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  • Beer
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Raw Materials
  • 2.1. Starch-Containing Raw Materials
  • 2.1.1. Malting Barley
  • 2.1.2. Malting Wheat
  • 2.1.3. Unmalted Grains
  • 2.1.4. Other Sources of Extract
  • 2.2. Hops and Hop Products
  • 2.2.1. Resins
  • 2.2.2. Hop Oil
  • 2.2.3. Polyphenols
  • 2.2.4. Processing of Hops and Hop Products
  • 2.3. Brewing Water
  • 2.3.1. Salts
  • 2.3.2. Brewing Water Treatment
  • 2.4. Beer Yeasts
  • 3. Production Technology
  • 3.1. Malting
  • 3.1.1. Steeping
  • 3.1.2. Germination
  • 3.1.3. Kilning
  • 3.2. Technology of Wort Production
  • 3.2.1. Grinding of the Malt
  • 3.2.2. Mashing
  • 3.2.3. Separation of Wort
  • 3.2.4. Wort Boiling and Hopping
  • 3.2.5. Wort Treatment
  • 3.3. Bottom Fermentation
  • 3.3.1. Fermentation
  • 3.3.2. Maturation
  • 3.3.3. Cold Storage
  • 3.3.4. Filtration
  • 3.3.5. Stabilization
  • 3.3.6. Types of Bottom-Fermented Beers
  • 3.4. Top Fermentation
  • 3.5. Special Production Methods
  • 3.5.1. Dietetic Beer
  • 3.5.2. Nutrient Beer
  • 3.5.4. High-Gravity Brewing
  • 3.6. Filling
  • 3.7. Beer Dispensing
  • 4. Properties and Quality
  • 5. Analysis
  • 5.1. Analysis of Raw Materials
  • 5.1.1. Water
  • 5.1.2. Malt
  • 5.1.3. Hops and Hop Products
  • 5.2. Brewhouse Control
  • 5.3. Wort
  • 5.4. Fermentation
  • 5.5. Microbiological Process Monitoring
  • 5.6. Beer
  • 5.7. Legally Required Controls
  • 6. Economic Importance
  • 7. Physiology and Toxicology
  • 8. References



Hans Michael Esslinger, Freiberger Brauhaus Aktiengesellschaft, Freiberg/Sachsen, Federal Republic of Germany Ludwig Narziss, Freising, Federal Republic of Germany Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raw Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starch-Containing Raw Materials . Malting Barley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malting Wheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unmalted Grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Sources of Extract . . . . . . . . Hops and Hop Products . . . . . . . . Resins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hop Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polyphenols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Processing of Hops and Hop Products Brewing Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brewing Water Treatment . . . . . . . Beer Yeasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auxiliary Materials and Brewing Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Production Technology . . . . . . . . Malting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Germination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kilning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technology of Wort Production . . . Grinding of the Malt . . . . . . . . . . . Mashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Separation of Wort . . . . . . . . . . . . Wort Boiling and Hopping . . . . . . . Wort Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottom Fermentation . . . . . . . . . Fermentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Bottom-Fermented Beers . . Top Fermentation . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Production Methods . . . . . Dietetic Beer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nutrient Beer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low-Alcohol Beer and Alcohol-Free Beer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-Gravity Brewing . . . . . . . . . . Filling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beer Dispensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties and Quality . . . . . . . . Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis of Raw Materials . . . . . . Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hops and Hop Products . . . . . . . . . Brewhouse Control . . . . . . . . . . . Wort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Microbiological Process Monitoring Beer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legally Required Controls . . . . . . Economic Importance . . . . . . . . . Physiology and Toxicology . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. 2. 2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.1.4. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.3. 2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.4. 2.5. 3. 3.1. 3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.3. 3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4. 3.2.5. 3.3.

1 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 9 9 10 12 12 14 14 15 16 18 20 21 22 23 24 26 27

3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. 3.3.5. 3.3.6. 3.4. 3.5. 3.5.1. 3.5.2. 3.5.3. 3.5.4. 3.6. 3.7. 4. 5. 5.1. 5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 5.7. 6. 7. 8.

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1. Introduction
Beer is described as a beverage containing alcohol, extract, and carbon dioxide. Beer is prepared from barley malt, raw hops or other hop products, brewing water, and top- or bottomfermenting yeast. The alcohol must be produced exclusively from these ingredients, which are converted to fermentable products during the brewing process. Barley malt may be combined with wheat malt, unmalted cereal adjuncts (raw grain), and other extract-containing materials. Legal regulations concerning raw materials and
c 2005 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 10.1002/14356007.a03 421

additives as well as rules for listing these vary from one country to another. To obtain barley malt, the grain is germinated under controlled conditions; the controls comprise moisture content, germination temperature, the ratio of oxygen to carbon dioxide in the germinating grain, and germinating time. Green malt is formed once a certain increase in enzyme activity and a partial degradation of the starchy endosperm have taken place; this latter process is called by the brewer modification. Green malt is then processed into kiln or brew-


Beer 3). Typical beer designations have developed from the natural chemical composition of the water in various regions, e.g., Pilsener, Munich, Dortmunder. In the Federal Republic of Germany, teaching and research in the area of brewing is concentrated at the technical universities of Berlin and of Munich-Weihenstephan. The universities of other European countries and of Japan also have formidable research capacities. Furthermore, in numerous countries there are research facilities operated jointly with the brewing industry. In addition, there are the laboratories of the large brewing companies, which have contributed greatly to the level of knowledge currently available. Results of research are discussed at scientific meetings in Europe (European Brewery Convention, EBC) and at international meetings in the United States, South America, Australia, and Japan. History. The word beer comes from the Latin word “bibere” (to drink), which is the origin of the Old English word “b¯ or” (the brewed), e akin to the Old High German word “bior”, from which also the French word “bi` re”, the Italian e ”birra”, the East European ”pivo”, and the Spanish “cerveza” developed. The roots of beer production, however, go back much farther to the first agrarian societies, the Sumerers. They used a variety of grain called emmer (Triticum dicoccum) which was dehusked and baked to give flat bread. The flat breads were soaked in water and then allowed to ferment spontaneously through the action of wild yeasts. The Babylonians developed the art of brewing further and distinguished between twenty different types of beer, in which the emmer and barley content as well as the strength of the beer were closely regulated. The “Codex Hammurabi” contained regulations regarding the quality of beer and described strict punishment for beer adulterators. The Egyptians refined further the art of beer brewing and the legal requirements. They made the grain germinate and eliminated the soaked pieces of bread by sieving. The Jews, Greeks, Romans, and Germanic peoples all knew beer, but partly preferred wine as a drink. From the seventh century, malting and brewing processes were researched with great experimental zeal, mainly in German monas-

ing malt by drying. This malt is subsequently milled (ground) and mixed with brewing water. During the subsequent procedure, called mashing, high molecular mass components of malt are degraded by enzymes at specific well-defined temperatures (rest periods). The suspension is filtered to separate the liquid, called wort, from the spent grains. This process is called lautering. The wort is subsequently boiled with the addition of hops; this causes a coagulation of constituents, which are then called hot trub or break. They are separated together with the solids from the hops (hot trub removal). The clarified wort is subsequently cooled to the pitching temperature required by the fermentation method and the yeast strain used. The fermentation process is initiated by pitching: this consists of saturating the cold wort with air and adding cultured yeast. The fermentable low molecular mass components of the wort are converted to ethanol and numerous aroma compounds (fermentation byproducts) according to the metabolism of the yeast strain. After maturing to taste and enriching with carbon dioxide produced by fermentation, the beer is filtered to clearness and bottled. The extract of original wort (original extract; original gravity) is defined as the mass fraction of nonvolatile, dissolved extract substances in the unfermented, cold pitching wort. During fermentation most of these substances are metabolized by the yeast, and the content of extract continually decreases. The extract of original wort can, however, be determined in samples taken during fermentation and in the finished beer, provided that the alcohol concentration and the real extract (extract contained in the dealcoholized beer) are both known. The degree of attenuation is defined as the ratio of fermented extract to original extract, expressed as a percentage. The attenuation limit indicates the maximum amount of extract that the yeast will ferment. Furthermore a distinction has to be made between top- and bottom-fermenting types of beer. The top-fermenting yeast rises to the surface at the end of the main fermentation process, whereas the bottom-fermenting yeast settles at the bottom. Both yeast types differ morphologically, in their enzyme composition, and in their physiological behavior. The nomenclature of beer types is determined by their general production method (see Chap.

Beer teries. In the following centuries, brewing and dipensing rights were loaned out to several monasteries. It was also the monks who first used hops as a flavoring agent. From the fourteenth century, hops were generally accepted as an additive; earlier, tree bark, bitter herbs, and berries were added to the brew. Until the sixteenth century, only the spontaneous top fermentation, which occurs at higher temperature, was known; later, bottom fermentation also was discovered. War changed drinking habits because of the destruction of cultural values. Bavaria, for instance, became a beer country only after the Thirty Years’ War, when its vineyards were destroyed. Beer as it is known today was only made possible through numerous inventions in technology. Hot air kilns, steam engines, refrigerating machines, and filtration equipment enabled brewers to work throughout the year. Increasingly, more precise control of the brewing process also became available. The most significant improvement in quality was finally accomplished after the invention of the microscope: yeasts were found to cause the alcoholic fermentation. At the end of the nineteenth century, yeasts were cultivated and introduced into the brewery as pure strains. Purity Law. Laws that regulate the production of beer have always been regarded as consumer protecting regulations. One of these statutory regulations was laid down by the Bavarian dukes Wilhelm IV and Ludwig X at the State Parliament at Ingolstadt on April 23, 1516; the law was accepted and is known today as the Purity Law (Reinheitsgebot). It requires that only barley (barley malt), hops, and water are to be used for the production of beer; yeast, as the fourth raw material, was only mentioned for the first time in 1551. Germany, Greece, and Switzerland brew according to this very strict law, the oldest in the world that pertains to food processing. Other sources of extract and numerous additives and brewing aids are permitted in countries elsewhere. Because brewing technology does not require additives and chemicals for the production of beer of a consistently high quality, the Purity Law brewers insist on the maintenance of the Purity Law.


2. Raw Materials
2.1. Starch-Containing Raw Materials
For further information, see also the articles on → Cereals and Cereals Products, and on → Starch. 2.1.1. Malting Barley Barley belongs to the family of grasses (Gramineae) and is found in various forms. First, a distinction is made between summer barley (spring sowing) and winter barley (late fall sowing), and second, between two-row and multiple-row barleys, according to the number of blossoms on the stalk. Multiple-row barleys produce malts richer in husks, protein, and enzymes, which may prove advantageous when using unmalted grain adjuncts. Two-row barley is divided into two main groups: the straight barley, and the “nodding” barley, whose ear hangs down during maturation. Two-row spring barley (Hordeum distichum nutans) has the best malting and brewing properties; the most important varieties of spring barley in Europe are Barke (Germany, Denmark), Chariot (UK), Optic (France, Denmark, UK), Pasadena (Germany, Denmark), Reggae (Netherlands), and Scarlett (France, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands). Two-row winter barley varieties are Plaisant (France), Pipkin (UK), Tiffany (Germany), and Vanessa (Germany). The advantages of barley over other grains that could be used for malting are the easier regulation and control of the germination process, the superior taste of beer made with barley, and the brewing technology available. Barley grows best in a humid climate and on soils with moderate contents of nutritients. The husks produce a filter bed for lautering, and the enzyme complement is advantageous for bringing about the desired modification. A similar uniform development of kernels as in the two-row spring barley can only be achieved in the newly-bred two-row winter barley varieties. Mixtures of spring and winter barleys cause technological difficulties in the malting process. Because the developmental rhythms of the two types of barley are different, the germination process occurs unevenly when processing mixed charges. These problems may be


Beer malt is shown in Table 1. The moisture content, which is especially relevant to the storage quality of freshly harvested barley, may range from 12 to 20 %; 10 to 12 % are optimal for storage. As shown in Table 2, the moisture content is the limiting factor for storage. The α-glucans (amylose and amylopectin of the starch) are the most important carbohydrates in barley. Other carbohydrate components include β-glucans (cellulose, hemicellulose, gums), pentosans, as well as minute portions of low molecular mass sugars. Proteins are especially important for maltability, yeast nutrition, foam, taste, and the stability of the beer. Lipids are only partially used up during malting, the remainder staying mainly in the spent grains. Other important components are phosphates (about 0.3 %), minerals (2.5 – 3.5 %), vitamins (about 0.5 × 10−3 %), and phenolic substances (about 0.2 %). The enzymes of barley and of malt, as well as their effects during mashing, are shown in Table 4. 2.1.2. Malting Wheat For some top-fermenting beers (see Section 3.4) wheat malt is added in order to achieve a special flavor quality. Brewing wheat should contain 11.5 – 12.5 % protein. Its extract yield is in the range of 83 to 87 %. 2.1.3. Unmalted Grains Economic reasons or insufficient supplies of brewing barley or brewing malt have resulted in obtaining part of the starch by the addition of other, unmalted grain types. These adjuncts may account for up to 30 % of the grist in Europe, and up to 50 % in the United States. However, the success of this practice requires the use of very high enzyme-containing and protein-rich barley malts. In many countries these adjuncts are defined as replacement material for brewing malt, which add mostly carbohydrates to the wort; their use must be legally permitted. Unmalted barley does not present any economic advantage over barley malt. Lower yields are achieved and frequently insufficient conversion in the brewhouse has to be corrected by adding enzymes produced microbially. Beers produced in this manner contain less nitrogen,

overcome by using separate malting processes, but processing difficulties can be expected in the brewery in connection with lautering, fermentation, and the filterability of the beer; an impaired beer stability can also be expected. Quality Requirements. Minimum specifications are laid down in the EC quality standard. Moreover, the maltster puts further requirements on his raw material: Germinative ability > 98 % Screening: > 90 % > 2.5 mm (Vollgerste) Raw protein content < 11.5 % Extract > 80 % Attenuation limit > 80 % Smell, color, gloss, and husk fineness are checked by manual appraisement. Further mechanical, chemical, and physiological inspection methods are listed in [29], [30]. The most important malting attribute of barley lies in its germinative vitality, which is defined as the percentage of kernels that initiate germination in the very beginning of the malting process. Freshly harvested barley must pass through a post-maturation period. This dormancy may be shortened by physical or chemical methods. The germinative energy is a measure of germination maturity: it indicates how many grains have actually germinated after three days under conditions that are similar to those used in practice. A further indicator of maltability is the sensitivity of the barley to an overexposure to water during steeping (water sensitivity); the importance of this criterion has declined following the application of extended air rest periods during steeping. The standardization of pilot-scale malting methods has become an indispensable aid for the assessment of barley and optimization of malting technology parameters; furthermore these methods provide reliable criteria in the selection of newly-bred barley varieties for planting. Directions for the cultivation, storage, and physiological preservation of brewing barley, as well as detailed descriptions of its morphology and breeding, may be found in the literature [8], [10], [12], [13]. Chemical Composition. The chemical composition of brewing barley versus a pale

Rice is processed as broken rice. Maximum storage time for maintaining malting barley quality under different storage conditions Storage temperature Seed moisture content 10 % 8 ◦C 10 ◦ C 12 ◦ C 14 ◦ C 16 ◦ C 7. but filtration is more difficult. and is popular because extract yields range from 87 to 91 % after the removal of the oil-rich embryo. Amounts up to 15 % yield very soft beers with a wine-like flavor.7 % fat. as a malt additive.5 years 2 years 1.1. Sugar is added as sucrose. Addition of corn results in sweetish.4. .8 years 3 years 12 % 2. which are manufactured from grain or starch flour by enzymatic or acidic hydrolysis. Besides starch flour itself. and 1.3 years 1 year 14 % 1 year 300 days 240 days 190 days 150 days 16 % 170 days 140 days 110 days 85 days 65 days have a lower attenuation limit.5 years 6 years 5 years 3. All syrups have an extract content of about 80 %. The co-processing of rice generally results in very light and dry beers. protein 8 – 9 %. other concentrations (expressed on a dry basis) are: extract 93 – 95 %. fat 0. 12 – 14 % protein.4).5 2. Corn (maize) is processed as corn starch. The concentration of the wort may be increased in this manner to 15 – 18 % without affecting the further process development adversely (see Section 3. or larger corn grits. or as glucose.2 2.5 – 9 %. 2. a residual fat content of less than 1 % in the grits is not harmful to head retention. full-bodied beers. For nutrient beers caramelized brewing sugar may be added.5 – 10 5 2.8 2.5. and display better head retention. The chemical composition of brewing barley and malt (mass fractions in %) Malting barley As is Moisture Starch Other non-nitrogen extract compounds Protein Fiber Minerals Fat 12 – 14 55 – 57 12 – 14 9 – 10.6 years 1.5 4 2. has only regional importance in Africa. flakes. They are added to the wort kettle. as invert sugar. wheat contains 65 % starch and other carbohydrates. protein content (dry basis) is in the range of 8.5 – 0. Other Sources of Extract Other sources of extract are processed starch preparations and carbohydrates in fermentable low molecular mass form. The final yield is about 103 %.5 2 Dry matter Malt As is 4– 5 56 – 58 16 – 18 8. sometimes only at about 80 ◦ C. With a moisture content of 15 %.3 58 – 60 17 – 19 9 – 11 5. The moisture content is 12 – 13 %. depending on consistency and quality. Moisture content should not exceed 12 – 13 %.Beer Table 1. Sugar is added to the wort kettle shortly before the end of boiling in order to raise the proportion of fermentable extract. syrups frequently are used. Rice starch gelatinizes at 65 – 70 ◦ C. The extract content of the sugar solution is between 65 and 85 %. This byproduct of table rice production must be pure white. Unmalted wheat.4 2 Dry matter 5 64 – 66 14 – 16 10 – 12 4.5 2. For malt beers and nutrient beers. Its composition is similar to that of barley.1 Table 2. while their fermentability is in the range of 40 – 78 %. because of the addition of water during enzymatic hydrolysis Sorghum. sugar is added to the filtered beer in order to achieve the desired character and extract of original wort.7 %. Partially unmalted wheat is sometimes added to the mash. Commercial corn starch is practically free from protein and fat.

Hard resins are even less bitter.. Furthermore. because they are isomerized during the boiling process whereas the remaining acids are removed during fermentation as part of the foam cover. The hop plant. Resins The bitter constituents of hops consist of α-acids (humulones).2 Dry matter 2. is a hardy. Only female vines are planted in hop farms. The chemical composition of hops (mass fraction in %) As is Water α-Acids β-Acids Hop oils Non-nitrogen extract compounds Protein Fiber Polyphenols Minerals Lipids and waxes Fatty acids 9 – 12 2 – 17 2 – 10 0. The bitter acids (αand β-acids) and the aroma substances (hopoils) are of great importance both from the viewpoint of brewing technology and for the taste of the beer. dioecious. The α-acids are the most important of these bitter components because of their high bitterness potential. The β-acids are not bitter at all.5 – 16 8 – 12 up to 3. a specific aroma. pest infestation). sticky. All α-acids and their isomerization products have approximately the same bitterness. are listed in Chapter 6. The solubility of the α-acids is very dependent on the pH value. [9]. they are considered to have foam-improving qualities. climbing plant.06 – 0.5 – 2. cisand trans-isohumulone.1. They impart a bitter taste to the beer.22 2. Saazer. and belongs to the hemp family.5 2. They represent clusters of blossoms on the female plant and grow despite an absence of pollination. . β-acids (lupulones). called hard resins. and promote clarification. these substances will dissolve to only a limited degree.05 – 0.6 – 2.g. Hops can be judged on the basis of manual classification (appearance. Hop cultivation requires special climatic conditions and a soil varying in texture from sandy to muddy. and the oxidation products of bitter acids. e.8 4. The most important hopproducing countries. 2.2 – 13. they contain the aromatic and bitter substances. whereas brewing values can only be determined by chemical analysis. α-acids are found only in very limited quantities.2 0. Classification by type in the EC is made on the basis of the content of compounds responsible for the bitter taste and flavor: 1) EC List A aroma hops: Hallertauer. since 1978 producers of hops are required to designate varieties and to indicate origin. Hops also are believed to act as an antiseptic in beer. propagation is carried out by perpetuating vegetative clones. Perle. Spalter.5 – 10 13 – 22 11 – 19 4. Northern Brewer. soft resins. Hops are classified according to their origin and type. for similar varieties.6 Beer Table 3.5 4–9 15 – 21 10 – 17 3–8 7 – 11 up to 3 0.2. Hersbrucker. color. Tettnanger 2) EC List B bitter hops: Brewers Gold.2. together with their quantities harvested. Nugget. Target. cup-like glands (lupulin glands) are located on the inner sides of the inner and outer bracteoles. about 10 – 33 % of the intensity produced by humulones. Hops are picked in August or September. Hops and Hop Products Hops added to the wort are an indispensable ingredient for many reasons [7].2 – 11. The hop cones are of primary interest to the brewer. The α-acids isomerize to iso-α-acids. Humulus lupulus.4 0. The brewing value of the individual fractions varies and depends on their solubility in beer and wort and on their bitterness potential. The cultivated types have been obtained by separation according to shape. Table 3 lists the most important components found in hops. Magnum. In beer itself. The soft resins produce a lower bitterness level. At the pH of the wort. Yellowishgreen. the influence of origin dominates. Taurus According to the certification policy within the EC hop market law.

farnesenes. see [2]. and are largely removed with the spent hops and the trub without being utilized. which are soluble in the wort and in beer and also impart bitterness to the latter. [22].4. The mono. Various hop products find acceptance nowadays in the brewing industry because of their improved storage capacity. such as phenolic acids (e. i. antiisohumulones. 2. The hops are sulfurized before being packed into bales or compressed into ballots. flavones. The relative amounts of the almost insoluble sesquiterpenes. Hops should be stored in cool. High temperature. The net result of boiling is a dramatic change in the already complex polyphenol composition of wort. Some volatile compounds (aldehydes. gallic. they are converted to epoxides. Vacuum packing followed by impregnation with an inert gas is necessary if prolonged storage of the hop product is anticipated. and are stable at the pH value of beer. and anthocyanidines).2. Most of the hop polyphenols are removed during wort boiling by precipitation with proteins. 2. for details. alcohols.and sesquiterpenes become more soluble by oxidation. and light will cause changes in the oil fraction of hops. but very high dosages of hop polyphenols and long boiling times may adversely affect the colloidal stability. dry. abeoisohumulones (oxidized isohumulones). Lupulone differs from humulone by a side chain on the C3 of the six-membered ring. Most of these. protocatechinic. the hop cones must be dried from a moisture content of 75 – 80 % to a level of 10 – 12 % using low temperature and strong air circulation.2. During the isomerization process the following α-acid derivatives also are formed: cis. The addition of hop polyphenols does not alter the foam consistency and color of beer. can be used to distinguish between the different varieties. however. and β-caryophyllenes. During storage. Processing of Hops and Hop Products After harvesting.e. ketones.Beer 2. such as humulenes.and transalloisohumulones. oxygen. They do not isomerize during boiling. longer preservation . and polycondensated substances with strong tanning properties.g. Part of the complexity can undoubtedly be ascribed to the ready oxidation and the ease of polymerization of many polyphenols. coloring components (catechins..2. Hops contain a number of phenolic components and derivatives of low molecular mass. moisture. and esters) are also produced during aging of the hops by side-chain breakdown of the bitter acids. The lupulones (β-acids) are insoluble at the normal pH value of the wort. whereas the polyphenols transform into higher condensed products [32–34]. Low molecular mass polyphenols act as antioxidants and hence have a beneficial effect on beer flavor stability. Hop polyphenols play a role in the establishment of the intrinsic colloidal stability of beer [21]. The positive effects of low molecular mass polyphenols on human health are reported in Chapter 7. p-hydroxycoumaric. bitter acids become resins and lose part of their bitterness potential..2. lupulones oxidize to β-soft resins. Polyphenols 7 The isomerization products are significantly more soluble than the original α-acids. and caffeic acid).3. spiroisohumulones. Hop Oil The volatile and nonvolatile aromatic components of hops also determine hop quality. which can originate from procyanidines. during fermentation they are partly transformed by the yeast to the corresponding sesquiterpene alcohols and can therefore contribute to the aroma of the beer. dark areas at about 0 ◦ C to preserve their quality. The aromatic content of hops is influenced not only by the variety but also very much by the drying and storing conditions and by processing. and gives rise to the same homologues as humulone. and their various homologues. evaporate during wort boiling. humulinic acids. ferulic.

. All extract can be standardized to a defined α-acid content with hot water extracts of hops or glucose syrup. The composition of the resulting extract of aroma-contributing substances and resins can be controlled by fractionation. iso-α-acid products can be added either during wort boiling or after fermentation. and simpler handling in the brewery. hops are deep-frozen to about – 30 ◦ C and ground. the α-acids react with magnesium ions to form salts. which can easily be removed by centrifugation. the use of hop pellets type 90 offers savings of 10 – 15 % in terms of α-acids. and the solution is separated from the solid substances. which usually is pelleted. losses caused by the evaporation of the solvent are minimal in the case of carbon dioxide and substantial with ethanol. depending on the composition of the product. the content of undesired components such as nitrate or pesticides is reduced. Isomerized Hop Extracts. Isomerized Kettle Extracts. their components are more readily soluble than those from raw hops. During extraction with 90 % ethanol.8 Beer Carbon dioxide and ethanol dissolve the αacids quantitatively. In these products. Therefore. Hop pellets type 45. The savings in bitter substances when using extracts are aprroximately 10 % in terms of the amount of the α-acid. Hops products can be classified into four general types: Non-Isomerized Hop Products. In all production methods. The aroma-contributing components are quantitatively dissolved. Regulations control the use of these products in various countries. To achieve sufficient isomerization during wort production they must be added to the kettle at the start of or during wort boiling. This treatment also reduces the polyphenol concentration in the resulting hops. In the first method pure resin extract is heated in contact with aqueous potassium carbonate-hydroxide solution. During the formation of the pellet. During one-step procedures using ethanol as solvent. Unlike α-acid based products. After drying. Products included in this category are: Double compressed whole hops Hop pellets type 90. the extraction conditions are controlled by pressure and temperature. By drying hops down to a moisture content of 6 – 9 % and grinding. Lupulin is separated from the cones and from other nonessential parts of the leaves by sieving at the same low temperature. The extracts are packed in cans. Carbon dioxide does not dissolve tannins and hop proteins. There are two basic methods for the production of isomerized kettle extracts. This gives an isomerized kettle extract in which the iso-α-acids are present as of quality. isomerization of 10 % of the αacids takes place. Isomerized hop products include: Isomerized Hop Pellets. The α-acids of stabilized hop pellets are converted easily and quantitatively into the corresponding iso-αacids by heat treatment at temperatures below 60 ◦ C. In this type of product the α-acids remain unchanged during hop processing. Pellets also occupy a considerable smaller volume than raw hops. Hop Extracts. α-acids have been isomerized to iso-αacids during processing. The powder is usually pelletized and packed under inert conditions. Carbon dioxide dissolves only traces of the hard resins under the prevailing extraction conditions for the removal of bitter substances. These may be obtained during a secondary extraction step by the use of hot water. For the production of the extract the hops are ground. Stabilized hop pellets are produced by blending magnesium oxide or calcium oxide with the hop powder prior to pelletization. a certtain proportion of tannins also is extracted. The powder. the solvent is finally evaporated at 40 – 60 ◦ C and reclaimed. Solvents used for the extraction of hops include ethanol and carbon dioxide (supercritical or liquid). which isomerize to iso-α-acids during storage. depending on the extent of removal of nonessential components. In the process employing supercritical carbon dioxide. offers savings in terms of α-acids of about 15 % when compared with natural hops. Because these pellets possess a larger surface area. a powder is obtained. Furthermore. the valuable components are dissolved.

K+ . fermented beer and must therefore be of high purity and essentially free of insoluble hop resins. 3 3 2 CO2− . HCO− . The following ions are predominantly found in the water: Cations: H+ . They include the following preparations: Hop pellets type 100 are produced by simple compression of whole hops. In addition..g. impurities.Beer potassium salts. Specialty hop products are available. Oil-Rich Hop Extract. Carbonate. In the magnesium salt form the extract is very viscous and not easy to handle. In the second method the pure resin extract is mixed and heated with magnesium oxide. sulfates. which do not contribute significantly to beer bitterness. but the hops are not dried or milled prior to compression. This extract can be handled similarly to a conventional pure resin extract. e. which is toxic to yeasts. Na+ . hydrogencarbonate (HCO− ). NH+ . e. 500 mg/L. which indirectly influence the quality of the beer. Hop oil emulsions Fractionated hop oils Miscellaneous Hop Products. Hop oil products are specifically used to impart aroma to beer. Whole hop pellets are generally added to cask conditioned ales in order to impart the beer ‘dry hop’ aroma. the salts are almost completely dissociated into ions. PO3− 4 3 4 3 Calcium and magnesium salts are most commonly found in natural waters. By treatment with a strong acid. . Because of their low concentration.3. Isomerized hop extract is used for dosing into cold. NO− . Today almost any water can be made suitable for brewing but at a corresponding cost. its chemical composition and the concentrations of various constituents usually are determined by the geology of the specific region of origin. that has a higher than normal oil content. Reduced isomerized hop extracts comprise three different reduced forms of iso-αacids: extracts containing rho-iso-α-acids (dihydroiso-α-acids). an excessive amount of sodium chloride or more than 30 mg/L of nitrate ions. can be obtained by partial extraction with carbon dioxide or fractionation during production of pure resin extract with supercritical carbon dioxide or by addition of pure hop oil to pure resin extract. Nitrate is reduced during fermentation to nitrite. 2. Waste materials are removed.. but are used instead to prevent overfoaming in the kettle 9 and ensure normal fermentation characteristics. NO− . Fe3+ .1. The sum of these two cations determines the total hardness of the water. Ca2+ . The pellets are vacuum packed in order to preserve the quality of the oil during storage. SO2− . The non-carbonate hardness is accounted for by salts of acids other than carbonic. the magnesium iso-α-acid salts are converted to the free acids. 4 Mn2+ . and free carbon dioxide have to be 3 controlled carefully because of the corrosive nature of free carbon dioxide. An extract. Mg2+ . Salts The total solids content of natural water usually is 50 – 2000 mg/L. which is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (mval/L). Expensive water treatment is unavoidable if certain ions are present in such high concentrations as to be detrimental to the beer. Al3+ Anions: OH− . Pure Hop Oil. SiO2− . organic substances. those containing tetrahydroiso-α-acids and those containing hexahydroiso-α-acids.g.3. These salts remain dissolved during boiling [35]. Brewing Water Natural water always comes as a highly diluted mineral salt solution. with an average of ca. Cl− . A common method for isolating pure hop oil is a steam distillation of an extract under vacuum or atmospheric pressure. No water is added during the isomerization process. and organisms may subsequently enter the water. These products include: Base hop extracts Purified β-acid fractions 2.

As already mentioned.1. and is acceptable only in the case of dark beer. Chap. high values for residual alkalinity resulting in a mash pH of over 5. malic. so that the pH may drop too rapidly during fermentation. The effect of sodium hydrogencarbonate is even more marked. colorless. The total alkalinity is equal to the hardness linked to the presence of hydrogencarbonate ions.2. calcium. but an unpleasant. and succinic. Natural waters originate from many different geological formations and therefore very rarely conform to the quality required for brewing water. 6.5 7 Effects During Mashing.10 Beer “residual alkalinity” is calculated by subtracting the effect of the acidity-improving alkaline-earth ions from the effect of the acidity-destroying hydrogencarbonate ions: residual alkalinity = total alkalinity− Ca hardness Mg hardness + 3.15 units. and magnesium are most effective in this regard. On the other hand. At the concentrations of mineral salts normally found in water. and should not be corrosive. which remains in solution together with the secondary sodium phosphate. The alkalinity of the wort caused by hydrogen carbonates also affects the solubility behavior of the bitter substances present in hops. The various hydrogencarbonates influence the acidity to varying extents. On the one hand. influence the pH values of the mash. the solubility is increased. especially iron and manganese. 2. and the presence of aggressive gases in the untreated water. together with the malt ingredients. because strongly alkaline tertiary sodium phosphate is formed. Alkalinity. The residual alkalinity for pilsener should be below 35 ppm CaCO3 .). It should not contain heavy metals. considerable disadvantages can be expected. The brewhouse yield is reduced by 2 % when the residual alkalinity is in the range of 180 – 210 ppm CaCO3 . when the pH is increased. The . The term alkalinity is used to designate the concentration of the hydrogencarbonate ions in water (→ Water. Decreasing the residual alkalinity by 90 ppm CaCO3 will lower the mash pH by 0. Brewing Water Treatment Water used for brewing should correspond in quality to drinking water. It is essential to observe how different ions present in the water. The residual alkalinity indicates the suitability of the brewing water for the various varieties of beer. Processing of brewing water also depends on the specific needs of Calcium ions convert the secondary phosphate to the acidic primary phosphate. The following equation demonstrates this effect: 3 Ca2+ + 4 HPO2− → Ca3 (PO4 )2 + 2 H2 PO− 4 4 Hardness is given in degrees German hardness (dH). the ions of the alkaline-earth metals are able to compensate for the increase in pH caused by hydrogencarbonate. and neutral in taste and smell. and the beer. In addition.8 will reduce the effectiveness of most of the hydrolytic enzymes. the wort. The phosphates of sodium. a high pH value causes a molecular solution of the α-acids. interactions with soluble components of the malt as well as various effects on the enzymes of the malt and on the ingredients derived from the hops are of practical importance. The release of polyphenols from the husks of barley malt will occur with greater ease in this pH range. The actual extent of water conditioning is governed by the concentrations of anions.3. especially with regard to the net effect on the solubility of the α-acids. and 90 – 110 ppm CaCO3 for pale beer. the effect of magnesium hydrogencarbonate is greater than that of calcium hydrogencarbonate. Accordingly. it should be clear. because the secondary magnesium phosphate will remain in solution. For this reason treatment is required before water from such sources can be used for brewing. because the solubilities of the corresponding secondary or tertiary phosphates are different. Further reactants include the potassium and calcium salts of such organic acids as lactic. harsh bitterness is created in the beer. the precipitation of phosphates by calcium and magnesium ions results in a decreased buffering capacity of the mash. the dissolved organic substances. Similarly. Magnesium ions are only half as effective by comparison with calcium ions. which will impair the bitter flavor of the beer. Should the residual alkalinity increase substantially.

Weakly acidic exchangers remove only the hydrogencarbonates (of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ) from the raw water. Alternatively. a two-step precipitation – decarbonation process is used. The total water is finally collected in a storage tank after filtration through a gravel bed. and does not contain an excess of free carbon dioxide after irrigation. even those of the strong acids. Mg(HCO3 )2 . This alkaline water subsequently reacts with the remaining one third of the raw water stream in a refining reactor. complete ion exchange enables the brewer to prepare brewing water from sources with widely differing compositions. and NO− ions 4 3 may be removed with anion exchangers. this method is not economical. Attention is directed to both the carbonate hardness and to the ratio of carbonate to noncarbonate hardness. which require little space and facilitate a quicker throughput. water and milk of lime are intensively mixed in a reaction vessel. For the latter. Brewing water can be readily deionized by using ion exchange resins. This equipment will automatically be activated whenever the pH rises above a predetermined value. this will decrease non-carbonate hardness. in this way slight hardening is achieved. and MgCO3 . In addition. investment and operating costs are much higher than in the treatment procedures described above. These exchangers are especially effective with hardness caused by magnesium. The following components can be removed by Ca(OH)2 : free CO2 . where both calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide are precipitated. Ca(HCO3 )2 . In this reactor. The proce- 11 dure ensures extensive removal of the magnesium hardness. . Anion exchange: SO2− .5 – 11 is required. Bearing profitability in mind. a pH of 10. slimy magnesium hydroxide will partly precipitate and clog the gravel filter bed. If the magnesium hardness exceeds the non-carbonate hardness. the deionized water can be blended with raw water. this needs to be removed by blowing a countercurrent of air through the water. Strongly acidic ion exchangers operate in a similar manner. The simplest procedure for the precipitation of carbonates is to add milk of lime. corrosive CO2 is liberated. this procedure may be applied only if combined with other deionization methods. the calculated amount of milk of lime that is needed for the decarbonation and for the removal of magnesium is added to a partial stream of the raw water (two thirds). In order to control variability in the composition of raw water hydrogen ion exchange facilities can be installed at the end. the excess lime is used to precipitate calcium carbonate whereas the magnesium carbonate of this 30 – 40 % stream remains in solution. In this case. The water trapped between the membranes is appreciably lower in its salt content and can be run off. it can also contaminate the brewing water. The remaining CO2 reacts with milk of lime or marble to form Ca(HCO3 )2 . This is done in a superliming reactor. Electroosmosis. During this process a large amount of free. and are replaced by hydrogen ions. depending on the anticipated load. The brewing water thus obtained is very poor in carbonates. the treatment methods mentioned in the following can be applied: Heat Precipitation. Cl− . However. which should be around 1 to 2 – 2. Decarbonation. Cation exchangers can be either weakly or strongly acidic.Beer the brewer and on the particular beer required. quick or pressure decarbonation may be used. Variations in magnesium hardness are more problematic. Ion Exchange (→ Ion Exchange). In a continuous-current field the salts in the water migrate towards the electrodes. To overcome this problem.5. In the first step. The free mineral acids that are thus formed are neutralized with saturated milk of lime. however. The availability of food-grade ion exchange resins enables raw water to be processed to give water of any desired composition. Even though total deionization is not desirable in the production of brewing water. The selection of a treatment method also is influenced by the prevailing laws. If the noncarbonate hardness in the raw water is higher than the magnesium hardness. All cations are removed from the raw water. Carbonates can be precipitated by boiling. which are separated by membranes. where calcium carbonate precipitates as a coarse product that sediments well. For total deionization by electroosmosis.

05 – 0. 2. and its further handling should be managed with great care. Saccharomyces cerevisiae [36]. and reduces the danger of mold formation. Acceptable food-grade salts are: CaCO3 . chemical composition. For this purpose.1. or phosphoric acid. For the production of bottom-fermenting beers. Additionally. 5. the wort. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis are used. Auxiliary Materials and Brewing Aids This group comprises all those chemicals that come into contact with the raw materials. Acid Addition. Suspended matter is removed with flocculants and gravel bed filters. such as Ca(OH)2 or NaOH.12 Beer The pitching yeast should be selected as carefully as the other raw materials.5. MgCO3 . most commonly. it stimulates enzyme formation and accelerates germination. it is possible to add growth inhibitors during the later stage of germination. Hydrogen peroxide decreases the sensitivity of barley to water. Furthermore. metabolism. and for top-fermenting beers. CaCl2 . the yeast must be removed quickly from the production process Reverse Osmosis. and are used for the correction of deficiencies. No general directions exist in the various countries where beer is brewed regarding the use of these materials. and other small particles can also be removed from water by reverse osmosis. Short-term storage of yeast and aeration before pitching retains fermenting power and keeps the yeast in good physiological condition. and NaCl. In order to metabolize actively. and yeast enzymes can be found under the appropriate keywords: → Ethanol. such mineral salts as are found in natural water may be added to brewing water. This can be achieved by installing an activated carbon filter upstream of the deionization equipment. Depending on the syntheses required. the yeast provides the original wort with its enzyme system. potassium bromate are used. Ions.4. CaSO4 .. They have the main advantage that their cells propagate by budding. dilute nitric acid. Other Processes. table waters may be obtained from the resulting concentrate by proper sterilizing and carbonating procedures. propagation. The addition of mineral acids. The addition of sulfur dioxide to the air flow during kilning will result in a lighter color and a higher extract yield by lowering the pH value. Gibberellic acid is an effective growth agent. morphological characteristics. → Yeasts. After the malt enzymes have been destroyed during wort boiling. but the total hardness remains unaltered. its crop after fermentation. Sprinkling the green malt towards the end of the germination phase with an aqueous glucose solution will increase the amount of extract to a greater extent than would be expected from the amount of sugar used. Wort is not an ideal nutrient medium for yeast. provided that the ionic composition is appropriate. Furthermore. sulfuric. changes the carbonate hardness into non-carbonate hardness. . or. and the beer. they are not essential for the production of beer. Beer Yeasts Brewery yeasts belong to the family of Saccharomycetaceae and the genus Saccharomyces.1 mg/kg of barley because of the danger of overmodification and additional coloration. If an infection with organisms detrimental to beer occurs. 2. The amount of growth factor that is to be added to the final steeping water should not exceed 0. Chap. References to taxonomic and technological structure. formaldehyde. In order to avoid excessive losses of extract during germination. its introduction into production. such as hydrochloric. Alkaline additives. molecules. Another important treatment may become necessary if bad-smelling or bad-tasting substances have to be removed. Various chemicals may be added to the steeping water. Malting Auxiliaries. so as to avoid clogging of the downstream equipment. the yeast must synthesize those substances it needs according to the wort composition. the amounts of the metabolic products that are found in the fermenting substrate will differ. will increase the leaching out of husk tannins.

However.2). Shortly before filtration. During wort boiling. calcined and screened diatomaceous earth) of various particle size distribution. or perlite (ground and calcined glassy rock of volcanic origin. Stability Improvers. and which also contribute to the build-up of the filter cake. The first concern of the brewer is to eliminate differences in quality of the raw materials which have remained through insufficient modification in the malthouse and which could not be compensated for during mashing. If foam production is impaired by this enzymatic action. minerals. to the substrate in order to achieve a vigorous fermentation. vitamins.Beer Other aids to water treatment are described in Section 2. provided that the beer is delivered to the consumer quickly. it is usually used in the treatment of rest beers. Fermentation and Maturation Aids. one may wish to add enzymes with a wide activity spectrum. proteolytic. or by hot bottling at 68 – 75 ◦ C. These cytolytic. After fermentation. the beer is filtered through a filter cake.2 %) within 12 – 20 h. or the use of an excessively high proportion of adjuncts. This will become necessary if the naturally-occurring enzymes achieve an insufficient hydrolysis of malt components with a high molecular mass. Before bottling. carrageenan (Irish moss). which contains amino acids. PVPP) reduces the polyphenol concentration. and bitter-tasting hot trub. coarse. Activated carbon may be used to correct a mild off-taste. The culture is added in the brewhouse during mashing or wort boiling to obtain the desired pH value. so that the final foam quality of the beer will not be impaired. Oxygen trapped during filling reacts quickly with the beer. Synthetic additives based on polyester result in a compact separation of the unpleasant. poly(propylene glycol). which may additionally enhance the clarification and filtration of the beer in the fermenting room. Clarification Aids. Numerous advantages can be gained by using a lactic acid culture propagated in the brewery (biologic acidification). will be compensated in the mash by adding enzyme preparations that originate from sources other than malt. or polysiloxane) can be added. H3 PO4 ) or concentrated lactic acid to the mash. The addition of cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone (polyvinylpolypyrrolidone. In this way the maturation rate can be increased considerably. which is rather difficult to control. and zinc salts. foam stabilizers (alginates. Because all enzymes of the malt are denatured during wort boiling. protein-precipitating substances such as formaldehyde.3. tannin. Deficiencies in yeast nutrients can be counteracted by the addition of yeast food. H2 SO4 . A small amount (4 – 8 g/hL) of these agents is sufficient to prevent the formation of a fermentation cover.and xero-silica gels may be added. Antifoaming agents based on silicones have come into use in order to reduce the headspace needed during warm fermentation in tall. 13 Brewhouse Auxiliaries. heat treatment results in early aging of the beer. To ensure an adequate biological stability in zones of moderate climate it is sufficient to clarify the beer through kieselguhr and sheet filters. As a result a nonbiological haze may form . The lactic acid bacteria obtained from malt ferment at 45 – 47 ◦ C in 10 – 12 % unhopped first wort. or by pasteurizing the bottled beer (with 12 – 14 pasteurization units). and produce lactic acid (concentration 0. or protein-stabilizing substances may be added in order to improve the clarification process and stability of the end product. and amylolytic deficiencies.3. which selectively affect the high molecular mass nitrogen fraction. Proven materials for this purpose are kieselguhr (mud-free. cylindrical vessels. The hard. which will transform diacetyl directly to acetoin (see Section 3. Higher demands can only be met either by the use of insoluble substances which act mechanically or adsorptively.8 – 1. The stability of beer is defined as the ability to preserve its characteristics from bottling to consumption. hydro. bacterial 2-acetolactatedecarboxylase may be added to the fermentation substrate. raw aftertaste that frequently occurs in such beers can be reduced by adding mineral acid (HCl. The foam inhibitor is removed completely by kieselguhr filtration.

Tannins may be removed by adsorption onto polyvinylpolypyrrolidone.1. or sulfur dioxide. or ficin. the achievement of a distinctive character by color and aroma compounds. if this is not possible. Figure 1. and by allowing fobbing. This is derived either from tannins or from proteins.14 Beer sooner or later. kegs. they can be complexed with ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid. and removal of undesired aroma compounds (i. stability and foam. sugar reductones. The most effective remedy is low-oxygen bottling. 3. the beer needs to be protected against oxidation by the addition of such antioxidants as ascorbic acid. iodine-releasing chemicals. or by precipitation with formaldehyde. and effects due to light. again run counter to each other. Metal ions accelerate haze formation. particularly through oxidation. Proteolytic enzymes. two characteristics. The influence of oxygen during bottling can also be overcome by evacuating the bottles. different climatic and mechanical conditions. The schematic procedure of malt production is shown in Figure 1. e. or by enzymes such as glucose oxidase or catalase. Production Technology 3. High extract yield and low malting loss are economic goals. During long-term storage beer becomes vulnerable to other dangers including flavor changes. S-methylmethionine and dimethyl sulfoxide). Flowsheet of malt production Additives that are shown in dotted ellipses are not necessary . decompose high molecular mass proteins to nonhazing components. For additional safety the cleaned beer barrels. such as papain. sulfites. Hazeforming protein particles may be removed with silica preparations or bentonite. by pressurizing the bottles with fermentation carbon dioxide. bromelain. or bottles can be treated with peracetic acid or other products based on hydrogen peroxide. The main purposes of malting are the development of enzymes in the grain with simultaneous degradation of high molecular substances in the cell walls (modification). During the breakdown of proteins. Malting Malting is defined as allowing grain to germinate under well-controlled conditions.

Steeping After thorough cleaning with various separators and grading machines. the brewing barley is dried to a moisture content of ca. Respiration is continued during the entire steeping period. cooling of the barley can help prevent its spoilage to a certain extent. The first cleaning is often performed in washing drums.Beer 15 Figure 2. 12 %. In the beginning the water uptake is an osmotic process and depends on water quality and temperature. a uniform germination of the kernels can be expected within a period of 14 – 20 h. The round or rectangular steeping drums with conical bottoms (capacity 2. The casting of steeped barley at 18 ◦ C permits the use of a germination procedure with decreasing temperature as shown in Figure 3. During subsequent dry steeping (16 – 24 h) at a moisture content of 30 % the water sensitivity of the barley declines. When the temperature is raised from one wet steeping period to the next. An example of the steeping procedure and the necessary handling involved is shown in Figure 2. Other steeping methods exist based on similar principles: the flushing procedure. the temperature of the steeping materials is taken into account. No particular requirements are placed on the steeping water during malting.1. If proper drying equipment is not available. steeping provides a definite moisture content appropriate to the physiological characteristics of the barley. so as to keep the germinating facilities healthy and to maintain germinative ability. Steeping Equipment. 3. but it should be of potable quality. The moisture content is then raised to the final level in the germination box by adequate spraying. . the resteeping procedure. which allows storage without damage to the embryo. Steeping Technology. in which wet steeping periods alternate with extended dry steeping periods (the latter during 50 – 80 % of the total period).1. a carbon dioxide exhaust vent. At 30 % moisture content the water is taken up via the micropyle (physiological process) and living tissue in the embryo is formed. Steeping Upon addition of water germination of the grain begins. and the water-saving spray steeping. Before malting is actually started periodic aeration is necessary to remove the carbon dioxide emanating from the grains. The grains begin to respire.2 – 2. overflow for floaters. and an air inlet for pressure aeration and recirculation. Rapid water uptake and enhanced germination is possible in pneumatic steeping. Recirculation pumps and sprayers are optional. First of all. discharge valves.4 m3 per ton of barley) must be equipped with a water inlet and outlet. After further increasing the moisture content to 38 %.

the β-glucanases are considerably more effective than the pentosanases. Germination takes place only under appropriate conditions in order to achieve the desired metabolic changes during the time necessary for germination. the nutrients stored in the endosperm are partly consumed. Steeping and germination conditions have to be adapted to barley variety.2. the main purpose of malting is the induction and increase in hydrolytic enzymes. and time.1. The most important groups of these are: hemicellulases. and phosphatases (see Table 4). Enzyme Formation. During malting the development of the germ buds is desirable only to a certain degree. but not to allow the development of a new plant. vitality. After “chitting” (breakthrough of the rootlet). Parameters are: moisture. These are either used as an energy supply.16 Beer Figure 3. the rootlet divides into a main root and secondary roots (forking). Excellent cytolysis is achieved under con- . harvest year. temperature. The degree of cytolysis may be determined empirically by the continuous increase in friability of the endosperm. and begins to grow under the husk towards the tip of the kernel. ratio of air to carbon dioxide. In addition to certain modifications to the substances of the barley. The growth factors which develop during germination cause the formation of a number of enzymes in the scutellum and the aleurone layer. Of the cytolytic enzymes. The moisture content must not decrease during the entire germination period. Germination Germination is a physiological process during which the embryo develops rootlets and acrospire. and furthermore to the protein content and the expected structure of the endosperm matrix. analytical measurements of the difference between coarse and fine grind extract and the viscosity of the congress wort can be made. Temperatures favorable to uniform germination range from 14 to 18 ◦ C. Germination will manifest itself first in noticeable changes in the appearance of the kernel. amylases. During this process. A sufficient supply of air must ensure both normal respiration and removal of carbon dioxide. stored materials are broken down by enzymes and changed into soluble matter. chemical transformations occur in the endosperm. Besides these manifestations of growth. or are built into new tissue in the germ buds. which break down the hemicelluloses to low molecular mass materials. Germination 3. The acrospire also breaks through the aleurone layer and pericarp. water sensitivity. The aim of controlled germination is to produce a green malt of a definite composition. proteolytic enzymes. Germination Conditions.

and endo-Xylanases endo-β-(1 → 3)-Glucanase exo-β-Glucanases Pullulanase Arabinosidase β-Glucan-solubilase with esterase activity with carboxypeptidase activity Aminopeptidases Carboxypeptidases Dipeptidases Endopeptidases E.4.6 3. respiration and temperature increase are facilitated. Germination with increasing temperature proceeds between 12 and 16 ◦ C.4 – 5. Maintaining the grain bed at 14 – 15 ◦ C results in most even modification.12 1.2.2 5.1.3 3.13.2 3.5 – 5.C. The proteolysis is favored by high moisture content.2 – 8.0 5.1.Beer Table 4.2.11 3–6 5.0 5.8 4. The protein content of barley decreases somewhat during germination. its production is favored by a high moisture content during germination. dry climates.0 4.6 – 4.2 ditions of high moisture.1. The liberation.5 5. as well as the de-novo formation of α-amylase during the germination process. low temperature. if germination periods are too long.0 4.5 5.1. α-Amylase can be formed only in the presence of oxygen. because the protein-rich rootlets are removed after kilning. The modification of starch by the action of αand β-amylases occurs to only a moderate degree.1 3. and formation of the β-amylase. and long germination periods.5 40 – 50 40 60 – 65 35 – 40 50 – 53 70 – 75 60 – 65 40 – 50 20 37 55 – 60 35 – 40 55 50 45 40 – 45 40 40 40 62 62 40 – 45 50 – 60 40 – 45 50 – 60 65 70 80 60 70 80 70 55 20 50 65 40 70 55 55 40 70 60 73 73 55 70 55 70 [9001-62-1] [9001-77-8] [9000-90-2] [9000-91-3] [9074-99-1] [9012-54-8] [9025-37-0] [9025-70-1] [9001-42-7] [9025-43-8] [9001-57-4] [9044-93-3] [9012-47-9] [9067-74-7] 6. for barley grown in hot.2 4. low-molecular protein substances will be consumed for the synthesis of the rootlets and the acrospire.0 – 5. ◦ C 17 [9003-99-0] [9029-60-1] 6. . With modern steeping and germination equipment it has become common practice to germinate with decreasing temperature (Fig. plenty of oxygen.7 1.5 – 5.1. Before the cell wall is broken down.0 – 5.1 3.4 3.2 7.14. The control of the batch is governed by the malting system.8 3. activation. number Optimum conditions in mash t.3.1. 3).7 – 5.6 – 7. the temperature may rise as high as 20 ◦ C towards the end of germination.1.25 3.1.2. average temperatures of up to 18 ◦ C.26 3. and is also determined by the steeping method and by casting.37 3.9 7.41 3. slow enzyme formation. ◦ C Inactivation temperature.1.0 5.2. During germination at constant temperature.55 3. Slow but even growth.8 4. low germination temperatures.2 3.1 3.1.2 3. Germination Technology Practice. this results in a more active metabolism and in strong growth.0 4.4.1 6. and an optimum germination period. proteins must be hydrolyzed to a certain extent by proteolytic enzymes.11.7 – 5.6 – 5.2.0 4.4 6. Green malts are sometimes kept warm during the last 24 h of the germination period in order to attain the desired extent of cytolysis.39 3. The modification of the proteins can be quantified by the degree of protein hydrolysis (ratio of soluble nitrogen to total nitrogen) and by the total amount of soluble nitrogen.2. are both important.6 – 4.1.2 3.2 5.3 3.2.2. and low enzyme activity characterize the germination process. and long germination periods.2.20 3. Malt enzymes and their behavior during mashing Enzyme CAS registry number pH Oxidoreductases Peroxidase Lipoxygenase Polyphenoloxidase Hydrolases Lipase Acid phosphatase α-Amylase β-Amylase endo-β (1 → 4)-Glucanase Cellulase Laminarinase Limit dextrinase Maltase β-Mannosidase Invertase exo.

is controlled by the temperature of the room. Box malting. Finally. All methods that use aeration (pneumatic systems) are characterized by malting in deep beds. Another function of kilning is to remove the vegetable-like flavor of the green malt and to impart to the kilned malt a specific aroma and a defined color characteristic for the type of malt required. exhaust air. Drum malting is practically only to be found in the various forms of the Galland drum. Germination usually takes six days. whithering is carried out at high aeration and low temperature. 3. together with the quality and modification of the green malt. The progress of whithering The relatively warm initial germination phase at a still low moisture content favors quick hydrolysis and high enzyme activity. and by turning. modification occurs satisfactorily in spite of the low temperature. germination. Floor malting is the oldest and simplest malting method.3. and therefore removes moisture. the air stream must also inhibit excessive loss of water during germination. a moderate increase of carbon dioxide in the grain bed (up to 4 %) will inhibit too vigorous growth and improve cytolysis. This procedure yields a storable product. but it is found only very rarely today.7 – 1. this corresponds to a depth of the green malt bed of 0. . and with discharging equipment. Moist green malt is very sensitive to high temperature. In the subsequent “modification phase”. In addition the germination box is fitted with perforated floors. are also removed. the green malt is dried by kilning. The control of drying processes (withering and kilning). with the further development of tower malting or moving grain bed (Wanderhaufen). and kilning occur in one combined installation are used in practice. which has been spread on the floor. ducts for fresh air. Further drying is accomplished somewhat more slowly.18 Beer The various pneumatic malting installations originate from drum or box malting. is almost the only method that has survived. at which the temperature above the kiln floor is higher than that of the wet bulb temperature. Among the special malting systems. especially the moisture content. which are very much valued as nutritional feed for cattle. The temperature is allowed to rise steadily from the “young pile” through the “growth” and “matting pile” up to the “old pile”. by the height of the grain bed. and fans. The most important and most difficult task in this type of malting is the constant maintenance of effective cooling of the grain bed by means of an air stream saturated with moisture. because the internal moisture must be conveyed from the interior of the grain to the surface. 10 %. Drying and Kilning. Besides supplying oxygen and removing carbon dioxide resulting from respiration. turning and spraying devices.25 m. In the steep tank and during the early “biological” phase of germination. Kilning In order to stop the chemical and biological transformations that take place during germination. Breakthrough occurs when the moisture content is ca. Each pneumatic germination facility consists of aeration installations equipped with temperature control and moisturizing capabilities. The metabolic activity of the steeped grain. Malting Equipment. or malting box drum. the rootlets. The specific load of a box is 350 – 500 kg/m2 . This step decreases the moisture content from the green malt stage to the hygroscopic point (18 – 20 %). sufficient oxygenation of the grain bed is necessary for the formation of endo enzymes. determine the character and color of the product. The different modification properties of the various types of malt can be compensated by varying the germination parameters. In order to make allowance for this sensitivity. either the combined germination – kilning system or malting systems where steeping. but is still relatively easy to handle up to the point of “breakthrough”. This is not easy to accomplish because the air in the grain bed warms up. Enzyme formation is further stimulated by quick cooling of the grain bed and a simultaneous increase in moisture content. The embryo tries to maintain its original growth rate.1. The subsequent drying procedure at higher temperature and low aeration becomes progressively more difficult. and compensates for the impaired living conditions by increased enzyme formation. and recycled air. Because of the high moisture level.

Malt Kilns.5 – 4 % for pale malt and 1. During the drying of malt the moisture content. directly heated. require big heating ovens with large heat-exchange surfaces. During malt kilning the grain bed is aerated with drying air. which keep the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamines (NDMA) on a low level. depending on the temperature [8].Beer 19 Figure 4. The formation of aromatic and colored com- pounds is most important (Maillard reaction). and build-up. Later single-floor. The chemical and biological changes encompass three stages with relatively different reactions: natural growth. Drying and kilning of pale malt (single-floor kiln. which ranges according to the malting technique from 41 to 46 % (pale green malt) and 48 to 50 % (dark green malt) initially. breakdown. and color of the grain change. Indirect heating systems. Drying and kilning of dark malt (single-floor kiln. high-capacity kilns were built. The combined germination – kiln boxes have a specific loading capacity of 420 – 500 kg/m2 . Careful dehydration ensures that the original volume of the green malt remains unaltered.5 – 2 % for dark malt. The most primitive. During initial drying most enzyme levels increase and then decrease during kilning. air recycling) and kilning for pale and dark malts in singlefloor. The dehydration of the green malt lowers the moisture content. single-floor kilns were further developed to the indirectly heated doublefloor and triple-floor kilns. no air recycling) Figure 5. weight. volume. to 3. The use of recircu- . high-capacity kilning equipment is shown schematically in Figures 4 and 5.

and germination. Special Malts. Chit malt and short-grown malt are exposed to short germination periods and have a low degree of modification. The malt should then be stored before use in the brewhouse for at least four weeks. and kilning are shown in Table 5.2. Flowsheet of wort preparation Additives that are shown in dotted ellipses are not necessary . Malt Loss. the rootlets are removed. wt % Malting barley Steeped barley Green malt Kilned malt Stored malt 14 41 48 3. The extract solution is subsequently separated from the solids by lautering. Scalding malt is heated to 50 ◦ C at the end of germination and is subsequently kilned. Table 5. 3. Volume and mass changes during malting Moisture content. see [8] and [23]. Figure 6. The basic procedures are shown in Figure 6. Acid malt is enriched with lactic acid bacteria. clarified. hL Mass. germination. The production costs are also influenced by malt loss. The changes in weight and volume occurring during steeping. and amounts to 16 – 25 % (average 20 %) and 5 – 12 % (average 8 %) on a dry-weight basis.5 4. Caramel malt is made from kiln malt by resteeping and roasting. respiration. Wheat malt is produced according to the processes followed for barley malt.5 h. The technique exposes practically every grain to the desired kilning temperature without causing any shrinking of the kernels. New methods use a thin vertical or horizontal layer and accomplish drying in 8.7 Volume. and cooled. Loss arises during steeping.5 – 9. For quality control standards. kg 100 145 147 79 80 100 145 220 118 120 The maltster is mainly concerned with the quality of the malt and the costs of an adequate barley supply [37]. kiln malt is converted to black malt by roasting at a temperature as high as 220 ◦ C and moisturizing.20 Beer lated air offers various technological and energysaving advantages. and the malt is polished. Technology of Wort Production The high molecular mass substances of the malt and other adjuncts must be solubilized by grinding and mashing. The lautered wort is then boiled with hops. After cooling the kilned malt.

and only the harder coarse particles are ground twice. can be used satisfactorily only on malt that is well modified.2. Particles located at the tip of the kernel are undermodified. b) Pair of precrushing rolls. and ease of breakdown. The grinding of malt is accomplished by using smooth or fluted cast-iron rollers which rotate either at the same or at different speeds relative to each other. smaller particles and husks are thus removed. The simplest grinding equipment consists of the two-roller mill. or in such a fashion that certain particles are subjected to repeated grinding. and the lautering equipment determine the degree of grinding. d) Sieve box. which. where they are freed of the rough particles clinging to them. giving a moisture content of 20 – 22 %. The portion near the embryo is more friable. Mills with three passages adjust best to the variations in malt quality. five. Nonuniform modification and the resulting differences in hardness of the individual parts of the malt grains cause the products of grinding to differ in size. whereby a moisture level of about 30 % is reached within 10 or 20 min at a water temperature of 50 ◦ C or 30 ◦ C. Six-roller malt mill a) Feed roll. 7). the mashing procedure. respectively. In modern systems. Gristing Mills. grits. Grinding of the Malt The manner in which this purely mechanical procedure is carried out is of critical importance both to the chemical and biological transformations during the mashing process and to the composition and yield of the wort. bitter compounds. The grinding process may be accomplished in one step. the husks must serve the specific purpose of forming a filter layer during lautering when a lauter tun is used. In contrast. the husks remain elastic and are not destroyed even with thorough grinding. the grist is separated into three main fractions: husks. During lautering of the wort. . which are added to the mash at a later stage of mashing. Figure 7.3 and Figure 9). Mills with five rollers work similarly.2. moisturizing is accomplished by the use of a worm drive. extract yield. The extent of modification and the moisture content of the malt. Conditioning of the malt with low-pressure steam or warm water (increasing the water content by 1 – 1. they are therefore tough and hard. whereas the lower rollers 21 accomplish the final grinding. After crushing. which in turn determines the volume of the spent grains. however.and six-roller mills are exclusively employed (Fig. When four rollers are used. e) Pair of grits rolls.5 %) during multiple-roller milling proved advantageous. the two upper rollers function as crushers. the technique of sparging and raking depends on the characteristics of the spent grains (see Section 3. c) Pair of husk rolls. and result in a coarse grind. because it contains the extract components that are to be dissolved.Beer 3. To obtain higher capacities. Modern types of mills use shaking screens after the first pair of rollers. because the fineness of the grist determines the grist volume. and yields a finely ground flour. the number of rollers ranges from two to six. The husks should be crushed as little as possible in order to prevent the undesirable solution of tannins.1. Proper sampling is most important when particle size is assessed by sieving. The husks are directed to the two-husk rollers. The coarse grits from the first and second grinding are finally milled in the grits roller pair. Furthermore. which could have an adverse effect on the taste of the beer. Grinding also is the basis for wort preparation. in the older systems this is accomplished in one vessel. and flour. Mills with several milling stages also permit removal of the husks. f) Sampler In wet milling the malt is steeped and then ground in simple double or quadruple roller mills. In this way. the endosperm requires fine grinding. and coloring substances. Accordingly.

The spargings (4 – 5 hL per 100 kg malt) must be added in such a manner that the remaining extract can be yielded as completely and quickly as possible. The intensity of the mashing process is determined by the mashing-in temperature. At around 50 ◦ C the breakdown of proteins. gums. and nonbiological haze. In a similar mash kettle. the optimum temperature for β-amylase. so that substances of high molecular mass that are released later during wort preparation by the action of another enzyme cannot be broken down any further. Protein hydrolysis is as important as starch hydrolysis. and the mashing conditions. one of the decoction mashes is eliminated.5 hL per 100 kg malt for dark beers (mash rates 1 : 4 – 5 and 1 : 3 – 3. are present.2. For mashing-in and for the storage of partial mashes a heatable mash tun. Mashing During mashing the solid particles are solubilized by the action of the brewing water and the enzymes formed during malting. a greater volume of mashing-in water is chosen in order to obtain thinner mashes and to speed up the enzymatic processes. the lauter tun is also used as mash tun. and the brewing kettle is also used as mash kettle. After swelling of the starch kernels. In breweries with a two-vessel brewhouse. the pH value of the mash. however. and the desired attenuation limit is achieved.22 Beer chemical and biological transformations constitutes the mash liquor. Further parameters include the rest periods at different temperatures. The brewer determines the composition of the various specific beer types by the choice of the mashing procedure. the latter are responsible for foam. Excessive buffering. and beer. During mashing. The volume of brewing water is about 4 – 5 hL per 100 kg of malt for pale beers. The solubilization of the starch granules during mixing with water and heating proceeds in various steps. Increasing the temperature of the mash and the duration of mashing increases the release of polyphenols and anthocyanidines. and phosphates is increased. Single-mash 3. numerous endoand certain exopeptidases (carboxypeptidases) attack the proteins that were already extensively modified during germination. The last runnings (end of spargings) should always be analyzed for economic usefulness and beer quality (tannins. so that these can be more effective at their optimum temperature. uniformity and extent of cytolytic modification is of greatest importance. attenuates the drop in pH during fermentation. The amount of brewing water employed is basically different for all-malt pale and dark beers. Temperatures of 35 – 40 ◦ C facilitate solution of the substrate and the enzymes. the decoction mashes are heated and boiled.2. Mashing Vessels. and 3 – 3. gelatinization of the starch occurs as the enzymatic hydrolysis starts. The βglucanases are no longer active above this temperature. For pale beers. In two-mash procedures. equipped with an agitator. Starch hydrolysis is allowed to continue until no more α-glucans (dextrins). which remain in the spent grains after lautering the first wort. even though smaller amounts are transformed. The acid phosphatases which occur in the malt hydrolyze the organic phosphates. which decreases the pH value and increases the buffering capacity of the malt. Mashing Parameters.5. For this reason. which give a color with iodine. Starch breakdown is most important during mashing. is used. peptides and amino acids are formed. respectively). as well as proteinaceous substances of high molecular mass. palate fullness. wort. boiling time). and the choice between decoction mashing (boiling parts of the mash) and infusion mashing (no boiling of mash portions). The hemicelluloses and gums are hydrolyzed during mashing only after they have been released at temperatures up to 50 ◦ C. spargings are used to yield the residual extract compounds. The dissolution of the ingredients of the brewing materials is already initiated by grinding. Depending on the degree of protein modification. The optimum conditions at which these enzymes act on the individual compounds are shown in Table 4. the enzyme content of the malt. during this process phosphoric acid is released. which is usually smaller. All mashing methods can be derived from the three-mash decoction procedure shown in Figure 8. The amount of brewing water used for dissolving the grist and for the . thoroughly modified malts can be mashed in even at 62 ◦ C. Mashing Procedure.

Lauter Tun. because it gelatinizes at lower temperature. (2) leaching of the extract that remains in the spent grains with hot water (sparging). the wort that runs off should be as clear as possible. After gelatinization. so that a loose.. and saccharification with an enzyme extract that was drawn off at the beginning from the top liquid layer). sufficient malt mash held at temperatures of 30 – 40 ◦ C is added. Malt amylases facilitate the gelatinization of the finely ground adjuncts at low temperature.Beer procedures can be accomplished with infusion before drawing off the decoction mash. 23 high because a large amount of water is required for optimum adjunct gelatinization (1 : 4 – 5). During mashing-in the temperature drops to 65 ◦ C.Temperature of decoction mash . or as kettle-mash procedure (boiling of the total mash. 3. thus ensuring the conversion of extract-forming components. height-adjustable raking machines loosen up the spent grain bed and a spray device delivers the sparging water. After that. The liquefied material is subsequently boiled and added to the actual malt mash. The processing of 10 – 15 % unmalted barley will be possible only if the brewing malts are rich in enzymes. Up to 15 % of adjunct can be added to the first decoction mash without any special treatment. even if malt is added. Finally. and only small amounts of the long-chain fatty acids. The infusion methods require good malt modification. in which the ratio of corn to malt is 2 : 1. the adjunct is boiled and subsequently added to the malt mash. Corn is easier to process than rice. Infusion-mash methods with decreasing temperature have become popular for extremely modified malts and certain beer types such as ale. Grist mashing methods are intended to treat the different grist fractions on the dual basis of their enzyme content and their convertibility.3. The mash should remain homogeneous during pumping in. The grinding of the malt grist must correspond in fineness to the grist part of the adjuncts. When the malt is overmodified and enzyme-rich. is avoided. the boiling of the husks. which destroy foam.Temperature of rest mash Processing of Adjuncts. liquefaction then takes place within 10 min at 78 ◦ C. Commonly used lauter tuns have a total capacity of 8 hL/100 kg and spent grain depths of 30 – 65 cm. Three-mash method —. Separation of Wort After mashing wort is obtained in two steps: (1) lautering of the first wort by filtration. and the concentration of the malt mash must be kept very . the mashing procedures described above can take place.2.. Unmalted cereals must be treated thermally before enzymatic breakdown takes place. In the process involving husk separation. When almost complete gelatinization and liquefaction have been achieved. with infusion after drawing off the decoction mash. Higher proportions of unmalted barley (30 – 40 %) require the addition of enzyme products. If higher proportions of corn are added. During lautering aeration of the wort should be avoided. Mashing-in at 75 ◦ C enhances the activity of α-amylase. so that no particles which could disintegrate further during wort boiling (filterability). cooling. Rotating. Some varieties of rice will gelatinize completely only at 88 – 90 ◦ C. even filter cake can form. They have a perforated false bottom with an open surface representing about 6 – 30 % of the plate area. a special adjunct mash will be required. can get into the kettle.. and therefore their extensive leaching. Because of the danger of washing out iodinereactive α-glucans. the sparge water should have Figure 8. then a hightemperature two-mash method can be used to advantage.

After yielding the first wort. (3) higher yields. mm – – – – Volume of wort.2.. The dry matter consists of 23 – 28 % protein. Spent grains obtained from mash filters have a moisture content of only 60 %. 5 – 9. Figure 9. After pumping off the first wort the sparging water can be pumped in from the top and/or the bottom. Spent grains obtained from a strainmaster must first be demoisturized in a screw press. . The process has several functions. a vacuum drum filter. mm Strainmaster. namely: (1) evaporation of excessive water in order to achieve the desired wort concentration (original extract).Extract concentration. (2) destruction of enzymes. At the same time. this facility is very suitable for high-gravity brewing. 40 – 47 % nitrogen-free extract materials. primarily because the spent grains must be withdrawn while very wet. and (4) mostly a hazier filtrate. whereas wheat malt yields 10 – 15 % less. Even with large amounts of sparging water it is not possible to achieve yields as high as those obtained with the lautering systems previously discussed. Spent grain with a moisture content of 75 – 80 % is usually sold to farmers and provides a protein-rich nutrient feed for cattle. and the pH value falls slightly. a belt filter. The total mash is transferred into a vertically arranged filter press. An amount of 100 kg of barley malt yields 120 – 130 kg wet spent grains.. (4) coagulation of the proteins (the flaky precipitate is called hot break or hot trub). color increases. Because very low volumes of sparging water (0. In addition. A The wort obtained by lautering (full kettle wort) is boiled. In order to avoid channelling.5 % fat.5 hL/100 kg) are necessary. the Pablo system with screen centrifuges and separators. Characteristic differences between wellautomated mash filters and lauter tuns are the following: (1) independence from the quality of the malt and from the proportion of adjunct. Continuous Lautering. are arranged on top of each other. Wort Boiling and Hopping a maximum temperature of 78 ◦ C. 16 – 21 % crude fiber. several brewers employ mash filters to separate the mash into solids and liquid. The frames are covered on both sides with filter cloth made of synthetic material. 3. Spent Grain Removal.. (2) quicker lautering of the more highly concentrated first wort. a screen-conveyor centrifuge. the air must escape quickly when the homogeneous mash is pumped into the chambers. The most important features of such equipment include a rotary mash filter. The major advantages of the strainmaster are its large capacity and rapidity in action – lautering is finished in 70 – 80 min – and its simple. it should be delivered evenly. (3) sterilization of the wort. during this time hops are added. reducing substances are formed.4... Idealized lautering diagram using a lauter tun . Equipment that allows continuous wort lautering has not been successfully introduced into breweries because the wort that runs off is very hazy. wt % –·–·–·– Pressure under false bottom. The strainmaster consists of a rectangular vessel. and (5) dissolution and isomerization of the bitter substances of the hops in the wort. hL – – – Position raking mashine. undesirable aroma components are removed.24 Beer very high first wort concentration of 20 – 23 % is necessary in order to achieve a homogeneous mash. The ideal performance of a lautering process in a modern lauter tun is shown in Figure 9. In place of the lauter tun. In the lower part of the vessel perforated sieve pipes of triangular cross section. and hydrocyclones. and 4 – 6 % minerals. Mash Filter. which have an open surface area of 10 %. the bottom half of which is conically shaped. water is pumped in and the filter compartments of the filter press are pressed together with corrugated steel plates. automatic operation.

At a maximum temperature of 135 ◦ C. If additional contact surfaces are available (as in hop extract powders). at a pH of 5. In conventional kettles the evaporation rate. Completely new possibilities are offered by continuous hightemperature wort boiling systems. this is achieved by using small steam bubbles and boiling movement. Pale beer contains about 65 mg/L. these have a very low flavor threshold. only 30 % of the amount originally added remains in the finished beer because of further precipitation during fermentation. In the brewhouse. Today hot water or saturated steam systems (internal or external heating) are frequently used. it results in a high evaporation rate of 10 – 15 % per hour as well as a quick and extensive separation of coagulable nitrogen.g. and also impart a certain bitter taste. but most of all the yield of aroma substances. the α-acids are molecularly dispersed. After the hot holding period. The numer- . The denaturation and subsequent coagulation of proteins will lead to coarse. A proportion of the bitter substances is oxidized. and to precipitation. and varies according to the hop product used. and the wort pH all affect isomerization. Others develop during boiling of the wort. When these parameters are carefully observed.. but the soft and hard resins are dissolved during boiling. 25 Hopping.Beer Wort Boiling. The β-acids are not transferred to the wort. the isomerization will occur faster. and are expelled in the fermentation cover. ketones. Color. flaky precipitation products (break) and nonopalescent worts only if the finely divided protein complexes have sufficient chance to come into contact with each other for agglutinization. up to 40 – 60 % of humulone. The kettles must have a capacity of 9 hL per 100 kg of malt grist in order to achieve the desired effect through boiling. However. 5 – 1 % remain unisomerized. relative to the final volume. and impart a breadlike or cracker-type aroma to beer [30]. and pilsener 80 – 160 mg/L. direct firing was used.9. cohumulone. about 2000 mg/L at pH 5. about 60 % of the bitter substances can be transferred to the wort. so that the boiling time can be shortened to 75 min. the colloidal solution prevails. evaporation proceeds in tandem flash evaporators. The remaining α-acids are rendered insoluble as a result of the fall in pH during fermentation. the hot holding time required is claimed to be only 150 – 160 s. and the beer type and variety. heating at 108 – 112 ◦ C enables the boiling time to be further reduced to about 60 min. Boiling by means of various external heating systems provides proper rolling and control of the wort. During wort boiling. because the bitter substances otherwise adsorb onto the hot trub particles and are lost. the amount of α-acids added. Coloring and reducing substances are formed during kilning and mashing. export 80 mg/L. At the normal wort pH of 5. At a pH of 5. At higher temperature. and dimethyl sulfide. heterocyclic nitrogen compounds will increasingly form. this was later changed to oil-heating. the age of the hops. the boiling time should not be less than 90 min. their solubility is 480 mg/L. However. partly as salts (humulates). At first. hydrogen sulfide. The isohumulones are more soluble at low pH values.6.4 – 5.2 only 84 mg/L can be dissolved in a colloidal state. and should amount to at least 6 % of the original volume in order to drive off such undesirable aromatic substances as aldehydes. The dissolution of the bitter substances is very dependent on pH. extraction speed. For technological reasons. Further decrease of the boiling time is not possible because of the length of time required for the isomerization of the bitter substances. The most important part of the kettle is its heating mechanism. The amount of bitter substance added is expressed in mg α-acid per liter of finished wort. is 8 – 10 % per hour. which also contributes to the bitterness of the beer. e. The major part of the loss must be attributed to incomplete extraction from the hop cone or hop products. Separate addition of tannin extracts at the beginning of boiling and of extracts of bitter substances later will result in a higher bitter substance yield. and then to steam-jacketed kettles with two-zone heating and a cone-shaped central core. beers can be produced with high-temperature wort boiling which are of the same quality as those produced under normal boiling conditions [38]. The addition of hops according to variety and timing also influences the bitterness of the beer. and adhumulone isomerize. In addition. Boiling and hot stand times are essential for isomerization. Continuous Wort Boiling.

In some countries it is permitted to manufacture hopped wort concentrates and unhopped malt extracts from wort made by the usual brewing method. This creates an even. Hot trub yield is between 400 and 800 mg of extract-free dry matter per liter of finished wort. where both boiling and trub separation take place. The most thorough removal of trub and spent hops can be achieved by filtering the hot wort through kieselguhr. These concentrates can be diluted back to the desired extract content in the kettle. . 7 – 15 % bitter substances. the heat loss. The solid particles suspended in the rotating liquid will separate due to friction (tea cup effect). The products thus formed possess reducing properties and give acid reactions. The settling tank (hot wort receiver) permits a good separation of the trub and spent hops. These must be removed completely before fermentation. rotating stream. they are processed subsequently in the normal manner. ous amino acids react with reducing sugars to form intermediary products which undergo further transformation to brown melanoidines. the wort was pumped into the flat coolship. and mineral substances.0 mPa · s Zinc pH Viscosity (20 ◦ C) Wort Concentrates. migrate to the bottom center. Because of the danger of infection on the large surface of the coolship. 20 % organic) 0. This can usually be achieved by means of an intermediate hot wort tank with a stirring mechanism.1 – 0. An inexpensive solution is the whirlpool tank. Table 6.25 mg/L 5. The hopped beer wort obtained after boiling is designated as finished wort (cast wort. other methods of hot trub separation have been developed. these. spent hops. Wort Treatment Hot Trub Separation. where it would cool. where the wort is pumped tangentially into a cylindrical vessel. be recovered by centrifuging the mixture of trub.2 % 950 – 1150 mg/L 200 – 300 mg/L 550 – 700 mg/L 200 – 250 mg/L 25 – 35 EBC bitter units 180 – 250 mg/L 70 – 110 mg/L 15 – 20 mg/L (80 % inorganic. will only work reliably if the wort – trub mixture is added homogeneously. The brewhouse yield can be determined from these values. and the great expenditure of work. and the hot trub and part of the cold trub would sediment. It is also possible to achieve this effect in whirlpool kettles.7 1. The total hot wort is frequently clarified by means of efficient. provided that the bottom of the kettle is appropriately shaped. and coalesce to form a cake. Polyphenols also add to the color formation by nonenzymatic oxidation and polymerization. In the past. however. however. The hot trub consists of 40 – 70 % protein. The wort recovered in this way can be added to the same batch of wort or to the next brew. It can. Its extract content and volume needs to be analyzed. bitter. 20 – 30 % of other organic compounds. Strong formation of coloring compounds leads to broad and harsh tasting beers which age quickly. self-cleaning centrifuges. The Finished Wort. Concentration to 70 – 80 % dry matter is achieved either by vacuum evaporation or by lyophilization.0 – 5.26 Beer 3. the extract yield is expressed as a percentage of the amount of malt used (range between 78 and 81 %).2. but the amount of sludge collecting on the bottom of the vessel creates problems because 2 – 5 % of the wort is trapped in this sludge. the cast wort must first be cleared of spent hops by passing it through a hop back. The hot trub contains the nitrogen compounds that coagulate during boiling.5.7 – 2. or else the beer will taste wort-like. and even harsh. such as polyphenols. Table 6 shows the composition of a pale 12 % finished wort. and wort employing a chamber or plate centrifuge. hot wort). When whole hops are used. The composition of pale lager wort (12 %) made from barley malt Carbohydrates (100 %): Hexoses Sucrose Maltose Maltotriose Lower dextrins Higher dextrins Pentosans Gums Nitrogen compounds: Total nitrogen High molecular mass nitrogen Low molecular mass nitrogen Free amino nitrogen Bitter substances Polyphenols: Total polyphenols Anthocyanidines Minerals 7–9 % 3% 43 – 47 % 11 – 13 % 6 – 12 % 19 – 24 % 3–4 % 0.

Sterile air may be introduced on the cold wort side of the plate cooler with even dispersion by air nozzles or venturi jets. During normal wort aeration 5 – 15 L of air per hectoliter of wort is needed. is cooled to 4 – 7 ◦ C for cold bottom fermentation. however. Flowsheet of beer fermentation from pitching to final product Substances that are shown in dotted ellipses are not necessary . 27 3. Even more effective are: cold sedimentation with or without the addition of kieselguhr. Cold Trub Removal. Optimum aeration can compensate for the disadvantages of an extensive wort clarification. Opinions are divided regarding the necessity of cold trub separation. A fairly good separation of the cold trub can be obtained in the starting vessel by sedimentation after pitching. so that the oxygen level does not exceed 15 mg/L.Beer Wort Cooling. The oxygen necessary for yeast propagation (7 – 8 mg/L. flotation requires 40 – 60 L/hL. combined with 15 – 25 % polyphenols and 20 – 30 % carbohydrates of high molecular mass. or in the hot wort centrifuge. which has been freed of hot trub. provided the wort is cooled immediately. All closed cooling systems require separate aeration of the wort. corresponding to 80 % saturation of the wort with O2 ) is usually introduced in the form of air at the pitching temperature. The very fine flaked cold trub appears at temperatures of 70 – 55 ◦ C. a deficiency of minerals and fatty acids could be created by this method. Filtration of the wort removes the cold trub quantitatively. it must be added carefully. A combined hot and cold aeration in the ratio of 1 : 5 also is possible. The presence of cold trub can. If pure oxygen is used. to 10 – 15 ◦ C for accelerated bottom fermentation. It consists of around 50 % protein. and to 12 – 18 ◦ C for top fermentation. flotation not only with aeration but the simultaneous addition of pitching yeast. The yeast will contain a higher level of impurities and the filterability of beer brewed in this manner may be poor. Bottom Fermentation The flow sheet of Figure 10 describes the basic operations for popular beer varieties from fermentation to finished beer.3. The wort. very elegantly. and. Blending of unfiltered wort can be helpful in this case. Figure 10. Aeration. cold centrifugation. accelerate fermentation because of the presence of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. a higher level is detrimental to the yeast. under certain circumstances. At 0 ◦ C about 150 – 300 mg/L of cold trub is formed.

lactic) are formed. but valuable colloids also are lost. Acetaldehyde formed in the green beer does 3. formic) and nonvolatile organic acids (pyruvic. Aldehydes and ketones are responsible for the aroma of green beer and for the stale flavor. All the compounds formed have different taste and odor thresholds. its concentration depends on the amount of fermented sugars. sulfur-containing compounds.3. of polyphenols.5 – 0. after lautering. Wort aeration. and fermentation temperature. the yeast strain. malic. carbonyl compounds. all of which are important for the properties and quality of the resulting beer (for details on alcoholic fermentation. During pressure fermentation. and decanoic acid. The pH drop leads to the precipitation of nitrogen compounds of high molecular mass. they will adversely affect taste and quality. The yeast doubles or triples its mass during fermentation. The higher aliphatic alcohols (1-propanol. increased levels of these compounds can be expected during maturation. isovaleric. The result is a decrease in color and a debittering effect. The pH of beer ranges from 4. wort concentration. fermentation temperature. 3-methylthio-1propanol. molecular oxygen is needed. wort itself contains only few lipids. Esters are products of enzymatic catalysis and their formation is very closely related to yeast propagation and lipid metabolism. dimethyl sulfide. Glycerol (1300 – 2000 mg/L) is formed as a byproduct during glycolysis. esters. lipids are also synthesized for yeast propagation because they are important components of the cell wall. 2methyl-1-propanol. Measures intended to intensify yeast propagation will lower ester concentration. yeast strain. Fermentation Byproducts. Finally.1. During the main fermentation. Yeast has the ability to adjust its metabolism to aerobic as well as to anaerobic conditions. This procedure is called pitching. and the fermentation schedule used. and of bitter agents. Other reaction products include: higher aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. sulfur dioxide. For the synthesis of these lipids from acetyl coenzyme A.6. see → Ethanol).3 – 4. aeration. and 3methyl-1-butanol) and aromatic alcohols (especially 2-phenyl-1-ethanol) represent the largest fraction of the compounds responsible for the aroma of the beer. Besides efficient trub removal the most important factor in the formation and reduction of these flavoractive substances is the yeast strain. Further changes in the wort are caused by the fall in the pH value (see below). pitching temperature. Their combined contributions make up the flavor or off-flavor of the beer. at concentrations which are too high. Their levels can be controlled to some extent by manipulating the content of free amino nitrogen. citric. yeast strain. Because of their low taste threshold values. hexanoic. they cause a yeasty odor and impair head retention. The main products resulting from the fermentation are ethanol and carbon dioxide. the pH value decreases by one unit because volatile (acetic. Their amounts can be controlled by the wort composition. 2-methyl-1-butanol. octanoic.28 Beer nitrogen. Short-chain fatty acids are formed during the fatty acid synthesis at the beginning of the main fermentation process: butyric. pitching rate. the amount of easily assimilated . esters strongly influence the organoleptic properties of the beer. Fermentation The fermentation process is initiated by the addition of 0. The pH has a direct effect on the flavor and the liveliness (sparkle) of the beer. Sulfur compounds (hydrogen sulfide. the yeast strain. and general fermentation conditions. Even in very low concentrations. organic acids. For the build-up of cell substance (proteins and enzymes) the yeast needs mostly amino acids. Besides proteins. which it either takes from the fermentation substrate or must synthesize by itself. and thiols) are not desirable in beer because of their specific odor and taste. If the pH drops quickly. The batchwise addition of original wort to fermenting green beer is called doubling. pitching rate. and polyhydric alcohols. and are needed for the uptake of nutrients. and the counterpressure during fermentation all have great influence on ester formation. gums that retard filtration will precipitate. the amounts produced can be influenced to some degree by brewing technology. corresponding to 15 – 20 × 106 yeast cells per milliliter of cooled and aerated wort.7 L of a heavy yeast slurry per hectoliter of wort. the yeast also requires minerals for the stabilization of its enzyme systems. The intensity and speed of acid formation is determined by the buffering action of the wort.

During the propagation phase the yeast cells need numerous nitrogen compounds for the formation of yeast protein. Using the combination of cold fermentation – cold maturation. The rapid pH drop results in losses of bitter substances. Some types of bacteria contain an enzyme which can decarboxylate 2-acetolactate directly to acetoin while avoiding the limiting maturation step. Maturation The total diacetyl concentration is used to judge the maturity of purged beer. and ranges from 0. 2-acetolactate must be added to the amount of free diacetyl. If there is not sufficient fixed nitrogen present in the wort in the form of compounds which can be assimilated. and occurs very slowly below 10 ◦ C. The formation and reduction of 1. is highly temperature-dependent. The taste threshold of diacetyl depends on beer type. maturation.5 – 0. thus curbing the formation of fermentation byproducts.2-diketones is dependent on (1) a sufficient supply of free amino nitrogen and other yeast nutrients. also are likely to promote the formation of diacetyl by the route shown in Figure 11. no infection). Offflavors in beer are usually caused by a high level of diacetyl and 2. In two-tank processes. Fermenters. Fermentation and maturation are carried out in open or closed fermenters. However. temperature control is optimally adjusted to the metabolism of the yeast.6 mg/L. because its reduction to acetoin is much faster than its formation. The most effective parameter in this respect is temperature control during fermentation and maturation. (2) proper pitching 29 and doubling conditions (sufficient aeration. that of 2.3-butanediol is. the formation of fermentation byproducts is increased at the prevailing high fermentation temperatures. 3. The diacetyl precursor 2acetolactate is called “potential diacetyl”. This will slightly decrease the fermentation rate and control yeast propagation. The addition of 10 % “krausen” with an apparent degree of attenuation of 20 – 30 % is practiced at the beginning of this maturation phase.12 mg/L. This step. It is advantageous to remove most of the yeast at the end of fermentation and to achieve secondary fermentation by the addition of “krausen” (green beer in its initial fermenting stage). as far as taste is concerned. decreased foam stability.3-pentanedione. Diacetyl itself is present in very small quantities in fermentation samples and in green beer. fermentation. a tasty beer can be produced by simple means. The final product 2.10 to 0. and (4) control of the fermentation and maturation conditions favorable for the degradation of diacetyl. and must be decreased below the flavor threshold by means of brewing technology. In calculating the total diacetyl concentration. During the valine synthesis diacetyl can be formed via 2-acetolactate by oxidative decarboxylation as shown in Figure 11. the yeast will use a combination of carbohydrate and protein metabolism. its concentration in beer never exceeds its flavor threshold. low pitching temperature. In programmed maturation. horizontal tanks. Bacteria. an excess of fermentation byproducts is formed by this method. buttery flavor in the beer.Beer not present any technological difficulties. because it transforms into free diacetyl only in the filtered. Accelerated fermentation and maturation are also achieved by stirring fermentations and then maintaining a maturation step and subsequently purging green beer with carbon dioxide. unobjectionable. and an unsatisfactory yeasty flavor. and storage occur sepa- . and can then not be broken down any further. yeast-free beer. Pressure fermentation using carbon dioxide is a remedy. which is the basis for the fermentation procedure shown in Figure 12. If the combination of warm fermentation – warm maturation is considered. which may occur in the brewery as infections. In this case. or vertical fermentation tanks with conical bottoms [39]. physiological condition of the yeast. these compounds are responsible for unfavorable. (3) a careful selection of the yeast (yeast strain. it leads to beer of constant quality. The combination cold fermentation – warm maturation avoids the formation of undesirable flavors and decreases the level of diacetyl safely. which is catalyzed by yeast enzymes. optimization of pitching rate regarding yeast quantity and timing). heat exchangers are used in order to raise the temperature to 20 ◦ C. Fermentation Conditions.3.2. Diacetyl Metabolism.3-pentanedione is 0.

30 Beer Figure 11. B) Warm fermentation – warm maturation. C) Cold fermentation – warm maturation . Fermentation in practice A) Cold fermentation – cold maturation. Synthesis of diacetyl by yeast and bacteria Figure 12.

and β-glucans.6 bar. and economic conditions.3. such as α. protein – tannin particles. depending on hydrostatic pressure and temperature.5 kg per hectoliter of beer.3. When warm maturation is practiced.2 – 0. During storage. or carbon dioxide to be added during transfer from warm to cold storage tanks. Stabilization In bright beer high molecular proteins and tannins tend to aggregate and form haze. The carbon dioxide formed during fermentation amounts to 2 – 2. sheet filters made from cellulose and diatomaceous earth are used. and with minimum uptake of oxygen [42]. 0. proteins. Fermentation Stages. for a maximum cooling rate. and the decreasing of head at the end of fermentation. Extract decrease and temperature level must be checked constantly. Filtration is carried out at low temperature (possibly at 0 to − 2 ◦ C) under a counterpressure of carbon dioxide above its saturation level. 3. the beer must clarify by allowing the yeast and other haze-causing materials to settle. Polyvinylpyrrolidone is dosed in the filtered . and a high yeast content. The capacity of the cooling equipment and heat exchange surface of the tanks should be designed for maximum heat development or. yeast content and degree of attenuation are further balanced. 3. and by a lowering in redox potential. Filtration For filtration theory and beer filtration. today brewers use mostly plate and frame filters.3. The brewer identifies the changes occurring in the green beer by carefully observing the individual fermentation stages: the creaming. Most common is the removal of part of the tannins by adding polyvinylyrrolidone (10 – 50 g/hL) as an adsorbent. or candle filters for cake filtration with a filter aid (diatomaceous earth [41].55 % for bottled beer). Filtration also improves biological and chemical-physical stability. the head formation. This can be achieved in the conventional procedure by using a definite bunging overpressure of 0. Another factor is the filterability of the beer.50 % for canned beer. Besides an impeccable taste. which is not always proportional to the viscosity. Frequently fermentation. By using separate tanks for the sedimentation of the yeast after fermentation (flocculation tanks). It is collected and can be used for carbonation of soft drinks or for low-oxygen bottling and racking. by a phase of cell propagation and cell sedimentation (turbidity). For sterile filtration filter membranes made from cellulose esters of definite pore size may be used. During transfer to the cold storage tanks krausen is added. and storage take place in the same vessel (one-tank process). Separate storage 31 tanks also are used when the beer is stabilized with bentonite during the second half of the storage period. Cold Storage During cold storage the beer must be carbonated to the desired CO2 level (0. Beers that underwent warm maturation require either higher pressure. The choice of the clarification method depends on capacity. 3. technical considerations. This process can be delayed by removing one of these fractions which improves the chemical-physical shelf life of the product. For subsequent final clarification and sterile filtration. maturation. Solid and hazy particles still present in the beer (yeast. pressure leaf filters. the beer must be stored at 0 to − 2 ◦ C during the last week or two. vertical tanks with conical bottoms are used in this case. Filtration systems used for pre-clarification were formerly pulp filters. by a decrease in coloration. see [40]. but also depends upon the nature and amount of filtration-retardant materials present.5. Continuous fermentation may be accomplished by through-flow or by tributary-flow systems or in a bioreactor.48 % for draft beer. and its taste must refine and round off. in the case of single-tank processes.3. the storage period cannot be as easily defined. and hop resins) are removed by filtration. the rocky head. or centrifuges.Beer rately. In order to achieve these requirements. Attenuation also is indicated by a fall in pH value. These methods are rarely found in large production facilities. 0.4. perlite). perfect clarity is expected of a stored and matured beer.

The loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone is subsequently reprocessed and reused.7 – 3. Wheat Beer [44].0 wt % 2. In Italy.32 Beer beer and retained in a pressure leaf filter. The upper gravity limits for special beers differ from country to country: for instance. In Germany 14 %. cropped in the same manner as in bottom fermentation. Types and Production of Top-Fermented Beers. 3. At the higher fermentation temperature. The composition of bottom-fermented pale lager beer (12 % extract of original wort) Extract of original wort Attenuation limit (apparent) Real degree of attenuation Apparent residual extract Real residual extract Alcohol concentration Total nitrogen Coagulable nitrogen High molecular mass nitrogen Low molecular mass nitrogen Free amino nitrogen Bitter substances Total polyphenols Anthocyanidines pH Viscosity (20 ◦ C) 12.3 – 4.6. in Austria and Germany beers from 16 % up to a maximum of 28 % extract of original wort also belong to this class. because an increase in wheat malt proportionally decreases the concentration of assimilable nitrogen compounds in the wort. especially the cylindrical fermentation tanks with conical bottoms. with an average bitter substance content of 20 EBC bitter units (see Table 7 and Section 5. as well as smoky-flavor beers and cellar beers. export beers (more than 12 % extract of original wort).1 – 4.6 g/L) 78 – 85 % 65 – 80 % 1. . Because of the fast rate at which fermentation proceeds. Dortmunder.3). The special wheat beer yeast can be repitched as often as 200 – 500 times. M¨ rzen beers. these two compounds are responsible for the typical aroma of wheat beer. and in France 15 %. bottom-fermented beer is designated as lager beer [43]. This range comprises an extraordinarily large variety of beer types. The initial fermentation stage is characterized by the rise of trub particles and hop resins to the surface. including pale and dark beers. in Austria 13 %. The extract of original wort in wheat beer is 11 – 14 %. a relatively low pH value of 4. however. In large vessels. A more rapid and extensive pH drop.3 results. this continues until the end of fermentation. the yeast rises and can be skimmed off the top. Top Fermentation Top-fermented beers differ from bottomfermented beers by their special aroma which is primarily induced by the top-fermenting yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During fermentation. the yeast is. yeast rises to the top and can be cropped. Because of the higher pitching temperature (12 – 18 ◦ C).4. An intensive two-mash decoction procedure is needed in the brewhouse in order to ensure a satisfactory protein modification.5 wt % 3. Its extract of original wort varies according to local laws (tax classification) from 7 to 14 %. the amount of diacetyl is usually easily decreased. and therefore the fermentation proceeds between 12 and 25 ◦ C. an increased formation of higher alcohols and esters. The aeration should ensure an oxygen concentration of 6 – 8 mg/L.6 1. The number of yeast generations is considerably greater. After their removal. Lager beers are the most popular. Strong Beer. special a beers. Within these limits there are such different beer types as Pilsener. Types of Bottom-Fermented Beers In many countries. The particular yeast strain employed has a higher optimum fermentation temperature. in Italy 14 %. and festival beers (13 – 14 % extract of original wort).0 – 3.3 – 0. Munich.5 – 4.7 mPa · s Beer with an Extract of Original Wort of 10 – 14 %. the wheat malt portion can range from at least 50 to 100 %.3. 3. such as 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol.0 wt % (125. mark the course of wheat beer Table 7. these are however restricted to certain localities. corresponding to 7 – 15 × 106 yeast cells per mL). Wheat beer is characterized by a typical spectrum of fermentation byproducts. pale and dark beers of more than 15 % extract of original wort are classified as strong beers. the pitching rate required will be lower (0. together with a greater decrease in nitrogen and bitter compounds.5 wt % 700 – 900 mg/L 8 – 28 mg/L 150 – 250 mg/L 300 – 600 mg/L 80 – 160 mg/L 16 – 25 EBC bitter units 130 – 180 mg/L 40 – 80 mg/L 4.4 – 1.5 L of yeast per hectoliter of original wort.

A degree of attenuation sometimes exceeding 100 % results in an alcohol concentration of 2. as well as on the “primings” added in the cold storage tank (caramel coloring). foro merly designated as top-fermented bitter beers. The so-called “best bitter” is remarkably bitter due to special hopping methods. The beers are brewed with 7 – 8 % extract of original wort. it also possesses a strong hop aroma. it has an extract of original wort of 7 – 8 %.6 and 0. carbonated. strongly hopped beer. K¨ lsch beer (extract of original wort o 11 – 14 %) may be produced only in the town of Cologne. 100 % dark malt. according to the tax category. depending on the production method and the particular type of beer. British Ales.8 %. or 90 % pale malt and 10 % dark caramel malt. the carbon dioxide concentration is 0. According to the amount of acidity. 3 – 5 % acid malt. Its very low pH value of 3. but sometimes up to 28 ◦ C. the color rating ranges from 50 to 80 ECB units (65 – 80 % dark malt. and dry-hopped in the barrel or keg.4 originates from the combined yeast and lactic acid fermentation.8 %. and fermented at 12 – 22 ◦ C. various types are obtained such as ale. Depending on the type of malt charge and adjunct (mostly corn). and stabilized. Stout is a dark. it is frequently served with raspberry or woodcruff syrup. but by the airborne organisms of the fermentation rooms and vessels. as does the method of wort production.25 – 0. The weaker stouts also are called porter. brown ale.7 – 0. Because of this spontaneous fermentation. Methods vary widely for the production of the dark Alt beer which gives readings of 25 – 40 EBC coloring units: the wort may be produced from pale malt with the addition of caramel coloring or colored beer. The bitter substance concentration of Alt beer amounts to 28 – 40 EBC bitter units.4 – 0. It is brewed with pale barley malt by adding up to 10 – 20 % wheat malt. with an extract of original wort between 11 and 18 %. the beers are either left in a natural state and consumed with added sweeteners. A higher bunging pressure during storage ensures a carbon dioxide concentration in wheat beer of 0. The alcohol concentration of malt beer must be under 0. The black malt which is used as a substitute for caramel may also be produced from wheat. according to the demands of the market. 3 – 5 % dark caramel malt.5 – 3 % and a lactic acid concentration of 0. Top-fermented strong beers with an extract of original wort of more than 16 % include the . If wheat beer is marketed as “naturally hazy”. a large variety of flavors results. The hop content varies widely. Some of these are treated with a special post-fermentation yeast (Saccharomyces brettanomyces). the beers vary not only in their alcohol level. whereas the carbon dioxide concentration lies between 0. which imparts a typical aroma to the product. but also in their lactic acid concentration. Fermentation is not caused by a definite yeast strain.5 %. The original draft ale is clarified with gelatine or isinglass. The beer has an acidic taste. A proportion of 10 – 15 % pale wheat malt sometimes is used to round off the taste. on the choice of topfermenting yeast strains. is strongly determined by the properties of the specific yeasts. Geuze and Lambic are Belgian spontaneously fermenting beers with an extract of original wort of 11 – 12 % [45]. The character of K¨ lsch and Alt. Bottled and canned beers are filtered.2 – 3. Malt beers are pasteurized on account of their high content of fermentable sugar. Berliner Weisse (White) also is named after its place of origin. British ales have an extract of original wort of 7 – 13 %.Beer fermentation as compared with lager beer procedures. and the remainder pale malt) and the bitter substance content is 6 – 10 EBC units. the secondary fermentation can be accomplished in the bottle by adding unfermented wort and bottom-fermenting yeast or bottom-fermented krausen. Malt Beer. or a specific amount of sweet mash is added.9 depending upon the method of wort production and the degree of attenuation. The pH lies between 4. which is marked by a pleasant estery – flowery quality. and are enriched after 33 filtration with sugar until an extract of original wort of 12 % results. Crystal-clear wheat beer remains in the tank until mature and is subsequently filtered and bottled.5 and 4. and bitter ale. The bitter substance content amounts to 4 – 6 EBC units. The fermentation temperature is 12 – 22 ◦ C. Sugar and sugar syrup may be used in the production of top-fermented nutrient beers. Alt beer also has an extract of original wort of 11 – 14 %. They are produced from certain admixtures of raw materials other than malt.5 %.9 %.

5.5 %) or as “alcohol-free” (alcohol concentration under 0. The intensive fermentation leads to pH values in the range of 4. 3. It is also possible to remove the alcohol partly. the bitter substance content varies between 22 and 40 EBC units. The beer must be carefully stabilized because the addition of unboiled extracts increases considerably the amount of coagulable nitrogen compounds. Low-Alcohol Beer and Alcohol-Free Beer The many varieties of low-alcohol beers may be divided into three groups: 1) Beers where the fermentation is stopped by filtration and pasteurization. High-Gravity Brewing German pale and dark Weizenbock beers as well as the different varieties of stout.5 and 12. Nutrient Beer Nutrient beers are bottom-fermented beers which are brewed with 100 % malt. The legal regulations covering such products differ in various countries.5.5. the bitter substance content is low (6 – 10 EBC units).5. It is much easier to produce dietary beer with a lower extract of original wort because the control of both alcohol concentration and fermentation is simpler.5 %).9. wort of 11 – 12 % extract must be fermented until the apparent degree of attenuation is more than 100 %. e. 2) Beers that are fermented with a special yeast strain. but where part of the alcohol is later withdrawn by thin-film evaporation. The flavor of alcoholfree nutrient beers may be improved by increasing the alcohol concentration to 0. 3. The pH is 4. This causes breakdown of the remaining high molecular mass carbohydrates and proteins. Complete pasteurization of such beers is mandatory. in Germany they may contain only 0. Brewhouse procedures are adapted towards achieving this aim by employing mashing with extended rest periods at 60 – 66 ◦ C.75 g bioavailable carbohydrates and 0. Thus. Almost complete breakdown and fermentation of the extract results in the alcohol concentration rising to 4. the wort is brewed . these yeasts metabolize only hexoses and sucrose.7 % and then blending with first-wort extract before filtration. They are This procedure is popular because existing installations can be better utilized and because a higher capacity can be achieved without new investment [43].3.7 – 4. Saccharomyces ludwigii.8 – 5 %.5. An alternative to heat treatment is a cold shock process.34 Beer classified either as “low-alcohol” (alcohol concentration under 1. The addition of malt flour also has proved successful in obtaining the properties of dietetic beer.g. the apparent degree of attenuation is 25 – 30 % in the low-alcohol beer and 8 – 10 % in the alcoholfree beer. Dietetic Beer Dietetic Beers are pale beers of Pilsener brewing type..1. 3. They latter two methods are currently the most common ones.2. remains unfermented. In general.1 – 4.5 g protein per 100 g of beer. during which a beer that has just started to ferment is rapidly cooled in a thin film.5. according to the degree of attenuation and other technological steps (acid malt). the alcohol concentration is subsequently lowered by either distillation in film evaporators or reverse osmosis. vacuum distillation. This produces a spectrum of fermentation byproducts similar to that of normal beer. Special Production Methods A number of special production methods have been designed to produce beers with very specific properties. or dialysis. because the taste of the dealcolized beer is more similar to that of normal beer. During cold fermentation (7 – 12 ◦ C). The extract of original wort of these very dark beers (60 – 80 EBC coloring units) is between 11. 3. a small proportion of malt extract that has been drawn from the mash at 50 ◦ C is added. In order to achieve these figures. The major fraction of the malt sugars.7 %. 3. such as maltose and maltotriose.4. This is partly viewed as a disadvantage. reverse osmosis. 3) Beers that are fermented almost normally.

intermediate puging with carbon dioxide. and sterilized). the barrel remains sealed and under a pressure of car- . 3. Filling After filtration. 35 bon dioxide even after it has been emptied. After the barrel has been thoroughly cleaned. High-gravity beers always have a poor head retention. PET. Bowless filling units not only avoid the danger of infection. and tapping. container capacity. The cellar tanks are equipped with cooling devices. with 13 – 18 % extract of original wort instead of 11 – 12 %. less advantageously. Whereas glass is diffusion-proof. The excess pressure necessary to dispense the beer is created by gas which is admitted between the inner wall of the tank and the polyethylene bag. Modern bottling machines fill up to 120000 bottles per hour. Bottles may be made of glass or plastics [poly(ethylene terephthalate). Isobarometric bottling of glass bottles is best carried out by pre-evacuation of the bottles.. all operations must be directed to maintain the quality of the beer. Cleaning and filling under sterile conditions are easily automated. thereby. and into loss of extract. Barrels are manufactured of oak wood. The wort concentrations are usually no higher than 14 – 1 5 % so as to maintain the ratio and level of byproducts and. The step can be preceded by a steam treatment. Kegs and fittings are standardized. Furthermore. they have a permanently installed fitting for cleaning. it is purged with carbon dioxide or. Brown glass bottles are preferred to those made of green glass. In this fashion the drying-up of beer remnants is avoided. Barrels with a cylindrical edge are called kegs or system barrels. Mistakes made at this point are very hard to rectify and will only become noticeable much later (re-infection and aged taste caused by a high oxygen concentration). filling. with air. With such a device.Beer as strongly as the brewhouse equipment will permit. Filling and packaging are subject to various legal regulations just as the production of beer itself. which occurs from casting to the actual process of bottling.g. and cleaning is facilitated. For larger distributors stationary draft beer tanks which hold 10 to 30 hL can be installed. because brown bottles protect the beer better against light of short wavelengths. which makes it possible to store the beer under impeccable sanitary conditions without the need to clean the cellar tank. and filled under counterpressure (isobarometric). or poly(ethylene naphthalate. aluminum alloys. Cellar Tanks. The crown closure machine presses the crimped edges of the crown around the mouth of the bottle. and volume tolerance. e. They are lined with disposable polyethylene bags. which causes photodegradation of the bitter acids of hops. After fermentation and maturation. Bottling. These regulations pertain to labeling. the beer must be bottled under an appropriate pressure to prevent the escape of carbon dioxide. not only can carbon dioxide escape from plastic bottles. this provides for a maximum displacement of air. Returnable bottles must be cleaned to a microbiologically impeccable standard before refilling. but also oxygen can diffuse into the beverage. their size ranges from 10 to 250 L. sterilization. The amount of beer lost depends on the production facilities. which is then labeled automatically. PEN)]. and to a certain extent on capacity. Disposable bottles are relatively expensive because their manufacture requires more energy and raw material than multiple-use bottles. Kegging. Examination of beer loss provides an insight into loss of volume. and ranges between 3 and 10 %. second evacuation. and hence gives rise to a “light stroke”. the normal beer taste. carbonated. or synthetic materials lined with stainless steel. The beer is delivered from the brewery in large tank trucks. these stronger beers are adjusted to the desired extract of original wort with carefully processed water (deaerated.6. A metal crown with synthetic liner is widely preferred over other means of sealing the bottles. After filling fobbing is induced by various means. Concentrations of 16 – 18 % are only attainable without loss of yield if syrups are added at the end of wort boiling. counterpressurizing and then filling. stainless steel. and cause an undesirable oxidation taste. but they also protect the beer from extensive contamination with oxygen.

7. . Cylindrical cans of aluminum or tinplate are closed with a flat lid equipped with a ring pull-tab. and beer production are of great importance for the stability of the beer. and moreover to transfer the carbonation into the glass without loss. and they can attenuate the pH drop during fermentation. Pre-evacuation is only possible with stable tinplate cans. The beer is further darkened during boiling of mash portions and of wort. and proteins. Both foam stability and head retention.36 Beer Color. as well as later during filtration. The release of carbon dioxide during tapping is responsible for foam stability whereas the sparkling of carbon dioxide bubbles in the tapped beer is responsible for head retention. Depending on their chemical identities and concentrations. and ethanol in an amount in excess of 7 – 8 wt % destabilize foam. Beer Dispensing After filling and transportation the beer should be stored at a temperature of 6 – 9 ◦ C without movement. during the thermal stand of the wort. these occur especially during kilning of overmodified green malts treated with gibberellic acid. Special care should be taken in the cleaning of beer glasses in order to remove traces of fat which might otherwise cause premature collapse of the sensitive foam. glycerides. on the other hand. Taste experts must be selected carefully and their sensory skills constantly practiced [22]. β-glucans. fatty acids. The clean. the reduction potential can be increased further. An international nomenclature with guidelines for the description of the impressions of beer flavor has been developed [47]. By adding antioxidants. In a taste evaluation one differentiates between the initial impression. tannins. as well as the liveliness of the beer. and also to maintain the good flavor of the beer. beer is marked by its natural ability to form foam [46]. The temperature of the beer during tasting should be 6 – 10 ◦ C. Properties and Quality Foam. A foamstabilizing effect is ascribed to colloids. or (b) if two or more samples are identical to each other. Buffering and Reduction Potential. A paling of the beer color occurs during fermentation. they can counteract the pH changes that occur during malting and during wort preparation. Five basic types of flavor evaluation methods exist [47]: Differentiation tests are used to find out (a) if there is a difference between two or more samples. 3. nonenzymatic color reactions of the Maillard type. thinwalled glasses used exclusively for beer drinking should be rinsed with fresh. Sensory Qualities. wort. A nonporous synthetic resin coating is applied to the inside of the can so as to prevent a chemical reaction occurring between the metal and the liquid. The buffering substances present in the beer are chiefly weak acids and their salts. and isohumulone complexes. More than any other beverage. cold water just before the beer is tapped so as to equalize the temperature. the tingle or sparkle. such as glycoproteins. The reductones that are formed during malt. The color of beer is first of all determined by the malt type. where the quality and intensity of the bitterness are put to the test. The odor and the taste of the beer. This is achieved by dispensing the beer with a carbon dioxide pressure higher than that of the saturation pressure in combination with a pressure compensator [46]. depend largely on the carbon dioxide concentration. primary and secondary phosphates. For draft beer it is important to maintain the carbon dioxide level established in the brewery right up to the end of dispensing. Canning. for which the aroma and palatefullness are mainly responsible. Bottled beer should be stored in the dark. During the brewing process an increase in color is caused by temperature-dependent. and the aftertaste. and also by oxidation reactions during wort preparation and bottling. [48]. 4. are evaluated with regard to quality and intensity by taste experts. Otherwise cans are purged with an inert gas and carbon dioxide is blown under the lid of the can before sealing. as well as the mouthfeel. where the impression of freshness emerges (a function of carbon dioxide release and the organic acids present).

Depending on their ability to form lead salts the soft resins are further classified into αand β-fractions. 5. further stainable starch particles are solubilized during wort boiling. After bottling the beer. Microscopic staining in combination with statistical methods is being increasingly used to estimate the uniformity of modification. During the fractionation of resins. and chemical point of view. Malt The congress mashing method is used to study the parameters that determine the modification properties of the malt. When turbid lautering occurs. soft resins. 37 this temperature is finally maintained for one hour. are classified according to their solubility in methanol and hexane into total resins.2. The hardness of water can be determined by complexometric titration. hop ingredients are distributed between an acidic aqueous methanol phase and diethyl ether. The fine – coarse difference is calculated from the dry matter extract of finely and coarsely ground malt. hygienic.Beer Descriptive tests are applied to “measure” the sensory quality of one or more samples using a vocabulary of flavor terms. friability. which in turn is facilitated by oxygen and by changes in temperature. and is then gradually increased at the rate of 1 K/min to 70 ◦ C. amylolytic degradation and saccharification of starch components should be advanced in such a manner that only very few compounds that are stainable with iodine remain in the wort . Drinkablity tests indicate the relation between the brewing process and the consumer’s judgement of drinkability. and purity of the barley variety. [50]. Analysis of Raw Materials 5. Flavor Stability. Furthermore.and β-acids and their oxidation products can be separated [3]. In this method. hydrogen carbonate. Scaling tests rank the intensity of one or more beer flavor attributes Preference tests are performed by consumers to generate a simplified determination of beer flavor or to assess a preference.1. For this the extract of original wort and the quantity of the cast wort must be determined. which is also described as oxidation or bready flavor [49]. The calcium and magnesium hardnesses must be determined to estimate the residual alkalinity. ground malt is subjected to a simple infusion mash process whereby the temperature must first be maintained at 45 ◦ C for half an hour.1. Wort The chemical composition of the wort is also of interest. 5. Water In the food-processing industry. which gives an idea of the concentrations of carbonate.1. The degree of protein modification is the ratio of the amount of dissolved nitrogen compounds to the total nitrogen content of the malt (as determined by the Kjeldahl method). 5. and hard resins. Palatefullness declines. 5. and the bitterness becomes coarser and broader. The bitter ingredients. which are extracted into the ether phase.2.3. Using the HPLC method each of the homologues of the α. Brewhouse Control The yield of the as-is extract (air-dried) from the congress mashing method is a measure of the yield achieved in the brewhouse during the large-scale preparation of the wort. Hops and Hop Products The bitter ingredients can be isolated by the fractionation of resins or by using HPLC. and hydroxide in the water. turbid lautering also leads to . Analysis 5.1. The changes in palatefullness and in liveliness are caused by an agglomeration of colloidal particles. Other qualitative characteristics are the enzyme potential.1. numerous changes in its original properties occur. 5.3. drinking and process water must comply with certain quality standards from the bacteriological. Beer aroma undergoes a change due to numerous reactions contributing to an “aged” quality.

specificity. The isohumulones are the most important bitter compounds in the finished wort and in the beer. Color changes in liquid NBB broth or solid NBB agar indicate the presence of harmful bacteria. Microbiological Process Monitoring In a brewery the main contaminants are lactobacilli. an increase in the long-chain fatty acids content in the wort. The yeast sediments of samples taken from the fermentation and the storage cellars are observed under the microscope after a period of about 20 days. The samples can be evaluated after an incubation period of two days with aerobic incubation (wort agar) and five days (NBB agar. nitrogen detector). biological shelf life tests. In the case of filtered samples. The practice of keeping a record of the yeast cell concentration from pitching to the end of fermentation using the electronic Coulter counter or microscopic count methods (Thoma chamber) is gaining increasing importance. The extinction of the isooctane extract at 275 nm is multiplied by 50. The attenuation limit is determined by fermenting a wort sample with an excess of yeast at room temperature. Maillard products). alcohols. Along with selective detectors (sulfur detector. which are quantitatively determined using GC. or precipitating agents or after isolation. After a relatively simple work-up method (steam distillation of the sample followed by extraction of the distillate with dichloromethane) about 60 individual components can be detected in a single run using modern GC and high-resolution capillary columns. Fermentation The most important parameters during fermentation are the decrease in extract. The acetoin concentration is used as an indicator for the vitality of the yeast. and the temperature. trace infections are detected by enrichment on a solid or liquid nutrient medium.6.4. Pediococcus cerevisiae. the value thus obtained is taken as the bitterness (in EBC bitter units) according to the standards of the European Brewery Convention (EBC) and the American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC). using gel permeation chromatography) can only slightly be influenced by the choice of the mashing procedure. Direct viewing under the microscope.5.38 Beer ponents in the ppb-range can serve as indicator substances for the identification of the process technology. The gum content of the wort (determined by precipitation with salts. Shelf life tests show microbiological stability of the beer during a storage at 27 ◦ C. Gramnegative bacteria (genus Megasphaera or Pectinatus) may also be dangerous [24]. 5. They are extracted from the acidified sample with isooctane. The number of biological controls and the choice of culture media depend on such factors as selectivity. Gas chromatographic methods have proved to be useful in estimating the aroma components. The degree of protein degradation during mashing can be measured from the contents of amino acids and dipeptides in the wort and from a fractionation of the nitrogen compounds. Beer The extract of original wort of the finished product can be calculated from the density and re- . and output of the brewery. By using membrane filtration techniques. Whereas the more concentrated fermentation byproducts in the ppm-range can be used to judge the fermentation and eventually occurring organoleptic deviations. and their concentration is determined by spectrophotometry. which take place during boiling. NBB = culture medium for bacteria harmful to beer) with anaerobic incubation. It depends mainly on the initial gum content of the barley and on the modification of the malt. and enrichment methods are used. 5. the pitching yeast as well as bottled beer stored for a specific period should be analyzed. The amount of coagulable nitrogen and the quantity of precipitated trub give information on the intensity of wort boiling. and “wild yeasts” (Saccharomyces species). this figure can be increased considerably. certain trace com- 5. An idea of the various Maillard reactions. As a routine procedure. is given by the concentrations of the aroma compounds in the wort (carbonyl compounds. the microorganisms on the filter are incubated anaerobically under optimal growth conditions on solid agar. the pH.

5 2.1 8. Legally Required Controls In order to comply with the requirements of the food laws.1 17. The carbon dioxide content is determined by measuring the total pressure of beer after vigorous shaking at a specific temperature.6 473.7 12.2 6.2 71. 10 hL/a 2.2 128.8 3. Color can either be measured by visual comparison under defined conditions or spectrophotometrically by measuring the extinction of the sample at 430 nm and that at 700 nm. the extract of original wort or the alcohol content must be within certain limits.8 8.Beer 39 Table 8.1 6 Imports.1 105.2 56.2 0.2 57.4 48. Denmark 35. The methods of foam measurement are classified according to the way the foam is generated: (1) free fall. Working Security System.9 0. Ireland Americas Europe Asia/Pacific Africa World total 213. (3) bubbling of a gas.6 3.4 24. Austria 34.1 113. 10 hL/a 1. (2) shaking. multiplied by 25. [52]: Quality Management Systems in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001 (design.7.(or 60 ◦ C-)warm days – with a factor that is specific to each brewery.5 0.8 11. the filling volume in the bottles must be within required tolerances. 5. exports. South Africa 16.6 fractive index of the decarbonated beer or from the densities of beer distillate and the distillation residue.8 26.9 48.0 25.5 106.8 48.7 0.2 11.1 0.9 0.2 18.5. and maintenance).4 86. Spain 10.3 53.6 5.3 0.4 2. this difference. and (4) catalytic release of carbon dioxide.9 223.0 51. it is still indispensable that the brewmaster is responsible for determining by taste test whether the beer is ready for filling and before it leaves the brewery.1 223.1 0. one can calculate the period of time during which the beer would not become turbid under normal storage conditions.1 8.0 55. installation. Japan 6. The carbon dioxide content of the beer determines its foaming capacity. Environmental Management System in accordance with DIN EN ISO14001.1 8.6 0. By multiplying the obtained stability period – expressed as 40 ◦ C.4 16. Mexico 8. The methods described in Section 5. L/a 86.8 463.1 1386.3 are also used for beer.9 5. and . Netherlands 27.5 57.5 57. Beer production. The following systems have been introduced [51].6 71. United States 2.5 160.5 0. In the last years breweries introduced integrated management systems and had them validated by a external accredited and recognized certification body.1 150.7 6 Consumption. Germany 4. imports.7 7.0 6 Exports.3 0.5 0. Brazil 5.2 95.9 33. 10 hL/a 23.6 82. China 3. Further.6 384. The head retention is dependent on the composition of the beer.5 0.5 0. consumption and per capita consumption in 2000 (countries are ranked in the order of decreasing overall consumption Production.9 64. The physicochemical stability of the beer is estimated from an accelerated aging process. is defined as the color in EBC color units.3 6 Per capita consumption.2 0. In this method filled beer bottles are kept alternately at 40 ◦ C (or at 60 ◦ C for stabilized beer) and at 0 ◦ C until an increase of turbidity by 2 EBC formazine units occurs after cooling.3 86.1 55.5 3. United Kingdom 7. Russia 9.9 5.6 72.7 0.3 1. 10 hL/a 235. development.4 22.8 110. Czech Republic 21. production.5 24.1 0.9 28.9 0.0 50.5 13. Nevertheless.

1 Europe no. hL/hL > 105 hL 3000 10 > 104 hL 1000 13 6.8 64. 2 Europe no. 106 hL/a Regional ranking Leading brands Names Budweiser Bud Busch Heineken Amstel Stella Artois Skol Brahma Chopp Antarctica Castle Lager Carlsberg Baltika Miller LITE Miller Genuine Draft Kirin Lager Tanrei – Nama Kronenbourg Corona Output. which is based on weight or volume of the brewing materials used. The content of α-acids was about 8 % on average. Anheuser – Busch (USA) 2. Top world breweries Production. S & N-Kronenbourg (France) 10. Table 9 lists the top brewers of the world and their leading brands.5 36.4 10. Carlsberg (Denmark) 7.4 Americas no. kWh/hL Water 4 consumption. which is levied on sales beer.0 8.6 9. Production and consumption figures are given in Table 8. kWh/hL Heat 30 consumption. 3 Americas no. 2 Americas no.5 – 5.40 Beer Table 9.9 20. 40 50 6 8 Taxation. 2 Africa no. 106 hL/a 51. 1 Africa no. There are different means of tax collection: (1) rawmaterial taxation.1 62. which is assessed according to the volume of the wort. Because the cereals produced in the individual countries are not exclusively used for malting and brewing. Miller (USA) 8.4 6.1 124. A survey of the productivity and quantities of energy and water consumed in breweries of different sizes is given in Table 10. so 7928 t of α-acids were harvested. 5 Europe no. 1 Europe no. 22 % in cans and 13 % in kegs or barrels (draught beer).1 1.9 39.9 17. The world crop of hops in 2001 was 97 730 t (62 % bitter hops. (2) intermediate product taxation. Despite stagnation in several large beer consuming nations the total market size of 1386 × 106 hL reached a new peak in 2000.3 60. Heineken (Netherlands) 3. Modelo (Mexico) 61.5 vol % alcohol. Brahma/AmBev (Brazil) 5. The groups differ from country to country. 1 Europe no. The most popular product is the pale.0 19. The per capita consumption increased only marginally. Productivity and specific energy and water comsumption as an function of brewery size Breweries with an annual output of > 106 hL Productivity.9 50.4 20.6 74.6 24.6 10.9 14.0 25. to reach 22. Worldwide 65 % of the beer is marketed in bottles. it is not possible to list which and how much of the different cerials are used. Economic Importance During the period of 1991 – 2000 beer output increased by more than 20 % worldwide.8 36. Interbrew (Belgium) 4. 4 Americas no.1 8.1 11. South African 6. bottomfermented lager of typically 4. 4 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (hygiene in food producing companies) Table 10. The varieties of beer are classified into various tax groups on the basis of their extract of original wort or alcohol content.1 21. . and (3) finished product taxation. hL 7000 per employee Current 8 consumption.8 7. Kirin (Japan) 9. 38 % aroma hops).6 L in 2000 [27]. 3 Asia/Pacific no.6 38.

which show a cancerostatic activity [63–65]. which is absorbed to more than 50 % by the human body. One liter of beer contains about 40 µg thiamine. Carbon dioxide (4 – 8 g/L) and organic acids (up to 600 mg/L) have a relaxing. Beer is reported to protect against gallstone formation [58]. phosphorus 300 mg/L. potassium 500 mg/L. carbon dioxide. Because it also is free of fats.1 µg/kg). it acts as a stimulant. Beer as a wholesome beverage has formed a staple part of human diet for thousands of years. which cause stomach ulcers and may increase the risk of stomach cancer. 7500 µg niacin.). It has been shown in many studies throughout the world that moderate consumption of beer – in contrast to heavy drinking or abstention – is protective against cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and some forms of stroke [55]. the amino acids (on an average 140 mg/L) and vitamins (20 – 25 mg/L) are especially valuable. A rough estimate in kJ/L can be obtained by multiplying the extract of original wort (in wt %) by a factor of 150. it will promote urination. cadmium. or 40 – 60 g alcohol by an adult woman is not harmful. flavonoids and tannoids per liter of beer). Harmful Substances. and even osteoporosis [60]. diabetes [59]. beer is one of the beverages lowest in heavy metals (lead. Furthermore. its biologically available form. adult male. Beer contains 10 – 40 mg SiO2 per liter. age and nutritional habits as well as physiological condition. another explanation is that alcohol reduces blood coagulation [57]. The toxicology of ethanol is treated elsewhere (→ Ethanol. [54]. beer is classified as a food. Mycotoxins and insecticides have . Hops contain active compounds which prevent calcium depletion of bones. Beer is also a source of soluble fiber (5 – 10 mg/L). The consumption value of beer may be derived from its ingredients.5 to 2 L of beer) by a healthy. proteins. 400 µg riboflavin.1 – 0. and vitamins results in a lower increase in blood alcohol levels by comparison with other alcoholic beverages. as well as organic acids. always less than 0. beer contains a large amount of dietetically valuable silicon as orthosilicate. A daily consumption of 60 – 80 g alcohol (corresponding to 1. calming and. at the same time. Fibers do not only support a healthy bowel function. Thus beer is one of the most important dietetic silicon sources. which may help to reduce the risk of heart diseases [62]. 11. originating from the cell walls of malted barley. and 800 µg folic acid. These guidelines vary according to body weight. Heavy metals derived from raw materials are mostly removed during the malting and brewing process. When consumed moderately and regularly beer is not only enjoyable to drink. 650 µg pyridoxine. 1 – 3 µg/kg. they also retard the digestion and adsorption of food. mercury. Physiology and Toxicology According to standard definitions. Thirst quenching is accomplished by its high water content and its mineral concentration (total around 1000 mg/L. and alcohol. Hence beers with 10 – 14 % extract of original wort have an approximate calorific value of 1500 – 2100 kJ/L. The silicon content of the human body has a direct effect on the mineralization of the bones and the density of the bone marrow. but also beneficial to health. and lower cholesterol levels. 0. The calorific content of beer as a nutrient may be calculated from its concentrations of protein. Benefits of Moderate Beer Consumption. calcium 30 mg/L. A liter of beer contains on average 20 % of the recommended daily intake of fiber. Rules for reasonable beer consumption are given in [53].5 µg/kg.Beer 41 7. Beer drinkers are protected against Heliobacter pylori bacteria [61]. phosphates. and the low pH. A proper balance between alcohol and assimilable carbohydrates. 1500 µg pantothenic acid. Chap. Numerous nutritional regulations require the amount of additives in beer to be kept to a minimum. The dietetic effect of the beer is based mainly on its low sodium concentration. and magnesium 100 mg/L). Additional research has shown that the antioxidants present in beer are more readily available to the body than those from solid foods [66]. carbohydrate. Pathogenic and toxic bacteria cannot survive in beer because of the presence of alcohol. In addition. From a nutritional point of view. consisting of: sodium 20 – 30 mg/L. bitter substances. Beer is also a source of antioxidants (200 – 600 mg phenolic carboxylic acids. One explanation for this effect is that beer increases the level of “good HDL cholesterol” in the blood [56]. stimulating effect.

and aldehydes. The nucleic acid components of beer originate from the raw materials. and has no toxic effect at this level. a 8th ed. The source cannot be traced back to the sulfur content of the malt. However. the hops. Verzele. Nagodawithana: Yeast Technology. The concentrations of residue can also be cut to less than 5 mg/kg by allowing a time lapse of several weeks between the last spraying and the actual harvesting. Various hop extraction procedures also can lower the concentration of dithiocarbamates. which is poisonous to yeast. Immobilized Yeast Applications in the Brewing Industry 1995. Kunze: Technologie Brauer und M¨ lzer.V.5 µg/kg.. C. Verlag Carl Hanser. Reigate 1998. 9. De Keukeleire: Chemistry and Analysis of Hop an Beer Bitter Acids.. K. Enke Verlag. Fell: The Yeasts. Chapman & Hall. J. Berlin 1998. 2. Stuttgart 1992... C. beer produced today is no longer significant as a potential source of nitrosoamines. The concentration of nitrate in beer corresponds to that of the brewing water. Wainright: Basic Brewing Science. New York 1991. u 5. Histamine.): Praxishandbuch der Brauerei.. whereas strong beers may contain more than 10 mg/kg of the gas. W. 2nd ed. 10. Draught Beer ∗Packaging∗ Dispense 1996. its concentration is much below the threshold considered critical by the WHO. 7th ed. U. Van Nostrand Reinhold. top-fermented beers 0 – 5 mg/kg. W. Verlag Hans Carl. fats. 13.42 Beer beer are broken down to uric acid in the human body. Narziß: Technologie der Malzbereitung. L. Andover 1997. F.. The nitrate in the wort originates mainly from water and hops. J. Reed. The byproducts formed during fermentation. 6. u 7th ed. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit of nitrates of 50 mg per liter of drinking water. T. L. B. Kunze: Technology Brewing and Malting. 15. Process Hygiene 1994. or the brewing water. 7. H. Waste Reduction in Brewery Operations 1992. such as higher alcohols. Wort Boiling and Clarification 1992. Heyse (ed. 12. Instrumentation and Measurement 1992. Briggs: Malts and Malting.. Fungicide sprays. are of more importance for the aroma of the beer than for its wholesomeness. Elsevier Science Publishers B. esters. The necessary sprayings could be reduced considerably by breeding spore-resistant types as well as by an early warning system. L. Narziß: Abriß der Bierbrauerei. Enke Verlag. References General References 1. not been found in beer until now. Wainright. M. N¨ rnberg 1997. G.. Behr’s Verlag GmbH & Co. Malting Technology 1994. 4th ed. K. Hamburg 2000 and supplements. Amsterdam 1991. which are only partially removed in the further brewing process and remain in the beer. P. are used in hop growing. especially dithiocarbamates. 14. D.): Handbuch der Brauereipraxis. u 11. Hops 1994. U. The residues contained in the hops are metabolized during wort boiling to ethylenethiourea and propylenethiourea. 8. No connection can be found between the level of higher alcohols.V. Verlag der VLB Berlin 1999.5 mg/kg. C. Packaging 1990. Narziß: Technologie der W¨ rzebereitung. . Nitrate can be most effectively removed from the water by anion exchange. Stuttgart 1999. W. 3rd ed. 6th ed. Benitez et al. N¨ rnberg 1994.: Hops and Hop Products.. Schmidt: Der große Hopfenatlas/The great hopatlas. The concentration of highly carcinogenic Nnitrosodimethylamines is virtually negligible. L. in wheat beers the figure is around 80 mg/kg [67]. Enke Verlag. N¨ rnberg 1994. E. Kurtzman. Klinke. Bottom-fermented lager or pilsener contain 0 – 10 mg/kg. B. The purines of the finished 8.. which can cause gout if the amount exceeds the solubility in blood. European Brewery Convention Monographs: Separations Process 1990. 4.. and aldehydes and the incidence of hangover. F. because kilns are fired indirectly nowadays. Bottom-fermented lager beers contain 70 – 130 mg purine per kilogram. Barth. Elsevier Science Publishers B. Heyse (ed. a metabolite of histidine. Sulfur dioxide is a true fermentation byproduct. u 3. occurs in beer in amounts of under 0. F. Verlag Hans Carl. T. Amsterdam 1998. The yeast needs adenine and guanine for its growth and removes part of these substances during fermentation. Stuttgart 1995. With average values of less than 0. J. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite. Verlag der VLB Berlin. 2nd ed.

S. verpackungstechnische und mikrobiologische Grundlagen. Thum. 43. Brauwelt International 17 (1999) 41 – 48. Forster. B. Back. 3rd. M. 20. Narziß: “Global brewing technology – a look over the fence”. N¨ rnberg 1998. R. Bedarfsgegenst¨ nde und Ausschank. 34. 25. 31. N¨ rnberg u 2001. Mitter: “Commercial brewing tests with different hop extracts”. C. 39. Plato Logic Ltd. L. Back: “Hops – Investigations into technological and flavour effects in beer”.-U. H.. Schulters: Bierologie – Einf¨ hrung u in die Geschmackswelt des Bieres. Methodensammlung der Mitteleurop¨ ischen Brautechnischen a Analysenkommission (MEBAK). Verlag Hans Carl. Brauwelt International 19 (2001) 401 – 407. Brauwelt International 15 (1997) 22 – 29. H. vol. 1 – 43. W. Maastricht 1997. Verlag Hans Carl. Hebm¨ ller: Einflußfaktoren auf die u Kieselgurfiltration von Bier. 33. 1998. R.. Verlag der VLB. Analytica EBC. Brauwelt International 14 (1996) 324 – 326. Heidelberg 1999. Unkel: Bier Erleben. 4: Technische Hilfsstoffe. Knab. 1: Rohstoffe. u M. University Press. A. A. 44. Piendl. A. Back: Handbuch und Farbatlas der Getr¨ nkebiologie Teil 1: Kultivierung und a Methoden Brauerei/M¨ lzerei. 18. Diener. Oxford. 2nd ed. A.. N¨ rnberg. Kracun.. 23. N. Berlin. ed. 28. Springer Verlag. a vol. 5: Gebinde und Produktausstattungsmittel. Budapest 2001. vol. Brauwelt International 15 (1997) 52 – 58. U. W. 3rd ed. u European Brewery Convention Proceedings: 23rd Congress. vol. 28th Congress. Eßlinger: “Fermenters and storage tanks”. Balzer. Behr’s Verlag. M. Freising-Weihenstephan 1999. 19. Wackerbauer. Yeast Physiology – a new Era of Opportunity 1999. B. R. 3: Instrumentelle Analytik und Mikrobiologie. Brauwelt International 19 (2001) 40 – 45. Schmidt: “Hopfenpolyphenole – mehr als nur Tr¨ bungsbilder in Bier”. 41. Schwill-Miedaner. PhD Thesis TU Freiberg 2002. B. Brauwelt International 15 (1997) 16 – 21. 42. Zufall: “From malthouse to brewery – malt specifications and analysis”. 35. H. 5th ed. Lisbon 1991. F. Schildbach: “Evaluation a drinking water analysis”. W. Wiley-VCH. Narziß: “Malt parameters and beer quality”. Die Infothek f¨ r die u Getr¨ nkewirtschaft Website a http://www. W. C. 21. N¨ rnberg 1994. Brauwelt International 14 (1996) 142 – 150. 2: W¨ rze und u Bier. B. 2nd ed. Schildbach. Brauwelt International 18 (2000) 112 – 119. G. Back. 40. Brauwelt 141 (2001) 670 – 673. Verlag Hans Carl. 17. October 2001 edition. 36. Dilly: Qualit¨ tssicherung in der Brau. 25th Congress. Deutscher Brauerbund: Leitfaden “Schankanlagen” (1997). O.braudatenbanken. Cannes 1999. MEBAK. Forster. Assuring Product Safety in the Brewing Industry 2000. Beck. and supplements.V. 32. Hopfenrundschau u International (1999) 68 – 74. Heyse. W. 1993. Specific References 29. 1997. World Beer Report. K. Sacher: “Hefeweizenbier – taste spectrum and technology”. Miedaner: “W¨ rzekochung – heutiger Stand der u Technologie und Technik”. J.de 43 16. Ritter: Brauerei-Kieselgur. N¨ rnberg 2000. Brauwelt International 19 (2001) 32 – 37. Verlag Hans Carl. Kaltner. 22. W. Buchner: Verpackung von Lebensmitteln – Lebensmitteltechnologische. u H. B. M. Dilly: Handbuch Umweltaudit.): Brautechnische Analysenmethoden. 24th Congress. S. H. P. Verlag Hans a Carl. Weinheim 2000. Anger: “Assuring nonbiological stability of beer as an important factor for guaranteeing minimum shelf-life”. 26. Brauwelt International 13 (1995) 50 – 154. C. Forster: “Significance of crop year in qualitative assessment of hop products”. Donhauser: “Characterisation of yeast species and strains”. Brussels 1995. vol. P. D. Forster. u A. Brauerei-Datenbanken. pp. Oslo 1993. Schildbach: “Raw materials supply for maltings in the European Union”. K. 37. A. Behr’s Verlag. Beer Foam Quality 1998. 27th Congress.Beer Quality Issues & HACCP 1997. Pfenninger (ed. Berlin 1995.. a Hamburg 1990. Hamburg 1996. Baner: Plastic Packaging Materials for Food. 26th Congress.und a Getr¨ nkewirtschaft. 1996. Wissenschaftsf¨ rderung der Deutschen o Brauwirtschaft e. Brauwelt International 15 (1997) 29 – 35. 30. 24. 27. L. Piringer. 38. . L.

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