2.

4 Update

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Copyright Notice
The copyright in this manual and its associated computer program are the property of Hyprotech Ltd. All rights reserved. Both this manual and the computer program have been provided pursuant to a License Agreement containing restrictions on use. Hyprotech reserves the right to make changes to this manual or its associated computer program without obligation to notify any person or organization. Companies, names and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise stated. No part of this manual may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any other language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical manual or otherwise, or disclosed to third parties without the prior written consent of Hyprotech Ltd., Suite 800, 707 - 8th Avenue SW, Calgary AB, T2P 1H5, Canada. © 2001 Hyprotech Ltd. All rights reserved. HYSYS, HYSYS.Plant, HYSYS.Process, HYSYS.Refinery, HYSYS.Concept, HYSYS.OTS, HYSYS.RTO, DISTIL, HX-NET, HYPROP III and HYSIM are registered trademarks of Hyprotech Ltd. Microsoft® Windows®, Windows® 95/98, Windows® NT and Windows® 2000 are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. This product uses WinWrap® Basic, Copyright 1993-1998, Polar Engineering and Consulting.

Documentation Credits
Authors of the current release, listed in order of historical start on project: Sarah-Jane Brenner, BASc; Conrad, Gierer, BASc; Chris Strashok, BSc; Lisa Hugo, BSc, BA; Muhammad Sachedina, BASc; Allan Chau, BSc; Adeel Jamil, BSc; Nana Nguyen, BSc; Yannick Sternon, BIng; Kevin Hanson, PEng; Chris Lowe, PEng. Since software is always a work in progress, any version, while representing a milestone, is nevertheless but a point in a continuum. Those individuals whose contributions created the foundation upon which this work is built have not been forgotten. The current authors would like to thank the previous contributors. A special thanks is also extended by the authors to everyone who contributed through countless hours of proof-reading and testing.

Contacting Hyprotech
Hyprotech can be conveniently accessed via the following: Website: Technical Support: Information and Sales: www.hyprotech.com support@hyprotech.com info@hyprotech.com

Detailed information on accessing Hyprotech Technical Support can be found in the Technical Support section in the preface to this manual.

Table of Contents
1 HYSYS Tutorials ............................................... 1-1
Unique Concepts............................................................... 1-2 Powerful Engineering Tools ............................................ 1-11 Primary Interface Elements ............................................. 1-12 Pre-Tutorial...................................................................... 1-15 Starting HYSYS............................................................... 1-26

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial ...................... 2-1 Gas Processing Tutorial................................... 3-1 Refining Tutorial............................................... 4-1 Chemicals Tutorial ........................................... 5-1 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial.................... 6-1 Dynamic Refining Tutorial................................ 7-1 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial ............................ 8-1 HYSYS Applications ............................................. i Example Application Layout ............................... v

G1 Acid Gas Sweetening with DEA .................... G1-1 R1 Atmospheric Crude Tower .............................R1-1 R2 Sour Water Stripper........................................R2-1

iii

P1 Propylene/Propane Splitter ............................P1-1 C2 Ethanol Plant ..................................................C2-1 C4 Synthesis Gas Production ..............................C4-1 X1 Case Linking ...................................................X1-1

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1 HYSYS Tutorials
This manual presents you with seven independent Tutorial sessions. Each of these Tutorials guide you step-by-step through the complete construction of a HYSYS simulation. The Tutorial(s) you choose to work through will likely depend on the simulation topic that is most closely related to your work, your familiarity with HYSYS and the types of simulation cases you anticipate on creating in the future.
All completed Tutorial cases are included with your HYSYS package, and are available to be called up from disk.

Regardless of which Tutorial you work through first, you will gain the same basic understanding of the steps and tools used to build a HYSYS simulation. After building one of these Tutorial cases, you might choose to build one or several more, or begin creating your own simulations.

If you are new to HYSYS, it is recommended that you begin with the Steady State tutorials. These tutorials explicitly detail each step required to complete the simulation. In steps where more than one method is available to complete a particular action, all methods are outlined. The Dynamic tutorials (which can only be attempted when using HYSYS.Plant) are also presented in a step-by-step manner, but are less detailed in their explanations. They assume a rudimentary knowledge of the HYSYS interface and methods.

If you are familiar with HYSYS and want to learn to build cases in Dynamic mode, begin with the first tutorial.

The first tutorial is a jump-start into HYSYS.Plant dynamics. It provides a fundamental look at the methods and parameters associated with building a HYSYS case in Dynamics mode, rather than taking a Steady State Model and transferring it over to a Dynamic Model. This tutorial assumes a general knowledge f HYSYS nomenclature and methods. The remaining six tutorials are classified based on three general areas of interest: 1. 2. 3. Gas Processing Refining Chemicals

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Unique Concepts

Each area has an associated Steady State and Dynamic tutorial. The Dynamic tutorials use the Steady State cases and add control schemes and dynamic specifications required to run the case in Dynamic mode. If you are only interested in Steady State simulation, go through the Steady State tutorial(s) that most interest you. However, you may be strictly interested in learning to apply Dynamic simulation methods and do not wish to go through building the Steady State simulation. In this situation, simply use the pre-built Steady State base case, included with HYSYS, as the starting point for your Dynamic tutorial case. Prior to starting the Tutorials, this chapter provides a brief introduction to the structure of HYSYS, as well as the underlying engineering philosophy upon which that structure is based. The basis of this structure is discussed in terms of three important topics:

• Unique Concepts that define the basic manner in which you build a HYSYS simulation. • Powerful Engineering Tools that define the way HYSYS performs its calculations. • Primary Interface Elements used to interact with HYSYS.
Although these topics are discussed individually, together they define the interactive, intuitive approach to modelling with HYSYS.

Unique Concepts
HYSYS is built upon a number of important concepts that make the most efficient use of your simulation time. Two of these concepts are especially worth noting, as they define the basic manner in which you build a HYSYS simulation:

• The Concept of Flowsheets and Sub-Flowsheets • The Concept of Environments

Flowsheet Architecture
The concept of Flowsheets and Sub-Flowsheets provides you with a flexible, intuitive method of building your simulation. Suppose you are simulating a large processing facility with a number of individual process units. Instead of installing all process streams and unit

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operations into a single, cumbersome flowsheet, you can simulate each process unit inside its own dedicated Sub-Flowsheet. HYSYS Flowsheets are defined in terms of the Flowsheet Components they possess:
Flowsheet Component An independent Fluid Package Flowsheet Objects PFD Workbook A dedicated Desktop

Description Consists of a Property Package (e.g., an equation of state) and Components (e.g., Methane, Ethane, Propane, Water). Unit operations and/or streams (material and/or energy streams). A HYSYS view (window) presenting a graphical representation of the flowsheet topology, showing connections between the Flowsheet Objects. A HYSYS view presenting tabular information describing the Flowsheet Objects. The main HYSYS work space where the views for the flowsheet are displayed.

From the perspective of the simulation’s Main Flowsheet, the SubFlowsheets contained within are seen as discrete unit operations with feed and product streams. If you are interested only in the inlet streams to and the outlet streams from a Sub-Flowsheet, you can simply work from the Main Flowsheet. However, if you wish to concentrate only on the objects in the Sub-Flowsheet, you can go "inside" the SubFlowsheet. For instance, consider the Main Flowsheet for a Sour Water Stripper simulation.
Figure 1

The unit operation names appear in uppercase letters, namely PREHEAT, EXCHANGER and SW STRIPPER. From the perspective of the Main Flowsheet, the distillation column SW STRIPPER appears as any other unit operation, with feed and product streams (e.g., Feed, Off Gas, Bottoms). However, the column is also a Sub-Flowsheet with 1-3

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Unique Concepts

streams and operations of its own. You can go "inside" the column SubFlowsheet, which has its own Workbook and PFD, allowing you to focus on the information pertaining to the Sub-Flowsheet only.

Figure 2

In the Column Sub-Flowsheet, the tray section (Main TS), Reboiler and Condenser exist as individual unit operations. Similarly, the streams attaching these operations are also distinct (e.g., To Condenser, Reflux, Boilup, To Reboiler). The only Sub-Flowsheet streams of interest to the Main Flowsheet are the inlet (Feed), outlets (Off Gas, Bottoms) and utility streams (Cooling Water, Steam). These streams are "attached" to the Main Flowsheet to facilitate the transfer of information to and from the Sub-Flowsheet.

Note that flowsheets never hide information from one another; you can still access or change information for Sub-Flowsheet objects from the Main Flowsheet. However, if you wish to change a Sub-Flowsheet’s topology (by adding streams and/or operations, or revising connections), you must make the changes inside the particular Sub-Flowsheet.
There is no limit (except available memory) to the number of flowsheets contained in a HYSYS simulation.

The multi-flowsheet architecture of HYSYS provides a number of technical and functional advantages. For instance, you can:

• Break a large or complex process into smaller, more concise components.

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• Use an independent Fluid Package for each flowsheet. • Build a process unit as a Flowsheet Template (e.g., a refrigeration loop or a decanter system) and store it to disk. You can then install the Template into another simulation, and simply attach the necessary feed and product streams as you would with any other unit operation. • Use nested flowsheets, i.e. have Sub-Flowsheets inside other Sub-Flowsheets. The only restriction on nesting is with columns; that is, you cannot create Sub-Flowsheets inside column Sub-Flowsheets.
Whether your problem requires the use of multiple property packages, or involves modelling large or complex processes, multi-flowsheeting is the ideal solution.

Multi-Flowsheet Navigation
The multi-flowsheet architecture of HYSYS can be likened to a directory structure. Flowsheets and Sub-Flowsheets are directories and subdirectories, while the streams and operations are the files in that directory. The process information associated with the streams and operations is then, in essence, the contents of the files. HYSYS has special tools, called Navigators, which have been designed to take advantage of this directory-like structure. Within a single window, you can quickly and easily access a stream, operation or process variable from any flowsheet in your simulation.
Figure 1 Navigator Button

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Unique Concepts

Environments
The second important concept upon which HYSYS is based is that of Environments. The HYSYS Environments allow you to access and input information in a certain area or "environment" of the program, while the other areas are put on "hold" until you are finished working in the area of interest. There are five Environments in HYSYS:
The environments help you maintain peak efficiency while you are working with your simulation, by avoiding the execution of redundant calculations.

• • • • •

Basis Oil Characterization Main Flowsheet Sub-Flowsheet Column

Basis Environment
Whenever you begin a HYSYS simulation, you automatically start in the Basis environment. Here you can create, define and modify Fluid Packages to be used by the simulation flowsheets. In general, a Fluid Package contains at minimum a Property Package, as well as library and/or hypothetical components. A Fluid Package may also contain other information such as reactions and interaction parameters.

Oil Characterization Environment
The Oil environment allows you to characterize petroleum fluids by creating and defining Assays and Blends. The Oil Characterization procedure will generate petroleum pseudo-components for use in your Fluid Package(s). The Oil environment is unique in that it is accessible only from the Basis environment.

Main Flowsheet Environment
The Main Flowsheet environment is where you do the majority of your work – defining the topology of the Main Simulation Flowsheet by installing and defining streams, unit operations and Sub-Flowsheets. The Main Flowsheet is said to be the parent flowsheet for the SubFlowsheets it contains. A Sub-Flowsheet can also be a parent flowsheet if it contains other Sub-Flowsheets.

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Sub-Flowsheet Environment
The Sub-Flowsheet environment is where you define the topology of a particular Sub-Flowsheet. This environment is similar to the main build environment in that you can install streams, operations and other Sub-Flowsheets.

Column Environment
Similar to the Sub-Flowsheet environment, the Column environment is where you define the topology of a particular Column Sub-Flowsheet. Examples of unit operations contained in a Column Sub-Flowsheet include tray sections, condensers, reboilers and side strippers. HYSYS contains a number of pre-built Column Sub-Flowsheet Templates which allow you to quickly install a typical type of column and then customize it accordingly.

How the Environments are Related
Each environment has its own Desktop space. Whenever you move from one environment to another, your Desktop will be redrawn with the same views as the last time you were working in that environment. The diagram in Figure 1 shows the relationships among the various environments. The arrows indicate the directions in which you would normally move between the environments as you are building a HYSYS simulation. The typical process for building a simulation is as follows: 1. 2. Create a new simulation case, and you will be in the Basis Environment. Inside the Basis Environment, you may:

• choose a property method and pure components from the HYSYS pure component library • create and define any hypothetical components • define reactions
At this point, you have two options. If you have a petroleum fluid to characterize, proceed to Step 3. If not, proceed to Step 5.

1-7

Enter the Oil Characterization Environment. 3. 5.1-8 Unique Concepts In order to access the Oil Environment. Remember that if you wish to change any Flowsheet’s topology. where you define the topology of a particular Sub-Flowsheet. where you • define one or more Assays and Blends • generate petroleum pseudo components to represent the oil 4. Enter the Column or Sub-Flowsheet Environment. you must make the changes inside the environment of the particular flowsheet. Return to the Basis Environment Enter the Main Flowsheet environment. Figure 1 Keep in mind that you can move between the environments at any time during the simulation. The arrows in the diagram of Figure 1 show that 1-8 . you must first be inside the Basis Environment. where you • define the topology of the Main Flowsheet by installing streams and unit operations • install Column and/or Template Sub-Flowsheets 6.

With each time-step. 1-9 . extraneous calculations. only that Flowsheet and any others below it in the hierarchy will automatically calculate as you make changes. you will be placed in the Simulation Basis Environment. Dynamics calculate in a flat” Flowsheet space. you enter the Main Flowsheet Environment. When you start HYSYS. Suppose you now realize that you are missing some components in the Main Flowsheet.HYSYS Tutorials 1-9 the Column and Sub-Flowsheet environments are accessible only from the Main Flowsheet. The only restriction is that the Oil Environment can only be accessed from inside the Basis Environment. You can return to the Simulation Basis Environment. Press the Active (green) button to resume calculations. this is only the typical way of moving between the environments. or one directly above them on the hierarchical tree. This is not affected by the Flowsheet Environments. the concept of Holding Steady State calculations works according to the hierarchy of the flowsheets in the simulation. Flowsheet calculations will not resume until you instruct HYSYS to do so upon returning to the Main Flowsheet. and all flowsheets will be placed in Holding mode until you return. When finished. However. Advantages of Using Environments This approach helps you make the most of your simulation time by eliminating the execution of time-consuming. Dynamic calculations proceed from the front to back of the flowsheet in an orderly propagation. For Sub-Flowsheets. consider the creation of a new HYSYS simulation case. All other flowsheets will hold until you move to their Flowsheet’s Simulation Environment. The Navigator allows you to move directly from one flowsheet to any another. This prevents calculations from taking place until you have made all changes to the Fluid Package. To illustrate the advantages of the Environments approach. When you are working inside a particular flowsheet. and proceed to install streams and unit operations. Here you define a Fluid Package by choosing a property method and components.

you might move up to C. all other flowsheets will be on hold while you work on the column. all Flowsheets would automatically be re-calculated based on the new Sub-Flowsheet solution. When you finally return to the Main Flowsheet. When you then return to the Main Flowsheet Environment. Since D is above E in the hierarchy.1-10 Unique Concepts Figure 2 Consider the diagram shown in Figure 2. If. all flowsheets will be on hold except D and E. A. Suppose that you now wish to make changes in Sub-Flowsheet D. Once you reach a new solution for D. You would enter the environment for this Sub-Flowsheet. which will then resume calculations. on the other hand. Suppose you want to change the number of trays for a column in Sub-Flowsheet F. You could continue making changes until you reach a satisfactory solution for F. As there are no Flowsheets below F in the hierarchy. then instruct HYSYS to re-calculate the column. you move directly from D to A. make the necessary change. B and F) will resume calculations. HYSYS will automatically "visit" the Main Flowsheet for you so that Flowsheet A 1-10 . all other Flowsheets (Main. so you move to its environment.

calculations proceed from the front to the back of each flowsheet in an orderly propagation with each time step. Whether complete or partial. Any transfer to a Flowsheet not on your "branch" of the tree will force a full recalculation by HYSYS. results are passed bi-directionally (forwards and backwards) through the flowsheet. • Modular Operations . Note that the concept of Holding only applies to steady-state calculations. you gain process understanding as you build the model. and immediately displays the updated information in all locations. • Built-in Intelligence . or communicated from the attached streams. • Event Driven . • Non-Sequential Solution Algorithm . just as if you were solving the flowsheet by hand. nor are you required to instruct unit operations to begin calculations. With immediate calculation and instant access to information. Whenever you supply a new piece of information. In Dynamic mode. HYSYS automatically re-calculates all items affected by the change.The HYSYS property packages know when enough information is available and perform the correct flash calculation automatically. These features make the process of building a simulation both interactive and intuitive.HYSYS combines completely interactive calculation with instantaneous access to information. Powerful Engineering Tools At the core of HYSYS are a number of features which provide you with a great degree of flexibility in the way you supply information.Each unit operation or stream can perform all necessary calculations. Dynamic calculations are not affected by the Flowsheet Environments. These features.HYSYS Tutorials 1-11 has the most up to date information when you transfer there. whether the information is specified in the operation itself. maximize your return on simulation time. Based on the flowsheet topology and supplied information. every stream and unit operation affected by a change is automatically calculated. in combination with the easy-touse interface.You are not required to build a flowsheet in a specific manner or direction. 1-11 .

among other things. The three primary interface elements for interacting with HYSYS are: • PFD • Workbook • Property View PFD The PFD is a graphical representation of your flowsheet. and display detailed process information using customizable Material Balance Tables. build and examine your flowsheet.1-12 Primary Interface Elements Primary Interface Elements There is no restriction on which interface elements – PFD. You can use the PFD to. showing the connections among the streams and operations. A sample PFD is shown in the following figure. Information can be supplied and accessed in a variety of manners throughout HYSYS. or Property Views – can be open at any time. All displayed information is automatically updated with the most current information. Figure 1 1-12 . Workbook.

HYSYS Tutorials 1-13 Workbook Information is shared among all these interface elements. so no matter which one(s) you have open on your screen. Figure 2 1-13 . The Workbook is a collection of pages that display information in a tabular format. displaying information in varying levels of detail. such as streams or unit operations. You can install multiple pages for a given object type. A sample Workbook is shown Figure 2. each will display the most current data. Each Workbook page displays information about a specific object type.

1-14 . Within each tab there are several pages that contain the relevant property information. A sample property view for a material stream is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 Pages Tabs These and other interface elements are discussed in more detail in the actual Tutorial sessions that follow.1-14 Primary Interface Elements Property View The property view contains multiple views of "properties" for a stream or operation with each view accessed via a tab.

Each of these Tutorials will guide you step-by-step through the complete construction of a HYSYS simulation. Each example contains detailed instructions for choosing a property package and components. 2. and using various aspects of the HYSYS interface to examine the results while you are creating the simulation. Seven complete Tutorials are presented: 1. 3. low-temperature separator and de-propanizer column. 1. or that you feel most comfortable with. This tutorial makes use of the recommendations of the Dynamic Assistant when building the case.Models the Refining example problem in Dynamic mode. Gas Processing Dynamics . The tutorial details the steps to building and running a debutanizer column in Dynamic mode. The first tutorial is stored in the file debDyn. The Dynamic tutorials following the Steady State cases are stored in the files Dyntut1.Models a sweet gas refrigeration plant consisting of an inlet separator.Introduces and illustrates the steps required to build simulations strictly using HYSYS. crude furnace and an atmospheric crude column.Models a propylene glycol production process consisting of a continuously-stirred-tank reactor and a distillation tower. it is recommended that you begin with one of these tutorials in order to familiarize yourself with the initial steps required to build a HYSYS simulation. 6. Chemicals Dynamics . 1-15 .Models a crude oil processing facility consisting of a pre-flash drum. 5. Chemicals Steady State . This tutorial assumes a rudimentary knowledge of HYSYS methods and nomenclature. All complete Tutorial cases are included with your HYSYS package in the HYSYS\SAMPLES directory.HYSYS Tutorials 1-15 Pre-Tutorial There are also several HYSYS courses available.hsc files. Regardless of the tutorial you work through first. If you are new to HYSYS.hsc through Dyntut3. installing and defining streams. Dynamic Fundamental Tutorial . The Tutorial you choose first will likely depend on which one is most closely related to your work. The Steady State case are stored in the TUTOR1. This tutorial make use of the recommendations of the Dynamic Assistant when building the case.hsc through TUTOR3.models the Gas Processing tutorial case in Dynamic mode. example problems are used to illustrate some of the basic concepts of building a simulation in HYSYS. Gas Processing Steady State .Plant dynamics. 4. Refining Steady State . If you don’t want to work through the Steady State cases. Contact Hyprotech for more information. chiller. gas/gas heat exchanger. In the chapters that follow.hsc. you will gain the same basic understanding of the steps and tools used to build a HYSYS simulation. you can use the pre-built Steady State tutorial cases available with HYSYS as a starting point for the Dynamic tutorials.hsc. Refining Dynamics .Models the Chemicals example problem in Dynamic mode. unit operations and columns.

you can build the Steady State case and then proceed with the Dynamic solution. The Steady State tutorials attempt to illustrate HYSYS’ flexibility by showing you as many of these alternative methods as possible. Except for the first tutorial. or you can simply call up the Steady State case from disk and begin the Dynamic modeling. You can then choose which approach is most appropriate for you. the Dynamics tutorial use the Steady State solution as a basis for building the dynamic case. If you wish. or a combination of both to achieve the same result. 1-16 . more than one method exists for performing a task or executing a command.1-16 Pre-Tutorial Often in HYSYS. Many times you can use the keyboard. the mouse.

Whenever you pass the mouse pointer over certain objects. For example. press and hold the left mouse button. such as tool bar icons and flowsheet objects. For example. These are the normal (default) settings for the mouse. to move them. Position the mouse pointer over the item. right-click an object to display the Object Inspection menu. It will contain a brief description of the action that will occur if you click on that button or details relating to the object.and right-buttons. and rapidly press and release the left mouse button. then rapidly press and release the left mouse button twice. Position the mouse pointer over the item. and then release the mouse button. Keywords for Mouse Actions As you work through various procedures in the manuals. double-click the HYSYS icon to launch the program. move the mouse while the mouse button is down. a Tool Tip will be displayed. Instead of repeating certain phrases for mouse instructions. point to an item to see its Tool Tip.HYSYS Tutorials 1-17 Conventions Used in the Manuals Conventions used in the Manuals The following section lists a number of conventions used throughout the documentation. Keywords Point Action Move the mouse pointer to position it over an item. For example. Click Right-Click Double-Click Drag Tool Tip 1-17 . For example. click Close button to close the current window. For example. keywords are used to imply a longer instructional phrase. but use the right mouse button. Position the mouse pointer over the item. As for click. you will be given instructions on performing specific functions or commands. you drag items in the current window. but you can change the positions of the left.

’ Column Feed. check boxes and cells are identified by bold lettering.’ ‘Click the Ignored check box to ignore this operation. The name of a HYSYS view (also know as a property view or window) is indicated by bold lettering. When you are asked to provide keyboard input. Unit operation names are identified by bold lettering. italicized lettering. Note that blank spaces are acceptable in the names of streams and unit operations. 1-18 . When you are asked to select a HYSYS button.’ ‘Click the Close button to close the current view. Material and energy stream names are identified by bold lettering. it will be indicated by bold lettering. Example ‘Select File-Save from the menu to save your case. When you are asked to select a key or key combination to perform a certain function. Atmospheric Tower ‘Type 100 in the cell to define the stream temperature.’ ‘Press the F1 key on the keyboard to open the context sensitive help. Condenser Duty Inlet Separator.’ ‘Click Composition page on the Worksheet tab to see all the stream composition information.’ The name of radio buttons. keyboard commands are identified by words in bolded small capitals (small caps).1-18 Pre-Tutorial A number of text formatting conventions are also used throughout the manuals: Format When you are asked to access a HYSYS menu command. the button is identified by bold.’ ‘Selecting this command opens the Session Preferences view. The names of pages and tabs on various views are identified in bold lettering. the command is identified by bold lettering.

3. for example: 1. Move to the Name cell by doing one of the following: • Select the Name cell • Press ALT+N 2. the Options page of the Simulation tab on the Session Preferences view has three groups. 3. 2. Press ENTER to accept the name. Notice the two alternatives for completing Step 1 are indented to indicate their sequence in the overall procedure. Numbered lists are used to break down a procedure into steps. Type a name for the operation.HYSYS Tutorials 1-19 Bullets and Numbering Bulleted and numbered lists will be used extensively throughout the manuals. or for simply listing like objects. Bulleted lists are used to identify alternative steps within a procedure. namely: • General Options • Errors • Column Options 1-19 . For example. Type a name for the operation. Select the Name cell. Press ENTER to accept the name. A bulleted list of like objects might describe the various groups on a particular view. A sample procedure that utilizes bullets is: 1.

you should have read the introductory section which precedes the example problems in this manual. Figure 1 HYSYS Icon Annotations Annotation text appears in the outside page margin.1-20 Pre-Tutorial Callouts A callout is a label and arrow that describes or identifies an object. Before proceeding. or general messages applying to the manual. The use of many of these conventions will become more apparent as you progress through the manuals. Text appearing in the outside margin of the page supplies you with additional or summary information about the adjacent graphic or paragraph. Examples include: The resultant temperature of the mixed streams may be quite different than those of the feed streams. Shaded Text Boxes A shaded text box provides you with important information regarding HYSYS’ behaviour. 1-20 . due to mixing effects. An example is shown to the left. An example callout describing a graphic is shown below.

and provide access to all information associated with an object (e. The purpose of a modal view is generally to focus your attention on the current task before allowing you to perform your next task. • Modal View .A property view as described above. • View . or provide the required input.g. and a Pin button in the upper right corner.HYSYS Tutorials 1-21 Terminology The following list describes some of the HYSYS interface terminology: Figure 2 Modal Views Property View Pin button The modal property view is designed to prevent a "clutter" of views on your Desktop by encouraging you to focus on the current task. You cannot move outside a modal view until you close it. The view shown here for Energy Stream C3Duty is an example of a property view. you may wish to turn this option off by clearing the Use Modal Property Views check box on the Session Preferences view. with a thick solid border. • Property View .. a stream or unit operation). in that you cannot move outside the 1-21 . When you become a more experienced user.Has a thick solid border. and is without one or both of the Minimize/Maximize buttons in the upper right corner. Property views are used extensively in HYSYS. A modal property view behaves similarly to a modal view as described above. Both the Energy Stream C3Duty and Stream 1: Compositional Basis views shown above are examples of modal views.Any “windowed” graphical representation found on the HYSYS Desktop. Examples include the property view for a stream (like Energy Stream C3Duty shown above) or unit operation. or an error message window.A view with multiple pages accessed via tabs. • Modal Property View . then close the view before moving on.

Design. you can access other objects on the Desktop.Invokes a command when pressed. etc. Figure 3 Non-Modal View Pages Matrix Maximize/Minimize Buttons Button Tabs Drop-Down List Check Box • Non-Modal View . • Pages . Above they are Connections.Has one or both of the Minimize/Maximize buttons and a normal border. • Drop-Down List . In the figure above. • Input Cell . • Button . temperatures. However. An example is the Delete button in the above view.A location inside a view where information is supplied and/or displayed. Reactions. Rating. These are listed in the column on the left-hand side of the view.A list of available options for a certain input cell. Examples include stream names. indicated by the arrow at the end of an input cell. User Variables and Notes. Workbook and Dynamics are the tabs.A group of cells in tabular format. through which you can manoeuvre with the mouse or the keyboard arrow keys.In views with multiple pages of information. the pages are accessed by tabs at the bottom of the view. Parameters.1-22 Pre-Tutorial view until you close it. a modal property view can be converted to a non-modal view by pressing the Pin button. • Matrix .Most tabs have associated page views. When a non-modal view is open. 1-22 . • Tabs . such as property views and Workbooks. In many cases an Input Cell has an associated a drop-down. The Energy Stream C3Duty view is a modal property view.

associated with the Edit Bar. Each group box has its own active location.Items or settings which are either On or Off. Figure 4 Edit Bar Active Highlighted Location Unit Box Object Status Indicator Group Box Radio Button • Edit Bar -Found at the top of a view. The Ignored check box in the above view is Off. • Group Box . • Active Highlighted Location .found at the bottom of each property view.HYSYS Tutorials 1-23 • Check Box . Clicking on a blank check box will turn the function On. 1-23 . is used for entering or selecting numerical or text input. • Unit Box . The indicator displays a status message with an appropriately coloured background (red for a missing parameter. Clicking on it again turns it Off. yellow for a warning message and green for OK).the current active location on a particular view is always indicated by highlighting. it shows the calculation status of the associated object. this provides a dropdown list of units which are applicable for the parameter type of the current input cell. • Object Status Indicator.an organizational border within a page that groups related functions together.

• Minimize/Maximize Buttons . Figure 5 Close Maximize/ Minimize Buttons Button Scroll Button Scroll Bar • Close Button .A minimized view. The scroll bar in the above window is horizontal. HYSYS Icon 1-24 . • Scroll Bar . used to close the view. of which only one can be active at a time.Clicking inside the scroll bar allows you to access information which cannot be displayed in the current size of a menu or view. • Icon .The X button in the upper right corner of a view. Double-clicking on an icon opens the view. The HYSYS icon is shown to the left.A set of options.Clicking and dragging the scroll button up/ down or left/right also allows you to access information which cannot be displayed in the current size of a menu or view.In the upper right corner of a view. • Scroll Button . Radio buttons are always found in groups of at least two. or expand a view to its full size.1-24 Pre-Tutorial • Radio Button . allows you to iconize (minimize) the current view.

you are ready to start HYSYS and begin building a simulation. the inherent approach to modelling in HYSYS will make the best use of your simulation time. Now that we have introduced you to some of the basics of HYSYS and this manual. Beyond the advanced technical features.HYSYS Tutorials 1-25 You’re Ready! We believe you will find that HYSYS is simply the best process modelling solution available. 1-25 .

. To start HYSYS. Select the Start Menu. To re-size the view. 1. 1-26 .1-26 Starting HYSYS Starting HYSYS With Windows NT 4. the installation process creates a short-cut to HYSYS in the Start Menu under Programs. When you start HYSYS.Plant.AEA Technology.Refinery). your Desktop view should appear larger than this when initially opened.0 or Windows 95/98. press the Maximize button in the upper right hand corner.Process or HYSYS. Select HYSYS.Plant. 2. Move from Programs to AEA Technology to HYSYS. click and drag the outside border. 3.. the HYSYS Desktop will appear: Figure 1 Button Bar Menu Bar Maximize Button HYSYS Icon Status Bar Object Status Window Trace Window Performance Slider Note that this view has been resized.Plant (or HYSYS. To make the view full size.

Menu Bar Button Bar Object Status Window Trace Window Status Bar In HYSYS. Preferences). Provides quick access to the most common commands.g. Preferences The session preferences are accessed via the Tools menu. do one of the following: • Select Tools on the Menu Bar. Under each Menu Bar item is a list of options. it will move you to the cell of interest. others which open another view (e.. Whenever you see a label with an underlined letter. For buttons. Simply select the appropriate button to invoke the associated command. permanent record of these solving messages.g. The Status Bar also shows a single-line display of the current solving message in the Trace Window. Displays Fly-By descriptions of a HYSYS button or menu when the cursor is placed over the button.g. you can access the item by holding down the ALT key and pressing the letter. Tools. Before proceeding. For input cells. To activate the menu. the simulation preferences will be discussed. it will invoke the command associated with the button. • Press ALT T 1-27 . menu items have one letter underlined. For menus.. or when the menu item is currently highlighted. e. The Trace Window provides a scrolling.. some of which invoke commands (e. Save). Displays the status of the input information for objects (streams and unit operations) in the simulation. this command will open the associated dropdown menu. This window is useful for tracking unknown information for objects. Displays solving messages for various objects as they are calculated.HYSYS Tutorials 1-27 Some of the main features of the HYSYS Desktop are described below: Desktop Component Description Provides access to most commands in HYSYS.

or press ESC. If you open the incorrect menu. do one of the following: • Press the down arrow key to move the highlight to Preferences. the underlined letter of the item you want to open. • Press P. then press ENTER. • Click on Preferences. The Session Preferences property view will appear: Figure 3 1-28 .1-28 Starting HYSYS A drop down menu of available items appears: Figure 2 The Menu Bar command is the only means of accessing the Session Preferences. you can either select any blank area of the Desktop. To access the Session Preferences.

You can provide a new file name and/or location to which the Preferences are saved. For a detailed description of all the Session Preferences tabs and related pages. Fonts. see the User’s Guide. 1-29 . Common to each tab are the two buttons along the bottom of the view: Command Save Preference Set Load Preference Set Description Saves the Preferences to a file. Colours. • The current active location (indicated by the highlight) is the Allow Multiple Stream Connections selection in the General Options group. for the simulation. • It is currently a modal view. as indicated by the multiple tabs. etc.. as indicated by the thick border and the Pin button in the upper right corner. some characteristics of the Session Preferences view are: • It is a property view. You can save multiple Session Preferences. • It has three Groups on the Variables page. Icons. Some of the more frequently accessed preference setting views are discussed in the following section. Session Preferences can be saved for use in other simulations. The Preferences section in HYSYS is used to specify default information for the simulation case. This information includes Automatic Naming Formats. namely General Options. This button allows you to Load Preferences saved from a previous HYSYS session. Chapter 7 . Errors and Column Options.Menu Bar Options. Units.HYSYS Tutorials 1-29 Using the terminology outlined previously.

controls whether lists of streams should be filtered to only those that are not currently connected. HYSYS displays all the streams in the Flowsheet. which is not activated by default. only streams that are not already connected as a feed to an operation will be shown in the list. all property views are displayed as Modal (with a Pin). If the check box is not activated. For example. Errors. If the check box is activated. If this check box is not activated. all property views are Non-Modal. Allow Multiple Stream Connections View New Streams Upon Creation Use Modal Property Views 1-30 . the property view for the stream will automatically appear when you add a new stream. Figure 4 The General Options group is a set of six check boxes: Option Description This check box. When this box is activated. suppose you use the drop-down list of streams when selecting a feed to an operation. you have the options of individually making each property view Non-Modal by selecting the Pin in the upper corner of the view. and Column Options. If activated. When Views are Modal. including the ones that you cannot connect as feed streams.1-30 Starting HYSYS Simulation Tab Options Page The Options page shown in Figure 4 contains three groups: General Options.

when activated. When activated. Figure 5 1-31 . you will not be prompted to acknowledge errors. HYSYS prompts you for confirmation before deleting an object. It is advised to keep this option activated. show a fully expanded column in the column environment PFD. you will be guided through the Column installation. will send the specified errors to the Trace Window. When this check box is activated. When these radio check boxes are activated. HYSYS prompts for confirmation when you change to or from Dynamic mode. Use Input Experts Confirm Deletes Confirm Mode Switches The Errors group contains two check boxes that. those trays which have streams (inlet or outlet) attached to them.HYSYS Tutorials 1-31 Option Description Column operations have an optional installation guide built in to assist you in the installation. When this is activated. when active. When the check box is inactive. The Column Options group contains two check boxes. the column is displayed with the minimum required number of trays. Desktop Page The Desktop page shown in Figure 5 contains two groups: Initial Build Home View and Face Plates. HYSYS will delete the object as soon as the instruction is given. If the check box is not activated. The Expand Tray Sections box will.

and Summary views can all be open at the same time. appears first when you enter a new Environment. This setting only establishes which view should be opened by default. 1-32 .1-32 Starting HYSYS The Initial Build Home View group contains radio buttons which allow you to specify which of the three main interfaces. Energy Streams are indicated as Q-%d. with a Starting Number of 100. This does not restrict you to what you can access within that environment. Figure 6 There are no restrictions in naming streams and operations. in the view shown. For example. PFD. the face plates will be organized according to your specifications in the Face Plates group. For each Flowsheet object. the second Q-101. PFD. you can specify a naming convention and a starting number. When you have a large number of face plates open in a case and you select Arrange Desktop under Window in the Menu Bar. and so on. The first energy stream installed using the Add Energy Stream command will be named Q-100. You can specify the naming convention for each type of operation. as the Workbook. Naming Page The Automatic Naming of Flowsheet Objects group dictates how HYSYS names streams and operations when they are installed. The automatic naming function is provided merely for convenience. You can change any default name at any time within the Flowsheet. The Face Plates group involves the placement of face plates on the Desktop. or Summary. Workbook. You can use more than one word (separated by spaces if desired) to provide the best possible description.

Contains the default unit set in HYSYS. SI. Displays the variable and the unit according to the highlighted Unit Set. SI is currently highlighted in the Available Unit Set list. In the Units matrix below this list. To activate one of the other two default unit sets. HYSYS has three default unit sets: Field. 1-33 .HYSYS Tutorials 1-33 Variables Tab Units Page Figure 7 Field is the Current Unit Set for the case. Used to delete a custom unit set from the preferences. Since you may wish HYSYS to display information in units other than the default. and the units matrix is updated to display the default units associated with that set. Used to add a new custom unit set to the Preferences. kPa is the default unit for Pressure. select the desired set in the Available Unit Sets list. you are able to create your own custom sets. For example. The current set appears highlighted. The units displayed in the simulation are dependent on your Current Unit Set. and the appropriate SI unit is displayed for each variable in the matrix. These three sets are fixed. these are displayed in the list of Available Unit Sets. in that none of the units can be changed. These cannot be changed or deleted. the right column shows the unit for each corresponding variable in the left column. and EuroSI.

You can enter the pressure as either 1 atm.1-34 Starting HYSYS Although HYSYS displays a single unit for each parameter. Formats Page On this page you can specify how variables will be displayed. 0. Your input will be converted and displayed in the default unit. Double clicking on the format cell of a variable will bring up the Real Format Editor view. you can supply a value for a process variable in any one of a number of applicable units. or any of the other available units. For example. There is no need to manually convert the pressure to the default unit . Although the three HYSYS Unit Sets cannot be modified. then modify the cloned set to display the units of your choice. 101. 14.325 kPa. you can make a copy (clone) of any Unit Set.HYSYS will automatically perform the conversion for you. In each of the Steady State tutorials.99 bar. Notice the Clone button in the Available Units Sets group. Figure 8 1-34 .69 psia. you will be instructed as to which default Unit Set to choose. suppose you want to specify the pressure of a stream to be 1 atm but you are using the Field set.

Tutorial If you are new to HYSYS.HSC TUTOR3. Returns the selected variable to the default format. Dynamic Fundamentals Gas Processing Steady State Refining Steady State Steady State Chemicals Steady State Gas Processing Dynamics Refining Dynamics Chemicals Dynamics Tutorial Book Chapter Chapter 1 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Samples Case Name debutdyn.HYSYS Tutorials 1-35 There are three buttons located on the Formats page: Button Format Description Opens the Real Format Editor. 1-35 .HSC dyntut1.HSC TUTOR2. Reset Reset All Get Started You are now ready to begin building a HYSYS simulation. it is recommended that you begin with the Steady State tutorials in Chapter 3.hsc dyntut3. Returns all the variables to their default formats. so proceed to the Tutorial of your choice.4 or 5. as well as specify the number of significant figures for that specification. which allows you to change the format specification for the unit selected.hsc TUTOR1.hsc Once you have completed one or more tutorials. you may want to examine at the Applications binder for other examples that may be of interest.hsc dyntut2.

1-36 Starting HYSYS 1-36 .

The DeButanizer column setup in this tutorial presents a general procedure for simulating towers and can be adapted to model other types and configurations of columns using HYSYS.Plant Dynamics. In the rating dynamics section. This tutorial demonstrates how the equipment and pressure-flow specifications should be set.Plant Dynamics. You can then apply this knowledge towards creating your own dynamic simulation cases. you will gain a solid understanding of the workings of HYSYS. to creating a more complex rating model of the simulation.Plant Dynamics. The design dynamics section will show how to prepare a simplified column model.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-1 2 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial This tutorial introduces you to the fundamental concepts and procedures required to build a simulation case using HYSYS. The 2-1 . Note that this tutorial assumes that you have previous experience using HYSYS. This tutorial demonstrates the modelling of a distillation tower using two very different levels of detail. If you are new to HYSYS. As you build the flowsheet. an accumulator. The simplified model consists of a tray section and single unit operations representing the condenser and the reboiler. As you work through this tutorial. Its detailed instructions guide you through the steps of building a basic dynamic case. a heat exchanger. you will learn a systematic method of setting up a dynamic simulation case. a vapour bypass stream. a pump and appropriate PID controllers. it is strongly recommended that you start with one of the Steady State tutorials to familiarize yourself with the program. the single unit operation condenser will be replaced by an overhead system consisting of valves.

the process variables will line out in a minimal amount of time and the flowsheet will be ready for manipulation.2 2-2 .2-2 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial detailed procedure for the column setup is given. The tutorial is designed such that at the end of both the Design and Rating sections. it is left as an open exercise for you to set up variables in the Databook. but the dynamic behaviour is not illustrated. With so many possible ways to manipulate the flowsheet.1 Figure 2. make changes to key variables and observe the dynamic behaviour of the model. Figure 2.

Click on the Field in the Available Unit Sets list to ensure it is the active set. scroll down the units matrix until Liq. If you wish. Vol. Press the Clone button. Flow cell by clicking on barrel/day. For this example. 5. Flow is visible in the left column of the matrix. Using the vertical scroll bar. you can enter a new name in the Unit Set Name cell. 2.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-3 Creating a New Unit Set The first step in building the simulation case is choosing a unit set.3 4. Vol. you can create a new unit set by cloning an existing one. Notice the default unit for Liq. Vol. Select Preferences from the Tools menu bar. However. HYSYS will not allow you to change any of the three default unit sets listed. A new unit set named NewUser will appear and become automatically highlighted. then customize the new set: 1. making it the Current Unit Set. Move to the Liq. You can now change the units for any variable associated with this new unit set. Select the Units page of the Variables tab. 2-3 . Flow is in barrel/day. A more appropriate unit for this example is ft3/hr. 6. you should make a new unit set based on the HYSYS Field set. Figure 2. 3. The Session Preferences view should appear.

n-Hexane. 10. Beginning the Simulation 9. Your new unit set is now defined.4 Notice that all commands accessed via the Button Bar are also available as Menu items.2-4 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 7. or by pressing the F2 key then the i key. New Case Button Start a new case by pressing the New Case button. i-Butane. Figure 2. i-Pentane. n-Pentane. Click on ft3/hr. n-Butane. Create a fluid package using the following property package and components: Property Package Peng Robinson Components Propane. Open the drop-down list of available units in the Edit Bar by clicking on . 2-4 . n-Octane 11. Press the Close button to begin the simulation. Enter the Simulation Environment. n-Heptane. 8. or scroll down to it by pressing the i key then press ENTER. isobutene.

200 0. Add a DISTILLATION COLUMN to the case.140 0. Create the two feed streams in the Workbook using the Material Streams and Compositions tabs: Stream Name Temperature [F] Pressure [psia] Mass Flow [lb/hr] Mass Fraction [propane] Mass Fraction [i-butane] Mass Fraction [n-butane] Mass Fraction [i-butene] Mass Fraction [i-pentane] Mass Fraction [n-pentane] Mass Fraction [n-hexane] Mass Fraction [n-heptane] Mass Fraction [n-octane] Feed 1 300. The completed views for the specifications are shown in Figure 2.0 220 18000 0.5: 2-5 .160 0.020 0. add a Column Component Fraction specification and a Column Component Recovery specification.140 0.0 350 9000 0.000 0.210 0.110 0.170 0. Provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Column Name Number of Stages Feed Stream (Feed Stage) Feed Stream (Feed Stage) Condenser Type Ovhd Vapour Outlet Design [Connections] Ovhd Liquid Outlet Bottoms Liquid Outlet Reboiler Energy Stream Condenser Energy Stream Condenser Pressure [psia] Condenser Delta P [psi] Reboiler Pressure [psia] Design [Monitor] Ovhd Vap Rate Specified Value [lbmole/hr] Entry DeButanizer 15 Feed 2 (4) Feed 1 (8) Partial Vent Control Butanes C5+ Reb Q Cond Q 205 3 215 0 14.220 0.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-5 12.130 0. On the Specs page of the DeButanizer property view.012 0.190 0.120 Feed 2 140.170 0.008 0.000 0.000 13.

Tighten the purities on the tower by changing the specified values of C5s in Top and Butane Recovery to 0. but the trade-off is increased operating costs arising from higher condenser and reboiler duties.951 respectively. C5s in Top and Butane Recovery. Open the File menu and select Save As. 17. The column will begin solving. The tower is producing a higher purity product. Dynamic Specifications Dynamic Mode Button 20. On the Monitor page of the Debutanizer property view.hsc. Type in the file name as DFTutSS. 19. Switch to Dynamic mode. 18.hsc and click the Save button. Save the case as DFTutSS. When asked if you want to resolve the items identified by the dynamics assistant.2-6 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Figure 2. deactivate the Active check box for both the Reflux Ratio and Distillate Rate specifications. Close the DeButanizer column property view.5 15. 2-6 . click the No button.018 and 0. Activate the Active check box for both new specifications. 16.

23. using the steady state flows for the design. Select DeButanizer in the Flowsheets group and Condenser in the Unit Operations group. the condenser. 22.6 2-7 . is a flowsheet boundary stream and will have a flowrate specification. You have two options for this specification: • Flow of the stream Reflux • Reflux Rate as a ratio of total liquid from the unit For this case. 21. • • • • • Feed 1 Feed 2 Vent Control Butanes C5+ In addition. Open the Object Navigator by pressing F3. Butanes. Condenser Specification For the flowsheet created in this example. reboiler and tray section will be sized. With this in mind. Select the UnitOps radio button in the Filter group. the liquid product stream from the condenser. one other condenser specification will define the pressure-flow relationship within the condenser. requires an additional pressure-flow specification.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-7 To summarize the pressure-flow specifications for this case. the reflux rate as a ratio of total liquid will be specified. Figure 2. one pressure-flow specification will be set around the condenser and one will be set on each of the flowsheet boundary streams: A condenser for a refluxed tower increases the flowsheet degrees of freedom by one and thus.

On the Condenser property view. For a quick sizing calculation. a 20 minute residence time and a liquid operating level of 50%.× 20min × -----. 25. Input a Diameter of 10 ft and a Length of 15 ft to obtain a vessel volume that approaches 1180 ft3. 29. Delete the value in the Volume field. Press the View button. the reflux rate as a ratio of total liquid flow is obtained. select the Dynamics tab.5. the condenser will now be sized. 1hr 1 ft3 1750 -----.5/5.5. 26. Select the Worksheet tab and Conditions page on the Condenser property view and make a note of the liquid volume flow of the stream To Condenser.5 hr 60min 28.82.5 times the rate of Butanes.2-8 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 24. 2-8 .= 1167ft3 0. Sizing the Condenser Using the flows that were calculated in steady state as a design basis. and then the Specs page. In the Dynamic Specification group box.× --------------. 30. Since the steady state reflux ratio was approximately 4. use a flow of 1750 ft3/hr. By dividing 4. activate the check box for the Reflux Flow/Total Liq Flow specification and input a value of 0. Select the Specs page of the Dynamics tab in the Condenser property view. 27. There was no overhead vapour so the reflux ratio compares only the two liquid streams. the rate of Reflux was 4.

Press the Initialize Duty Valve button. Select the Dynamics tab. 33. a flow range for the utility fluid and an inlet temperature for the fluid according to the current flow of material into the condenser. Open the property view for Feed 1 by double clicking on the Feed 1 cell in the Workbook. Close the Condenser property view. set a dynamic flow specification on a volume basis as follows: 34. 35. 32. This initialization provides a UA value.7 Condenser Utility Valve 31. 2-9 . Boundary Stream Specifications For the stream Feed 1.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-9 The completed Specs page should appear as shown: Figure 2. Select the Duty page on the Dynamics tab of the Condenser property view.

The Dynamics tab should appear as in Figure 2. Activate the Flow specification and select IdealLiqVol as the flow basis. Deactivate the Pressure specification. The Dynamics tab should appear as shown in Figure 2. To do this.8 38. Proceed through the following steps: 40. Choose the Dynamics tab.8: Figure 2.9: 2-10 . 42. Open the property view for stream Butanes. you may have to deactivate this specification. 41. by selecting the corresponding radio button. Change the Flow specification basis to Ideal Liq Vol. Close the stream property view. Now you can set a volume basis dynamic flow specification on stream Butanes. neither is used as an active pressure-flow specification. select the radio button.2-10 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 36. and then reactivate the specification. 39. Repeat steps #34 to #38 for Feed 2. 37. Since the pressure and flow of stream Butanes were not specified in steady state.

you will notice that the only pressure and flow values that are shown in blue are the ones that were just selected as dynamic specifications. 44. Open the property view for the stream Vent Control.9 43. Reboiler Specifications Using the flows that were calculated in steady state as a design basis. 50. Press F3 to open the Object Navigator. Activate the Pressure specification. the reboiler. 46. Close the stream property view. 49. Select the Dynamics tab. In the Flowsheets group. The last pressure-flow specification will be a dynamic pressure specification on the stream Vent Control. If you open the Workbook to the Material Streams tab. select DeButanizer. 47. Repeat steps #40 and #43 for the stream C5+. 48. Close the stream property view.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-11 Figure 2. 2-11 . 45. will now be sized.

52. 55.10 57. Select the Worksheet tab. Close the reboiler property view.5 hr 60min 54. choose Reboiler. Figure 2. This will enable you to obtain a volume of approximately 600 ft3. Press the View button. use a flow of 1800 ft3/hr.2-12 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 51.= 600ft3 0. A horizontal unit will be used for the Reboiler. delete the value in the Volume field. In the Unit Operations group. For a quick sizing calculation. Ensure that Horizontal cylinder is selected for the Level Calculator. 53. 56.× 10min × -----. 1 1hr ft3 1800 -----.× --------------. Specs page of the Reboiler property view. 2-12 . Conditions page on the Reboiler property view and make a note of the liquid volume flow of the stream To Reboiler. Input a Diameter of 8 ft and a Length of 12 ft. On the Dynamics tab. a 10 minute residence time and a liquid operating level of 50%.

60. a quick Auto-Section will be performed using the Tray Sizing utility. For this tray sizing analysis. 63. press the Complete AutoSection button. Since all default design parameters will be used for this analysis. the condenser and reboiler have both been sized and enough pressure-flow specifications have been set to reduce the degrees of freedom to zero. HYSYS will determine a tray diameter based on Glitsch design parameters for valve trays. 66. Close the Equation Summary View view. 59. press the Full Analysis button to confirm that the case is properly defined for dynamic simulation. 62. 58. Note that the Valve has been selected as the default tray type. You can confirm that all the necessary pressure flow specifications have been added using the Equation Summary View view. Press the OK button. Select Tray Sizing from the list of utilities and press the Add Utility button. press the Select TS button to attach the DeButanizer tray section. Select the Equation Summary View from the Simulation drop down menu. Use the hot key combination CTRL U to open the Utilities view. Press the Auto Section button on the Tray Sizing property view. Using the Tray Sizing Utility 61. all HYSYS defaults will be used. Press the Next button on the Auto Section Information view. On the Summary page.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-13 Test the Model At this point. Select DeButanizer from the Flowsheet group and Main TS from the Object group on the Select Tray Section dialog. 64. 2-13 . Tray Section For the sizing of the tray section. This will provide a good initial estimate of the tray diameter required for the DeButanizer tower. 65. You can review the default design parameters on the Tray Section Information view. On the Tray Sizing property view. 68. 67.

you will notice the Section Pressure Drop that HYSYS has calculated. 73. Press F3 to open the Object Navigator.12 70. On the Results page of the Performance tab. Click on the View button. In the Unit Operations group. notice that HYSYS has calculated a section diameter of 4. Figure 2. 75. You will modify this later. Close the Tray Sizing utility view first and then the Available Utilities view. select DeButanizer. In the same table. In the Flowsheets group. choose Main TS. This value is less than the original pressure profile input for the tower DeButanizer. Modifying the Tray Section Parameters 72.5 feet. 2-14 . 71. 74.11 69.2-14 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Figure 2.

Change the pressure of 15_Main TS (tray 15) to 209 psia. Open the DeButanizer column property view and select the Profiles page of the Parameters tab. Press the Control Valve button on the Cond LC property view. 83. Make sure that you are in the Parent Environment. Close the Main TS tray section view. Supply a tray Diameter of 4. Setting up the Controllers Controllers will be added to the flowsheet to control the levels in the condenser and reboiler. On the Main TS property view. 78. Change the pressure in the Reboiler to 211 psia. 77. 81.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-15 76. they will increase the realism and provide more model stability. 2-15 . The pressure profile of the tray section will be modified to match more closely the results obtained from the tray sizing utility. Add a PID CONTROLLER which will serve as the condenser level controller and specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections PID Controller Button Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Cond LC Condenser@COL1 Liquid Percent Level Butanes@COL1 Direct 2 5 minutes 0% 100% 85. 84. select the Rating tab. 80.5 feet in the Tray Dimensions group. 82. 79. Sizing page. Although these controllers are not required to run in Dynamic mode. Close the column property view.

91. 89. specify the following: Input Area Flow Type Min Flow Max Flow Entry LiqVolFlow 0 ft3/hr 660 ft3/hr 87.2-16 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 86. Add a PID CONTROLLER which will serve as the reboiler level controller and specify the following details: PID Controller Button Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Reb LC Reboiler@COL1 Liquid Percent Level C5+@COL1 Direct 2 5 minutes 0% 100% 92. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. 2-16 . Press the Control Valve button on the Reb LC property view. 88. Input a set point of 50%. Close the FCV for Butanes view. 90. Figure 2.13 Adjust the red indicator A OR Double click in the PV cell and type in the specified value. In the Valve Sizing group on the FCV for Butanes@COL1 view. Press the Face Plate button.

press the Insert button. 100. Input a set point of 50%. Open the Databook by using the hot key combination CTRL D. Press the Face Plate button. Add all of the variables that you would like to monitor. You may have to re-initialize both controllers by switching the modes to Manual and then back to Automatic.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-17 93. 96. 98. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. 95. 101. This case will be used as the starting point for the rating dynamics section. A list of suggested variables is given below: Variables To Manipulate Pressure of Vent Control Liquid Volume Flowrate of Feed 1 Liquid Volume Flowrate of Feed 2 SP for Cond LC and/or Reb LC Variables To Monitor Condenser Liquid Percent Level Reboiler Liquid Percent Level Liquid Volume Flowrate of Butanes Liquid Volume Flowrate of C5+ 102. 103.hsc. Monitoring in Dynamics Now that the model is ready to run in Dynamic mode. 104. Select the Strip Charts tab from the Databook view. Press the Add button. After all variables have been added. Save the case as DFTut1. On the Variables tab. 2-17 . a strip chart can be created to monitor the general trends of key variables. Close the FCV for C5+ view. close the Variable Navigator. 99. 97. specify the following: Input Area Flow Type Min Flow Max Flow Entry LiqVolFlow 0 ft3/hr 750 ft3/hr 94. In the Valve Sizing group on the FCV for C5+@COL1 view.

110. Rating Dynamics For the rating dynamics section. Start the integrator and allow the variables to line out and then stop the integrator. If you have performed an analysis or manipulation.2-18 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 105. 108. Figure 2. Open the case DFTut1. Start Integrator Button (green) 109. The Start Integrator button is on the left and the Stop Integrator button is on the right. If required. the condenser unit operation will be replaced by an overhead system consisting of various pieces of equipment. 2-18 . 106. 107. highlight the data logger and press the Strip Chart button to display each data logger. add more strip charts. On the Strip Charts tab in the Databook. Check the Active check box for each of the variables that you would like to monitor.hsc.14 112. Stop Integrator Button (red) These two buttons are side by side on the button bar. save your case as DFTut2. Close the DataBook view. Change the configuration of each strip chart by pressing the Setup button.hsc and close it. 111.

Press F3 to open the Object Navigator. PFD Button 114. Deleting the Condenser Before the condenser is deleted in the column environment. Press the DELETE key. press the PFD button in the button bar.15 115. If the pfd is not already displayed. 113. 2-19 . Press the Yes button for each subsequent object deletion confirmation. Press the OK button when asked for confirmation of deletion of all four objects. Click and hold down the primary mouse button while dragging the pointer to make a box around the objects you want to select. Figure 2. its associated product streams and energy stream will be removed in the Main Simulation Environment. • Place the mouse pointer on the PFD background. Use the multiple selection functionality to highlight the streams Vent Control. Cond Q and Butanes and the controller Cond LC. Now enter the column environment: 116.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-19 This case was saved at a point prior to any extensive design dynamics integration.

This may be done by clicking the Define from Other Stream button. If the pfd is not already displayed. Object Inspect by selecting the object and then clicking the secondary mouse button. Figure 2.16 To quickly re-arrange the PFD. 123. Press the Build button to enter the Column Sub-Flowsheet environment. select Auto Position All under PFD in the menu bar. Select DeButanizer in the Flowsheets group. press the PFD button on the button bar. Delete streams 1 and 2. Click OK on the Spec Stream As view. 121. Transfer the information back from streams 1 and 2 to the To Condenser and Reflux streams respectively by using the Define from Other Stream button. Confirm that you want to delete the Condenser by pressing the Yes button. 118. Repeat step # 120 for the Reflux stream.2-20 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 117. Object inspect the condenser and select Delete from the object inspection menu. Create a new stream and give it the same properties as the To Condenser stream. 2-20 . 119. 124. 122. 120. 125.

131. TEE. If specifications are eliminated by deleting streams. De-activate the Pressure and Flow specifications. Check that the Flow specification is not active. Also. 130. 129. Adjusting the Pressure-Flow Specs It is important to keep track of the pressure-flow specifications for the flowsheet. Open the property view for the Reflux stream. 136. 128. Select the Dynamics tab. 127. Using different case names will provide snapshots at various stages of building the case. Open the Object Navigator by pressing F3. Since product streams and the condenser have been deleted. as equipment is added to the flowsheet. Select the Ideal Liq Vol radio button. Open the property view for the stream To Condenser. Activate the Flow specification. 134. In this case. an equivalent number of specifications must be added to keep the degrees of freedom at zero. Close the To Condenser view. PUMP . Changing the Column Solving Method Since equipment will be added to the column in the sub-flowsheet environment. the flowsheet boundary streams have changed and thus. 133. Close the Reflux property view. Activate the Pressure specification. 126. two streams that had pressure-flow specifications were deleted so it is only a matter of adding specifications to the flowsheet. Select the Dynamics tab. Specs page. the Solving Method of the column should be changed. 137. and VALVE unit operations to the Column Sub-Flowsheet. 132. 135.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-21 Adding the Overhead System It is recommended that you periodically save your case as equipment is added to the flowsheet. 2-21 . the pressure-flow specifications will be correspondingly moved to the boundary streams. Specs page. the pressure-flow specifications must be moved. The Modified HYSIM Inside Out method is used to allow you to add the MIXER.

17 2-22 . Close the DeButanizer property view. select Modified HYSIM Inside-Out. With the Unit Ops radio button selected in the Filter group. Go to the Parameters tab. on the DeButanizer property view. choose Case in the Flowsheets group and DeButanizer in the Unit Operations group. 140. 142. Press the View button. Solver page.2-22 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 138. which allows various pieces of equipment to be added to the subflowsheet. Figure 2. Adding a Splitter A TEE operation will be added to the flowsheet to separate the overhead vapour into a vapour bypass stream and an overhead stream which will be condensed. In the Solving Method group. 139. 141.

Open the Bypass to Valve property view. Specs page. On the Specs page of the Dynamics tab. Add a TEE operation. the pressure-flow specifications must be adjusted. On the Worksheet tab. 155. On the Dynamics tab. make sure the pressure specification is deactivated and the Flow specification is activated. Specs page. Close the Bypass to Valve view. On the Dynamics tab. 149. 2-23 . 146. click the No button. Ensure that the Molar flow radio buttons has been selected. If asked to resolve the items identified by the dynamics assistant. Start the integrator for a few minutes of integration to propagate the values to the boundary streams. 148. ensure that the Flow specification is inactive and that the Pressure specification is active. 145.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-23 Adding the Operation 143. 147. which will separate the column overhead into two product streams: a bypass vapour stream and a stream that will be condensed. 152. Open the property view for the stream To Condenser. 151. Provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Feed Products Use splits as dynamic flow specs Entry Splitter To Condenser Bypass to Valve Ovhd Dynamics [Specs] Inactive Moving the P-F Specs With the addition of the Splitter. Stop the integrator. 153. de-activate the Pressure specification. 150. Close the To Condenser view. Conditions page. 144. Close the Ovhd view. 154. supply a Molar Flow of 50 lbmole/hr. Open the Ovhd property view.

161. One VALVE operation will be added to each of the streams exiting the Splitter. Specs page and de-activate the Total Delta P check box in the Dynamic Specifications group. along with the flow rate through the equipment was then used by HYSYS to calculate a value of Cv. it should be close. the Total Delta P specification was no longer required. Sizing page.18 Adding the Operations 157. Close the valve property view. Figure 2. 160. but nonetheless. This pressure drop. Since the length of time that the integrator is left to run in step #135 will vary. Press the Size Valve button. Switch to the Rating tab. 2-24 .19. The Specs page on the Dynamics tab should appear as shown in Figure 2. the value of Cv may not be exactly as shown in Figure 2. Add a VALVE and supply the following information: Tab [Page] VALVE Button Design [Connections] Input Area Name Feed Product Dynamics [Specs] Total Delta P Total Delta P Entry Bypass Valve Bypass to Valve Vapour Bypass Activate check box 5 psi 158.19. 159.2-24 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Adding Two Valves 156. Return to the Dynamics tab. The Total Delta P check box was used to initialize a pressure drop for the valve. Since the valve behaviour will be defined using a pressure-flow relationship.

click the No button. Moving the P-F Specs With the addition of the two valves. 166. Press the Size Valve button. 164. Add another VALVE and supply the following information: Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Input Area Name Feed Product Total Delta P Total Delta P Entry Ovhd Valve Ovhd To Exchanger Activate check box 5 psi Dynamics [Specs] 163. Stop the integrator. 168. the pressure-flow specifications will be moved to the flowsheet boundary streams. Open the property view for the stream Bypass to Valve. 2-25 . Specs page and de-activate the Total Delta P check box in the Dynamic Specifications group.19 162. Sizing page. Close the valve property view. If asked to resolve the items identified by the dynamics assistant. Switch to the Rating tab. 167. 165. 169.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-25 Figure 2. Start the integrator for 10 seconds to propagate values to the new streams. Return to the Dynamics tab.

HYSYS. Close the To Exchanger view. 172. de-activate the Flow specification. 177. 178. when a flowsheet boundary stream is directly attached to a piece of equipment that uses Cv or conductance to determine its pressure-flow relationship. so using the newly calculated outlet pressure as a specification will keep the flowrate through the valve close to its former value. Close the Ovhd view. On the Dynamics tab. 173. On the Dynamics tab. 181. Specs page. activate the Pressure specification. 2-26 . On the Dynamics tab.Plant will use the equipment conductance or Cv value combined with the pressures of the inlet and outlet streams to determine a flow though the equipment. 180. Open the Vapour Bypass property view. You may have noticed that a flowrate specification was being used on the stream Bypass to Valve and a pressure specification is now used for the stream Vapour Bypass.hsc. Close the Vapour Bypass view. 179. A propane refrigerant stream will be created and will be used as the shell side coolant. activate the Pressure specification. use pressure instead of flow as the specification on the boundary stream. 171. 174. Open the To Exchanger property view. de-activate the Pressure specification. Attaching the Condenser A HEAT EXCHANGER operation will be used to model the condenser. This will not have a significant effect on the flow through the Bypass Valve. Specs page. Specs page. In general. Specs page. Open the property view for the stream Ovhd. On the Dynamics tab. Close the Bypass to Valve view. The Bypass Valve was sized using the formerly specified flow and a set pressure drop of 5 psi. 176.2-26 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 170. 175. Save the case as DFTut3.

20 Adding the Propane Stream 182. In the Workbook.0. 185.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-27 Figure 2. 186.0000 160 psia 2200 lbmole/hr The Conditions page for Propane In should appear as shown: 187. delete the temperature specification. Enter the following: Tab [Page] Worksheet [Conditions] Input Area Vapour/Phase Fraction Pressure Molar Flow Entry 0. create a new material stream named Propane In. the parameters to be input for defining the stream include the vapour fraction. For the Propane In stream. pressure and flowrate. pressure and flowrate are specifiable and are shown in blue. On the Worksheet tab. To change the flash specifications. 183. Composition page. Adding a Valve A pressure-flow relationship will be applied to the propane refrigerant stream by adding a VALVE unit operation to the coolant stream. On the Worksheet tab. specify a propane mass fraction of 1. follow these steps: 184. Open the property view for Propane In. Conditions page. the stream is initialized by HYSYS. Close the stream property view. Since the model is in Dynamic mode. The temperature. 2-27 .

The sizing pressure drop does not appear because a pressure drop has not been set for the unit.2-28 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Figure 2. Add a VALVE to the flowsheet and provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Rating [Sizing(dynamics)] Feed Product Delta P Entry Propane Valve Propane In Shell In 15 psi HYSYS provides a sizing flow rate. 2-28 . which is the mass flow through the valve. 189. Input a Sizing Delta P of 15 psi. Press the Size Valve button. 190.21 188.

Close the valve property view.45 psi 0. Adding the Condenser 192. 193. Complete the property view with the details given in the following table: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Tube Side Inlet Design [Connections] Tube Side Outlet Shell Side Inlet Shell Side Outlet Tube Side Delta P Rating [Sizing] Shell Side Delta P UA Model Dynamics [Model] Tube Volume Shell Volume Entry Condenser To Exchanger To Accumulator Shell In Propane Out 0.45 psi 1. Sizing page should appear as shown: Figure 2.6E+05 Btu/F-hr Basic 10 ft3 50 ft3 194. Add a HEAT EXCHANGER unit operation. Close the heat exchanger property view.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-29 The Rating tab.22 191. 2-29 .

On the Dynamics tab. On the Dynamics tab. 195. 208. On the Dynamics tab. Start the integrator for a few integration minutes to propagate information to the new streams. which allows HYSYS. Open the property view for the stream To Accumulator. Close the Propane Out view. 205.Plant to determine the flow through the equipment. click the No button. Close the To Exchanger view. which is using a Cv for its pressure-flow relationship. which will be using a conductance for its pressure-flow relationship. Open the property view for the Condenser. On the Dynamics tab. Open the property view for Propane Out. and the shell side of a heat exchanger. activate the Pressure specification. Specs page. For the streams: 197. Specs page. specs page. Open the property view for Propane In. 202. The refrigerant stream is passing through a valve. the boundary streams of the refrigerant (propane) process both use pressure specifications. Open the property view for the stream To Exchanger. 207. the heat exchanger will use conductance values instead of fixed pressure drops. 199. For the Condenser: 209. Therefore. Stop the integrator. activate the Pressure specification. 200. Close the To Accumulator view. Specs tab. 206. Close the Propane In view. de-activate the Pressure specification. Also. 198. 201. 203.2-30 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Moving the P-F Specs With the addition of the valve and heat exchanger. de-activate the Flow specification and ensure that the Pressure specification is activated. 196. 204. If asked to resolve the items identified by the dynamics assistant. 2-30 . the pressure-flow specifications will be moved to the flowsheet boundary streams.

The size of the accumulator will be the same as that of the condenser in the design dynamics section. so the lowered efficiencies will incorporate these mass transfer effects into the calculations. Specs page. 212. de-activate the Delta P check box and activate the k check box. Save the case as DFTut4. Since one feed is vapour and the other is liquid. Start the integrator for a few integration minutes and observe the pressures and flowrates of Propane Out. 213. 211. Stream properties can be seen by placing the cursor over the stream icon in the PFD. Adding the Accumulator A SEPARATOR unit operation will be used as the overhead accumulator. the liquid will immediately fall and the vapour will rise. press the Calculate k button. Figure 2.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-31 210. If asked to resolve the items identified by the dynamics assistant. The conductance values for both the Shell Side and Tube Side are calculated according to the specified pressure drops and flowrates through the specific sides of the exchanger. 214. To Accumulator and Vapour Bypass. Both the vapour bypass stream and the cooled overhead stream will be used as feeds to the unit. On the Dynamics tab.hsc. click the No button. Stop the integrator. non-equilibrium phase behaviour will be taken into account by lowering the vapour phase efficiencies of the separator. When the two feeds enter. For both the Shell Side and Tube Side.23 2-31 .

the efficiency is left at 100%. Since there is no vapour for the product stream Sep Liquid.2-32 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Adding the Operation 215. Holdup page of the Accumulator. Figure 2. Add a SEPARATOR and provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Feeds Design [Connections] Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Level Calculator Dynamics [Specs] Diameter Length Holdup Initialization Entry Accumulator Vapour Bypass To Accumulator Sep Vapour Sep Liquid Horizontal Cylinder 10 ft 15 ft Dry Startup The vapour phase efficiencies will now be changed for the accumulator: 216. On the Dynamics tab. For all relevant vapour efficiencies on the Efficiencies tab. press the Advanced button.24.24 2-32 . 217. The completed Efficiencies tab is shown in Figure 2. provide a value of 1%.

226. If asked to resolve the items identified by the dynamics assistant. Stop the integrator when the level reaches approximately 65%. Close the Sep Liquid view. The pressure-flow relation will be temporarily replaced by a fixed pressure drop specification so that information can be propagated to the Vent Control stream and so that the Vent Valve can be sized. Specs tab. the liquid level in the vessel will begin to rise when the integrator is started. Adding the Operation 227. activate the Flow specification and input a flow rate of 0. 222. Start the integrator. Open the property view for the stream To Accumulator. Close the To Accumulator view. click the No button. Moving the P-F Specs Since the Accumulator is being modelled with a dry startup initialization. de-activate the Pressure specification. 2-33 . Open the property view for the stream Sep Liquid. the pressure-flow specifications will be moved and the integrator will be started so that the vessel fills with liquid. Adding the Vapour Product Valve A VALVE unit operation will be added to the flowsheet so adjustments can be made to the vapour stream from the Accumulator. place the cursor over the Accumulator to monitor the liquid percent level. 221. Close the valve property view. Close the Accumulator views. Specs tab. 225. 224. Start the integrator for a few seconds.0 lbmole/hr With no liquid flow exiting the separator. On the Dynamics tab. On the Dynamics tab. 223. On the PFD.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-33 218. 219. 220. 229. Add a VALVE and provide the following information: 228.

Sizing page. Changing the P-F Specs Now that the Accumulator has been filled and the Vent Valve has been sized. press the Size Valve button. Close the valve property view. Stop the integrator. On the Dynamics tab. On the Dynamics tab. On the Rating tab. Open the property view for Vent Valve. de-activate the Pressure specification.2-34 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Figure 2. Open the property view for the stream Vapour Bypass. 233. the pressure-flow specifications can be modified. Also. Specs page. Specs page.25 Tab [Page] Input Area Name Entry Vent Valve Sep Vapour Vent Control De-activate check box Activate check box 15 psi Design [Connections] Feed Product Pressure flow relation Dynamics [Specs] Pressure drop Pressure drop 230. 231. 232. The pressure specification on the vapour bypass will be replaced by a pressure specification on the Vent Control stream. stream information will be propagated to the stream Sep Liquid by increasing its flow specification. 2-34 . 236. 234. 235. activate the Pressure flow relation check box and de-activate the Pressure drop check box.

Close the Vapour Bypass view. Open the property view for the stream Vent Control. 241. On the Worksheet tab. Close the Vent Control view. Conditions page.26 2-35 . 242. Figure 2. Open the property view for the stream Sep Liquid.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-35 237. Adding a Liquid Splitter Add a TEE operation to the flowsheet. Stop the integrator. On the Worksheet tab. activate the Pressure specification. The liquid product from the Accumulator will be split into streams that will eventually form the distillate and reflux streams. Close the Sep Liquid view. specify a Pressure of 180 psia. 238. 244. Specs page. Conditions page. 239. specify a Molar Flow of 1075 lbmole/hr. 243. Save the case as DFTut5. 240. 247. 246.hsc. On the Dynamics tab. 245. Start the integrator for about 10 seconds to propagate values to the Sep Liquid stream.

Specs page. Specs page. Start the integrator for 10 seconds. 253. specify a Pressure of 195 psia and a Liquid Volume Flow of 350 ft3/hr. Conditions page. On the Worksheet tab. 249. the pressure-flow specification on the Sep Liquid stream will be moved to the Liquid Splitter outlet streams. Adding a Liquid Product Valve A VALVE unit operation will be added to the flowsheet so adjustments 2-36 . On the Dynamics tab. Add a TEE and provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Feed Products Use splits as dynamic flow specs Entry Liquid Splitter Sep Liquid To Distillate To Pump Dynamics [Specs] TEE Button Deactivate check box Moving the P-F Specs With the addition of the Liquid Splitter. Close the To Distillate view. 251. de-activate the Flow specification. Open the property view for the stream Sep Liquid. 257. Select the Ideal LiqVol radio button. 255. Stop the integrator. 254. Open the property view for the stream To Distillate. activate both the Pressure and Flow specifications. 250. On the Dynamics tab. 256. Close the Sep Liquid view. 258.2-36 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Adding the Operation 248. 252.

Open the property view for Distillate Valve. 265. 266. Specs page. 264. Add a VALVE and provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Feed Product Pressure flow relation Dynamics [Specs] Pressure drop Pressure drop Entry Distillate Valve To Distillate Butanes De-activate check box Activate check box 15 psi The pressure-flow relation will be temporarily replaced by a fixed pressure drop specification so that information can be propagated to the Butanes stream and so that the Distillate Valve can be sized. Figure 2. 263. Start the integrator for a few seconds. Close the Distillate Valve property view. press the Size Valve button. Sizing page. 260. On the Rating tab.27 Adding the Operation 259. Stop the integrator. On the Dynamics tab. 2-37 . 262. Close the Distillate Valve property view.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-37 can be made to the vapour stream from the Accumulator. 261. activate the Pressure flow relation check box and de-activate the Pressure drop check box.

273. On the Dynamics tab. Close the Butanes view. On the Dynamics tab. 271. 267. Open the property view for the stream To Distillate. Open the property view for the stream Butanes. 269. 275. 277. On the Worksheet tab. On the Dynamics tab. Specs page.2-38 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Moving the P-F Specs The Distillate Valve has been sized so the pressure-flow specifications can be modified. 279. since the two streams will eventually be joined. Specs page.hsc. Close the To Distillate view. activate the Pressure specification. Specs page. Model stability will be enhanced if the flows are similar. Conditions page. Open the property view for To Pump. 270. 2-38 . Check the molar flow of the stream Reflux. The flow specification for the stream To Pump should closely match this value. 272. 278. Close the To Pump view. 268. de-activate both the Pressure and Flow specifications.Save the case as DFTut6. 274. specify a Molar Flow of 925 lbmole/hr. Start the integrator for 10 seconds. Stop the integrator. 276. activate the Flow specification.

2-39 . Open the Accumulator property view. On the Dynamics tab. 285. de-activate the check box for Pressure rise. Add a PUMP operation and provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Inlet Outlet Entry Reflux Pump To Pump Pump Outlet 281. Figure 2. 283. 282. Close the Reflux Pump property view. The pressure-flow specifications will be left as they are. Specify a Head of 100 ft.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-39 Adding the Pump A PUMP unit operation will be added to the flowsheet to increase the pressure of the stream returning to the tower. Specs page. The Dynamics Info group should appear as shown: 284.28 Adding the Operation 280. Activate the check box for Head.

adjust the Head specification such that the Pressure of Pump Outlet is at least 5 psi great than that of Reflux. Stop the integrator. Start the integrator for 10 seconds. 286. 2-40 . Specs page and specify a Liquid Volume Percent of 50%. 287. just open the property view and re-specify it as 50%. the integrator will be started.2-40 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Figure 2. If required. 288.e.29 If the Liquid Volume Percent in the Accumulator falls too low (i. below 20%). Close the Accumulator property view. To propagate stream information into Pump Outlet. Open the Dynamics tab. 289.

Plant assists you when you connect the Reflux Valve. The pressure-flow relation will be temporarily disabled so that information can be propagated through the Reflux Valve.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-41 Adding a Reflux Valve A VALVE unit operation will be added to the flowsheet to connect the streams Pump Outlet and Reflux. By activating the Pressure drop check box for the Reflux Valve. Add a VALVE and provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Dynamics [Specs] HYSYS. Figure 2. the pressure flow solver would be overspecified. Stop the integrator. You will notice that the Pressure drop check box does not need to be activated since there are already two P-F specifications downstream of the Liquid Splitter. Start the integrator for a few seconds. This last piece of equipment will close the overhead condenser loop.30 Adding the Operation 290. 292. Close the Reflux Valve property view. The P-F specification for volume flow on Reflux is eliminated as soon as the product is attached to the valve. Open the Reflux property view to check this. Feed Product Pressure flow relation Entry Reflux Valve Pump Outlet Reflux De-activate check box 291. 2-41 . 293.

296. Now that the overhead system is in place. there should be one pressure-flow specification per flowsheet boundary stream. On the Dynamics tab. Now that the pressure-flow relationship has been activated for the Reflux Valve. 295. a current list of the pressureflow specifications can be provided. Changing the P-F Specs With the Reflux Valve using its pressure-flow relationship as a specification. de-activate the Flow specification. Close the To Pump property view. activate the Pressure flow relation check box. one specification must be eliminated from the flowsheet. Specs page. Since the dynamic behaviour of all pieces of equipment in the overhead system will be defined by pressure-flow relationships. Open the property view for the stream To Pump. The current P-F specifications are listed: Spec Holder Feed 1 Feed 2 Vent Control Butanes C5+ P-F Specification Molar Flow Molar Flow Pressure Pressure Molar Flow 2-42 . Open the property view for Reflux Valve. Sizing page press the Size Valve button. The one extra specification that arose due to the splitting of the liquid stream from the Accumulator into reflux and distillate was no longer needed when Pump Outlet was connected to Reflux. 299.2-42 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Sizing the Reflux Valve 294. the pressure-flow solver is overspecified. The stream Reflux ceased being a flowsheet boundary stream and became an internal flowsheet stream. On the Dynamics tab. On the Rating tab. 298. 297. eliminating the requirement of maintaining the pressure-flow specification.

You must return to the Main Environment to delete the controller. you can delete the Reboiler LC since other controllers will be added to the model further on in the tutorial. Press the Yes button to confirm the deletion of the controller. Adding the Top Stage Pressure Controller 305. 2-43 . The pressure of the stream To Condenser will be controlled by manipulating the Ovhd Valve. Select DeButanizer in the Flowsheets column and press the Build button. 307. First. Return to the Column Environment. 303. On the PFD. 302. Enter Parent Simulation Environment Button 300. To return to the Column Environment. Deleting the Old Reboiler Controller All controllers will be added to the column sub-flowsheet. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. select the controller REB LC. Pressure Ovhd Valve Direct 1 5 minutes 182 psia 232 psia Tab [Page] 306. Press the Face Plate button. so the controller for the reboiler level that was created in the design dynamics section will be deleted. 301. Add a PID CONTROLLER which will serve as the top stage pressure controller and specify the following details: Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti Pv Minimum PV Maximum Entry Top PC To Condenser. press F3 to open the Object Navigator. Press the DELETE key. 304. Press the Parent Simulation Environment button to return to the Main Environment.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-43 Add A Top Pressure Controller A PID CONTROLLER will be added to the flowsheet to stabilize the model.

hsc. 311. Adding Valves to the Feeds and Bottoms Product For the sake of completeness. a VALVE unit operation will be added to each of the feed streams and to the bottoms stream from the reboiler. Stop the integrator. 310.31 2-44 . Allow the Model to Stabilize 309. Input a set point of 207 psia. Figure 2. Start the integrator and allow it to run until the top stage pressure set point is reached.2-44 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 308. Save the case as DFTut7.

On the PFD. 312. Add a VALVE and provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Feed Product Pressure flow relation Dynamics [Specs] Pressure drop Pressure drop Entry Bottoms Valve From Reboiler C5+ De-activate check box Activate check box 15 psi 315.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-45 Adding the Bottoms Valve The first valve that will be added is that for the bottoms stream. 2-45 .32 314. object inspect the stream line between the Reboiler and the stream C5+. Close the Bottom Valve property view. Figure 2. 313. Select Break Connection.

press and hold down the CTRL key. With the PFD open. 322. Place the cursor over the stream From Reboiler and you will see its inlet connection square. activate the Pressure specification. 325. To connect the stream From Reboiler to the Reboiler proceed as follows or as illustrated in Figure 2. As you approach the Reboiler.33 317. 320. Press and hold the primary mouse button as you drag the cursor toward the liquid outlet of the Reboiler. Start the integrator for 10 seconds to propagate values to C5+. Close the C5+ property view. its outlet connection square will become available. Place the cursor over the inlet connection square.33: Figure 2. 324. 318. 319.2-46 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 316. On the Dynamics tab. Specs page. 2-46 . Move the cursor over the Reboiler liquid outlet connection square and release the mouse button. Stop the integrator. Open the C5+ stream property view. 321. 323.

Add a VALVE and provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Feed Product Pressure flow relation Dynamics [Specs] Pressure drop Pressure drop Entry Feed 2 Valve Feed 2 Feed 2 to Tower De-activate check box Activate check box 15 psi 331. 339. break the connection between Feed 2 and the Main TS. Sizing page. activate the Pressure flow relation check box and de-activate the Pressure drop check box. 2-47 . On the Rating tab. On the Design tab. Specs page. Stop the integrator. attach the stream Feed 2 to Tower in the Optional Feeds group and specify 4_Main TS as the entry tray. Open the Feed 2 Valve property view. Close the Main TS property view. Specs page. Adding the Feed Valves Feed 2 To break the feed connections from the PFD. 336. 329. activate the Pressure flow relation check box and de-activate the Pressure drop check box. On the Dynamics tab. 328. 332.On the Rating tab. Start the integrator for 10 seconds to propagate information. On the Dynamics tab. 334. 330. 338. Open the property view for the Bottoms Valve. On the PFD. Sizing page. press the Size Valve button. Open the property view for Feed 2 Valve. Save the case as DFTut8. 337. Connections page. you must be in the Column Sub-Flowsheet environment. 335. Open the property view for Main TS. 333. press the Size Valve button. 327.hsc.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-47 326.

348. Close the Main TS property view. press the Size Valve button. Close the Feed 1 Valve property view. 2-48 . 350. Sizing page. 354. 346. HYSYS. Add a VALVE and provide the following information: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Feed Product Pressure flow relation Dynamics [Specs] Pressure drop Pressure drop Entry Feed 1 Valve Feed 1 Feed 1 to Tower De-activate check box Activate check box 15 psi 342. Specs page. 351. 341. 352. On the Dynamics tab. Connections page. On the PFD. break the connection between Feed 1 and the Main TS. Stop the integrator.2-48 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Feed 1 340. Open the property view for Feed 1. attach the stream Feed 1 to Tower in the Optional Feeds group and specify 8_Main TS as the entry tray. Start the integrator for 10 seconds to propagate information. Changing the P-F Specs The flow specifications for both feeds and the bottoms product will be replaced by pressures specifications. 345. activate the Pressure flow relation check box and de-activate the Pressure drop check box.Plant will use the sized valves that were just added to determine the flowrates of the corresponding streams. Return to the Main Environment by pressing the Parent Simulation Environment button. Open the property view for Feed 1 Valve. With pressures being specified. 343. Open the property view for Main TS. 349. Close the Feed 1 view. On the Rating tab. On the Design tab. 353. On the Dynamics tab. 344. de-activate the Flow specification and activate the Pressure specification. 347.

357. Return to the column sub-flowsheet environment. 356. Press the Face Plate button. Open the property view for C5+.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-49 355.Liquid Percent Level Distillate Valve Direct 2 5 minutes 0% 100% 362. 358. which will serve as the Accumulator level controller and specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kp Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Accumulator LC Accumulator . Save the case as DFTut9. 364.hsc. On the Dynamics tab. Controlled variables include: • • • • • Reboiler liquid level Accumulator liquid level Tray 6 temperature Pressure of the vapour bypass Reflux flow rate Adding the Accumulator Level Controller 361. 360. activate the Pressure specification. 359. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. Input a set point of 50%. Add a PID CONTROLLER. 2-49 . 363. Adding the Controllers Five more PID CONTROLLERS will be added to the Column SubFlowsheet to control various aspects of the model. Close the C5+ view. Repeat steps #352 to #354 for Feed 2.

Input a set point of 610 lbmole/hr.1 minutes 0 lbmole/hr 1300 lbmole/hr 370.2-50 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial Adding the Reboiler Level Controller 365. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate.Molar Flow Reflux Valve Reverse 0. 371. Press the Face Plate button. which will serve as the Reboiler level controller and specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kp Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Reboiler LC Reboiler . 372. Input a set point of 50%. Press the Face Plate button. Adding the Reflux Flow Controller 369. 2-50 . which will serve as the Reflux flow controller and specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kp Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Reflux FC Pump Outlet . Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. Add a PID CONTROLLER.2 0. 367. Add a PID CONTROLLER.Liquid Percent Level Bottoms Valve Direct 2 5 minutes 0% 100% 366. 368.

Add a PID CONTROLLER which will serve as the tray 6 temperature controller and specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kp Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Tray 6 TC Main TS .Stage Temperature .Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial 2-51 Adding the Tray 6 Temperature Controller 373. 382. 379.5 5 minutes 225 F 245 F 374. 377. Press the Face Plate button.2E+07 Btu/hr 376. specify the following: Input Area Min Available Max Available Entry 0 Btu/hr 1.Tray 6 Reb Q Reverse 0. 2-51 . Save the case as DFTut10. 378. 383. Close the FCV for Reb Q view. 381. On the Variables tab. 380.hsc. 375. a strip chart can be created to monitor the general trends of key variables. Input a set point of 235 F. Press the Control Valve button on the Tray 6 TC property view. In the Direct Q group on the FCV for Reb Q view. Add all of the variables that you would like to monitor. Open the Databook by using the hot key combination CTRL D. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. press the Insert button. Monitoring in Dynamics Now that the model is ready to run in Dynamic mode.

If required. 393. 390. press the Strip Chart button to view each strip chart. Press the Add button. Close the DataBook view. 386. 387. Perform an analysis by manipulating variables and viewing the responses of the other variables. On the Strip Charts tab in the Databook. Select the Strip Charts page from the Databook view. 388. 391. 385. Change the configuration of each strip chart by pressing the Setup button. Check the Active check box for each of the variables that you would like to monitor. add more strip charts. 389. 392. close the Variable Navigator. After all variables have been added. Start the integrator and allow the variables to line out.2-52 Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial A list of suggested variables is given below: Variables To Manipulate Pressure of Vent Control Liquid Volume Flowrate of Feed 1 Liquid Volume Flowrate of Feed 2 SP for Accumulator LC and/or Reboiler LC Temperature of Feed 1 or Feed 2 Variables To Monitor Accumulator Liquid Percent Level Reboiler Liquid Percent Level Stage 6 Temperature Vapour Bypass Pressure 384. 2-52 .

This complete case has also been pre-built and is located in the file TUTOR1. Figure 3. 5. Install and define the column. dry gas produced will meet a pipeline hydrocarbon dew point specification. Select the components. Choose a property package. a natural gas stream containing N2. and C1 through nC4 is processed in a refrigeration system to remove the heavier hydrocarbons.1 The following pages will guide you through building a HYSYS case for 3-1 . In this Tutorial. The liquids removed from the rich gas are processed in a depropanizer column. CO2. 4.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-1 3 Gas Processing Tutorial The simulation will be built using these basic steps: 1. 2. The lean. Create and specify the feed streams. Install and define the unit operations prior to the column. A flowsheet for this process is shown below. 3. yielding a liquid product with a specified propane content. 6.HSC in your HYSYS\SAMPLES directory. Create a unit set.

through to examining the final results. Select Preferences. and otherwise manipulate Fluid Packages in your simulation case. New Case Button 1. • Press the New Case button. This example will illustrate the complete construction of the simulation. 3-2 .2 Notice that HYSYS displays the current Environment and Mode in the upper right corner of the view. Beginning the Simulation Notice that all commands accessed via the Button Bar are also available as Menu items. from selecting a property package and components. The Simulation Basis Manager appears: Figure 3. To access the Session Preferences view. 3. open the Tools menu. Most of the time. 2. Whenever you begin a new case. you will require only one Fluid Package for your entire simulation. do one of the following: • Select New Case from the File menu. modify. The Session Preferences view appears. To start a new simulation case. The Simulation Basis Manager allows you to create. where you can define your property package and components.3-2 Gas Processing Tutorial modelling this process. to installing streams and unit operations. as with this example. You need to set your Session Preferences before building a case. The tools available in HYSYS interface will be utilized to illustrate the flexibility available to you. you are automatically placed in the Basis Environment.

you can save the changes in a new Preference file by pressing the Save Preference Set button. HYSYS does not allow you to change any of the three default unit sets listed. HYSYS prompts you to provide a name for the new Preference file.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-3 4. You are now on the Options page of the Simulation tab. To create a new unit set: 1. which you can then customize.prf.3 4. notice the default unit for Flow is lbmole/hr. Press the Clone button. In the Display Units group. which you can load into any simulation case by pressing the Load Preference Set button. 5. Creating a New Unit Set The default Preference file is named HYSYS. Click on the Variables tab in the Session Preferences view. However. making it the Available Unit Set. For this example. 3. Deactivate the Use Modal Property Views by clicking on the check box. you can enter a new name in the Unit Set Name cell. a new unit set will be made based on the HYSYS Field set. If you wish. When you modify any of the preferences. Select the Units page if it is not already selected. Figure 3. The first step in building the simulation case is choosing a unit set. A more appropriate unit for this example is MMSCFD. select Field to make it the active set. You can now change the units for any variable associated with this new unit set. 2. 3-3 . you can create a new unit set by cloning an existing one. In the Available Unit Sets group. A new unit set named NewUser appears and becomes automatically highlighted.

Figure 3. At the top of the Session Preferences view is a drop-down list of available units in the Edit Bar by clicking on or by pressing the F2 key and then the i key.4 7. Figure 3. 3-4 . Close the view using the close button (in the top right corner) to begin the simulation. or scroll down using the arrow keys and press ENTER.5 Your new unit set is now defined.3-4 Gas Processing Tutorial 6. Scroll through the list and select MMSCFD.

2. 1. and the property view for your new Fluid Package appears. and HYSYS will find the match to your input. Press the Add button. only the first two tabs. an Equation of State) to be used by HYSYS in its calculations for a particular flowsheet. in this case Peng Robinson. As a minimum. Prop Pkg and Components will be used. The choice of Property Package is made on the Prop Pkg tab. such as reactions and interaction parameters. For this example. Do one of the following:p • Start typing Peng Robinson. a Fluid Package contains the components and property method (for example. There are a number of ways to select a base property package. Depending on what is required in a specific flowsheet. 3-5 . You can change the name of this fluid package by typing a new name in the Name cell at the bottom of the view. a Fluid Package may also contain other information. Figure 3. • Use the h and i keys to scroll down the list of available property packages until Peng Robinson is highlighted.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-5 Creating a Fluid Package The next step is to create a Fluid Package. The property view is divided into a number of tabs to allow you to supply all the information necessary to completely define the Fluid Package.6 HYSYS has created a Fluid Package with the default name Basis-1. Notice the position of the highlight in the Base Property Package Selection group (currently located on <none>).

Figure 3.7 Notice that the Property Pkg indicator at the bottom of the view now indicates Peng Robinson as the current property package for this Fluid Package. as shown here. Peng Robinson could have then been chosen from this filtered list. Selecting Components Now that you have chosen the property package to be used in the simulation. then click on it. 3-6 . the next step is to select the components. producing a list of only those property packages which are Equations of State. HYSYS will then filter the library components to include only those appropriate for the selected Property Package. Only Property Package Compatible Components. you could have selected the EOSs radio button as the Property Pkg Filter.8 You should normally leave the Component Selection Control at its default setting.3-6 Gas Processing Tutorial • Use the vertical scroll bar to move down the list until Peng Robinson becomes visible. As an alternative. Figure 3.

and synonyms for many components. N2. 3-7 .Gas Processing Tutorial 3-7 1. At the top of each of these three columns is a corresponding radio button. or by pressing ALT M. and the Show Synonyms check box is checked. Ensure the FullName/Synonym radio button is picked. IUPAC name (or similar). Move to the Components tab by clicking on it. Figure 3. 3.9 There are a number of ways to select components for your simulation. or by pressing CTRL SHIFT N. To add nitrogen using the match feature: 2. C1. HYSYS will locate the component(s) that best match the input you type in the Match cell. This is useful when you are unsure of the library name of a component. Move to the Match cell by clicking it. Notice that each component is listed in three ways: Matching Method SimName FullName/Synonym Formula Description The name appearing within the simulation. Based on the selected radio button. One method is to use the matching feature. but know its formula. C3. The chemical formula of the component. iC4 and nC4 will be used as the components. C2. CO2. For this example.

3-8 Gas Processing Tutorial 4. In addition to the Match criteria radio buttons. you can also use the Family Filter to display only those components belonging to certain families. • Double-click on Nitrogen (note that Nitrogen need not be highlighted for this option). Figure 3. HYSYS will filter as you type. add it to the Current Composition List by doing one of the following: • Press the ENTER key.10 5. • Press the Add Pure button. To add CO2 to the component list: Figure 3.11 3-8 . Type N2. Now that Nitrogen is highlighted. displaying only those components that match your input.

3. Note that the Match feature remains active when you are using a family filter. and pressing the Remove Comps button or the DELETE key. To add the remaining components C1 through nC4. in this case nC4.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-9 6. Click on the Use Filter check box. Ensure the Match cell is empty by pressing ALT M then the DELETE key. The highlighted components are transferred to the Current Component List. drag down to nC4. 2. so you could also type CO2 in the Match cell and then add it to the component list. C1 through nC4 will be highlighted. Click on the first component (in this case. 7. use the CTRL key. Press the Add Pure button. CO2 does not fit into any of the standard families. 8. and the Families view will appear. Do one of the following: • Hold down the SHIFT key and click on the last component. and check the Hydrocarbons box. 3-9 .12 A component can be removed from the Current Components List by selecting it. and release the mouse button. Release the SHIFT key. Figure 3. All components C1 through nC4 will now be highlighted. Scroll down the filtered list until CO2 is visible 10. Add CO2 to the component list by double-clicking on it. To highlight nonconsecutive components. use the SHIFT key. A quick way to add components which appear consecutively in the library list is to: 1. 9. clear the Miscellaneous check box. • Click and hold on C1. then press the Family Filter button. C1). To highlight consecutive components. so click on the Miscellaneous check box. The completed component list is shown below.

The property views for these two components appears. Click on n-Butane. HYSYS opens the property view(s) for the component(s) you selected. You cannot modify any parameters for a library component. Press and hold the CTRL key. such as 3-10 . Click on CO2 in the Current Component List. highlight the component(s) and press the View Comp button. Release the CTRL key. which can then be modified as desired. however. 3. 2. You could continue to add information to the Fluid Package. For example: 1. These two components should now be highlighted. Close each of these component views to return to the Fluid Package. 5. Figure 3.3-10 Gas Processing Tutorial Viewing Component Properties To view the properties of one or more components. 4.Hypotheticals in the Simulation Basis manual for more information on cloning library components. Press the View Comp button.13 The Component property view provides you with complete access to the pure component information for viewing only. HYSYS has an option for cloning a library component into a Hypothetical component. See Chapter 2 .

The new Fluid Package is assigned by default to the main flowsheet. you can install streams and operations in the Main Simulation Environment. select the Home View button from the button bar. interaction parameters and reactions. Basis-1. Entering the Simulation Environment When you enter the Simulation Environment. do one of the following: • Press the Enter Simulation Environment button on the Simulation Basis Manager view. as shown in the Flowsheet-Fluid Pkg Associations group. However. the initial view that appears is dependent on your current preference setting for the Initial Build Home View. Three initial views are available: 1. To enter this environment and leave the Basis environment. PFD Workbook Summary Enter Simulation Environment Button 3-11 . Close the Fluid Package view to return to the Simulation Basis Manager. for the purposes of this example. Figure 3. Now that the Basis is defined. 3. 2. • Press the Simulation Environment button on the button bar. the Fluid Package is now completely defined.14 Notice that the list of Current Fluid Packages displays the new Fluid Package.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-11 If the Simulation Basis Manager is not visible. showing the number of components (NC) and property package (PP).

In the upper right corner. however.15 You will notice several things about the Main Simulation Environment. the initial Home View is the PFD (HYSYS default setting). only one is displayed. A number of new items are now available on the Menu and Button Bar. Figure 3.3-12 Gas Processing Tutorial Any or all of these can be displayed at any time. For this example. and the PFD and Object Palette are open on the 3-12 . the Environment has changed from Basis to Case (Main). when you first enter the Simulation Environment.

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3-13

Desktop. These latter two objects are described below.
Objects Description The PFD is a graphical representation of the flowsheet topology for a simulation case. The PFD view shows operations and streams and the connections between the objects. You also have the option of attaching information tables or annotations to the PFD. By default, the view has a single tab. If you wish, you can add additional PFD pages to the view in order to focus in on the different areas of interest. A floating palette of buttons which can be used to add streams and unit operations.

PFD You can toggle the palette open or closed by pressing F4, or by choosing Open/Close Object Palette from the Flowsheet menu.

Object Palette

Before proceeding any further to install streams or unit operations, it is a good idea to save your case. Do one of the following:
Save Button

• Click the Save button on the button bar. • Open the File menu and select Save. • Press CTRL S.
As this is the first time you have saved your case, the Save Simulation Case As dialog box will appear.
Figure 3.16

When you choose to open an existing case by pressing the Open Case button , or by selecting Open Case from the File menu, a view similar to the one shown in Figure 3.16 will appear. The File Filter drop-down list will then allow you to retrieve backup (*.bk*) and HYSIM (*.sim) files in addition to standard HYSYS (*.hsc) files.

By default, the File Path is the Cases sub-directory in your HYSYS directory. To save your case: 1. In the File Name cell, type a name for the case, for example GASPLANT. You do not have to enter the .hsc extension; HYSYS will automatically add it for you.

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If you enter a name that already exists in the current directory, HYSYS will ask you for confirmation before overwriting the existing file.

2.

Once you have entered a file name, press the ENTER key or the Save button. HYSYS will now save the case under the name you have given it when you save in the future. The Save As dialog box will not appear again unless you choose to give it a new name using the Save As command.

Before beginning stream or operation installation, the simulated process is summarized in the following section.

Process Description
This example will model a natural gas processing facility that uses propane refrigeration to condense liquids from the feed, and a distillation tower to process the liquids. The flowsheet for this process is shown below.
Figure 3.17

The combined feed stream enters an inlet separator, which removes the free liquids. Overhead gas from the SEPARATOR is fed to the gas/gas exchanger, where it is pre-cooled by already refrigerated gas. The cooled gas is then fed to the chiller, where further cooling is accomplished through exchange with evaporating propane (represented by the C3Duty stream). In the chiller, which will be modelled simply as a COOLER, enough heavier hydrocarbons condense such that the eventual sales gas meets a pipeline dew point specification. The cold stream is then separated in a low-temperature separator (LTS). The dry, cold gas is fed to the gas/gas exchanger and then to sales, while the condensed liquids are mixed with free liquids from the inlet separator. These liquids are processed in a depropanizer column to produce a low-propane-content bottoms product.

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Once the results for the simulation have been obtained, you will have a good understanding of the basic tools used to build a HYSYS simulation case. At that point, you can either proceed with the Optional Study presented at the end of the example, or begin building your own simulations. In this example, three logical operations will be installed in order to perform certain functions that cannot be handled by standard physical unit operations:
Logical BALANCE ADJUST HYSYS SPREADSHEET Flowsheet Function To duplicate the composition of the SalesGas stream, in order to calculate its dew point temperature at pipeline specification pressure. To determine the required LTS temperature which gives a specified SalesGas dew point. To calculate the SalesGas net heating value.

The BALANCE operation will be installed in the main example. In the study, the ADJUST and SPREADSHEET operations will be installed to investigate the effect of the LTS temperature on the sales gas heating value. The two primary building tools, Workbook and PFD, will be used to install the streams and operations and to examine the results while progressing through the simulation. Both of these tools provide you with a large amount of flexibility in building your simulation, and in quickly accessing the information you need. The Workbook will be used to build the first part of the flowsheet, starting with the feed streams, up to and including the gas/gas heat exchanger. The PFD will be used to install the remaining operations, starting with the chiller, through to the column.

Using the Workbook
The Workbook displays information about streams and unit operations in a tabular format, while the PFD is a graphical representation of the flowsheet. Press the Workbook button on the button bar to ensure the Workbook window is active.

Workbook Button

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Installing the Feed Streams
In general, the first step when you enter the Simulation environment is to install one or more feed streams. To create a new stream: 1. Type the new stream name Feed 1 in the cell labelled **New** on the Material Streams tab of the Workbook. Note that HYSYS accepts blank spaces within a stream or operation name. Press ENTER, and HYSYS will automatically create the new stream with the name you have given it. Your Workbook should appear as shown in .
Figure 3.18

2.

The next step is to define the feed conditions. Notice that when you pressed ENTER after typing in the stream name, HYSYS automatically advanced the active cell down one, to Vapour Fraction. 1. Move to the Temperature cell for Feed 1 by clicking it, or by pressing the i key.

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2.

Type 60 in the Temperature cell, and notice your input appears in the Edit Bar at the top of the view.
Figure 3.19
Edit bar

Active cell

Accept button

Units box

In the Unit Box, HYSYS displays the default units for temperature, in this case F.
Accept Button

3.

Since this is the correct unit, press the ENTER key or the Accept button, and HYSYS will accept the temperature.

Your active location should now be the Pressure cell for Feed 1. Suppose you know the stream pressure in another unit besides the default of psia, and you do not have quick access to the conversion factor. HYSYS will accept your input in any one of a number of different units, and automatically convert to the default for you. For example, the pressure of Feed 1 is 41.37 bar and to enter this pressure: 1. 2. Type 41.37. Press SPACE to move into the Units box and click on scroll list of units.
Figure 3.20
Accept button Edit Bar

to open a

Unit box

3. 4.

Either scroll through the list to find bar, or begin typing it. HYSYS will now match your input to locate the unit of your choice. Once bar is highlighted, press the ENTER key or the Accept button, and HYSYS will accept the pressure. Notice that it will automatically be converted to the default unit, psia.

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The Molar Flow cell for Feed 1 should be selected in your Workbook. The next step is to enter the stream flow rate of 6 MMSCFD. Since the default Molar Flow unit for our unit set is MMSCFD, simply type 6 and press ENTER.

Providing Compositional Input
Now that the stream conditions have been specified, the next step is to input the composition: 1. Close the Workbook view. Now the PFD is visible with a light blue arrow on it. That arrow is the stream Feed 1 that we just created. Double-click on it to define its composition. The Feed 1 dialog appears. Move to the Compositions page. The components are listed by Mole Fraction by default. Move to the input cell for the first component, Nitrogen. Type .01 press ENTER. HYSYS will display the Input Composition for Stream view, allowing you to complete the compositional input.
Figure 3.21 The Input Composition for Stream view is Modal, indicated by the thick border and the absence of the Minimize/Maximize buttons in the upper right corner. When a Modal view is visible, you will not be able to move outside the view until you finish with it, by pressing either the Cancel, OK button.

2. 3. 4.

This view provides you with access to certain features designed to streamline the specification of a stream composition. Some of these features are:

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Composition Input Composition Basis Radio Buttons

Feature Description You can input the stream composition in some fractional basis other than Mole Fraction, or by component flows, by picking the appropriate radio button before providing your input. The Normalizing feature is useful when you know the relative ratios of components; for example, 2 parts N2, 2 parts CO2, 120 parts C1, etc. Rather than manually converting these ratios to fractions summing to one, simply enter the individual numbers of parts and press the Normalize button. HYSYS will compute the individual fractions totalling 1.0.

Normalizing

Normalizing is also useful when you have a stream consisting of only a few components. Instead of specifying zero fractions (or flows) for the other components, simply enter the fractions (or the actual flows) for the non-zero components, leaving the others <empty>. Then press the Normalize button, and HYSYS will force the other component fractions to zero. As you input the composition, the component fractions (or flows) initially appear in red, indicating the final composition is unknown. These values will become blue when the composition has been calculated. Three scenarios will result in the stream composition being calculated:

Note that these are the default colours; yours may appear differently depending on your settings on the Colours page of the Session Preferences view.

Calculation status/ colour

• Input the fractions of all components, including any zero components, such that their total is exactly 1.0000. Then press the OK button. • Input the fractions (totalling 1.000), flows or relative number of parts of all non-zero components. Then press the Normalize button then the OK button. • Input the flows or relative number of parts of all components, including any zero components, then press the OK button.

1.

Move to the input cell for CO2, type .01 and press ENTER. You are automatically advanced down by one cell each time you ENTER a new component fraction.

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Figure 3.22

2.
If you wish to delete a stream, double-click on it from the PFD, click the Name cell for the stream, and click the Delete button. HYSYS will ask for confirmation of your action before deleting.

Continue entering the fractions as shown in Figure 3.22. When you have entered the fraction of each component, the total at the bottom of the view will equal 1.00000. Press the OK button, and HYSYS accepts the composition. The stream is now completely defined, so HYSYS flashes it at the conditions given to determine its remaining properties.

3.

Close this view and return to the Workbook by clicking on the Workbook button. Ensure that the Streams tab is active by clicking on it. The properties of Feed 1 are shown below. Notice that the values you specified are a different colour (blue) than the calculated values (black).
Figure 3.23

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Alternatively to installing streams via the Workbook, there are a number of ways to create a new stream with a default name. The Object Palette should be visible; if not, press F4. To add the other feed stream, do any one of the following:

Add Object Button

• • • •

Press F11. From the Flowsheet menu, select Add Stream. Double-click the Material Stream button on the Object Palette. Press the Material Stream button on the Object Palette, then click on the Palette's Add Object button.

Material Stream Button

Each of these four methods displays the property view for the new stream, which will be named according to the Automatic Naming of Flowsheet Objects setting on the Naming page on the Simulation tab, (which is accessed through Preferences). The default setting will name new material streams with numbers, starting at 1 (and energy streams starting at Q-100). The Conditions page on the Worksheet tab is the active page when the view is initially accessed. The Stream Name cell is active, as indicated by the thick border around this cell, as well as the appearance of the name 1 in the Edit Bar. To define this second feed stream: 1. Replace the name by typing Feed 2, which will immediately appear in the Edit Bar, and press ENTER.

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2.

Enter 60, 600 and 4 in the Temperature, Pressure, and Molar Flow cells, respectively. Note that all these variables are in the default units.
Figure 3.24

3.

Move to the Composition page to begin the compositional input for the new feed stream.
Figure 3.25

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4.

Press the Edit button near the bottom of the Composition page, and the Input Composition for Stream view appears. Note that the current Composition Basis setting is Preferences’ Default. It is required to enter the stream composition on a mass basis. Change the Composition Basis to Mass Fractions by picking the appropriate radio button, or by pressing ALT N. Click on the compositional cell for Nitrogen, type 6 for the number of parts of this component, then press ENTER. Press the i key to move to the input cell for Methane, as this stream has no CO2.
Figure 3.26

5. 6. 7.

8.

Input the number of mass parts for the remaining components as shown above, pressing ENTER after typing each one.

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as shown by the status indicator displaying OK. Figure 3. and HYSYS will convert your input to component mass fractions. to view the vapour and liquid compositions for Feed 2. scroll to the right by clicking the right scroll arrow.3-24 Gas Processing Tutorial 9. 3-24 . HYSYS has performed a flash calculation to determine the unknown properties of Feed 2. Press the OK button to close the view and return to the stream property view. the Mass Fraction was automatically forced to zero. You can view the properties of each phase using the horizontal scroll bar in the matrix on the property view. 10. Press the Normalize button once you have entered the parts. or by clicking and dragging the scroll button. For example.27 Notice for CO2 (the component you left <empty>).

leaving the entire matrix visible. return to the Conditions page by clicking on it. To view the calculated stream properties. New or updated information is automatically and instantly transferred among all locations in HYSYS.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-25 Figure 3. Instead of scrolling inside the matrix. With the sizing arrow visible.28 Scroll bar Note that the compositions are currently displayed by Mass Fraction. 3-25 . Sizing Arrow Cursor 3. you can display the properties of all phases by re-sizing the property view. click and drag to the right until the horizontal scroll bar disappears. 2. 1. Place the cursor over the right border of the view. The cursor changes to a double-ended sizing arrow. You can change this by pressing the Basis button and choosing another Composition Basis radio button.

Move to the Utilities page of the property view for stream Feed 2 by clicking on the Attachments tab and selecting the Utilities page from the index. 3. • Select Envelope. To create a phase envelope for the stream. 3-26 . Do one of the following: 2.3-26 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3. press the Create button. presenting you with a list of HYSYS utilities. • Double-click on Envelope.29 Viewing a Phase Diagram You can view a phase diagram for any material stream using the HYSYS Envelope Utility: 1. and press the Add Utility button. The Available Utilities view appears.

To make the envelope more readable. The default Envelope Type is PT. maximize or re-size the view. Figure 3. a Utility has its own property view containing all the information needed to define the utility. Just as with a Stream. Isotherms.30 HYSYS creates and displays a phase envelope for the stream. and Isobars. Hydrate curves. you can specify and display Quality curves.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-27 Figure 3. Depending on the type of envelope. You can also view data in tabular format by pressing the Table button. To view another type. the Plots tab of the envelope is displayed. Initially. simply pick the appropriate radio button.31 3-27 .

Move to the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook. Note that a Utility is a separate entity from the stream to which it is attached.3-28 Gas Processing Tutorial The Connections tab allows you to change the name of the Utility and the stream that it is attached to. See Chapter 8 Utilities in the User’s Guide for more information. the stream will not be affected. used to combine the two feed streams. if you Delete it.32 Close this Utility view since it is no longer required. . One method is through the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook. Figure 3. To install the MIXER: 1. 2. Installing Unit Operations Now that the feed streams are known. Installing the Mixer The first operation that will be installed is a MIXER. and view Critical Values and Maxima. the next step is to install the necessary unit operations for processing the gas. As with most commands in HYSYS. installing an operation can be accomplished in a number of ways. Likewise. if you delete the stream. 3-28 Workbook Button Click the Workbook button to ensure the Workbook window is active. the Utility will remain but will not display any information until you attach another stream using the Select Stream button.

and click on Mixer 5. 3-29 . The UnitOps view appears.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-29 3. then using one of the above methods to install the operation. Press the Add UnitOp button. you could have produced a filtered list by picking the Piping Equipment radio button under Categories. Figure 3.33 4. With MIXER highlighted. Highlight MIXER by doing one of the following: • Start typing mixer • Press the i key to scroll down the list of available operations to Mixer • Scroll down the list using the vertical scroll bar. When you press the Add button or the ENTER key inside this view. Alternatively. listing all available unit operations. Double-clicking on a listed operation can also be used instead of the Add button or the ENTER key. HYSYS adds the operation that is currently highlighted. click the Add button. or the ENTER key.

Many operations. Click on the **Stream** cell to ensure the Inlets matrix is active.34 See Chapter 7 . appear in the property view for most operations. a unit operation property view contains all the information defining the operation.34. Property views for more complex operations contain more tabs. To complete the Connections page: 1. organized into different views which are available on different pages sorted in tabs. When the Inlets matrix has focus. Rating. Whenever you see a matrix like the one for Inlets.3-30 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3. accept multiple feed streams. like the MIXER. As with streams. you can access a drop-down list of available streams in the Edit Bar. 3-30 . As with a stream. namely Design. The four tabs shown for the MIXER. Notice that HYSYS has provided the default name MIX-100 for the MIXER. The property view for the MIXER is shown in Figure 3. the operation will accept multiple stream connections at that location. The status indicator at the bottom of the view shows that the operation needs a feed stream.Menu Bar Options in the User’s Guide for detailed information on setting your Session Preferences. Worksheet and Dynamics. the default naming scheme for unit operations can be changed on the Session Preferences tab.

Figure 3. 2. you could have made the connections by typing the exact stream name in the cell. Open the Edit Bar drop-down list of feeds by clicking on pressing the F2 key and then the i key. To assign a product stream: 1. and **Add Stream** is automatically moved down to a new empty cell. Feed 2. Figure 3. Since no outlet streams have been created to attach. and press ENTER. followed by ENTER.35 or by Alternatively. 4. Select Feed 1 from the list. or by pressing TAB. Type MixerOut in the cell. HYSYS recognizes that there is no existing stream with this name. Move to the Outlet cell by clicking on it. Repeat steps 1 and 2 to connect the other stream. 3.36 3-31 . so it will create the new stream with the name you have supplied. The status indicator now displays Requires a product stream. The stream is transferred to the list of Inlets.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-31 2.

Leave the Automatic Pressure Assignment at its default setting of Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet. HYSYS has calculated the outlet stream by combining the two inlets and flashing the mixture at the lowest pressure of the inlet streams. In this case. 2. 3-32 . Figure 3. move to the Parameters page by clicking on it. so the outlet stream is set to 600 psia. With the Connections page complete. both inlets have the same pressure (600 psia). go to the Worksheet tab and click on the Conditions page. 1.38 The Conditions page is a condensed Workbook page. Figure 3.3-32 Gas Processing Tutorial The status indicator has now changed to a green OK. To view the calculated outlet stream. showing that the operation and attached streams are completely calculated.37 3. displaying only those streams attached to the operation.

the Name cell for MIX-100 has focus. do one of the following: • Double-click on Feed 1 in the box at the bottom of the Workbook. Figure 3. the property view for the operation occupying the current row in the matrix is opened. 3-33 . You can also open the property view for a stream directly from the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook. the box at the bottom of the Workbook displays all streams attached to the current operation. and the box displays the three streams attached to this operation. is opened. its Object Type. and its Calculation Level. close the view to return to the Workbook. double-clicking on any cell (except Feeds and Products) associated with the operation also opens its property view. whether it is Ignored.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-33 4. Currently.39 The matrix shows the operation Name. The property view for the first listed feed stream. Object Type. When any of the Name. Level cells are active. in this case Feed 1. for example Feed 1. Ignored or Calc. When you click the View UnitOps button. Now that the MIXER is completely known. the attached streams (Feeds and Products). • Double-click on the Feeds cell for MIX-100. Alternatively. To open the property view for one of the streams attached to the MIXER. The new operation is displayed in the matrix on the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook.

In the list of Available Unit Operations. and the UnitOps view appears. 4. choose Separator. Click the Add UnitOps button. Select the stream MixerOut by doing one of the following: • Click on the stream name in the drop-down list • Press i key to highlight the stream name. The SEPARATOR property view appears. 6.3-34 Gas Processing Tutorial Installing the Inlet Separator The inlet separator splits the two-phase MixerOut stream into its vapour and liquid phases. Change the name from its default (V-100) by typing InletSep in the Name cell. then press ENTER 9. Figure 3. then press ENTER.40 2. To install and define the SEPARATOR: 1. 3. 3-34 . or by pressing ALT L. Open the drop-down list of available feed streams in the Edit Bar. • Press ALT V. the Unit Ops tab should again be active. In the Workbook. and the Connections page on the Design tab is active. 5.) Select the Vessels radio button in the Categories group. (The Unit Ops view can also be accessed by pressing F12 from the Workbook. 7. Move to the Vapour Outlet cell by doing one of the following: • Click on the cell. Click the Add button. 8. Move to the Inlets list by clicking on the << Stream>> cell.

1. Figure 3. move to the Conditions page of the Worksheet tab. click the Close button to close the view. Create the vapour outlet stream by typing SepVap. 11. When finished. Note that an Energy stream could be attached to heat or cool the vessel contents.41 2. Figure 3. The matrix appearing on this page is shown below.42 3-35 . To view the calculated outlet stream data. Select the Liquid Outlet cell and type the name SepLiq. The default Delta P (pressure drop) of zero is acceptable for this example. are also acceptable at their default value. Press ENTER. The Volume. for the purposes of this example. Advance to the Parameters page by clicking on it. The completed Connections page is shown in Figure 3. the energy stream is not required. Liquid Volume and Liquid Level (which in general applies only to vessels operating in dynamic mode or with reactions attached).40. However.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-35 10.

Heat Exchanger Button On the Object Palette. Create the new streams by moving to the appropriate input cell. To install and define a new HEAT EXCHANGER: 1. Change the operation Name from its default E-100 to Gas/Gas. The HEAT EXCHANGER property view appears. using the methods discussed previously. 3-36 . double-click on the Heat Exchanger button. On the Parameters page: 1. 3. Note that you will have to create all streams except SepVap. The Object Palette should be visible. The Exchanger Design (End Point) is the acceptable default setting for the Heat Exchanger Model for this tutorial. and the Connections page is active. typing in the name. if not. Figure 3.43 2.3-36 Gas Processing Tutorial Installing the Heat Exchanger The next operation to install is the gas/gas exchanger. which is an existing stream that can be selected from the Tube Side Inlet drop-down list. Attach the inlet and outlet streams as shown below. and pressing ENTER. press F4.

44 3.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-37 2. so simply type 10 in each cell. Figure 3. Enter a pressure drop of 10 psi for both the Tube Side Delta P and Shell Side Delta P. Note that the default units (shown in the Edit Bar) are psi. and press ENTER. to 1 to model Counter Current Flow. Change the value of Tube Passes per Shell. found on the Sizing page of the Rating tab. Figure 3.45 3-37 .

Stream CoolGas has not yet been flashed. 5. as its temperature is unknown. click on any cell associated with the stream 3-38 . Close the HEAT EXCHANGER property view to return to the Workbook. Compositions and Energy Streams tabs. Accessing Unit Operations from the Workbook There are a number of ways to open the property view for an operation directly from the Workbook. the box at the bottom of the Workbook view displays the operations to which the current stream is attached.46. you can use the following method: Any utilities attached to the stream with the Workbook active will also be displayed in (and are accessible through) this box. For example. • When your current location is a Workbook streams tab. In addition to using the Unit Ops tab. Move to the Streams tab of the Workbook. HYSYS always calculates as many properties as possible for the streams based on the available information.3-38 Gas Processing Tutorial 4.46 Workbook Features Before installing the remaining operations. CoolGas is flashed when a temperature approach is specified for the Gas/Gas heat exchanger. a number of features of the Workbook will be illustrated which allow you to access information quickly and change how information is displayed. shown in Figure 3. such as any one of the Material Streams. Notice how partial information is passed (for stream CoolGas) throughout the flowsheet. later Figure 3.

This item allows you to customize the Workbook according to the information you would like to be displayed. temperature. • Object inspect (right-click) the Material Streams tab in the Workbook. Do one of the following: • From the Workbook menu item. to which this stream is attached. You can access the property by double-clicking on the corresponding operation name. Figure 3. To add a new tab: 1. select Setup. InletSep and Gas/Gas. and flow. To access the property view for either of these operations. The box displays the names of the two operations. then select Setup from the menu that appears. Suppose you wish to create a new Workbook tab that displays only stream pressure. the Workbook item appears in the HYSYS menu.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-39 SepVap. Adding a Tab to the Workbook Notice that when the Workbook has focus.47 Stream SepVap is the current Workbook location The operation to which SepVap is attached are displayed in this box. doubleclick on the corresponding operation name. 3-39 .

Figure 3. it will be inserted before the highlighted tab (currently Material Streams).48 Currently. Figure 3. 2. all variables are displayed with four significant figures. The New Object Type view appears. You can change the display format or precision of any Workbook variables by pressing the Format button. Click the Add button. Click on the Compositions tab in the list of Workbook tabs. When you add a new tab. 1.49 3-40 . Add the new tab before the Compositions tab. Notice that the four existing tabs are listed in the Workbook Pages group.3-40 Gas Processing Tutorial The Workbook Setup view appears.

Click on the first variable. Release the CTRL key. These four variables are now highlighted. you must edit each tab individually. Click on the other variables. The finished Setup is shown in Figure 3. Select the Material Stream and click the OK button. If you wish to remove variables from another tab. Heat Flow and Molar Enthalpy. 3. You will return to the Setup view.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-41 3. Click on the Name cell in the Object group. 1. 4.51. or double-click on Material Stream. Mass Flow. Click the Delete button to remove them from this Workbook tab only. Vapour Fraction. 4. The next step is to customize the tab by removing the variables that are irrelevant. Press and hold the CTRL key.50 2. 5. Click on Stream to expand it into Material Stream and Energy Streams.Flow in order to better describe the tab contents.T. and the new tab is added after the existing Material Streams tab. 3-41 . and change the name for the new tab from the default Material Streams 2 to P . Figure 3.

51 The new tab now appears in the list of Workbook Pages. Close the view to return to the Workbook and view the new tab.52 3-42 . in the same order as it will appear in the Workbook.3-42 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3. Figure 3. The new tab displays only these four Variables.

arranging them in a logical manner according to the setup of your flowsheet. choose Auto Position All from the PFD menu item. press the PFD button on the button bar. To open the PFD. also known as "objects". with all streams and unit operations visible. • Press CTRL S. Figure 3. HYSYS now displays all streams and operations.53 PFD Button Bar Material Stream arrow PFD Button Unit Operation icon for a SEPARATOR Stream/Operation labels As a graphical representation of your flowsheet. The object name or "label". while an operation icon is a graphic representing the actual physical operation. The PFD item appears in the HYSYS menu whenever the PFD is active. the PFD shows the connections among all streams and operations.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-43 At this point. 3-43 . A stream icon is an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. it is probably a good idea to save your case by doing one of the following: • Press the Save button on the button bar. Using the PFD Besides the Workbook. If not. Each object is represented by a symbol or "icon". • Select Save from the File menu. Your PFD view should appear as below. appears near each icon. the PFD is the other home view in the Simulation Environment.

Recall the status indicator at the bottom of the property view for a stream or operation. and an appropriate warning message is displayed. • Move an object by clicking and dragging it to the new location. and an OK message is displayed. The status indicator is yellow. The stream or operation is completely defined and solved. Calculation Status Before proceeding. you can: Fly-By Information Size Button Zoom Out 25% Display Entire PFD Zoom In 25% • Access commands and features through the PFD Button Bar. The status indicator is green. then clicking and dragging the sizing "handles". clicking on the icon. a feature of the PFD will be described which allows you to trace the calculation status of the objects in your flowsheet. Among other functions that can be performed while the PFD is active.PFD in the User’s Guide. but the stream or operation has not been solved because one or more degrees of freedom is present. For example. • Display the Object Inspection menu for an object by placing the cursor over it and right-clicking. Some of these functions will be illustrated here. Description A major piece of defining information is missing from the object. or display the entire flowsheet in the PFD window by pressing the zoom buttons at the bottom left of the PFD view. see Chapter 3 . • Zoom in and out. • Access fly-by summary information for an object simply by placing the cursor over it. and an appropriate warning message is displayed. Red Status Yellow Status Green Status 3-44 . • Open the property view for an object by double-clicking on its icon. The status indicator is red. a feed or product stream is not attached to a SEPARATOR. All major defining information is present.3-44 Gas Processing Tutorial Like any other non-modal view. • Change an icon's size by pressing the Size button. This menu provides access to a number of commands associated with the particular object. you may change the colours in the Session Preferences. For example. This indicator displays three different states for the object: Indicator Status Keep in mind that these are the HYSYS default colours. the PFD view can be re-sized by clicking and dragging anywhere on the outside border. a COOLER whose outlet stream temperature is unknown. for further information.

A similar colour scheme is used to indicate the status of streams. if it is not. click the Cancel button. the conditions of the tube-side outlet and both shell-side streams are unknown. the streams and operations are "colourcoded" to indicate their calculation status.54 2. To install and connect the Chiller: 1. Therefore. and tube-side outlet CoolGas. Cooler Button Click the Cooler button on the Object Palette. so their normal colours are displayed. a dark red icon is for an energy stream with a known duty. Figure 3. A light blue icon indicates the stream cannot be flashed until some additional information is supplied. Installing the Chiller The Chiller will be modelled as a COOLER. The cursor changes to a special cursor with a plus (+) symbol attached to it. Make sure the Object Palette is displayed. except for the HEAT EXCHANGER shell-side streams LTSVap and SalesGas. For material streams. The Chiller will be added to the right of the LTS. Cancel Button 3-45 . If you press the wrong button. Similarly. however. When you are in the PFD. while a light red icon indicates an unknown duty. For heat exchanger Gas/Gas. Position the cursor over the PFD. You can install streams or operations by dropping them from the Object Palette onto the PFD.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-45 Notice that the icons for all streams installed to this point are dark blue. so make some empty space available by scrolling to the right using the horizontal scroll bar. a dark blue icon indicates the stream has been flashed and is entirely known. press F4. The symbol indicates the location of the operation icon. the exchanger has a yellow outline indicating its current status. The mixer and inlet separator are completely calculated.

The Attach Mode button has a different shading to show that it is "pressed". A trailing line appears between the CoolGas stream icon and the cursor. The pop-up "Out" indicates which part of the stream is available for connection. Through the transparent box. As well. indicating that you are beginning a connection. 3. 6. Figure 3. Attach Mode Button When you are in Attach mode. in this case the stream outlet. you can see a square connection point.55 4. 8. E-100. indicating an acceptable end point for the connection. and a pop-up description attached to the cursor tail. To return to Move mode. Position the cursor over the right end of the CoolGas stream icon. Place the cursor near the connection point. 9. and a connection point appears at the COOLER inlet. 5. Notice that the COOLER has red status (colour). Figure 3. Click to "drop" the COOLER onto the PFD. Press the Attach Mode button on the PFD toolbar to enter Attach mode. left-click and hold.56 7. and the trailing line snaps to that point. and the connection is made to the connection point at the COOLER inlet. You can temporarily toggle between Attach and Move mode by holding down the CTRL key. you will not be able to move objects in the PFD. click the Attach button again.3-46 Gas Processing Tutorial . HYSYS creates a new COOLER with a default name. With the pop-up "Out" visible. A small transparent box appears at the cursor tip. Release the left mouse button. indicating that it requires feed and product streams. The transparent box becomes solid black. 3-46 . a solid white box appears at the cursor tip. Move the cursor toward the left (inlet) side of the COOLER.

Gas Processing Tutorial 3-47 To connect the COOLER: 1. release the left mouse button. With the pop-up visible. so they are light blue and light red. This status indicates that all necessary connections have been made. originating the connection from the arrowhead on the COOLER icon. 3-47 . Move the cursor over the stream line connecting the two icons. Press the Attach Mode button again to return to Move mode. Repeat steps 1-4 to create the COOLER energy stream. and the COOLER has yellow (warning) status. Press the Break Connection button on the PFD button bar. 3. as well as the energy stream. are unknown at this point. Figure 3. notice that the names of the Inlet. The new stream is automatically named Q-100. The COOLER material streams. Break Connection Button Position the cursor over the right end of the COOLER icon. Click once to break the connection. left-click and hold. The transparent box again becomes solid black.58 6. The Attach Mode button returns to its normal appearance. Double-click on the COOLER icon to open its property view. 5. Outlet and Energy streams that were attached previously appear in the appropriate cells. 2. On the Connections page. indicating an available connection to break. with a trailing line attached to the COOLER outlet. 2. 4. The connection point and pop-up "Product" appears. HYSYS creates a new stream with the default name 1.57 If you make an incorrect connection: 1. A large stream icon appears. respectively. With the large stream icon visible. but the attached streams are not entirely known. Move the cursor to the right of the COOLER. The stream icon indicates that a new stream will be created after step 4 is completed. A check mark attached to the cursor appears. 3. Figure 3.

one of these will be exhausted when HYSYS flashes the CoolGas stream after the exchanger temperature approach will be specified. When you are finished. Change the operation Name from the default to Chiller. Figure 3. Figure 3. either the Chiller outlet temperature. Click on the Parameters page. To use the remaining degree of freedom. or the amount of duty in the Chiller energy stream can be specified. and specify a Pressure Drop of 10 psi. The 3-48 .60 3.59 2.3-48 Gas Processing Tutorial 1. the Chiller has two degrees of freedom. close this view. At this point.

Gas Processing Tutorial 3-49 amount of chilling duty which is available is unknown. Double-click on the outlet stream icon (1) to open its property view.61 5. so an initial "guess" of 0oF for the Chiller outlet temperature will be provided. Press the Close button to return to the PFD. this temperature can be adjusted to provide the desired sales gas dew point temperature. Double-click on the energy stream icon (Q-100) to open its property view. then specify a temperature of 0oF. The remaining degree of freedom for this stream has now been used. The required chilling duty (in the Heat Flow cell) is calculated by HYSYS when the HEAT EXCHANGER temperature approach is specified. The Chiller still has yellow status. so HYSYS flashes ColdGas to determine its remaining properties. Figure 3. Later. Change the Name from the default to ColdGas. 3-49 . because the temperature of CoolGas is unknown. 4.

Move the cursor toward the left (inlet) side of the SEPARATOR. With the pop-up visible. To install and connect the SEPARATOR: 1. The cursor changes to a special "bulls-eye" cursor. Right-click and hold. Position the cursor over the PFD. to the right of the Chiller. 5. and multiple connection points will appear at the SEPARATOR inlet. left-click and hold. 6. 3-50 . The connection point and pop-up "Out" appears. HYSYS will create a new SEPARATOR with a default name V-100. Click the Attach button on the PFD toolbar to enter Attach mode. Release the secondary mouse button to "drop" the SEPARATOR onto the PFD. 3. Rename this stream C3Duty. 8.3-50 Gas Processing Tutorial 6. then close the view. Position the cursor over the Separator button on the Object Palette. The bulls-eye indicates the location of the operation icon. the next step is to install the low-temperature separator (LTS) to separate the gas and condensed liquids in stream ColdGas. Multiple connection points appear because the SEPARATOR accepts multiple feed streams. 2. 4. Figure 3. Position the cursor over the right end of the ColdGas stream icon.62 Installing the LTS Now that the chiller has been installed. 7. Separator Button Make some empty space available to the right of the Chiller using the horizontal scroll bar.

and a solid white box appears at the cursor tip. and a solid white box appears at the cursor tip. 8. With the pop-up visible. 3. Press the Attach button to leave Attach mode. Release the mouse button. The vapour outlet stream LTSVap have already been created. The connection point and pop-up "Vapour Product" appears. left-click and hold. A large stream icon appears with a trailing line attached to the SEPARATOR liquid outlet.63 10. 3-51 . release the mouse button. With the large stream icon visible. and a connection point appears at the stream inlet. Figure 3. 4. Attach Mode Button 10. Place the cursor over the LTSVap stream icon. Position the cursor over the top of the SEPARATOR icon.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-51 9. HYSYS creates a new stream with the default name 1. and the connection is made. 9. Release the mouse button. Place the cursor near the inlet area of the SEPARATOR. Move the cursor toward the LTSVap stream icon. Move the cursor to the right of the SEPARATOR. The SEPARATOR has two outlet streams. Position the cursor over the bottom of the SEPARATOR icon. left-click and hold. liquid and vapour. The connection point and pop-up "Liquid Product" appears. To complete the attachments for the SEPARATOR: 1. and the connection is made. The liquid outlet will be a new stream. 2. With the pop-up visible. which is the shell side inlet stream for Gas/Gas. Figure 3.64 5. 6. 7.

Figure 3. Double-click on the icon for the new SEPARATOR (V-100) to open its property view. Double-click on the stream icon 1 to open its property view. 3-52 . then press the Close button. Enter the new name LTSLiq in the Name cell. as shown by the change in their PFD colour from light blue to dark blue. 1.65 Streams LTSVap and LTSLiq are now known.3-52 Gas Processing Tutorial 11. select Auto Position All from the PFD menu item. Now that the LTS connections are complete. Change its name from the default to LTS. At this point. then click the Close button.65. Your PFD appears similar to the one shown in Figure 3. the outlet streams from heat exchanger Gas/Gas are still unknown. 12.

so it is unknown at this point. To create the specification: 3-53 . so the remaining Degrees of Freedom is one (1). This is the product of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and the area available for heat exchange (A). HYSYS does not provide a default UA value. although only one has a value: Specifications Heat Balance Description The tube side and shell side duties must be equal. Double-click on the Gas/Gas icon to open the exchanger property view. Figure 3. then move to the Specs page on the Design tab.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-53 2. HYSYS provides two default constraints in the Specifications group. a 10oF minimum temperature approach to the hot side inlet of the exchanger will be specified. UA Adding a Heat Exchanger Specification To exhaust the remaining degree of freedom. The Solver group on this page shows that there are two (2) Unknown Variables and the Number of Constraints is one (1). so the heat balance must be zero (0).66 This page allows you to input specifications for the HEAT EXCHANGER and view its calculation status. It will be calculated by HYSYS when another constraint is provided.

and the ExchSpec (Exchanger Specification) view appears. 3-54 . Enter 10 (oF) in the Spec Value cell. 2. In the Stream (-) cell.67 3. which allows you to explicitly specify a temperature difference between two streams. The default specification Type is Delta Temp. The new specification will appear in the Specifications group on the Specs page. In the Stream (+) cell. Click the Add button.3-54 Gas Processing Tutorial 1.68 6. Change the Name from the default to Hot Side Approach. Figure 3. select SepVap from the drop-down list in the Edit Bar. select SalesGas from the drop-down list in the Edit Bar. Figure 3. respectively. 4. Click the Close button to return to the Gas/Gas property view. HYSYS will converge on both specifications and the unknown streams will be flashed. The Stream (+) and Stream (-) cells correspond to the warmer and cooler streams. 5.

move to the Details page on the Performance page.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-55 7.70 3-55 . Figure 3.94oF. Figure 3. where HYSYS displays the Overall Performance and Detailed Performance. Move to the Conditions page on Work Sheet tab to view the calculated stream properties. All streams in the flowsheet are now completely known. HYSYS has calculated the temperature of CoolGas as 42. Next.69 Using the 10oF approach.

The current dew point can be checked by creating a stream whose composition is identical to SalesGas. 4.3-56 Gas Processing Tutorial Two parameters of interest are the UA and Lmtd (logarithmic mean temperature difference).6oF. Figure 3. The property view for the new operation appears. and having HYSYS flash the new stream to calculate its dew point temperature. 3-56 . respectively. Checking the Sales Gas Dew Point Now that the gas stream has been processed. 3. which will be used for this example. This can be accomplished by installing a BALANCE operation as follows: 1. 1. Open the drop-down list of available streams in the Edit Bar. Move to the **Stream** cell under Inlet Streams. A typical pipeline dew point specification is 15 oF at 800 psia. Balance Button Double-click on the Balance button on the Object Palette. specifying the dew point pressure. click the Close button to leave the Gas/Gas property view. then press ENTER. Type in the new name DewPoint. and select SalesGas.71 2.08e4 Btu/×Fhr and 22. the SalesGas must be checked in order to meet a dew point temperature specification at the pipeline flowing pressure to ensure no liquids form in the transmission line. which HYSYS has calculated as 2. When you are finished viewing the results.

0 and a Pressure of 800 psia in the appropriate cells. To specify a dew point calculation at 800 psia for SalesDP. 8. 3-57 . Create the outlet stream by typing SalesDP then press ENTER. 7. Move to the **Stream** cell under Outlet Streams. temperature or pressure of stream SalesDP will not affect the rest of the flowsheet. However. Click on the Auto Calculation check box. Move to the Parameters tab and click on Mole radio button in the BALANCE types field. The vapour fraction and pressure of SalesDP can now be specified. which is well within the pipeline specification of 15oF. HYSYS performs a mole balance between the two streams. and HYSYS will perform a flash calculation to determine the unknown temperature. enter a Vapour fraction of 1.99oF. HYSYS flashes the stream at these conditions. Next. Figure 3. .72 Note that changes made to the vapour fraction. move to the Worksheet tab of the BALANCE property view. returning a dew point Temperature of 9. 6. changes which affect SalesGas will cause SalesDP to be recalculated because of the molar balance between these two streams. Close the view to return to the PFD. duplicating the composition of SalesGas into SalesDP .Gas Processing Tutorial 3-57 5.

Click the Mixer button on the Object Palette. to the bottom right of the LTSLiq stream icon. click and drag the cursor toward the left (inlet) side of the MIXER. 4. their icons were likely placed in the far right of the PFD. Press and hold the CTRL key to temporarily enable Attach mode while you make the MIXER connections. 5. such as immediately to the right of stream SalesGas. Position the cursor over the right end of the LTSLiq stream icon. To install and connect the MIXER: 1. 7. into a single feed for the DISTILLATION COLUMN.73 When HYSYS created the BALANCE and new stream. HYSYS creates a new MIXER with the default name MIX-101. 3. Installing the Second Mixer The second MIXER is used to combine the two liquid streams. you can click and drag the BALANCE and SalesDP icons to a more appropriate location. The connection point and pop-up "Out" appears. 3-58 .3-58 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3. SepLiq and LTSLiq. multiple connection points appear because the MIXER accepts multiple feed streams. Again. Click to "drop" the MIXER onto the PFD. With the pop-up visible. 6. and multiple connection points appear at the MIXER inlet. If desired. 2. Mixer Button Make some empty space available to the right of the LTS using the horizontal scroll bar. Position the cursor over the PFD.

release the primary mouse button. number of stages and default specifications. ensure that the Use Input Experts check box is selected (checked). and the first page of the Input Expert appears. The connection point and pop-up "Product" will appear. Release the CTRL key to leave Attach mode. 10. then press the Close button. then Close the view. A large stream icon will appear. and when the solid white box appears at the cursor tip.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-59 8. Position the cursor over the right end of the MIXER icon. a DISTILLATION COLUMN will be installed. On the Simulation tab. 15. When you created the MIXER outlet stream. 11. Installing the Column HYSYS has a number of pre-built column templates that you can install and customize by changing attached stream names. HYSYS automatically combined the two inlet streams and flashed the mixture to determine the outlet conditions. 14. For this example. 3-59 . select Preferences from the HYSYS Tools menu. with a trailing line attached to the MIXER outlet. 12.74 13. click and drag to the right of the MIXER. Rename the stream to TowerFeed. To install the column: 1. Before installing the column. Double-click on the outlet stream icon 1 to access its property view. HYSYS will create a new stream with the default name 1. With the pop-up visible. 9. Distillation Column Button Double-click on the Distillation Column button on the Object Palette. release the left mouse button to make the connection. Repeat steps 14-16 to connect SepLiq to the MIXER. With the large stream icon visible. Figure 3. shown here. Place the cursor near the inlet area of the MIXER.

The current active cell is Numb of Stages (Number of Stages). Open the drop-down list of available feeds in the Edit Bar by clicking it. and the presence of 10 (default number of stages) in the Edit Bar at the top of the view. such as the number of stages. 2. HYSYS supplies certain default information. or by pressing F2 then i. so there is no need to change the Feed Stage. you can change the efficiency of any or all stages later. and are not included in the Numb Stages field. or by pressing TAB. Some points worth noting are: • These are theoretical stages. 4. so leave the Number of Stages at its default value. • The Condenser and Reboiler are considered separate from the other stages. If you wish to specify real stages.75 The Input Expert is a logical sequence of input views which guide you through the initial installation of a Column. Completion of the steps will ensure that you have provided the minimum amount of information required to define the column. This default location is used. in this case stage 5 (indicated by 5_Main TS). This column has Overhead Vapour and Bottoms Liquid products.3-60 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3. 3-60 . but no Overhead Liquid (distillate) product. 3. 10 theoretical stages will be used. Select TowerFeed as the feed stream to the column. as the HYSYS default stage efficiency is one. indicated by the thick border around this cell. When you install a column using a pre-built template. HYSYS will supply a default feed location in the middle of the Tray Section (TS). For this example. Advance to the Inlet Streams list by clicking on the <Stream> cell.

this is the same as leaving the Condenser as Partial and later specifying a zero distillate rate. When you are finished. 3. Figure 3. pick the Full Rflx radio button. and the distillate stream disappears. Enter the stream and Column names as shown below.76 2. In the Condenser group. In effect. indicating sufficient information has been supplied to advance to the next page of the Input Expert. Click the Next button to advance to the Pressure Profile page. 3-61 .Gas Processing Tutorial 3-61 1. the Next button becomes active.

Figure 3.77 5. good estimates will usually result in a faster solution. Although HYSYS does not require estimates to produce a converged column.3-62 Gas Processing Tutorial 4. Enter 200 psia and 205 psia as the Condenser Pressure and Reboiler Pressure. 3-62 . respectively. The Condenser Pressure Drop can be left at its default value of zero. Press the Next button to advance to the Optional Estimates page.

This page allows you to supply values for the default column specifications that HYSYS has created. Press the Next button to advance to the fourth and final page of the Input Expert. respectively.0 MMSCFD and a Reflux Ratio of 1. Provide Condenser and Reboiler Temperature Estimates of 40 °F and 200 °F. so leave it at the default of Molar. overhead Vapour Rate is an estimate only. 1. Figure 3. However. Note that the Flow Basis applies to the Vapour Rate. by specifying zero overhead liquid flow (Full Reflux Condenser) one degree of freedom was eliminated. Enter a Vapour Rate of 2.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-63 6.0. 3-63 . a DISTILLATION COLUMN has three default specifications. In general. For the two remaining default specifications. and Reflux Ratio is an active specification.78 7.

3-64 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3.80 3-64 .79 2. and the DISTILLATION COLUMN property view appears. Figure 3. Click the Done button.

Figure 3. Adding a Column Specification Notice that the current Degrees of Freedom is zero. (or specification). However. The Add Specs view appears. 3-65 . leaving it as an Estimate only. The main feature of this page is that it displays the status of your column as it is being calculated. directly from this page. indicating the column is ready to be Run. The Specs. Move to the Monitor page on the Design tab by clicking on it.81 3. For this example. a 2% propane mole fraction in the bottoms liquid will be specified. the Vapour Rate that was specified in the Input Expert is currently an Active specification. You can also change specification values. and activate or deactivate specifications used by the Column solver. Click the Active check box for the Ovhd Vap Rate to clear it. The Degrees of Freedom will increase to 1. updating information with each iteration. Move to the Specs page by clicking on it.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-65 You are automatically placed on the Connections page on the Design tab of the Column view. and it is desired to use this only as an initial estimate for the solver. Click the Add button in the Column Specifications group box. page lists all the Active and non-Active specifications which are required to solve the column. indicating that another active specification is required. 1. To add the new specification: 2.

Select Component Fractions as the Column Specification Type. and the Comp Frac Spec view appears. and choose Reboiler from the list of available stages displayed in the Edit Bar.02 as the liquid mole fraction specification value. 6. 3-66 . and enter .83 8. Change the specification Name to Propane Fraction by editing the default name. Click the Add Spec(s) button.3-66 Gas Processing Tutorial 4. Figure 3. 7. Figure 3. Move to the Spec Value cell. Move to the Stage cell.82 5.

3-67 . The new specification appears in the list of Column Specifications on the Specs page. Close the view to return to the Column property view. click the Group Active button to bring the new specification to the top of the list. Figure 3. Move to the first cell in the Components list. Note that HYSYS automatically made the new specification active when you created it.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-67 9. and select Propane from the drop-down list of available components in the Edit Bar.84 10. where the new specification may not be visible (unless you scroll down the matrix) because it has been placed at the bottom of the Specifications list. directly under the other Active specification. indicated by <<Component>>. Return to the Monitor page. For convenience.

Running the Column 1.85 The Degrees of Freedom has returned to zero. Click the Run button to begin calculations. and the information displayed on the page is updated with each iteration. so the column is ready to be calculated. 3-68 . in three iterations. The column converges quickly.3-68 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3.

Step size.86 This matrix displays the Iteration number. You can access a more detailed stage summary by moving to the Summary page on the Performance tab. and Equilibrium error and Heat/Spec error. The status indictor has changed from Unconverged to Converged. 3-69 . The converged temperature profile is currently displayed in the upper right corner of the view. pick the appropriate radio button. The column temperature profile is shown here.You can view the pressure or flow profiles by picking the appropriate radio button. To view the pressure or flow profiles.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-69 Figure 3.

This property view is essentially the same as the "outside". • Access the "inside" column property view by pressing the Column Runner button. you might wish to focus only on the column subflowsheet. The column subflowsheet PFD and Workbook are shown on the next page. you might want to: PFD Button Workbook Button • View the column subflowsheet PFD by pressing the PFD button.87 Moving to the Column Subflowsheet When considering the column. Column Runner Button 3-70 . Press the Column Environment button at the bottom of the property view. or main flowsheet. While inside the column environment. • View a Workbook of the column subflowsheet objects by pressing the Workbook button. You can do this by entering the column environment. property view.3-70 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3.

89 3-71 .88 Figure 3.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-71 Figure 3.

Results 1. Figure 3.91 3-72 .90 Figure 3. Open the Workbook to access the calculated results for the main flowsheet.3-72 Gas Processing Tutorial 2. Parent Simulation Environment Button When you are finished in the column environment. The Material Streams and Compositions tabs of the Workbook are shown below. return to the main flowsheet by pressing the Parent Simulation Environment button.

select the operation in the list. When the Find Object view appears. From the Flowsheet menu. For example. do one of the following: Navigator Button • • • • Press F3. Double-click on any blank space on the HYSYS Desktop. to list all streams and unit operations. 3-73 . You can change which objects are displayed by picking a different Filter radio button. so only the Unit Operations appear in the list of objects. enter the Object Name. You can use the Databook to monitor key variables under a variety of process scenarios. HYSYS opens the property view for the object whose name you entered. then click the View button. Choose the Navigator button. and view the results in a tabular or graphical format. or double-click on the operation.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-73 Using the Object Navigator Now that results have been obtained. you may wish to view the calculated properties of a particular stream or operation. select Find Object. To open a property view. pick the All button. To open the Navigator.92 The UnitOps radio button in the Filter group is currently picked. The Object Navigator view appears: Figure 3. You can also search for an object by pressing the Find button. then click the OK button. The Object Navigator allows you to quickly access the property view for any stream or unit operation at any time during the simulation. Using the Databook The HYSYS Databook provides you with a convenient way to examine your flowsheet in more detail.

close the Object Navigator or any property view you might have opened using the Navigator. The Databook appears below.3-74 Gas Processing Tutorial Before opening the Databook. To open the Databook. and Select Databook. The Navigator operates in a left-toright manner-the selected Flowsheet determines the Object list. and the Variable list available for the LTS appears to the right of the Object list. Figure 3. The Variable Navigator is used extensively in HYSYS for locating and selecting variables. Pick the UnitOps radio button in the Object Filter group.93 The first step is to add the key variables to the Databook using the Variables tab. 2. For this example. and the Variable Navigator view appears. do one of the following: • Press CTRL D. To add the variables to the Databook: 1. the chosen Object dictates the Variable list. • Open the Tools menu. The Object list will be filtered to show unit operations only. the effects of LTS temperature on the sales gas dew point and flow rate. and liquid product flow rate will be investigated. and the selected Variable determines whether any Variable Specifics are available. Click on LTS in the Object list. Click the Insert button. 3. 3-74 .

3-75 . Select Vessel Temperature in the Variable list. The new variable LTS Temp appears in the Databook.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-75 4. 4. The Object list is filtered to show streams only. Select Temperature in the Variable list. and the Variable Navigator appears. 2. and the Variable list available for material streams appears to the right of the Object list. Pick the Streams radio button in the Object Filter group.95 To add the next variable: 1. Figure 3. HYSYS displays this variable name in the Variable Description cell.94 5. 3. Figure 3. Click on SalesDP in the Object list. Press the Insert button.

97 After the key variables have been added to the Databook. Change the Variable Description to Dew Point.3-76 Gas Processing Tutorial 5. Repeat steps 1-5 to add the other variables to the Databook. Change the Variable Description for these variables to Sales Gas Production and Liquid Production. then click the OK button. 3-76 . The variable now appears in the Databook. the next step is to create a data table to display those variables: 7. Figure 3. Figure 3. Move to the Process Data Tables tab by clicking on it.96 6. The completed Variables tab of the Databook appears below. Add the Molar Flow variable for stream SalesGas and Liquid Volume Flow for stream LiquidProd.

99 3-77 . Activate each variable by clicking on the corresponding Show check box. HYSYS creates a new table with the default name ProcData1. Figure 3.98 9. Notice that the four variables that were added to the Databook appear in the matrix on this tab.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-77 8. Figure 3. Change the default name from ProcData1 to Key Variables by editing the Process Data Table cell. Click the Add button in the Available Process Data Tables group. 1.

Click the View button to view the new data table. Move to the Data Recorder tab in the Databook by clicking on it. Figure 3. click the Minimize button in the upper right corner of the Key Variables Data view. Suppose you now want to make changes to the flowsheet. Instead of manually recording the variables. which is shown below.100 This table will be accessed again later to demonstrate how its results are updated whenever a flowsheet change is made. To record the current values: 1. This tab appears below. HYSYS reduces the view to an icon and places it at the bottom of the Desktop. but you would like to record the current values of the key variables before making any changes. you can use the Data Recorder to automatically record them for you. Figure 3. For now.101 3-78 .3-78 Gas Processing Tutorial 2.

3-79 .Gas Processing Tutorial 3-79 When using the Data Recorder. and HYSYS creates a new scenario with the default name Scenario 1. It is desired to include all four key variables in this scenario. Figure 3. You return to the Databook. Click the Record button to record the variables in their current state. 6. Activate each variable by clicking on the corresponding Include check box. 2. you first create a Scenario containing one or more of the key variables. Figure 3. In the Available Display group. then click OK.103 5. The New Solved State view appears.102 3. Enter the new name Base Case. then record the variables in their current state. prompting you for the name of the new state. pick the Table radio button. Click the Add button in the Available Scenarios group. 4.

3-80 Gas Processing Tutorial 7. and the Data Recorder appears. showing the values of the key variables in their current state. 3-80 . Pick the Streams radio button in the Filter group. Figure 3. The temperature of stream ColdGas (which determines the LTS temperature) is changed and the changes are viewed in the process data table: 1. Click the Minimize button to reduce the Data Recorder to an icon. 2. Press the View button. 1. Navigator button Click the Navigator button on the button bar. 2. Double-click on the Key Variables Data icon to restore the view to its full size.104 Now you can make the necessary flowsheet changes and these current values remain as a permanent record in the Data Recorder unless you choose to erase them.

The new results are shown in Figure 3. Click on ColdGas. Enter 10 in the Temperature cell for ColdGas. 1. Figure 3. 5. The key variables will be checked at 10oF. Ensure that you are on the Conditions page of the property view.107. 3-81 . then click the View button. and HYSYS automatically recalculates the flowsheet. Arrange the two views as shown below by clicking and dragging on their title bars. If you need to move the data table.105 4.106 Currently. you will first have to click the Pin button on the stream property view. Figure 3.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-81 3. the LTS temperature is 0oF. The ColdGas property view appears.

• The liquid product flow rate has decreased. and HYSYS provides you with the default name State 2 for the new state.3-82 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3. 3. • The sales gas flow rate has increased. You can now record the key variables in their new state: 1. Click the Record button. Move to the Data Recorder tab in the Databook. 3-82 .9oF. • The sales gas dew point has increased to 15. 2. Note that this temperature no longer satisfies the dew point specification of 15oF. Change the name to 10 F in LTS.107 As a result of the change. then press the OK button to accept the new name. Click the Close button on the ColdGas stream property view to return to the Databook.

click on the Temperature cell for stream ColdGas. Workbook Button Click the Workbook button on the button bar. Type 0 and press the ENTER key. some of the other tools available in HYSYS are explained which will be used to examine the process in more detail. or you can begin building your own simulation case. the effects of the LTS temperature on the SalesGas dew point and heating value are determined. displaying the new values of the variables.108 5. re-specify the temperature of ColdGas back to its original value of 0oF: 1. On the Material Streams tab of the Workbook. Optional Study In this study. Click the Close button on the Data Recorder. In the Optional Study.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-83 4. 3. 3-83 . Figure 3. Click the View button and the Data Recorder appears. Before proceeding. 2. then on the Databook and finally on the Process Data Table. You can continue with this example by proceeding to the Optional Study. The basic simulation for this example has now been completed.

To install a SPREADSHEET and display its property view. perform calculations. 3-84 . Figure 3. as their individual heating values are negligible.109 3. On the Connections tab. doubleclick on the Spreadsheet button in the Object Palette. To import the first variable: 1.3-84 Gas Processing Tutorial Using the HYSYS Spreadsheet to Calculate the Heating Value HYSYS has a SPREADSHEET operation that allows you to import stream or operation variables. The heating value of the sales gas is calculated by importing the stream composition into the SPREADSHEET. Click the OK button. Variable and Variable Specific as shown. Note that NO2 and CO2 are not included in the calculation. Spreadsheet Button 1. Choose the Object. 2. change the name from its default to Heating Value. and multiplying the mole fraction of each component by its individual heating value. and export calculated results. Click the Add Import button. and the Select Import view appears.

To complete the SPREADSHEET: 1. or by pressing the arrow keys. For illustration purposes. you enter data and formulas in the cells. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for Ethane and Propane. the reason for doing so will become apparent on the Spreadsheet tab. Change these cell locations to B3 through B5 as shown. so advance directly to the Spreadsheet tab. 3-85 . the two remaining components will be added using an alternative method. Enter the row and column headings as shown.110 Notice that HYSYS assigned the imported variables to SPREADSHEET cells A1 through A3. by default. You can move to a cell by clicking it. and calculated results are returned.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-85 4. Figure 3. No information is required on the Parameters and Formulas tabs. The HYSYS SPREADSHEET behaves similarly to commercial spreadsheet packages.

Repeat steps 2 . 2. Right-click once. iC4 and nC4 mole fractions in the sales gas. 3. From the menu that appears. respectively. Variable and Variable Specific. Click the OK button to accept the input and close the view. Notice that the formula must be preceded by a +. The next task is entering the formulas for calculating the component and total sales gas heating values. Figure 3.3-86 Gas Processing Tutorial 2. Position the cursor over the empty SPREADSHEET cell (B6) reserved for iC4 mole fraction. Comp Mole Frac. on the view that is displayed. Type +b3*c3 then press ENTER (or i to automatically advance to the cell below) to multiply the Methane mole fraction by its Net Heating Value. Move to cell D3. select Import Variable. 2. and i-Butane as the Object. importing into cell B7. 5. 1. Select SalesGas.4 for nC4. 4.111 The next task is to import the remaining two variables. 1. Enter the component net heating values in the Comp Heat Value column as shown. 3-86 .

The result is the NHV of SalesGas in Btu/scf. Figure 3. 6. multiplying each component mole fraction by its respective heating value. Enter +d3+d4+d5+d6+d7 in cell D9 to sum the individual heating values. 5. enter the label Sales Gas NHV.113 3-87 . Repeat steps 1 and 2 for cells D4 through D7. Move to cell D9.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-87 3. In cell C9. Figure 3.112 4.

still comply with the dew point specification. while still satisfying the dew point criteria. Press the PFD button to display the PFD. The sales gas must. resulting in a bonus from the transmission company. if not. 3. An ADJUST operation can be used to adjust the temperature of the LTS (i. 2. In effect. Now. the compositional changes will be automatically transferred to the SPREADSHEET. and define the ADJUST: 1. of stream ColdGas) until the sales gas dew point is within a few degrees of the pipeline specification. Installing an Adjust for Calculating the LTS Temperature Suppose the market price of your liquid product is currently unfavourable.3-88 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3. You might want to raise the LTS temperature in order to leave more of the heavier components in the gas phase. Insert the variable. whenever flowsheet changes are made (which result in re-calculation of stream SalesGas). The Object Palette should also be visible. Close the Heating Value property view. Open the Databook by pressing CTRL D. This will increase the sales gas heating value. The ADJUST operation performs automatic trialand-error calculations until a target value is reached. this increases the gas heating value. enter a Variable Name for cell D9 (for example NHV). 5. connect. Click the Adjust button on the Object Palette. press F4. and the heating value updated accordingly. Click the Close button to continue with the study.114 Note that you could add the value of Sales Gas NHV to the Databook: 1. Move to the Parameters tab of the Heating Value property view. however. selecting the Heating Value operation as the Object and NHV as the variable.e. On the Variables tab. To install. 3-88 . Adjust Button 2. The current heating value of the sales gas is 1080 Btu/scf. In the Exportable Cells matrix. 4.

Position the cursor over the PFD. release the mouse button. 8. The Select Target Variable view appears.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-89 3. 4. With the pop-up visible. left-click and drag toward the SalesDP stream icon. 3. HYSYS will create a new ADJUST with the default name ADJ-1. The Select Adjusted Variable view appears. release the mouse button. to the right of the SalesDP stream icon. When the solid white box appears at the cursor tip. HYSYS knows that the ColdGas should be adjusted in some way to meet the required target. 7. 4. 5. Click the OK button. Position the cursor over the left end of the ADJ-1 icon. The connection point and pop-up "Adjusted Object" appears. When the solid white box appears at the cursor tip. It is desired to target the sales gas dew point temperature. Select Temperature from the Variable list. 6. The connection point and pop-up "Target Object" appears. 1. 5. Click to "drop" the ADJUST onto the PFD. Position the cursor over the right end of the ADJ-1 icon. 2. Figure 3. With the pop-up visible. left-click and drag toward the ColdGas stream icon.115 At this point. An adjustable variable for the ColdGas must now be selected from the Select Adjusted Variable view. Click the Attach Mode button on the PFD toolbar to enter Attach mode. 3-89 .

4. Select Temperature from the Variable list. Figure 3. 1. Notice that the connections made in the PFD have been transferred to the appropriate cells in the property view. Click the OK button.3-90 Gas Processing Tutorial 1. The next step is providing a value for the target variable. Click the Attach button to leave Attach mode. in this case the dew point temperature. 3. A 5°F safety margin will be used on the pipeline specification of 15°F. Move to the Parameters tab. 2. Enter 10 in the Specified Target Value cell. so the desired dew point is 10°F.116 2. 3-90 . Double-click on the ADJ-1 icon to open its property view.

3. Figure 3. Replace the default Tolerance and Step Size with 0. The new sales gas heating value can now be compared to the previous value to see the effect of this change. Click the Start button.118 The ADJUST has changed the LTS temperature from the original value of 0°F to the current 4. Move to the Monitor tab. Open the SPREADSHEET using the Object Navigator: 1. Click the Close button on the ADJUST property view. Double-click on the Heating Value operation in the list of Unit Operations.Gas Processing Tutorial 3-91 3. The ADJUST converges on the target value within the specified tolerance in four iterations. Pick the UnitOps radio button. No values will be entered in the Minimum and Maximum field.1 (°F) and 5 (°F). as these are optional parameters. 3-91 .4°F gives a sales gas dew point (target variable) of 10°F.4°F. Figure 3. respectively.117 4. 5. An LTS temperature (adjusted variable) of 4. 2. Press F3 to access the Navigator.

The Material Streams and Compositions tabs of the Workbook are shown below.119 The NHV has increased to 1091 Btu/scf. Figure 3.120 3-92 .3-92 Gas Processing Tutorial Figure 3. Results of the Study Open the Workbook to access the calculated results for the entire flowsheet.

Gas Processing Tutorial 3-93 Figure 3.121 3-93 .

3-94 Gas Processing Tutorial 3-94 .

The column subflowsheet is shown below. atmospheric gas oil.HSC in your HYSYS\SAMPLES directory. diesel. Preheated crude (from an upstream preheat train) is fed to a pre-flash drum where vapours are separated from the liquids.1 The crude column consists of a refluxed absorber with three side strippers and three cooled pump around circuits. kerosene.Refining Tutorial 4-1 4 Refining Tutorial This complete case has also been pre-built and is located in the file TUTOR2. crude oil is processed in a fractionation facility to produce naphtha. The pre-flash vapours bypass the furnace and are recombined with the hot crude from the furnace. The combined stream is then fed to the atmospheric crude column for fractionation. The main flowsheet for this process is shown below. which are heated in a furnace. In this Tutorial. Figure 4. 4-1 . and atmospheric residue products.

The Session Preferences view appears. You need to set your Session Preferences: 1. through to examining the final results. to installing streams and unit operations. Characterize the Oil 5. Select the non-oil components 4. from selecting a property package and components. Start HYSYS and create a new case. Create a unit set 2. Before proceeding. Install and define the unit operations in the prefractionation train 7. characterizing the crude oil. The tools available in HYSYS are utilized to illustrate the flexibility available to you. This example illustrates the complete construction of the simulation.2 The simulation will be built using these basic steps: 1. Open the Tools menu and select Preferences. Install and define the crude fractionation column The following pages will guide you through building a HYSYS case for modelling this process. Uncheck Use Modal Property Views by clicking on the check box. 4-2 . you should have read Chapter 1 . Choose a property package 3. Create and specify the preheated crude and utility steam streams 6. Click on the Variables tab (the Units page should be open). 3. You are now on the Simulation tab with the Options page open.HYSYS Tutorials which precedes the Tutorials in this manual.4-2 Refining Tutorial Figure 4. 2.

you can save the changes in a new Preference file by clicking the Save Preference Set button. 4. you can enter a new name in the Unit Set Name cell. you can create a new unit set by cloning an existing one. 2. In the Available Unit Sets list. 3. HYSYS does not allow you to change any of the three default unit sets listed. A new unit set named NewUser appears and is automatically highlighted. use the vertical scroll bar to select Standard Density (visible in the left column of the matrix). Move to the Standard Density cell by clicking on lb/ft3.3 The default Preference file is named HYSYS. Open the drop-down list of available units in the Edit Bar by clicking on . Notice the default unit for Standard Density is lb/ft3. making it the current unit set. 4-3 . and customized for the new set: 1. You can now change the units for any variable associated with this new unit set. 5. (or by pressing the F2 key then the i key).prf. If you want.Refining Tutorial 4-3 Creating a New Unit Set The first step in building the simulation case is choosing a unit set. which you can later recall into any simulation case by clicking the Load Preference Set button. click on Field. In the Display Units group. When you modify any of the preferences. a new unit set will be made based on the HYSYS Field set. Figure 4. For this example. HYSYS prompts you to provide a name for the new Preference file. A more appropriate unit for this example would be API_60. However. Click the Clone button.

Notice that all commands accessed via the Button Bar are also available as Menu items. Repeat steps 4-6 to change the Mass Density units to API as well.4-4 Refining Tutorial 6. Figure 4. Exit this window to define the Simulation Basis Manager.5 4-4 . Your new unit set is now defined. Figure 4.4 7. or scroll down to it by pressing the i key then press ENTER. Click on API_60.

6 Notice that HYSYS displays the current Environment and Mode in the upper right corner of the view. nC5). nC4. including the Light Ends. nC4. 4.Refining Tutorial 4-5 Beginning the Simulation From the Simulation Basis Manager view. C3. Select the non-oil components. 3. iC5. iC4. Scroll through the list and choose the Peng Robinson Property Package. A Fluid Package contains the components and property Figure 4. modify. Whenever you begin a new case. iC5. a Fluid Package may also contain other information. and otherwise manipulate Fluid Packages in your simulation case. The Simulation Basis Manager allows you to create. and the hypothetical components which will be generated in the Oil characterization. Click the Add button to add a Fluid Package. Characterize the Petroleum Fluid by supplying Assay data. then cutting the Assay into pseudocomponents. you are automatically placed in the Basis Environment. method (for example. 4-5 . nC5). 1. Most of the time. Creating a Fluid Package Define the Fluid Package: The Fluid Package for this example will contain the Property Package (Peng Robinson). as with this example. the pure components (H2O. from the pure component library (H2O. an Equation of State) to be used by HYSYS in its calculations for a particular flowsheet. Depending on what is required in a specific flowsheet. you need to define a Fluid Package. 2. C3. such as a petroleum fluid characterization. The Basis-1 view appears. where you can choose the property package and non-oil components. iC4. you will require only one Fluid Package for your entire simulation.

4-6 Refining Tutorial 5. Before you begin characterizing your petroleum fluid. Figure 4. notice the highlight in the Base Property Package Selection area (currently selecting <none>). There are a number of ways to select the desired base property package. in this case Peng Robinson. You can change the name of this fluid package by typing a new name in the Name cell at the bottom of the view. • Use the vertical scroll bar to move down the list until Peng Robinson becomes visible. you must choose a Property Package that can handle hypothetical components. only the first two tabs. and click on it. Prop Pkg and Components. Add the petroleum pseudocomponents to the Fluid Package. Do one of the following: • Type Peng Robinson. The property view is divided into a number of tabs to allow you to supply all the information necessary to completely define the Fluid Package.7 HYSYS has created a Fluid Package with the default name Basis-1. and HYSYS finds the match to your input. For this example. On the Simulation Basis Manager view. click the Add button. • Use the arrow keys i and h to scroll through the list of available property packages until Peng Robinson is highlighted. are used. Choosing a Property Package On the Prop Pkg tab. The Fluid Package property view appears. Notice the Property Pkg indicator at the bottom of the view now 4-6 .

you could have selected the EOSs radio button as the Property Pkg Filter. You should normally leave the Component Selection Control at its default setting (Only Property Package Compatible Components). including the Light Ends: 4-7 . as shown in Figure 4.9. HYSYS filters the library components to include only those appropriate for the selected Property Package. the next step is to select the non-oil components.9 As an alternative. Figure 4.8 indicates Peng Robinson is the current property package for this Fluid Package.Refining Tutorial 4-7 Figure 4. Peng Robinson could have then been chosen from this filtered list. producing a list of only those property packages that are Equations of State. Selecting the Non-Oil Components Now that you have chosen the property package to be used in the simulation.

To add H2O using the match feature: 1. The chemical formula of the component. C3. Based on the selected radio button.10 Press CTRL SHIFT N to move between the tabs.4-8 Refining Tutorial 1. or by pressing ALT M. Click on the Components tab in the Fluid Package property view Figure 4. i-C4. and synonyms for many components. 2. H2O. HYSYS filters through its library as you type. 3. i-C5 and n-C5 are used as the non-oil components. For this example. Ensure the FullName/Synonym radio button is selected. displaying only those components that match your input. Begin typing water. 4-8 . IUPAC name (or similar). Move to the Match cell by clicking on it. but know its formula. This is useful when you are unsure of the library name of a component. There are a number of ways to select components for your simulation. HYSYS locates the component(s) that best match the input you type in the Match cell. Atop each of these three columns is a corresponding radio button. and the Show Synonyms check box is checked. One method is to use the matching feature. n-C4. Notice that each component is listed in three ways: Naming Convention SimName FullName/Synonym Formula Description The name appearing within the simulation.

4-9 . Note that the Match feature remains active when you are using a family filter. Since the remaining components are known to be hydrocarbons.11 4. use the CTRL key. The next step is to add the remaining Light Ends components i-C4 through n-C5. i-C4). Add Propane to the component list by double-clicking on it.Refining Tutorial 4-9 Figure 4. Propane will be added to the component list using a Family Filter: 1. check the Hydrocarbons check box. Propane appears near the top of the filtered list. you can also use the Family Filter to display only those components belonging to certain families. For illustration purposes. Check the Use Filter check box. Do one of the following: • Hold down the SHIFT key and click on the last component. All components i-C4 through n-C5 are now highlighted. To highlight consecutive components. use the SHIFT key. in this case n-C5. and the Families view appears. 4. 3. Click the Family Filter button. Release the SHIFT key. Click on the first component to be added (in this case. Now that Water is highlighted. 2. so you could have also typed C3 in the Match cell and then added it to the component list. To highlight non-consecutive components. In addition to the Match criteria radio buttons. 2. add it to the Current Component List by doing one of the following: • Press the ENTER key • Click the Add Pure button • Double-click on Water. A quick way to add components that appear consecutively in the library list is to: 1. Ensure the Match cell is empty.

Now that the property package and non-oil components have been selected. 3. i-C4 through n-C5 are highlighted. Click the Add Pure button. and release the mouse button. • Click and hold on i-C4. the next step is to characterize the oil. and clicking the Remove Comps button or the DELETE key. The highlighted components are transferred to the Current Component List. 4-10 .13 The complete list of non-oil components is shown here.4-10 Refining Tutorial Figure 4.12 A component can be removed from the Current Components List by selecting it. Figure 4. drag down to n-C5.

0 713.0 90.0 456.0 635.0 0.46 4-11 .0 1410.0 98.0 Molecular Weight 68.0 API Gravity Assay Liq Vol % Distilled 13.0 60.28 54.00 48.0 57.0 74.0 70.0 20.0 80.0 API Gravity 63.0 1095.01 Temperature (F) 80.0 585.0 838.0 349.21 26.0 255.0 40.0 1277.19 0.0 150.0 30.0 350.0 33.0 182.0 225.37 0.91 38.11 0.0 91.0 915.0 527.75 Light Ends Liquid Volume Percent i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane TBP Distillation Assay Liquid Volume Percent Distilled 0.Refining Tutorial 4-11 Characterizing the Oil The following laboratory Assay data is available: Bulk Crude Properties MW API Gravity 300.0 10.0 430.0 119.86 45.0 282.0 751.0 50.

30 The HYSYS Oil Characterization procedure is used to convert the laboratory data into petroleum pseudocomponents. Basis-1.0 50.00 Viscosity (cP) 210°F 0.14 Notice that the list of Current Fluid Packages displays the new Fluid Package.0 90. The new Fluid Package is assigned by default to the main flowsheet.50 122. To begin characterizing the oil.0 Viscosity (cP) 100°F 0.30 0. move to the Oil Manager tab shown 4-12 .0 70. as shown in the Flowsheet-Fluid Pkg Associations group.00 600. showing the number of components (NC) and property package (PP).75 4.4-12 Refining Tutorial Viscosity Assay Liquid Volume Percent Distilled 10.80 7.0 30. Return to the Simulation Basis Manager by clicking on any part of the open view or by clicking the Home View button.20 0.10 0.20 39. Home View button Figure 4.

is selected. two criteria must be met: Oil Environment button • at least one Fluid Package must be present. Figure 4. In this case. Since there is only one Fluid Package. Basis-1. Since both criteria are satisfied. • the Property Package must be able to handle Hypothetical Components. • click the Enter Oil Environment button on the Oil Manager tab • click the Oil Environment button on the Button Bar 4-13 . Do one of the following: The Oil Characterization view allows you to create.Refining Tutorial 4-13 below. For this example. In our case. The text box on the right side of the view indicates that before entering the Oil Environment. and otherwise manipulate the Assays and Blends in your simulation case. only one Fluid Package. the Property Package is Peng Robinson. the oil will be characterized using a single Assay. which is capable of handling Hypothetical components. the oil will be characterized in the Oil Environment. modify.15 The Simulation Basis Manager drop-down list indicates which Fluid Package will be used for the oil characterization. HYSYS has made Basis-1 the Associated Fluid Package.

16 In general. three steps must be completed when you are characterizing a petroleum fluid: 1. Defining the Assay On the Assay tab of the Oil Characterization view. Cut the Assay into hypothetical components by creating a Blend. Supply data to define the Assay. The Assay property view appears. click the Add button to create and view a new Assay.4-14 Refining Tutorial The Oil Characterization view appears. 4-14 . 2. Install the hypothetical components into the Fluid Package. Figure 4. 3.

18 4-15 . When the property view for a new Assay is opened for the first time. the view contains minimal information. Figure 4. For this example. Depending on the Assay Data Type you choose. You can change this by typing a new name in the Name cell. and the view is customized for TBP data. the view will be modified appropriately. Select TBP. the Assay is defined based on TBP data.17 HYSYS has given the new Assay the default name of Assay-1.Refining Tutorial 4-15 Figure 4. Open the Assay Data Type drop-down list by clicking on it.

Type 0. Figure 4. Choose the Composition cell for i-Butane. density and viscosity curves must be activated by choosing appropriate curve 4-16 .19.4-16 Refining Tutorial The next step is to enter the composition of the Light Ends in the Assay. 4. From the Light Ends drop-down list. click on the Light Ends radio button. Ensure that Liquid Volume % is selected from the Light Ends Basis drop-down list. then press the ENTER key. select Input Composition.19 The following laboratory assay data should be supplied: • • • • • bulk molecular weight and density TBP Distillation assay data dependent molecular weight assay data independent density assay data independent viscosity assay data (at two temperatures) Prior to entering any of the assay data. 2. Type the remaining compositions as shown. 5. To input the composition: 1. The total Percent of Light Ends in Assay is calculated and displayed at the bottom of the view. 3. You are automatically advanced down one cell to n-Butane. the molecular weight. In the Input Data group. 6.

Refining Tutorial 4-17 types in the matrix above the radio buttons. two radio buttons are added as HYSYS allows you to input viscosity assay data at two temperatures. 4-17 . To the right of the Edit Bar. 2. a molecular weight of 300 and a density of 48. Pick the Bulk Props radio button. The laboratory data will be input in the same order as the radio buttons appear. are known. Figure 4. selecting Independent as the curve type for both.20 Entering Bulk Property Data The two bulk properties of the Assay. and the bulk property matrix appears to the right of the radio buttons. to the Standard Density cell. You are automatically advanced down one cell. To activate these curves: 1. Open the Bulk Properties drop-down list and select Used. these three curves are not used. Your input appears in the Edit Bar at the top of the view. Note that for Viscosity. Repeat step 2 for the Density and Viscosity curves. Your view now has a total of seven radio buttons in the Input Data group. 3. Type 300 and press ENTER. Choose the Molecular Weight cell in the matrix. 2. Currently. the Unit Box displays the current default unit associated with the active matrix 3. A new radio button labelled Molecular Wt Curve appears under the existing radio buttons. Open the Molecular Weight drop-down list and select Dependent.75 and press SPACE.75°API. Type 48. To enter this data: 1.

Pick the Distillation radio button. 2. there is no need to delete or change the temperature values. and HYSYS accepts the density. 4. Figure 4. and the corresponding TBP data matrix appears. Entering Boiling Temperature (TBP) Data The next step is to enter the TBP distillation data: 1.21 4. press ENTER. Click on the Edit Assay button. Return to the Input Data tab. 4-18 . These temperature values are ignored unless corresponding viscosities are provided. Since the value for bulk viscosity is not supplied. stating that At least 5 points are required before the assay can be calculated. When the new unit set was created. 3. Since this is the correct unit. select Lagrange from the Distillation drop-down list. HYSYS displays a message under the matrix.4-18 Refining Tutorial cell. the default unit for standard density was specified as API_60. No bulk Watson UOPK or Viscosity data is available for this assay. The Assay Input Table view appears. On the Calculation Defaults tab. Notice that HYSYS provides two default temperatures (100°F and 210°F) for entering bulk viscosity. which appears in the Unit Box.

8. You are automatically advanced down to the next empty Assay Percent cell. then press the i key. Entering Molecular Weight Data Pick the Molecular Wt radio button. Type 0 then press the ENTER key. Figure 4. Click on the first empty cell in the Mole Wt column. Type 68. Since the Molecular Weight assay is Dependent. Click the Edit Assay button and the Assay Input Table view appears. 6. and the corresponding assay matrix appears. Repeat steps 5 and 6 to enter the remaining Assay Percent and Temperature values as shown.22 9. Click the OK button to return to the Assay property view. the Assay Percent column displays the same values as those you entered for the Boiling Temperature assay. Type 80 then press the ENTER key. You are automatically advanced to the corresponding empty Temperature cell. 7. Therefore. Click on the top cell in the Assay Percent column of the matrix. you need only enter the Molecular Weight value for each assay percent: 1. 4-19 . 3. 2.Refining Tutorial 4-19 5.

Click the OK button when you are finished. and the corresponding assay matrix appears. Figure 4. Entering Density Data Pick the Density radio button. Type the remaining Molecular Weight values as shown.23 5. Figure 4.4-20 Refining Tutorial 4. enter the API gravity curve data as shown here.24 4-20 . Using the same method as for the previous assays. you must input both the Assay Percent and Density values. Since the Density assay is Independent.

so click the Calculate button at the bottom of the Assay view. 3. Choose the Viscosity 2 radio button and enter the assay data corresponding to Temperature 2. 210°F. 4-21 . Two drop-down lists appear above the assay matrix. allowing you to specify the Assay Basis. Move to the Working Curves tab of the Assay property view to view the calculated results. Pick the Viscosity 1 radio button.25 2. and the status message at the bottom of the view changes to Assay Was Calculated.26 The Assay is now completely defined based on our available data. The Temperature field is for each of the two viscosity curves. as shown. Figure 4. Figure 4. and Viscosity Type (Kinematic or Dynamic).Refining Tutorial 4-21 Entering Viscosity Data To enter the viscosity data: 1. This viscosity curve corresponds to Temperature 1. HYSYS calculates the Assay. Input the Viscosity 1 assay data as shown here. 100°F. and the corresponding assay matrix appears.

Figure 4. To view the data you input for the Assay in a graphical format. This plot is shown in Figure 4. By default.4-22 Refining Tutorial Figure 4. move to the Plots tab. The input curve that appears is dependent on the current variable in the Property drop-down list in the Property Selection group.28. HYSYS plots the BoilingPt (TBP) data.27 HYSYS has calculated 50 points for each of the Assay Working Curves. You can use the vertical scroll bar to view the properties of the points that are not currently visible.28 4-22 .

Figure 4. and HYSYS creates a new Blend and displays its property view. while the dependent variable is the TBP in °F. Press the Add button. The remaining tabs in the Assay property view provide access to information which is not required for this tutorial.29 4-23 . do one of the following: • click and drag the outside border to the new size • click the Maximize button Maximize button The independent (x-axis) variable is the Assay percent. You can view any of the other input curves by selecting the appropriate variable in the Property drop-down list. the next step is to cut the assay into individual petroleum pseudocomponents. Click the Close button to return to the Oil Characterization view.Refining Tutorial 4-23 Note that the view shown above has been re-sized to make the plot more readable. Now that the assay has been calculated. To re-size the view. Generating Pseudocomponents (Creating the Blend) Advance to the Cut/Blend tab of the Oil Characterization view.

The IBP is the normal boiling point (NBP) of the heaviest component in the Light Ends. Click the Add button.) • A Blend (Cut) is automatically calculated based on the current Cut Option. All the cut ranges together have resulted in a total of 28+8+2 = 38 pseudo components.9)/25 = 28 pseudo components. there is no need to enter a Flow Rate in this matrix. Figure 4. select Assay-1. In this case. is the starting point for the first temperature range.4-24 Refining Tutorial In the list of Available Assays. (Note that when you have only one Assay. Move to the Tables tab to view the calculated properties of these pseudocomponents. The NBP of n-Pentane is 96. generating 2 pseudocomponents Notice that the IBP. the default Cut Option.30 4-24 . so the first range results in the generation of (800-96.9°F. and there are two results: • The Assay is transferred to the Oil Flow Information matrix. in this case n-Pentane. or initial boiling point. HYSYS calculated the Blend based on the following default values for the boiling point ranges and number of cuts per range: • IBP to 800°F: 25°F per cut. generating 8 pseudocomponents • 1200 to 1400°F: 100°F per cut. generating [(800-IBP)/25] pseudocomponents • 800 to 1200°F: 50°F per cut. the Blend was calculated based on Auto Cut.

That is. the Light Ends are calculated separately and are not included in these pseudocomponents. in the Cut Point T column in the matrix. however. then press i. Enter the remaining cut point temperatures and the Num. 4-25 . To specify the new initial cut point: 1. 100°F will be used as the initial cut point. You could specify another starting point by changing the Cut Option to User Ranges. 2. Click on the Cut Option Selection drop-down list. The value entered in this cell is the upper cut point temperature for the first range (and the lower cut point for the second range). Select User Ranges from the drop-down list.Refining Tutorial 4-25 Since the NBP of the heaviest Light Ends component is the starting point for the cut ranges. 4. Suppose. and the Ranges Selection group appears. These components could be used in the simulation. 6. Click on the top cell. 3. 7. For illustration purposes. that you do not want to use the IBP as the starting point for the first temperature range. Enter 100 in the Initial Cut Point cell. Figure 4. of Cuts as shown. these pseudocomponents were generated on a "light-endsfree" basis. The same values as the HYSYS defaults will be used for the other temperature ranges. in °F.31 5. labelled <empty>. Return to the Data tab by clicking on it. This is the starting point for the first range. Type 800.

Move to the Tables tab to view the properties of the petroleum pseudocomponents. The completed Data tab of the Blend property view is shown in Figure 4.32 Notice that HYSYS has provided the Initial Boiling Point (IBP) and Final Boiling Point (FBP). The FBP is calculated by extrapolating the TBP Assay data to 100% distilled. Figure 4. Figure 4.32. 4-26 .4-26 Refining Tutorial 8. nPentane). Once you have entered the data.33 You can use the vertical scroll bar to view the components which are not currently visible in the Component Physical Properties matrix. click the Submit button to calculate the Blend based on the current initial cut point and range values. The IBP is the normal boiling point (NBP) of the heaviest component in the Light Ends (in this case.

Refining Tutorial 4-27 Viewing the Oil Distributions To view the distribution data.000 * 0. These fractions can be used to estimate the product flow rates for the fractionation column. Now that the Blend has been calculated. With 100. you can investigate other reporting and plotting options by selecting another Table Type or by moving to the other tabs in the Blend property view. the products are listed according to liquid volume fraction. If you want. When you are finished. the Straight Run radio button is selected. the Kerosene liquid volume fraction is 0.128. select Oil Distributions from the Table Type drop-down list. and HYSYS provides default TBP cut point temperatures for each Straight Run product.800 or roughly 13. Figure 4.128=12. the next step is to install the oil. click the Close button on the Blend view to return to the Oil Characterization view. the Kerosene production is expected at 100. The Tables tab is modified as shown below.000 bbl/day of crude feeding the tower.000 bbl/day. For example. Since Liquid Vol is the current Basis in the Table Control group box. 4-27 .34 At the bottom of the Cut Input Information group. The Cut Distributions matrix shows the Fraction of each product in the Blend.

The characterization procedure is now complete. Return to the Basis environment by clicking the Return to Basis 4-28 . Figure 4. Type the name Preheat Crude. so the stream will be created in the main flowsheet.4-28 Refining Tutorial Installing the Oil The last step in the oil characterization procedure is to install the oil. 3. which will accomplish the following: • the petroleum pseudocomponents will be added to the Fluid Package • the calculated Light Ends and Oil composition will be transferred to a material stream for use in the simulation To install the oil: 1. there is only one Fluid Package (Basis-1) and one flowsheet (the main flowsheet). HYSYS assigns the composition of the calculated oil and light ends to stream Preheat Crude. The properties of the new stream will be viewed from the Simulation environment. Move to the Install Oil tab of the Oil Characterization view.35 In this case. 2. Return to Previous Environment button 1. Click on the top blank cell in the Stream Name column. HYSYS creates a new stream named Preheat Crude in the flowsheet associated with the fluid package associated with this oil. then press the ENTER key.

The pseudocomponents generated during the oil characterization procedure now appear in the Current Component List. 4-29 . Hypothetical components are indicated by a * after the component name. such as NBP[0]110*. 4. highlight the component(s) and press the View Comp button. Click on the Components tab. 2. Viewing Component Properties To view the properties of one or more components.36 3. 3. Click on a hypothetical component.Refining Tutorial 4-29 Environment button. Press and hold the CTRL key. HYSYS opens the property view(s) for the component(s) you selected. These two components should now be highlighted. 2. Figure 4. Click on H2O. Release the CTRL key. For example: 1. Highlight the listed property package (Peng Robinson) and click on the View button (on the Fluid Pkgs tab) to open the Fluid Package property view.

See Chapter 2 Hypotheticals in the HYSYS Simulation Basis guide for more information on cloning library components. so close the Fluid Package view. Figure 4. The property views for these two components appears.37 The Component property view provides you with complete access to the component information. the information is provided for viewing only. You can modify any of the parameters listed for this component.4-30 Refining Tutorial 5. You cannot modify any parameters for a library (pure) component. The Simulation Basis Manager should again be visible. Close each of these two component property views. For this example. For pure components (like H2O). click the Basis Manager button to access it. HYSYS has an option for cloning a library component into a Hypothetical component. Notice that the list of Current Fluid Packages displays the new Fluid Basis Manager button 4-30 . Click the View Comp button. the properties of the hypothetical components generated during the oil characterization will not be changed. The Fluid Package is now completely defined. however. which can then be modified as desired. Return to the Fluid Pkgs tab to view a summary of the new Fluid Package. if not. The petroleum pseudocomponent shown here is an example of a hypothetical component.

however. Workbook and Summary. when you first enter the Simulation Environment. Basis-1. Now that the Basis is defined. you can install streams and operations in the Main Simulation Environment. 4-31 . To enter this environment and leave the Basis environment.38 Package. as shown in the Flowsheet-Fluid Pkg Associations group. The Fluid Package has a total of 44 components: • 6 library (pure) components (H2O plus five Light Ends components) • 38 petroleum pseudocomponents The new Fluid Package is assigned by default to the Main Flowsheet. the initial Home View is the Workbook (HYSYS default setting). namely the PFD. For this example. do one of the following: Simulation Environment button • click the Enter Simulation Environment button on the Simulation Basis Manager • click the Simulation Environment button Simulation Environment When you enter the Simulation Environment. only one will be displayed. Three initial views are available. the initial view that appears is dependent on your current preference setting for the Initial Build Home View. showing the number of components (NC) and property package (PP).Refining Tutorial 4-31 Figure 4. Any or all of these can be displayed at any time.

Energy Streams and Unit Ops. the Environment has changed from Basis to Case (Main). and the Workbook and Object Palette are open on the Desktop. and changing the information displayed on any tab. In the upper right corner. the Workbook has four tabs. A floating palette of buttons which can be used to add streams and unit operations. or by choosing Open/Close Object Palette from the Flowsheet menu. These latter two objects are described below.39 You can toggle the palette open or closed by pressing F4. You will notice several things about the Main Simulation Environment. By default. Objects Description A multiple-tab view containing information regarding the objects (streams and unit operations) in the simulation case. A number of new items are now available on the Menu and Button Bar. namely Material Streams. You can edit the Workbook by adding or deleting tabs. Compositions.4-32 Refining Tutorial Figure 4. Workbook Object Palette Also notice that the name of the stream (Preheat Crude) you created 4-32 .

Do one of the following: Open Case button • Click the Save button on the button bar • Select Save from the File menu • Press CTRL S As this is the first time you have saved your case. While specifying the conditions of Preheat Crude. which was calculated by the Oil characterization. the message displayed in the Object Status window will be updated appropriately. To view the components which are not currently visible. Figure 4. it is probably a good idea to save your case. Viewing the Feed Composition In the Workbook.Refining Tutorial 4-33 during the Oil characterization procedure appears in the Workbook. and the Object Status window shows that the stream has an unknown pressure. Save button Before proceeding any further to install streams or unit operations.40 The light ends and petroleum pseudocomponents are listed by Mole Fraction. use the keyboard arrow keys i and h or the vertical scroll bar to advance down the component list. Before specifying the feed conditions. the Save 4-33 . 1. click on the Compositions tab to view the composition of the streams. the stream composition can be viewed.

Once you have entered a file name.hsc extension. The Main Flowsheet for this process is shown on the next page. The combined stream is then fed to the atmospheric crude column for separation. Process Description This example models a crude oil processing facility consisting of a prefractionation train used to heat the crude liquids. using a MIXER. The Save As dialog box does not appear again unless you choose to give it a new name using the Save As command. HYSYS will ask you for confirmation before overwriting the existing file. The pre-flash vapours bypass the furnace and are re-combined.41 Preheated crude (from a preheat train) is fed to the pre-flash drum. Figure 4. Simulation Case As dialog box appears. type a name for the case. HYSYS adds it automatically. or by selecting Open Case from the File menu. When you click the Save button. The liquids are then heated to 650°F in the crude furnace. The File Filter drop-down list then allows you to retrieve backup (*. modelled as a SEPARATOR. Before specifying the feed conditions or installing any operations. where vapours are separated from the crude liquids. with the hot crude stream. equipped 4-34 . 3. modelled as a HEATER. In the File Name cell. You do not have to enter the . The crude column is modelled as a RELUXED ABSORBER. press the ENTER key or the OK button. If you enter a name that already exists in the current directory. 2.sim) files in addition to standard HYSYS (*.bk*) and HYSIM (*. the simulated process will be summarized. a view similar to the one shown here appears. HYSYS saves the case under the name you gave it. and an atmospheric crude column to fractionate the crude into its straight run products. for example REFINING.hsc) files. By default. the File Path is the cases sub-directory in your HYSYS directory.4-34 Refining Tutorial When you choose to open an existing case by clicking the Open Case button.

Figure 4. starting with specifying the feed conditions. The Naphtha product. respectively. while the PFD is a graphical representation of the flowsheet. The Workbook displays information about streams and unit operations in a tabular format. the trim duty is represented by an energy stream feeding onto stage 28. The Column Sub-Flowsheet is shown on the next page. and in quickly accessing the information you need. The Workbook will be used to build the first part of the flowsheet. The two primary building tools. will be used to install the streams and operations and to examine the results while progressing through the simulation. as well as the water stream WasteH2O. Kerosene is produced from the reboiled KeroSS side stripper.42 The main column consists of 29 trays plus a partial condenser. while Diesel and AGO (atmospheric gas oil) are produced from the steamstripped DieselSS and AGOSS side strippers.Refining Tutorial 4-35 with three pump-around and three side-stripper operations. are produced from the three-phase condenser. Each of the three-stage side strippers yields a straight run product. In addition. The TowerFeed enters on stage 28. while superheated steam is fed to the bottom stage. Crude atmospheric Residue is yielded from the bottom of the tower. then creating the utility 4-35 . Workbook and PFD. Both of these tools provide you with a large amount of flexibility in building your simulation.

3. the first step when you enter the Simulation environment is to install one or more feed streams. through to the column. Click on the Temperature cell for Preheat Crude.171. To enter this pressure: Type 5. through to installing the pre-flash separator. However. 5. Otherwise. At this point. Since this is the correct unit. Suppose you know the stream pressure in another unit besides the default of psia. For example. 4. the pressure of Preheat Crude is 5. HYSYS displays the default units for temperature.43 When you press ENTER after entering a stream property. To define the feed conditions: 1. and you do not have quick access to the conversion factor. Using the Workbook Click the Workbook button on the button bar to ensure the Workbook window is active. to Pressure. 4-36 . starting with the crude furnace. Figure 4. The PFD will then be used to install the remaining operations. the new stream Preheat Crude was already installed during the oil characterization procedure. 2. in this case F. press the ENTER key or the Accept button. Notice that when you pressed ENTER after typing in the stream temperature. Type 450 in the Temperature cell.4-36 Refining Tutorial steam streams. and automatically convert to the default for you. The preheated crude enters the pre-fractionation train at 450°F and 75 psia. HYSYS automatically advanced the active cell down one. Click on the Material Streams tab. your current location should be the Compositions tab of the Workbook. In the Unit Box. and HYSYS accepts the temperature.171 bar. you are advanced down one cell in the Workbook only if the cell below is <empty>. Workbook button Specifying the Feed Conditions In general. the active cell will remain in its current location. HYSYS will accept your input in any one of a number of different units. and your input appears in the Edit Bar at the top of the view.

you could have specified the unit simply by selecting it in the drop-down list. The stream flow is entered on a volumetric basis. Alternatively to steps 8 and 9.Refining Tutorial 4-37 6. Type 1e5 (the volumetric flow in scientific notation). The stream is now completely defined. Notice that the values you specified are a different colour (blue) than the calculated values (black). psia. 12. 8. The properties of Preheat Crude are shown below. Figure 4. press the ENTER key or the Accept button. 4-37 .000 bbl/day. and HYSYS accepts the pressure. 7.44 9. Once bar is highlighted. 10. The Molar Flow cell for Preheat Crude should now be your active Workbook location. Notice that it automatically converts to the default unit. The unit box opens and scrolls down to the unit(s) most closely matching your input. Begin typing bar. in this case 100. HYSYS now matches your input to locate the unit of your choice. Press SPACE or click on . Press the ENTER key. Change the units for liquid volume flow to barrel/day. 11. The unit box becomes active. so HYSYS will flash it at the conditions given to determine the remaining properties. Advance to the Liquid Volume Flow cell for Preheat Crude by clicking on it or by pressing the i key.

Installing the Utility Steam Streams To create and define the new streams: 1.45 The next step is to install and define the utility steam streams which will be later attached to the fractionation tower. Click on the cell labelled **New** on the Material Streams tab of the Workbook. 4-38 . 3. and HYSYS automatically creates the new stream with the name you have given it as shown below.4-38 Refining Tutorial Figure 4. Note that HYSYS accepts blank spaces within a stream or operation name. 2. Type the new stream name Bottom Steam. Press ENTER.

Move to the Compositions tab in the Workbook. The conditions of this stream are 300°F. The components 4-39 .46 5. 50 psia and 3000 lb/hr. naming it Diesel Steam. Your Workbook appears as shown below.47 6. Press the ENTER key or the Accept button. Providing Compositional Input Now that the utility stream conditions have been specified. Define the steam conditions by entering the steam Temperature as 375°F and the Pressure as 150 psia. The Molar Flow cell for Bottom Steam should now be your current Workbook location. Repeat steps 2 . Figure 4.Refining Tutorial 4-39 4. 7.6 for the next utility stream. Type the Mass Flow of this utility stream as 7500 lb/hr. Figure 4. the next task is to input the compositions: 1.

and press ENTER.4-40 Refining Tutorial The Input Composition for Stream view is Modal. Some of these features are: Features Compositional Basis Radio Buttons Description You can input the stream composition in some fractional basis other than Mole Fraction.48 This view provides you with access to certain features designed to streamline the specification of a stream composition. 3. indicated by the thick border and the absence of the Minimize/Maximize buttons in the upper right corner. by picking the appropriate radio button before providing your input. 4-40 . 2. or by component flows. Move to the input cell for the first component. Figure 4. you are unable to move outside the view until you finish with it. allowing you to complete the compositional input. type 1 for the H2O mole fraction. Since the stream is all water. are listed by Mole Fraction by default. associated with stream Bottom Steam. by clicking either the Cancel or OK button. H2O. When a Modal view is visible. HYSYS displays the Input Composition for Stream view.

5. Calculation status/colour • Input the fractions of all components. flows or relative number of parts of all non-zero components. Normalizing is also useful when you have a stream consisting of only a few components. Instead of specifying zero fractions (or flows) for the other components. such that their total is exactly 1. 4. Then click the Normalize button. Return to the Material Streams tab. etc. simply enter the individual numbers of parts and click the Normalize button. The calculated properties of the 4-41 . Three scenarios result in the stream composition being calculated: Normalizing Note that these are the default colours. the component fractions (or flows) initially appear in red. The stream is now completely defined. These values become blue when the composition has been calculated.Refining Tutorial 4-41 Features Description The Normalizing feature is useful when you know the relative ratios of components. Then click the OK button. and then click the OK button. for example. there is no need to enter fractions for any other components. Rather than manually converting these ratios to fractions summing to one. simply enter the fractions (or the actual flows) for the non-zero components.0000. therefore. yours may appear differently depending on your settings on the Colours page of the Session Preferences view. Then click the Normalize button then the OK button.5 for the other utility stream. HYSYS computes the individual fractions totalling 1. 6.000). 2 parts CO2. and HYSYS will force the other component fractions to zero. 2 parts N2. and all other component fractions are forced to zero. HYSYS will ask for confirmation of your action. Repeat steps 2 . You are returned to the Workbook. move to the Name cell for the stream. This stream is pure water. leaving the others <empty>. and HYSYS accepts the composition. • Input the flows or relative number of parts of all components. If you want to delete a stream. • Input the fractions (totalling 1. indicating the final composition is unknown. then press DELETE. As you input the composition. Click the Normalize button. Click the OK button. 120 parts C1.0. Diesel Steam. so HYSYS flashes it at the conditions given to determine the remaining properties. including any zero components. including any zero components.

4-42 Refining Tutorial two utility streams are displayed here. select Add Stream Double-click the Material Stream button on the Object Palette Click the Material Stream button on the Object Palette. Press ENTER. respectively. as indicated by the thick border around this cell. Each of these four methods displays the property view for the new stream. Replace the name by typing AGO Steam. then click on the Palette's Add Object button. starting at 1 (and energy streams starting at Q-100). it will be entered through the Composition page. (Do not enter a flow. Conditions is the active page when the view is initially accessed. there are a number of ways to create a new stream with a default name. The Stream Name cell is active.49 Add Object button Alternatively to installing streams via the Workbook. Figure 4. To define this stream: 1. Type 300 and 50 in the Temperature and Pressure cells. The default setting names new material streams with numbers. so you do not need to provide a unit with the values.) 4-42 . Note that both of these parameters are in the default units. as well as the appearance of the name 1 in the Edit Bar. 2. To add the third utility stream. which is named according to the Auto Naming setting in your Preferences. do any one of the following: • • • • Material Stream button Press F11 From the Flowsheet menu.

50 3. Click the Edit button (under the compositions matrix). Note that the current Composition Basis setting is set to the Preferences Default of Mole Fractions. The stream composition will be entered on a mass basis.51 4. 4-43 . and the Input Composition for Stream view appears.Refining Tutorial 4-43 Figure 4. Figure 4. Move to the Composition page to begin the compositional input for the new stream.

4-44 Refining Tutorial 5. the compositional input is complete. 4-44 . or by pressing ALT A. 6. Type 2500 for the steam mass flow. Click the Normalize button. and press ENTER. As there are no other components in this stream. and HYSYS forces all other component flows to zero. Figure 4. Click on the compositional cell for H2O. Change the Composition Basis to Mass Flows by picking the appropriate radio button.52 7.

Click the OK button to close the view and return to the stream property view. In this case. or by clicking and dragging the scroll button. so no Liquid phase exists and the Vapour phase is identical to the overall phase. scroll to the right by clicking the right scroll arrow.53 HYSYS has performed a flash calculation to determine the unknown properties of AGO Steam. You can change this by clicking the Basis button and choosing another Composition Basis radio button.Refining Tutorial 4-45 8. 4-45 . Note that the compositions are currently displayed by Mass Flows. the stream is superheated vapour. To view the vapour compositions for AGO Steam. You can view the properties of each phase using the horizontal scroll bar in the matrix or by re-sizing the property view. as shown by the status indicator displaying OK. Figure 4.

used to split the feed stream into its liquid and vapour phases. 4. To install the separator: 1.4-46 Refining Tutorial Figure 4. The UnitOps view appears listing all available unit operations. Move to the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook. In the Categories group. 2. installing an operation can be accomplished in a number of ways. HYSYS produces a filtered list of unit operations. As with most commands in HYSYS. showing only those in the current category. Workbook button Click the Workbook button to ensure the Workbook is the active view. select the Vessels radio button. the next step is to install the necessary unit operations for processing the crude oil.54 Installing Unit Operations Now that the feed and utility streams are known. 3. Click the Add UnitOp button. Installing the Separator The first operation is a SEPARATOR. One method is through the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook. 4-46 .

4-47 . the default naming scheme for unit operations can be changed in your Session Preferences. organized into pages on different tabs. namely Design. Property views for more complex operations contain more tabs.Refining Tutorial 4-47 5. As with a stream. As with streams. Rating and Worksheet. The three tabs shown for the separator. and click the Add button or the ENTER key • double-click on Separator Figure 4. are contained in the property view for most operations. a unit operation property view contains all the information defining the operation. Add the separator by doing one of the following: • select Separator in the list of Available Unit Operations.55 The property view for the separator is shown here. Notice that HYSYS has provided the default name V-100 for the separator.

4. 3. like the separator. Type the new name PreFlash. you could have made the connection by typing the exact stream name in the cell. or by pressing F2. The existing name is highlighted. The stream is transferred to the list of Inlets. you can access a drop-down list of available streams in the Edit Bar. The status indicator at the bottom of the view is showing that the operation needs a feed stream. Select Preheat Crude from the list. Alternatively. 4-48 . When the matrix is active. Open the Edit Bar drop-down list of available streams by clicking on it.56 Many operations. To complete the Connections page: 1.4-48 Refining Tutorial Figure 4. Double-click on the Name cell to ensure it is active. and pressing ENTER. Click on the <<Stream>> cell to make the Inlets matrix active. 2. Whenever you see a matrix like the one for Inlets. and <<Stream>> is automatically moved down to a new empty cell. and press ENTER. accept multiple feed streams. the operation will accept multiple stream connections at that location.

58 7. HYSYS recognizes that there is no existing stream with this name.Refining Tutorial 4-49 The status indicator now displays Requires a product stream. Type PreFlashVap in the cell. so it creates this new stream. or by clicking on it. naming the new stream PreFlashLiq. and press ENTER. Figure 4. Move to the Vapour Outlet cell by pressing TAB. 4-49 . Figure 4.57 5. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for the Liquid Outlet. 6.

Since there is no energy stream attached to the separator. no Optional Heat Transfer information is required. move to the Worksheet tab. Figure 4. However. The default Delta P (pressure drop) of zero is acceptable for this example.4-50 Refining Tutorial The status indicator has now changed to a green OK. for the purposes of this example. Note that an Energy stream could be attached to heat or cool the vessel contents. The Liquid Level is also acceptable at its default value. showing that the operation and attached streams are completely calculated. Advance to the Parameters page by clicking on it.59 To view the calculated outlet streams. This is a condensed Workbook displaying only those streams attached to the 4-50 . the energy stream is not required.

Figure 4. whether it is Ignored.Flow. The matrix shows the operation Name. The new operation is displayed in the matrix on the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook. and its Calculation Level.60 Now that the separator is completely known. the attached streams (Feeds and Products). by double-clicking on any cell (except Feeds and 4-51 . its Object Type. When you click the View UnitOp button. Alternatively. Close View button Figure 4.61 Note that the Workbook shown here contains a tab called P .T. You will be shown how to add this tab later on in this tutorial. the property view for the operation occupying the active row in the matrix opens.Refining Tutorial 4-51 operation. close the view to return to the Workbook.

so its property view also opens. Level cells are active. Workbook Features Before installing the remaining operations. you also open its property view. In this case. the box at the bottom of the Workbook view displays the operations to which the current stream is attached. • When your current location is a Workbook streams tab (such as any one of the Material Streams. You can also open the property view for a stream directly from the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook.4-52 Refining Tutorial Products) associated with the operation. the box at the bottom of the view displays all streams attached to the current operation. Ignored or Calc. To access the property view for this operation. click on any cell associated with the stream Preheat Crude. do one of the following: • double-click on Preheat Crude in the box at the bottom of the view • double-click on the Feeds cell for PreFlash. Object Type. The property view for the first listed feed stream is opened. Preheat Crude is the only feed stream. When any of the Name. to which this stream is attached. you can use the following method: Any utilities attached to the stream with the Workbook active are also displayed in (and are accessible through) this box. the Name cell for PreFlash is active. To open the property view for one of the streams attached to the separator (such as Preheat Crude). Accessing Unit Operations from the Workbook There are a number of ways to open the property view for an operation directly from the Workbook. and the box displays the three streams attached to this operation. Return to the Material Streams tab of the Workbook. Currently. In addition to using the Unit Ops tab. the Workbook item appears in 4-52 . a number of Workbook features that allow you to access information quickly and change how information is displayed will be shown. double-click on the corresponding operation name. For example. PreFlash. The box displays the name of the only operation. Adding a tab to the Workbook Notice that when the Workbook is active. Compositions and Energy Streams tabs).

4-53 . You can access the property view for the operation view by double-clicking on the operation name.62 Stream Preheat Crude is the current Workbook location.Refining Tutorial 4-53 Figure 4. To add a new tab: 1. temperature. This item allows you to customize the Workbook according to the information you want to display. select Setup. The operation to which Preheat Crude is attached is displayed in this box. and flow. Do one of the following: • From the Workbook menu. and select Setup from the menu that appears. • Object inspect (right-click once) the Material Streams tab in the Workbook. the HYSYS menu. Suppose you want to create a new Workbook tab that displays only stream pressure.

63 Currently. You can change the display format or precision of any Workbook variables by clicking the Format button. Notice that the four existing tabs are listed in the Workbook Pages area. all variables are displayed with four significant figures. 2. Click on the Compositions tab in the list of Workbook tabs. it will be inserted before the highlighted tab (currently Material Streams). Figure 4. When you add a new tab. 4-54 .4-54 Refining Tutorial The Workbook Setup view appears. A new tab will be added before the Compositions tab.

click on the Name cell.64 4. Figure 4. and the new tab is added after the existing Material Streams tab. 4-55 . You return to the Setup view. 2. Vapour Fraction. 1. Click the Add button in the Workbook Pages group. Click on Material Stream and click the OK button.Refining Tutorial 4-55 3. Click on the first variable.T. Press and hold the CTRL key. Change the name for the new tab from the default Material Streams 2 to P . Figure 4. In the Object group. The next task is to customize the tab by removing the variables that are not required.65 5.Flow to better describe the tab contents. The New Object Type view appears.

Release the CTRL key. The new tab displays only these three Variables. Heat Flow and Molar Enthalpy. Mass Flow. 4.4-56 Refining Tutorial 3. Figure 4.66 The new tab now appears in the list of Workbook pages. 4-56 . in the same order as it will appear in the Workbook. Click on the other variables. The finished Setup is shown below. 5. Click the Delete button to remove them from this Workbook tab only. you must edit each tab individually. If you want to remove variables from another tab. These four variables are now highlighted. Molar Flow.

it is a good idea to save your case by doing one of the following: Save button • click the Save button on the button bar • select Save from the File menu • press CTRL S Using the PFD Besides the Workbook. PFD button When you open the PFD view. To open the PFD.Refining Tutorial 4-57 Click the Close button to return to the Workbook and view the new tab. 4-57 . The PFD item appears in the HYSYS menu whenever the PFD is active. it appears similar to the one shown below. Figure 4. the PFD is the other main view in HYSYS. click the PFD button on the button bar. except some stream icons will be overlapping each other.67 At this point.

4-58 . also known as a "label". A stream icon is an arrow pointing in the direction of the flow. Note that you can click and drag either the icon (arrow) itself. as these two items are grouped together. also known as "objects".68 PFD Button Bar Stream/Operation labels Material Stream icon Unit Operation icon for a Separator As a graphical representation of your flowsheet. To move an icon.4-58 Refining Tutorial Figure 4. appears near each icon. The PFD shown above has been rearranged by moving the three utility stream icons below and to the left of the SEPARATOR. while an operation icon is a graphic representing the actual physical operation. simply click and drag it to the new location. The object name. also known as an "icon". Each object is represented by a symbol. the PFD shows the connections among all streams and operations. or the label (stream name).

The status indicator is green. The status indicator is yellow. Recall the status indicator at the bottom of the property view for a stream or operation. For example. you can: Size Mode button Zoom Out 25% • access commands and features through the PFD Button Bar. and clicking and dragging the sizing "handles" that appear. This indicator displays three different states for the object: Status Description A major piece of defining information is missing from the object. and an appropriate warning message is displayed. • change an icon's size by clicking the Size button. All major defining information is present. a COOLER whose outlet stream temperature is unknown. • zoom in and out. and an OK message is displayed. the PFD view can be re-sized by clicking and dragging anywhere on the outside border. • display the Object Inspection menu for an object by placing the cursor over it. Red Status Yellow Status Green Status 4-59 . Display Entire PFD Calculation Status Zoom In 25% Keep in mind that these are the HYSYS default colours. • move an object by clicking and dragging it to the new location. The status indicator is red. • open the property view for an object by double-clicking on its icon. Some of these functions are illustrated here. a feature of the PFD will be described which allows you to trace the calculation status of the objects in your flowsheet. clicking on the icon. see Chapter 3 . or display the entire flowsheet in the PFD window by clicking the zoom buttons at the bottom left of the PFD view. This menu provides access to a number of commands associated with the particular object. Among other functions that can be performed while the PFD is active.Refining Tutorial 4-59 Like any other non-modal view. for further information. and an appropriate warning message is displayed. but the stream or operation has not been solved because one or more degrees of freedom is present. • access "pop-up" summary information for an object simply by placing the cursor over it. Before proceeding. a feed or product stream is not attached to a SEPARATOR. you may change the colours in the Session Preferences. The stream or operation is completely defined and solved.PFD in the HYSYS User’s Guide. For example. and right-clicking.

The furnace will be added to the right of the PreFlash Separator. Notice that the icons for all streams installed to this point are dark blue. Figure 4. with a box and plus (+) symbol attached to it. For material streams.69 Attach button 4-60 . Cooler Button (Blue icon) Heater Button (Red icon) Click the Heater button on the Object Palette. while a light red icon indicates an unknown duty. Make sure the Object Palette is displayed (if it is not. a dark red icon is for an energy stream with a known duty. A light blue icon indicates the stream cannot be flashed until some additional information is supplied. Similarly. so make some empty space available by scrolling to the right using the horizontal scroll bar. Position the cursor over the PFD. a dark blue icon indicates the stream has been flashed and is entirely known. so its normal colours are displayed. indicating they have been flashed. to the right of the separator. While installing the remaining operations through the PFD. their colours (and status) will change appropriately as information is supplied. press F4). The inlet separator is completely calculated. You can install streams or operations by dropping them from the Object Palette onto the PFD. The box indicates the size and location of the operation icon. A similar colour scheme is used to indicate the status of streams. Installing the Crude Furnace The furnace will be modelled as a HEATER. the streams and operations are "colourcoded" to indicate their calculation status. 1. To install and connect the Furnace. 2.4-60 Refining Tutorial When you are in the PFD. The cursor changes to a special cursor.

and a connection point appears at the heater inlet. then press the OK button. At the square connection point. Figure 4. Click on the WireFrameHeater5 icon (scroll to the right). E-100. A small box appears at the cursor tip. Press the Attach button on the PFD toolbar to enter Attach mode. A trailing line appears between the PreFlashLiq stream icon and the cursor. 4-61 .70 4. Object inspect the heater icon by placing the cursor over it and right-click. Position the cursor over the right end of the PreFlashLiq stream icon. Figure 4. With the pop-up "Out" visible. press the Attach button again. The pop-up "Out" indicates which part of the stream is available for connection. the stream outlet. indicating that it requires feed and product streams. Move the cursor toward the left (inlet) side of the heater. Furnace Icon 6. 8. Select Change Icon from the object inspection menu. The heater icon can be changed from its default to one more closely resembling a furnace. Notice that the heater has red status (colour). in this case. To return to Move mode. a pop-up description appears attached to the cursor. HYSYS will create a new heater with a default name. You can temporarily toggle between Attach and Move mode by holding down the CTRL key. 10. 9. indicating that you are beginning a connection. and the Select Icon view appears. The newly selected icon will appear in the PFD. Click to "drop" the heater onto the PFD. The object inspection menu appears. left-click over it. you will not be able to move objects in the PFD. The transparent box becomes solid black. 7.Refining Tutorial 4-61 3.71 Attach Mode button When you are in Attach mode. 5.

Figure 4. Release the left mouse button. Click the Attach button again to return to Move mode. With the large stream icon visible. with a trailing line attached to the heater outlet. a solid white box appears at the cursor tip. The new stream is automatically named Q-100. 14.73 16. release the left mouse button. indicating an acceptable end point for the connection. This status indicates that all necessary connections have been made. Repeat steps 13-16 to create the heater energy stream. Figure 4. Originate the connection from the bottom left connection point labelled "Energy Stream" on the heater icon. 17. 13. The stream icon indicates that a new stream will be created when you complete the next step. The transparent box again becomes solid black. A large stream icon appears. and the heater now has yellow (warning) status. and drag below and to the left of the furnace.72 12. Position the cursor over the right end of the heater icon.4-62 Refining Tutorial 11. but the attached streams are not entirely known. As well. and the connection is made to the connection point at the heater inlet. HYSYS creates a new stream with the default name 1.74 18. left-click and hold. With the pop-up visible. 4-62 . Place the cursor near the connection point. The connection point and pop-up "Product" appears. Figure 4. 15. and the trailing line snaps to that point. Move the cursor to the right of the heater.

Figure 4. Change the operation name from the default to Furnace. A check mark attached to the cursor appears. Outlet and Energy streams appear in the appropriate cells. 2. then click on the Parameters page. 4-63 . Click once to break the connection. In this case. and close the view. the outlet temperature will be specified. On the Connections page.Refining Tutorial 4-63 Break Connection button If you make an incorrect connection: 1. The heater outlet and energy streams are unknown at this point. indicating an acceptable connection to break. 3. Specify a Delta P of 10 psi. either the outlet stream temperature. Click the Break Connection button on the PFD button bar. Double-click on the heater icon to open its property view. or the amount of duty in the energy stream can be specified. Move the cursor over the stream line connecting the two icons.75 Figure 4. notice that the names of the Inlet. so they are light blue and light red. respectively.76 The Furnace has one available degree of freedom.

4-64 Refining Tutorial Double-click on the outlet stream icon (1) to open its property view. and all attached streams are known.77 The remaining degree of freedom in the Furnace has now been used. The required heating duty calculated by HYSYS is displayed in the Heat Flow cell. and close the property 4-64 . Change the Name from the default to Hot Crude. so HYSYS can flash Hot Crude and determine its remaining properties. then specify a temperature of 650°F. The Furnace now has green status. Double-click on the energy stream icon (Q-100) to open its property view. Rename this stream Crude Duty. Close the view to return to the PFD. Figure 4.

2. Position the cursor over the PFD (to the right of the Hot Crude stream icon). Press the Mixer button on the Object Palette. Click to "drop" the mixer onto the PFD. release the left mouse button to make the connection. Place the cursor near the inlet area of the mixer. 7. click and drag the cursor toward the left (inlet) side of the mixer. 4-65 . 10. 9. With the pop-up visible. The resulting stream is the feed for the crude column.78 Installing the Mixer The MIXER is used to combine the hot crude stream with the vapours bypassing the furnace. 8. Position the cursor over the right end of the mixer icon. 6. and multiple connection points appear at the mixer inlet. HYSYS creates a new mixer with the default name MIX-100. 4. Multiple connection points appear because the MIXER accepts multiple feed streams. Press and hold the CTRL key to temporarily enable Attach mode while you make the mixer connections. 1. Mixer button Make some empty space available to the right of the Furnace using the horizontal scroll bar. 3.Refining Tutorial 4-65 view. 5. and when the solid white box appears at the cursor tip. The connection point and pop-up "Out" appears. Repeat steps 6-8 to connect Hot Crude to the mixer. Figure 4. To install and connect the mixer. Position the cursor over the right end of the PreFlashVap stream icon. The connection point and pop-up "Product" appears.

with a trailing line attached to the mixer outlet. Figure 4. release the left mouse button. HYSYS automatically combined the two inlet streams and flashed the mixture to determine the outlet conditions. and close the view. Change the name from its default to Mixer. Rename the stream to TowerFeed. double-click on the mixer icon. With the pop-up visible.80 Finally. MIX-100. Double-click on the outlet stream icon 1 to access its property view. click and drag to the right of the mixer. 4-66 . When you created the mixer outlet stream. Figure 4. 12.4-66 Refining Tutorial 11. A large stream icon appears. Release the CTRL key to leave Attach mode. HYSYS creates a new stream with the default name 1. With the large stream icon visible. Now that the Mixer connections are complete. shown here.79 13.

Figure 4. 4. click and drag to the new icon size. and a box with sizing handles appears around the icon.82 3.81 If you want to resize the furnace icon: 1. Click on the Furnace icon in the PFD. Figure 4. including any objects that may not have been visible previously. 2. Size Mode button Click the Size Mode button on the PFD button bar. With the sizing arrow visible. Then press the Zoom All button to fill the PFD window. The resized PFD is shown on the next page. and the cursor changes to a double-ended sizing arrow.Refining Tutorial 4-67 Zoom All button make the PFD view more readable by first resizing its view by clicking and dragging the outside border. 4-67 . Place the cursor over one of the sizing handles.

check the Use Input Experts check box. Again. Double-click on the Refluxed Absorber button on the Object 4-68 . you still have to customize the column by modifying the various draw and return stages and default specifications. Prior to installing the column. and adding side equipment. select Preferences from the HYSYS Tools menu. 7. One of these templates is going to be used for this example: a crude column with three side strippers. it is recommended to work through these pages for the first time you build a crude column in HYSYS. then try using the template. Before installing the column. Close this view. number of stages and default specifications. HYSYS creates a new energy stream with the default name Q-100 and display its property view. To install the column: 1. Once you are comfortable working with side equipment. a basic REFLUXED ABSORBER column with a total condenser will be installed and customized in order to illustrate the installation of the necessary side equipment. it is a good idea to save your case by doing one of the following: • press CTRL S • from the File menu. Although using the template eliminates the majority of the work over the next few pages. an energy stream must be created to represent the trim duty on stage 28 of the main tower. Energy Stream button 8. and close the view. Double-click on the Energy Stream button on the Object Palette. Click the Size Mode button again to return to Move mode. select Save • click the Save button Save button Installing the Column If you choose to use the prebuilt crude column template. On the Options page of the Simulation tab.4-68 Refining Tutorial 5. Instructions on using the crude column template are given below. Change the Name from its default to Trim Duty. HYSYS has a number of pre-built column templates that you can install and customize by changing attached stream names. To create the energy stream: 6. However.

You can now customize the new column install a column using a pre-built template. Select 3sscrude. The property view for the new column appears. Enter 29 in the Numb of Stages cell. • If present. Double-click on the Custom Column button on the Object Palette. 3.col that are provided in your HYSYS\template directory. 5. as the HYSYS default stage efficiency is one. and are not included in the # Stages field. or by pressing the F2 key then the i key. For this example. indicated by the thick border around this cell.and 4-side stripper crude column templates are provided. and the presence of 10 (default number of stages) in the Edit Bar at the top of the view. 3. The current active cell is # Stages (Number of Stages). the Condenser and Reboiler are considered separate from the other stages. 4-69 .Refining Tutorial 4-69 Palette. On the view that appears. When you Figure 4. Some points worth noting are: • These are theoretical stages. Advance to the Bottom Stage Inlet cell by clicking on it or by pressing TAB. 2. 4. Both 3.col and click the OK button. such as the number of stages. the main column will have 29 theoretical stages.83 Refluxed Absorber button The Input Expert is a Modal view. or by pressing the i key. Select Bottom Steam as the bottom feed for the column. Open the drop-down list of available feeds by clicking on next to the Edit Bar. The Available Column Templates view appears. listing the template files *. To install this column using the pre-built crude column template: 1. or by pressing TAB. 6. indicated by the thick border and absence of the Maximize/Minimize buttons. and the first page of the Input Expert appears. HYSYS supplies certain default information. You cannot exit or move outside the Expert until you supply the necessary information. 2. 7. Advance to the Optional Inlet Streams list by clicking on the <<Stream>> cell. click the Read an Existing Column Template button. or click the Cancel button. Open the drop-down list of available feeds for this cell by clicking on next to the cell.

10 to attach the Trim Duty stream. and two liquid phases (hydrocarbon and water) are present in the condenser. 11. the overhead vapour stream has no flow. it is required to feed this stream onto stage 28. or select 28_Main TS from the drop-down list of stages in the Edit Bar. 12.85 In the Condenser group. To the right of this group. vapour and liquid.4-70 Refining Tutorial Figure 4. The hydrocarbon liquid product is attached in the liquid Overhead Outlets cell. HYSYS supplies a default feed location in the middle of the Tray Section (TS). Click on <<Stream>>. in this case stage 15 (indicated by 15_Main TS). while the water draw is attached using the Optional Side Draws matrix. However. Select Tower Feed as the feed stream to the column. 4-70 . In this case. notice that the default condenser type is Partial. Type 28 and press ENTER. 9. there are two Overhead Outlets. which was automatically advanced down one cell when you attached the feed stream. Figure 4. which is also fed to stage 28. 10. Click on the Inlet Stage cell for TowerFeed.84 8. Repeat steps 7 .

Click on the cell labelled <<Stream>> in the Optional Side Draws matrix. 5. WasteH2O. or by selecting W from the drop-down list in the Edit Bar. Click on the Draw Stage cell (15_Main TS) for the WasteH2O stream. only the Partial radio button allows you to specify a three-phase condenser. 3. 1. At this time. It is required to change this to a condenser water draw.Refining Tutorial 4-71 Figure 4. Enter the name of the draw stream. Advance to the top Ovhd Outlets cell by clicking on it or by pressing TAB twice. and HYSYS creates and attaches a new stream with this name. 4-71 . Enter Off Gas as the name of the overhead vapour product stream.86 Overhead vapour product cell The water draw will be attached using this matrix Overhead liquid product cell Although the overhead vapour product will have zero flow. 4. Specify a water draw by typing W then ENTER. HYSYS automatically places a hydrocarbon liquid (indicated by the L in the Type column) draw on stage 15. 2. 1. and enter the new stream name Naphtha. Click on the Type cell (the L) for the WasteH2O stream. 2. do not change the condenser to Total. The next task is to attach the water draw stream to the condenser. Press TAB again to move to the bottom Ovhd Outlets cell. 3.

8. Figure 4. 4-72 . Figure 4. Enter the Column Name. For example. Click the Next button to advance to the Pressure Profile page. The Next button now becomes available. when the Main Flowsheet stream BottomSteam was attached as a feed. The condenser will now be three-phase. HYSYS automatically created an identical stream named BottomSteam to be used in the Column Subflowsheet.88 All stream attachments made on this page result in the creation of Column Subflowsheet streams with the same names.4-72 Refining Tutorial 6. and the Bottoms Liquid Outlet and Condenser Energy Stream names as shown below.87 7. Select Condenser from the drop-down list in the Edit Bar. indicating sufficient information has been supplied to advance to the next page of the Input Expert.

11.90 4-73 . good estimates result in a faster solution.89 10.Refining Tutorial 4-73 9. Figure 4. Enter 19.7 psia as the Condenser Pressure. 9 psi and 32. Provide Condenser. Top Stage and Bottom Stage Temperature Estimates of 100°F. Figure 4. Condenser Pressure Drop and Bottom Stage Pressure.7 psia. respectively. Although HYSYS does not usually require estimates to produce a converged column. 250°F and 700°F. Click the Next button to advance to the Optional Estimates page. respectively.

for which HYSYS provides two default specifications. Click the Next button to advance to the fourth and final page of the Input Expert.4-74 Refining Tutorial 12. 14. For the two specifications given. a refluxed absorber with a partial condenser has two degrees of freedom. All flow specifications are provided in barrels per day.0. This page allows you to supply values for the default column specifications that HYSYS has created. 13. and Reflux Ratio as an estimate only. overhead Vapour Rate is used as an active specification. Enter a Vapour Rate of 0 and a Reflux Ratio of 1.91 4-74 . so change the basis to Volume by selecting it in the Flow Basis drop-down list. Figure 4. In general.

Click on the Specs page to remove two specifications and add one new specification. indicating that only two specifications are Active. so the overall Degrees of Freedom is zero. The number of available degrees of freedom increases with the addition of side equipment. Click the Done button. three Specifications are Active. As noted earlier. click on Reflux Rate to highlight it and then click the Delete button. a third degree of freedom was created when the Trim Duty stream was attached as a feed.Refining Tutorial 4-75 15. 4-75 . and activate or de-activate specifications used by the Column solver. directly from this page.92 The basic column has three available degrees of freedom. Notice that the current Degrees of Freedom is one. Figure 4. a Refluxed Absorber with a partial condenser has two degrees of freedom and. whose heat flow is unknown. You can also change specification values. Delete the Btms Prod Rate specification also. however. In the Column Specifications group. HYSYS has not made a specification for the third degree of freedom. In this case. therefore you need to add a water draw spec called WasteH2O Rate to be the third Active specification. and the Column property view appears. 3. Move to the Monitor page on the Design tab by clicking on it. The main feature of this page is that it displays the status of your column as it is being calculated. 2. updating information with each iteration. requires two Active specifications. therefore. 1. Currently.

It is good practice to keep the degrees of freedom at zero as you modify your column so that you may solve the column after every modification. The Draw Spec is entered so that the Degrees of Freedom are kept at zero throughout this tutorial. Type the name as shown below.. The Add Specs view appears. The Draw Spec property view appears. Figure 4. Notice also that the degrees of freedom are now zero. 7. You now see the new specification in the Column Specifications group..4-76 Refining Tutorial 4.93 6. Click on Column Draw Rate and click on the Add Spec(s). Close the view. button. Now add the WasteH2O Rate specification by clicking on the Add button. 5. No further information is required as this specification will be de-activated and only estimated when you run the column. 4-76 .

rather than a schematic format. The side equipment that was added is illustrated on the Connections page to how it was modified. Currently.Refining Tutorial 4-77 Before proceeding. it will become non-standard. Therefore.94 This page is similar to the first page of the Input Expert. the column is a standard type. The side equipment will be added now. whenever a column becomes non-standard. Figure 4. When the side equipment is added to the column. move to the Connections page. There are a large number of possible non-standard columns based on the types and numbers of side operations that are added. HYSYS modifies the Connections page to be organized in a tabular format. 4-77 . so this page shows a column schematic with the names of the attached streams.

To install and define the side strippers: 1.96 4-78 . Click the Add button. You can then transfer any needed stream information from the Subflowsheet by simply attaching the stream to the Main Flowsheet. it resides in the Column Subflowsheet. you can Install. The matrix displays summary information for a given type of side operation. Ensure that you are on the Side Strippers page. Figure 4. You can build a complex column in the Subflowsheet while in the Main Flowsheet. depending on the page you are currently on. and the Side Stripper view appears.95 When you install side equipment. Figure 4. 2. On this tab. Edit or Delete all types of Side Equipment. the column appears as a single operation. View.4-78 Refining Tutorial Installing the Side Strippers Move to the Side Ops tab of the Column property view.

Move to the Product Stream cell.000 bbl/day of crude fed to the tower.000 * 0. Figure 4. 7. Change the Name from its default to KeroSS. Kerosene production can be expected at 100.128 = 12.800 or approximately 13.128. 6. and the k = and Boil Up Ratio cells at their defaults.97 Kerosene Liquid Volume Fraction 4-79 . This is a reboiled 3-stage stripper with a 0. For 100. Pick the Volume radio button in the Flow Basis group. Select stage 8 (8_Main TS) from the Return Stage drop-down list. The Kerosene liquid volume fraction is 0. 5.75 boil up ratio. Select stage 9 (9_Main TS) from the Draw Stage drop-down list. 4.000 bbl/day.Refining Tutorial 4-79 3. shown here. and enter Kerosene. Recall the straight run product distribution data calculated during the Oil Characterization. so leave the Configuration radio button at Reboiled.

Close View button 10. Note that these are both Steam Stripped.98 9. Enter 13000 in the Product Rate cell. so choose the appropriate Configuration radio button and create the Steam Feed and Product streams as shown. Remember the @COL1 suffix is added automatically. Figure 4.10 to install the two remaining side strippers DieselSS and AGOSS. The completed DieselSS side 4-80 . Figure 4. Click the Close button to return to the Column property view.4-80 Refining Tutorial 8. Click the Install button.99 11. Summary information for the new side operation appears in the matrix on the Side Ops tab. The completed Side Stripper view is shown below. Repeat steps 1 . and a view summarizing your input appears.

Figure 4.101 4-81 .Refining Tutorial 4-81 stripper view is shown below.100 The completed AGOSS side stripper view is shown below. Figure 4.

indicating that new specifications have been created below the default ones. Figure 4. making the entire matrix visible. the names of the Steam Feed streams created for these side strippers are identical to the names of the utility steam streams that were created previously in the Main Flowsheet. The conditions of these Steam Feed streams. Click and drag the bottom border down until the scroll bar disappears. are unknown at this point.103 The addition of the side strippers has created four more degrees of freedom above the basic column. You can examine the entire matrix by re-sizing the view. 4-82 . The conditions of the Main Flowsheet streams are duplicated into these Subflowsheet streams when the stream attachments are performed. so the overall Degrees of Freedom is zero. returning the overall Degrees of Freedom to 0. seven Specifications are Active. The completed Side Stripper Summary matrix is shown here.4-82 Refining Tutorial Although not a requirement. The installation of the side strippers created four additional degrees of freedom. resulting in a total of seven available degrees of freedom. The Specifications matrix on this page has a vertical scroll bar. plus a BoilUp Ratio specification for the Kerosene side stripper. Currently. so HYSYS created a Prod Flow (product flow) specification for each side stripper. which reside in the Column Subflowsheet. The new specifications were automatically made Active to exhaust the four degrees of freedom. Figure 4.102 Return to the Monitor page of the Design tab.

Select stage 1 (1_Main TS) from the Return Stage drop-down list. the Dt specification will be changed to a Duty specification for the pump around cooler. 5.Refining Tutorial 4-83 Installing the Pump Arounds Return again to the Side Ops tab and select the Pump Arounds page. and the initial Pump Around view appears. The pump around rate is 50.000 bbl/day. Figure 4. 4. 2.105 4-83 . The default Pump Around Specifications are circulation rate and temperature drop (Dt) between the liquid draw and liquid return. Figure 4. To install the pump arounds: 1. Click the Install button. Click the Add button. The matrix is cleared and its title changes to Liquid Pump Around Summary. 3.104 Each cooled pump around circuit has two specifications associated with it. Select stage 2 (2_Main TS) from the Draw Stage drop-down list. and a more detailed Pump Around view appears. For this example. Enter 5e4 in the blank cell under the PA_1_Rate(Pa) specification.

7. Click the Close View button on the main Pumparound view to return to the Column property view. 4-84 . 10. Figure 4. and the Spec view appears. Click the Close button to return to the Pump Around view. Note that the negative sign convention indicates cooling. 8. Figure 4. Double-click in the blank space under the PA_1_Dt(Pa) specification. Change the Spec Type from Temperature Drop to Duty in the dropdown list.106 9.107 The remainder of the information on this view is calculated by the Column solver. Enter -55e6 in the Spec Value cell.4-84 Refining Tutorial 6.

109 Figure 4. Repeat steps 1 .10 to install the two remaining pump arounds.Refining Tutorial 4-85 11.110 4-85 . The completed Pump Around views and Liquid Pump Around Summary matricies are shown below.108 Figure 4.5e7 Btu/hr for both of these pump arounds. Enter Rate specifications of 3e4 barrel/day and Duty specifications of -3. Figure 4.

Move to the Connections page of the column property view.112 4-86 . 13 Specifications are Active. Figure 4. so the overall Degrees of Freedom is zero. and re-size the property view again so the entire Specifications matrix is visible. Figure 4.4-86 Refining Tutorial Return to the Monitor page.111 The addition of the pump arounds has created six more degrees of freedom. resulting in a total of 13 available degrees of freedom. Note that the addition of each pump around created two additional degrees of freedom. As with the side strippers. the specifications for the pump arounds have been added to the list and were automatically made Active. Currently.

Completing the Column Connections When the stream attachments were made on the initial page of the Input Expert. when Bottom Steam was attached as a column feed stream. the Main Flowsheet stream is the External Stream. meaning that these streams are attached to the Main Flowsheet streams that were created earlier. side equipment have been added to the standard refluxed absorber. notice that the two side stripper steam streams. For the purposes of this tutorial. Figure 4. For example. Feed Streams and Product Streams. all equipment). making the column non-standard. it is not required to export the pump 4-87 . with a column schematic showing the feed and product streams. HYSYS automatically created Column Subflowsheet streams with the same names. However. are Internal and External. The column has 40 Total Theoretical Stages: • • • • 29 in the main tray section 1 condenser for the main column 9 in the side strippers (3 side strippers with 3 stages each) 1 reboiler for the Kerosene side stripper This topology results in 4 Total Tray Sections—one for the main column and one for each of the three side strippers.113 If you scroll down the list of Feed Streams. The Connections page has therefore been modified to show tabular summaries of the Column Flowsheet Topology (i.e. In the Feed Streams matrix on the Connections page. DieselSteam and AGOSteam. while the Subflowsheet stream is the Internal Stream. HYSYS created an identical Subflowsheet stream named Bottom Steam.Refining Tutorial 4-87 The Connections page of a standard refluxed absorber property view is essentially identical to the first page of the refluxed absorber Input Expert.

with the following new ones: • an Overflash specification for the feed stage (Tray Net Liquid Flow specification) • a Kerosene side stripper reboiler duty specification To add the Overflash specification: 1. On the Design tab. Waste H2O Rate and KeroSS BoilUp Ratio. However.4-88 Refining Tutorial around duty streams PA_1_Q. Figure 4. Adding Column Specifications Return to the Monitor page of the Column property view. it is required to replace two of the Active specifications. Notice that the current Degrees of Freedom is zero. move to the Specs page. so their External Stream cells will remain <<empty>>.114 4-88 . PA_2_Q and PA_3_Q to the Main Flowsheet. indicating the column is ready to be Run.

Click the Add Spec(s). Figure 4. A typical range for the Overflash rate is 3-5% of the total feed to the column.5%.Refining Tutorial 4-89 2. Select Column Liquid Flow as the Column Specification Type. The Column Specifications view appears. button. 5. 4. click the Add button.115 3. Move to the Stage cell. Change the Name from its default to Overflash. 6.. 4-89 . In this case. the total feed rate is 100. In the Column Specifications area. and choose 27_Main TS from the list of available stages displayed in the Edit Bar. or 3.500 barrels/day will be used..000 barrels/day. For the Overflash specification 3. and the Liq Flow Spec view appears.

. Figure 4.. 4. The Duty Spec view appears. then select KeroSS_Energy @COL1 from the drop-down list in the Edit Bar. Figure 4.4-90 Refining Tutorial 1.116 2. 5. The new specification appears in the list of Column Specifications on the Specs page. 2. Select Column Duty as the Column Specification Type. Enter 7. 3.5e6 (Btu/hr) in the Spec Value cell. and click the Add Spec(s). Move to the Energy Stream cell.117 4-90 . button. To add the Duty specification: 1. Enter 3500 in the Spec Value cell. Click the Add button again to add the second new specification. Close the view to return to the Column property view. Change the Name from its default to Kero Reb Duty.

Figure 4. Activate the Overflash specification by clicking its Active check box.Refining Tutorial 4-91 6. De-activate the Waste H2O Rate specification. 6. De-activate the Reflux Ratio specification by clicking its checked Active check box. In addition. 4. and the information displayed on the page is updated with each iteration. 7. 3. Close the view to return to the Specs page of the Column property view. Click the Run button to begin calculations. However. The column should converge in approximately eight iterations (as shown in the Iter 4-91 . Activate the Vapour Prod Rate specification. a value for the distillate (Naphtha) rate specification must be supplied initially.118 Running the Column Return to the Monitor page to view the Specifications matrix again. To make the final changes to the specifications: 1. 2. and vice versa. Activate the Kero Reb Duty specification. it is required to use some specifications which are currently Active as Estimates only. De-activate the KeroSS BoilUp Ratio specification. Enter 2e4 (bbl/day) in the Specified Value cell for the Distillate Rate specification. The Degrees of Freedom is again zero. The completed list of Column Specifications is shown here. 5. so the column is ready to be calculated.

The status indicator has changed from Unconverged to Converged. The converged temperature profile is currently displayed in the upper right corner of the view. The column temperature profile is shown here.120. To view the pressure or flow profiles.4-92 Refining Tutorial column of the matrix in the upper left corner of the view). pick the Std Liq Vol radio button to examine the tray vapour and liquid flows on a volumetric basis. Figure 4. You can access a more detailed stage summary by moving to the Summary page on the Performance tab. 4-92 . In the Flow Basis group near the top of the view. Equilibrium error and Heat/ Spec error. Step size. You can view the pressure or flow profiles by picking the appropriate radio button.119 This matrix displays the Iteration number. The detailed stage summary is shown in Figure 4. select the appropriate radio button.

120 Viewing Boiling Point Profiles for the Product Stream You can view boiling point curves for all the product streams on a single graph: 1. click on the Results page (in the column 4-93 . On the Performance tab.Refining Tutorial 4-93 Figure 4.

3.121 2. and the Boiling Point Properties view appears. 4-94 . In the Refinery Assay Curves group.4-94 Refining Tutorial property view). Figure 4.122 No data is plotted on the graph. Click the View Graph button. Figure 4. click on Boiling Point Assay. as shown in the title bar. since there is currently No Tray Attached.

1. Pick the Multi Tray radio button in the Style group. Figure 4. Click the Profile Data Control button. Select TBP in the drop-down list under the tray matrix in the Style group. The boiling point properties of all stages. Click on the blank Liq Light check box in the phase group to activate it. 4. 4-95 .123 You can view boiling point properties of a single tray or multiple trays. 3.Refining Tutorial 4-95 4. from which products are drawn. and the Data Control view appears as shown in Figure 4. In the Basis group. pick the Liquid Vol radio button.123. The Data Control view is modified. on a liquid volume basis. 2. Activate the following stages by clicking on their blank check boxes: • • • • • Condenser (Naphtha product stage) 29_Main TS (Residue) KeroSS_Reb (Kerosene) 3_DieselSS (Diesel) 3_AGOSS (AGO) The TBP profile for the light liquid phase on each stage will be viewed. are important for this Tutorial. showing a matrix of column stages with a check box for each stage.

The completed Data Control view is shown in Figure 4. 4-96 .4-96 Refining Tutorial 5.124. Leave the Visible Points at its default setting of 15 Points. Figure 4. You can display more data points for the curves by selecting the 31 Points radio button. or by clicking and dragging its border to a new view size. which nows display the TBP curves. You return to the Boiling Point Properties view.124 6. Make the Boiling Point Properties view more readable by clicking the Maximize button in the upper right corner of the view. while the dependent (y-axis) variable is the TBP in °C. Click on the Close button in the upper right corner of the Data Control view to close it. The independent (x-axis) variable is the Assay Volume Percent. 7.

The Boiling Point Properties view is shown below. While inside the column environment. you might want to focus only on the column Subflowsheet. or Main Flowsheet. Move the graph legend by double-clicking inside the plot area.Refining Tutorial 4-97 8. property view of the column. 4-97 . You can do this by entering the column environment. Click the Column Environment button at the bottom of the property view. Moving to the Column Subflowsheet When considering the column. This property view is essentially the same as the "outside". Figure 4. click the Close button.125 When you are finished viewing the profiles. you might want to: PFD button Workbook button • view the Column Subflowsheet PFD by clicking the PFD button • view a Workbook of the Column Subflowsheet objects by clicking the Workbook button • access the "inside" column property view by clicking the Column Runner button. then clicking and dragging the legend to its new location.

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The Column Subflowsheet PFD is shown below.
Figure 4.126

Customizing the Column PFD
You can customize the PFD shown above by re-sizing the column and "hiding" some of the column trays to improve the overall readability of the PFD. To hide some of the trays in the main column: 1. 2. 3.
Maximize button

Click the PFD button to ensure the column PFD is active. C lick the Maximize button in the upper right corner of the PFD view to make it full-screen. Click the Zoom All button at the bottom left of the PFD view to fill the re-sized PFD window.

Zoom All button

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4.

Object inspect (right-click once) the main column tray section, and the object inspection menu appears.
Figure 4.127

5. 6. 7.

Select Show Trays from the object inspection menu. The Stage Visibility view appears. Select the Selected Expansion radio button. Hide stages 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 24, 25 and 26 by clearing their Shown check boxes.
Figure 4.128

8.

Click the Close button on the Stage Visibility view to return to the PFD. The routing of some streams in the PFD may be undesirable. You can improve the stream routing by completing the next step.

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9.

From the PFD menu item, select Auto Position, and HYSYS rearranges the PFD in a logical manner.

Size button

The next task in customizing the PFD is to enlarge the icon for the main column: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click on the icon for the main tray section (Main TS). Click the Size button on the PFD button bar, and a box with eight sizing handles appears around the tray section icon. Place the cursor over the handle at the middle right of the icon, and the cursor changes to a double-ended sizing arrow. With the sizing cursor visible, click and drag to the right. An outline appears, showing what the new icon size will be when you complete the next step.
Figure 4.129

5.

When the outline indicates a new icon size of about 1.5 to 2 times the width of the original size, release the mouse button. The tray section icon is now re-sized. Click the Size button again to return to Move mode.

6.

The final task is to customize the PFD by moving some of the streams and operation labels (names) so they do not overlap. To move a label:

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1. 2. 3.
Restore button

Click on the label you want to move. Right-click and select Move/Size Label. Move the label to its new position by clicking and dragging it, or by pressing the arrow keys.

You can also move the iconon its own simply by clicking and dragging it to the new location. When you are finished working with the maximized Column PFD, click the Restore button for the PFD (not for the HYSYS Application Window) in the upper right corner of the view of the PFD. The PFD returns to its previous size. You can manually resize the view, and expand the PFD to fill the new size by again clicking the Zoom All button in the lower left corner of the PFD view. For more information on customizing the PFD, refer to Chapter 3 - PFD in the HYSYS User’s Guide. The customized PFD is shown below.
Figure 4.130

To view the workbook for the column:

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1.

Click the Workbook button.
Figure 4.131

Parent Simulation Environment button

When you are finished working in the Column environment, return to the Main Flowsheet by clicking the Parent Simulation Environment button. Open the PFD for the Main Flowsheet, then select Auto Position All from the PFD menu item. HYSYS arranges the Main Flowsheet PFD in a logical manner according to the layout of the flowsheet. The PFD shown on the next page has been manually rearranged by moving some of the stream icons, and by enlarging the column icon.

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Figure 4.132

Results
Open the Workbook to access the calculated results for the Main Flowsheet. The Material Streams tab of the Workbook is shown in Figure 4.133.
Figure 4.133

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Using the Object Navigator
Now that results have been obtained, you may want to view the calculated properties of a particular stream or operation. The Object Navigator allows you to quickly access the property view for any stream or unit operation at any time during the simulation. To open the Navigator, do one of the following:

• • • •

press F3 from the Flowsheet menu, select Find Object double-click on any blank space on the HYSYS Desktop click the Navigator button

The Object Navigator view appears:
Figure 4.134 Navigator button

The UnitOps radio button in the Filter group is currently picked, so only the Unit Operations appear in the list of objects. To open a property view, select the operation in the list, and click the View button, or double-click on the operation. You can change which objects are displayed by picking a different Filter radio button. For example, to list all streams and unit operations, click the All button. You can also search for an object by clicking the Find button. When the Find Object view appears, enter the Object Name, and click the OK button. HYSYS opens the property view for the object whose name you entered.

Using a Boiling Point Curves Utility
Previously, the boiling point profiles for the product streams was viewed using the Plots page in the column property view. You can also view boiling point curves for a product stream using HYSYS’ BP Curves

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Utility. To create a Boiling Point curves utility for the Kerosene product: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open the Navigator using one of the methods described above. Pick the Streams radio button. Scroll down the list of Streams and select Kerosene. Click the View button, and the property view for stream Kerosene appears. On the Attachments tab, move to the Utilities page of the stream property view. Click the Create button. The Available Utilities view appears, presenting you with a list of HYSYS utilities.
Figure 4.135

7.

Scroll down the list until BP Curves is visible, then do one of the following:

• Select BP Curves, then click the Add Utility button • Double-click on BP Curves
8. 9. HYSYS creates the utility and displays its BP Curves tab, which presents the Boiling Point data in tabular format. Change the Name of the utility from the default Boiling Point Curves-1 to Kerosene BP Curves.

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10. Change the curve basis to Liquid Volume by selecting it in the Basis drop-down list.
Note that a Utility is a separate entity from the stream it is attached to; if you Delete it, the stream will not be affected. Likewise, if you delete the stream, the Utility will remain but will not display any information until you attach another stream using the Select Object button. Figure 4.136

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You can scroll through the matrix of data to see that the TBP ranges from 267°F to 498°F by selecting the Parameters tab.
Figure 4.137

This boiling range predicted by the utility is slightly wider than the ideal range calculated during the Oil characterization procedure for Kerosene, 356°F to 464°F.
Figure 4.138

Ideal boiling range calculated during Oil Characterization.

Select Plots from the Parameters tab of the utility property view to view the data in graphical format.

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4-108

Refining Tutorial

Figure 4.139

To make the envelope more readable, maximize or resize the view.

When you move to the Plots view, the graph legend may be overlapping the plotted data. The legend in the above plot has been moved to the middle of the plot. To move the legend, double-click anywhere in the plot area then click and drag the legend to its new location. When you are finished viewing the Boiling Point Curves, click the Close button. Alternative to using the Utilities page of a stream property view, you can also install a utility using the Available Utilities view. Another BP Curves utility will be installed for stream Residue. This utility will be used for the case study in the next section. To install the utility: 1. Do one of the following:

• press CTRL U • from the Tools menu, select Utilities

4-108

appears in the Available Utilities view. Kerosene BP Curves. opened to the BP Curves tab. 3.Refining Tutorial 4-109 The Available Utilities view appears. and click the Add Utility button.141 Figure 4. Select BP Curves. The Boiling Point Curves view appears.142 4-109 . 2. Scroll down the list of available utilities until BP Curves is visible. Figure 4.140 Notice the name of the utility created previously. Figure 4.

4-110 Refining Tutorial 4. Change the Name from its default Utility-1 to Residue BP Curves. 5. Figure 4. Click the Select Object button. The next task is to attach the utility to a material stream. The completed BP Curves tab is shown below.144 Notice that the stream name Residue now appears in the Stream cell. and the Select Process Stream view appears. Select Residue in the Object list. Change the Basis to Liquid Volume by selecting it in the dropdown list.143 2. Figure 4. then click the OK button. 4-110 . HYSYS calculates the boiling point curves. 1.

For this example.145 The first step is to add the key variables to the Databook using the Variables tab. To open the Databook.Refining Tutorial 4-111 3. and then on the Available Utilities view. the Overflash specification is varied and examined to investigate its effect on the following variables: • D1160 Boiling Temperature for 5% volume cut point of stream Residue • heat flow of energy stream TrimDuty • column reflux ratio To add the variables to the Databook: 4-111 . and view the results in a tabular or graphical format. do one of the following: • press CTRL D • from the Tools menu. Click the Close button on the Residue BP Curves view. Figure 4. You can use the Databook to monitor key variables under a variety of process scenarios. select Databook The Databook appears below. Using the Databook The HYSYS Databook provides you with a convenient way to examine your flowsheet in more detail.

and the Variable Navigator view appears. you can edit the default description. Select Spec Calc Value in the Variable list.146 HYSYS duplicates this variable name in the Variable Description cell. the chosen Object dictates the Variable list. Select the UnitOps radio button in the Object Filter group. then Reflux Ratio in the Variable Specifics list. 1. If you want. The Object list is filtered to show unit operations only. Click inside the Variable Description cell and delete the default 4-112 . 4. Figure 4. The Navigator operates in a left-to-right manner—the selected Flowsheet determines the Object list. To edit the default description: 1. Click on Atmos Tower in the Object list. 2.4-112 Refining Tutorial The Variable Navigator is used extensively in HYSYS for locating and selecting variables. and the selected Variable determines whether any Variable Specifics are available. Click the Insert button. and the Variable list available for the column appears to the right of the Object list. 3.

148 6. and the Variable list available for energy streams appears to the right of the Object list. 2. Change the Variable Description to Trim Duty.147 3. To add the next variable. and click the OK button. Select Heat Flow in the Variable list. such as Reflux Ratio. The variable now appears in the Databook. 4-113 . 7. Type a new description.Refining Tutorial 4-113 name. 4. and click the OK button. The variable now appears in the Databook. Figure 4. and the Variable Navigator again appears. Pick the Streams radio button in the Object Filter group. Scroll down and click on Trim Duty in the Object list. The Object list is filtered to show streams only. 5. click the Insert button. Figure 4.

150 Now that the key variables to the Databook have been added. Figure 4. Select ASTM1160 . This corresponds to the 5% volume cut point. The completed Variables tab of the Databook appears below. 9.VAV in the Variable list.4-114 Refining Tutorial 8. Select the fifth item listed in the Variable Specifics column. and click the OK button. 11.149 14. 12. 10. Click the Insert button again to add the third variable. Figure 4. change the variable name to ASTM 1160 . Select Residue BP Curves in the Object list. In the Variable Description cell.Vac 5% Residue. the ASTM D1160 cut point from the Residue BP Curves utility. the next 4-114 . Select the Utility radio button in the Navigator Scope group. 13.

151 3. Move to the Process Data Tables tab by clicking on its tab. HYSYS creates a new table with the default name ProcData1. Activate each variable by clicking on the corresponding Show 4-115 . Figure 4. Click the Add button in the Available Process Data Tables group.Refining Tutorial 4-115 task is to create a data table to display those variables: 1. Change the default name from ProcData1 to Key Variables by editing the Process Data Table cell. 1. Notice that the three variables added to the Databook appear in the matrix on this tab. 2.

To record the current values: 4-116 .152 2. Figure 4. you can use the Data Recorder to automatically record them for you. Figure 4. Suppose you now want to make changes to the flowsheet. Click the View button to view the new data table. click the Minimize button in the upper right corner of the Key Variables Data view. Instead of manually recording the variables.4-116 Refining Tutorial check box. HYSYS reduces the view to an icon and place it at the bottom of the Desktop. For now.153 This table is accessed later to demonstrate how its results are updated whenever a flowsheet change is made. but you would like to record the current values of the key variables before making any changes. which is shown below.

154 When using the Data Recorder. It is required to include all three key variables in this scenario. Figure 4. and HYSYS creates a new scenario with the default name Scenario 1. you first create a Scenario containing one or more of the key variables.155 2.Refining Tutorial 4-117 Move to the Data Recorder tab by clicking on it. 4-117 . Activate each variable by clicking on the corresponding Include check box. then record the variables in their current state. 1. Figure 4. Click the Add button in the Available Scenarios group.

156 4. prompting you for the name of the new state. Click the View button. and the Data Recorder appears. select the Table radio button. Now you can make the necessary flowsheet changes and these current values remain as a permanent record in the Data Recorder unless you choose to erase them. The value of the Overflash specification is going to be changed in the column and the changes will be viewed in the process data table: 4-118 . Click the Record button to record the variables in their current state. and you return to the Databook. In the Available Display group. Figure 4. The New Solved State view appears. Figure 4. (denoting 3500 bbl/day Overflash). Click the Minimize button to reduce the Data Recorder to an icon. Change the Name for New State from the default State 1 to 3500 O. 6.157 5. Click the OK button.F.4-118 Refining Tutorial 3. showing the values of the key variables in their current state.

Scroll down to the bottom of the Specifications matrix so the Overflash specification is visible. 6. 2. Click on Atmos Tower. Navigator button Click the Navigator button on the button bar. The updated key variables are shown below. which translates to 1500-7500 bbl/d. click the Pin button in the upper right corner of the column property view to make the view non-modal.158 4. Ensure you are on the Design tab at the Monitor page of the column property view.5%. 1. and click the View button. such as the Key Variables data table. Change the Specified Value for the Overflash specification from its current value of 3500 barrel/day to 1500 barrel/day. 4-119 . The Atmos Tower property view appears. Double-click on the Key Variables Data icon to restore the view to its full size. If the view is modal. without having to close the column view. 5.159 2. A typical range for the Overflash rate is 3-5% of the tower feed.Refining Tutorial 4-119 1. HYSYS automatically recalculates the flowsheet. You now are able to access other items on the Desktop. Pick the UnitOps radio button in the Filter group. 3. Figure 4.5-7. A slightly wider range will be examined: 1. Figure 4.

7. 4.160 4-120 . 5. 6.. Click the Record button. displaying the new values of the variables. and HYSYS provides you with the default name State 2 for the new state. Press CTRL D to make the Databook active again. Click the View button and the Data Recorder appears. You can now record the key variables in their new state: Move to the Data Recorder tab in the Databook.F. and click the OK button to accept the new name. Change the name to 1500 O. Figure 4.4-120 Refining Tutorial As a result of the change: • the Trim Duty has decreased • the Residue D1160 Vacuum Temperature 5% cut point has decreased • the column reflux ratio has decreased 3.

The final Data Recorder is shown below.161 4-121 .5 to record the process variables for Overflash rates of 5500 and 7500 barrels/day. Enter names for these variable states of 5500 O.F..Refining Tutorial 4-121 8. and 7500 O. respectively. Figure 4.F. Repeat steps 1 and 3 .

4-122 Refining Tutorial 4-122 .

Install and define the MIXER and REACTOR. Start HYSYS and create a new case. 7. a flowsheet for the production of propylene glycol is presented. Open the Tools menu and select Preferences. The following pages will guide you through building a HYSYS case for modelling this process.HSC in your HYSYS\SAMPLES directory. 4.1 The simulation will be built using these basic steps: 1. Choose a property package. from selecting a property package and components. The Session 5-1 . where essentially all the glycol is recovered in the tower bottoms. 2. through to examining the final results. 6. Propylene oxide is combined with water to produce propylene glycol in a continuously-stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). Select the components. You will need to set your Session Preferences: 1. to installing streams and unit operations. Create a unit set. you should have read the Chapter 1 HYSYS Tutorials which precedes the Tutorials in this manual.Chemicals Tutorial 5-1 5 Chemicals Tutorial The complete case for this tutorial has been pre-built and is located in the file TUTOR3. A flowsheet for this process is shown below. The tools available in HYSYS interface will be utilized to illustrate the flexibility available to you. 3. 5. Install and define the DISTILLATION COLUMN. Create and specify the feed streams. defining the reaction. Figure 5. In this Tutorial. Define the reaction. This example will illustrate the complete construction of the simulation. The reactor outlet stream is then fed to a distillation tower. Before proceeding.

When you modify any of the preferences. You are now on the Simulation tab with the Options page open. 2. Move to the Liq. Vol.5-2 Chemicals Tutorial Preferences view appears. HYSYS does not allow you to change any of the three default unit sets listed. 5-2 . For this example. 3. Click the Clone Unit Set button. and is automatically highlighted. and customized for the new set: 1. Notice the default unit for Liq. Click on the Variables tab and open the Units page. you can create a new unit set by cloning an existing one. Vol. Flow unit’s to USGPM for this example. If you want.prf. Uncheck the Use Modal Property Views by clicking on the check box. Vol. Figure 5. 3. HYSYS prompts you to provide a name for the new Preference file. However.2 The default Preference file is named HYSYS. Click on Field in the Available Unit Set list to ensure it is the active set. we will change the Liq. a new unit set will be made based on the HYSYS Field set. Creating a New Unit Set The first step in building the simulation case is choosing a unit set. which you can later recall into any simulation case by clicking the Load Preference Set button. Flow cell by clicking on barrel/day. Flow (liquid volume flow) is barrel/day. A new unit set named NewUser appears in the Available Unit Sets list. you can save the changes in a new Preference file by clicking the Save Preference Set button. you can enter a new name in the Unit Set Name cell and can now change the units for any variable associated with this new unit set. making it the current unit set. 2.

or scroll down to it by pressing the i key then ENTER. Exit this screen to begin your simulation. 5-3 .Chemicals Tutorial 5-3 4.3 5. Click on USGPM. Open the drop-down list of available units in the Edit Bar by clicking on or by pressing the F2 key then the i key.4 Your new unit set is now defined. Figure 5. Figure 5.

Depending on what is required in a specific flowsheet. A Fluid Package. The next step is to create a Fluid Package. Whenever you begin a new case. such as reactions and interaction parameters.5 Notice that HYSYS displays the current Environment and Mode in the upper right corner of the view. The Simulation Basis Manager appears. you are automatically placed in the Basis Environment. where you can define your property package and components.5-4 Chemicals Tutorial Notice that all commands accessed via the Button Bar are also available as menu items. at minimum. contains the components and property method (for example. Figure 5. 5-4 . an Activity Model) to be used by HYSYS in its calculations for a particular flowsheet. a Fluid Package may also contain other information.

• Use the arrow keys h and i to scroll through the list of available property packages until UNIQUAC is highlighted. Binary Coeffs (Binary Coefficients). modify. Figure 5. Most of the time. and the property view for your new Fluid Package appears. HYSYS has created a Fluid Package with the default name Basis-1. 5-5 . you will require only one Fluid Package for your entire simulation. You can change the name of this fluid package by typing a new name in the Name cell at the bottom of the view. as with this example. and HYSYS finds the match to your input. Components. Do one of the following: • Begin typing UNIQUAC.6 The property view is divided into a number of tabs to allow you to supply all the information necessary to completely define the Fluid Package. in this case UNIQUAC. and Rxns (Reactions).Chemicals Tutorial 5-5 Creating a Fluid Package The Simulation Basis Manager allows you to create. Click the Add button. There are a number of ways to select the desired base property package. The choice of Property Package is made on the Prop Pkg tab. Notice the position of the highlight in the Base Property Package Selection area (currently located on <None>). the four tabs: Prop Pkg (Property Package). For the purpose of this example. and otherwise manipulate Fluid Packages in your simulation case.

HYSYS then filters the library components to include only those appropriate for the selected Property Package. you could have picked the Activity Models radio button as the Property Pkg Filter. which now indicates UNIQUAC as the current property package for this Fluid Package.7 Notice the Property Pkg indicator at the bottom of the view. as shown here. Figure 5. producing a list of only those property packages which are Activity Models.5-6 Chemicals Tutorial • Use the vertical scroll bar to move down the list until UNIQUAC becomes visible. As an alternative. 5-6 . then click on it. Figure 5. Only Property Package Compatible Components. UNIQUAC could have then been chosen from this filtered list.8 You should normally leave the Component Selection Control at its default setting.

Notice that each component is listed in three ways. Figure 5. HYSYS locates the component(s) that best match the input you type in the Match cell. by its: Feature SimName FullName/ Synonym Formula Description The name appearing within the simulation IUPAC name (or similar).9 There are a number of ways to select components for your simulation. Based on the selected radio button. One method is to use the matching feature. 5-7 . This is useful when you are unsure of the library name of a component.Chemicals Tutorial 5-7 Selecting Components Now that you have chosen the property package to be used in the simulation. Move to the Components tab in the Fluid Package property view by clicking on it. and synonyms for many components The chemical formula of the component. Atop each of these three columns is a corresponding radio button. or by pressing CTRL SHIFT N. but know its formula. the next step is to select the components.

Start typing propyleneoxide. or by pressing ALT M. displaying only those components that match your input.5-8 Chemicals Tutorial For this example. 2. Ensure the FullName/Synonym radio button is picked. Figure 5. and the Show Synonyms check box is checked. Move to the Match cell by clicking it. add it to the Current Component List by doing one of the following: • Press the ENTER key. • Double-click on PropyleneOxide. Once PropyleneOxide is highlighted. To add Propylene Oxide to the component list: 1.11 5-8 . The component now appears in the Current Component List. propylene oxide. • Click the Add Pure button. HYSYS filter through the list as you type.10 4. Figure 5. propylene glycol and H2O are used as the components. 3.

Click on the Use Filter check box. Finally. then click the Family Filter button. To add Propylene Glycol to the component list: 1. 3. so click on the Miscellaneous check box. Ensure the Match cell is empty by pressing ALT M and then the DELETE key. 5. Clear the Alcohols check box by clicking on it. or by pressing ALT M.Chemicals Tutorial 5-9 In addition to the Match criteria radio buttons. H2O does not fit into any of the standard families. displaying only the alcohols that match your input.12 6. Since Propylene Glycol is an alcohol. click on the Alcohols check box. 2. Figure 5. When Propylene Glycol is highlighted. and the Families view appears. HYSYS filters as you type. 4. Move to the Match cell by clicking it. 5-9 . Begin typing propyleneglycol. press the ENTER key to add it to the component list. to add the component H2O: 1. 2. you can also use the Family Filter to display only those components belonging to certain families.

Click on H2O. highlight the component(s) and click the View Comp button. Figure 5. HYSYS opens the property view(s) for the component(s) you select. Figure 5. 3.14 A component can be removed from the Current Components List by selecting it. Click on 12C3diol in the Current Component List. For example: 1. Viewing Component Properties To view the properties of one or more components. Scroll down the filtered list until H2O is visible. 2. Press and hold the CTRL key.13 The final component list is shown below. Release the CTRL key. 5-10 . then double-click on H2O to add it to the Current Component List. These two components should now be highlighted. 4.5-10 Chemicals Tutorial 3. and clicking the Remove Comps button or the DELETE key.

5-11 . See Chapter 2 .Chemicals Tutorial 5-11 5. however. Figure 5. The next step in defining the Fluid Package is providing the binary interaction parameters. HYSYS has an option for cloning a library component into a Hypothetical component. You cannot modify any parameters for a library component. Click the View Comp button. The property views for these two components appear.15 The Component property view provides you with complete access to the pure component information for viewing only.Hypotheticals in the Simulation Basis guide for more information on cloning library components. which can then be modified as desired. Click the Close button on each of these two component views to return to the Fluid Package.

for this example. the UNIFAC VLE estimation method will be used to estimate the unknown pair: 1.5-12 Chemicals Tutorial Providing Binary Coefficients To examine the binary interaction coefficients.17 5-12 . HYSYS automatically inserts the coefficients for any component pairs that library data is available. Figure 5. 2. You can change any of the values provided by HYSYS if you have data of your own. Ensure the UNIFAC VLE radio button is picked. and HYSYS provides values for the unknown pair. In this case. the only unknown coefficients in the matrix are for the 12C3Oxide/12-C3diol pair.16 In the Activity Model Interaction Parameters group. the Aij interaction matrix is displayed by default. However. Click the Unknowns Only button. Figure 5. In this case. You have the option of entering these values if you have available data. The final Activity Model Interaction Parameters matrix for the Aij coefficients is shown below. one of HYSYS’ built-in estimation methods will be used. move to the Binary Coeffs tab on the Fluid Package view by clicking on it.

In this Tutorial. For this example. 3. all the components which were selected in the Fluid Package are also participating in the reaction. Figure 5. Create and define a Kinetic Reaction. 1. Select the components participating in the Reaction. The first step in defining the reaction is choosing the components that will be participating in the reaction. so the easiest way to add the reaction components is to simply add all of the Fluid Package components. or by clicking the Basis button.1) Selecting the Reaction Components These steps will be followed in defining our reaction: 1. all the Bij coefficients will be left at the default value of zero. which provides a convenient location where you can define all the reactions for the flowsheet. Defining the Reaction Return to the Simulation Basis Manager by clicking on its title bar. 4. Create a Reaction Set containing the reaction.Chemicals Tutorial 5-13 To view the Bij coefficient matrix. 2. and the Reaction Components Selection view appears. Click the Add Comps button in the Rxn Components group. 5-13 . Move to the Reactions tab. pick the Bij radio button. Activate the Reaction set to make it available for use in the flowsheet.18 Basis button The reaction between water and propylene oxide to produce propylene glycol is as follows: H2O + C3H6O  C3H8O2 (8.

This radio button allows you to utilize the components previously selected in the Fluid Package. For the Fluid Package that is highlighted in the list of Available Fluid Pkgs.20 5-14 . You can remove a component from the Selected Reaction Component list by selecting it.19 2. The Components Associated with the Fluid Packages group should be visible on the right side of the view. Basis-1. the components contained in that Fluid Package appear in the Associated Components list. the three components that were added to this Fluid Package appear in the list of Associated Components. Click the Add This Group of Components button.5-14 Chemicals Tutorial Figure 5. Ensure the FPkg Pool (Fluid Package Pool) radio button in the Add Comps group is selected. and pressing the DELETE key. Since there is only one Fluid Package. 3. Figure 5. and all of the components listed as the Associated Components are duplicated in the list of Selected Reaction Components.

Return to the Simulation Basis Manager by exiting from this view. Figure 5.22 5-15 . Creating the Reaction Now that the reaction components have been chosen. In the Reactions group. the next task is to create the reaction: 1.21 The three components are now listed in the Rxn Components group on the Reactions tab of the Simulation Basis Manager. click the Add Rxn button. Figure 5.Chemicals Tutorial 5-15 4. This opens the Reactions view.

you specify which of the Rxn Components are involved in the particular reaction. On the Stoichiometry tab. highlighting the component which matches your input. opened to the Stoichiometry tab. 4. Click on the cell labelled **Add Comp** in the Component column. while a positive coefficient indicates the component is produced. A negative stoichiometric coefficient indicates that the component is consumed in the reaction. The next step is to enter the stoichiometric information. Repeat steps 3 and 4 to add 12C3Oxide and 12-C3diol to the component list. press the ENTER key to add it to the Component list.5-16 Chemicals Tutorial 2. you select only the Rxn Components participating in that reaction. When H2O is highlighted. Select the Kinetic reaction type. Type -1 and press the ENTER key. The Kinetic Reaction property view appears. and choose H2O from the list of available reaction components. • Type H2O and HYSYS filters as you type. 5-16 . Select Water as a reaction component by doing one of the following: • Open the drop-down list in the Edit Bar. and click the Add Reaction button.23 Often you will have more than one reaction occurring in your simulation case. 5. 3. as well as the stoichiometry and the reaction order. Figure 5. Click on the cell in the Stoich Coeff column corresponding to H2O. On the Stoichiometry tab of each reaction. 6.

Figure 5. When you enter the new value for H2O. it will be blue. the Reaction Heat is negative. indicating that you have specified it.Chemicals Tutorial 5-17 7. Repeat steps 5 . indicating that the reaction is mass balanced. 1. HYSYS will also calculate and display the heat of reaction in the Reaction Heat cell.25 5-17 . as shown here in the Kinetic Reaction view: Figure 5. so the kinetics are first order in Propylene Oxide only. The Stoichiometry tab is now completely defined and appears below. indicating that the reaction produces heat (exothermic). indicating that they are suggested by HYSYS. Notice that the default values for the Forward Order and Reverse Order appear in red. In this case.24 Once the stoichiometric coefficients are supplied. The kinetic data for this Tutorial is based on an excess of water.6 to enter the coefficients for the remaining components. HYSYS provides default values for the Forward Order and Reverse Order based on the reaction stoichiometry. the Balance Error will be zero. Change the Forward Order of H2O to 0 to reflect the excess of water.

Basis Units and Rate Units are acceptable at their default values. HYSYS has chosen the first component listed on the Stoichiometry tab. In this case. Advance to the Basis tab by clicking on it. On this tab you provide the Arrhenius parameters for the kinetic reaction. 2. The base component will be changed to Propylene Oxide. 2.5-18 Chemicals Tutorial The next step is to define the reaction basis. Enter 3.26 The Min. Select CombinedLiquid for the Rxn Phase using the drop-down list in the Edit Bar. in this case H2O. Temperature. By default. Figure 5. To complete this tab: 1. and choose 12C3Oxide. The completed Basis tab is shown below. press the ENTER key. Max. as the base component. there is no Reverse Reaction occurring. 4. When 12C3Oxide is highlighted. • Begin typing 12C3Oxide. Enter 1. Click on the Base Component cell. You can have the same reaction occurring in different phases with different kinetics and have both calculated in the same REACTOR. 5-18 . and HYSYS filters as you type. • Open the drop-down list of components in the Edit Bar by clicking on it. Temperature.7e13 for the pre-exponential factor A.24e4 (Btu/lbmole) for the activation energy E. To complete the reaction. Leave the Basis at its default value of Molar Concn. so you only need to supply the Forward Reaction parameters: 1. advance to the Parameters tab in the Kinetic Reaction property view. Do one of the following: 3.

5-19 . Figure 5. now appears in the Reactions group. Figure 5.27 Leave the Kinetic Reaction property view by clicking the Close button.28 Basis button Click the Basis button to ensure the Simulation Basis Manager is active. you must close the Reactions view that was used to define the reaction as a Kinetic reaction. the new reaction. Also. On the Reactions tab.27. The final Parameters tab is shown in Figure 5. indicating that the reaction is completely defined.Chemicals Tutorial 5-19 The status indicator at the bottom of the Kinetic Reaction property view changes from Not Ready to Ready. Rxn-1.

You can group the three reactions into a Reaction Set. Creating a Reaction Set Note that the same reaction(s) can be in multiple Reaction Sets.29 The next task is to create a reaction set that will contain the new reaction. suppose only three of the reactions are occurring (one main reaction and two side reactions). and the Reaction Set property view appears. However. HYSYS provides the Global Rxn Set (Global Reaction Set) which contains all of the reactions you have defined. However.5-20 Chemicals Tutorial Figure 5. consider a flowsheet in which a total of five reactions are taking place. Click the Add Set button in the Reaction Sets group. To add the Reaction Set: 1. in one REACTOR operation. For example. a new reaction set will be created. Notice in the Reaction Sets list. Reaction Sets provide a convenient way of grouping related reactions. the default Global Rxn Set could simply be attached to it. HYSYS has given the set the default name Set-1. In this Tutorial. for illustration purposes. since there is only one REACTOR. 5-20 . then simply attach the set to the appropriate REACTOR unit operation.

30 2. The reaction set status changes from Not Ready to Ready.Chemicals Tutorial 5-21 Figure 5. Click on the cell labelled <empty> in the Active List.31 4. Rxn-1 is the only reaction defined. showing that the new reaction set is complete. Figure 5. Currently. which contains all reactions in the Global Reaction Set. 3. so it is the only available choice. Open the drop-down list in the Edit Bar. A check box labelled OK automatically appears next to the reaction in the Active List. 5-21 . Add Rxn-1 to the Active List by selecting it in the drop-down list.

there is only one Fluid Package. Click the Close button to return to the Simulation Basis Manager. Basis-1. To add the reaction set to our Fluid Package: 1.33 5-22 . This view prompts you to select the Fluid Package that you would like to add the reaction set. Click on Set-1 in the Reaction Sets group on the Reactions tab. which also makes it available in the flowsheet.5-22 Chemicals Tutorial 5. Click the Add to FP button. 2. and the Add ’Set-1’ view appears. Figure 5.32 Making the Reaction Set Available to the Fluid Package The final step is to make the set available to the Fluid Package. Figure 5. The new reaction set named Set-1 now appears in the Reaction Sets group. In this example.

34 Move to the Fluid Pkgs tab that displays a summary of the completed Fluid Package. Figure 5.35 Notice that the list of Current Fluid Packages displays the new Fluid Package.Chemicals Tutorial 5-23 3. Basis-1. Figure 5. as shown in the Flowsheet-Fluid Pkg Associations area. you can install streams and operations in the Simulation Environment (also known as the Parent Simulation Environment or Main Simulation Environment). Click on Basis-1. showing the number of components (NC) and property package (PP). 5-23 . The new Fluid Package is assigned by default to the Main Simulation. and click the Add Set to Fluid Package button. Now that the Basis is defined.

Figure 5. Any or all of these can be displayed at any time. Three initial views are available.5-24 Chemicals Tutorial To enter this environment and leave the Basis environment. For this example. do one of the following: • Click the Enter Simulation Environment button on the Simulation Basis Manager. namely the PFD. • Click the Enter Simulation Environment button in the button bar. when you first enter the Simulation Environment.36 5-24 . Simulation Environment When you enter the Simulation Environment. only one is displayed. the initial view that appears is dependent on your current preference setting for the Initial Build Home View. the initial Home View is the Workbook (HYSYS default setting). Workbook and Summary. however.

Open Case button Figure 5. Workbook Object Palette Before proceeding any further to install streams or unit operations. By default. or by selecting Open Case from the File menu. A number of new items are now available on the Menu and Button Bar. the File Path is the Cases sub-directory in your HYSYS directory. the Workbook has four tabs. 1. the Save Simulation Case As dialog box appears.37 When you choose to open an existing case by clicking the Open Case button. and the Workbook and Object Palette are open on the Desktop.hsc) files. By default. As this is the first time you have saved your case. Features You can toggle the palette open or closed by pressing F4. Energy Streams and Unit Ops. it is probably a good idea to save your case. In the upper right corner. select Save. These two latter objects are described below.Chemicals Tutorial 5-25 You will notice several things about the Main Simulation Environment.sim) files in addition to standard HYSYS (*. namely Material Streams. Compositions. a view similar to the one shown here appears. and changing the information displayed on any tab. • Press CTRL S. or by choosing Open/Close Object Palette from the Flowsheet menu Description A multiple-tab view containing information regarding the objects (streams and unit operations) in the simulation case. 5-25 . The File Filter drop-down list then allows you to retrieve backup (*. You can edit the Workbook by adding or deleting tabs.bk*) and HYSIM (*. Save button Do one of the following: • Click the Save button on the button bar. A floating palette of buttons which can be used to add streams and unit operations. • From the File menu. the Environment has changed from Basis to Case (Main).

Both of these tools provide you with a large amount of flexibility in building your simulation. where essentially all the glycol is recovered in the bottoms product. operating at atmospheric pressure. Before any streams or operations are installed. while the PFD is a graphical representation of the flowsheet. The combined stream is fed to a REACTOR. Once you have entered a file name. A flowsheet for this process is shown below. 3. and in quickly accessing the information you need. press the ENTER key or the OK button. In the File Name cell type a name for the case. The REACTOR product stream is fed to a distillation tower. the simulated process will be summarized. and to examine the results while progressing through the simulation. If you enter a name that already exists in the current directory. You do not have to enter the . in which propylene glycol is produced. HYSYS will ask you for confirmation before overwriting the existing file. The Save As dialog box will not appear again unless you choose to give it a new name using the Save As command.38 The propylene oxide and water feed streams are combined in a MIXER. for example GLYCOL. The two primary building tools. Process Description The process being modelled in this example is the conversion of propylene oxide and water to propylene glycol in a CSTR REACTOR. The reaction products are then separated in a distillation tower. Workbook and PFD. HYSYS automatically adds it for you. Figure 5. 5-26 . HYSYS will now save the case under the name you have given it when you Save in the future. are used to install the streams and operations. The Workbook displays information about streams and unit operations in a tabular format.5-26 Chemicals Tutorial 2.hsc extension.

Move to the Temperature cell for Prop Oxide by clicking on it. or by pressing the i key. Notice that when you pressed ENTER after typing in the stream name. Type the new stream name Prop Oxide in the cell labelled **New** on the Material Streams tab of the Workbook. Figure 5. and a special sequence of views called the Input Expert to install the distillation column. 2. HYSYS automatically advanced the active cell down one cell. Press ENTER. Using the Workbook Workbook button Click the Workbook button on the button bar to make the Workbook active.39 The next step is to define the feed conditions. and HYSYS automatically creates the new stream with the name you have given it. Note that HYSYS accepts blank spaces within a stream or operation name. To create a new stream: 1. in this case 75°F and 1.Chemicals Tutorial 5-27 The Workbook is used to build the first part of the flowsheet. Installing the Feed Streams In general. including the feed streams and the mixer. 5-27 . to Vapour Fraction. the first step when you enter the Simulation environment is to install one or more feed streams.1 atm. The PFD is then used to install the reactor.

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3.

Type 75 in the Temperature cell, and notice your input appears in the Edit Bar at the top of the view. In the Unit Box, HYSYS displays the default units for temperature, in this case F.
Figure 5.40

4.

Since this is the correct unit, press ENTER or the Accept button (the green check beside the Edit bar), and HYSYS accepts the temperature.

Your location should now be the Pressure cell for Prop Oxide. Suppose you know the stream pressure in another unit besides the default of psia, and you do not have quick access to the conversion factor. HYSYS will accept your input in any one of a number of different units, and automatically convert to the default for you. For example, the pressure of Prop Oxide is 1.1 atm. To enter this pressure: 1. 2. Type 1.1. Press the SPACEBAR or click on . HYSYS now matches your input to locate the unit of your choice. Begin typing atm. The dropdown list of units opens and you can scroll down to the unit(s) most closely matching your input.
Figure 5.41

3.

Once atm is highlighted, press the ENTER key or the Accept button, and HYSYS accepts the pressure. Notice that it automatically converts to the default unit, psia.

Alternatively to steps 2 and 3, you could have specified the unit simply by selecting it in the unit box drop-down list.

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5-29

The Molar Flow cell for Prop Oxide should now be your active Workbook location. The next step is to enter the stream flow rate, 150 lbmole/hr. Since the default Molar Flow unit for our unit set is lbmole/ hr., simply type 150 and press ENTER.

Providing Compositional Input
Now that the stream conditions have been specified, the next step is to input the composition: 1. Double-click on the Molar Flow cell of the Prop Oxide stream to open the Input Composition for Stream view, allowing you to complete the compositional input.
Figure 5.42

The Input Composition for Stream view is Modal, indicated by the thick border and the absence of the Minimize/Maximize buttons in the upper right corner. When a Modal view is visible, you will not be able to move outside the view until you finish with it, by clicking either the Cancel or OK button.

This view provides you with access to certain features designed to streamline the specification of a stream composition. Some of these features are:
Features Compositional Basis Radio Buttons Description You can input the stream composition in some fractional basis other than Mole Fraction, or by component flows, by picking the appropriate radio button before providing your input.

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Features

Description The Normalizing feature is useful when you know the relative ratios of components; for example, 2 parts N2, 2 parts CO2, 120 parts C1, etc. Rather than manually converting these ratios to fractions summing to one, simply enter the individual numbers of parts and click the Normalize button. HYSYS computes the individual fractions totalling 1.0. Normalizing is also useful when you have a stream consisting of only a few components. Instead of specifying zero fractions (or flows) for the other components, simply enter the fractions (or the actual flows) for the non-zero components, leaving the others <empty>. Then click the Normalize button, and HYSYS forces the other component fractions to zero. As you input the composition, the component fractions (or flows) initially appear in red, indicating the final composition is unknown. These values become blue when the stream composition is calculated. Three scenarios result in the stream composition being calculated:

Normalizing

Note that these are the default colours; yours may appear differently depending on your settings on the Colours page of the Session Preferences.

Calculation status/colour

• Input the fractions of all components, including any zero components, such that their total is exactly 1.0000. Click the OK button. • Input the fractions (totalling 1.000), flows or relative number of parts of all non-zero components. Click the Normalize button and the OK button. • Input the flows or relative number of parts of all components, including any zero components, and click the OK button.

2. 3.

Move to the input cell for the first component, 12C3Oxide. This stream is 100% propylene oxide. Type 1 for the mole fraction, and press ENTER.

In this case, 12C3Oxide is the only component in the stream.

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4.

Click the Normalize button to force the other values to zero. The composition is now defined.
Figure 5.43

5.

Click the OK button, and HYSYS accepts the composition. The stream specification is now complete so HYSYS will flash it at the conditions given to determine the remaining properties.

Notice that the values you specified are a different colour (blue) than the calculated values (black).
Figure 5.44

If you wish to delete a stream, move to the Name cell for the stream, then press DELETE. HYSYS asks for confirmation of your action.

Alternatively to installing streams via the Workbook, there are a number of ways to create a new stream with a default name. To add the second feed stream, do any one of the following:

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Add Object button

• • • •

Press F11. From the Flowsheet menu, select Add Stream. Double-click the Material Stream button on the Object Palette. Click the Material Stream button on the Object Palette, then click on the Palette's Add Object button.

Material Stream button

A new stream appears and is named according to the Auto Naming setting in your Preferences. The default setting names new material streams with numbers, starting at 1 (and energy streams starting at Q100). Conditions is the active page when the stream is initially accessed. To define this second feed stream: 1. 2. Replace the default stream name with Water Feed. Type 75 and 16.17 in the Temperature and Pressure cells, respectively. Note that these parameters are in default units, so there is no need to supply the units.
Figure 5.45

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5-33

3.

Move to the Composition page to begin the compositional input for the new feed stream.
Figure 5.46

4.

Click the Edit button near the bottom of the Composition page, and the Input Composition for Stream view appears. Note that the current Composition Basis setting, you want to enter the stream composition on a mass flow basis. Change the Composition Basis to Mass Flows by picking the appropriate radio button, or by pressing ALT A. Click on the compositional cell for H2O.

5. 6.

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7.

Type 11000 (lb/hr), and press ENTER.
Figure 5.47

8. 9.

Since this stream has no other components, click the Normalize button. The other component mass flows are forced to zero. Click the OK button to close the view and return to the stream property view.

HYSYS performs a flash calculation to determine the unknown properties of Water Feed, as shown by the status indicator displaying OK. You can view the compositions of each phase using the horizontal scroll bar in the matrix on the property view. For example, to view the aqueous phase compositions for Water Feed, scroll to the right by clicking the right scroll arrow, or by clicking and dragging the scroll button.

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5-35

Figure 5.48

Note that the compositions are currently displayed in Mass Flow. You can change this by clicking the Basis button and choosing another Composition Basis radio button. To view the calculated stream properties, click on the Conditions page. You can display the properties of all phases by resizing the property view: 1.
Sizing Arrow button

Place the cursor over the right border of the view. The cursor changes to a double-ended sizing arrow. With the sizing arrow visible, click and drag to the right until the horizontal scroll bar disappears, leaving the entire matrix visible.

2.

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Figure 5.49

New or updated information is automatically and instantly transferred among all locations in HYSYS.

In this case, the aqueous phase is identical to the overall phase. Click the Close button on the Water Feed property view to return to the Workbook.

Installing Unit Operations
Now that the feed streams are known, the next step is to install the necessary unit operations for producing the glycol.

Installing the Mixer
The first operation is a MIXER, used to combine the two feed streams. As with most commands in HYSYS, installing an operation can be accomplished in a number of ways. One method is through the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook. To install the MIXER: 1. 2. 3.
Workbook button

Click the Workbook button to ensure the Workbook is active. Move to the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook. Click the Add UnitOp button. The UnitOps view appears, listing all available unit operations. When you click the Add button or press ENTER inside this view, HYSYS adds the operation that is currently highlighted.

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5-37

4.

Highlight Mixer by doing one of the following:

• Start typing mixer. • Press i to scroll down the list of available operations to Mixer. • Scroll down the list using the vertical scroll bar, and click on Mixer.
Figure 5.50

5.

With Mixer highlighted, click the Add button, or press ENTER.

Alternatively, you could have produced a filtered list by picking the Piping Equipment radio button in the Categories group, then using one of the above methods to install the operation. Double-clicking on a listed operation can also be used instead of the Add button or the ENTER key. The property view for the MIXER is shown here. As with a stream, a unit operation property view contains all the information defining the operation, organized into different pages on tabs. The four tabs shown for the MIXER, namely Design, Rating, Work Sheet and Dynamics, are contained in the property view for most operations. Property views for more complex operations contain more tabs. Notice that HYSYS has provided the default name MIX-100 for the MIXER. As with streams, the default naming scheme for unit operations can be changed in your Session Preferences.

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Figure 5.51

Many operations, like the MIXER, accept multiple feed streams. Whenever you see a matrix like the one for Inlets, the operation will accept multiple stream connections at that location. When the Inlets matrix is active, you can access a drop-down list of available streams in the Edit Bar. To complete the Connections page: 1. Click on the <<Stream>> cell to ensure the Inlets matrix is active. The status indicator at the bottom of the view is showing that the operation needs a feed stream.

5-38

The stream is transferred to the list of Inlets.Chemicals Tutorial 5-39 2. so it creates the new stream with the name you have supplied. Alternatively. The status indicator now displays Requires a product stream. and <<Stream>> automatically moves down to a new empty cell. Open the Edit Bar drop-down list of inlets by clicking on pressing the F2 key then the i key. or by clicking in it. 5-39 . and press ENTER. Since an outlet stream has not been created. 4. 6.52 or by 3. Type Mixer Out in the cell. followed by ENTER. 5. Figure 5. HYSYS recognizes that there is no existing stream with this name. Select Prop Oxide from the list. Move to the Outlet cell by pressing TAB. Repeat steps 2 and 3 to connect the Water Feed stream. you could have made the connections by typing the exact stream name in the cell.

53 The status indicator has now changed to a green OK. Figure 5. so the outlet stream is set to 16. both inlets have the same pressure (16. HYSYS has calculated the outlet stream by combining the two inlets and flashing the mixture at the lowest pressure of the inlet streams. With the Connections page complete.54 5-40 .17 psia. move to the Parameters page. showing that the operation and attached streams are completely calculated. Leave the Automatic Pressure Assignment at its default setting of Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet. In this case.5-40 Chemicals Tutorial Figure 5.17 psia).

5-41 . This tab is a condensed Workbook tab displaying only those streams attached to the operation. When you click the View UnitOp button. Figure 5. and its Calc. by double-clicking on any cell (except Feeds and Products) associated with the operation. Alternatively. Level. move to the Worksheet tab in the MIX-100 property view. whether it is Ignored. Figure 5. The new operation is displayed in the matrix on the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook.56 The matrix shows the operation Name. its Object Type.55 Now that the MIXER is completely solved. click the Close button to return to the Workbook. the attached streams (Feeds and Products). you will also open its property view. the property view for the operation occupying the current row in the matrix is opened.Chemicals Tutorial 5-41 To view the calculated outlet stream.

Workbook Features Before installing the remaining operations. in this case Prop Oxide. MIX-100. the box at the bottom of the view displays all streams attached to the current operation. the Name cell for MIX-100 has focus. and the box displays the three streams attached to this operation. To access the property view for the MIXER. you can use the following method: Any utilities attached to the stream with focus in the Workbook are also displayed in (and are accessible through) this box. click on any cell associated with the stream Prop Oxide. for example Prop Oxide. The property view for the first listed feed stream. both unit operations would be listed in the box. To open the property view for one of the streams attached to the MIXER. Ignored or Calc. Level are active. Compositions and Energy Streams tabs. When any of the cells Name. double-click on its name in the box. is opened. For example. Object Type. Accessing Unit Operations from the Workbook There are a number of ways to open the property view for an operation directly from the Workbook. The box displays the name of the mixer operation. If stream Prop Oxide was also attached to another unit operation. a number of features of the Workbook are illustrated that allow you to access information quickly and change how information is displayed. Currently. such as any one of the Material Streams. • Double-click on the Inlets cell for MIX-100. 5-42 . do one of the following: • Double-click on Prop Oxide in the box at the bottom of the view. the box at the bottom of the Workbook view displays the operations that the current stream is attached. When your current location is a Workbook streams tab. In addition to using the Unit Ops tab.5-42 Chemicals Tutorial You can also open the property view for a stream directly from the Workbook Unit Ops tab.

• Object inspect (right-click) the Material Streams tab in the Workbook. 5-43 . and flow. The Workbook Setup view appears. the Workbook item appears in the HYSYS menu. To add a new tab: 1. temperature. This item allows you to customize the Workbook according to the information you would like to be displayed. Do one of the following: • From the Workbook menu item. Suppose you want to create a new Workbook tab that displays only stream pressure.57 Adding a Tab to the Workbook Notice that when the Workbook is active. then select Setup from the menu that appears.Chemicals Tutorial 5-43 Figure 5. select Setup.

Click on the Compositions tab in the list of Workbook tabs. Select Material Stream and click the OK button.5-44 Chemicals Tutorial Figure 5. The New Object Type view appears. Add the new tab before the Compositions tab. You return to the Setup view. 2.59 3. Click the Add button. 5-44 . When you add a new tab. and the new tab added after the existing Material Streams tab. Figure 5.58 Notice that the four existing tabs are listed in the Workbook Tabs area. it is inserted before the highlighted tab (currently Material Streams).

Click the Delete button to remove them from this Workbook tab only. 5-45 . 4.Flow in order to better describe the tab contents. Release the CTRL key. Click on the Name cell in the Object group. If you want to remove variables from another tab. Press and hold the CTRL key. These three variables are now highlighted.Chemicals Tutorial 5-45 4. The finished Setup is shown on the following figure. and change the name for the new tab from the default Material Streams 2 to P. you must edit each tab individually. 2. Heat Flow and Molar Enthalpy. Mass Flow.T. Click on the other variables. 5.60 The next task is to customize the tab by removing the variables that are irrelevant: 1. 3. Vapour Fraction. Click on the first variable. Figure 5.

5-46 . Figure 5. it is a good idea to save your case by doing one of the following: Save button • Click the Save button on the button bar.5-46 Chemicals Tutorial Figure 5. • From the File menu. • Press CTRL S. select Save.61 Click the Close button to return to the Workbook and view the new tab.62 At this point.

appears near each icon.Chemicals Tutorial 5-47 Using the PFD PFD button Besides the Workbook. Figure 5. To open the PFD. as these two items are grouped together. Note that you can click and drag either the icon (arrow) itself. the PFD shows the connections among all streams and operations. To move an icon. the PFD is the other main view in HYSYS. The PFD shown above has been rearranged by moving the Prop Oxide feed stream icon up slightly so it does not overlap the other Water Feed icon. A stream icon is an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. 5-47 . also known as "objects". When you open the PFD view. also known as a "label". Each object is represented by a symbol. while an operation icon is a graphic representing the actual physical operation. also known as an "icon". it appears similar to the one shown below. click the PFD button on the button bar. or the label (stream name).63 As a graphical representation of your flowsheet. The PFD item appears in the HYSYS menu whenever the PFD has focus. simply click and drag it to the new location. The object name.

Display Entire PFD Zoom In 25% Calculation Status Before proceeding. The status indicator is red. All major defining information is present. Among other functions that can be performed while the PFD is active. • Access "fly-by" summary information for an object simply by placing the cursor over it. • Display the Object Inspection menu for an object by placing the cursor over it. Yellow Status Green Status 5-48 .PFD in the User’s Guide. This indicator displays three different states for the object: Indicator Status Description A major piece of defining information is missing from the object. and an OK message is displayed. Red Status Keep in mind that these are the HYSYS default colours. and an appropriate warning message is displayed. The status indicator is yellow. for further information. but the stream or operation has not been solved because one or more degrees of freedom is present. For example. • Open the property view for an object by double-clicking on its icon. This menu provides access to a number of commands associated with the particular object. The stream or operation is completely defined and solved. The status indicator is green. you may change the colours in the Session Preferences. and right-clicking. and an appropriate warning message is displayed. • Move an object by clicking and dragging it to the new location. Some of these functions will be illustrated here. • Size an object by clicking the Size button. see Chapter 3 . the PFD view can be re-sized by clicking and dragging anywhere on the outside border. a feature of the PFD will be described which allows you to trace the calculation status of the objects in your flowsheet. Recall the status indicator at the bottom of the property view for a stream or operation. selecting the object. For example. or display the entire flowsheet in the PFD window by clicking the zoom buttons at the bottom left of the PFD view. you can: Fly-by information Size button Zoom Out 25% • Access commands and features through the PFD Button Bar. a feed or product stream is not attached to a SEPARATOR. • Zoom in and out.5-48 Chemicals Tutorial Like any other non-modal view. then clicking and dragging the sizing "handles" that appear. a COOLER whose outlet stream temperature is unknown.

press F4.64 CSTR button Cancel button 5-49 . a dark red icon is for an energy stream with a known duty. Installing the Reactor For this example. The symbol indicates the location of the operation icon. Similarly. so if you need to make some empty space available. so its normal colours are displayed. You can install streams or operations by dropping them from the Object Palette onto the PFD. Figure 5. However. The cursor changes to a special cursor with a plus (+) symbol attached to it.Chemicals Tutorial 5-49 When you are in the PFD. Position the cursor over the PFD. A similar colour scheme is used to indicate the status of streams. to the right of the Mixer. Make sure the Object Palette is displayed. the streams and operations are "colourcoded" to indicate their calculation status. if the conditions of an attached stream were not entirely known. a continuously-stirred-tank reactor operation (CSTR) will be used. The MIXER is completely calculated. if it is not. 2. Click the CSTR Reactor button. while a light red icon indicates an unknown duty. the MIXER would have a yellow outline indicating its current status. a dark blue icon indicates the stream has been flashed and is entirely known. The CSTR is added to the right of the MIXER. To install and connect the CSTR: 1. Notice that the icons for all streams installed to this point are dark blue. A light blue icon indicates the stream cannot be flashed until some additional information is supplied. scroll to the right using the horizontal scroll bar. For material streams.

Through the transparent box. Place the cursor near the connection point. Notice that the REACTOR has red status (colour). HYSYS creates a new REACTOR with a default name. as well. click the Attach button again. indicating an acceptable end point for the connection. click and hold the mouse button.5-50 Chemicals Tutorial 3. Multiple connection points appear because the REACTOR accepts multiple feed streams. Figure 5. a solid white box appears at the cursor tip. and a pop-up description is attached to the cursor tail.65 Attach button 4. To return to Move mode. Click the Attach Mode button on the PFD toolbar to enter Attach mode. 10. A small transparent box appears at the cursor tip. Move the cursor over the connection point at top right hand corner to display the popup "Vapour Product". The trailing line snaps to that point. Position the cursor over the REACTOR icon. 5-50 . 9. Click to "drop" the REACTOR onto the PFD. and the connection is made to the connection point at the REACTOR inlet. Position the cursor over the right end of the Mixer Out stream icon.66 7. The transparent box becomes solid black. When you are in Attach mode. CSTR-100. You can temporarily toggle between Attach and Move mode by holding down the CTRL key. 6. Move the cursor toward the left (inlet) side of the REACTOR. The Attach Mode button has a different shading to show that it is activated. you will not be able to move objects in the PFD. Figure 5. indicating that you are beginning a connection. Release the mouse button. 8. The pop-up "Out" indicates which part of the stream is available for connection. you can see a square connection point. indicating that it requires feed and product streams. and multiple connection points appear at the REACTOR inlet. With the pop-up "Out" visible. 5. A trailing line appears between the Mixer Out stream icon and the cursor. in this case the stream outlet.

Repeat steps 10 to 13 to create the REACTOR liquid product. Originate the connection from the bottom left connection point labelled "Energy Stream" on the REACTOR icon. 15. 18. Figure 5. Double-click on the steam icon 1 to open its property view. with a trailing line attached to the REACTOR outlet. 19. Move the cursor over the stream line connecting the two icons. renaming it Reactor Prods.67 Break Connection button If you make an incorrect connection: 1. Repeat steps 10 to 13 to create the REACTOR energy stream. 12. but that the attached streams are not entirely known. left-click and hold. 14. and click the Close button. A large stream icon appears. HYSYS creates a new stream with the default name 1. With the pop-up visible. The stream icon indicates that a new stream is created when you complete the next step. The new stream is given the default name 2. This status indicates that all necessary connections have been made. and the REACTOR recieves a yellow warning status. release the left mouse button. With the large stream icon visible. 5-51 . Repeat steps 17 and 18 for stream 2. 13. Click the Attach Mode button again to return to Move mode. The transparent box again becomes solid black. Click the Break Connection button on the PFD button bar. Originate the connection from the bottom right connection point labelled "Liquid Product". The new stream is automatically named Q-100. Enter the new name Reactor Vent in the Name cell. 3. Figure 5. Move the cursor to the right of the REACTOR. 17.Chemicals Tutorial 5-51 11. Click once to break the connection. A check mark attached to the cursor appears. 2. and drag below and to the left of the REACTOR. The Attach Mode button will return to its normal appearance.68 16. indicating an available connection to break.

69 To complete the Reactor specifications: 1. Double-click on the REACTOR icon to open its property view. 5-52 .5-52 Chemicals Tutorial 20. Move to the Parameters page. so they are light blue and light red. renaming it Coolant. For now. Outlet and Energy streams that were attached before appear in the appropriate cells. The REACTOR outlet and energy streams are unknown at this point. notice that the names of the Inlet. Change the operation Name from the default to Reactor. Figure 5. On the Connections page. Delta P and the Volume parameters are acceptable at the default values. Repeat steps 17 and 18 for energy stream Q-100. respectively.

Chemicals Tutorial 5-53 Figure 5.71 5-53 . Move to the Reactions tab and attach the Reaction Set that was created in the Basis Environment. 3. Select the Cooling radio button. This reaction is exothermic (produces heat). Figure 5. so cooling is needed.70 2.

the reactor has a volume of 280 ft3 and is 85% full. displayed on the Parameters page. Figure 5. enter the Vessel Volume of 280 and Liquid Volume Percent of 85.72 The next task is to specify the Vessel Parameters. 5-54 . On the Specs page of the Dynamics tab.5-54 Chemicals Tutorial Open the Reaction Set drop-down list and select Set-1. 4. HYSYS automatically calculates the Liquid Volume in the vessel (280 ft3 x 85% full = 238 ft3). In this Tutorial. The completed Reactions tab is shown below.

75°F. the Reactor product streams. Click on the Temperature cell for Reactor Prods. For this example. therefore the outlet temperature is equivalent to the feed temperature. Type 75 and press ENTER. This is because the REACTOR has one degree of freedom.Chemicals Tutorial 5-55 Move to the Worksheet tab in the Reactor property view. as well as the energy stream Coolant. 1. are unknown. At this point. 5-55 . the outlet temperature will be specified.73 At this point. Figure 5. HYSYS solves the Reactor. Initially the Reactor is assumed to be operating at isothermal conditions. either the outlet stream temperature or the cooling duty can be specified.

5-56 Chemicals Tutorial Figure 5. In addition. The next step is to examine the Reactor conversion as a function of temperature.74 There is no phase change in the Reactor under isothermal conditions. since the flow of the vapour product stream Reactor Vent is zero. the required cooling duty has been calculated and is represented by the Heat Flow of stream Coolant. 5-56 .

Figure 5. 5-57 .) in the Reactor is 40.75 Under the current conditions. 3.Chemicals Tutorial 5-57 2. Return to the Reactions tab again to check the conversion. The REACTOR temperature is adjusted until the conversion is in the 85-95% range. 5. the Actual Percent Conversion (Act. where the conversion is shown in the Reactor Results Summary matrix. Return to the Worksheet tab in the Reactor property view.76 6. Change the Temperature of Reactor Prods to 100°F. which has increased to 72. and change the Temperature of Reactor Prods to 140°F.3% as shown below. 4. Return to the Reactions tab and select the Results page of the property view. % Cnv. Figure 5.3%. Return again to the Worksheet tab.

77 The conversion at 140°F is approximately 95%. number of stages and default specifications. For this example. Click the Close button to close the Reactor property view. To install the column: 1. which is acceptable. Figure 5. Before installing the column.5-58 Chemicals Tutorial 7. Move back to the Reactions tab again and check the conversion. click on the Options page and ensure that the Use Input Experts check box is selected (checked). select Preferences from the Tools menu. and close the view. Installing the Column HYSYS has a number of pre-built column templates that you can install and customize by changing attached stream names. a DISTILLATION COLUMN will be installed. On the Simulation tab. Figure 5. and the first page of the Input Expert appears.78 Distillation Column button 5-58 . 8. Double-click on the Distillation Column button on the Object Palette.

or by pressing TAB. 5. 3. ensure the Partial radio button is selected. Completion of the steps will ensure that you have provided the minimum amount of information required to define the column. You cannot exit or move outside the Expert until you supply the necessary information. Open the drop-down list of available inlet streams in the Edit Bar by clicking it. 5-59 . Figure 5. When you install a column using a pre-built template. or by pressing the F2 key then the i key. The Input Expert is a Modal view. the Next button becomes active. 4. or click the Cancel button. in this case stage 5 (indicated by 5_Main TS). HYSYS supplies certain default information. Some points worth noting are: • These are theoretical stages. such as the number of stages. 2. 10 theoretical stages are used. and are not included in the Num of Stages field. as the HYSYS default stage efficiency is one. For this example. so leave the Numb of Stages at its default value. Enter the stream and Column names as shown below. HYSYS supplies a default feed location in the middle of the Tray Section (TS). Select Reactor Prods as the feed stream to the column. as the column will have both Vapour and Liquid Overhead Outlets. Advance to the Inlet Streams list by clicking on the <<Stream>> cell. The current active cell is Numb of Stages with 10 (default number of stages) in the Edit Bar at the top of the view. When you are finished. indicating sufficient information has been supplied to advance to the next page of the Input Expert.79 6. 7.Chemicals Tutorial 5-59 The Input Expert is a logical sequence of input views that guide you through the initial installation of a Column. indicated by the thick border and absence of the Maximize/Minimize buttons. • The Condenser and Reboiler are considered separate from the other stages. In the Condenser group.

5-60 Chemicals Tutorial 8. This page allows you to supply values for the default column specifications that HYSYS has created. and later you will create a glycol purity specification to exhaust the third degree of freedom. a DISTILLATION COLUMN has three default specifications. overhead Liquid Rate. Click the Next button to advance to the Optional Estimates page. 11. Although HYSYS does not require estimates to produce a converged column. you should provide estimates for columns that are difficult to converge. The third default specification. will not be used. Click the Next button to advance to the fourth and final page of the Input Expert. the Pressure Profile page. 9. For this example. 5-60 . no estimates are provided. The overhead Vapour Rate and Reflux Ratio will be used as active specifications. Enter 15 psia and 17 psia as the Condenser Pressure and Reboiler Pressure. Click the Next button to advance to page 2. The Condenser Pressure Drop can be left at its default value of zero. In general. Figure 5.80 10.

Chemicals Tutorial 5-61 12. and a Reflux Ratio of 1. Figure 5. Click the Done button. so leave it at the default of Molar.82 5-61 . Figure 5.81 13. Enter a Vapour Rate of 0 lbmole/hr. Note that the Flow Basis applies to the Vapour Rate.0. and the DISTILLATION COLUMN property view will appear.

indicating the column is ready to be Run. Since it is not desired to use this specification. click the Active check box for the Distillate Rate to clear it. Click the Add button in the Column Specifications area. Figure 5. 2. However. To add the new specification: 1.83 5-62 . the Distillate Rate (Overhead Liquid Rate for which no value was provided in the Input Expert) is currently an Active specification. updating information with each iteration. directly from this page. and activate or de-activate specifications used by the Column solver. For this example. The Degrees of Freedom increase to 1. The Column Specifications view appears. You can also change specification values. a water mole fraction of 0. Click on the Specs page. and has a Specified Value of <empty>. indicating that another active specification is required. The main feature of this page is that it displays the status of your column as it is being calculated.005 is specified in the glycol product stream.5-62 Chemicals Tutorial Click on the Monitor page of the Column property view. Adding a Column Specification Notice that the current Degrees of Freedom is zero.

Move to the Stage cell..84 3.005 as the liquid mole fraction specification value. 6. Change the specification Name to H2O Fraction by editing the default name. 5. Click the Add Spec(s). button. and the Comp Frac Spec view appears.Chemicals Tutorial 5-63 Figure 5. Move to the Spec Value cell. 4..85 7. and enter . 5-63 . Figure 5. and choose Reboiler from the list of available stages displayed in the Edit Bar. Select Column Component Fraction as the Specification Type.

where the new specification may not be visible (unless you scroll down the matrix) because it has been placed at the bottom of the Specifications list. click the Group Active button to bring the new specification to the top of the list. directly under the other Active specifications. The new specification appears in the list of Column Specifications on the Specs page. If you want to view the entire Specifications matrix. and select H2O from the drop-down list of available components in the Edit Bar. resize the property view by clicking and dragging its border. Return to the Monitor page. Click the Close button to return to the Column property view. Figure 5. indicated by <<Component>>.5-64 Chemicals Tutorial 8.86 9. 5-64 . Move to the first cell in the Components list. For convenience. Scroll to the top of the list to view all active specifications.

87 Note that HYSYS automatically made the new specification Active when you created it.Chemicals Tutorial 5-65 Figure 5. The column converges quickly. The Degrees of Freedom has returned to zero. and the information displayed on the page is updated with each iteration. Running the Column 1. so the column is ready to be calculated. Click the Run button to begin calculations. 5-65 . in five iterations.

5-66 Chemicals Tutorial Figure 5. You can access a more detailed stage summary by moving to the Summary page on the Performance tab. To view the pressure or flow profiles.88 The converged temperature profile is currently displayed in the upper right corner of the view. choose the appropriate radio button. 5-66 .

Click the Column Environment button at the bottom of the property view. This property view is essentially the same as the "outside".Chemicals Tutorial 5-67 Figure 5. You can do this by entering the column environment. The column Subflowsheet PFD and Workbook are shown below and on the next page. you might want to focus only on the column Subflowsheet. you might wish to: PFD button Workbook button • View the column Subflowsheet PFD by clicking the PFD button. • Access the "inside" column property view by clicking the Column Runner button. Column Runner button 5-67 . While inside the column environment. or Main Flowsheet. • View a Workbook of the column Subflowsheet objects by clicking the Workbook button. property view of the column.89 Moving to the Column Subflowsheet When considering the column.

91 5-68 .90 Figure 5.5-68 Chemicals Tutorial Figure 5.

3. Open the PFD for the Main Flowsheet and select Auto Position All from the PFD menu. Figure 5. Move the label to its new position by clicking and dragging it. 2. return to the Main Flowsheet by clicking the Enter Parent Simulation Environment button. Press the L key. You can also move a stream or operation label (name): 1. and a box appears around the label.Chemicals Tutorial 5-69 Enter Parent Simulation Environment button When you are finished in the column environment. The PFD shown below has been customized by moving some of the stream icons. HYSYS arranges your PFD in a logical manner according to the layout of your flowsheet.92 5-69 . To move an icon. simply click and drag it to the new location. Click on the label you want to move. or by pressing the arrow keys.

Figure 5.93 Figure 5. The Material Streams and Compositions tabs of the Workbook are shown below.94 5-70 .5-70 Chemicals Tutorial Results Click the Workbook button to access the calculated results for the Main Flowsheet.

HYSYS opens the property view for the object whose name you entered. To open the Navigator. 5-71 . Double-click on any blank space on the HYSYS Desktop. select the operation in the list. From the Flowsheet menu. For example. You can change which objects are displayed by selecting a different Filter radio button. enter the Object Name.Chemicals Tutorial 5-71 Using the Object Navigator Now that results have been obtained. you may want to view the calculated properties of a particular stream or operation. The Object Navigator allows you to quickly access the property view for any stream or unit operation at any time during the simulation. To open a property view. When the Find Object view appears. do one of the following: • • • • Navigator button Press F3. Click the Navigator button. so only the Unit Operations appear in the list of objects. to list all streams and unit operations. select the All button. and click the View button. or double-click on the operation. and click the OK button. The Object Navigator view appears: Figure 5. You can also search for an object by clicking the Find button.95 The UnitOps radio button in the Filter group is currently selected. select Find Object.

5-72 . close the Object Navigator or any property view you might have opened using the Navigator. • From the Tools menu.96 The first step is to add the key variables to the Databook using the Variables tab. To add the variables to the Databook: 1. select Databook. and the Variable list available for the Reactor appears to the right of the Object list. For this example. and the Variable Navigator appears. 2. and view the results in a tabular or graphical format. To open the Databook. You can use the Databook to monitor key variables under a variety of process scenarios. 3. Pick the UnitOps radio button in the Object Filter group. The Object list is filtered to show unit operations only. Before opening the Databook. The Databook view appears: Figure 5. Click on Reactor in the Object list. do one of the following: • Press CTRL D. Click the Insert button.5-72 Chemicals Tutorial Using the Databook The HYSYS Databook provides you with a convenient way to examine your flowsheet in more detail. the effects of the Reactor temperature on the Reactor cooling duty and Glycol production rate will be examined.

The Navigator operates in a left-to-right manner—the selected Flowsheet determines the Object list. and the Variable Navigator again appears. 5-73 . Figure 5. The variable now appears in the Databook. and the selected Variable determines whether any Variable Specifics are available. The Variable Navigator is used extensively in HYSYS for locating and selecting variables. click the Insert button. Click in the Variable Description cell to make it active. Figure 5.97 5. The Object list is filtered to show streams only. 8. 6. and the Variable list available for energy streams appears to the right of the Object list. Select the Streams radio button in the Object Filter group.Chemicals Tutorial 5-73 4. HYSYS duplicates this variable name in the Variable Description cell. 9. the chosen Object dictates the Variable list. and click the OK button. You can edit the default variable description. Click on Coolant in the Object list. Type a new description. Select Vessel Temperature in the Variable list. such as Reactor Temp.98 7. To add the next variable.

Repeat steps 7 . the next step is to create a data table to display those variables: 5-74 . Figure 5. Figure 5.11 to add the Liquid Volume Flow variable for stream Glycol to the Databook. Change the Variable Description for this variable to Glycol Production. and click the OK button.99 11.5-74 Chemicals Tutorial 10. Select Heat Flow in the Variable list. The variable now appears in the Databook.100 Now that the key variables have been added to the Databook. The completed Variables tab of the Databook appears below. Change the Variable Description to Cooling Duty. 12.

101 3. 2. click the Add button. Figure 5. Figure 5. In the Process Data Tables group. Change the default name from ProcData1 to Key Variables by editing the Process Data Table cell.Chemicals Tutorial 5-75 1. Move to the Process Data Tables tab by clicking on it. Activate each variable by clicking on the corresponding Show check box. HYSYS creates a new table with the default name ProcData1. 4.102 5-75 . Notice that the three variables that were added to the Databook appear in the matrix on this tab.

To record the current values: 1. click the Minimize button in the upper right corner of the Key Variables Data view. For now. 2. Suppose you now want to make changes to the flowsheet. Click the Edit button. Move to the Data Recorder tab in the Databook by clicking on it. but you would like to record the current values of the key variables before making any changes.5-76 Chemicals Tutorial 5. Click the View button to view the new data table. Select the Object you want to edit. Figure 5. This page appears below. To edit any of the Objects in the Databook: 1.103 This table will be accessed again later to demonstrate how its results are updated whenever a flowsheet change is made. which is shown below. you can use the Data Recorder to automatically record them for you. Instead of manually recording the variables. HYSYS reduces the view to an icon and places it at the bottom of the Desktop.104 5-76 . Figure 5.

1. You return to the Databook. Click the Add button in the Available Scenarios group. Include all three key variables in this scenario. prompting you for the name of the new state. and click OK. and HYSYS creates a new scenario with the default name Scenario 1. Click the Record button to record the variables in their current state. select the Table radio button.106 4. 5-77 . Activate each variable by clicking on the corresponding Include check box. In the Available Display group. Change the Name for New State from the default State 1 to Base Case. Figure 5. 3. then record the variables in their current state.Chemicals Tutorial 5-77 When using the Data Recorder. 5. The New Solved State view appears. Figure 5.105 2. you first create a Scenario containing one or more of the key variables.

and the Data Recorder appears.107 Now you can make the necessary flowsheet changes and these current values remain as a permanent record in the Data Recorder unless you choose to erase them. Click the Minimize button to reduce the Data Recorder to an icon. Click the View button. Figure 5. showing the values of the key variables in their current state. The temperature of stream Reactor Prods (which determines the Reactor temperature) will be changed and the changes can be viewed in the process data table: 1. Click on Reactor Prods. and click the View button.108 2. Double-click on the Key Variables Data icon to restore the view to its full size. Navigator button Click the Navigator button on the button bar. 5-78 . Select the Streams radio button in the Filter group. 3.5-78 Chemicals Tutorial 6. Figure 5.

Ensure you are on the Conditions page of the property view. the Reactor temperature is 140°F.Chemicals Tutorial 5-79 The Reactor Prods property view appears. The key variables will be checked at 180°F. Arrange the two views as shown below by clicking and dragging on their title bars. 1.109 Currently. Figure 5. 5-79 . 2.

You can now record the key variables in their new state: 1. the required cooling duty decreased and the glycol production rate increased. Move to the Data Recorder tab in the Databook.5-80 Chemicals Tutorial 3. Figure 5. Enter 180 in the Temperature cell for Reactor Prods. Click the Record button. 2. 3. Click the Close button on the Reactor Prods stream property view to return to the Databook. and click the OK button to accept the new name. Change the name to 180 F Reactor. 5-80 . The new results are shown below. and HYSYS automatically recalculates the flowsheet.110 As a result of the change. and HYSYS provides you with the default name State 2 for the new state.

see the Applications binder. Applications beginning with “C” explore some of the types of chemical simulations that can be built using HYSYS. This completes the HYSYS Chemicals tutorial. feel free to continue working on this simulation on your own. 5-81 . Click the View button and the Data Recorder appears. and finally on the Process Data Table. Further Study For other chemical case examples. then on the Databook. Figure 5. displaying the new values of the variables.111 Click the Close button on the Data Recorder.Chemicals Tutorial 5-81 4. If there are any aspects of this case that you would like to explore further.

5-82 Chemicals Tutorial 5-82 .

yielding a liquid product with a specified propane content.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-1 6 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial The steady-state gas plant simulation used as a starting point for this dynamics tutorial is identical to the one built by the Steady State Gas Processing Tutorial in Chapter 3 .hsc. A series of separators and coolers removes the heavier hydrocarbon components from the natural gas stream.Plant will be incorporated into a basic steady state gas plant model. The heavier liquid component of the gas stream is processed in a depropanizer column. A completed version of the steady-state starting point for this tutorial is located in the file TUTOR1.1 The Dynamics Assistant will be used to make pressure-flow specifications and size pieces of equipment in the simulation flowsheet. allowing it to meet a pipeline dew point specification. Note that this is only one method of preparing a steady state case for Dynamic mode.Gas Processing Tutorial of this guide. It is also possible to set your own pressureflow specifications and size the equipment without the aid of the Dynamics Assistant. in the In this tutorial. combines and processes them in a simple refrigeration system. Figure 6. The plant takes two different natural gas streams containing carbon dioxide and methane through n-butane. the dynamic capabilities of HYSYS. 6-1 .

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A completed dynamic case has been pre-built and is located in the file DynTUT1.hsc in the HYSYS\SAMPLES directory.

This tutorial will comprehensively guide you through the steps required to add dynamic functionality to a steady-state gas plant simulation. To help navigate these detailed procedures, the following milestones have been established for this tutorial: 1. 2. Modify the steady-state model so that a pressure-flow relation exists between each unit operation. Implement a tray sizing utility for sizing the Depropanizer column. Use the Dynamics Assistant to set pressure flow specifications and size the equipment in the simulation case. Install and define the appropriate controllers. Set up the Databook. Make changes to key variables in the process and observe the dynamic behaviour of the model.

In this Tutorial, you will follow this basic procedure in building the dynamic model.

3. 4. 5.

Before proceeding, it is suggested that you complete Chapter 2 - Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial to gain a firm understanding of dynamic simulation methods.

Modifying the Steady State Flowsheet
It is necessary to add unit operations, such as valves, heat exchangers, or pumps, which define pressure flow relations between unit operations that have no pressure flow relation. In this tutorial, valve operations will be added between Separators, Mixer and Column operations. A Heater operation will also be added between the Mixer and Column operation for dynamic simulation purposes. Installing a heater allows you to vary the temperature of the feed entering the column. Valves will be added to the following material streams:

In this tutorial, you will be working with Field units. The units may be changed using the Session Preferences property view. To open the view select Tools on the menu bar and then Preferences. On the Units page of the Variables tab, specify Field in the Current Unit Set group box.

• • • •
1.

SepLiq LTSLiq TowerFeed LiquidProd
Open the pre-built case file TUTOR1.hsc. The steady state Gas Processing simulation file TUTOR1.hsc is located in your HYSYS\SAMPLES directory. Select Preference from the Tools menu to opens the Session Preference view.

2.

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6-3

3.

Move to the Assistant page on the Simulation tab and uncheck both the Perform checks when switching to dynamics or starting the integrator and the Set dynamic stream specifications in the background options.
Figure 6.2

4.
Close Button

Close the Session Preference view along with all the open views on the HYSYS desktop (except for the PFD view) by clicking the Close button in the top right hand corner of each view.

In the PFD, the stream pressure for Feed 2 will be deleted so that it will be calculated by the MIX - 100 in dynamic mode. 5. 6. 7. Open the feed 2 property view by double clicking on the stream icon. On the Conditions page of the Worksheet tab remove the stream pressure. Close the stream property view.

The pressure setting for the MIX - 100 will be changed so that the whole pfd can be simulated. 8. 9. Open the MIX - 100 property view. On the Parameters page of the Design tab click on the Equalize All radio button in the Automatic Pressure Assignment group.

10. Close the mixer property view.

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A Valve operation will be inserted between the SepLiq stream and the MIX-101 unit operation. 11. Click the Break Connection button in the PFD button bar. 12. Position the mouse pointer over the SepLiq stream (to the right of the stream arrow). When the mouse pointer has a check mark beside it, click the primary mouse button and the stream will disconnect from the MIX-101. 13. Open the Object Palette by pressing F4. 14. Click on the Valve button on the Object Palette with the secondary mouse button and then position the bull’s-eye pointer beside the SepLiq stream.
Valve Button

Break Connection Button

15. Click the mouse button to place the VALVE onto the PFD. An icon for the VALVE will appear where the bull’s-eye pointer was. 16. Double click on the VALVE icon on the PFD to open its property view and specify the following connections:
Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Figure 6.3 Inlet Outlet Delta P Entry Sep Valve SepLiq SepExit 25 psi

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6-5

Figure 6.4

17. Close the VALVE property view by clicking the Close button in the top right hand corner of the view. 18. Connect the SepExit stream to the inlet of the MIX-101 unit operation by clicking on the PFD Attach Mode button and then positioning the mouse pointer at the tip of the SepExit stream arrow. 19. Press and drag the pointer to the MIX-101 and HYSYS will automatically connect the stream to the unit operation. Release the mouse button to complete the connection. 20. Click the Attach Mode button again to exit from the attaching mode. Next, a Valve operation will be inserted between the LTSLiq stream and the MIX-101 unit operation. 21. Break the line between the LTSLiq stream and the MIX-101 unit operation. 22. Install a second VALVE operation. Position this valve beside the LTSLiq stream. 23. Open the second VALVE property view and specify the following connections:
Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Inlet Outlet Delta P Entry LTS Valve LTSLiq LTSExit 5 psi

Attach Mode Button

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24. Close the VALVE property view. 25. Using the Attach Mode button, connect the LTSExit stream to the inlet of the MIX-101 unit operation. Next, add a Valve operation between MIX-101 unit operation and the TowerFeed stream. 26. Using the Break Connection button, break the line between the TowerFeed stream and the MIX-101 unit operation. Be sure to break the line to the left of the TowerFeed stream arrow. 27. Install a third VALVE operation with the following connections:
Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Inlet Outlet Delta P Entry Tower Valve TowerIn TowerInlet 363 psi

28. Close the VALVE view. 29. Using the Attach Mode button, connect the TowerIn stream to the exit of the MIX-101 unit operation.
Note that you can use the scroll bars to navigate around the PFD. You can also use the PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN keys to zoom in and out of the PFD, respectively.

30. Install a HEATER operation and position it near the Tower Valve and the DePropanizer. 31. Open the HEATER property view and specify the following connections:
Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Inlet Outlet Energy Design [Parameters] Delta P Entry Heater TowerInlet TowerFeed Heater Q 9 psi

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Figure 6.5

Figure 6.6

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32. Open the Worksheet tab of the HEATER property view. The Conditions page should be open. Specify the temperature of the TowerFeed stream to be 24.73°F.
Figure 6.7

33. Close the HEATER property view. When considering pieces of equipment associated with the column, it may be necessary to enter the Column Sub-Flowsheet environment. Since a valve is to be added to the LiquidProd stream, you must enter the Column Sub-Flowsheet.

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6-9

34. Open the DePropanizer column property view by double clicking on the DePropanizer icon.
Figure 6.8

35. Click the Column Environment button to enter the Column SubFlowsheet environment. Next, a Valve operation will be inserted between the LiquidProd stream and the Reboiler unit operation. 36. In the PFD of the Column Sub-Flowsheet, break the connection between the LiquidProd stream and the Reboiler unit operation. 37. Press F4 to open the Object Palette. 38. Install a VALVE operation in the same way as in the Parent Environment. Specify the following connections:
Tab [Page] Input Area Name Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Inlet Outlet Delta P Entry Reboil Valve LiquidExit LiquidProd 25 psi

Notice that the Object Palette in the Column Environment has fewer available unit operations than the Object Palette in the Parent Environment.

39. Close the VALVE property view. 40. Using the Attach Mode button, connect the LiquidExit stream to the liquid exit of the Reboiler unit operation.

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41. Click the Run Column Solver button in the button bar. The column will solve with the existing column specifications and the added valve unit operation.
Run Column Solver Button Figure 6.9

It is necessary to delete unit operations that have no impact on the Dynamic solver. The MOLE BALANCE and ADJUST unit operations have no impact on the Dynamic solver. 42. Return to the Main Flowsheet environment by clicking the Enter Parent Simulation Environment button in the button bar.
Enter Parent Simulation Environment Button

The ADJ-1 and Dewpoint logical operations have calculated the Cold Gas stream temperature required to achieve a 10 °F dewpoint in the SalesGas stream. 43. Close the DePropanizer column property view.

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44. Open the ColdGas stream property view by double clicking on the ColdGas stream in the PFD.
Figure 6.10

45. Record the temperature of the ColdGas material stream so that it may be controlled in Dynamic mode:
Variable Cold Gas Stream Temperature Value 4.43 F

When you delete a stream, unit or logical operation from the flowsheet, HYSYS will ask you for confirmation of the deletion. If you want to delete the object, click on the Yes button. If not, click the No button.

46. Close the Cold Gas property view. 47. Delete the ADJ-1 logical operation by selecting the icon in the PFD and pressing the DELETE key. 48. Delete the Dewpoint logical operation and the SalesDP material stream from the flowsheet. 49. Save the case as DynTUT1-1.hsc. Open the File menu and select Save As. Type in the file name as DynTUT1-1.hsc and click the Save button.

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Column Sizing
In preparation for Dynamic operation, the column and surrounding equipment must be sized. The steady state column pressure drop is user-specified. In dynamics, it is calculated using dynamic hydraulic calculations. Complications will arise in the transition from steady state to dynamics if the steady state pressure profile across the column is very different from that calculated by the dynamics pressure-flow solver.

Column Tray Sizing
50. Open the Utilities property view by pressing CTRL U. The Available Utilities view will appear. 51. Scroll down the list of available utilities until the Tray Sizing utility is visible.
Figure 6.11

6-12

Select Tray Sizing. 54. The Tray Sizing view will appear. Press OK.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-13 52. 55. Click the Select TS button. Select the Main TS Object in the DePropanizer flowsheet.12 53. Highlight the default name in the Name field and type in Deprop TS as the new name. The Select Tray Section view appears. Figure 6.13 6-13 . then click the Add Utility button. Figure 6.

15 6-14 . Figure 6. The next view displays the specific dimensions of the valve-type trays. Click the AutoSection button in the Tray Sizing view. The default tray internal types are displayed as follows: Figure 6. the AutoSection view appears.6-14 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 56. Keep the default values by clicking Next. Keep the default values and press the Complete AutoSection button.14 57.

5 ft 2 in 24 in 25. HYSYS labels the DePropanizer tray section as Section_1. 60.38 in Note the Max DP/Tray on this page as well as the Pressure profile of the column. Move to the Setup page on the Design tab and click in the Active check box. 59. which is available on the Table page. Confirm the following tray section parameters for Section_1. The dimensions and configuration of the trays for Section_1 appears on the Results page of the Performance tab. At this time ignore all the warnings by clicking the OK button on the warning’s view. 58. Variable Section Diameter Weir Height Tray Spacing Total Weir Length Figure 6.16 Value 2. Move back to the Results page and click the Export Pressures button.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-15 HYSYS calculates the Main TS tray sizing parameters based on the steady state flow conditions of the column and the desired tray types. 6-15 . which will be used for the Main TS tray sections.

Be aware that the units for each tray section parameter may not be consistent with the units provided in the tray sizing utility. Change the tray type setting to Valve in the Internal Type group. Close the Main TS property view. On the Sizing page of the Rating tab. The complete Main TS tray section property view is shown below: Figure 6. Click the Column Environment button to enter the Column Sub-Flowsheet. Tray Spacing. 63. and Weir length. 62. Column Runner Button 6-16 . Close the Tray Sizing property view and the Available Utilities view. Weir height. 65. 67. enter the tray section parameters as recorded in the above table (on the previous page): Section Diameter. You can select the units you want to input by selecting it from the drop-down menu beside the edit bar at the top of the property view. Access the Column property view by clicking the Column Runner button. Double click on the DePropanizer icon to open the Column property view. Enter the Main TS property view by double clicking on the Main TS Column in the PFD.6-16 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 61. 66. 64.17 Open this dropdown menu to select the proper units for your input.

In the Pressure column of the Profiles group. Vessel. Return to the Parent (Main) Simulation Environment. The bottom stage pressure (10_Main TS) should be specified as 202. 73.hsc.8 psi. The following sizing parameters must be specified for these unit operations: Unit Operation Valves Vessels Coolers/Heat Exchangers Sizing Parameter Cv value Volume k-values The Dynamics Assistant makes recommendations as to how the flowsheet topology should change and what pressure-flow specifications are required in order to run a case in Dynamic mode.6 psi. 71. The theoretical top and bottom stage pressure should be calculated so that the pressure on stage 5_Main TS (the Tower Feed stage) is 202. The Dynamics Assistant will be used to: • Add Pressure-Flow specifications to the simulation case. Place the cursor in the Pressure cell for the top stage (1_Main TS) and input a value of 201. Highlight the Reboiler pressure cell and press the DELETE key. Start the column solver by clicking the Run button at the bottom of the column property view. and heat exchangers in the Main Flowsheet and the Column Sub-flowsheet. vessels. You should be aware that not all the suggestions that the Dynamics Assistant offers need to be followed. coolers.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-17 68.1 psi. while the total pressure drop across the column is 0. 69. It is also necessary to size the existing valves. Using the Dynamics Assistant Before the simulation case can be run in Dynamic mode.4 psi. 6-17 . 72. the degrees of freedom for the flowsheet must be reduced to zero by setting the pressure-flow specifications. In addition. 70. • Size the Valve. it automatically sets the sizing parameters of the equipment in the simulation flowsheet. Save the case as DynTUT1-2. highlight the value in the Pressure cell for the Condenser and press the DELETE key. note the steady state pressure profile across the column. In the Profiles page of the Parameters tab. and Heat Exchange operations.

You can choose which recommendations will be executed by the Assistant by activating or deactivating the OK check boxes by each recommendation. 76. If some of the columns or rows on the pages are not visible. Click the Dynamics Assistant button. set the following recommendations as active or inactive according to the table shown below: Tab [Page] Streams [Pressure Specs] Recommendation Remove Pressure Specifications Set Pressure Specifications Remove Flow Specifications Stream Feed 1 LiquidProd SalesGas Feed 1 Feed 2 OK Check Box Active Active Active Inactive Inactive Streams [Flow Specs] 6-18 . Figure 6.6-18 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 74. For each page in the Streams tab.18 Dynamics Assistant Button An Active recommendation will be implemented by the Dynamics Assistant An Inactive recommendation will not be implemented by the Dynamics Assistant. Browse through each tab in the Dynamics Assistant view to inspect the recommendations. 75. The Streams tab contains a list of recommendations regarding the setting or removing of pressureflow specifications in the flowsheet. Select the Streams tab. All recommendations the Dynamics Assistant suggests are defaulted to be implemented since the OK check boxes are activated. just use the scroll bars beside or under the information area to bring the columns or rows into view.

Flow Spec] Recommendation Stream Feed 1 OK Check Box Inactive Inactive Inactive Active Insert Valves Set Internal Flow Specification Feed 2 Ovhd Reflux 77. Ensure that all the recommendations in this page are active: Tab [Page] Pressure Flow Specs [PF versus DP] Recommendation Pressure Flow Spec instead of Delta P Unit Operation Chiller Gas/Gas Heater OK Check Box Active Active Active 6-19 . Click on the Pressure Flow Specs tab.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-19 Tab [Page] Streams [Insert Valves] Streams [Int. Figure 6. Typically.19 This tab contains a list of unit operations which can use a Pressure Flow or Pressure Drop specification. all unit operations in Dynamic mode should use the Pressure Flow specification.

The Unknown Sizes tab in the Dynamics Assistant view contains a list of the unit operations in the flowsheet that require sizing.6-20 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 78. Once a modification has been made to a sizing parameter. Select the Unknown Sizes tab. or kvalue displayed. • The Valve operations are sized based on the current flow rate and pressure drop across the valve. The valves are sized with a 50% valve opening.20 Use the scroll bar to view more columns that aren’t currently visible. • The Heat Exchanger operations are sized based on the current flow rate and pressure drop across the equipment. the piece of equipment is automatically sized and the volume. ensure that all the recommendations are active: Tab [Page] Unknown Sizes [Volumes] Recommendation Unit Operation Chiller Vessel Sizing Gas/Gas (Tube) Gas/Gas (Shell) OK Check Box Active Active Active 6-20 . You can modify any of the default sizing parameters in the Unknown Sizes tab. For each page in the Unknown Sizes tab. 79. Figure 6. • The Vessel operation volumes are determined based on the liquid exit volumetric flow rate and a 10 minute residence time. Cv.

81. recommendations on this tab will be ignored. This tab identifies tray sections and streams whose total steady state pressure drops are inconsistent with the total pressure drop calculated according to the dynamics rating model.21 This tab contains a list of miscellaneous changes that should to be made in order for the Dynamic simulation case to run effectively. Press the Make Changes button once. For the purpose of this example. All the active suggestions in the Dynamics Assistant are implemented. Close the Dynamics Assistant view. Activate the following recommendations: Tab [Page] Other [Misc] Recommendation Set Equalize Option Mixers Unit Operation Mixer-101 OK Check Box Active 83. 6-21 . Figure 6. 82.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-21 Tab [Page] Unknown Sizes [k values] Recommendation Heat Exchanger Sizing Unit Operation Chiller Gas/Gas (Tube) Gas/Gas (Shell) OK Check Box Active Active Active 80. Next open the Tray sections tab by clicking on it. Select the Other tab.

Close the view. Switch to Dynamic mode by pressing the Dynamic mode button.22 87. 88.6-22 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 84. When asked “Are you sure you want to switch to dynamics?”. 85. The PFD of the main Flowsheet environment after all the controllers have been added is shown on the next page: 6-22 . they will increase the realism of the model and provide more stability. The duty of the heater is back calculated to make the temperature specification. Enter Parent Simulation Environment Button 86. Adding Controller Operations Key control loops will be identified and implemented using PID Controller logical operations. select the Product Temp Spec radio button in the Model Details group box. Enter the Heater property view by double clicking on the Heater operation in the PFD. Although these controllers are not required to run in Dynamic mode. Save the case as DynTUT1-3. click the Yes button. Dynamic Mode Button You can specify the exit temperature of the HEATER operation in Dynamic mode.hsc. In the Specs page of the Dynamics tab. Figure 6.

23 The PFD of the Column Sub-Flowsheet after the controllers have been added is shown as follows: Figure 6.24 6-23 .Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-23 Figure 6.

6-24 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial Level Control Level controllers will be added to both the Main Flowsheet and Column Sub-Flowsheet to control the liquid levels of each vessel operation. Follow the steps below to specify the information shown in this table: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Parameters [Configuration] Kc PV Minimum PV Maximum Figure 6. 6-24 . In the Main Flowsheet environment. change the Name of the PID Controller operation to Sep LC. In the Connections tab. add a PID Controller operation by pressing and dragging the PID Controller button from the Object Palette to the PFD. 89. Liquid Percent Level Sep Valve Direct 2 0% 100% PID Controller Button 90. This controller will serve as the InletSep level controller.25 Entry Sep LC InletSep.

27 6-25 . Figure 6.26 92. For the Output Target Object group box. Figure 6. For the Process Variable Source group box. Press the OK button when you’ve finished making your selection. Press the OK button when you’ve finished selecting the information. supply the required information by pressing the Select OP button and selecting the information as shown in the figure below. supply the required information by pressing the Select PV button and selecting the information as shown in the figure below.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-25 91.

Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate by opening the drop-down menu and selecting Auto. Add a PID Controller operation that will serve as the LTS level controller.28 96. 95. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Parameters [Configuration] Kc PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry LTS LC LTS. 6-26 . Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. Click the Face Plate button.6-26 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 93. Press the Face Plate button at the bottom of the property view. Figure 6. Liquid Percent Level LTS Valve Direct 2 0% 100% 97. Supply the following in the Configuration page of the Parameters tab: Input Area Action Kc PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Direct 2 0% 100% 94.

102. Liquid Percent Level Reflux Direct 1 5 minutes 0% 100% 101. Click the Face Plate button. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. 6-27 . Instead of entering through the Column property view. Double click on DePropanizer in the Flowsheet group box to enter the Column Sub-Flowsheet environment. 104. Add a PID Controller operation that will serve as the Condenser level controller.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-27 Enter the Column Sub-Flowsheet environment. 98. click the Object Navigator button in the button bar. Click the Control Valve button. 100. Object Navigator Button 99. Enter the following details in the Valve Sizing group box of the FCV for Reflux view: Input Area Flow Type Minimum Flow Maximum Flow Entry Molar Flow 0 lbmole/h 500 lbmole/h 103. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Cond LC Condenser. Close the FCV for Reflux view.

Liquid Percent Level Reb Duty Direct 0.1 3 minutes 0% 100% 106.6-28 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 105. Add a PID Controller operation which will serve as the Reboiler level controller. Enter the following details in the Direct Q group box of the FCV for RebDuty view: Input Area Min Available Max Available Entry 0 Btu/h 6x106 Btu/h 108. 107. 6-28 . 109. Enter the Main Flowsheet environment by clicking the Enter Parent Simulation Environment button. Click the Control Valve button. A temperature controller will be placed on the ColdGas stream to ensure that the SalesGas stream makes the 10 F dewpoint specification. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Reb LC Reboiler. Temperature control will be placed on the top and bottom stages of the depropanizer to ensure product quality and stable column operation. Close the FCV for RebDuty view. Enter Parent Simulation Environment Button 110. if it is not already selected. Temperature Control Temperature control is important in this dynamic simulation case. Click the Face Plate button. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. Select the Direct Q radio button in the Duty Source group box.

Close the FCV for C3Duty view. Add a PID Controller operation that will serve as the Depropanizer Top Stage temperature controller. 116. Top Stage Temperature CondDuty Direct 1 5 minutes 50 oF 130 oF 6-29 . 113. Enter the Column Sub-flowsheet environment. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Top Stage TC Main TS. Temperature C3Duty Direct 1 10 minutes -20 oF 20 oF 112.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-29 111. 115. Click the Face Plate button. Enter the following details in the Direct Q group box of the FCV for C3Duty view: Input Area Min Available Max Available Entry 0 Btu/h 2 x 106 Btu/h 114. Select the Direct Q radio button in the Duty Source group box. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate. Click the Control Valve button. Add a PID Controller operation that will serve as the ColdGas temperature controller. 117. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] PID Controller Button Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Cold TC ColdGas.

Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Stage9 TC Main TS. 121. However. Close the FCV for CondDuty view. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate and input a set point of 184 oF. 125. you will probably want to monitor important variables in the dynamic simulation using strip charts. 122.6-30 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 118. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate and input a set point of 86 oF. 6-30 . Click the Face Plate button.hsc. Click the Face Plate button. Add a PID Controller operation that will serve as the Depropanizer 9th stage temperature controller. Stage Temperature (9_Main TS) Reboil Valve Direct 2 5 minutes 110 oF 260 oF 123. Return to the Parent Environment and save the case as DynTUT14. 119. Enter the following details in the Direct Q group box of the FCV for CondDuty view: Input Area Min Available Max Available Entry 0 Btu/h 3x106 Btu/hr 120. You should be able to run the integrator at this point without any problems. Click the Control Valve button. Select the Direct Q radio button in the Duty Source group box. 124.

29 Add all of the variables that you would like to manipulate or model. The following is a general procedure to install strip charts in HYSYS.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-31 Monitoring in Dynamics Now that the model is ready to run in Dynamic mode. levels and pressures. 6-31 . that you wish to monitor and record. Figure 6. Open the Databook by using the hot key combination CTRL D. Include feed and energy streams that you wish to modify in the dynamic simulation. 126. a strip chart can be created to monitor the general trends of key variables. A list of suggested variables is shown in the table below: Variables to Manipulate Tower Feed Molar Flow Heater Q Utility Outlet Temperature Feed 1 Molar Flow Feed 2 Molar Flow Variables to Monitor Ovhd Molar Flow LiquidProd Molar Flow InletSep Liquid Percent Level LTS Liquid Percent Level Set up a simple strip chart using the following method. Include unit operation temperature.

click the Insert button. HYSYS will create a new strip chart with the default name DataLogger1. 132. You may change the default name by editing the Logger Name cell. close the Variable Navigator. 133. The Variable Navigator is displayed: Figure 6. The purpose of selecting manipulated and monitored objects is to see how the monitored objects will respond to the changes you make to the manipulated variable. Object and Variable for any of the suggested variables.6-32 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 127. Click the Add button in the Available Strip Charts group box to add a strip chart.30 128. On the Variables tab. 131. Select the Strip Charts tab from the Databook view. 130. Repeat steps #127 to #129 to add any remaining variables to the Databook. 6-32 . After all variables have been added. 129. Click the Add button to add the selected variable to the Variables page. Select the Flowsheet.

139. 134. 136. Before starting the integrator. Check the Active check box for each of the variables that you would like to monitor. it is advisable that you activate no more than six variables per strip chart. You can change the configuration of each strip chart by pressing the Setup button.Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-33 In order to make the strip chart easier to read. 138.31 135. add more strip charts by repeating steps #133 to #134. open up the property view for the Ovhd stream in the Column Sub-Flowsheet. If required. 137. On the Strip Charts tab in the Databook. Open the Dynamics tab and ensure that the Pressure specification is Active and the Molar Flow specification is Inactive. Start the Integrator by pressing the Integrator Active button in the button bar and allow the variables to line out on the strip chart. Perform an analysis by manipulating the variables (via their property views) and viewing the response of monitored variables. Figure 6. 6-33 . Integrator Active Button (green) 140. press the Strip Chart button to view each strip chart.

6-34 Dynamic Gas Processing Tutorial 6-34 .

atmospheric gas oil. A simple fractionation facility produces naphtha. The dynamic refining tutorial will only consider the crude column. the dynamic capabilities of HYSYS.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-1 7 Dynamic Refining Tutorial This complete case has also been pre-built and is located in the file DynTUT2. the crude preheat train will be deleted from the flowsheet and only the crude column in the steady state refining tutorial will be converted to dynamics. kerosene. The combined stream was then fed to the atmospheric crude column for fractionation.1 7-1 . Figure 7. That is. The liquid crude was heated in a furnace and recombined with the vapour. diesel. and atmospheric residue products from a heavy crude feed. In the steady state refining tutorial.Plant will be incorporated into a basic steady state oil refining model.hsc in your HYSYS\SAMPLES directory In this tutorial. preheated crude was fed into a preflash drum which separated the liquid crude from the vapour.

3. In the Units tab. To help navigate these detailed procedures. and/or add additional equipment to the simulation flowsheet.7-2 Dynamic Refining Tutorial The main purpose of this tutorial is to provide you with adequate knowledge in the conversion of an existing steady state column to a dynamics column. 1.hsc. In this Tutorial. However. it is suggested that you complete Chapter 2 . 2. 1. The tutorial provides a single way of preparing a steady state case for dynamics mode. Set up the Databook. you will follow this basic procedure in building the dynamic Model Obtain a simplified steady-state model to be converted to dynamics. Make changes to key variables in the process and observe the dynamic behaviour of the model. Select Preference from the Tools menu to open the Session Preference view. 7-2 . the following milestones have been established for this tutorial. The crude column simulation file R-1. 2. you will be working with SI units.hsc is located in your HYSYS\SAMPLES directory. 5. The units may be changed by entering the Preferences property view in the Tools menu bar. 4. 3. Before proceeding. Install and define the appropriate controllers. you may also choose to use the Dynamic Assistant to set pressure specifications. Add the appropriate pressure-flow specifications. Open the pre-built case file R-1. For the purpose of this example. the Session Preference will be set so that the Dynamic Assistant would not manipulate the dynamic specifications.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial to gain a firm understanding of dynamic simulation methods. specify SI in the Current Unit Set group box. Implement a tray sizing utility for sizing the column and the sidestripper tray sections. Move to the Dynamics page on the Simulation tab and uncheck the Set dynamic stream specifications in the background option.hsc will be deleted in this section: In this tutorial. Simplifying the Steady State Flowsheet The preflash train in the steady state simulation case R-1. This tutorial will comprehensively guide you through the steps required to add dynamic functionality to a steady state oil refinery simulation. size the equipment in the plant.

7-3 . Close Button Close the Session Preference view along with all the open views on the HYSYS desktop (except for the PFD view) by clicking the Close button in the top right hand corner of each view.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-3 Figure 7. Figure 7.2 4. Add the material stream STORE which will be used to store information from the Atm Feed stream.3 5.

Close the STORE stream view. select Atm Feed from the Available Streams group box. 7-4 .7-4 Dynamic Refining Tutorial 6. In the STORE stream property view. Click on the OK button to copy the Atm Feed stream information to the STORE stream. 8. Figure 7.4 7. In the Spec Stream As property view. select the Define from other Stream button.

If not. Delete stream STORE. In the Spec Stream As property view. Select the Define from other Stream button. The following eight items should be deleted: When you delete a stream. stream Atm Feed will be not be fully specified. 11. unit or logical operation from the flowsheet. Close the Atm Feed stream view. If you want to delete the object. HYSYS will ask you for confirmation of the deletion.5 9. select STORE from the Available Streams group box and click on OK. Items to be deleted Material Streams Hot Crude Pre Flsh Liq Pre Flsh Vap Raw Crude Energy Streams Crude Duty Unit Operations Pre Flash Separator Crude Heater Mixer 10. 7-5 . With the deletion of the above items. click the No button. 12. Delete all material streams and unit operations upstream of the Atm Feed stream. click on the Yes button.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-5 Figure 7. Enter the Atm Feed stream property view.

However. Save the case as DynTUT2-1. In dynamics. The COOLER operations in the pumparounds will not be specified with the Pressure Flow or Delta P option. Equipment and Column Sizing In preparation for dynamic operation. Complications will arise in the transition from steady state to dynamics. each cooler must be specified with a volume in order to run properly in Dynamic mode. Open the File menu and select Save As.hsc. Since the identical stream information was copied to stream Atm Feed.6 This steady state case now contains the crude column without the preflash train. The steady state column pressure drop is user specified. 13. the crude column should operate the same as before the deletion of the preflash train. 7-6 .7-6 Dynamic Refining Tutorial Figure 7. if the steady state pressure profile across the column is very different from that calculated by the Dynamic Pressure-Flow solver. the column and side stripper tray sections and surrounding equipment must be sized.hsc and click the Save button. it is calculated using dynamic hydraulic calculations. Type in the file name as DynTUT2-1.

The Tray Sizing view. 17. then click on the Add Utility button. Figure 7. Select Tray Sizing. Scroll down the list of available utilities until the Tray Sizing utility is visible.7 15. will appear. The Available Utilities view will appear.8 16. Open the Utilities property view by pressing and releasing CTRL U. Figure 7. 7-7 . Change the Name from its default Tray Sizing-1 to Main TS. as shown on the next page.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-7 Column Tray Sizing 14.

7-8 Dynamic Refining Tutorial Figure 7. 20.9 18. Select the Main TS Object in the T-100 flowsheet. The Select Tray Section view appears. 7-8 .10 19. Click on the Select TS button. Select the Always Yes option from the Use Tray Vapour to Size drop down box. Click on OK. Figure 7.

Note that the Valve tray type is selected as the default option. This option will be entered into the Main TS property view. Keep the default values and press the Complete AutoSection button.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-9 21.11 22. Click on the AutoSection button in the Tray Sizing view and the AutoSection view appears.12 7-9 . The default tray internal types are displayed as follows: Figure 7. Keep the default values by pressing Next. The next view displays the specific dimensions of the valve-type trays. Figure 7.

13 25.6096 m 12. Since Section_1 is sized as having the largest tray diameter.22 m 7-10 . its tray section parameters should be recorded. Section_2 includes trays 28 and 29. On the Specs page of the Design tab type the Number of Flow Paths as 3. two different tray section types are necessary.0508 m 0. 24. Move to the Results page of the Performance tab to display the dimensions and configuration of the trays for Section_1 and Section_2. Calculate the Actual Weir length: Variable Actual Weir Length (Weir Length/3) Value 4. Notice that the number of flow paths for the vapour is 3.334 m 0. Section_1 includes trays 1 to 27. Confirm the following tray section parameters for Section_1 that will be used for the Main TS tray sections. appear in the Setup page of the Design tab.66 m 26. 23. Since there are different volumetric flow conditions at each of these sections. Variable Section Diameter Weir Height Tray Spacing Weir Length Value 5. Two tray section sizes. The Actual Weir length is therefore the Weir Length recorded/3. Figure 7. Section_1 and Section_2.7-10 Dynamic Refining Tutorial HYSYS calculates the Main TS tray sizing parameters based on the steady state flow conditions of the column and the desired tray types.

Actual Weir Length. Weir Height. button from the bottom of the Column property view. Close the Tray Sizing:Main TS and Available Utilities views by pressing the Close button in the upper right hand corner of the window.. 7-11 .816 kPa 29 23. 29. Variable Maximum Pressure Drop/Tray Number of Trays Total Section Pressure Drop Value 0. 31. Confirm the Maximum Pressure Drop/Tray and note the number of trays in the Main TS column. On the PFD. Tray Space. Input the Actual Weir length calculated from the number of flow paths in the Sizing page. 32. Enter the Column Sub-Flowsheet by double clicking on the Column T-100 and then selecting the Column Environment. enter the following tray section parameters: Diameter.66 kPa Close Button 28.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-11 27.. The Total Section Pressure drop is calculated by multiplying the number of trays by the Maximum Pressure Drop/Tray. 30. You can select the units you want to input by selecting it from the drop-down menu beside the edit bar at the top of the property view. Be aware that the units for each tray section parameter may not be consistent with the units provided in the tray sizing utility. Select the tray type as Valve from the Internal Type group. On the Sizing page of the Rating tab. enter the Main TS property view by double-clicking on the Main TS Column in the PFD.

Figure 7. 35. note the steady state pressure profile across the column.7-12 Dynamic Refining Tutorial Figure 7. Close the Main TS property view. Access the Column property view by pressing the Column Runner button in the button bar.15 7-12 . Column Runner Button 34.14 33. In the Profiles page of the Parameters tab.

9 kPa 23. 42. On the Tray Sizing view change the name from its default Tray Sizing to Kero_SS TS. Converge the Column Sub-Flowsheet by pressing the Run Column Solver button in the button bar.16 Run Column Solver Button 37. • Kero_SS • Diesel_SS • AGO_SS 39. In the Pressure column of the Profiles group. 40. Click on the Select TS button. specify a bottom stage pressure (29_Main TS) of 221. Open the Utilities property view by selecting Utilities from the Tools menu bar. 38. Select the Tray Sizing utility by double clicking on it.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-13 Record the top stage pressure (1_Main TS). the following side stripper operations will be sized using the tray sizing utility as described in the Column Tray Sizing section. Calculate the theoretical bottom stage pressure as follows: Bottom Stage Pressure = Top Stage Pressure + Total Section Pressure Drop Variable Top Stage Pressure Total Section pressure drop Bottom Stage Pressure Value 197. 7-13 . Figure 7.66 kPa 221. 41. Side Stripper Tray Sizing In this section.56kPa.56 kPa (8. Close the Column property view. From the Select Tray Section view select the Kero_SS Object in the T-100 flowsheet by pressing OK.2) 36.

The following tray section parameters are calculated by the Tray Sizing utility for the Diesel_SS and AGO_SS side stripper unit operations: Variable Section Diameter Weir Height Tray Spacing Weir Length Number of Flow Paths Actual Weir Length Diesel_SS 1.7-14 Dynamic Refining Tutorial 43. Close the Available Utilities view.. On the AutoSection view: First press the Next button.515 m AGO_SS 0.6096 m 0. enter the Column Sub-Flowsheet by double clicking on the Column T-100 and then selecting the Column Environment. Size the Diesel_SS and AGO_SS side strippers by repeating steps #33 to #39.676 m 0. button from the bottom of the Column property view. Since there are only three trays in each side stripper. 7-14 . 44. Keeping the pressure profile across the side strippers constant will not greatly impact the transition from steady state mode to dynamics.362 1 1.0508 m 0.676 m 0.029 m 2 1. Close the Kero_SS TS tray sizing utility. Record the following tray section parameters available on the Results page of the Performance tab: Variable Section Diameter Weir Height Tray Spacing Weir Length Number of Flow Paths Actual Weir Length Kero_SS 1. If not. the pressure drop across their respective tray sections is small.777 m 1 0. 48.6096 m 3.0508 m 0.362 45. 47. You should still be in the Column Sub-Flowsheet environment.777 m The pressure drop rating information found in the side stripper tray sizing utilities will not be used to specify the pressure profile of the Side Stripper unit operations..0508 m 0.6096 m 1. 46. Press the AutoSection button in the Tray Sizing view.9144 m 0. then press the Complete AutoSection button to calculate the Kero_SS TS tray sizing parameters.

Save the case as DynTUT2-2. After the column has been specified with the tray rating information.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-15 49. In the Sizing page of the Rating tab of the Kero_SS property view. 53. 52. Close the Kero_SS property view.hsc. 50. Enter the Kero_SS property view by double clicking on the Kero_SS side stripper in the PFD. converge the column by pressing the Run Column Solver button in the button Bar. 54.17 51. specify the following tray section parameters that were calculated in the above table: • • • • section diameter tray spacing weir height actual weir length Figure 7. Run Column Solver Button 7-15 . Specify the tray rating information for the Diesel_SS and AGO_SS side strippers by repeating steps #40 to #42.

7-16 Dynamic Refining Tutorial Vessel Sizing The Condenser and Kero_SS_Reb operations require proper sizing before they can operate effectively in dynamic mode.7 152. In the Conditions page of the Worksheet tab. Enter the Condenser property view. The volumes of these vessel operations are determined based on a 10 minute liquid residence time.8 7-16 . confirm the following Liquid Volumetric Flow of the following streams: Liquid Volumetric Flow Rate (m3/h) Reflux Naphtha Waste Water Total Liquid Exit Flow Value 106. 55.18 56.4 5. Figure 7.7 264.

On the Specs page of the Dynamics tab. Close the Condenser property view. specify the Vessel volume as 88.3 m3 and the Level calculator as a Vertical Cylinder in the Model Details group. assuming a 50% liquid level residence volume and a 10 min. Figure 7. Enter the Kero_SS_Reb property view.20 7-17 . residence time: Total Liquid Exit Flow ⋅ Residence Time Vessel Volume = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-17 57. 58.3) 59. Calculate the vessel volume as follows.19 (8. Figure 7. 60.3 m3.5 The vessel volume calculated for the Condenser is 88.

68.21 64. Close the Kero_SS_Reb property view. 65. specify the Vessel volume as 20. 67. Cooler Volume Sizing HYSYS assigns a default volume to each COOLER unit operation in the Column Sub-Flowsheet. Enter the PA_1_Cooler Property view by double-clicking on the PA_1_Cooler operation in the PFD. In the Conditions page of the Worksheet tab. Assume a 10 minute of residence time and a 50% liquid level residence volume. Press DELETE.61 m3/h 62. The Dynamic Specifications group box for the PA_1_Cooler should be 7-18 . In the Specs page of the Dynamic tab.7-18 Dynamic Refining Tutorial 61. Modify each pumparound cooler to initialize with a default vessel volume. 63. confirm the following Liquid Volumetric Flow of the following streams: Liquid Volumetric Flow Rate Kerosene Value 61. On the Specs page of the Dynamics tab. 66.5 m3 and the Level calculator as a Horizontal Cylinder in the Model Details group. Figure 7.5 m3. The vessel volume calculated for the Kero_SS_Reb is 20. No dynamic specifications should be set for the pumparound coolers. A default volume of 0. Check if all the specifications in the Dynamic Specifications group are unchecked. click on the Volume cell in the Model Details group box.10 m3 is displayed.

Adding Controller Operations Controller operations may be added before or after the transition to dynamic mode. Save the case as DynTUT2-3. Specify the volumes of the PA_2_Cooler and the PA_3_Cooler operations by repeating steps #60 to #64. Key control loops will be identified and controlled using PID Controller logical operations. 7-19 .PID Controller of the Dynamics Modelling guide.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-19 displayed as follows: Figure 7. change the Name of the Controller to Cond LC.2 . For more information regarding PID Controller. 71. they will increase the realism of the model and provide more stability.hsc. Add a PID Controller operation by pressing and dragging the PID Controller button from the Object Palette to the PFD. On the Connections tab of the controller property view. Close the PA_1_Cooler view 70. Level Control Level controllers will be added to the simulation flowsheet to control the levels of the condenser and reboiler. see Section 10. PID Controller Button 72. Although these controllers are not required to run in Dynamic mode.22 69. 73. This controller will serve as the Condenser level controller.

7-20 Dynamic Refining Tutorial 74. supply the required information by pressing the Select PV button and selecting the information as shown in the figure below. Figure 7. Click on the OK button when you’ve finished making your selection. For the Output Target Object group box. For the Process Variable Source group box. Click on the OK button when you’ve finished selecting the information. supply the required information by pressing the Select OP button and selecting the information as shown in the figure below.23 75. Figure 7.24 7-20 .

27 7-21 . Click on the Control Valve button. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate by opening the drop down menu and selecting Auto. Figure 7. Supply the following in the Configuration page of the Parameters tab: Input Area Action Kc Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Direct 4 5 minutes 0% 100% 77. Figure 7. Click on the Face Plate button at the bottom of the property view. Complete the Valve Sizing group box of the FCV for Reflux view as shown below: Figure 7.26 80.1 . Close the FCV for Reflux view. The Face Plate for Reactor LC is displayed.25 For more information regarding Face Plates. 79. see Section 10.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-21 76.PID Controller of the Dynamics Modelling 78.

Figure 7. Click on the Control Valve button. Flow Control Flow controllers will be added to the product streams of the column. 84. These controllers will ensure that sufficient material is leaving the column. Liquid Percent Level Kero_SS_Draw Reverse 1 5 minutes 0% 100% 83. Enter the following details in the Valve Sizing group box of the FCV for Kero_SS_Draw view: Input Area Flow Type Minimum Flow Maximum Flow Entry MolarFlow 0 kgmole/h 1000 kgmole/h 85. Add a PID Controller operation which will serve as the Kero_SS_Reb level controller. Click on the Face Plate button.7-22 Dynamic Refining Tutorial 81. Double click on the PV window and input the set point to be 50%. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate and input a setpoint of 50%. 7-22 . 86. Close the FCV for Kero_SS_Draw view. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Reb LC Kero_SS_Reb.28 82.

92. Add a PID Controller operation which will serve as the Off Gas flow controller. Click on the Face Plate button. Liquid Volume Flow Diesel_SS_Draw Reverse 1 5 minutes 0 m3/h 250 m3/h 93. 89. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate and input a setpoint of 5 kgmole/h. 7-23 . Close the FCV for Atmos Cond view. Enter the following details in the Direct Q group box of the FCV for Atmos Cond view: Input Area Minimum Available Maximum Available Entry 0 kJ/h 2 x 108 kJ/h 90.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-23 87. Add a PID Controller operation which will serve as the Diesel flow controller.01 5 minutes 0 kgmole/h 100 kgmole/h 88. Molar Flow Atmos Cond Direct 0. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Diesel FC Diesel. 91. Click on the Control Valve button. Make sure that the Direct Q radio button in the Duty Source group is selected. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Off Gas FC Off Gas. Click on the Control Valve button.

97. Close the FCV for AGO_SS_Draw view. 96. Save the case as DynTUT2-4. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry AGO FC AGO. Click on the Face Plate button.7 3 minutes 0 m3/h 60 m3/h 98. Liquid Volume Flow AGO_SS_Draw Reverse 0. Enter the following details in the Valve Sizing group box of the FCV for AGO_SS_Draw view: Input Area Flow Type Minimum Flow Maximum Flow Entry MolarFlow 0 kgmole/h 250 kgmole/h 100. 99.hsc.5 m3/h. Click on the Face Plate button. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate and input a setpoint of 127. 101. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate and input a setpoint of 29. Enter the following details in the Valve Sizing group box of the FCV for Diesel_SS_Draw view: Input Area Flow Type Minimum Flow Maximum Flow Entry MolarFlow 0 kgmole/h 1200 kgmole/h 95. Close the FCV for Diesel_SS_Draw view. Click on the Control Valve button. Add a PID Controller operation which will serve as the AGO flow controller.8 m3/h.7-24 Dynamic Refining Tutorial 94. 7-24 . 102.

The following pumparound streams require flow specifications since both the Pressure Flow and the Delta P specifications are not set for the pumparound coolers. Atm Feed Main Steam AGO Steam Diesel Steam Off Gas Waste Water Naphtha Kerosene Diesel AGO Residue This simplified column has all the feed streams specified with a flow specification. The liquid exit streams of the column and the side stripper operations require pressure specifications since there are no attached pieces of equipment in these streams. Normally. All the other exit streams associated with the column require flow specifications. The Off Gas stream has a pressure specification which defines the pressure of the condenser and consequently. coolers. pumps. One extra pressure flow specification is required for every condenser or side stripper unit operation attached to the main column. Flow specifications are to be made on the following streams: • PA_1_Draw • PA_2_Draw • PA_3_Draw 7-25 . you should make one pressure-flow specification per flowsheet boundary stream. the degrees of freedom for the flowsheet must be reduced to zero by setting the pressure-flow specifications. Without other pieces of equipment (i. the entire column.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-25 Adding Pressure-Flow Specifications Before integration can begin in HYSYS. valves) to define the pressure flow relation of these streams. there are exceptions to the rule. they must be specified with a flow specification.e. This rule applies only if there are no pieces of equipment attached to the reflux stream of the condenser or the draw stream of the side strippers. However. Pressure-flow specifications for this case will be added to the following boundary streams: • • • • • • • • • • • For more information regarding Pressure Flow specifications in Column unit operations see Chapter 8 Column Operation in Dynamic Modelling guide.

Use the following procedure to set a pressure-flow specification for a general material stream: 105. activate the flow and/or the pressure of the material stream.29 Dynamic Mode Button Once a pressure or flow specification has been made active. 7-26 . When asked if you want to allow dynamics assistant to identify items which are needed to be addressed before proceeding into dynamics. the stream value turns blue and can be modified by the user. They must be set with flow specification: • • • • Reflux Kero_SS_Draw Diesel_SS_Draw AGO_SS_Draw 103. Enter the Main Flowsheet environment. click on the No button. Every material stream in the Main Flowsheet requires either a pressure or flow specification. In the Specs page of the Dynamics tab. Switch to Dynamic mode by pressing the Dynamic Mode button.7-26 Dynamic Refining Tutorial The following streams have their flow specifications defined by PID Controller operations. Figure 7. 106. Double-click on the material stream to enter the material stream’s property view. Return to Parent Simulation Environment Button 104.

7 kgmole/h 152. Material Stream Atm Feed Main Steam AGO Steam Diesel Steam Off Gas Waste Water Naphtha Kerosene Diesel AGO Residue Pressure Specification Inactive Inactive Inactive Inactive Pressure Inactive Inactive Inactive Pressure Pressure Pressure Flow Specification Molar Flow Molar Flow Molar Flow Molar Flow Inactive Molar Flow Ideal LiqVol Flow Ideal LiqVol Flow Inactive Inactive Inactive Value 2826 kgmole/h 188.1 kPa 223.8 kgmole/h 62.61 m3/h 212. Activate the following pressure or flow specifications for the following streams in the Main Flowsheet. Enter the Column Subflowsheet environment using the Object Navigator and then double clicking on T-100 in the Flowsheet group. Every material stream in the column environment also requires either a pressure or flow specification.54 kgmole/h 135. Double-click on the material stream to enter the material stream’s property view.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-27 107.4 kPa 108. 7-27 . Use the following procedure to set a pressure-flow specification for a general material stream: 109.95 kgmole/h 75.4 m3/h 61.5 kPa 217.8 kPa 317.

5 kgmole/h 426.9 kgmole/h 124. 112.8 kgmole/h 111. 113. Material Stream PA_1_Draw PA_2_Draw PA_3_Draw Reflux Kero_SS_Draw Diesel_SS_Draw AGO_SS_Draw Pressure-Flow Specification Molar Flow Molar Flow Molar Flow Molar Flow Molar Flow Molar Flow Molar Flow Value 2183 kgmole/h 830. You can close all the views except the face plates.30 Activate the following pressure or flow specifications for the following streams in the Column Subflowsheet.1 kgmole/h 648. activate the flow and/or the pressure of the material stream.hsc. Save the case as DynTUT2-5.7-28 Dynamic Refining Tutorial 110. To arrange the face plates.9 kgmole/h 883.6 kgmole/h 616. In the Specs page of the Dynamics tab. select the Arrange Desktop option from the Windows menu 7-28 . Figure 7.

HYSYS will detect that no vapour phase exist in the Condenser at the specified process conditions. Click on the Increase Temperature button. 117. so that all the values have propagated through the column. The following is a general procedure to install strip charts in HYSYS. When you are given the option to run dynamic assistant. the next step is installing a strip chart to monitor the general trends of key variables. 116. You can also create a non-equilibrium vapour phase or set the liquid level to be 100%.31 HYSYS recommend that you increase the temperature setting to create a vapour phase. It will display the following message: Figure 7.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-29 Integrator Buttons 114. select No. For the sake of this example. Let the integrator run for few minutes. 7-29 . When the integrator is initially run. The integrator can be run at this point. Stop the integrator using the Stop Integrator button. Monitoring in Dynamics Now that the model is ready to run in Dynamic mode. select the default recommendation. 115.

Figure 7. The Navigator operates in a left-to-right manner-the selected Flowsheet determines the Object list. 121. Select Liquid Percent Level in the Variable list. On the Variables tab. Pick the UnitOps radio button in the Object Filter group. Open the Databook by using the hot key combination CTRL D. Figure 7. 122.7-30 Dynamic Refining Tutorial 118. 120. The variable will now appear in the Databook. and the Variable list available for the column will appear for the column will appear to the right of the Object list. and the selected variable determines whether any Variable Specifics are available.32 The Variable Navigator is used extensively in HYSYS for locating and selecting variables. Click on the OK button. 124. click on the Insert button which will display the Variable Navigator view. 123. Select the Column T-100 from the Flowsheet group by clicking on it. The Object list will be filtered to show unit operations only.33 7-30 . the chosen Object dictates the Variable list. 119. Click on the Condenser in the Object list.

Activate the Cond Liq Level (%) variable in the Strip Chart by clicking on its blank Active check box. and HYSYS will create a new Strip Chart with the default name DataLogger1.Dynamic Refining Tutorial 7-31 Add all of that variables that you would like to manipulate or model.3 . Select the Strip Charts tab from the Databook view. A list of suggested variables is shown below: 125. You may choose to click on the top variable in the list of Available Data Entries before inserting a new variable so that the new variable is always added to the top of the list. the next task is to create a Strip Chart to monitor the dynamics behaviour of those variables: 126. Repeat steps #114 to #119 to add the remaining variables to the Databook as shown in the table below. 130.Strip Charts Tab in the User’s Guide. Object Kero_SS_Reb Off Gas Condenser Variable Liquid Percent Level Molar Flow Vessel Temperature Now that the key variables have been added to the Databook. refer to Section 5. 129. Repeat step #123 to activate the other variables as shown below. Click on the Add button. 7-31 . Click on the DataLogger1 in the list of Available Strip Charts group and click on the Setup button to open the Strip Chart SetUp view. This view allows you to customize how the data is displayed on the Strip Chart. 127. 128.34 For more detailed on the Strip Chart setup.3. Figure 7.

On the Strip Charts tab in the Databook. 133. Perform an analysis by manipulating variables and viewing the response of other variables.7-32 Dynamic Refining Tutorial 131. Start Integrator Button 132. 7-32 . 134. The Column Key Variables view should be visible on your Desktop. You are now ready to begin dynamics calculations. Allow the variables to line out. click on the Strip Chart button to view each strip chart. Start the Integrator by pressing the green Start Integrator button.

The reactor products were then fed into a distillation tower where the glycol product was recovered in the tower bottoms.Plant will be incorporated into a basic steady state chemicals model.1 8-1 . it is suggested that you complete Chapter 2 . a continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) converted propylene oxide and water into propylene glycol. If you have not built the simulation for the steady state Chemicals tutorial. you can open the pre-built case included with your HYSYS package. The Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial will take the steady state CSTR simulation case and convert it into dynamic mode. A flowsheet of the completed Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial is shown as follows: Figure 8. the dynamic capabilities of HYSYS.hsc in your HYSYS\SAMPLES directory Before proceeding. In the steady state Chemicals Tutorial.Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-1 8 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial In this tutorial. A completed dynamic case has been pre-built and is located in the file DynTUTOR3.Dynamic Fundamentals Tutorial to gain a firm understanding of dynamic simulation methods.

1. 3. Delete all material streams and unit operations downstream of the Reactor Prods stream. 2. The Dynamics Assistant will be used to make pressure-flow specifications. modify the flowsheet topology. Use the Dynamic Assistant to set pressure-flow specifications. The following 6 items should be deleted: 2. The Chemicals Processing simulation file TUTOR3. specify Field in the Current Unit Set group box. It is also possible to set your own pressure-flow specifications and size the equipment without the aid of the Dynamic Assistant. Open the pre-built case file TUTOR3. Note that this is only one method of preparing a steady state case for dynamic mode. and size the equipment. Simplifying the Steady State Flowsheet The distillation column in the Chemicals Tutorial will be deleted in this section. The COLUMN operation will be deleted from the simulation flowsheet. 8-2 .8-2 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial Only the CSTR reactor will be converted to dynamic mode. 4. you will be working with Field units. Modify the Reactor vent stream to account for reverse flow conditions. Obtain a simplified steady-state model to be converted to dynamic mode. Set up the Databook. This tutorial will comprehensively guide you through the steps required to add dynamic functionality to a steady state chemicals simulation. Make changes to key variables in the process and observe the dynamic behaviour of the model.hsc. In the Units tab.hsc is located in your HYSYS\SAMPLES directory. To help navigate these detailed procedures. The units may be changed by entering the Preferences property view in the Tools menu bar. Set up temperature and level controllers around and in the Reactor vessel. modify the flowsheet topology. In this tutorial. and size pieces of equipment in the simulation flowsheet. 5. the following steps will be taken to set up the dynamic simulation case: 1.

If you want to delete the object.Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-3 Items to be deleted Material Streams When you delete a stream. 5. Close the stream property view.2 Before entering dynamics. The PFD for the dynamic tutorial should look like the following: Figure 8. On the Parameters page of the Design tab. If not. the pressure specification on the Water Feed stream should be removed so that the MIX-100 unit operation can calculate it’s pressure based on the Prop Oxide stream specification. Type in the file name as DynTUT3-1. Open the File menu and select Save As. switch to Equalize All option in the Automatic Pressure Assignment group. The steady state simulation case should solve with the deletion of the above items. 8. HYSYS will ask you for confirmation of the deletion. Save the case as DynTUTOR3-1. unit or logical operation from the flowsheet. Ovhd Vap RecyProds Glycol Energy Streams CondDuty RebDuty Unit Operations Tower 3. click the No button. Close the mixer property view. 10. click on the Yes button. 9. 6.hsc and click the Save button. 7. 4.hsc. Open the Water Feed stream property view by double clicking on the stream icon. 8-3 . On the Conditions page of the Worksheet tab delete the pressure setting. Open the MIX-100 property view.

Figure 8.3 The Dynamic Assistant will be used to: • Add Pressure Flow specifications to the simulation case. Close the Session Preference view along with all the open views on the HYSYS desktop (except for the PFD view) by clicking the Close button in the top right hand corner of each view. Select Preference from the Tools menu to open the Session Preference view. and Heat Exchange operations. Close Button 8-4 . You should be aware that not all the suggestions the Dynamic Assistant offers need to be followed. • Add Valves to the Boundary Feed and Product streams. the Session Preference will be set so that the Dynamic Assistant would not manipulate the dynamic specifications. Vessel. 12. 11. In addition. 13. • Size the Valve. it automatically sets the sizing parameters of the equipment in the simulation flowsheet. Move to the Dynamics page on the Simulation tab and uncheck the Set dynamic stream specifications in the background option. For the purpose of this example.8-4 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial Using the Dynamic Assistant The Dynamic Assistant makes recommendations as to how the flowsheet topology should change and what pressure-flow specifications are required in order to run a case in dynamic mode.

Press the Dynamic Assistant button. the Dynamic Assistant can be initiated to evaluate the specifications required to run in dynamic simulation 14. 8-5 .Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-5 Figure 8. Dynamic Assistant Button All recommendations the Dynamic Assistant suggests are defaulted to be implemented since the OK check box is activated.4 Now. Select the Streams tab. Figure 8.5 An Inactive recommendation will not be implemented by the Dynamic Assistant. An Active recommendation will be implemented by the Dynamic Assistant. The Streams tab contains a list of recommendations regarding the setting or removing of pressureflow specifications in the flowsheet. 15. You can choose which recommendations will be executed by the Dynamic Assistant by activating or deactivating the OK check boxes beside each recommendation. Browse through each tab in the Dynamic Assistant view to inspect the recommendations.

Therefore. A valve should not be inserted on this stream. Close or cancel the Dynamic Assistant view. you must set a pressure specification on this stream. activate or deactivate the following tabulated recommendations: Tab [Page] Streams [Pressure Specs] Streams [Flow Specs] Recommendation Remove Pressure Specifications Remove Flow Specifications Stream Prop Oxide OK Check Box Active Prop Oxide Water Feed Prop Oxide Active Active Active Active Inactive Active Streams [Insert Valves] Reactor Prods Insert Valves Reactor Vent Water Feed The Dynamic Assistant will insert valves on all the boundary flow streams except the Reactor Vent stream. Since the suggestion to insert a valve on the Reactor Vent stream was deactivated. For each page in the Streams tab. This recommendation was deactivated since it is assumed that the CSTR reactor is exposed to the open air. the pressure of the reactor is constant. A constant pressure can be modelled in the CSTR reactor by setting the Reactor Vent stream with a pressure specification. Switch to Dynamic mode by pressing the Dynamic mode button. Activate the following recommendations: Tab [Page] Other Specs [Misc] Recommendation Set Equalize Option Mixers Unit Operation MIX-100 OK Check Box Active 18. Press the Make Changes button once. Dynamic Mode Button 19. 17. All the active suggestions in the Dynamic Assistant are implemented. This tab contains a list of miscellaneous changes that should to be made in order for the Dynamic simulation case to run effectively. click on the No button. Select the Other tab. 8-6 . When asked if you want to let the dynamics assistant evaluate your process before moving into dynamics.8-6 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 16.

In order for the CSTR to operate in steady state and dynamic mode. 23. When vapour enters the vessel (reverse flow). In order to model this effect. When vapour exits the reactor vessel (regular flow). 22. the composition of the Reactor Vent stream is calculated from the existing vapour in the vessel. Since the Dynamic Assistant detected that a volume was already specified for the CSTR reactor. Since the liquid level in the CSTR can move up and down. Enter the Reactor Vent stream property view by double-clicking on the Reactor Vent stream in the PFD. it did not attempt to size it.hsc. 21. Modelling a CSTR open to the atmosphere The CSTR reactor is open to the atmosphere and the liquid level of the reactor can change in dynamic mode.Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-7 20. one additional modification to the Reactor Vent stream is required. Save the case as DynTUT3-2. Close the Reactor Vent stream property view. regular and reverse flow can be expected in the Reactor Vent stream. activate the pressure specification.6 24. the composition of the vapour 8-7 . the vessel must be specified with a volume. The PFD for the dynamic tutorial (before the addition of the controllers) should look like the following: Figure 8. On the Specs page of the Dynamics tab. This means that the vapour space in the liquid reactor also varies with the changing liquid level. the Reactor Vent stream was set with a constant pressure specification. However.

Figure 8. modify. The original steady state Chemicals tutorial used a Fluid Package which did not include any inert gases. it is necessary to return to the Simulation Basis Manager and add any desired components to the Fluid Package. Enter the Simulation Basis Manager view by clicking on the Enter Basis Environment button.8-8 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial stream from the atmosphere must be defined by the Product Block attached to the Reactor Vent stream. 25. Therefore. the Fluid Package associated with the Chemical Tutorial is displayed: The Simulation Basis Manager allows you to create. It is therefore necessary to specify the Product Block composition. 8-8 . Highlight the fluid package and press the View button. 26.7 Enter Basis Environment Button 27. In the Current Fluid Packages group box. and otherwise manipulate Fluid Packages in your simulation case.

32. In the Simulation Basis Manager view. 8-9 . click on the Return to Simulation Environment button. enter the Reactor Vent stream property view by double-clicking on the Reactor Vent stream. or by pressing and releasing ALT M. Close the Fluid Package: Basis-1 property view. The Fluid Package: Basis-1 property view appears. Select the Components tab.Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-9 28. Nitrogen is added to the Current Component List.8 29. Figure 8. Start typing Nitrogen and press the ENTER key. Move to the Match cell by clicking it. 31. Select the FullName/Synonym radio button. On the PFD. 30.

9 34. Enter the Product Block view by clicking on the Product Block button on the Specs page of the Dynamics tab. View Downstream Operation Button.0 0.8-10 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 33. You can also enter the Product Block view of the Reactor Vent stream by pressing the View Downstream Operation button. Figure 8.0 1.0 0. Specify the composition of the reverse flow stream as follows: Component 12C3Oxide 12-C3diol H2O Nitrogen Mole Fraction 0. Select the Composition tab in the ProductBlock_Reactor Vent view.0 8-10 .

Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-11 35. Save the case as DynTUT3-3. Select the Temperature radio button in the Flow Reversal Conditions group box. 38. This controller will serve as the Reactor level controller. PID Controller Button 8-11 . Close the Reactor Vent stream property view.10 36. they will increase the realism of the model and provide more stability. Level Control A level controller will be used to control the liquid level in the CSTR Reactor operation. Adding Controller Operations Key control loops will be identified and implemented using PID Controller logical operations. 39.hsc. Select the Conditions tab in the ProductBlock_Reactor Vent view. Although these controllers are not required to run in dynamic mode. Figure 8. Input a temperature of 77 oF. Close the ProductBlock_Reactor Vent view. 37. Add a PID Controller operation by clicking and dragging the PID Controller button from the Object Palette to the PFD. These stream conditions will be used to flash the pure nitrogen stream when the Reactor Vent flow reverses.

12 8-12 . In the Connections tab. Click on the OK button when you’ve finished making your selection. supply the required information by clicking on the Select PV button and selecting the information as shown in the figure below. change the Name of the controller to Reactor LC. For the Output Target Object group box. Click on the OK button when you’ve finished selecting the information. Figure 8.11 42. Figure 8. For the Process Variable Source group box. 41.8-12 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 40. supply the required information by clicking the Select OP button and selecting the information as shown in the figure below.

Figure 8.Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-13 43. Supply the following on the Configuration page of the Parameters tab: Input Area Action Kc Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Direct 2 10 minutes 0% 100% 44. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate by opening the drop down menu and selecting Auto.14 8-13 . Double-click on the PV window and input the set point to be 85%. Click on the Face Plate button at the bottom of the property view.13 46. 45. Figure 8. The Face Plate for Reactor LC is displayed.

Add a PID Controller operation which will serve as the Water Feed flow controller. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate and input a set point of 8712 lb/hr. Click on the Face Plate button. Mass Flow VLV-Prop Oxide Reverse 0. Mass Flow VLV-Water Feed Reverse 0.8-14 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial Flow Control Flow controllers will be added to the feed streams in the process. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry PropOxide FC Prop Oxide. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kc Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry WaterFeed FC Water Feed.1 5 minutes 0 lb/hr 18000 lb/hr 48. Add a PID Controller operation which will serve as the Prop Oxide flow controller. 49.1 5 minutes 0 lb/hr 22000 lb/hr 8-14 . 47.

hsc. 8-15 . Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate and input a set point of 11000 lb/hr. 53. Save the case as DynTUT3-4.Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-15 50. Click on the Face Plate button. Click on the Face Plate button. 56. The control will be implemented using a energy utility stream. Enter the following details in the Direct Q group box of the FCV for Coolant view: Input Area Minimum Energy Flow Maximum Energy Flow Entry 0 Btu/h 1 x 107 Btu/h 54. Select the Direct Q radio button in the Duty Source group box. Click on the Control Valve button. Close the FCV for Coolant view. Specify the following details: Tab [Page] Input Area Name Connections Process Variable Source Output Target Object Action Kp Parameters [Configuration] Ti PV Minimum PV Maximum Entry Reactor TC Reactor. Temperature Control A temperature controller will be used to control the temperature of the CSTR reactor.75 5 minutes 70 oF 300 oF 52. 51. 55. Vessel Temperature Coolant Direct 1. Change the controller mode to Auto on the face plate and input a set point of 140 oF. Add a PID Controller operation which will serve as the Reactor temperature controller.

59. 8-16 . You have the option to select either the default. It is possible to monitor important variables in dynamics using strip charts. Select the default setting. Figure 8. click on the No button. Increase Temperature. When you are given the option to run the dynamic assistant first before running the integrator. HYSYS will detect that the Reactor does not have a vapour phase at the specified process conditions. and observe the dynamic behaviour of the model. Stop the Integrator. When the integrator is initially run. You will probably want to make changes to key variables in the process. or the 100% Liquid in the Reactor. which is the Increase Temperature. The integrator can be run at this point.8-16 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial Integrator Button 57.15 58.

16 Add all of the variables that you would like to manipulate or model. The following is a general procedure to install strip charts in HYSYS. Open the Databook by using the hot key combination CTRL D. 60. a strip chart can be created to monitor the general trends of key variables. Figure 8. A list of suggested variables is given below: Variables to Manipulate Prop Oxide Mass Flow Water Feed Mass Flow Variables to Monitor Reactor Vessel Temperature Reactor Prods Comp Molar Flow 12C3Oxide Reactor Liquid Percent Level Setup a simple strip chart in dynamics using the following method.Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-17 Monitoring in Dynamics Now that the model is ready to run in dynamic mode. 8-17 . Include feed and energy streams that you wish to modify in the dynamic simulation.

Click on the OK button to return to the Databook. Select the Flowsheet. Select the Strip Charts tab from the Databook view. On the Variables tab. The variable will now appear on the Variables page. 66.18 8-18 . Object and Variable for any of the suggested variables. click on the Insert button.8-18 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 61. The Variable Navigator is displayed: Figure 8. After all the variables have been added. 63. Repeat steps # 66 to #68 to add any remaining variables to the Databook. close the Variable Navigator. 65. 64.17 62. Figure 8.

press the Strip Chart button to view each strip chart. 69. On the Strip Charts tab in the Databook. 71. 73. 8-19 . Click on the Add button. 70. Start the Integrator and allow the variables to line out.Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-19 67. Perform an analysis by manipulating variables and viewing the response of other variables. Change the configuration of each strip chart by pressing the Setup button. add more strip charts by repeating steps #69 and #70.You may change the default name by editing the Logger Name cell. HYSYS will create a new strip chart with the default name DataLogger1. 72. Check the Active check box for each of the variables that you would like to monitor. 68. If required.

8-20 Dynamic Chemicals Tutorial 8-20 .

If you require detailed descriptions on how to construct models in HYSYS. a comprehensive Tutorial manual is provided in the documentation package for this purpose.HYSYS Applications i HYSYS Applications This binder contains examples that illustrate many of the features of HYSYS. To solve this example. A spreadsheet is employed to calculate various loadings and verify that they are within an acceptable range. in general terms. you must have the Amines property package. A sour natural gas stream is stripped of H2S and CO2 in a Contactor (absorber) tower. The HYSYS Applications describe. All aspects are not illustrated in every example. i . The rich DEA (diethanolamine) is regenerated in a Stripping tower and the lean DEA is recycled back to the Contactor. which is an optional property package. The examples in the Applications binder provide a broad range of problems related to various segments of industry and are organized as follows: Gas Processing G-1 Acid Gas Sweetening with DEA – Steady State Modelling. Steady State modeling and Optimization. Optional Amines Package The Amines Property Package is an optional property package. The applications include aspects of Conceptual Design.detailed methods of constructing the models are not provided. how to completely model particular processes using various features of HYSYS . It is not included in the base version of HYSYS. so the areas of interest in each application are highlighted below.

Petrochemicals P-1 Propane/Propylene Splitter – Steady State Modelling. The use of the Sour Peng Robinson (Sour_PR) is highlighted. kerosene. Sour Thermo Options.Steady State Modelling. Chemicals C-2 Ethanol Plant – Steady State Modelling An ethanol production process is modelled right from the fermentor outlet through to the production of low grade and high grade (azeotropic) ethanol products. Column Sub-Flowsheet The individual Stripper tower and Rectifier tower components of a propane/propylene splitter system are modelled. atmospheric gas oil (AGO) and atmospheric residue products. A complete oil characterization procedure is part of this example application. ii .ii HYSYS Applications Refining R-1 Atmospheric Crude Tower – Steady State Modelling. HYSYS’s builtin Case study tool is used to examine the effects of varying column feed temperatures. R-2 Sour Water Stripper . diesel. Two separate towers in the same Column Sub-Flowsheet are used in this example to illustrate the simultaneous solution power of HYSYS’s Column SubFlowsheet. Oil Characterization A preheated (450 F) light crude (29 API) is processed in an atmospheric fractionation tower to produce naphtha. Case Study Sour water is fed to a distillation tower for NH3 and H2S removal.

The case is then converted to a dynamics simulation by adding valves and assigning pressure flow specifications on the boundary streams (you require to HYSYS. Reactors Synthesis gas (H2/N2 on a 3:1 basis) is the necessary feedstock for an ammonia plant. A spreadsheet operation imports the H2/N2 molar ratio to a ratio controller. Within each User Unit Op. This example also demonstrates the use of an Adjust operation to control a reactor outlet temperature. Reaction Manager.Steady State Modelling. steam. iii . The Initialize() macro sets the field names for the various stream feed and product connections and created two text user variables.HYSYS Applications iii C-4 Synthesis Gas Production . Air. Temperature controllers are used to achieve the reactors setpoint by manipulating the duty streams. in the target case.Steady State Modelling This case explores the use of the User Unit Operation to link two HYSYS simulation cases such that the changes made to the first case are automatically and transparently propagated to the second case.Plant to perform this step). named by the Initialize() macro. controlling the Air flowrate. The Execute() macro uses the GetObject method to open the target link case and then it attempts to locate the material stream. Reactors are sized using the actual gas flow and the residence time. The traditional process for creating synthesis gas is explored in this example. and natural gas are fed to a series of reactors. HYSYS Extensibility X-1 Case Linking . Extensive use of HYSYS’s Reaction Manager is illustrated as four individual reactions are grouped into three reaction sets that are used in five different reactors. which produces a stoichiomtrically correct product. two Visual BasicTM macros are used.

iv HYSYS Applications iv .

taken from the Workbook. In this case the operation is a Compressor named K-100. the unit operations are summarized in text boxes similar to the one shown below. the complete results of the simulation. followed by a brief engineering overview of the process. On the first page. v .Example Application Layout v Example Application Layout All of the applications in this binder are presented using a similar format. The name and type of operation will always be shown at the top of the summary. a process flow diagram (PFD) of the entire process is displayed. are shown. In the Main Simulation Environment. To complete the application. COMPRESSOR [K-100] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Comments Input Area Inlet Outlet Energy Adiabatic Efficiency Entry 24 25 70 75 Add this Compressor between the Separator S-100 and the Ovhd stream. The second page contains a PFD representing the individual Sub-Flowsheets as well as Column Sub-Flowsheets PFD. Operation Summaries In most of the examples. The first part consists of setting up the fluid package and selecting components. the Steady State case is built. when applicable.

Design. The property view for the Compressor K-100 would appear as shown below. leave all parameters on that page (or tab) at their defaults. if an item on a page (or a tab) is not included in the summary. Rating. vi . In this example. In some of the summaries you will see the heading Comments in the first column. the box is left the at the default value. Because this information is not included in the summary. has five tabs. The Compressor. the Comment indicates that a Compressor should be added between the Separator S-100 and the Ovhd stream. Each tab has related pages. or specifying a parameter of a connected stream. Figure 1 . it should be left at its default. Note that the summary does not state whether the Enable Curves box should be checked. Generally. The first column contains the tab and page of the unit operation where the information is required. for example. Performance and Dynamics. If an entire page (or tab) is not included in the summary. Worksheet. The comment will indicate a specific action in the simulation relating to the operation. organized in three columns. such as adding new unit operations between the existing unit operations and streams.vi Example Application Layout The table displays all the information applicable to the operation.

The lean amine is cooled and recycled back to the contactor. where it is heated to the regenerator feed temperature of 200 F. G1-1 . Acid gas is rejected from the regenerator at 120 F. Diethanolamine (DEA) at a strength of 28 wt% in water is used as the absorbing medium. The rich amine is flashed from the contactor pressure of 1000 psia to 90 psia before it enters the rich/lean amine exchanger.Acid Gas Sweetening with DEA G1-1 G1 Acid Gas Sweetening with DEA Figure G1.1 Process Description In this example. A water-saturated natural gas stream is fed to an amine contactor. The contactor consists of 20 real stages. For this example. The regenerator also consists of 20 real stages. a typical acid gas treating facility is simulated.1 G1. while the lean amine is produced at approximately 260 F.

which will be regenerated in a distillation column. Setup . Steady State Simulation .2 Figure G1. H2S. 2. An analysis on both the SWEET GAS and the ACID GAS will be performed to satisfy the specified criterion.3 There are two basic steps in this process simulation: 1. CO2. MDEA DGA Wt % 15-20 25-35 35-50 45-65 Figure G1. H2O and DEA.The Component list includes C1 through C7 as well as N2.G1-2 Recommended amine strength ranges: Lean Amine Strength in Water Amine MEA DEA TEA.The case will consist of an absorber scrubbing the inlet gas using DEA solution. G1-2 . Sweet gas will leave the top whereas the bottom stream will be sent to a regenerator column.

The stream specifications are shown here.The liquid stream from the absorber will be regenerated in a 18 stage distillation column. Change the default units for the Liquid Volume Flow to USGPM and the Molar Flow to MMSCFD. Installing the DEA Contractor . i-C5. C2. The ACID GAS will be rejected from the top and the regenerated DEA will be send back to the DEA CONTACTOR. G1-3 .Acid Gas Sweetening with DEA G1-3 G1. The components to be selected are N2. Clone the Field unit set. G1.3. This is a D. Water Mass Frac.280 Installing the DEA CONTACTOR Feed Streams Before the amine contactor can be calculated. Robinson proprietary property package that predicts the behaviour of amine-hydrocarbon-water systems.B. C3.2 Setup The Amines property package is required to run this example problem. n-C5. G1. CO2.0018 0.A 20 stage absorber column will be used to scrub the SOUR GAS with DEA solution(DEA TO CONT). 2.3 Steady State Simulation The following major steps will be taken to setup this case in steady state: 1. C1. Entry 95 F 995 psia 190 USGPM 0.1 MATERIAL STREAM [DEA TO CONT] Input Area Temperature Pressure Liquid Volume Flow CO2 Mass Frac. an estimate of the lean amine feed (DEA TO CONT) and the inlet gas stream (SOUR GAS) must be provided. The DEA TO CONT values will be updated once the recycle operation is installed and has been calculated. DEA Mass Frac. H2O. H2S.720 0. C7. The SWEET GAS will leave from the tower from the top whereas the pollutant rich liquid will be flashed before entering REGENERATOR. n-C4. Regenerating the DEA . C6. and DEA. i-C4.

DEA Mole Frac. C1 Mole Frac. nC6 Mole Frac. G1-4 .0393 0.000 Any free water carried with the gas is first removed in a separator operation (V-100): SEPARATOR [V-100] Tab [Page] Design [Connections Design [Parameters] Input Area Feed Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Pressure drop Entry SOUR GAS GAS TO CONTACTOR FWKO 0 psi DEA Contactor Before installing the column.0000 F 1000.G1-4 MATERIAL STREAM [SOUR GAS] Input Area Temperature Pressure Molar Flow N2 Mole Frac. iC5 Mole Frac. C2 Mole Frac.0012 0. nC4 Mole Frac. nC5 Mole Frac. nC7 Mole Frac. C3 Mole Frac.0172 0.0093 0. CO2 Mole Frac. On the Simulation tab.0016 0.0072 0.005 0.0026 0. Entry 86. then Close the view.0413 0. ensure that the Use Input Experts check box is selected (checked). iC4 Mole Frac.0000 psia 25 MMSCFD 0.0029 0. select Preferences from the HYSYS Tools menu.0014 0. H2O Mole Frac.0018 0. H2S Mole Frac.8692 0.

G1-5 .Acid Gas Sweetening with DEA G1-5 The contactor can now be simulated. Tray dimensions must be supplied to enable this feature. ABSORBER COLUMN [DEA CONTACTOR] Page Input Area No. Run the Column. HYSYS provides the component tray efficiencies but allows you to specify the desired efficiencies. component specific efficiencies are required for H2S and CO2 on a tray by tray basis. These proprietary efficiency calculations are provided in the column as part of the Amines package. of Stages Top Stage Inlet Connections Bottom Stage Inlet Ovhd Vapour Outlet Bottoms Liquid Outlet Pressure Profile Temperature Estimates Top Bottom Top Temperature Bottom Temperature Entry 20 DEA TO CONT GAS TO CONTACTOR SWEET GAS RICH DEA 995 psia 1000 psia 100 F 160 F Using this information. and once it has converged move to the Efficiencies page on the Parameters tab. the component specific tray efficiencies can be calculated. Click on the Component radio button and make note of the efficiency values for CO2 and H2S on each tray. The Amines property package requires that real trays be assumed in the contactor and regenerator operations but in order to model this. An Absorber column operation is installed with the specifications shown below.

4 The Stream RICH DEA from the absorber is directed to valve VLV-100.G1-6 Figure G1. where the pressure is reduced to 90 psia. which is close to the regenerator operating pressure. Gases that are flashed off from Rich DEA are removed using the rich amine flash tank (FLASH TK) which is installed as a Separator operation. VALVE [VLV-100] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Worksheet [Conditions] Input Area Inlet Outlet Pressure (DEA TO FLASH TK) [psia] Entry RICH DEA DEA TO FLASH TK 90 SEPARATOR [FLASH TK] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Input Area Inlet Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Entry DEA TO FLASH TK FLASH VAP RICH TO L/R G1-6 .

Heat is applied to break the amine-acid gas bonds. There are 20 real stages . DISTILLATION COLUMN [REGENERATOR] Page Input Area No.3.5 psi 31.5 psia G1-7 .5 psia 2. HEAT EXCHANGER [E-100] Tab [Page] Input Area Tube Side Inlet Design [Connections] Tube Side Outlet Shell Side Inlet Shell Side Outlet Design [Parameters] Rating [Sizing] Worksheet [Conditions] Tubeside Delta P Shellside Delta P Tube Passes per Shell Temperature (REGEN FEED) Entry RICH TO L/R REGEN FEED REGEN BTTMS LEAN FROM L/R 10 psi 10 psi 1 200 F The amine regenerator is modelled as a distillation column. of Stages Feed Streams (Stage) Condenser Type Connections Ovhd Vapour Bottoms Liquid Reboiler Duty Condenser Duty Condenser Pressure Pressure Profile Cond Delta P Reboiler Pres. thereby permitting the DEA to be recycled to the contactor.2 Regenerating the DEA The Regenerator The stream RICH TO L/R is heated to 200 F (REGEN FEED) in the lean/ rich exchanger (E-100) prior to entering the regenerator (which is represented by a distillation column).18 stages in the Tray Section plus a Reboiler and Condenser.Acid Gas Sweetening with DEA G1-7 G1. Entry 18 REGEN FEED (4) Full Reflux ACID GAS REGEN BTTMS RBLR Q COND Q 27.

to provide a faster. Specify a Damping Factor of 0.40 on the Solver page.0. The efficiencies of the condenser and reboiler must remain at 1.80 for H2S and 0. the component efficiencies will be setup to be constant at 0. Parameters tab.80 0.6 F Reboiler Duty RBLR Q 1. and then type the new efficiencies into the matrix.356e7 BTU/hr Reflux Ratio Condenser Molar 0. To set the new efficiencies press the Reset H2S CO2 button. REGENERATOR Specifications Tab [Page] Input Area Name Stage Spec Value Name Energy Stream Spec Value Design [Specs] Name Stage Flow Basis Spec Value Name Draw Flow Basis Spec Value Entry T Top Condenser 179.15 for CO2.0 1.5 Ovhd Vap Rate ACID GAS Molar 2.15 0. DISTILLATION COLUMN [REGENERATOR] Tab [Page] Input Area Condenser Parameters [Efficiencies] Reboiler 1_TS to 18_TS CO2 1_TS to 18_TS H2S Parameters [Solver] Damping Factor Entry 1.0 MMSCFD G1-8 .0 0. as well as set the default specifications as shown below and delete the Reflux Rate and Bttms Prod Rate specifications from the Column Specification list in the Column property view.G1-8 For this tower. more stable convergence.40 Add a new column specification called Reboiler Duty via the Specs page of the Design tab. so enter the efficiencies for stages 1-18 only.

MIXER [MIX-100] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Outlet Design [Parameters] Automatic Pressure Assignment Temperature (MAKEUP H2O) Worksheet [Conditions] Pressure (MAKEUP H2O) Liq.g. Flow (MAKEUP H2O) Worksheet [Composition] H2O Mass Frac. DEA) Tertiary Amine (e. which should provide an acceptable H2S and CO2 loading in the lean amine. respectively. The reboiler duty is based on the guidelines provided below. A MIXER operation combines the lean amine from the regenerator with a water make-up.20 1.30 Water make-up is necessary.5 psia. Specify its flowrate and pressure to be 2. Vol. Recommended Steam Rates lb Steam / USGAL Lean Amine (based on 1000 BTU / lb Steam) Primary Amine (e.5 psia 2.g.0 Input Area Inlets Entry MAKEUP H2O LEAN FROM L/R DEA TO COOL Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet 70 F 21. MEA) Secondary Amine (e. since water will be lost in the absorber and regenerator overhead streams.195 USGPM and 21. (MAKEUP H2O) 1. the Reflux Ratio and Ovhd Vap Rate should be set as Estimates only. Since there is no DEA present in this stream the warning can be ignored without negatively affecting the results of this case.g. G1-9 . These streams mix at the same pressure.80 1. MDEA) DGA 0. and specify its temperature to be 70oF.Acid Gas Sweetening with DEA G1-9 The T Top and Reboiler Duty specifications should be Active.195 USGPM When you have finished specifying the Makeup H2O stream you will receive a warning message stating that the temperature exceeds the range of the property package and the stream will turn yellow.00 1. Define the composition of MAKEUP H2O as being all water.

which was originally estimated. calculated lean amine stream and the contactor and regenerator will be run until the recycle loop converges. A recycle is installed in the Flowsheet between the Pump and the Contactor. will be replaced with the new. Use a Set operation (SET-1) to maintain the pressure of stream DEA TO RECY to be 5 psi lower than the pressure of the gas feed to the absorber SET [SET-1] Tab [Page] Input Area Target Connections Target Variable Source Multiplier Offset Entry DEA TO RECY Pressure GAS TO CONTACTOR 1 -5 Parameters At this point the recycle inlet stream is fully defined. To ensure an accurate solution.G1-10 Cooler E-101 cools the lean DEA on its way to the main pump. The lean amine stream. reduce the sensitivities for Flow and Composition. Pump P100 transfers the regenerated DEA to the Contactor. RECYCLE [RCY-1] Tab [Page] Connections Parameters [Tolerance] Input Area Feed Product Flow Composition Entry DEA TO RECY DEA TO CONT 1. PUMP [P-100] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Worksheet [Conditions] Input Area Inlet Outlet Energy Temperature [F] (DEA TO RECY) Entry DEA TO PUMP DEA TO RECY PUMP Q 95 Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] COOLER [E-101] Tab [Page] Input Area Inlet Outlet Energy Stream Pressure Drop Entry DEA TO COOL DEA TO PUMP COOLER Q 5 psi The Cooler and the Pump operations will remain unconverged until the Set operation has been installed. .0 0. and a Recycle operation is installed with stream DEA TO RECY as the inlet and DEA TO CONT as the outlet.1 G1-10 .

5 G1-11 . The following variables were used for the loading calculations. but it can be incorporated into the simulation to provide a "control point" for optimizing the amine simulation.% DEA in water removes virtually all of the H2S and most of the CO2. Figure G1. Looking at the property view of the Sweet Gas stream you will see the sweet gas produced easily meets these criteria.5 Calculating Lean and Rich Loadings Concentrations of acid gas components in an amine stream are typically expressed in terms of loading of the amine . Also for convenience.4 Simulation Analysis The incoming sour gas contained 4.0 vol.7% H2S.1% CO2 and 1. The conventional pipeline gas specifications is no more than 2. Not only can the loading be directly calculated and displayed. For the inlet gas flowrate of 25 MMSCFD. a circulating solution of approximately 28 wt. G1. The Spreadsheet in HYSYS is well-suited for this calculation.Acid Gas Sweetening with DEA G1-11 G1.defined as moles of the particular acid gas divided by moles of the circulating amine.% CO2 and 4 ppm (volume) H2S. the CO2 and H2S volume compositions for the Sweet Gas stream are calculated.

Robinson.DGA DEA TEA.45 0.MDEA 0.30 0.30 H2S 0. shown to the right.B.20 The acid gas loadings can be compared to values recommended by D.35 0.5 0.6 Maximum Acid Gas Loadings (moles acid gas / mole of amine) CO2 MEA. G1-12 . Figure G1.G1-12 The following formulas will produce the desired calculations.

1 R1. and three pump around circuits. three coupled side strippers.Atmospheric Crude Tower R1-1 R1 Atmospheric Crude Tower Figure R1. The vapour from this separator bypasses the crude furnace and is re-mixed with the hot (650o F) pre-flash liquids leaving the furnace. R1-1 . The combined stream is then fed to the atmospheric crude column.000 barrel/day of 29o API crude is fed into a pre-flash separator operating at 450o F and 75 psia. 100.1 Process Description After passing through a preheat train.The column operates with a total condenser.

R1-2 Figure R1. a diesel product is produced from the second steam-stripped side stripper.2 A naphtha product is produced overhead. R1-2 . a kerosene product is produced from the first reboiled side stripper. and an atmospheric gas oil (AGO) is produced from the third steam-stripped side stripper.

0 524.0 80.0 240. 2.3200 0.0 85.0 165.5 9. Steady State Simulation . The Oil Characterization procedure in HYSYS will be used to convert the laboratory data into petroleum pseudo components. The results will be displayed.0 60.0 70.0 969. H2O) should be selected as well.5 20. R1-3 .0 4.0 740.0 50.0 310.2400 0.g.0 620.0 1015.0 14.0000 0.0 90.0 Boiling Temperature (°F) 15.0225 0.0 435. Any other library components necessary for the overall simulation (e..0065 0. Setup -The component list must include C1 to C4 light ends components as well as the pseudo components that will be used to represent the C5+ portion of the crude oil.0 Assay Liq Volume % There are two basic steps in this process simulation: 1.0 1050.8200 0.Atmospheric Crude Tower R1-3 The following Assay data is used to characterize the oil for this example: Light Ends Methane Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane H2O Bulk Properties Standard Density 29o API Liq Volume % 0. The Outlet stream will then fed to an Atmospheric Crude Fractionator.0 30.0 76.0 885.This case will be modelled using a PreFractionation Train consisting of a Separator and Heater.0 40.

This will create a new Assay. Define the Assay Create the Blend Install Oil in Flowsheet Define Assay On the Assay page of the Oil Characterization view. as follows: Figure R1. Complete the Bulk Properties. i-butane. using the Fluid Package you just created. n-butane and water as components. Three steps are required in characterizing the oil: 1. and you will see the Assay view.R1-4 R1. propane.2 Oil Environment Button Oil Characterization Select the Oil Environment toolbar button to enter the Oil Characterization Environment. R1-4 . R1. ethane. 2. select the Add button.1 This example will be developed in Field units.3 Since the TBP data is supplied. Select the Edit Assay button and enter the data as follows.2. 3. select TBP from the Assay Data Type drop down menu. Change the Bulk Properties setting to Used. and select methane. R1. Fluid Package Define a Fluid Package with Peng-Robinson as the Property Package.2 Setup Establish the Property Package and Component Basis that will be used in the simulation.2. on the right hand side of the view.

Atmospheric Crude Tower R1-5 Figure R1. Figure R1.5 You can scroll through this table to view all 50 points of the Working Curve. select the Calculate button. HYSYS will calculate the Working Curves.4 Change the Light Ends Setting to Input Composition. Once you are done characterizing the Assay. which can be views on the tab of the same name: R1-5 . Enter the light ends data as follows.

R1-6 . As a guideline. and you will see the new Blend view. This will create a new Blend.0%. each Outlet stream from the crude column should contain a minimum of 5 pseudo components whose composition is greater than 1. Therefore. HYSYS will calculate the pseudo components. a total of 30 components should fulfil this requirement.6 Figure R1.7 Create Blend (Cut the Oil) Move back to the Oil Characterization view.R1-6 Figure R1. and specify the Number of Cuts to be 30. From the Cut Option Selection drop down. which can be viewed on the Tables page. highlight the Assay you created (it will appear in the Available Assays column). and HYSYS will transfer that Assay to the Oil Flow Information table. select User Points. and on the Cut/Blend page select the Add button. Select the Add button. Select Molar Compositions from the Table Type group drop down list. On the Data tab.

Because the composition has been transferred from the Oil Characterization. Simulate the Pre-Fractionation Train . R1. and the Liquid Volume Flow is 100000 barrel/day. crude furnace and mixer which recombines the preflash vapour and furnace outlet stream.3 Steady State The following major steps will be taken to set up this case in steady state: 1. Install the Atmospheric Crude Fractionator . R1-7 .on the Install Oil page of the Oil Characterization view.0000 Specify the Inlet stream as shown here. You can now close the Oil Characterization view and return to the Basis Manager. The temperature is 450o F.0000 100000. the stream is automatically flashed.Add the column steam Inlets to the flowsheet and install the crude fractionator using the rigorous distillation column operation. Press the Enter Simulation Environment button on the Simulation Basis Manager view to enter the Main Environment.Atmospheric Crude Tower R1-7 Install Oil in Flowsheet The final step is to install the oil in the flowsheet . simply enter the name of the stream (Raw Crude) in to which you would like to "install" this oil. R1. and includes the pre-flash separation.1 Simulate the PreFractionation Train Inlet Stream Name [Raw Crude] Input Area Temperature [F] Pressure [psia] Liq Vol Flow [barrel/ day] Entry 450.0000 75. the pressure 75 psia.This determines the feed to the atmospheric fractionator.3. 2.

stream Atm Feed has the calculated specifications shown to the left.R1-8 Pre-Flash Operations Install the SEPARATOR.18 65.000e+05 -7.60412 613.2 1.5559e+08 Figure R1. MATERIAL STREAM [Atm Feed] Vapour Frac Temperature [F] Pressure [psia] Molar Flow [lbmole/ hr] Mass Flow [lb/hr] Liq Vol Flow [barrel/ day] Heat Flow [Btu/hr] 0.0000 psi 650 °F The Pre-Fractionation Train is as follows.2850e+06 1. HEATER and MIXER as shown: SEPARATOR [PreFlash] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Input Area Inlet Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Delta P Entry Raw Crude PreFlash Vap PreFlash Liq 0 psi HEATER [Crude Heater] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Worksheet [Conditions] MIXER [Mixer] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Outlet Design [Parameters] Pressure Assignment Input Area Inlets Entry Hot Crude PreFlash Vap Atm Inlet Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet Input Area Inlet Outlet Energy Delta P Temperature (Hot Crude) Entry PreFlash Liq Hot Crude Crude Duty 10.8 R1-8 .000 6855.

you will need to "attach" these streams to the Column Flowsheet so that they can be used in the calculations.0000 50. Press the Custom Column button in the Object Palette. 3 trays in each of the 3 Side Strippers (1 reboiled and 2 steam stripped). Condensed water is removed via a side water draw from the threephase condenser.0000). or a material stream converted to an energy stream via the Util page of the stream property view. a reboiler. is represented by 29 ideal stages (not including the condenser). The 3sscrude. Specify the steam streams as follows (composition of H2O = 1. Before simulating the atmospheric crude tower.Atmospheric Crude Tower R1-9 R1.0000 AGO Steam 300. By taking this approach. The Q-Trim stream does not require any specifications. and bottom stage are 100o F.0000 7500.2 Install Atmospheric Crude Fractionator Steam and Trim Duty Streams An energy stream can be installed by selecting the appropriate icon from the palette. For this example we will install the HYSYS 3 Stripper Crude Column custom template.0000 50.representing the side exchanger on stage 28) to the column must be defined. Name Temperature [F] Pressure [psia] Mass Flow [lb/hr] Main Steam 375.col template file. Atms Tower. and select Read an Existing Column Template button.7 psia. HYSYS comes with a 3 Stripper Crude Column template.0000 150. but this would add the procedure of installing the Side Strippers and Pump Arounds.0000 2500.col template installed 40 trays.7 psia and the bottom stage at 32. The temperature estimates for the condenser. your column has now been installed. respectively. Custom Column Button R1-9 . Column Note that Input Experts (Preferences) have been turned Off. and the Column is being configured directly through the Property View The main column. the steam feeds as well as the energy stream (Q-Trim .0000 Note that these streams could be installed inside the Column Build Environment as well. and a condenser. 250o F and 600o F. this will be calculated by the Column. The condenser experiences a 9 psi pressure drop.3. 29 in the Main Tray section. Open the 3sscrude. Three steam streams are fed to various locations in the tower.0000 Diesel Steam 300. The overhead condenser operates at 19. the Refluxed Absorber template could also be use. top stage.0000 3000.

SideOps tab. Figure R1.10 R1-10 . of the Column Property view connect the Inlet and Outlet streams to the column Sub-Flowsheet. Figure R1.R1-10 Column Runner is another name for the Column Property View On the Connections page. Design tab. of the Column Runner view.9 The Draw and Return stages of the Pump Arounds and Side Strippers can be modified on the Side Strippers page and Pump Arounds page respectively.

Also. For this example. 3. you need to do the following: 1.7 psia 100 F 250 F 600 F Specifications Move to the Monitor page.000e+04 barrel/day 2.000e+04 barrel/day -5. Specification Kero_SS Prod Flow Diesel_SS Prod Flow AGO_SS Prod Flow PA_1_Rate(Pa) PA_1_Duty(Pa) PA_2_Rate(Pa) R1-11 . Change the following default set of specification.925e+04 barrel/day 4500 barrel/day 5.Atmospheric Crude Tower R1-11 In the Atmos Tower Column Runner view. Delete the Kero SS BoilUp Ratio and the Residue Rate specs (Press the View button and select Delete in the specification property view).500e+07 Btu/hr 3. the Basis of each Pump Around Rate specification must be changed to Volume Basis. Specify the Reflux Ratio spec to have a value of 1. Flow Basis Volume Volume Volume Volume Duty Volume Spec Type Spec Value 9300 barrel/day 1. Note that the Pump Around delta T specification must be changed to a Duty specification. of the Column Runner. COLUMN [Atms Tower] Tab [Page] Input Area Condenser Pressure 1_Main TS Pressure 29_Main TS Pressure Parameters [Profiles] Condenser Temperature 1_Main TS Temperature 29_Main TS Temperature Entry 19.7 psia 28. Design tab. specify the column information below.7 psia 32. and make it an Estimate only. Input the following values into the default set of specifications supplied with the pre-built 3-Side Stripper Column.

Select Column Liquid Flow from the list of available specifications. and press the Add button in Column Specifications group).R1-12 Specification PA_2_Duty(Pa) PA_3_Rate(Pa) PA_3_Duty(Pa) Naptha Prod Rate Flow Basis Spec Type Duty Spec Value -3.300e+04 barrel/day Volume Duty Volume 4. Complete the Kero Reb Duty specification as shown below. Add a new specification (move to the Specs page.11 5.500e+07 Btu/hr 3.12 R1-12 . Add a new specification. This is an Overflash specification for the feed stage. select Column Duty from the list of available specifications.500e+07 Btu/hr 2. Figure R1.000e+04 barrel/day -3. Figure R1. Complete this specification as shown here.

Add a new specification. Complete the Vap Prod Flow specification as shown below.13 The final specification list will appear as shown below: Figure R1. Figure R1. select Column Vapour Flow specification from the list of available specifications.Atmospheric Crude Tower R1-13 6. R1-13 . select the Run button.14 Once you have provided all of the specifications.

3.15 Workbook Case (Atms Tower) .16 R1-14 .3 Results Workbook Case(Main) .R1-14 R1.Material Streams Tab Figure R1.Material Stream Tab Figure R1.

1 Process Description The sour water stripper configuration shown in the above PFD is a common unit in refineries. low pressure) or a steam-fired reboiler as a heat source. hydrocrackers and crude units. The intent is to drive as much H2S and NH3 overhead in the stripper as possible. reformers. thereby eliminating the need for special vapour recovery systems.Sour Water Stripper R2-1 R2 Sour Water Stripper Figure R2. The sour water is often stored in crude tanks. It processes sour water which comes from a variety of sources including hydrotreaters. The sizing of a sour water stripper is of great importance since its capacity must equal or exceed the normal R2-1 .1 R2. A sour water stripper either uses the direct application of stripping steam (usually low quality.

A quality specification of 10 ppm wt.R2-2 Figure R2.2 production rates of sour water from multiple sources in the refinery. ammonia on the tower bottoms (Stripper Bottoms) is specified.The Sour Peng-Robinson package will be used and the R2-2 . The tower bottoms.2 Introduction The Sour Water feed stream goes through a feed/effluent exchanger where it recovers heat from the tower bottoms stream (Stripper Bottoms). There are two basic steps in this process simulation: 1. Often refiners find their strippers undersized due to a lack of allowance for handling large amounts of sour water which can result from upset conditions (like start-up and shutdown). Stripper Bottoms. the sour water stripper plays a greater role in the overall pollution reduction program of refiners. This new stream (Stripper Feed) enters on tray 3 of an 8 tray distillation tower with a reboiler and a total reflux condenser. With the increasing importance of environmental restrictions. R2. Setup . Consequently. exchanges heat with the incoming feed and exits as Effluent. one often finds a backlog of sour water waiting to be processed in the stripper.

R2-3 . NH3 and H2O. R2. used to separate H2S and NH3.4.3 Setup The Sour Peng-Robinson property package is required to run this example problem. It combines the PR equation of state and Wilson’s API-Sour model for handling sour water systems. Installing the SW Stripper . and a heat exchanger to minimize heat loss. 2.1 MATERIAL STREAM Input Area Temperature [F] Pressure [psia] Liq Vol Flow [barrel/day] Comp Mass Frac [H2S] Comp Mass Frac [NH3] Comp Mass Frac [H2O] SourH2O Feed Entry 100 40 50000 0.9880 Installing the SW Stripper Feed Stream Specify the feed stream as shown on the side.The case will consist of an 8 stage stripper. Steady State Simulation . The components to be selected are H2S.A case study will be performed to obtain steady state solutions for a range of stripper feed temperatures.An 8 stage distillation column will be used to strip the sour components from the feed stream.Sour Water Stripper R2-3 components to be selected are H2S. Case Study . 2.4 Steady State Simulation The following major steps will be taken to setup this case in steady state: 1.0070 0. NH3 and H2O. R2. The liquid leaving the bottom of the column heats the incoming feed stream in a heat exchanger. R2.0050 0.

7 psia 32. ensure that the Use Input Experts check box is selected(checked). Next. select Preferences from the HYSYS Tools menu. use the Add button to install the new specifications. HEAT EXCHANGER Tab[Page] Feed Bottoms Input Area Tube Side Inlet Design [Connections] Tube Side Outlet Shell Side Inlet Shell Side Outlet Tube Side Pressure Drop Shell Side Pressure Drop Temperature (Stripper Feed) Entry SourH2O Feed Stripper Feed Stripper Bottoms Effluent 10 psi 10 psi 200 °F Design [Parameters] Worksheet [Conditions] Before installing the column. install the column. On the Options page of the Simulation tab.R2-4 Operations The HEAT EXCHANGER Specifications are shown below. Uncheck the Active R2-4 . of Stages Feed Stream Feed Stage Connections Condenser Type Ovhd Vapour Bottoms Liquid Reboiler Duty Condenser Duty Pressure Profile Condenser Pressure Reboiler Pressure Entry 8 Stripper Feed 3 Full Reflux Off Gas Stripper Bottoms Q-Reb Cond Q 28.7 psia On the Specs page of the Design tab in the Column property view. The Column configuration is shown below: COLUMN Page SW Stripper Input Area No. Use the Distillation button to create the column. This column will have both a reboiler and an overhead condenser.

Sour Water Stripper R2-5 checkbox for the Ovhd Vap Rate specification. A damping factor will speed up tower convergence and reduce the effects of any oscillations in the calculations (the default value is 1.4 Change the Fixed Damping Factor from its default value to 0. Reflux Ratio Spec Value Entry Active Reboiler 0. For more information on which damping factor is recommended for different systems. Liquid Mass Frac. COLUMN Tab [Page] SW Stripper Input Area 1. R2-5 .4 on the Solver page of the Parameters tab.0).000010 NH3 Active 10 Molar Figure R2. The damping factor can be set on the Parameters tab. Stage Design [Specs] Spec Value Component 2. please refer to the Chapter 7 Column of the Steady State Modelling Guide.3 Figure R2.

4.4.6 Figure R2.5 Figure R2.7 R2.3 Case Study The simulation can be run for a range of Stripper Feed temperatures R2-6 .R2-6 R2.2 Results Workbook Case (Main) Figure R2.

check the Independent and Dependent Variables as shown below. Note. In the DataBook property view. A complete view with a range and step size for the Stripper Feed Temperature is shown in Figure R2.9. Next. you must click the Table radio button on the Case Studies view. if the results are in graphical form. the Dependent Variable a range and Step Size must be given. press the Start button. Press the Results button. Flowsheet Object Cond Q Case Q-Reb Stripper Feed Feed Bottoms Main TS Main TS T-100 Main TS Main TS Variables Heat Flow Heat Flow Temperature UA Stage Liq Net Mass Flow (2__Main TS) Stage Liq Net Mass Flow (7__Main TS) Stage Vap Net Mass Flow (2__Main TS) Stage Vap Net Mass Flow (7__Main TS) Variables Description Cooling Water Steam Temperature UA Liq MF Tray 2 Liq MF Tray 7 Vap MF tray 2 Vap MF Tray 7 Move to the Case Studies tab. use the Add button in the Available Case Studies group to create Case Study 1. Press the View button to access the Case Studies Setup view. to view the variables.g. To begin the Study. R2-7 . You can automate these changes by using the Case Studies feature in the DataBook. enter the variables shown on the Variables page.Sour Water Stripper R2-7 (e. 190o F through 210o F in 5 degree increments) by changing the temperature specified for Stripper Feed in the worksheet. To automate the study.

R2-8 Figure R2. Figure R2.8 Figure R2.9 The results of this study are shown below.10 R2-8 .

The Rectifier is a Refluxed Absorber containing 89 theoretical stages. Propane is P1-1 . These splitters have many stages. a Stripper and a Rectifier. Special consideration was given to these components. along with others.Propylene/Propane Splitter P1-1 P1 Propylene/Propane Splitter Figure P1. and are often built as two separate columns.1 P1. in developing the binary interaction coefficients for the Peng Robinson and SRK Equations of State to ensure that these methods correctly model this system. one is the known stream. the critical factor in producing the results is not the ease of solution. FEED. However. The Stripper is operated as a Reboiled Absorber and contains 94 theoretical stages. The Stripper contains two feed steams.1 Process Description A propylene-propane splitter is generally an easy column to converge. but rather the prediction of the relative volatility of the two key components. This simulation will contain two Columns. and the other is the bottoms from the Rectifier.

2 Setup Choose Soave Redlich Kwong (SRK) as the property method for this example.P1-2 Figure P1. 2.The case will consist of an column divided into two tray sections: a Refluxed Absorber as a Rectifier and a Reboiled Absorber as a Stripper. P1. Setup . For this example use Field units. P1-2 .The Soave Redlich Kwong (SRK) property package will be used and the component list includes Propane and Propene. The only two components required are Propane and Propene. There are two basic steps in this process simulation: 1.2 recovered from the Stripper bottoms (95%) and Propene is taken off the top of the Rectifier (99%). Steady State Simulation .

1 Starting the Simulation Feed Stream Material Stream [Feed] Input Area Vapour Frac Pressure [psia] Molar Flow [lbmole/hr] Comp Mole Frac [Propane] Comp Mole Frac [Propene] Entry 1. Installing the column The next step is to install the column. Enter stream Feed as an External Feed Stream.Propylene/Propane Splitter P1-3 P1. You should be inside the Column Environment. Enter this stream in the Main Simulation Environment. This column has 94 ideal stages and a Reboiler. making this stream accessible to the Template Environment.0000 1322.6000 The conditions and compositions of the Feed stream are shown on the left.7600 0.3 Steady State Simulation The case will be setup in steady state using the Custom Column option. P1. For this example. Reboiler and two Tray Sections. A Tray Section and a Condenser will be used for the Refluxed Absorber (RECTIFIER). a Reboiler and another Tray Section will be used for the Reboiled Absorber (STRIPPER).3. Both the Rectifier and Stripper columns will be built in the same column environment.4000 0. You will be placed in the Column Runner view in the Main Environment. Open the Setup page on the Flowsheet tab.3. The overhead product from the STRIPPER will serve as the feed to the RECTIFIER. you will need a Condenser. Press the Starting with a Blank Flowsheeet button. entering on stage 1. P1.0000 300. the P1-3 . and the bottoms product from the RECTIFIER provides a second feed to the STRIPPER. The Custom Column will be used to build both columns in a single column environment.2 STRIPPER (Reboiled Absorber) The Reboiled Absorber is installed first. Press the Custom Column button on the Object Palette.

Design tab. Column Runner view and the Column object palette should be displayed. Open the Tray Section property view and supply the following information on the Connections and the Pressures pages. Installing the Tray Section For this Column a new Tray Section has to be installed. Select the Tray Section button from the palette.P1-4 Column Property view is another name for the Column Runner view. P1-4 . Tray Section Button TRAY SECTION [STRIPPER] Tab [Page] Design [Parameters] Input Area Number of Trays Liquid Inlet Vapour Inlet Design [Connections] Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Optional Feeds Stream Tray Number Design [Pressures] Tray 1 Tray 94 Entry 94 Rect Out Boilup To Rect To Reboiler Feed 47 290 psia 300 psia Close the Tray Section view.

Open the Tray Section property view and supply the parameters shown below.3. Installing the Tray Section Again. REBOILER [Reboiler] Tab [Page] Reboiler Button Input Area Boilup Design [Connections] Feeds Bottoms Product Energy Entry Boilup To Reboiler Propane Reboiler Duty P1.Propylene/Propane Splitter P1-5 Installing the Reboiler The Reboiler for the Absorber must be installed with the Stripper Column. TRAY SECTION [RECTIFIER] Tab [Page] Input Area Liquid Inlet Design [Connections] Vapour Inlet Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Design [Parameters] Design [Pressures] Number of Trays Tray 1 Tray 89 Entry Reflux To Rect To Condenser Rect Out 89 280 psia 290 psia Close the Tray Section view. Select the Reboiler button and supply the inputs shown here on the Connections page of the Reboiler property view.3 RECTIFIER (Refluxed Absorber) The RECTIFIER is installed next. This column has 89 ideal stages and a Partial Condenser. P1-5 . Select the Tray Section button on the Object Palette. a new Tray Section must be installed for the Absorber.

and supply the following parameters. Figure P1. Flow of the RECTIFIER Distillate (Propene) is 774.4. RECTIFIER Top Stage Reflux Ratio is 16. 2.14 lbmole/hr. Total Condenser Button TOTAL CONDENSER [Condenser] Tab [Page] Input Area Feeds Design [Connections] Distillate Reflux Energy Entry To Condenser Propene Reflux Condenser Duty P1.3 P1-6 .P1-6 Installing the Total Condenser A Total Condenser is required for the column.3. Select the Total Condenser button from the palette. Adding the Specifications Two specifications are required for this Column.4 1.

Propylene/Propane Splitter P1-7 P1.5 Energy Streams Figure P1.6 P1-7 .3.4 Composition Tab Figure P1.5 Results Workbook T-100 (COL1) Material Streams Tab Figure P1.

P1-8 P1-8 .

with simple distillation. and CO2. C1-1 . 1-butanol. The CO2 produced in the fermentation vessel carries some ethanol. Therefore. 2-pentanol. the ethanol and water mixture can only be concentrated up to the azeotropic concentration.Ethanol Plant C1-1 C1 Ethanol Plant Figure C1. 2-propanol. which is recycled to the fermentor. 1-propanol.1 Ethanol and Water form an azeotropic mixture at 1 atm. acetic acid.1 C1. Process Description Typically an ethanol fermentation process produces mainly Ethanol plus small quantities of several by-products: methanol. This CO2 stream is washed with water in a vessel (CO2 Wash) to recover the Ethanol. 3-methyl-1butanol.

Also. The Rectifier is operated as a conventional distillation tower. Accumulation of fusel oils in the Rectification Tower can cause the formation of a second liquid phase and subsequent deterioration of performance for these trays. a small vent for CO2 is provided at the condenser. The bottoms of this light tower is fed to the Rectifier. so a small distillate draw is provided at the condenser. C1-2 . so small side liquid draws of fusel oils are installed on the rectifier to avoid this problem.4 The side vapour draw from the Concentrator is the main feed for the Rectifier. butanols and pentanols. The product of this tower is taken from Stage 2 so to have an azeotropic ethanol product with a lesser methanol contamination. The top vapour is fed to a light purification tower (Lights) where most of the remaining CO2 and some methanol is vented. Figure C1.2 Fusel oils are a mixture of propanols.C1-2 Figure C1. Methanol concentrates towards the top stages. with a potential value superior to that of Ethanol.3 Figure C1. The Ethanol rich product stream from the fermentor is sent to a concentration (Conc) tower. An absorber with a side vapour draw can be used to represent this tower.

a refluxed absorber and a distillation column. Acetic Acid. use SI units.Ethanol Plant C1-3 Figure C1. The Components list includes Ethanol. H2O.The NRTL property package and the UNIFAC VLE fluid package will be used for this case. Select NRTL as the Property Package. There are two basic steps in this process simulation: 1. 2-Pentanol and Glycerol.5 Another interesting point is the concentration of heavy alcohols in the interior of the Rectifier. On the Binary Coeffs tab of the Fluid Package property view use UNIFAC VLE estimation method and press the Unknowns Only button to estimate the missing interaction parameters. C1-3 . 1-Butanol. 3-M-1-C4ol. Setup .2 Setup Any activity model (except Wilson. 2Propanol. These alcohols are normally referred to as Fusel oils. For this Application. Methanol. CO2. and small side liquid draws are provided in the Rectifier to recover these components. The necessary components are shown in the FromFerm stream. Steady State Simulation .Propanol. C1. which cannot predict two liquid phases) can be used to solve this problem. 2.This case will be setup using a separator. 1. two absorber.

0269 0.0000 1.C1-4 C1.426e-06 6.0000 101.077e-06 9. the Mole Fractions will not add up to 1.0000 0.0000 101. Name Input Area Note: Once you have entered the Mole Fractions for the stream FromFerm.326e-06 9.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11000.000 FromFerm Entry 30.0000 1.1 Steady State Simulation Beginning the Simulation Input the material streams required for the flowsheet.3250 C1-4 .0000 0.0000 Steam A Entry 140.0000 0.0266 2.3250 130. Click on the Normalize button and the total Mole Fraction will equal 1.578e-06 2.0000 0.0000 0.148e-05 5. They are shown below.0000 0.0000 101.00.3.0000 0.0000 0.693e-05 3. Temperature [C] Pressure [kPa] Molar Flow [kgmole/hr] Mass Flow [kg/ hr] Comp Mole Frac [Ethanol] Comp Mole Frac [H2O] Comp Mole Frac [CO2] Comp Mole Frac [Methanol] Comp Mole Frac [Acetic Acid] Comp Mole Frac [1-Propanol] Comp Mole Frac [2-Propanol] Comp Mole Frac [1-Butanol] Comp Mole Frac [3-M-1-C4ol] Comp Mole Frac [2-Pentanol] Comp Mole Frac [Glycerol] 0.00.0000 0.3 C1.9464 0.0000 0.0000 0.3250 2400.096e-06 6.0000 0.0000 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.64e-06 Wash H2O Entry 25.0000 0.0000 0.

325 kPa Press the Run button in the Column property view to calculate the CO2 Wash Tower product streams. select Preferences from the HYSYS Tools menu.325 kPa 101. The CO2 Rejection Tower is a simple Absorber. C1-5 . The bottoms product from the tower is recycled to the Fermentor (however the recycle is not a concern in this example). then Close the view. thus producing an overhead of essentially pure CO2. Before installing the column. while the overhead vapour goes to the CO2Wash Tower. On the Units page of the Simulation tab. Install a Separator and make the connections shown here. The bottoms liquid of the separator are sent to the distillation section of the plant (Concentrator Tower). SEPARATOR [CO2_Vent] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Input Area Feed Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Entry FromFerm To_CO2Wash Beer CO2 Wash Tower Water is used to strip any Ethanol entrained in the off gas mixture. ensure that the Use Input Experts checkbox is selected (checked). ABSORBER [CO2WASH] Tab [Page] Input Area No.Ethanol Plant C1-5 CO2 Vent Separator The CO2Vent Separator separates the products from the fermentor. of Stages Feed Streams (Stage) Connections Ovhd Vapour Bottoms Liquid Pressure Profile Stage 1 Stage 10 Entry 10 Wash_H2O (Top Stage) To_CO2Wash (Bottom Stage) CO2_Stream To_Fermentor 101.

Draw Rate 1 Design [Specs] Draw Flow Basis Spec Value 3.325 kPa 102. Comp Recovery Draw SpecValue Component 2. The Concentrator is an Absorber with a side vapour draw. ABSORBER [CONC] Tab [Page] Input Area No. Draw Rate 2 Draw Flow Basis Spec Value Entry Active Rect Feed 0.C1-6 Concentrator This tower removes most of the Methanol from the Fermentor products. Specifications Tab [Page] Input Area 1.95 Ethanol Estimate Rect Feed Mass 5000 kg/h Estimate To_Light Molar 1000 kgmole/h C1-6 .325 kPa 90°C 110°C Specify the following specification to fully specify the column and press the Run button in the Column property view to calculate the Concentrator product streams. of Stages Feed Streams (Stage) Connections Ovhd Vapour Bottoms Liquid Side Draw Vapour Pressure Profile Temperature Estimates Condenser Reboiler Condenser Temperature Reboiler Temperature Entry 17 Beer (Top Stage) Steam A (Bottom Stage) To_Light Stillage_A Rect_Feed (Stage 6) 101.

Energy Pressure Profile Condenser Pressure Reboiler Pressure Entry 5 To_Light (Bottom Stage) Partial Light_Vent 2ndEtOH To_Rect CondDuty 101. of the Column property view and delete the default Btms Prod Rate and Reflux Ratio specifications from the Column Specification group.6 kgmole/hr Active Condenser Mass Fraction Liquid 0. Comp Fraction Stage Flow Basis Phase Spec Value Component Entry Active Light_Vent Molar 1. Specifications Tab [Page] Input Area 1. Vap Prod Rate Draw Flow Basis Spec Value Design [Specs] 2. modelled as a Refluxed Absorber. Press the Run button in the Column property view to calculate the Light Tower product streams. of Stages Feed Streams (Stage) Condenser Type Connections Ovhd Vapour Ovhd Liquid Bottoms Liquid Cond.88 Ethanol C1-7 .Ethanol Plant C1-7 Lights The Lights Tower is a purification tower.325 kPa 101.325 kPa Add the following column specification on the Specs page. REFLUXED ABSORBER [LIGHTS] Tab [Page] Input Area No. Design tab.

The Rectifier is operated as a conventional distillation tower. of Stages Feed Streams (Stage) Condenser Type Ovhd Vapour Connections Ovhd Liquid Bottoms Liquid Reboiler Duty Condenser Duty Side Draw Liquid (Stage) Pressure Profile Temperature Estimates Condenser Pressure Reboiler Pressure Condenser Reboiler Entry 29 To_Rect (19) Rect_Feed (22) Partial Rect_Vap Rect_Dist Stillage B Rect_RebQ Rect_CondQ 1st Prod (2) Fusel (20) 101. The Rectifier serves to concentrate the water/ethanol mixture to near azeotropic composition.C1-8 Specifications Tab [Page] Input Area 3. It contains a partial condenser as well as a reboiler.10 kgmole/hr Rectifier The primary product from a plant such as this would be the azeotropic mixture of ethanol and water. Distillate Rate Draw Flow Basis Spec Value Entry Estimate Condenser Molar 5.325 kPa 101. COLUMN [RECT] Tab [Page] Input Area No.00 Estimate 2ndEtOH Molar 2. Reflux Ratio Stage Flow Basis Design [Specs] Spec Value 4.325 kPa 79°C 100°C C1-8 .

Specifications Tab [Page] Input Area 1.Ethanol Plant C1-9 The following specifications. Delete the default Btms Prod Rate and Reflux Rate specification before running the column. Also set the damping factor to accelerate the convergence.00 kg/hr Active 2_Main TS Mass Fraction Liquid 0. on the Column property view. required to run the column. should be given on the Specs page.100 kgmole/hr Active Rect _Dist Mass 2. 1stProd Draw Rate Draw Flow Basis Spec Value Damping Factor Parameters [Solver] Enable Azeotrope Check ON Entry Active Condenser Molar 7100 Active Rect_Vap Molar 0. Ovhd Vap Rate Draw Flow Basis Spec Value 3.95 Ethanol Active Fusel Mass 3. Comp Frac Stage Design [Specs] Flow Basis Phase Spec Value Component 5. Distillate Rate Draw Flow Basis Spec Value 4. Design tab.00 kg/hr Estimate 1stProd Molar 68.25 C1-9 .00 kgmole/hr 0. Fusel Draw Rate Draw Flow Basis Spec Value 6. Reflux Ratio Design [Specs] Stage Flow Basis Spec Value 2.

4 Draw Stream Location The side liquid draw. Stage 20 has a high concentration of 1-Propanol (which has the greatest concentration among the heavy alcohols). Fusel.6 We wish to view the 1-Propanol composition on Tray 20. Figure C1. Scroll through the group until you can see Tray 20 and the 1-Propanol component. Therefore. is added at stage 20.C1-10 C1. (See Figure C1. Select the Estimates page. we have selected the appropriate stage for the Fusel draw. C1-10 .6). To examine this information move to the Parameters tab in the Column Runner. In this view you can see the Composition Estimates of each tray. To determine if this is an appropriate stage to recover the heavy alcohols you can view the stage by stage composition profile.

8 C1-11 .5 Results Workbook Case (Main) Material Streams Figure C1.Ethanol Plant C1-11 Figure C1.7 C1.

C1-12 Compositions Figure C1.9 Energy Streams Figure C1.10 C1-12 .

To C2-1 .1 C2.1 Process Description The production of synthesis gas is an important and interesting part in the overall process of synthesizing ammonia.Synthesis Gas Production C2-1 C2 Synthesis Gas Production Figure C2. The conversion of natural gas into the feed for the ammonia plant is modelled using three conversion reactions and an equilibrium reaction.

The oxygen from the air is consumed in an exothermic combustion reaction while the inert nitrogen passes through the system. CO.C2-2 facilitate the production of ammonia. carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. which is the source of hydrogen in the example. In the last two reactors. four reactors are needed.Second conversion reactor. There are two basic steps in this process simulation: 1. Reaction sets and Reactions Components will be selected. which takes the product of Reformer. In a typical synthesis gas process. This ratio represents the stoichiometric amounts of the reactants in the ammonia process. • Shift Reactors . Steam as feeds. an Air stream and a Comb.A conversion reactor in which most of the methane is reacted with steam to produce hydrogen.A series of equilibrium reactors within which the water gas shift reaction occurs. the molar ratio of hydrogen to nitrogen in the synthesis gas is controlled near 3:1. Steady State Simulation . The Reaction Component list includes CH4. C2-2 . Air is added to the second reactor at a controlled flowrate such that the desired ratio of H2:N2 in the synthesis gas is attained. H2. The Combustor is separated into a conversion reactor and an equilibrium reactor.The case will be setup in steady state with the following key unit ops: 2. In the model which will be built. • Combustor . Setup . The addition of steam serves the dual purpose of maintaining the reactor temperature and ensuring that the excess methane from the natural gas stream is consumed. Desulfurized natural gas. CO2. since conversion and equilibrium reactions cannot be placed in the same reaction set and thus cannot be placed in the same reactor.In this step the Fluid Package. the water-gas shift equilibrium reaction takes place as the temperature of the stream is successively lowered. H2O. is reformed in a conversion reactor (Reformer) when it is combined with steam. N2 and O2. • Reformer . five reactors must be used.

2 Setup First. If you define a reaction using library or hypothetical components which are not present in an existing Fluid Package. Close this property view. In this view. Selecting Reaction Components Pressing the Add Components button will make the Reaction Component Selection view appear. Highlight Nitrogen in the Selected Reaction Components group and press the Remove Comps button. Hydrogen. 3. the new components will automatically be added once the reaction set is attached to the fluid package. Build a Fluid Package by choosing the Peng-Robinson equation of state and the required components as shown. select the FPkg Pool radio button and press the Add This Group of Components button. Components Equation of State PR Methane. select the Field units. Nitrogen. C2-3 .2 The FPkg Pool radio button shows only the components associated with the Fluid Package(s). Interaction Parameters 4. Carbon Dioxide. Close the Fluid Package property view. Property Package 2. Selection of the components is simplified as only the components that were attached to the Fluid Package are shown as Associated Components. Refer to Chapter 4 . Figure C2. Oxygen Use Library Defaults Attach Global Rxn Set C2. Rxns Page Defining the Reactions On the Reactions page of the Simulation Basis Manager. Water.Synthesis Gas Production C2-3 Creating a Fluid Package 1.Reactions of the Basis Manager for explanations on how to define reactions and reaction sets. you can organize the reaction information by defining the required reactions and attaching them to reaction sets. You can remove nitrogen from the Selected Reaction Components list since it is not involved in any of the reactions. If you add library components from here (which are not present in an existing Fluid Package) the new components will automatically be added to any Fluid Package which uses the reaction. Carbon Monoxide.

1) CH 4 + 2H 2 O → CO 2 + 4H 2 (2.C2-4 Reactions In this example. Figure C2.3) The equilibrium reaction can be added from the Library page of the Equilibrium Reaction property view. Conversion Reactions Reforming Rxns: CH 4 + H 2 O → CO + 3H 2 (2.2) Combustion Rxn: CH 4 + 2O 2 → CO 2 + 2H 2 O (2. HYSYS provides the equilibrium data and all other pertinent information for the reaction.3 C2-4 . there are three conversion reactions and one equilibrium reaction.

) Stoichiometry Conversion Entry Methane (-1) Oxygen (-2) CO2 (1) Water (2) Base Component Basis Conversion Rxn Phase Comments CH4 + 2O2 g Methane 100% VaporPhase CO2 + 2H2O REACTION [Rxn-4] Reactions Dialog Box Tab Library Type Reaction CO + H2O = CO2 + H2 Equilibrium C2-5 . Coeff.) Stoichiometry Conversion Entry Methane (-1) Water (-2) CO2 (1) Hydrogen (4) Base Component Basis Conversion Rxn Phase Comments CH4 + 2H2O g Methane 30% VaporPhase CO2 + 4H2 REACTION [Rxn-3] Reactions Dialog Box Tab Type Input Area Component (Stoich. Coeff.4) REACTION [Rxn-1] Reactions Dialog Box Tab Type Input Area Conversion Entry Methane (-1) Stoichiometry Component (Stoich.) Water (-1) CO (1) Hydrogen (3) Base Component Basis Conversion Rxn Phase Comments CH4 + H2O g Methane 40% VaporPhase CO + 3H2 REACTION [Rxn-2] Reactions Dialog Box Tab Type Input Area Component (Stoich. Coeff. Water-Gas Shift Reaction: CO + H 2 O ↔ CO 2 + H 2 (2.Synthesis Gas Production C2-5 Equilibrium Reaction You can also define reactions and attach reaction sets in the Main Environment by selecting Reaction Package under Flowsheet in the main menu.

C2-6 .C2-6 Reaction Sets In HYSYS. Thus. from which you must highlight a Fluid Package and press the Add Set to Fluid Package button.4 You may now Enter the Main Simulation Environment. each reactor operation may have only one reaction set attached to it. highlight a Reaction Set and press the Add to FP button. You can close the view and repeat the procedure for the other two reaction sets. you only have to provide 3 reaction sets for all 5 reactors. Rxn-3 Rxn-4 Attaching Reaction Sets to the Fluid Package On the Reactions page of the Basis Manager. where the streams and unit operations will be installed. However. Rxn-2 Rxn-1. Rxn-2. The Add to Fluid Package view will appear. Reaction Set Name Reformer Rxn Set Combustor Rxn Set Shift Rxn Set Active Reactions Rxn-1. a reaction may appear in multiple reaction sets. RXN-1 and RXN-2 appear in both the first and second reaction sets. Note that in the table of reaction sets. Figure C2.

0000 0. Comb.0000 0.0000 Reformer Steam 475. Install the streams as shown. which produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen has a conversion of 40%. C2-7 .3.0000 0. in which most of the methane is reacted with steam to produce hydrogen.7900 0.0000 COMMENTS: ** signifies initialized values. while Rxn-2 has a conversion of 30%.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. carbon monoxide.0 1.0 <empty> 520.0000 0.0000 1. Steam and the Air stream will be defined also.0000 0.0 <empty> 200.0** 0.3 Steady State Installing Streams There are two feed streams to the first reactor.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1 Reformer Building the Flowsheet The Reformer is a conversion reactor.0000 0.0 500. The other steam stream.0000 0. Name Temperature[F] Pressure [psia] Molar Flow [lbmole/hr] Comp Mole Frac [CH4] Comp Mole Frac [H2O] Comp Mole Frac [CO] Comp Mole Frac [CO2] Comp Mole Frac [H2] Comp Mole Frac [N2] Comp Mole Frac [O2] Natural Gas 700. and carbon dioxide. The pressures of the steam and air streams will be specified later using SET operations.0000 0. The outlet gas will also contain the unreacted methane and excess water vapour from the steam. Steam 475.0000 Air 60.0 0.Synthesis Gas Production C2-7 C2.0000 0.2100 Comb.0000 0.0000 0.0 <empty> 300. Steam will be manipulated by Adjust-2 and Adjust-1 respectively. a Natural Gas stream and a Reformer Steam stream.0 200.0** 0. C2. the molar flows of Air and Comb.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. Rxn-1.0000 0.0000 1. The overall conversion of the two reactions in the Reformer is 70%.

HYSYS automatically ranks the three reactions in the Combustor Rxn Set. With this ranking in place. an Air stream and a Comb. HYSYS provides a lower rank for the combustion reaction. CONVERSION REACTOR [Reformer] Tab [Page] Input Feeds Design [Connections] Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Energy Design [Parameters] Worksheet [Conditions] Reactions [Details] Comments Optional Heat Transfer Combustor Feed Temperature Reaction Set CH4 + H2O g CH4 + 2H2O g Entry Natural Gas Reformer Steam Combustor Feed Reformer Liq Reformer Q Heating 1700 °F Reformer Rxn Set CO + 3H2 CO2 + 4H2 Combustor The second conversion reactor is the Combustor. Combustor Feed at 1700 °F. the combustion reaction proceeds first until its specified conversion is met or a limiting reactant is depleted. so that HYSYS will calculate the required duty. Any remaining methane is eliminated by its reaction with the entering steam. The oxygen in the air is consumed in the combustion of methane.C2-8 The two reforming reactions are endothermic. Specify the temperature of the outlet stream. Since H2O is a reactant in the combustion reaction (Rxn-1) and is a product in the two reforming reactions (Rxn-2 and Rxn-3). which has the Reformer product. The reforming reactions then proceed based on the remaining methane. An equal rank is given to the reforming reactions. so heat must be supplied to the reactor to maintain the reactor temperature. Steam stream as feeds. C2-8 . Air is the source of the nitrogen for the required H2:N2 ratio in the synthesis end product.

Steam Mid Combust Mid Liq Combustor Rxn Set 35% 65% 100% CO + 3H2 CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2O2 g CO2 + 2H2O An alternative method for setting the steam and air pressures is to import the Natural Gas pressure to a Spreadsheet. Steam Pressure Natural Gas 1 0 SET [SET-3] Tab Connections Parameters Input Area Target Y Source X Multiplier Offset Entry Air Pressure Natural Gas 1 0 C2-9 . Tab [Page] Input Area Feeds Design [Connections] Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Reactions [Details] Reactions [Results] Reaction Set Rxn-1 Conversion Rxn-2 Conversion Rxn-3 Conversion CH4 + H2O g Comments CH4 + 2H2O g Entry Combustor Feed Air Comb. copy the value for each of the other streams and export the copied values to the streams.Synthesis Gas Production C2-9 CONVERSION REACTOR [Combustor] Reactions of equal ranking can have an overall specified conversion between 0% and 100%. SET [SET-1] Tab Connections Input Area Target Object Target Variable Source Object Parameters Multiplier Offset Entry Reformer Steam Pressure Natural Gas 1 0 SET [SET-2] Tab Connections Input Area Target Object Target Variable Source Object Parameters Multiplier Offset Entry Comb. Set Operations The following Set operations are used to specify the pressures of the steam and air streams.

which equals the vessel temperature. takes place. heat is removed from Shift Reactor 1 and Shift Reactor 2. Install the following three equilibrium reactors as shown below: EQUILIBRIUM REACTOR [Combustor Shift] Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Reactions [Details] Comments EQUILIBRIUM REACTOR [Shift Reactor 1] Tab [Page] Input Area Feeds Design [Connections] Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Energy Design [Parameters] Worksheet [Conditions] Reactions [Details] Comments Optional Heat Transfer Shift2 Feed Temperature Reaction Set Entry Shift1 Feed Shift2 Feed Shift1 Liq Shift1 Q Cooling 850°F Shift Rxn Set CO2 + H2 Design [Parameters] Worksheet [Conditions] Reactions [Details] Comments Design [Connections] Input Area Feeds Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Reaction Set Entry Mid Combust Shift1 Feed Mid Com Liq Shift Rxn Set CO2 + H2 Reaction: CO + H2O n EQUILIBRIUM REACTOR [Shift Reactor 2] Tab [Page] Input Area Feeds Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Energy Optional Heat Transfer Synthesis Gas Temperature Reaction Set Entry Shift2 Feed Synthesis Gas Shift2 Liq Shift2 Q Cooling 750°F Shift Rxn Set Reaction: CO + H2O n Reaction: CO + H2O n CO2 + H2 Since lower temperatures favour the production of hydrogen. In Combustor Shift. is specified in both cases. the equilibrium shift reaction.C2-10 Shift Reactors All three of the shift reactors are equilibrium reactors within which the water-gas shift reaction occurs. The reactor outlet temperature. which would occur with the reactions in the Combustor. A separate reactor must be used in the model because equilibrium and conversion reactions cannot be combined within a reaction set. C2-10 .

The Synthesis Gas should have an H2:N2 molar ratio slightly greater than 3:1. Steam flowrate to maintain the Combustor Shift temperature at 1700°F.2 Adjust Operations Steam Flowrate To control the temperature of the combustion reaction. hydrogen is used to rid the synthesis gas of any remaining CO and CO2. Prior to entering the ammonia plant. Molar Flow of Hydrogen • Synthesis Gas Comp.1°F 50 lbmole/hr 25 Press the Start button to begin the Adjust operation. the flowrate of steam to the Combustor is adjusted. 1700°F Secant 0. Air Flowrate To control the H2:N2 molar ratio in the Synthesis Gas. target the temperature of the equilibrium reactor. Target Value Method Parameters Tolerance Step Size Maximum Iterations Entry Comb.Synthesis Gas Production C2-11 C2. Since the Combustor is modelled as two separate reactors. An ADJUST operation is used to manipulate the Comb. Steam Molar Flow Combustor Shift Vessel Temp. In the Spreadsheet. change the Spreadsheet Name to SSRatio and import the following variables: • Synthesis Gas Comp. Molar Flow of Nitrogen C2-11 . ADJUST [ADJ-1] Tab Input Area Adjusted Object Adjusted Variable Connections Target Object Target Variable Spec.3. we need to calculate the ratio in a Spreadsheet and then use an ADJUST operation. Combustor Shift.

Go to the Parameters tab and enter the Variable name for the B4 cell as H2N2Ratio.68 lbmole/hr 20 Press the Start button to begin the ADJUST operation. To do so. create a stream called "Dummy Stream" and export the ratio to the molar flow of the dummy stream. To export the ratio. C2-12 . even though each adjusted variable will have an effect on the other operation’s target variable. Press the Add Export button.005 lbmole/hr 39. Notice that the Secant method is used for both ADJUST operations. Please note that the close proximity of the logical operations in the flowsheet increases the possibility of cycling behaviour if the Simultaneous method is used. ADJUST [ADJ-2] Tab Input Area Adjusted Variable Target Variable Connections Spec. Now you can install the ADJUST operation as shown. such as H2N2Ratio. The cell number that appears on the Connections tab beside the destination description. and select the destination of the exported variable. go to the Connections tab of the Spreadsheet. Therefore. it is advantageous to attempt to iterate on one ADJUST and then solve the other. It is necessary to create a "dummy stream" to export the ratio created in the spreadsheet.05 Secant 0. should be that of the exported value. The ratio is calculated using the following format: +’cell that contains flow of H2’/ ’cell that contains flow of N2’ For the H2:N2 ratio cell provide a name for the ratio. Target Value Method Parameters Tolerance Step Size Maximum Iterations Entry Air Molar Flow Sprdsht-1 Cell (molar flow of dummy stream) 3.C2-12 A spreadsheet cell (B4) is used for the calculation of the H2:N2 ratio.

Synthesis Gas Production C2-13 C2.7 C2-13 .3.3 Results Workbook Case (Main) Material Stream Tab Figure C2.6 Energy Stream Tab Figure C2.5 Composition Tab Figure C2.

C2-14 C2-14 .

LinkStream names a stream in X1-1 . this application will demonstrate a method for copying the contents of a stream from one case to another automatically.hsc. More succinctly. Inside the User Unit Op you will define two subroutines: the Initialize() and Execute() macros. The User Unit Op is pre-configured with Visual Basic™ code. If the variable contains no value. The Initialize() macro sets the field names for the various stream feed and product connections and creates two Text user variables: LinkCase and LinkStream. the Initialize() code will set it to be the path to the currently open case and the file name LinkCase2.1 Process Description This example exploits the User Unit Operation to link two HYSYS simulation cases together such that changes made to the first case (LinkCase1) are automatically and transparently propagated to the second (LinkCase2). LinkCase contains the path and file name of the target case to be linked.Case Linking X1-1 X1 Case Linking Figure X1.1 X1.

X1-2 . The example code instead uses a technique of explicitly copying T and P and then searches for components by name in order to copy their molar flow.X1-2 the second case that will have the T. the stream conditions and compositions are then copied between the streams. The Execute() macro uses the GetObject method to open the target link case. the StatusQuery() macro is commentedout to avoid the overhead of having that macro called.1333 0. Note that all the stream names are not capitalized.5 0. Stream Name Input Area Temperature [C] Pressure [kPa] Molar Flow [kgmole/h] Comp Mole Frac [C1] Comp Mole Frac [C2] Comp Mole Frac [C3] Comp Mole Frac [i-C4] Stream Name Input Area Temperature [C] Pressure [kPa] Molar Flow [kgmole/h] Comp Mole Frac [C1] Comp Mole Frac [C2] Comp Mole Frac [C3] Comp Mole Frac [i-C4] feed Entry 11 5066 100 0.4667 0. Select the components and specify stream feed and cold_liq2 as shown here.1062 Also note that the definition of User Unit Op usually involves the definition of three macros: Initialize(). It then attempts to locate the material stream named by the LinkStream variable in the target case.5333 0. This implementation is left as an exercise for the reader X1.0388 0. Note that the use of the DuplicateFluid method to copy the stream parameters requires identical property packages in both simulation cases. Flow and composition copied to it from the User Unit Op’s feed stream. Components that are not available in the target case are simply ignored. If a stream is attached to the Feeds1 nozzle of the User Unit Op.0667 cold_liq2 Entry -98 152 7. P. Enter the Simulation Environment and add the following unit operations to the flowsheet. For this example.2667 0. which will initially be hidden. Execute() and the StatusQuery() subroutines. The target case and stream may optionally be changed explicitly from the Variables page of the User Unit Op.3883 0. Removing the StatusQuery() code entirely would accomplish the same thing.2 Building Flowsheet 1 The first flowsheet will be modelled using the Peng Robinson Stryjek Vera (PRSV) property package. but it is highly recommended that StatusQuery() be implemented to provide valuable user feedback.

Save the Case as LinkCase1.hsc. X1-3 .Case Linking X1-3 SEPARATOR Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] SEPARATOR Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] V-100 Input Area Inlet Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Delta P Entry feed feed_vap feed_liq 0 kPa HEAT EXCHANGER Tab [Page] E-100 Input Area Tube Side Inlet Tube Side Outlet Shell Side Inlet Shell Side Outlet Heat Exchanger Model Entry feed_vap precooled cold_liq2 rich gas Exchanger Design (End Point) none 15 kPa 15 kPa 4000 KJ/C-h Counter Current Design [Connections] V-101 Input Area Inlet Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Delta P Entry precooled cooled_vap cooled_liq 0 kPa Design [Parameters] Heat Leak/Loss Tube Side Delta P Shell Side Delta P UA Shell Passes EXPANDER Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Worksheet [Conditions] K-100 Input Area Inlet Outlet Energy Efficiency (Adia) Pressure (Stream expanded) RCY-1 Input Area Inlet Outlet Entry cold_liq cold_liq2 Entry cooled_vap expanded shaft work 75% 152 kPa SEPARATOR Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] COMPRESSOR Tab [Page] V-102 Input Area Inlet Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet Delta P Entry expanded cold_vap cold_liq 0 kPa K-101 Input Area Inlet Outlet Energy Efficiency (Adia) Entry cold_vap compressed shaft work 75% RECYCLE Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] The case should converge immediately.

725 kPa COMPRESSOR Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Worksheet [Conditions] K-101 Input Area Inlet Outlet Energy Efficiency (Adia) Pressure (stream: hot100atm) Entry cool33atm hot100atm q2 75% 10150 kPa HEAT EXCHANGER Tab [Page] E-100 Input Area Tube Side Inlet Tube Side Outlet Shell Side Inlet Shell Side Outlet Heat Exchanger Model Entry hot33atm cool33atm wtr1 wtr1b Exchanger Design (End Point) 15 kPa 15 kPa Counter Current 17 °C HEAT EXCHANGER Tab [Page] E-101 Input Area Tube Side Inlet Tube Side Outlet Shell Side Inlet Shell Side Outlet Heat Exchanger Model Tube Side Delta P Shell Side Delta P Shell Passes Temperature Entry hot100atm sales wtr2 wtr2b Exchanger Design (End Point) 15 kPa 15 kPa Counter Current 20 °C 25 °C Design [Connections] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Design [Parameters] Tube Side Delta P Shell Side Delta P Shell Passes Temperature (stream: cool33atm) Temperature (stream: wtr1b) Worksheet [Conditions] Worksheet [Conditions] 25 °C (stream: sales) Temperature (stream: wtr2b) X1-4 . COMPRESSOR Tab [Page] Design [Connections] Design [Parameters] Worksheet [Conditions] K-100 Input Area Inlet Outlet Energy Efficiency (Adia) Pressure (Stream hot33atm) Entry compressed hot33atm q1 75% 3344. H2O.3 Building the Flowsheet 2 You must now create the target case for our linked case. the case will not solve. This stream will be specified by the link you will create in the next section. Enter the Simulation Environment and enter the following unit operations. Please note that because the stream compressed is not specified. This case will use the same property package (PRSV) however contain one extra component.X1-4 X1.

Defining the User Unit Op will consist of writing two different subroutines.4 Creating a User Unit Operation Now that both cases have been created. finds target stream and copies the stream conditions from the main case.6 kPa 1.0000 Worksheet [Conditions] Worksheet [Composition] Once you have completed specifying this flowsheet. The definition of the User Unit Op will be done through the Edit Existing User Variable view.hsc and close it. Add a User Unit Op to the flowsheet.hsc again.Case Linking X1-5 TEE Tab [Page] Design [Connections] T-100 Input Area Feed Product Temperature Entry cooling water wtr2 wtr1 11 °C (stream: cooling water) Pressure (stream: cooling water) H2O (stream: cooling water) 202. • Initialize . Please note that partitions placed in the code are merely made to clearly associate the relevant code with the explanation. Open LinkCase1. X1-5 . you may begin creating the link between them. X1. You may access this view by selecting the Edit button on the Code page of the Design tab. Also note that indentations made in the code are common with standard programming practices.defines material and energy feed/product streams and creates user variables • Execute . X1.opens target case.1 Initializing User Unit Op The following table contains a listing of the code required to implement this operation.4. save the case as LinkCase2. along with a brief description of what is meant by the code.

You do not have to add it as it should already be there.EnergyProductsActive = False Deactivates the secondary inlet and exit connections as well as the energy inlet and exit connections.Variable. The value of myVarWrapper is set to a string containing the path of the current case and the new case name.Products1Name = "Unused Prod1" ActiveObject. "LinkCase". 0) Set myVarWrapper = ActiveObject.Flowsheet. "LinkStream". Creates two Text user variables called LinkCase and LinkStream. the check boxes associated with the secondary material connections and energy connections should be deactivated as shown in the figure above.utcNull.Products2Active = False ActiveObject.CreateUserVariable("LinkCase".hsc" Creates a reference to the LinkCase user variable called myVarWrapper.GetUserVariable("LinkCase") myVarWrapper. Changes the reference of myVarWrapper to the LinkStream user variable. 0) Dim LinkStream As Object Set LinkStream = ActiveObject.X1-6 Code Sub Initialize () Explanation Signifies the Start of the initialization subroutine.CreateUserVariable("LinkStream".utcNull. They will appear on the Variables page of the Design tab along with their current values. ActiveObject.EnergyFeedsActive = False ActiveObject. After the initialization subroutine has been successfully implemented.Value = ActiveObject. You are setting the names that will be associated with the energy and material (primary and secondary) inlet and exit connections.Feeds2Active = False ActiveObject. Set myVarWrapper = ActiveObject. this value is also carried over to the LinkCase variable.Parent.Feeds1Name = "Feed" ActiveObject. Dim LinkCase As Object Set LinkCase = ActiveObject.GetUserVariable("LinkStream") X1-6 .Products2Name = "Unused Prod2" ActiveObject. uvtText. Since myVarWrapper is a reference. uvtText.Feeds2Name = "Unused Feed2" ActiveObject.Path + "LinkCase2.

Variable. the LinkStream variable will be set to the default name “feed” Signifies the end of the initialization subroutine.Flowsheet Dim Case1FS As Object Set Case1FS = ActiveObject.Count > 0 Then myVarWrapper.2 Code Sub Execute () Operation Execution Explanation Signifies the Start of the operation execution subroutine. value of LinkStream variable should currently be feed. Creates a reference to the LinkCase user variable called Case2.Variable. press the OK button to close the Edit Existing User Variable view. Creates a reference to a stream in the other case.Feeds1.Case Linking X1-7 Code Explanation If the number of streams specified in the primary feed drop-down is greater than 0 (i.name Else myVarWrapper. The stream’s name is the value of the user variable LinkStream. On the Variables page you should see the user variable LinkCase contain the case LinkCase2 including the path.Variable.Variable.Item(0).Value) Dim Case2FS As Object Set Case2FS = Case2. If the feed drop list on the Connections page is empty. X1. at least one stream).Item(ActiveObject. If the primary feed drop-down list is empty.Feeds1.MaterialStreams.Flowsheet Dim Case2Strm As Object Set Case2Strm = Case2FS. Go to the Code page of the Design tab and select the Initialize button.4.Value = "feed" End If End Sub Once this is entered.Count <> 1 Then Exit Sub End If Dim Case2 As Object Set Case2 = GetObject(ActiveObject. If ActiveObject.GetUserVariable (“LinkStream”). go to the line of code designated EarlyGrave. This line does not need to be added.e.Feeds1. Creates a reference to the current flowsheet called Case1FS.Item(0) X1-7 .Feeds1.Value = ActiveObject.GetUserVariable(“LinkCase”). If the number of streams specified in the Feed list is not 1 then exit the subroutine. Creates a reference to stream currently in the primary feed list. On Error Goto EarlyGrave If ActiveObject. the value of myVarWrapper (hence the value of the LinkStream user variable) is the name of the first item that appears in the list of primary feed streams. If an error occurs during the execution of this subroutine.Value) Dim Case1Strm As Object Set Case1Strm = ActiveObject. The Connections page of the design tab should contain their new designations. Creates a reference to the flowsheet inside Case2 (LinkCase) called Case2FS. You do not have to add this line as it should already be there.

This passes the value of Case2CMFs to the Case2Strm.PressureValue Dim Case1CMFs As Variant Case1CMFs = Case1Strm.FluidPackage. Item(i).1 Case2CMFs(i) = 0. you set the molar flow of component i in the Case2CMFs array to the flow of the same component in Case1CMFs array. Note that Set was not used so changes made to Case1CMFs will not affect Case1Strm.Count .PressureValue = Case1Strm.TemperatureValue Case2Strm.Components.ComponentMolarFlowValue = Case2CMFs ActiveObject.FluidPackage.TemperatureValue = Case1Strm. For every component i in the Case2FS.name) Case2CMFs(i) = Case1CMFs(n) NoComp: Next i On Error GoTo EarlyGrave Case2Strm. Marker Signifies the end of the initialization subroutine. End Sub Once you are finished.SolveComplete EarlyGrave: Explanation Sets the Temperature and Pressure values of Case2Strm to those of Case1Strm.index(Case2FS.Components. Signifies the Unit Operation has solved. Creates an array containing the molar flow of Case2Strm.X1-8 Code Case2Strm.Components. X1-8 . Note that Set was not used so changes made to Case2CMFs will not affect Case2Strm.FluidPackage. you may activate the view by simply selecting the compressed stream as the Feed on the Connections page of the Design tab. Creates an array containing the molar flow of Case1Strm. This line does not need to be added.ComponentMolarFlowValue Dim Case2CMFs As Variant Case2CMFs = Case2Strm.ComponentMolarFlowValue On Error GoTo NoComp For i = 0 To Case2FS.0 n= Case1FS. It is used to minimize the number of times the User Unit Op’s Execute() is called.

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