea how to use the new dishwasher. Smith . who (want) to buy them? I'm sure they (buy) them. I (have) a Martini." In that case I (take) two. Where are you taking the children. Don't worry. We (see) "La Traviata. We're expecting visitors Canada. 5. I've got my visa and my return ticket. 6. I (cook) something special ten 8. These pineapples are fresh from Kenya. The phone's ringing. 15. I'm tired of hamburgers and chips. One dollar isn't much. This suitcase is too heavy for me to carry. You (go) to the cinema tonight? j No. 4. No.
. Sandy? We (play) baseball. 14. I must leave you for a moment. Where's uncle Sam? I think you (find) him in the garden.
get something to drink 13. leave the window open 5. take somebody on a sightseeing tour 3. use somebody's lighter 9. take somebody for a drive 8. show the letter to the police 5. try these shoes on t II. Give or don't give permission to: 1. turn down the radio 2. have a party on Saturday 4. change the time of the meeting 2. record the conversation 7. Ask permission to: 1. paint the bathroom black 10. give up the job . use somebody's telephone 11. marry anyone you want 8. give somebody a lift 7. have a tea break 6. take the book back to the library 6. have a nap after dinner
. miss one lesson 12. take a photograph of somebody 4. ring somebody up 3. do the washing tomorrow 15. have lunch earlier than usual 11.THE MODAL VERBS Can I. have an interview on Monday 12. sell the old bicycle 15. have an early breakfast 14. take the children to the beach 14. buy an electric typewriter 13. 9. borrow somebody's newspaper 10.
camp on the beach 10. When are they going to study our report? 6.May III. Ask someone to let you : 1. invite everyone to barbecue Must V Give answers using must/ have to / have got to: 1. turn down the radio a little 8. attend the meeting 7. use your computer 3. When is she going to see a doctor? 4. miss the next lesson 9. take his daughter to a disco 6. have something to eat 3. have cornflakes for breakfast 8. accompany him to the station IV. park your car in front of his house 4. When are they going to give us an answer? 3. When are you going to renew your driving license? 102
. keep your book for another week 6. stay at your place for a couple of weeks 4. When are we going to invite Roger to lunch? 9. When is he going to apply for a visa? 11. ask a personal question 5. When are you going to return the books to the library? 5. When are they going to call a meeting? 10. Allow someone : 2. organize a party at the office 5. help him carry his luggage 9. When is he going to sell his old car? 7. borrow his pen 2. When are you going to give up smoking? 8. When are you going to write your exercises? 2. read his newspaper 7.
14. They have to file in
soon. 2. He will have to do military training. You must boil the water before you drink it. 8. 16. 3. r i^ 11. When are you going to wash up the dishes? 18. He must accept their invitation to dinner. 2. When are you going to make arrangements for the trip? 15.12.. The final decision will have to -. When is she going to tell her boss she is leaving? 13. Ask questions using either when or why 1.
. When are they going to reply to our request? 14. He had to attend the meeting.^:* i 10. You have to inform
police. VIIUse the form must have + Past Participle: 1. When are you going to repair your car? VI. 13.». 6. She (get) good news. When are they going to take us to the manager? 20. She has to apologize to the director. 12. When is she going to tidy her room? 19. they (live) there for a long 103
-* ^ 15. When are we going to send out invitations? 17.. The tenants must leave their flat at once. 5.•• . The books will have to be bought very soon. They have to reconsider their decision 4.a 9. She has to pay the gas bill. The new employee must see the boss.
complaint. They'll have to accept our suggestion. When is he going to look through the papers? 16. The conference has to be organized by our company side. 7. She must change her attitude. She looks very happy. They know London very well.
time. 3. The car is out of order. He (drive) it too fast again. 4. This essay is written very well. Someone (help) Sue to write it 5. I can't find my key. Your husband (take) it by mistake. 6. We went to Spain for our holidays. You (see) a lot of interesting things. 7. You are wearing a wonderful brooch . It (cost) you a fortune. 8. I remember his face very well. You (meet) him at the students’ meeting last week? 9. She spent more than a fortnight in hospital. She (have) an operation. 10. His car is German. He (buy) it when he was studying in Germany. 11. Her French is excellent. She (be) to France several times. 12. They stayed in Bucharest during the war. They (hear) about your relatives.. 13. I telephoned the Smiths several times but there was no reply. They (leave) for their holidays. 14. There are no cakes left. The guests (eat) them all. 15. The clock has stopped. I (forget) to wind it. 16. They promised to be here on time. They (miss) their train. 17. Jack is angry with us. He (hear) our conversation. 18. I don't know where my mobile phone is. I (leave) it at the bank. 19. She waited for John all the evening but he didn't turn up. She (be disappointed). She needed his help so badly. 20. I've got a lot of money. I can lend you as much as you need. Really? You (win) it in a lottery, didn't you? Should VII Use the form must have + Past Participle: 1. She looks very happy. She (get) good news. 2. They know London very well, they (live) there for a long time. 3. The car is out of order. He (drive) it too fast again. 4. This essay is written very well. Someone (help) Mary to write it 104
5. I can't find my key. My husband (take) it by mistake. 6. We went to Spain for our holidays. You (see) a lot of interesting things. 7. You are wearing a wonderful necklace. It (cost) you a fortune. 8. I remember his face very well. You (meet) him at the reception last Sunday. ? 9. She spent more than a month in hospital. She (have) an operation. 10. His car is German. He (buy) it when he was studying in Germany. 11. Her French is excellent. She (be) to France several times. 12. They stayed in Bucharest during the war. They (hear) about Antonescu. 13. I telephoned the Smiths several times but there was no reply. They (leave) for their holidays. 14. There are no cakes left. The children (eat) them all. 15. The clock has stopped. I (forget) to wind it. 16. They promised to be here on time. They (miss) their train. 17. Tom is angry with us. He (hear) our conversation. 18. I don't know where my umbrella is. I (leave) it at the office. 19. She waited for John all the evening but he didn't turn up. She (be disappointed). She needed his help so badly. 20. I've got a lot of money. I can lend you as much as you need. Really? You (win) it in a lottery, didn't you? VIII. Give answers as in the example: Example: I only told Jane You shouldn't have told anyone 1. I only paid the phone bill. 2. He only invited his family ! 3. They only discussed it with Mary! 4. She only spoke to her sister! 5. I only rang up Margaret! 6. She only gave the ticket to Jack ! 7. I only apologized to Mrs. Brown ! 8. We only thanked your uncle! 9. She only argued with Tim! 10. He only proposed to Jane. 105
11. They only fired one employee! 12. I only woke the doorman ! 13. She only showed it to me! 14. I only lent the money to Pete ! 15. They only dismissed Frank! IX. Express your surprise, as in the example: Example: You didn't read the instructions! No, should I have read them? 1. You didn't attend the course this week! 2. You didn't give any tip to the bellboy! 3. You didn't take her out to visit the city! 4. You didn't send for help! 5. You didn't write down his phone number! 6. You didn't meet us at the railway station ! 7. You didn't look up the time of your train 8. You didn't look over what you've written! 9. You didn’t keep your word ! 10. You didn't clean up the mess in your room! 11. You didn't call in a plumber! 12. You didn't apologize for coming late! 13. You didn't tell him about the auction! 14. You didn't give me a lift! 15. You didn't lock up the documents! Used to X. Give replies employing used to each time: Examples: a) Did Tom go to school on foot? Yes, he used to go to school on foot. b) How did Tom go to school? He used to go to school on foot ' 1. Did Tom go to college? 2. Did he like to play tennis as a boy? 3. Who took you for walks when he was little? 4. Did he wear a uniform when he was at school? 5. What did he have for breakfast when he was on holidays? 6. How many lessons did he have e ach day when he was at 106
Who helped him with his homework? 8. Did he read many books during high school ? 10. What did he enjoy doing when he was a student? 9. What was he good at?
A bee stung my daughter this morning. II. Somebody will tell you how to get there. Someone is following us. Burglars broke into our summer house. 108
. 10. They make these briefcases of leather. 12. 2. They offered her a better position in a subsidiary of the company. 14. They are renovating our university at the moment. 20. Has the mechanic fixed the car yet? 16. 18. The terrorists blew up the railroad tracks. He didn't introduce me to his wife. They will meet you at the annual meeting. 17.The Passive Voice I. 15. 1. 2. 6. 7. They locked the door and no one can open it now. They make a new film every year in this studio. 5. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice: 1. 11.„ 4. Everyone knows these figures very well. A big lorry knocked him down last Monday. They have promised me a raise. Change the sentences into passive ones with the underlined word as a subject of the sentence. ^ . They didn't inform us about the change of plans. People must wear ties in this club. 6. 8. They will introduce some new subjects into the syllabus this year 13. 3. They will send you an application form. They gave him a computer for his fifth birthday. You may not use dictionaries during this examination. 5. Smoke filled the auditorium. Why didn't they repair the road? 19. They don't admit children under sixteen in this club. She looks after the children very well. 8. They will teach you two foreign languages in this college. 7. 3. 9. 9. 4. They showed her into the new conference hall. They are building a new office building here.
17. If we had invested in that company we (make) a lot of money.10. our boat (strike) the rocks near the shore. Conditional Clauses I. They ought to pay you more for your work. 9. If I had arrived five minutes earlier I (get) a free ticket. They asked her very personal questions at the interview. They sent for a doctor immediately. 2. 19. They showed the boy some tricks. If you had told us they were making a film during the show. We (arrive) on time if we hadn't lost our way. 13. He ordered the soldiers to fire at the crowd. The doctors prescribed him some tranquillizers. If you had come here three days ago you (see) the flowers in full bloom. They denied him admittance to the restaurant as he was too young. 11. They have offered us excellent conditions in this resort. 12. We hoped the wind (stop) soon. If the wind hadn't stopped. The ovation wasn't too loud.
' 14. we (clap) our hands much more vigorously 7. The government has granted political autonomy to several provinces. 3. 20. 18. One of the nurses gave me an injection. If she had taken my advice she (not lie) in bed now. Someone handed him a thick
file. . 4. 8. Put the verbs in the parentheses in the suitable tense: 1. I (bring) you some more strawberries if I had known you liked 109
. 15. 6. 10. 16. I (come) by bus if it hadn't been so late. 5. 11. A true patriot (not do ) it. They always laugh at this boy. 12. He (not suffer) from arthritis now if he had listened to his grandmother.
an Infinitive She wanted to begin immediately. 16.(indefinite pronoun) a Participle or Gerund Mary told them the story in well chosen words. well. Analyzing their forms. he (live) here for 90 years. Had I known the microphone was broken. the adverbs may be: simple adverbs: late. (verb) Mary’s marks are highly satisfactory. far 110
• • •
. She deserved a better treatment. a sentence or a part of sentence Perhaps I will be the winner. fast. If he hadn't died last year. The child (not burn) himself if you hadn't left the iron on the table. an adjective or another adverb: We play volleyball this afternoon. 13. If you had watered these trees regularly last spring they (be) 15. We (ski) in Chamonix today if we had bought that package vacation. (adj) They speak English very well. 17. now. If they had invited you last Saturday. 19. 18. I (speak) much louder 14. 20. The adverbs may be classified taking into account their form or meaning. you (accept)? . ADVERB The adverb is that part of speech that characterizes a verb. (adv) An adverb may determine: a noun or a pronoun: Only Peter can tell you the truth.them. He is absolutely convinced that his programme (succeed). You (not scold) her like that. (noun) Practically everyone knew that story.
firstly. nowhere • adverbs of manner: badly. below. yearly but there are situations when the –ly words are not adverbs. Taking into account the meaning. • adverbial locutions are groups of words that get the value of adverbs: after all. there. at large. they are adjectives namely those which have a noun as stem: a daily newspaper.•
derived adverbs formed of stem and affixes: along. a month ago. • adverbs of cause: hence. behind. behind. away. the adverbs may be grouped into: • adverbs of time: daily. hence. a lonely road
• • • • •
Orthography rules The –ly suffix is added to the words without modifying their form. easily. monthly accounts. The most frequently used suffix is –ly and it forms adverbs of mood and time: daily. weekly. asleep. there. fast. so that. bodily. never • adverbs of place: here. yesterday. pure-purely 111
.completely. across pronouns: here. behind adjectives: aloud. sometimes. • compound adverbs formed of two or more parts: always. twice. mostly numerals: once. BUT the following aspects are to be taken into account: • adjectives ended in –e keep it before the suffix: complete. supposedly. yesterday. for long. that is why Adverb formation The derived adverbs are formed of different parts of speech such as: nouns: daily. first. between. for that reason. admittedly There are adverbs that are formed by adding an affix to the stem. participle: brokenly. at first.
simple-simply but when the vowel is before it. general-generally • adjectives ended in –le preceded by a consonant lose this ending before the –ly suffix: probable-probably.equally. full-fully • -y is changed into –i no matter which is the sound preceding the –ly suffix: day-daily. no modification appears: palepalely. full-fully • -y is changed into –ie no matter which is the sound preceding the –ly suffix: due-duly.•
adjectives ended in –l preceded by a vowel. the former being the final form of the adjective and the latter belong to the suffix: equal. gay-gaily • adjectives ended in –ly cannot form adverbs by adding another suffix of the same structure because of the phonic reasons and they get another word: in a friendly way. at a timely moment Adverbs may prefixes to the stem: a) suffixes: -long -ward sidelong forward s headlon outward g s b) prefixes: -a beagain before aflame beyond be built by adding suffixes and -way sideward -wise -s lengthwis needs e straightwa likewise nowaday y s totoday together
The compound adverbs may be formed of different 112
. sole-solely • adjectives ended in –ue lose the final vowel before the –ly suffix: dull-dully. true-trully • adjectives ended in double –l lose one before the suffix dull-dully. double the –l.
beforehand • adjective + adverb: everywhere. a long nose They stay long. newly married. the –ly adverbs are generally used: deeply interested. (very near to the door) Close my skirt but closer my skin. lately The simple form is used when the concrete meaning is meant. throughout • adverb + preposition: hereby. When there are no differences of meaning between these forms. next door. somewhere • adverb + adverb: hereabouts. midway • adverb + noun: outside. dearly beloved. lastly late late.parts of speech and the following combinations are to be taken into account: • adjective + noun: meantime.(corect) 113
. some of them have the same form as the adjectives and nouns: Adjectives Adverbs an early train He arrives home early. a fast train They walk fast. in compound words and in the comparative and superlative degree structures. one is identical with the adjective. To sit close to the door. oftentimes • preposition + noun: indeed. therefrom • preposition + adverb: within • adverb + preposition + adverb: heretofore There are some special groups of adverbs. the –ly form is used when the abstract meaning is meant. Some adjectives have two adverbial forms. perhaps. There are some adverbs whose meanings are so different that the two words are completely different. the other one is formed of an adjective by adding the –ly suffix: Adjective Adverb hard hard. hardly last last. the –ly forms are used with a figurative meaning and are not so close to the corresponding adjectives: He always plays fair.
Insert an adjective or an adverb: 1.He treated Mary fairly. He's doing very well in school. Many (different) kinds of bicycles allow people of all ages to enjoy this sport. The new director seems to be a responsible person. (destul de) The following –ly adverbs have different meanings from the ones that have not this suffix: directly (imediat). 9. really. It has worked in the past. 2. Michelle is such a slow typist! It takes her forever to type a page. I think this is a good strategy. She's a problem solver. Tricycles allow (small) children to get around. fairly (destul de). Over 100 million Americans ride bicycles at least (occasional). (Large) tricycles. 6. 2. a clear ringing voice. I like him. He's an incredibly bad driver! 8. 5. We walk quickest from our house to school. For a fluent speaking. 4." —> "I agree." 1. I can never keep up with him. Answer the questions using a modal adverb: Ex. Ann is such a wonderful dancer! You should go and see her in her latest show. built like bicycles. the simple forms are used though their positive degree forms are ended in –ly: You run quicker than I. She works (very) conscientiously" b)"Your son has such good marks!" —» "I know. 3. II. He often interviews English speakers on TV. The compound words use the simple adverb form: a quick growing plant. Mary is a hard worker. Cynthia is an intelligent manager.(echitabil) His work is fairly good. new laid eggs. This particular anchor man is a fluent English speaker. 3. enable (elderly) people to 114
. Jeff is a fast runner. Exercises I. I'm afraid to get into the car with my boss. lately (recent). 4. I appreciate your quick response to my query. a)"Mary is a conscientious worker. 7. 10. She's a perfectionist. .
biking is an (enjoyable) form of exercise. like motorcycles because they can maneuver them (quick) and (easy). Motorcycles are (essential) motorized bicycles. 8. 5. 10. too. (Touring) bikes can travel (long) distances over (uneven) roads. In the rain they don't brake very (good) and (general) are not (visible) to other drivers. (Technological) modern bicycles help riders move (fast) and (easy).
. 11.ride (safe). 7. As a sport. 12. In the event of an accident. Policemen. A motorcycle is a (complete) different vehicle from a car. 6. so motorcyclists have to pass a (driving) test in order to obtain a (special) motor cycle license. That's why bicyclists and motorcyclists have to drive (careful) at all times. (light) vehicles can be very (dangerous). 9.
Madrid. Envelope addressing should have some characteristics such as accuracy. not to weight too much. clearness and good appearance. envelopes should be of high-quality paper. The inside address is copied correctly from the letter. The address is typed in the lower part of the envelope towards the right (half way down and one-third in. The most useful color is white. The envelopes should be very tough if lots of papers are to be sent and very thin for the correspondence sent by air.) Parts of a Letter Any letter has some parts that are to be present no matter how long or short the letter is. the post town is followed by the country name.g.PART III COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE Addressing envelopes The envelope of a business letter should create a good impression on the receiver. including any "attention" or "confidential" indication. They are the following: • Heading .letter heading / letter head • Date 117
. London. New York. Because good impression is extremely important in business. because the contrast white-black allows a more comfortable reading. from the left of the envelope). Paris. Their sizes varies according to the length of the letter as well as to the number of enclosures that are to be sent. the latter is omitted only if the name of the town is well known (e. Ltd 18-22 King's Avenue Richmond Surrey Ample space is given to stamps and postmarks. etc. an impression of carefulness and good taste.
The Secretary Percy Astins & Co.
there are so many different ways of writing it such as: the 3rd of May.e. such as -523/LO. the date is to be written keeping the following order: Day/Month/Year and this is typed in full.". The American companies have the word "Incorporated" or for short "Inc. References The references are groups of capital letters indicating the first letters of the names of the persons who are in charge with the writing and typing of the letters. 20. Adams Mary/Brown Betty -the first person has written the letter while the second has typed it).. But for avoiding any interpretation.". AM/BB (i. It means that the responsibilities of the society are limited. . 3 May...• Reference line • inside address (addressee's address) • Salutation • Subject line • Body of the letter • Complimentary close • Signature • Enclosures Now let's take separately each part and present it with all its characteristics. address. When a letter exchange begins.. POB. All of them are arranged in a form established by the boss of the company. Example: "23 April 2008 ". AM/BB
. codes. Example: Reference. The British societies have in their names the words "Limited" or "Co. Ltd. field of activity. The reference may contain some numbers which are the codes of a department that is in charge with the solving of a problem. the first letter that is sent contains: I Our reference. The American variant looks like: May 3rd. Date The next element that appears on the letter is the date. Headline It should include the name of the company. while the British one is 3rd May 20.
. there is a pair of Ireferences such as: Our reference. It is a matter of custom and a polite way of addressing to a known or unknown person. JE/SH Your reference. town. Mrs. If your letter is addressed to the head of a department or the head of an organization whose name is not known. country." or "Utility Furniture Co. Courtland or Dear Mrs. Prof. Miss. It looks like: General Manager Robert Smith Deputy Director George Brown without any formula and commas.g. AM/BB. If you know the recipient's name (you have already mentioned it in theinside address) then you may begin your letter with: Dear Mr. AM/BB It means that the receiver has its own reference (Our reference. street.") or if an attention line has been used. the name is written in the same way the person writes it. then on this one. They are generally placed on the left side of the paper or in the middle but always on the same level. Jackson It is better than being too formal by using "Dear Sir" or "Dear Madam". it occupies the first place and then you avoid Mr. JE/SH) and the addressee's one is mentioned as your reference. in that situation.. Dr. The American variant looks this: Mr.. and function is sometimes placed. Robert Brown. "Holmes and Hatton Co.. as you have seen it on the visit card or on another address). The name is accompanied by Mr. etc. It contains the full name of the person (no abbreviations are allowed. if it is the case. Managing Director Salutation The salutations or greeting formulas are written under the inner addressand depend on who are the persons you are addressing to. the more formal salutation "Dear Sirs" is used.If you get an answer to this letter. The two couples of references indicate the two equivalents from the companies who are in charge with the solving of the problem. then the 119
. institution. If the letter is addressed to a partnership (e. Inside address The inside address is in fact the addressee's address.
either with initial capitals or in upper case as preferred. note that the title "Mr" is never shown when the writer is a man. There are printed Enquiry Forms which are filled in when you require general or specific information. So you are put in the situation to write for information about the goods you need. a desire to buy goods (so you request for information). reviews. The expression used for the complementary close must match the salutation.salutation "Dear Sir" or "Dear Madam" or "Dear Sir/Madam" would be used. catalogues etc. but "Mrs" or "Miss" must always be added in brackets after a woman's name. The writer's designation or department should be shown immediately beneath the name. For Dear Sirs Yours faithfully Dear Madam Yours faithfully (formal) Dear Sir or Madam Yours faithfully (formal) Dear Mr. In a routine letter of enquiry you are obliged to 120
. in the following examples. a company is in the market for some sort of goods and looks up the firm's addresses in a trade directory-Prospective suppliers have been recommended to it by other customers with whom you are acquainted or have heard of them from our foreign agencies or from commercial offices or from advertisements in newspapers. as shown here. the name of the sender should be shown. X Yours sincerely Dear Jacqueline/ Dear Steven Yours sincerely Signature After leaving 4/5 blank lines for a signature. Complementary close The last part of a letter is the complementary close which is a matter of custom and polite way of closing a letter.e. Examples: Yours faithfully/ Yours sincerely Kitty White (Miss) Chairman Routine letters Enquiries and Replies Any commercial transaction begins with an enquiry i.
a). a "With compliments' slip" is not possible or it is not enough. In following enquiries. samples. There are general enquiries requesting for latest price lists. In this situation.general information. catalogues. together with copies of any descriptive leaflets that I could pass to prospective customers. a written reply is often not necessary and a "With compliments' slip" may be sent instead. . F heater. a catalogue. specimens. Enquiry Dear Sir/Madam I have a large hardware store in Southampton and am interested in the electric heaters you are now advertising in the "West Gazette ". Yours faithfully The reply of this letter should sounds like this: Dear Mr. samples • if there is a limit to the price list at which you are prepared to buy. do not mention this. The requested items may be sent under cover of a "With compliments' slip". write a letter and take the opportunity to promote your products. price list. Example: Dear Sir (or Madam) Will you please send me a copy of your catalogue and price list of portable disc players. patterns. otherwise the supplier will raise the quotation to the limit you mention • most suppliers state their terms of payment when replying so there is no need for you to ask for them unless you are seeking special rates • keep your enquiry brief and concise Enquiries mean potential business so they must be acknowledged promptly. Unless the writer requests information not already included. Suppliers receive routine requests for catalogues and price lists. Please send me your illustrated catalogue and a price list. There are enquiries that suggest that large regular orders are possible. We feel that you may be particularly interested in our model. (you may give more details concerning the model or you may 121
..observe these rules: • state clearly what you really want. Johnson We were pleased to receive your letter enquiring about electric heaters and are pleased to enclose a copy of our latest illustrated catalogue. the written replies are not necessary. our newest model.
The letter gets an answer. In the meantime. You may begin your letters by telling the supplier how the name has been obtained and about the circumstances that have given raise the enquiry: 122
. We hope these will satisfy your requirements. shown on the price list inside the catalogue. We have sent to you. we will arrange for our technical representative to call you for an appointment. delivery details. Fax machines are the object of the demand. our price list is enclosed which also shows details of our conditions and terms of trading. so this is an excellent occasion to write your partner: We have received a number of enquiries for floor coverings suitable for use on the rough floors that seem to be a feature of the new building taking place here.) Before starring a business with a company. Once you have done this. you have answered every query in the enquiry letter. which is especially suitable for rough and uneven surfaces. Yours sincerely All the letters that are making enquiries specify prices. a range of samples selected for their hard-wearing qualities. we recommend quality number 5. by mail. The receiver is also invited to go to the show room to see the way the fax machines work. Replying them.indicate the catalogue you are enclosing to offer the required information. if you feel it would help to discuss the matter. but regret we have no patterns we can send you. a patterncard of the designs in which they are supplied. terms of payment. You make an enquiry for office equipment: We need a model suitable for sending diagrams and printed messages mostly within the UK. For the purpose you mention. The reply letter announces you that: All the models illustrated can be supplied from the stock at competitive prices. We encourage you to test the samples provided. so it says: Dear Mrs King Thank you for your enquiry for samples and the patterncard of our floor coverings. you are interested to see some samples of goods. if one is available. It would be helpful if you could send us samples showing your range of suitable coverings and.
Your quotation should be c.Referring to your advertisement in the …of… . The next problem is the quotation of the price. early shipment is necessary and we should welcome an immediate quotation fob London. It is not 123
. direct and prompt. We shall be in the position to give you substantial orders if your quotations are reasonable. London.. Do the quoted prices include delivery or not? A reference to the General conditions of delivery should be attached to the enquiry. staff. This applies to food. if... details are omitted till they have a clear idea of their needs. We look forward 10 placing our orders with you and trust that you will make every effort to satisfy our particular requirements. Seller is requested to state the terms of payment. Sometimes buyers require catalogues. transport. raw material correspondence concerning consumer goods. What would be your earlier delivery date? Please say whether you could guarantee the shipment by. we would inquire whether you could supply us. Size of orders may often be stressed by the customer to obtain a more favorable quotation or reductions to be made for large orders. clearly. Goods are described in details if the buyers are quite clear on the subject of their needs.. Replies to enquiries They are the most important letters of sale type.. detailed description minimizes the chance of receiving unsuitable goods.. the seller identifies the goods required: prospective buyer's interests are not likely to be prejudiced when the figures are obtained from the catalogue.. there is a natural question. The required information is given simply. preference to insurance. We are indebted for your address to … who has drawn our special attention to your China. As we are in the market for chemical installations we should welcome your information. Letters are concluded with the hope that buyer will be able to place further orders as a result of the satisfaction with the goods supplied. Such replies need to be polite..
X. but if not. That is clear because you asked for our catalogue. Reply to the enquiry Dear Mr. Having been referred to you by our agent. You may be sure that whichever of our services you decide to use. All such types of letters begin with expressions of thanks for the enquiry and end with the assurance of interest in the addressee's requirements or expression of pleasure at entering into business relations with you. kindly inform us how long you would require completing a considerable order. The quotation will include the following elements: an expression of thanks for the enquiry details of prices. we ask you to give us your lowest prices and best terms of your latest products. send us samples exactly representing the quality of your latest manufacture. You could test for yourself the wonderful fabrics we are manufacturing by sending us a trial order. X. Enquiry Dear Mr. all the details are contained in the catalogues.necessary to be detailed. This is to inform you that we do a big business in toys. which was sent to you earlier in the month. enclosures. with you. Mr. you will receive our immediate and personal attention. The next step lies. You wish to modernize your texture with the most upto-date upholstery system. The prospective buyer is under no obligation to buy the goods for which a quotation is requested and the supplier will not risk the reputation he has by quoting for goods they cannot or do not intend to supply. discounts and terms of payment clear indication of what the prices cover 124
. estimates and tenders A quotation is a promise to supply goods on the stated terms. We presume that you have the toys in stock. Quotations. You must have a demonstration of the upholstery system in your own theatre or see it in our show-rooms. Z. If possible. of course.
both parties are legally bound to honor their agreement.) Orders and their fulfillment Printed order forms Most companies have official printed forms which have the following advantages: • such forms are pre numbered and the reference to them is very easy • printing headings ensure that no information will be omitted • printed on the back of some forms are general conditions under which orders are placed. The arrangement is not legally binding until the supplier has accepted the offer. carriage. whether the order will be carriage paid or carriage forward etc. otherwise the supplier will not be legally bound to them.(packing. the buyer is required by law: • to accept the goods supplied. mode of transport. Letter order Smaller companies may not use printed forms but instead place orders in the form of a letter.) 6) terms of payment agreed in preliminary negotiations Legal position of the parties The English. date. accuracy and clarity must be ensured by including: 1) an accurate and full description of goods required 2) catalogue numbers 3) quantities 4) prices 5) delivery requirements (place. law says that the buyer's order is only an offer to buy. 7) buyer's obligations When a binding agreement comes into force. After that. etc. Sending an order by letter. Reference to these conditions must be made on the front. provided they comply with the terms of the order • to pay for the goods as soon as possible (failure to give prompt notice of faults to the supplier will be taken as 125
Confirmation of telephone order: Dear Mr. Please accept confirmation of the order we placed with you by phone this morning for the following: 3 "Excelda Studio" electronic typewriters each with 12 pitch daisy wheel Price: £ 490 each.B. carriage forward These machines are urgently required and we understand that you are arranging for immediate delivery from stock. Where two or more items are included in an order they should be listed separately for ease of reference. Here is a kind of tabulated order: Dear Mr. If the delivered goods are faulty. The supplier is required by law: • to deliver the goods exactly as ordered at the agreed time • to guarantee the goods to be free from faults of which the buyer could not be aware at the time of purchase. Routine orders They may be short and formal but must include essential details describing the goods as well as delivery and terms of payment. Damages may be claimed.
.acceptance of the goods) 8) supplier's obligations. less 40% trade discount. Yours sincerely Sometimes the orders may be presented in the form of tables. or cancellation of the order. X. a replacement of goods. the buyer can demand either a reduction of price. Please accept our order for the following books on our usual discount terms.
(Head of 1 July 2000 Order no 237 Nylon Fabrics Ltd 18 Brazenose Street Manchester M608As Please supply the following items Quantity 25 Items Bed sheets/ blue Catalogue no. If goods cannot be supplied at all. so we hope you will send them immediately. of copies 0 4
5 Modern Business
We look forward to prompt delivery. all essential details will be shown on the form and any additional explanations are given in the covering letter. Yours sincerely. Covering letter with order form When a covering letter is sent with an order form. We thank you for your quotation of 5 July and enclose our order number 237 for 4 of the items. All these items are urgently required by our customer. 127
.No. 75 rice 7 P $ the letter)
An order should be acknowledged immediately if it cannot be fulfilled straight away.
Reason for delay: breakdown in production Dear Mr. and that we may have the pleasure of further orders from you. 128
. we are enclosing a copy of our catalogue. We were very pleased to receive your order of 18 June for cotton prints and welcome you as one of our customers. We apologize for the delay and trust it will not cause you serious inconvenience. We are making every effort to resume production and fully expect to be able to deliver the shavers by the end of this month. X. Dear Mr. Yours sincerely First orders from new customers should be acknowledged by a letter: Dear Mr. We hope you will find these goods satisfactory. We confirm supply of the prints at the prices stated in your letter and are arranging /or dispatch by our own delivery vehicles early next week.V. When goods cannot be delivered immediately. We thank you for your order of 15 May for electric shavers. As all items were in stock. but regret that we cannot supply them immediately owingto afire in our factory. and express the hope that the customer is not inconvenienced unduly. a letter should apologize for the delay and give an explanation. Thank you for your order no 217 for bed coverings. Z.you should write explaining why you offer suitable substitutes if they are available. they have been dispatched to you today by passenger train. As you may not be aware of the wide range of goods we have available. We feel confident that you will be completely satisfied with these goods and that you will find them of exceptional value for money. Also state when delivery may be expected. We hope that our handling of your first order with us will lead to further business between us and mark the beginning of a happy working relationship. There is formal acknowledgement of routine orders. carriage forward. if possible.
We shall always be happy to consider carefully any proposal likely to lead to business between us. The prices quoted in our letter of 13 August leave us with only the smallest of margins and are in fact lower than those of our competitors for goods of similar quality. The fact is that we are large suppliers of woolen underwear in this country and this is itself a good evidence of the good value of our products. The wool used in the manufacturing of our THERMAUNE range undergoes a special patented process which prevents shrinkage and increases durability. We hope you will give further information regarding this mailer. There may be times when a supplier will not accept a buyer's order: • he is not satisfied with the buyer's terms and conditions • the buyer's credit is suspect • the goods are not available Greatest care should be taken when writing to reject an order so that good will and future business are not affected. then the supplier should show a desire to help customers in difficulty. Dear Mr. then the reasons should be given. We have carefully considered our counter proposal of 15 August to our offer of woolen underwear. but if you then still feel you cannot accept our offer we hope it will not prevent you from approaching us on some future occasion.Yours sincerely Other reasons for the delay may be stocks not available. is bound to be appreciated and will help to build goodwill. Supplier refuses price reduction There are situations when a supplier cannot grant a request for a lower price.V. We can find some situations when delivery terms cannot be met. but very much regret that we cannot accept it.
. transport strikes etc. In this letter the suggestion that the customer should try another supplier who is named.
It is advisable to send a substitute if a customer is well known or if there is a clear need 130
. In the circumstances I hope you will be able to meet your requirements from some other source. any of the following options are available: • send a substitute. If a previous counter remains unpaid. Johnson YOUR ORDER NUMBER R 2514 We were pleased to receive your order of 2 November for 6 TV sets. we should be grateful if you could send us your cheque for say half the amount owed. Careful judgment will be required since there is the risk that the customer may be annoyed to receive something different from what was ordered. Only in this way can we met our own commitments. We are pleased to receive your order of 15 April for a further supply of radio sets. I understand from our telephone conversation this morning that your customers are willing to consider other makes. Due to the current difficult conditions we have had to try and ensure that your main customers keep their accounts within reasonable limits. At present the balance of your account stands at over £800 and we hope that you will be able to reduce it before we grant credit for further supply.Dear Mr. Since you state the firm condition of delivery before Christmas. Our own order will not be met before the end of January. but were informed that all orders were being met in strict rotation. The manufacturers of these goods are finding it impossible to meet current demand for this popular television set. the utmost tact is necessary when rejecting another order. They usually carry large stocks and may be able to help you.C. In the circumstances. We could then arrange to supply the goods now requested and charge them to your account. The suggestions of mistrust are avoided tactfully and internal difficulties as the reason for refusing further credit are given: Dear Mr. we deeply regret that we cannot supply you on this occasion. Nothing is more likely to offend a customer than the suggestion that they may not be trustworthy. We hope to hear from you soon When a supplier receives an order which cannot be met for some reasons. We placed an order for 24 sets one month ago. May 1 suggest that you try Television Services Ltd of Leicester.
for urgency. Dear Mr. It is important that the suggested substitute provides an article which is at least as good as the one ordered. Yours sincerely Supplier sends a substitute article: Dear Mr. All the items ordered are in stock except for the 25 cushion covers in strawberry pink Stocks of these have been sold out since we quoted for them. At the low price of only £ 2. the supplier must exercise a great deal of skill to bring out a sale. Such substitutes should be sent "on approval" with the supplier accepting such responsibility for carriage charges both ways. • make a counter offer • decline the order Supplier makes a counter offer For making a counter offer. and are sending a complete range of patterns by parcel post. you decide to place an order. we could meet it within one week We hope to hear from you soon. non-creasable material with a most attractive luster. We regret to say that we can no longer supply this silk. hard wearing. this rayon is much cheaper than silk and its appearance is just as attractive.20 per meter. This is a finely woven. We were pleased to receive your letter of 17 April together with your order for a number of items included in our quotation reference RS341. We also manufacture other clothes in which you may be interested. The buyer is offered something that has not been asked for. X. The large number of repeated orders we regularly receive from leading distributors and dress manufacturers is clear evidence of the wide spread popularity of this brand. In their place we can offer our new GOSSAMER brand of rayon. Z. All these cloths are selling well in many countries and can be supplied from stock If as we hope. Thank you for your letter of 12 May ordering 800 meters of 100 cm wide watered silk. and the manufacturing units inform us that it will be another 4 weeks 131
. Fashions constantly change and in recent years the demand for watered silk has fallen to such an extend that we have ceased to produce them.
damage. hope you will be pleased with them. As you state that delivery of all items is a matter of urgency we have substituted covers in a deep orange identical in design and quality with those ordered. it is the legal duty of the buyer to collect any purchases from the supplier. All items will be delivered by our own vehicles tomorrow. Yours sincerely Packing and dispatch When goods are dispatched. the railway or the other carrier is considered the agent of the buyer.before they can send replacements. Yours sincerely Advice of goods ready for dispatch as well as notification of goods dispatched can be easily formulated. We shall be glad either to exchange them or to arrange credit. We are pleased to confirm that the 12 Olivetti KX R 193 electronic typewriters which you ordered on 15 October are now ready for dispatch. We. The customer knows that the goods are on the way and can make the necessary arrangements to receive them. the buyer should be notified either by an advice note or by a letter stating what has been sent. They are attractive and rich looking and very popular with our customers. and immediately we receive them we will send you our advice of dispatch. delay which may affect the goods after the carrier has taken over. The buyer is responsible for any loss. W. when it was sent and the means of transport used. Unless the terms of the sale include delivery. We now await your shipping instructions. When placing your order you stressed the importance of prompt delivery and 1 am glad to say that by making a special effort we have been able to improve by a few days on the delivery date agreed upon. ORDER NUMBER S 524 132
. We hope you will find them satisfactory but if not please return them at our expenses. Request for forwarding instructions: Dear Mr.
We regret to report that a consignment of mohair rugs. 25-30 Gordon Avenue. the supplier should at once take up the matter with carriers. We expected these goods a week ago. of course. we must ask you to make enquiries and let us know the cause of the delay and when delivery will be made. The waterproof lining was badly torn and will be necessary to send seven of the rugs for cleaning before we can offer them for sale.. Will you therefore please arrange to send replacements immediately and we charge them to our account. As the goods have not reached us. Delivery of the rugs is now a matter of urgency. and have already taken up the matter of compensation with the railway authorities. making our own enquiries at this end. and on the faith of your notification of dispatch. Dear Mr J. These cases were collected by our carrier on 28 January for I February. We realize that the responsibility for damage is ours. Will you please find out from British Rail what has happened to the consignment and let us know when we may expect delivery. If a letter is sent. Werrington. Yours sincerely 133
. Yours sincerely Upon receiving the foregoing letter. As our customer is now urgently in need of these goods.We regret to inform you that of the four cases of mohair rugs which were dispatched on 28 January. one was delivered damaged. promised immediately to be delivered to a number of our customers. it must contain no suggestion of the annoyance that is naturally felt but also it should be confirmed to the facts and ask for an immediate enquiry into the circumstances. Your letter should be restricted to a statement of the facts and a request for information. we naturally feel our customers have been let down.. Please treat this matter as one of extreme urgency. ORDER NUMBER Z 423 You wrote to us on 3 January informing us that the mohair rugs supplied to the above order were being dispatched. addressed to Whart & Co. either by phone or by letter. We are also. Yours sincerely When the goods do not arrive when they are promised to arrive. has not yet reached them. We hold your carrier's receipt number 2436. avoid the tendency to blame the supplier as it may not be their fault.
Payment for the goods supplied or services rendered is the final stage in a business transaction. transactions are for cash while for the wholesale and foreign trade. Here is an invoice: JOHN G. The buyer who is not a regular customer is supposed to pay at once while the regular ones may get credit. but usually they are posted separately. Albion Works. the credit is in practice. the payment will be made later on the basis of a statement of an account sent by the supplier monthly or at any other interval of time. an invoice should be checked carefully. Thomas Street Manchester M60IQA Phone 061-943-1234 INVOICE
Quantity 10 21 12 Total VAT 10% One case back Big total Items Polyester shirts Cotton blouses Cotton shirts 3 7 8 Unit price $ $ $ Total 30 147 96 276 27.customs purposes covering goods sent 'on approval' 134
. In the case of the retail trade. It is used for: . LTD.6 $ $ $ $ $ $ $
Pro forma invoices "For form's sake" or” pro forma invoice” is an ordinary invoice but has this label "Pro forma". Invoices may be sent together with the goods. Invoices and adjustments When goods are supplied on credit. invoices being charged to their accounts.6 2 305. not only against the goods supplied but also for the accuracy of both prices and calculation. the supplier sends an invoice to the buyer in order: • to inform him about the amount due • to enable the buyer check the goods delivered • to enable entry in the buyer's purchases day book When received. In the latter case. GARTSIDE & CO.
it should be short and polite. If the supplier has overcharged the buyer. Credit notes are issued to buyers when they return either goods (as they are not suitable) or packing materials on which there is a rebate.or ' on consignment' . by rail. then a credit note is sent.V. namely $ 310.serving as a formal quotation serving as a request for payment in advance for goods ordered by an unknown customer or a doubtful payer . the letter may look like this: Our invoice number… is enclosed covering the polyester shirts ordered on 10 August. or to acknowledge and allow credit for goods returned by the buyer. Debit and credit notes If the supplier has undercharged the buyer. Credit notes are printed in red to be distinguished from the others. a debit note may be sent for the amount of the undercharge. Statement of accounts It is a demand for payment. A debit note is a supplementary invoice. YOUR ORDER NUMBER A W25 We are pleased to enclose our invoice number B 253 for the polyester shirts ordered on 13 August. carriage paid. it should look like this: Dear Mr. These shirts have been packed ready for dispatch and are being sent to you. To a regular customer. It is a summary of the 135
. They should reach you within few days. Covering letter with invoice Such a letter is not compulsory but if the invoice is sent separately it may be sent by post. These goods are available from stock and will be sent to you immediately we receive the amount due. A debit note is sent by the supplier to a buyer who has been undercharged in the original invoice. To a non regular customer.where the value of goods exported is required for These invoices are not entered in the books of accounts and are not charged to the accounts of the persons whom they are sent to.60.
usually one month.. thereafter. $ $ $ 115. The closing balance shows the amount owing the date of the statement.53 rendered 12. The cheque received from you.27. we have decided to allow you to defer payment of your account to the end of August.. The opening balance brought forward is the amount left uncovered by the cheque received from you against our August statement. 22. was drawn for £ 500.
. If a covering letter is sent..transactions between buyer and supplier during the period it covers.8. We should appreciate early settlement of the total amount now due.30 334. amounts of invoices and debit notes issued are listed and amounts of any credit notes issued and payments made by the buyer are deducted.11 Credit 25. If payment is made within 14 days you may reduce the customary cash discount of 2 '/i %. which totaled £ 560. The supplier replies: Having carefully considered your letter of 8 August.86 note A covering letter should look like this: We enclose our statement of account for all the transactions during August. Invoice no 312.00 327. Debit note 6. Statements are sent without a covering letter.57. here is a statement: George Brown & Co. 3.81 no. leaving the unpaid balance of £ 60 now brought forward. 27 only.8.. it needs only be short and formal..8. totaling £ 820.8.81 Cheque 100. 24 High Streethite Street Manchester M6940a Telephone 072-980-2132 STATEMENT Date Details Debit Credit Balance Account 1. It starts with the balance owing to the beginning of the period. Sometimes the supplier reports the unpaid statement: We are enclosing our September statement.8.28 427. We grant this request as an exceptional measure only because of the promptness with which you have 136 20.25 330.
the buyer pays for the goods at the time they are handed over by the carrier (this includes the postal system). British postal orders and money and money orders are issued and paid in many countries abroad.) COD system. It means cash on delivery. i. We sincerely hope that in future dealings you will be able to keep to pure terms of payment. Payment is made in the currency of the country of payment at the current rate of exchange. payment through the POST OFFICE a. Upon payment of the charge for a telegram.
. As you do not seem to have been clear about them.) GIRO TRANSFER. Anyone can receive or make a deposit of money whether or not they should hold a giro account. Giro is the term used to the postal cheque system run by post in most Western European countries and Japan. A person sending a money order should ask the payee for a receipt since there is no evidence of payment. Money orders are used for amounts up to £ 50 for the payment abroad. we take this opportunity to remind you that they are as follows: 2 '/. there are many methods of
1. Methods of payment In settling the accounts. cash (coins and notes) 2. money orders may be telegraphed. This is used by senders who have no bank account or giro.e. c.settled your accounts in the past. Apart from cash transaction giro transfer or postal cheque is a means of payment. Net cash for payment within one month.% discount for payment within 10 days.) POSTAL ORDERS and MONEY ORDERS (the latter for foreign payments only). b. Postal orders are used for small sums of money.
date of shipment etc.) • a reference to former satisfactory dealings between the two parties or to the firm's high reputation in the world market • a request for a careful investigation of the matter and reasonable remedy of the mistake or a suggestion how the complaint should be adjusted satisfactorily • a warning or a threat to cancel the order or the contract if there are constant and prolonged delays or frequent errors in carrying out the order.Complaints Concerning delivery quality It may happen that one of the parties (the buyer or the seller) does not respect certain clauses of the contract so the dissatisfied party sends the other one a letter of complaint containing a demand for something which the sender of the letter has a right to claim for (damage or for a reduction in the price). The buyers complain because of late delivery. or inadvertencies in the documents. avoid any expressions indicating anger. Be precise about the dates. When writing complaints. The seller may complain because of unreasonable amounts claimed from them by the buyers and also when the latter fail to open a L/C in time or place a vessel under loading. Clarity. A letter of complaint should contain: • a writer's regret of being obliged to make a complaint • a clear and concise account of what is wrong with the goods supplied • the data necessary to identify the commodity in question (number of contract. storage and insurance is another source of complainment. irritation. non-delivery or short shipments of goods or delivery of wrong or damaged goods. trade names or 138
. Non observance of the buyer's instructions for the transportation. suspicion. quantities. courtesy and reasonableness are the compulsory elements. Warnings or cancellation the order and getting supplies from elsewhere should not be used too liberally as they will only create bad feelings and in any cases would be quite unnecessary. packing. Keep in mind the indispensable you attitude and see the matter from the customer's side in addition to your own. Make sure of your facts and get them down accurately. or goods not up to the sample or description. Make clear what is wrong and how you want it adjusted. conciseness. sarcasm.
numbers of models. Re: Delay in Delivery In your acknowledgement of our order given to you on 19 September. In any event we shall expect a call from you on Monday.X. If the orders have been held up because you are unable to ship certain items immediately. indicate that you expect a reasonable attitude on the part of the firm. please phone us and we shall instruct you as to what items we can wait for and what items we may have to cancel. Dear Mr.. we shall expect you to ship it rush. Most firms want to be fair if only to maintain a good reputation and they will react favorably to a reasonable approach. The material seems to be too loosely woven and is inclined to put out of shape./ We are sure you won't disappoint us in meeting this reasonable request.B Re: Inferior Quality It is with great regret that we have to inform you that your last delivery is not up to your usual standard. so that you can compare 139
. Everyday delay means loss and inconvenience for us.. please cancel the entire order. By separate mail we have sent you a cutting from this material. shapes. Use such closing formulae as: We are sure you will give this matter your prompt attention. Be specific in setting forth the nature of loss or inconvenience you have suffered. We remain yours sincerely. types of containers. then you make easy the task of your partner to verify the claims and make the just adjustments. sizes. prolong investigations and delay adjustments. also one from cloth of an early consignment. If all these are made clear. Be courteous! Be concise in order to make me presentation as clear as possible! It is important to be reasonable in demands for an adjustment. methods of shipment. please phone us and we shall see what we can do to this end to expedite delivery to our premises. If you do not get in touch with us before Tuesday. Dear Mrs. Unfair demands may arouse suspicion of your claims. In closing. Awaiting your call. you stated that the consignment would be dispatched within a week and we are therefore very surprised that the merchandise has not arrived yet.. These goods were offered for the pre holdery sales period now in full swing. If this shipment is on route. If the order has not been shipped yet.
we must ask you to let us know. These fundamental agreements may require different modifications according to the topics debated. As we shall have to take it back. Romanian firms prefer short contracts no matter how complex the transactions are. 1O Unfortunately when we opened this case we found it contained completely different articles. We are much obliged to you for the prompt execution of this order. Yours sincerely Dear Mr. If the partners do not 140
. The written form of an agreement makes clear everything and each partner has in mind his obligations and responsibilities. P. Though the oral agreements are applied according to the Romanian laws. Though we must underline a fact: not always the shortest agreement is the best. and we can only presume that a mistake was made and the contents of this case were for another order. As we need the articles we ordered to complete deliveries to our own customers. We have always been able to rely on the high quality of the materials you sent us and we are all disappointed in this case because we supplied the cloth to new customers. Everything appears to be correct and in good condition except in case no. Ref. Please let us know what you wish to do with it Yours sincerely Contracts A contract is an agreement between two partners that will act according to the law. 10 and you shall be glad if you will check this with our order and the copy of your invoice. We attach a list of the contents of case nr. without delay what discount you are prepared to allow us to get over this difficulty. we must ask you to arrange for the dispatch of replacements at once.the two and see the difference in texture. the small companies are to use the written ones. wrong goods received We received the documents and took delivery of the goods on arrival of the SS "M" at P. The companies use these agreements for the guarantee they offer regarding all the important elements of the business. In the meantime we are holding the a/m case at your disposal.
. Any other previous declaration or agreement. It 141
. has no compulsory force but the clauses included in the present agreement. notification procedure for producing it. the courts may refer to the general principles of the commercial law.Giving up the rights The fact that X or Y does not insist on an exact fulfillment and according to the present agreement must to practice any options he (or she) has. There are certain clauses that are included in the commercial agreements. the conditions that may be called upon. the consequences of this event for putting into practice the respective agreement. • Typical clauses: Force majeure It is the force majeure clause (that includes the casual or fortuitous case). This agreement may be modified only if the modification is done in a written form and is signed by X and Y. either oral or written. in certain transactions.use a certain clause and the Romanian law has no special reference to it. General clauses Standard clauses required for any type of
Any type of agreement requires the following standard clauses such as: . does not mean that the respective partner gives up to the rights he (or she) has according to any of the clauses of the present agreement • Partial invalidation If the courts declare or establish that a part (or clause) of the present agreement is repealed or may be put into practice the parts (or clauses) that were not put into debate keep their compulsory character between X and Y (each agreement should make reference to the registration number of the firm in the Register of Commerce). They are presented in this chapter. The written contract may be used for the interpretation of the way this law is applied.Final form of the agreement The present agreement is the only one between X and Y. Clauses necessary for complex agreements. The legislation of some countries knows the "unforeseeable" event.
the partners of an agreement inform themselves orally. The transfer should be done according to the law. It does not stop the agreement. made very expensive the fulfilling of one of the partners. The written agreement should be offered to the ''cedent" in maximum …days since the date the "cedent" required the "cedat" 's acknowledgement In the case the "cedat" does not answer in the already given interval of time. establishing modifications of the initial agreement or ways of solving controversies without writing them. the respective event does not cease to exist. . It is advisable to add: the provisions of the present article are not applicable in the case when\ an event. one partner offers (transfers) the rights to a third partner. The partner that gives up is "cedent" and the one who gets is "cedar". it is considered that the "cedent" agrees with the transfer of the agreement . and any other event that is not under the control of the partner. we come to the 142
. Romanian Civil Law admits the transfer of rights but due to its "silence" we may understand that it accepts the transfer of obligation too. either partially or totally.means that an unforeseeable event may appear in the moment when the agreement is signed. in many cases. Such unforeseeable events are considered war. If in due time. The partner that makes reference to this event is obliged to let the other partner know about it as well as all the measures used for limiting it. legal restrictions. but turns it into a very expensive one. the partners may foresee cases when the cedat' s denial is considered non relevant for "cedent"). natural calamities. without stopping the achieving of the agreement.TRANSFER OF THE AGREEMENT It is frequently used. strikes. one of the types described.(to avoid the risk of a possible abusive attitude of the debtor. Exceptions are the cases when the agreements have foreseen such clauses. None of the partners of the present agreement should transfer the rights and obligations of this agreement to the other partner. . each partner has the right to announce the other one that the respective agreement ceases to exist without having the right to claim damages.NOTIFICATION CLAUSE This clause is important as. In such cases.
in the moment when any of the parts: . it is considered to be received by the addressee in the first -working day following the one used for sending it. In the meaning of the present agreement. In both cases. The oral communications are not taken into consideration by either of the partners if they are not confirmed by one of the already mentioned ways from the present article.situations when no written form exists. the clauses that are still valid will continue to act.AGREEMENT DIVIDING The Romanian jurisdiction has a principle according to which cancelling a part of a juristic fact does not bring about the nullity of the whole fact but the activity has demonstrated that cancelling certain clauses makes impossible the continuation of the respective agreement. it should be done in the form of a registered letter that is considered to be received by the addressee in x days since the sending of the post office. In the case. The main obligations of the present agreement are considered to be the fallowing ones: (and they are presented) . one of the partners demonstrates that he has not fulfilled the obligations while the other one has already done or is ready to do it. There are two variants: either the obligations of two parts are fulfilled at once or cancelling an agreement implies that the obligations of at least one partner are fulfilled step by step (gradually). any notification or communication addressed by a partner to the other is considered fulfilled if it is transmitted to the latter at the above mentioned address at the beginning of the agreement. . In the case the communications is by mail. In the situation that a clause or a part of the agreement is considered null. The present agreement ceases to exist without the intervention of the courts.does not fulfill an obligation considered to be essential for the present agreement (see the dividing clause) or 143
. the communication is in the form of a fax or telex. exception is the case when the cancelled clause (or act) contains the main obligation.CEASING OF AN AGREEMENT The ceasing of an agreement implies the appearance of a clause that makes impossible the fulfillment of the agreement or its cancelling.
since the date of the non fulfillment of the obligations. having the agreement of the partners. in four copies. The provisions of this article do not reject the responsibility of the partner that has brought about the ceasing of the agreement. either before or after the agreement signing. together with modifications and schedules. represent the wishes of the partners and reject any oral agreement between them.FINAL PROVISIONS IN the present situation.practising of the right of fulfilling accordingly or by agreement of the respective obligation by the injured partner does not mean that the latter has given up the respective right The present agreement has been drawn today. The present agreement. the partner does not execute or executes the obligations. in a suitable way. insolvency or brings about the winding up before beginning the fulfillment of the agreement (in the case of physical persons. winding up means the death of a partner or being under an interdiction) . the third paragraph contains a note less frequent in our law.or transfers the right and obligations after he (or she) has been announced that any situation of this kind will bring about the cancelling of the agreement in maximum x days. the non. . the name and quality of the man who 144
. Part one Part two (the name of the partners. The partner that requires the cancelling of the agreement will announce the partner about this fact with minimum x days in advance. does not respect an obligation.it is considered to be in the incapacity of paying. The cancelling won 't have any effect on the obligations that are already developed between partners. It makes reference to the specific of the commercial law of offering the partners the right of real agreement clauses: The modification of the present agreement may be only in a written form. In the case when one of the partners. two of them have been given to … _ .
data concerning.Object of agreement (F) wants a conclusion (or settlement) with (B) and (A) wants certain information about (B) which the latter has (or possesses). This fact imposes the partner to behave accordingly so the two partners are obliged to keep secret the information under discussion. lawyer. solicitors.signs are presented in the contract) PROVISIONS REGARDING THE CONFIDENTIAL CHARACTER There is a practice to ask your partner some information concerning the business you want to have together. (A) signs the present agreement in order to keep confidential the received information. . managers. patents any other information concerning (B) and has importance for its position on the market. accountants won't reveal the confidential information to any other partner but in the case (B) approves it in a written form. . its products. lawyer. It contains the financial situation of (B). representatives. located at _____ (address). administrators. . its managers. its aims of doing business. solicitors. accountants. . administrators. (A).Interdiction of discussing the information (B) will present confidential information only to the persons that are involved in the negotiation and/or presentation of its commercial reports with (A). The information contains the following documents (B) will offer to (A).Interdiction of using the information (A). . employees will use the information 145
. This information should have a strict confidential character. (G) wants (A) to keep all the information secret. Having in view this. means of manufacturing.Confidential information The information regarding (B).GENERAL STATEMENT This agreement is made on (date) between (A) located at (address) and _ _ (B). representatives. (A) binds itself to keep secret.
As evidenced by signatures below.Exoneration of responsibilities (A) will be exonerated of the responsibilities for revealing information about (B) if: . this agreement has been signed today A B name name position position SPECIAL BUSINESS LETTERS Circular Letters Circular letters are frequently used to offer the same 146
. (A) will return all the confidential information (B) has given to (A) together with all the copies.Restoring the information At the date when the present agreement has ceased to exist.the information was revealed after (B) has got the written approval for receiving it or information was already known by everybody before or (A) was legally obliged to reveal the information .(A) has got the information from a non confidential source from (B) or . it ix obliged to pay (B) a damage in value of . in a written form. of the agreement. . .got from (B) only for deciding the conclusion of a commercial report with (B) and will not even use either of the information in any occasion. at the request of (B).Duration The present agreement comes into force till… exception is the case when any of the two parts informs the other. the canceling in advance.the information was already known by (A) before being got by (B) or .Penalties for the case of the non corresponding use of the information or of its revealing If (A) infringes any obligations foreseen in Articles 4 & 5.
customers. Xt To meet the growing demand for hardware and general store in this area. Our new department will carry an extensive range of hardware and other domestic goods at prices which compare very favorably with those charged by other suppliers..no one has time to read long stories • make the letters as personal as they can be (address each letter to a particular person. If you visit our new showroom you will see. then it is duplicated in order to be distributed to the customers. when there are important developments in business such as extensions. Address yourself directly to someone using formulas such as: You will appreciate.. all customers. A circular letter is written once. Dear Mr. The next rules are to be taken into consideration: • it must be brief . everyone. addresses and individual salutations so it gets a more personal character. It may get some more information such as names. announce it to everybody..information to different people.. and are therefore arranging a special window display during the week beginning 3 June.. We would like to demonstrate our new merchandise to you.. The content is already written but you have to introduce the name of your customer in order to give the personal touch to the letter. These kind of letters are used when sales campaigns are developing. re organizations. indicating the name if you know it • create the impression of personal interest by using you never our clients. Expansion of business takes place in your company.. we have decided to extend our business by opening a new department. so write a circular.We hope you will visit our new department during opening week and 147
. The official opening of our new department will take place on the following Monday. it is important to suggest an interest in the recipient by giving a personal touch. Circulars are sent to many people. you have to inform your customers about them. If some changes take place in your business. We are pleased to inform you. 10 June.. You will be interested to learn. changes of addresses etc.
this new branch in your country will result in your orders and enquiries being dealt with more promptly. X. Inform everybody about it: Owing to a large increase in the volume of our trade with the Kingdom of Jordan. Although we hope we have provided you with an efficient service in thepast. write a circular indicating the new address.X Manager Tyler & Co Ltd 18 Hussein Avenue Amman We take the opportunity to express our thanks for your custom in the past. -we have decided to open a branch in Amman. This new branch will open on I May. Because of different reasons you are supposed to change the address of your offices. and from that date all orders and enquiries should be sent to: Mr. and hope these new arrangements will lead to even higher standards in the service we provide.give us the opportunity to show you that it maintains the reputation enjoyed by our other departments for giving sound value for money. and a special celebration offer of 10% discount will be allowed on all purchases made by the first 50 customers. We have been fortunate in acquiring a good site on the new industrial estate at Chorley. You are to have a new branch in another town (or country). Mrs Victoria Chadwick has been appointed Manager. Opening a new business you have to let the others know about it: We are pleased to announce the opening of our new retail store at the above mentioned address on Monday 1 September.l The steady growth of our business has made necessary an early move to| new and larger premises. Our new store will open at 8 am on Monday 1 September. we are sure that the goods supplied will be of sound quality and reasonably priced. and from 1 March our new address will be the 148
. with Mr. We hope we may look forward to your being one of them. and with her experience of the trade. possibilities of arriving there.
this is particularly important since they remain liable not only for debts contracted by the firm during membership. but also for debts contracted with old creditors in retirement. For a retiring partner.We shall certainly do everything possible to ensure that our present standards of service are maintained. It also provides scope for higher methods of production which will increase output and also improve even further the quality of our goods. 149
. We regret to inform you that our senior partner.Unit 15 Chorley Industrial Stale Grange Road Chorley Lines CH 2 4W Phone 3521689 Fax 3421768 This new site is served by excellent transport facilities both by road and rail. suppliers and customers. Harold West. All the other changes are to be announced to the partners you have. We look forward to a continuing good business relationship with you. and the amount of the firm's capital will therefore remain unchanged We will continue to trade under the name of West. Retirement of a partner is announced like this: Dear X. You already know that circulars are used to announce the changes that take place in the membership of a partnership. Webb & Co. We trust that the confidence you have shown in our company in the past will continue and that we may rely on your continued custom . without the addition of any partner's name. Mr. The withdrawal of West's capital will be made by contributions from the remaining partners. has decided to retire on 31 May due to recent extended ill-health. The correct signature on such letters is that of the name of the firm. and there will be no change in policy. We have much appreciated your custom in the past and confidently expect to be able to offer you improvements in service when the new factory moves into full production. enabling deliveries to be made promptly.
write a memo on the following subject: Europart Ltd. Well we 've been having to offer a lot too many discounts on parts we have got from Southolt . If they are in a printed form.MEMORANDUMS Memorandums are part of the correspondence.they often take 3 days. Your manager. Southold) SUBJECT: delayed deliveries Number of pages: I The memo has the paragraphs and has no salutation formulas. says to you: We 've got problems with our delivery dates. That's one of our main selling points. The memo does not give any explanation. Hanover) Date: 2. to transmit documents. sometimes even a week to get here. it comes directly to the point. You know we guarantee delivery of any vehicle part to the shop here within 48 hours of a customer placing an order . to request an information or to supply it. they should have some paragraphs presented in a clear and well organized way. Their target is to confirm a conversation.2007\ TO: David Walsh (Warehouse Manager. of Unit 26. distributes parts for motor vehicles from its branches through Europe. they should maintain your attitude and avoid clichés. A memo has an introductory part that is to be presented: FROM: Peter Hening (Manager.. short sentences. Frilford Industrial Estate. Having in mind these general rules. You work in the Hanover branch. have small words. Often the person who gets a memo knows everything about a situation but the position the boss has adopted towards it for that moment. Could you find out what's going on? Write a memo 150
.11. Southolt SJ4 7DB. to congratulate someone. to clarify a previous message. It's not too good enough.the customer gets 20% discount. to report meetings. to announce changes in a company's policy. only the capital letters of the writer's name are added. Peter Henig. they are a kind of letters that are carrying messages inside an organization (from an office to another one).
what the memo is about) If you are sending the memo by fax. Order the points logically in paragraphs. The sender is quite angry but a tactful memo will produce a better impression than an aggressive one. Send it by fax to David Walsh. Decide on the correct tone of the memo. study it into details. He is usually very good . neatly cross it out the 151
. a memo. Decide what relevant. Read the questions twice at least: get the general idea what it is about. take into account all the points that appear in the question.AT THE BOTTOM. you are supposed to write: FROM: (sender's name and/or position in the company) TO: (addressee's name and/or position in company) DATE: (the date the memo is written) SUBJECT: (very briefly. Tell him what problem we have and ask him what he's going to do about it. Make a list of the points that are going to be present in the memo. ON THE TOP.there's a plenty of competition if our want to look elsewhere. the Warehouse Manager at Southolt. he can talk to you. I’m off to a conference today. He wants the problem be solved but he doesn't want to hurt Peter. 3.and 1 know it's not easy to handle about 50. you should also indicate the number of pages . What exactly are you asked to do? WRITE A TACTFUL MEMO TO A MEMBER OF THE STAFF 2. leave out all the unnecessary elements is. 5.under my name. Tell David that if he wants to discuss anything. We're not the only people distributing vehicle parts . Before writing it. and I'll be away for a week. correctly. Is our ordering clear enough? Or perhaps he should charge his express courier. or he can wait until I get back So this is the text that is to be changed into a memo and sent to David.or if there's anything we can do to help. Layout.000 different parts. But be tactful. If you use your answer book to make your list. Peter Henig is not satisfied with David's work. Relevant material should be included in a memo. But get him to say when we 're going to get a normal service. See if there are any problems at his end that he 's sorting out . do the following 1. you may put the sender's initials but NEVER a signature. 4.
But we need to sort this out Are there any problems at your end at present? Is your courier working normally ?Or is there anything we can do to help? Do please contact (write your own name here) if there are any points you wish to raise this week. we may have the following memo: FROM: Peter Hening (Manager. without wasting the words. some take a week to get here. 6. Hanover) Date: 2. Henig suggests a talk on his return from 152
. The problem is this: many of our orders from Southolt are arriving late . why Henig is writing to Walsh and not trying to call him MAIN POINT OF THE MEMO: late delivery . Check your work for accurate English! If you discover any errors. Read your memo right through! Make sure that you have included all the problems 8.Otherwise.In fact. That means we are having to give our 20% discount to a large number of customers . all the headings required in a memo b) content and effectiveness: . PH Comments on the model: a) layout. Southolt) SUBJECT: Delayed deliveries I am sending this by fax because I am off to a conference today and will not be able to call you before I go. neatly cross them out and add the correction.finally.possible reasons for late deliveries are given . I will be happy to talk things after my return.point when you have finished referring to it.11. Write your answer 7.and some of them may soon start looking elsewhere. and your warehouse usually performs very well indeed.2007 TO:David Walsh (Warehouse Manager.it is tactful (Walsh is not responsible for late. Henig praises his normal performance) logical order of the points the opening paragraph explains. Obeying all these rules. arrival of parts.1 know it is not a simple thing to stock so many parts.
graphics. leave 5 cm of margins on the left hand side. Type single space but allow a double space between paragraphs. . If order is important. The subject 153
. By the way. I have received complaints from the Canteen Supervisor about the way the staff leave the canteen after lunch break Many of them do not return their trays to the canteen staff. If the sequence of a list is random or arbitrary. staff must report to the Canteen Supervisor. presents facts. there was a large burn in a tablecloth obviously caused by a cigarette . allow a triple space above headings and above and below lists.. It makes you think in terms of the purpose or function. Keep all these in mind when you are planning to write a report. The canteen staff are grumbling about this -1 sympathize with them.the conference Once the problem of Peter Henig is solved. Last Friday. Your Office Manager says to you: I want you to write a Memo. no double space is allowed between paragraphs. use bullets (■) or dashes (-). 1 hope 1 do not have to remind them about this again. if there are any accidents in the canteen. It gets to know your audience and their needs. long quotations. You may catch your reader's attention by using italics. REPORT Writing reports is an important part of your work. above and below. Reports carry information to those who want it and need it.Don't write long paragraphs (about 100 words). inform you what you have found out including little or no commentary and interpretation. and cigarette ash and paper wrappings are left on the floor and tablecloths. Use typographical elements to make words. A report informs and analyses.but nobody reported it.). How do we lay out such a report? We must maintain one inch margin all around when typing. Enclose graphics in boxes. underlining capital letters. under my name to staff. Here they are: 1. some other exercises are offered.2. If you put it in a binder.. If it is typed double space. phrases stand out. Tel! staff that must keep their canteen clean: it doesn 't take much time. use Arabic numbers (1. they should be put vertically on the page.
content. the authority to do the work. The conclusions explain what work is planned for the future. quotations. how much has been completed and how much is left. scope. simple ones.The introduction contains the general idea of the report topic in a few paragraphs. The preface is identical to the letter of transmittal and has statement about purposes. condensed and state the most important ideas of the report(not more than 150-200 words). acknowledgement of assistance received. it is folded and free of charge advertising/ providing information about something. Sentences must be short.should be readable. subheads. gives an overall appraisal of the progress to date. But it should catch the 154
. giving the organization of the necessary information which you base decisions on. Any report should tell how a project is going. is the language accepted by a specific group. The report has an introduction that explains the period of work covered by it. name position and the date you submitted the report. date. graphics. lists of figures. appendices. abstracts – identify the report. The language the report is written in. It has a body which provides a detailed account of what has been accomplished and how. summarize the major points and state the conclusions and recommendations.The preparatory elements: title page. LEAFLET It is a document that informs people about different important things. There are periodic reports which record the work over a specific period of time. coverage etc. table of contents. purpose scope. audience. There are no strict rules that are to be obeyed for its writing. The table of contents presents the content of a report and the list of figures and tables present the location of graphics and tables. The reports may have supplemental elements such as: lists of references / bibliographies. the work that had been planned. The abstracts are brief. explaining the subject. arranged in a logical order. tables. clear in meaning. subject. The final part stresses the most important ideas. preface. Pages are numbered in small roman numbers and the title page shows the title of a report. its author. it has a detailed message. plan and order of the presentation. it assesses the progress to date. letter of transmittal. footnotes. uses heads. The body is the longest part of the report. avoid all the unnecessary words.
easy to read. Here it is an example: you work for a department store. 2nd – 20th of July inclusive Our English speaking staff helps you to find what you want… a very good price 30% off brads of perfume 40% of leather bags 50% off men’s and women’s summer fashions There a re a lot of goods anybody needs. open 10-7. It must catch the people’s attention. you are planning the summer sale which will last from 2nd till 20th July and are supposed to write a leaflet announcing all the merchandises for sale. date of the sales and even a map can be added. An example may be this one: The BEST of Paris is at COTY… It is a price any can afford! Treat yourself at this summer sale. 20-24 rue Babilon. The writer may take a large place so that all the information is spread all over in order to catch the reader’s eye. 20-24 rue Babylon. but it must be dated and include the name of the person who wrote it. NOTICE A notice is a simple letter that offers an information about something that happens and all customers should know. it is formal and impersonal. COTY. Take Bus no. phone number. place. It should be simple.reader’s attention and must contain an address and date. It is closed for the national holiday – 14July. address. COTY. located in 67894 Paris. date.6 from Place Pigale or tram no. So you are supposed to inform the people about all the products ready for sale during this interval of time. The shop address is presented. Here is an example: 155
. no particular layout is required. It tells you very important things.12 from Louvre. the leaflet should attract the readers. six days/week. 67894 Paris (phone 0023456789). even tram/ bus numbers are to be indicated. Decide the order you present the material. The notice should apologize and suggest alternatives.
HOTEL RESTAURANT Closure. MINUTE The minute is an official record of the actions taken by a group. quite formal. What you write should be written objectively and factually without your opinions being reflected. It is written by the secretary who is supposed to record the meeting as well as she can. secretary…) • time the meeting was open • action of the group. with the necessary apology for the inconvenience caused to the guests. Max Smith Manager 20 April 2008 The notice has a clear heading at the top. It contains all the necessary information. the name and the position of the person who wrote it. regular) • date and place of the meeting • subject of the meeting • names of the persons attending the meeting(chairperson. Guests will find a number of restaurants close to the hotel. the date. It should contain the following ideas: • name of the group holding the meeting • kind of meeting(special. but dinner will not be served during this period. 2-20 May 2008 We regret that the hotel restaurant will be closed from 2 . A cold buffet lunch will be served in the bar area on these days. Breakfast will be served as usual in the bar area. give them to the chairman for distribution. stating exactly what motions were 156
. Write out the minutes fully from your notes. A minute is a record of what was done. We apologize to guests for any inconvenience caused to you. The tone is correct.20th of May because of repairs to the floor. and impersonal.
the name of the person making the motions. • There being no other business. • the minutes of the previous meeting were accepted • • • •
A. A. S.m. By applying for a job..P. says that… L..B. b y presenting your past records and testimonials. V. 157
.m.B.O.V.P. seconding the motions. reported that …. believes that…. 2nd 2008 Subject: review of items of work on the X Hotel Attendees: A. the next regular meeting is scheduled for 20th May at 2p. the chairman closed the meeting at 3p. chairman S. the members and how each voted • time of adjournment and the time of the next meeting • signature of the secretary and of the chairman Here is an example: Hilton & Hilton Minute of a regular meeting of the committee on new construction April. secretary S.made and their position.O..V.K.V. chairman S. secretary LETTERS OF APPLICATION A letter of application is a letter that sells yourself.m. you must convince the employer about your capacity of doing the job and you must reach the target: get an interview and then get the job.K. L. V. summarized the status of work….. Agenda: • the meeting was opened by the chairman at 1p... you must arouse interest in your qualifications.
If you are asked to state the salary you expect to get. in a friendly tone but not familiar. Do not send original documents. These are only some pieces of advice that are to be 158
. do not state the figures you expect. If your main interest is the salary. The letter should be brief. Write sincerely. give a lot of information in as few words as possible. DO NOT DUPLICATE this information in your letter. neatly presented and make your application stand for the rest.Job application letter is difficult to be written as it is not always known whom are you writing to. As the employers are busy and have little time for long correspondence. just indicate the number of years and indicate the company you worked for. The tone of the letter must show keenness for the post. Ensure that your application is well typed. read it carefully and ask yourself the following questions: • Does it look like a good business letter? • Is the opening paragraph in the position to interest the employer enough to make him read the whole letter? • Does it suggest that I am interested in that kind of work that is advertised? Send the letter only if the answer to these questions are YES (for this you must put yourself in the position of the employer). do not omit any element. The purpose of your letter is to get the job. Answer the advertisement fully. qualifications. Do not suggest that you are looking for a new job because you are bored of the one you already have. Read the requirements for the post carefully and in the reply you must state clearly which are you able to fulfill. but take the originals along with you to the interview. From it. mention just you are earning now. Do not make exaggerated claims. Avoid generalizing. but first. try to offer them the most concise of what is important no matter how important that information seems to be for you. experience. education. After having written the letter. do so. send just copies with your application. Your curriculum vitae must give all the details of your personal background. you must get the interview. First. show a proper appreciation of your abilities. write an application as short as possible and state that your curriculum vitae is enclosed. you can get much information about the adviser. Study the advertisement carefully.
Smith Ref.taken into account before writing an application letter. indicating all kind of information in very brief sentences) In my present job of Private Secretary to the General Manager at a manufacturing factory. in fully blocked style. Place the date at the right. Your letter is an answer to a newspaper advertisement or journal. supervising junior staff. as well as the usual secretarial duties. dealing with callers and correspondence in my employer’s absence. In this kind of letter. Bob Smith Personnel Manager Leyland& Bailey Nelson Works Southampton 23EF Dear Mr. so the name of it must be mentioned in the opening paragraph or in the subject heading. to Private Secretary to Managing Director I was interested to see your advertisement in today’s DAILY TELEGRAPH. These include attending and taking minutes of meetings and interviews. all the details are written at the left. the writer’s address is placed on the top right corner of the letter. (you have to make reference to the job you are intending to get) The kind of work in which your company is engaged. and I would like to be considered for the job. (the next paragraph must contain a reference to what the applicant is doing for the time being. I have a wide range of responsibilities. 159
. Here is an example: 23 Oxford Street 8 April 2008 London ER 34 Mr.
e-mail Date of birth Nationality 160
. The letter may have a paragraph that indicates some names of persons who can be contacted in order to give references for the new employer . and I would welcome the opportunity that would afford me to use my language abilities. and to be given the opportunity to present myself at an interview. All the details are to be presented on two pages not more. you are obliged to mention the documents you are enclosing for supporting your ideas) A copy of my curriculum vitae is enclosed giving further details.particularly interests me. It should be presented in an attractive form so that all the information can be seen at a glance. education. qualifications and working experience. (the letter is ended in a very polite way) I hope to hear from you soon. no reference to income is made as nothing was mentioned in the advertisement. together with copies of my testimonials. Here is a pattern: CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Johnson Christian Name: Thomas Address: 24 Main Road Middleford Essex Telephone. The former should present all the personal details. My present employer will be pleased to furnish you with any further information you may require. (the motivation is given. The letter is supposed to be accompanied by a curriculum vitae and testimonials. and will confirm that I am leaving his employ reluctantly and with the sole desire to improve my present knowledge of foreign languages. which are not used in my present post.
As far as the testimonials. Dr. London Interests Published books Referees 1.B. Principal.X. only copies are given. the originals are retained.V. these are addressed TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN.Marital status Education School from…to College from…to University from…to Results obtained Degrees and/ or other post school qualifications Postgraduate qualifications Special awards Working experience September 2000 to … Hoyle. They should contain the following details of the employee: • Duration of employment • Post(s) held • Duties carried out • Work attitude • Personal qualities • A recommendation TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN Miss X. 2000 signature engineer Bains. was employed as Shorthand Typist in this 161
. They are given by the previous employer if they are requested. Redford College February 18.
I can recommend her highly and may be contacted for further information. with specimen of their signature. when she left the secretarial college in June 20… She was promoted to my Personal Secretary in…(duration of employment) Her responsibilities included the usual secretarial duties involved in such a post.B. BANKING / HOME BUSINESS Commercial banks offer four main services: • Accept customers’ deposits • Pay cheques drawn on them by their customers • Grant advances to customers • Provide a payment mechanism for the transfer of funds between its customers and those of the other banks Correspondence between banks and customers is quite formal and standardized. allowing the opening of an account and stating the manner in which cheques are to be signed. transcribing minutes. as well as attending meetings. Dear Mr… 162
. used her best endeavors at all times to perform her work consciously and expeditiously. She was very personable. (working attitude) She enjoyed good health and was a good time keeper. (Recommendation).company. I cannot overstress her exceptional work rate. (personal qualities) In my opinion. an accurate and quick shorthand typist. sociable and quick to share in a joke. The bank requires a copy of the board’s resolution. which did not in any way detract from very high standards she set for herself. dedication and approach to be suitable for the position of personal secretary or to enter the teaching profession. friendly. Only the persons authorized by a company’s board of directors may sign cheques for the company. she has the necessary character. meticulous in the layout. presentation and accuracy of her work. She was an excellent secretary. Miss X. and supervising and advising junior secretaries.
Dear Mr. I have paid into my account cheques totaling…. it is a polite. courteous letter indicating him the seriousness of an unauthorized overdraft. I should like to discuss arrangements for overdraft facilities. it was decided that cheques drawn on the Company’s account must bear two signatures instead of one as formerly. This change takes place as today’s date. yesterday. it occurs to me that you may wish to come to some arrangement for overdraft facilities. One of the signatures must be that of the Chairman or secretary and the other one that of any member of the Board. If so. The bank manager sends a letter to a customer who has drawn too much from his account. I am afraid it will not be possible to honor future cheques drawn against insufficient balances. I have recently entered into a number of very favorable contracts but they involve the early purchase of raw materials and as payments under the contracts will not be made 163
. On a number of occasions recently your account has been withdrawn. In the absence of such arrangement. There have been no changes in the membership of the Board since specimen signatures were issued to you in September. I realize that this leaves only a small balance to my credit and as I am likely to be faced with fairly heavy payments in the coming months. was… and I should be glad if you would arrange for the credits necessary to clear this balance to be paid in as soon as possible.At the meeting of the Board yesterday. perhaps you will call to discuss the matter. The bank replies: Dear Mr… Thank you for your letter of yesterday. Overdrafts are allowed to customer only by previous arrangement and as I noticed that your account has recently been running on a very small balance. The amount overdrawn at close of business. A certified copy of the Board’s resolution is enclosed.
Please confirm receipt of this authority to stop payment. Dear Mr… I am writing to confirm our telegram of this morning to ask you to stop payment of cheque number… for the sum of… drawn payable to the… This cheque appears to have been lost in the post and the further cheque has not been drawn to replace it. When a buyer in seeking credit from a supplier gives the bank as a reference. the information supplied in answer to such request is brief and formal and less personal than the obtainable through a trade reference. Perhaps you will suggest a day and time when it would be convenient for me to call on you. 10 Albert Street. Sheffield as a reference. London. As a rule. the suppliers must approach their own bank not the buyer’s bank and ask them to make the necessary enquiries.until the work is completed. The supplier requests information from the bank: We have received an order for… from… of 19 Drake Street. The firm was established in 1956 and its 164
. Only the drawer of the cheque can countermand the payment and it is done by notifying the bank in writing. Would you be good enough to make enquiries and let us know whether the reputation and financial standing of the firm justify a credit of the above amount? The bank replies: As requested in your letter of… we have made enquiries as to the reputation and standing of the Sheffield firm mentioned. payment is said to be countermanded. I am really in need of overdraft facilities up to about…for 6 months or so. When the payment of a cheque is stopped because of different reasons. It is contrary to banking custom to give information to private enquirer about its customers. They ask for credit and have given the Commonwealth Bank.
The directors are reported to be efficient and reliable and a credit of… is considered sound. Interest on draft is charged on a daily basis. At current market prices. under the terms of partnership agreement. loan: The bank does not require security for the offered
In… you were good enough to grant me a credit of… which was repaid within the agreed period. easy for a bank to obtain a good legal title and it should be readily marketable. will introduce…. I now require a further loan to enable me to proceed with work under a contract with the…for building an extension to their King’s Road School. I have arranged to take into the business a partner. I presume. The security should be easy to value. The request may be with security: I am considering a large extension of business with several firms in Japan and as the terms of dealings will entail additional working capital. sufficient cover for the loan. When granting an advance to a personal customer. Normally a bank will not require security from a customer to support a personal loan. These I am willing to pledge as security. who. shares.capital at or before time when I may 165
. You would be able to rely upon repayment of the loan at maturity as apart from other income. they should provide. I should be glad if you would arrange to grant me a loan of… for a period of.. while interest on a personal loan is calculated on the full amount borrowed. The most common types of security accepted are life policies. months. This information is supplied free from all responsibilities on our part. You already hold for safe keeping on my behalf…. I should be glad if you could grant me a loan of… for a period of…months. I enclose a copy of my latest audited balance sheet and shall be glad to call at the bank at your convenience to discuss the matter. the bank may require some form of acceptable security. I need the loan to purchase building materials at a cost of about… The contract price is… payable immediately upon satisfactory completion of the work on or before 30 August next.commitments have been met regularly. mortgages of land and guarantees.
The customer may require an extension of the loan: On …. the consignment has to be shipped by… at the latest.. Carriage by sea can be a complicated business since the buyer and seller are to observe a set of rules and regulations which have been made over the years. it requires a lot of paperwork.months. Please inform us whether your ship will be able to meet our requirements 166
. you granted me a loan of… which is due for repayment at the end of this month. but unfortunately. TRANSPORT Transporting goods can be done by sea. a week ago.call on you to discuss my request. during the next . The seller or the buyer has to know how much it will cost to have the goods delivered. I have been faced with heavy unexpected payments. he knows the normal freight rates and will keep informed of changes. I am sure you will realize that the fire has created serious problems and that repayment of the loan before settlement of my claim could be made only with the greatest difficulty. due to a fire at my warehouse. A lot of letter writing concerning transport is between firms in the same country. We are about to make up an order for a customer in… for . and let us know when you will be sailing to. but as my claim is unlikely to be settled before the end of the next month. airport or railway station. Damage from the fire is thought to be about… and is fully covered by insurance... I have already taken steps forward to prepare for the repayment. seller makes arrangements with forwarding agents or ship owners. and in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit. while buyers have to contact agents or carriers in their own country when goods are to be collected from a harbor. I will bring me evidence for supporting the above statement. but in other cases he will have to make enquiries: Please quote us your freight rate for cased cycles for shipment from … to…. I should be glad if the period of loan could be extended until …. If he is doing this regularly between two ports.. by air and by land.
/ of…. We will enclose our sailing card for … which loads at the …Docks. the senders will write to the buyers to inform them that the merchandise is on the way.and kindly quote us a rate for the voyage. Shipping instructions are sent to the shipping company. the voyage takes about …days. We are pleased to inform you that the cycles ordered under the above number have been dispatched as arranged The cycles are packed in …cases. When arrangements have been made for shipping the goods. to. Thank you for your letter of.. and is expected to commence loading on. If the rates are acceptable. We have noted that your…is receiving cargo for. and are numbered 1-6... inclusive. We will sail once a week. We see no reason why your goods should not be on board by this date. The agent replies the second letter: In reply to your letter of….. on the. but suggest that the cases should be delivered to the ship on the opening date. and are making arrangements for our cycles to be delivered to the Docks. duly completed. Details of the rates are enclosed. the consignor will send an advice note to the ship owner or agent. and as … is our first port of call. This communication is known as an advice of dispatch and the information is written instead. .. at streamer’s option. We are enclosing your shipping instructions form. The cases are marked CVB in square. These letters can get replies that sound like these ones: We have received your enquiry of… and can inform you that our current freight rate for … is $. We would appreciate if you would complete and return the letter as soon as possible. in a box. and our shipping instructions form. per metric tone or 10 cubic meters. of this month. we are pleased to inform you that the… will be receiving cargo from. 167
.. a form is sent together with a covering note: YOUR ORDER No…..
. both in triplicate. We shall have a consignment of… .The consignment is arriving at. Your consignment should be in our hands by 10 am on the morning of departure day. Valuables are subject to surcharge to cover extra handling costs. including freight. together with a commercial invoice and insurance certificate.. Airlines themselves complete the waybills on the basis of information provided by consignors. which sailed from …yesterday. shipped on board Bs/L2 in complete set. weighing about … kg.. and look forward to hearing from you again. for a customer in. To enable us to prepare our airway bill we shall need the information requested in the enclosed form... Three copies of certificated commercial invoice and certificate of origin will also be necessary. on the …. Please phone me when you are ready to deliver the consignment to our office at the airport. We are sure you will be more than satisfied with the cycles.. It gets the following reply: Thank you for your enquiry regarding your consignment to… All our charges. The airline or its agents prepare the airway bills from the details supplied by the consignor on a special form provided by the airline or by the forwarding agents.. It consists of a number of copies. The invoice value of the consignment is… and we wish to get the insurance cover for this amount plus the costs of sending the consignment. insurance and our commission. airways bill fee. on. Clean. The document used for transport by air is called air way bill. The consignor is required to prepare an airway bill giving particulars of the consignment. together with our sight draft for $. in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit opened with them.. which we wish to send by air from… Please send us details of cost and any formalities to be observed. it is like a B/L but it cannot be used to pass on the right of ownership to the goods. X Bank has have paid the sum. have been handed to X Bank.. Air cargo is charged by weight except the bulky commodities which are charged by volume. are shown on the attached schedule.
.can then prepare to receive it and deal with it promptly. Alternatively we can make arrangements to collect the goods. We hope to receive instructions from you.