FUNDAMENTALS OF THE TURBOEXPANDER “BASIC THEORY AND DESIGN”
PRESENTED BY: MR. JAMES SIMMS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION/DESCRIPTION .................................... A APPLICATION ................................................. B PRELIMINARY SIZE CALCULATIONS ............................... C ENERGY EXTRACTION ........................................... D HORSEPOWER BALANCE .......................................... E HOW DOES THE BOOSTER COMPRESSOR USE THE HORSEPOWER TO MAKE PRESSURE? ................................................... F DISCHARGE PRESSURE CALCULATION .............................. G HOW IS THE TURBOEXPANDER DESIGN SPEED DETERMINED? ........... H HOW TO APPROXIMATE THE EXPANDER WHEEL DIAMETER .............. I HOW TO APPROXIMATE THE COMPRESSOR WHEEL DIAMETER ............ J TURBOEXPANDER CONTROLS, WITH REFERENCE TO THE TURBOEXPANDER SYSTEM SCHEMATIC DWG (FIGURE 5) ............................. K LUBE OIL SYSTEM ............................................. K SHAFT SEALING SYSTEM ........................................ L DESCRIPTION OF THRUST BALANCE SYSTEM ........................ M DESCRIPTION OF SURGE CONTROL SYSTEM ......................... N MAINTENANCE ................................................. O IMPORTANCE OF LOGGING DATA .................................. P EXAMPLE OF DATA LOG SHEET ................................... P TROUBLE SHOOTING ............................................ Q ABOUT THE AUTHOR ............................................ R
FUNDAMENTALS OF THE TURBOEXPANDER BASIC THEORY & DESIGN
INTRODUCTION/DESCRIPTION: The term "Turboexpander", Figure 1, is normally used to define an Expander/Compressor machine as a single unit. It consists of
two (2) primary components; the Radial Inflow Expansion Turbine and a Centrifugal (Booster) Compressor combined as an assembly. Its Wheels are connected on a single Shaft. The Expansion
Turbine is the power unit and the Compressor is the driven unit.
moderately cold gas flows into the Expander section of the Turboexpander. exhausting at a lower pressure and at a substantially colder temperature. the Turboexpander can yield very high efficiencies at the "Design Point" and reasonable efficiencies at other. This extracted energy
is converted to mechanical energy to rotate the Shaft to the Booster Compressor end of the Turboexpander. The gas flows through the Expander Variable
Inlet Nozzles (Guide Vanes) and then through the Wheel. High pressure.
where condensate is removed. This is done by the Expansion Turbine end
efficiently extracting the potential heat energy from the gas stream. Simplified Process Schematic. When designed properly. which partially recompresses the residue gas stream.
APPLICATION: The typical Turboexpander process installation is shown in Figure 2. Points. functions in a single machine. the purpose of the Turboexpander is to efficiently perform two (2) distinctly different. or "Off-Design". Gas flows from the Expander to the Demethanizer.In a Gas Processing Plant. but complimentary. The Turboexpander operates
according to the thermodynamic and aerodynamic laws of physics. The primary
function is to efficiently generate refrigeration in the process gas stream. causing it to cool dramatically.
The Residue Gas from the Demethanizer Tower flows
through the Feed Gas Heat Exchanger and then to the Booster Compressor end of the Turboexpander. as it can improve the expansion process for more refrigeration as well as more efficiently use the power extracted by the Expander. The efficiency of the
Booster Compressor is very important. requiring computerized analytical 3
.It should be noted that the Expander Nozzles are used to control the gas flow rate in order to maintain the pressure in the Demethanizer. While the
engineering process to properly design a high efficiency Turboexpander is very complex.
"Design Point" is normally set by the plant process engineer's system analysis in the case of new plants. the actual operating condition will dictate the new "Design Point". the Expander Outlet Pressure is determined by the performance of the Booster Compressor's efficiency through a complex iterative analysis.
PRELIMINARY SIZE CALCULATIONS: The Turboexpander operation is best described as a dynamic system which responds to the Process Stream variations. the basic initial sizing process can be simplified by using certain basic equations and assumptions. In the case of a
Turboexpander re-design in an existing plant. a fixed set of Process Stream parameters. we will assume the value of the Expander Outlet Pressure. To
start the initial sizing design process.tools. or "Design Point". must be established. For this simplified sizing
exercise. The parameters required to size the Turboexpander are:
Gas Composition Flow Rate Inlet Pressure Inlet Temperature
of the Expander (i.
Δho = 34 btu/lb.
Δh's = 40 btu/lb.e.
with units of
btu/lb.ENERGY EXTRACTION: Where does the energy come from? With reference to Figure 3.85 or 85%
ηe = 34 / 40 = . or
ηe = Δho / Δh's ).
The ratio of these is the definition of the Isentropic efficiency. if
ηe. or 100% efficient) and in the Actual Process. example.
which shows the typical Expansion Process Graph. or real terms. we see the process in terms of change of energy. both in the Ideal Process (Isentropic. been designated These have
Δh's and Δho.
85. w = 20 lbs/second.4145 x 40 x 20 x .
ηe = . is:
HPExpander = HPCompressor + HPBearings
HPExpander = 1. we then only need the gas mass
(This is the constant value to change btu units into Horsepower terms)
We will assume the mass flow rate.
= 20 lbs/second.
to calculate the Horsepower developed by the
Since the mass flow rate is normally given by the
process engineer. The Bearings and the Compressor absorb The Horsepower Balance formula
this power to create a balance.9
HORSEPOWER BALANCE: The HP developed by the Expander must be absorbed in order to prevent over-speeding. Expander.85 = 961. we now have enough information to calculate the Horsepower with the following formula:
HPExpander = (778 / 550) x Δh's x w x ηe 778 / 550 = 1.With the
values known. if
Δh's = 40 btu/lb.
Example: Let's assume that the Bearings consume a total of 30 Horsepower. developed by the Compressor and its to satisfy the Horsepower balance formula. ηc.
Horsepower formula for the Compressor is similar to the Expander.9
. which is subtracted from the Expander Horsepower. but slightly different as it is consuming power.9 Horsepower
HOW DOES THE BOOSTER COMPRESSOR USE THE HORSEPOWER TO MAKE PRESSURE?: The pressure rise through the Compressor is a function of the adiabatic
= 931. If we
rearrange the formula above.
or Head Rise. The
efficiency. then the available Horsepower to the Compressor is:
HPExpander 961. formula is: The
HPCompressor = 1.4145 x Δh'Adiabatic x w ηc
Δho. such as 75%.
The mass flow rate. lower than the actual Head Rise. is usually given by With the available Compressor Horsepower
the process engineer.
is the symbol for mass flow
through the Compressor.4145 x w
We start by assuming a reasonable efficiency.
for the Compressor.4145 is.The value of 1.
known. the ratio of Compressor. or energy change. and the units are lbs/second. or
Δh'. Discharge Pressure.
Head Rise. again. we can rearrange the Compressor Horsepower formula to calculate the
Δh'Adiabatic. as follows:
Δh'Adiabatic = HPCompressor x ηc 1.
is the ideal Head Rise. the constant to convert the units into Horsepower.
required to achieve the = efficiency of the
Δh' / Δho
ηc. just the same as the Expander formula. from the The
Inlet Pressure to the Discharge Pressure of the Compressor.
. units are btu/lb of gas flow.
Figure 4 on the next page shows a
typical Compression Process in which the ideal head rise. Compressor.
4145 x 27.0
= 18.30 btu/lb
.We will assume a mass flow rate.
27.75 1.9 x .0 lbs/second and solve the formula:
through the Compressor.
having calculated the
Δh'Adiabatic.98. PSIA = Inlet Pressure.54. stands for the Ratio of specific heats
To be accurate. Z. °R (°R = °F + 459.3) and solve the above formula. for this exercise.DISCHARGE PRESSURE CALCULATION: Now. we will assume certain values for these (T1 = 60°F.
= . however.
are best derived by a
good equation of state computer program.
. the values of
Cp.69) = Compressibility Factor = Greek Symbol "Gamma".
we can calculate the
pressure rise through the Compressor by the following formula:
Pout = Pin x [1 +
Δh' ]γ / γ-1 CpT1Z
DEFINITION OF TERMS:
Pout Pin Cp T1 Z γ
= Discharge Pressure.
= . PSIA
= Specific heat at constant pressure = Inlet temperature. and
the Discharge Pressure will be calculated:
Pin x [1 +
]γ / γ-1
= 145 x [1 +
18.30 ]1.69) x .0665 ] 4.98
= 145 x [ 1.75
From earlier pages. if the Inlet Pressure equals 145 PSIA.3 .
. or Expander Wheel:
HOW IS THE TURBOEXPANDER DESIGN SPEED DETERMINED?: This is done by using the term Specific Speed.333 = = 145 x 1.So.3 / .
______ N x √ACFS2
( 778 x Δh's ) .322 191.
Δh's = 40 btu/lb Ns = 75
for good efficiency
Assume a Specific Speed. to repeat the formula for the Compressor.54 x (60 + 459.
for good efficiency.
is the Actual Cubic Feet per Second Rearrange
of volumetric flow at the outlet of the Expander).
N = Ns x ( 778 x Δh's ) .75 __ √25 = 75 x 2343 5 = 35. the formula and calculate the speed.Assume.
term is known as the spouting velocity of the gas
from the Nozzles into the Expander Wheel.
ACFS2 = 25.75 ____________________ ______ √ ACFS2 = 75 x (778 x 40) .146 RPM
HOW TO APPROXIMATE THE EXPANDER WHEEL DIAMETER: First. the term
should equal about
Co.8 1415 ft/sec
__ x √40
Since the term
U.7 x 1415 = 990 ft/sec
DEFINITION OF TERMS:
U Co g J
= = = =
Tip Speed of Wheel.
U = .2 x 778
√2 x g x J
__ x √40
= = =
50103.2 ft/sec2 778 ft-lb/btu
. ft/sec Spouting Velocity.7 x Co = . ft/sec 32. needs to be
0.The formula is:
x _________________ = √ 2 x 32.2 223.
Wheel Tip Speed.
is the peripheral velocity of the Expander Wheel
(tip speed) which is calculated by:
U = Diameter (inches) x RPM 229.2
So.2 RPM 990 x 229.
= 6.46 inches
. to rearrange the formula to solve for the Wheel Diameter:
U x 229.2 35.
110. we calculated the Compressor equal 18.30
x 32. Let the head coefficient.4 ______________________
x g x J) / .
be equal to .7
U = 1070.6 ft/sec
.2 x 778) / .HOW TO APPROXIMATE THE COMPRESSOR WHEEL DIAMETER: The following formula can be used to approximate the Compressor Wheel Diameter:
Δh'Adiabatic = U2 x Ψ g x J
From previous pages.4
and rearrange the formula to solve for
Δh' x g x J .4
_____________________________ U =
____________ U =
6 x 229. These assumptions were used for ease of demonstrating the formulas only. These assumptions MUST NOT be used as "rule of
thumb" values.2 RPM
= 1070. etc. In the above. efficiency. certain values were
assumed for specific speed.146 = 6.2
From the Expander analysis.2 35.
. So rearranging and solving the above formula:
Compressor Wheel diameter =
x 229.Now calculate the Compressor Wheel Diameter from the equation:
U = Wheel Diameter x RPM 229.98 inches ** CAUTION NOTE:
While the above method does give the steps necessary to do the initial rough sizing of the Expander and Compressor Wheels.146 RPM. it is vastly over simplified. the design speed was calculated to be 35. as they may give false results in an actual case. Any actual design analysis should be performed by an experienced Turboexpander Design Engineer. head coefficient.
This is achieved by venting the
pressurized oil Reservoir through a De-misting Pad back to the Compressor Suction.
LUBE OIL SYSTEM: The Lube Oil Pressure supplied to the Bearings is controlled at a pressure higher than the Reservoir. 17
. WITH REFERENCE TO THE TURBOEXPANDER SYSTEM SCHEMATIC DWG (FIGURE 5): The Turboexpander system pressure basically floats with the Compressor suction pressure.TURBOEXPANDER CONTROLS. typically this pressure is 150 PSID controlled by a Differential Pressure Regulating Valve relieving excess oil to the Reservoir.
The Seal Gas system typically uses warm process gas that has been filtered. The oil is then filtered by one of the Dual
At this point the oil pressure regulates to the proper An Accumulator is installed to store oil
Differential Pressure. The pressure to the Labyrinth Seals is
maintained at a Differential Pressure of typical 50 PSID above the pressure behind the Expander Wheel. 18
. This is accomplished by
use of a Differential Pressure Regulator sensing and floating with the Expander Back Wheel Pressure. Electric Motor Driven. The oil then travels to the Bearings. Some systems have an oil
flow rate measuring device in the oil supply line to the Bearings.
SHAFT SEALING SYSTEM: The Shaft Seals are Labyrinth type using Seal (Buffer) Gas to prevent cold gas migration into the Bearing Housing and to prevent oil leakage into the process stream.Dual.
for emergency coast down in case of electrical power outage. Filters. Lube Oil Pumps (one Main and one Standby) take suction from the Reservoir providing oil through the Cooler or bypassing the Cooler via the Temperature Control Valve as required to maintain a preset oil supply temperature to the Bearings.
Primary safety instrumentation includes Speed Probe. Thrust Oil.
For control of the Turboexpander at start-up.
. a local Hand Indicating Controller (HIC) is provided to adjust the Expander variable Nozzles to control the Gas Flow (and Expander Speed) during start-up. Basically. this separates from the oil and then is vented through the De-misting Pad out into the Booster Compressor Suction. Vibration Probe. the Turboexpander System Pressure
automatically floats with the process pressure via the Compressor Suction. A first-out Annunciator System
provides an indication of the initial cause of a shut-down. Bearing Temperature RTDs.The small amount of Seal Gas going across the Seal towards the Bearing Housing mixes with the oil and drains to the Reservoir. and Seal Gas Differential Pressure Switches.
The Automatic Thrust Equalizer System vents pressure from behind the Compressor Wheel to try to equalize the oil pressure measured at each Thrust Bearing. In the Reservoir.
on the Thrust Bearings.
.DESCRIPTION OF THRUST BALANCE SYSTEM: The purpose of this system is to control the Axial Thrust of the Expander/Compressor Rotor within safe load limits. in either direction.
The original version (Figure 6) operates in the following manner. A Piston Shaft is connected with an Internal Seal to a Gate Valve that is connected between the pressure port behind the Compressor Wheel and the suction of the Compressor. The oil pressure at the Thrust Face of each Bearing is
measured and connected to two opposite ends of a Piston Chamber.
.The GTS improved version (Figure 7) operates in a similar manner as the original system. and therefore more responsive. which is less prone to sticking (less resistance) than the Gate Valve. but with the addition of a constant feed oil supply for improved response to Thrust variations. The Gate
Valve is replaced by a "balanced piston" Spool Valve. just as the original system. The Spool Valve is connected
between the pressure vent port behind the Compressor Wheel and the suction of the Compressor.
The opposite occurs when In
the load is increased toward the Expander Thrust Bearing.The Thrust balancing is accomplished by maintaining or decreasing the pressure behind the Compressor Wheel. turn.
With the GTS version.
the end of the Thrust Equalizing Valve can be viewed and verified as to which direction the Thrust Valve is in. thereby reducing the pressure in the area behind the Compressor Wheel causing the load on the Compressor Thrust Bearing to reduce.
. the Spool Valve will tend to close. This is
accomplished when the Thrust force (oil pressure) on the Compressor Thrust Bearing is increased. which causes the Piston to slowly open the Spool Valve.
Blades. surges are capable in the of causing complete as destruction
components Seals. and
pressure in the discharge line. a point of maximum discharge pressure is reached as the flow is reduced.DESCRIPTION OF SURGE CONTROL SYSTEM:
THE SURGE CONDITION: The phenomenon of “surge” in an axial or centrifugal Compressor occurs when the flow is reduced sufficiently to cause a
momentary reversal of flow.
Bearings. Capacity (flow) over the full range of operating conditions. which separates the region of safe operation from the surge area.
FLOW RELATION IN THE COMPRESSOR: The performance map of the Compressor. typically supplied by the Compressor manufacturer. and F in Figure 8 on the next page. is a plot of Pressure increase (head) vs.
An Anti-Surge Control system is therefore recommended to
provide positive protection against surging or cycling. E.
. can vary in Intense of the and
intensity from an audible rattle to a violent shock. the cycle is repeated. The line connecting these points describes the surge limit line.
This reversal tends to lower the Normal compression resumes. C. This is indicated
at points A. or surging. B. At any given Compressor speed. D.
. This reversal then tends to lower the pressure at
the discharge. The function
. the pressure in the Compressor tends to be lower than the discharge pressure and a momentary reversal of flow occurs.FIGURE 8 -
SURGE CONTROL: The most common method of Surge Control uses the Compressor ∆P to represent “head” and the differential pressure across an Inlet orifice (called “h”) to represent capacity.As flow is reduced. allowing for normal compression until the cycle repeats itself.
as shown in Figure 9 below. with its output connected to a Ratio Station (multiplier) and then transmitted as a set point to the Controller(PID).of the Surge Control system is to keep the ratio of exceeding the slope of the surge line. The Inlet and Discharge pressures of the
.FIGURE 9 -
A typical anti-Surge control system block diagram is shown on the sketch on the next page. the Inlet
measured differentially through an Orifice plate using
a DP Transmitter. a control line(Set Point) should be established to the right of the surge line. Flow is In operation.
To provide some factor of safety. Figure 10.
If the Flow
rate is too low (i. In
The output of the Controller operates a bypass valve that recycles the gas back to the Inlet of the Compressor. when the two (2) signals become equal within the bounds of the Proportional Band range.Compressor are also measured using a DP Transmitter and transmitted as the Process variable to the Controller.e.. the Controller will output a signal to open the Bypass (Recirculation) Valve. near surge) then the Bypass Valve should open and allow additional flow to re-circulate back to the 26
The main component on the Turboexpander System that should be checked on a regular basis is the pre-charge pressure in the Lube Oil Accumulator's Bladder.Compressor as necessary. This pre-charge pressure can only be
checked when there is no oil supply pressure to the Accumulator (for example. If the Accumulator
must be checked while the pumps are running. when the pumps are stopped). For example.
MAINTENANCE: The general rule is that there is no need for a strict. the Bypass Valve
is closed to prevent pressure losses and it opens only to prevent surge. 27
. regular maintenance schedule on the Turboexpander. then it must be isolated from the oil line by shutting off the Block Valve.
In normal operation. There are no parts
that are "wear parts" or parts that have a finite life expectancy. wet Inlet Process Gas that may cause
erosion on the Expander Nozzles or Wheel. This is important because the
Accumulator pre-charge pressure is critical to providing emergency oil to the Bearings for a safe coast down during an electrical power outage. The exception to this general rule is when there is
some known issue that may demand regular maintenance surveillance.
Changing the Lube Oil in the reservoir is normally not necessary unless there is a cause to believe that it is contaminated or its viscosity has changed. The Bladder should be pre-charged using N2 gas to
pressure of above ⅓ the oil differential pressure plus the normal Reservoir pressure. DP = 150 PSID and the Reservoir normal operating pressure is 130 PSIG.
sufficient unless some event occurs to suggest a more frequent check is needed. Normally a periodic sampling of the Perhaps twice a year is
oil to check viscosity is recommended. so the tolerance can be ± 5 PSIG without creating a problem.
For example. the oil in the Accumulator must be drained below the Bladder pre-charge pressure.
This is an
approximate value. 3
50 + 130 = 180 PSIG
So the pre-charge pressure should be above 180 PSIG.To accurately check the pre-charge pressure.
150 = 50 .
installations.There have been several installations that have process streams with unusually high molecular weight due to heavy hydrocarbons. The installation did experience some dilution of the oil which reduced the viscosity.
IMPORTANCE OF LOGGING DATA: A very important trouble-shooting tool is reviewing the operational history of the Turboexpander. and sound. vibration.
the list of data points to be regularly recorded on data log sheets.e. perhaps monthly. the oil viscosity is rechecked frequently. i.
. For this reason. Bearing temperature. it is very important to Shown on the following sheet is
maintain good data log sheets. The best warning sign
of a possible impending problem is a change in the operational characteristics of the Turboexpander. The solution was to mix higher viscosity In these
oil of the same type to achieve the desired viscosity.
EXAMPLE OF DATA LOG SHEET
*DATE/TIME *FLOW RATE *SIGNAL TO EXPANDER ACTUATOR *EXPANDER INLET PRESSURE *EXPANDER INLET TEMPERATURE *EXPANDER OUTLET PRESSURE *EXPANDER OUTLET TEMPERATURE *COMPRESSOR INLET PRESSURE *COMPRESSOR INLET TEMPERATURE *COMPRESSOR OUTLET PRESSURE *COMPRESSOR OUTLET TEMPERATURE *SHAFT SPEED *VIBRATION *EXPANDER BEARING RTD *COMPRESSOR BEARING RTD *EXPANDER THRUST PRESSURE *COMPRESSOR THRUST PRESSURE *SEAL GAS SUPPLY PRESSURE *EXPANDER BACK WHEEL PRESSURE *SEAL GAS FILTER DP *LUBE OIL PRESSURE AT PUMP DISCHARGE *LUBE OIL SUPPLY PRESSURE TO BEARINGS *LUBE OIL RESERVOIR PRESSURE TO BEARINGS *LUBE OIL FLOW INDICATOR *LUBE OIL TEMPERATURE (UPSTREAM OF COOLER) *LUBE OIL TEMPERATURE (DOWNSTREAM OF COOLER) *LUBE OIL FILTER AP *MISCELLANEOUS
OPERATOR COMMENTS: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 30
SYMPTOMS SAME AS ABOVE. CHECK OIL DRAIN TEMPERATURE FOR INCREASE.TROUBLE SHOOTING CONDITION: PROBABLE CAUSES: REMEDY:
COLD OIL DRAIN TEMPERATURE
LOW SEAL GAS PRESSURE. THE LABYRINTH SECTION OF THE HEAT BARRIER HAS WASHED OUT. DISASSEMBLE UNIT. HOWEVER. ETC. SAME AS ABOVE. INSPECT AND CHANGE HEAT BARRIER. CAUSING RECIRCULATION OF HOT GASES RESULTING IN COMPOUND TEMPERATURE INCREASES. SEAL GAS PRESSURE ADJUSTMENTS WILL GENERALLY REMEDY SUCH A TEMPERATURE CHANGE.
HIGH COMPRESSOR TEMPERATURE
CLOSE BYPASS. OR EXPANDER SEAL INSERT AND EXPANDER SHAFT SEAL RING IF NECESSARY.
KEEP THE COMPRESSOR BYPASS OPEN UNTIL THE EXPANDER REACHES 80% OF DESIGN CAPACITY.
. 1. ALLOWING COLD PROCESS GAS TO ENTER JOURNAL BEARING HOUSING. THE TACHOMETER WILL FLUCTUATE 150 TO 200 RPM ABOUT EVERY 6 SECONDS. CRACKED HEAT BARRIER. 2. 2. COMPRESSOR BYPASS NOT CLOSED. SPEED. CAUTION: OPERATING UNDER SURGE CONDITIONS FOR MORE THAN 10-15 MINUTES MAY DAMAGE THE BEARINGS. NOTE: SURGE WILL OCCUR UNTIL 70% OF DESIGN FLOW IS ATTAINED. TEMPERATURE.
INCREASE SEAL GAS PRESSURE. CAUTION: THE COMPRESSOR IS THE LOAD FOR THE EXPANDER. IF NOT-
1. ANY CHANGE IN THE FLOW WILL AFFECT THE OVERALL PROCESS CONDITIONS.
A DROP IN OIL DRAIN TEMPERATURE OF LESS THAN 50°F IS NOT UNCOMMON. THE SEAL GAS CAN NO LONGER BUFFER THE COLD PROCESS.
CHECK OIL LEVEL.
. 2. WASHED OUT COMPRESSOR IMPELLER BACK SEAL.
UNBALANCED THRUST TOWARD COMPRESSOR BEARING
1. ABNORMAL PRESSURE DROP IN THE RESIDUE GAS LINE FROM THE DEMETHANIZER TO THE BOOSTER COMPRESSOR SUCTION. CHANGE IF NECESSARY. THE ROTOR MUST BE THAWED OUT BY A WARM GAS STREAM. THIS CONDITION MAY WEAR THE JOURNAL BEARINGS RESULTING IN A HIGHER RUNNING TEMPERATURE. 1. CAUSING PRESSURE BUILD-UP BEHIND THE ROTOR LOADING THE THRUST BEARING. 1. EXPANDER ROTOR RELIEF HOLES (IF PROVIDED) PLUGGED. CHECK COMPRESSOR THRUST BALANCER TO INSURE PROPER ADJUSTMENT FOR PARTICULAR RUN CONDITIONS. DISASSEMBLE. OIL BYPASSING COOLER. 3. 2. CHECK TO SEE IF OIL CONTROL VALVE IS OPEN.
HIGH OIL TEMPERATURE
NOTE: OIL TEMPERATURE MAY VARY WITH CHANGES IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE. INSPECT.
1. & REPAIR. 1. CHECK FOR BLOCKAGE OR ABNORMAL PRESSURE DROP IN HEAT EXCHANGER. EXCESSIVE THRUST UNBALANCE.HIGH COMPRESSOR BEARING TEMPERATURE OR OIL DRAIN TEMPERATURE (SET POINT SPECIFICATIONS) 2.
UNBALANCED THRUST TOWARD THE EXPANDER BEARING. SAME AS ABOVE. 2. EXPANDER ROTOR BACK SEAL WASHED OUT ALLOWING INLET PRESSURE TO BE FELT BEHIND THE ROTOR LOADING THE EXPANDER THRUST BEARING. 2.COMPRESSOR IMPELLER BACK SEAL WASHED OUT
HIGH COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE
CHECK PLAUSIBLE CAUSE OF COMPRESSOR HIGH TEMPERATURE. CAUSED BY EXCESSIVE COMPRESSOR TEMPERATURE. 2. THE DEHYDRATOR UPSTREAM OF THE EXPANDER IS SATURATED OR INOPERATIVE. CONDENSATE MIXING WITH OIL RESULTING IN LOWER VISCOSITY. 1. SEE . 3.
INSTALL A DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE REGULATOR IN THE EXPANDER "WHEEL TAP" TO MAINTAIN SEAL GAS PRESSURE ABOVE WHEEL TAP PRESSURE BY 20 TO 50 PSI. CALIFORNIA 93455 U.simmsmachineryinternational.
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In 1994 he. and service of Turboexpanders and other Cryogenic Rotating Machinery since 1969. primarily used in Gas Processing Plants. The company primarily focuses on LNG Boil-off Gas Compressors aboard LNG Tankers (Ships). in 1988. He worked in the Engineering
Department of various Turboexpander manufacturing companies until he founded Simms Machinery International.
.ABOUT THE AUTHOR: James (Jim) Simms has been involved with the design.
founded Gas Technology Services. Inc. along with others. to service Turboexpanders. Inc. manufacture.