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Nirmala school, was born in the village of Kalma, near Qadian, in Gurdaspur district of the Punjab. Very little is known about his early life except that, under the influence of his father, who was a devout Sikh, he started attending religious divans while still very young. When he was about twenty years old, he left his village and came to the dera or hermitage of a Nirmala saint, Gulab Singh, at Kurala, Hoshiarpur district. Sant Gulab Singh initiated him into the Nirmala order and taught him the Sikh texts. For further learning Tara Singh went to Amritsar and thence to Kashi (Varanasi) where he studied Sanskrit and Vedic literature. He spent some time at the village of Nadia in the Santipur area of Bengal. The Arddha Kumbha fair in the year 1861 took him to Haridvar. By then his fame as a scholar had spread far and wide, and Maharaja Narinder Singh (18241862), the ruler of Patiala, extended his patronage to him. Accepting the Maharaja's invitation, Tara Singh came to Patiala and made the Nirmala dera, Dharam Dhuja, his permanent seat. Here he immersed himself in his scholarly work. He wrote copiously and taught several groups of scholars. His most distinguished pupil was historiographer Giani Gian Singh. After the death of Mahant Ram Singh Kuberia in 1875, Tara Singh was appointed Sri Mahant or the chief of the Nirmal Pahchayati Akhara at Kankhal (Haridvar), the central organization of the Nirmala sect. Among Pandit Tara Singh's works may be mentioned Vahiguru Sabdarth (1862), Tika BhagatBanIKa (1872), Tika Guru BhavDipika (1879), Sri Guru Tirath Sangrahi (1883), Granth Sri Gurumat Nirnaya Sugar (1877), Sabda Sur Kos (1866), Akal Murati Pradarsan (1878), Guru Vans Taru Darpan (1878), GrantA Guru Girarth Kos (1889), Prikhia Prakaran (1890), and Tika Sri Raga (1885). It is also said that he wrote a commentary on the entire Guru Granth Sahib which seems to have been lost. Tara Singh's work can be divided into four categories exegetical,
he laid the foundation of the present day ‗Tirthasthan‘ in 1937 and opened the access through Govind Ghat. bani included in the Guru Granth Sahib was a revelation like the Veda. Maharaja Rajinder Singh. in 1734 . He added that bhakti too is based onJ'nana only. The Discovery of Hemkunt sahib. theological and doctrinal. He asserted that Guru Nanak was an incarnation of ViSriu and that Guru Nanak conformed to the path of the Vedas and did not deviate from that path anywhere except in idolworship which he rejected firmly. He was given a state funeral under the orders of the ruler. as given in the scriptures. The Dasam Granth containing the composition ‗Bachitra Natak‘ was compiled by his disciple Bhai Mani singh. php/Modan_ Singh Baba Modan Singh Hav Modan Singh. is an amalgam of the doctrines of Sankara and Ramanuja. Mukti'm his view was a bodiless state. According to him. http://www. he conforms to the Nirmala school of interpretation. with the exception that in gurmat.lexicographical. He held that the Vahiguru is another name of ViSriu only and it could not refer to the nirguna concept of God. With the help of another devotee. Sastric and Puranic lore and quoted from it profusely. Dedicating his life to this religious place he took to living in hollow of tree trunks and surviving on meagre food. Sant Sohan Singh.sikhiwik i. member of a survey team was conversant with the description of ‗Taposthan‘ of the Shri Guru Gobind Singh ji. He believed that the gurmat. In his exegetical and doctrinal writings. The exact location of this spot had eluded all efforts.twenty-six years . till he located the site that fitted the exact description. bhakti preponderates overjnana and action. He was deeply learned in the Vedic. doctrinally. His expression was highly Sanskritized in the manner of the Nirmala school. Tara Singh Narotam died at Patiala in 1891.org/index. till his demise in 1960. presenting Sikh thought from within his Vedantic orientation.
published in 1884. a Nirmala scholar and Sikh historian to compile a comprehensive list of all the gurudwaras commemorating the life and work of the Gurus. with Hemkund but was doubtful because the version. and they said "We are going to Lokpal. as told there. Several decades more passed before the search for the actual location of the 'lake of ice' began. In a work entitled Sri Gur Tirath Sangrah. in a village named Mana near the Tibetan border. a mid-nineteenth century historiographer.after the death of the Guru. a village near the present-day Gobind Ghat. Kavi Santokh Singh." They described the lake as more sacred than even Badrinath. he came across local traditions referring to the same clues. There we will take ishnan. he published descriptions of 508 of these sacred places and Hemkunt was among them. Pandit Narotam first connected the story about Dusht Daman from Suraj Parkash. was the first Sikh to pen his speculations about the Guru's tap asthan (place of meditation). was on or near Hemkunt Parbat (lake of ice mountain) and was the same place at which King Pandu had practiced yoga. In the late nineteenth century. In his account of Hemkunt. In order to corroborate these descriptions. A tumultuous century passed before the attention of the Sikh community was drawn to the passage in Bachitar Natak that described Hemkunt Parbat and Sapatsring. the birthday of Lord Krishna. and Narotam asked if he could . he elaborated on the story of Dusht Daman's creation and intense tapasaya at Hemkunt. They were departing on a pilgrimage on the festival of Janam Ashtami. the Maharaja of Patiala gave a grant to Pandit Tara Har Narotam. Narotam met with a group of Bhotia women. Beyond Badrinath. He asked the women where they were going. There. did not fully conform with what the Guru himself wrote in his autobiography since Bachitar Natak reveals the only clues given about the Guru's tap asthan – that the place named Sapatsring (seven peaks). he set out to explore the Garhwal Himalayas and his search took him to Badrinath and nearby Pandukeshwar. In his fourteen volume Sri Gur Partap Suraj [Parkash] Granth first published in 1843.
slim ascetic sat in deep meditation. that Narotam's discovery was not heeded by the Sikh community until the twentieth century. the renowned Punjabi historian. according the village elders. yogis. of the Hemkunt lake. and then God commanded that he go into the world to establish a brotherhood of ideal humans.accompany them to have its darshan. He then described a cave in which a tall. he gave beautiful descriptions of the seven peaks of Sapatsring. reformer. he provided a description of the location of Hemkunt/ Sapatsring/Lokpal together with a hand-drawn map of the surrounding area. His meditation was so intense that he merged with God. Then. and then from Sach Khand to Mat Lok (the terrestrial world). a havildar who retired from the Bengal Sappers. he recalled the verses from Bachitar Natak as he gazed up at the seven peaks. Bhai Vir Singh's account was evidently inspired by the passage from Bachitar Natak. a retired granthi and Modan Singh. In 1925. Then Bhai Vir Singh also went on to relate the Guru's dialogues with other ascetics. He determined that the place where he was standing fit the description in the Guru's writings. he wrote a powerful poem about the place. It seems. by Kavi Santokh Singh's description in Suraj Parkash. and by Pandit Tara Har Narotam's discovery in Sri Gur Tirath Sangrah. Although Bhai Vir Singh had never visited the area. The opening chapters of this "quasi-historical" biography describe the Guru's passage from Hemkunt to Sach Khand (the realm of Truth) where he was given his mission by God. penitents. Upon reaching the shore of the lake. (paradoxical though it sounds) by two ex armymen – Sohan Singh. when Hemkund (Hemkunt) Sahib was to be rediscovered singly and jointly. and rishis from various religious traditions who were also doing austerities at Hemkunt. and of the stream which flows down from it to meet the Alaknanda river near the village of Pandukeshwar. Notes appended to the first chapter of post 1930's editions of Sri Kalgidhar Chamatkar give brief descriptions of four possible locations . The title refers to the ‗miracles of the plume-adorned one. however. In Sri Gur Tirath Sangrah.' Guru Gobind Singh. and poet Bhai Vir Singh published Sri Kalgidhar Chamatkar.
"Baba Ji.for Hemkunt. and perhaps from Narotam's own Sri Gur Tirath Sangrah. It was they who said that the lake known as Lokpal. When he saw a beautiful lake. might fit the description of Hemkunt Parbat Sapatsring. "O Khalsa. Route to Hemkunt Sahib On the final day of his journey. he worked from clues in Bachitar Natak and the Mahabharata. heavy eyelids. So he bowed his head before the rishi and said. and a face so radiant that Sohan Singh was unable to look at him eye to eye. He had a long beard. He set out in search of the lake in 1933. Mai Guru Gobind Singh ka tap asthan dhundhne aya hoon (I came to search for the meditation place of Guru Gobind Singh)". he found the description of Hemkunt so compelling that he resolved to find the place at which the Guru had meditated. That year he went to Joshimath and Pandukeshwar where he made inquiries of the local people about holy places in the vicinity. They indicate that Bhai Vir Singh did considerable research before concluding that Narotam's findings were correct. he climbed the steep slope towards Lokpal alone. kidhar aye ho (from where did you come)? Kya dhundhte ho (for what do you search)?" Sohan Singh turned and saw a tall rishi (hermit) clad all in white. He crossed the river with the assistance of the villagers and started towards the sarovar they had spoken of. Sohan Singh was a retired granthi from the Indian army was working in a gurdwara in Tehri Garhwal . When Sant Sohan Singh read Sri Kalgidhar Chamatkar in 1932.the same region in which Hemkunt is located. he started to count the peaks which surrounded it. Sohan Singh was not successful that year. accessible from the valley on the other side of the Alaknanda river. but he was so inspired by the idea that the tap asthan might exist in reality that he committed himself to carry on the search and thus returned to the area to try again in 1934. The rishi gestured to a . As he was counting. wondering if this could be the place described in Bachitar Natak. Like Narotam before him. he heard a voice behind him say.
He described the yogi as covered with white hair and having long eyelashes which hooded his eyes. As he stood beside the water he had a vision of Guru Gobind Singh addressing him and saying. resolved to ask the rishi more questions the holy man had disappeared. and caretaker in the years that followed the discovery of Hemkunt. The yogi appearing before Sohan Singh. came to the valley in March of 1935 but was forced to turn back because of snow. raised his hand in blessing. Slowly it cleared and he saw before him a clear. blue lake surrounded by a mountain with seven peaks. contractor. The discovery of the place. . Sohan Singh disclosed that he had met yet another aged yogi who stayed in the area. Nevertheless. Modan Singh came to the lake again. accompanied by Sohan Singh. thik yahi hai (Well done! You are doing well. was deciphered by Sohan Singh and it was revealed that the stone slab was the spot where the guru had meditated for 1. Modan Singh. "This is the place you are looking for. He wondered if he had at last found the place he had been seeking. he met Sohan Singh and together they set out for the lake. here is the Guru's place. yahi hai Guru ka asthan. led him to spend the remainder of his life in the service of the Guru and the shrine. when he recovered a bit." Sohan Singh hastened to go. In July the same year ie 1935. "Go and bow your head. Come tomorrow and you will discover the exact spot on which I meditated. Yahi hai. Modan Singh reached the lake first. Here. The page. Perhaps searching singly. and they found an old manuscript handwritten on birch bark lying on a large flat stone beside the wate. with his eyes filled with tears of joy. in order to survey more area. and said "Shabash! Tum acha kar rahe ho.flat stone beside the water and said that this was the place at which the Guru had sat for so long in deep meditation. and miraculous events that happened to him thereafter. The mysterious page has been untraceable since his death.200 years in a previous incarnation and thus Modan Singh erected a nishan sahib on that spot. the weather was very cloudy. guard. As per the testimony of a local man later employed by the Sikhs as a guide. Later in 1936. When he crested the slope." The next day. The ecstasy of fulfillment after a two year search left him somewhat dazed.
He was disappointed once again since his story was met with skepticism or ambivalence once again. Sant Sohan Singh then approached Bhai Vir Singh in Amritsar. There was dissent among the local people when.C. The same year. the first gurdwara was completed . The four stones that comprised its roof and walls housed a statue of the Buddha alloyed from eight different metals. a hill station in Uttarkhand. there was a small stone walled mandir on the lakeshore. For two days. the Sikhs explained to them that they hoped to construct a gurduara nearby.certainly here)" In his excitement to spread news that the Guru's tap asthan had been located. disbelieved Sohan Singh. Sohan Singh stayed with him in his home while further research was done . From 1936 onward. Bhai Vir Singh became instrumental in developing Hemkunt. Before the first Sikhs came to the valley. repair work began on the mandir. In 1936. Other villagers did not understand the concept of a gurduara. The Sikhs agreed. He approached the president of the gurdwara there and explained what he had found in the hope that a memorial could be set up beside the lake.P. Therefore Sohan Singh went to Amritsar and announced his discovery before S. He gave Sohan Singh Rs. When at last Bhai Vir Singh felt satisfied that the place fit Guru Gobind Singh's description in Bachitar Natak. The Sikhs had their contractor build a new four by four foot building to demonstrate that they respected the place's meaning for the locals. The scholar questioned Sohan Singh thoroughly about the place he had discovered. 2. Sant Sohan Singh first went to Mussoorie. he committed himself to the cause of developing it. Some villagers "did not want a Sikh shrine to supersede their ancient belief of the association of this place with Lakshman". so told the Sikhs to build a larger Lakshman mandir instead. They feared outsiders would compromise its sanctity.100 with which to buy supplies to start construction of a small gurdwara on the shore of the lake and went on to publicize the discovery of Hemkunt in order to collect and manage further funds for its development. The gurdwara president. in the early thirties.G. and the elders gave them permission to do repairs on the mandir and also build another one for their Guru.
Sohan Singh explained. Modan Singh had found shelter from rain. Sohan Singh passed away. (In 1945. A copy of the Guru Granth Sahib. and it was replaced by a stone image crafted in Joshimath. When the original deity was recovered years later. then the two Sikhs went to the lake accompanied by local men. Sant Sohan Singh was purchasing building materials in Mussoorie when Modan Singh. In Pandukeshwar they hired a contractor to oversee the construction. The tree still stands in the courtyard of Gurdwara Gobind Dham. .on the shore of the lake. 1937 making Hemkunt Sahib the highest gurdwara in the world. it was installed in another Lakshman mandir in the nearby village of Bhyundar. A series of appeals for construction funds was made by Bhai Vir Singh in the pages of the Khalsa Samachar and other Punjabi publications. Early in 1935. Work was begun on a ten by ten foot stone gurdwara with a three foot verandah facing the lake. The first structure built at Gobind Dham (vill Ghangharia) was a small tin shed. They went together to Hemkunt that same year. and wild animals in the hollowed out trunk of a tree. In February of 1939. which had been presented by Bhai Vir Singh was formally installed inside during the first week of September. Soon after. the Buddha figure was lost from the mandir. the structure was completed over the same spot on the shore of the lake that had been indicated as the Guru's place of meditation. the Sikh holy book. and pilgrims gather around the plaque mounted before it to read its story. but not before entrusting Modan Singh with his mission to continue the development of Hemkunt Sahib. The temple at Lokpal was enlarged still further in June of 1988 with the help of the military). In November of the following year. he came with a small group every year to have darshan of the Guru's tap asthan. and Modan Singh asked if he might accompany him to the site. cold. Sohan Singh contracted tuberculosis and Bhai Vir Singh arranged for his treatment in Amritsar. From 1938 onwards. Prior to its construction. again met him and asked what he was preparing to build.
Arrangements to have a path constructed were made with the locals. by the hand and helped them up the slope to the lake. Rishikesh. Guru Gobind Singh himself revealed to him that the shape of the Gurudwara to come would be in the form of a lotus. unaccustomed to mountain terrain. the Chief Khalsa Diwan. some seventy kilometres away. In March of 1960. Inspiration for building a larger gurdwara at Hemkunt Sahib came from a woman who was given the mission to lay its foundation stone in a vision of Guru Gobind Singh. a housewife from Pathankot in Punjab. Modan Singh established a seven member trust to take over the management responsibilities. all construction materials were carried along the route without the benefit of a motorable road to Gobind Ghat. This was supported by the fact that Modan Singh had also foretold that in a vision. with the inspiration of Bhai Vir Singh. the management thought her a hoax.Monies were raised by Sikh sangats from India and abroad. and along the road in Joshimath. Today the trust oversees the operation of seven gurduaras along the route from Hardwar to Hemkunt. However. she could not have known. and Hardwar. shortly before his death in December. During these formative years of development. dharamsalas and gurduaras were constructed along the path in Gobind Dham and Gobind Ghat. That year a decision was taken at Gobind Ghat to draw up plans for a new gurdwara. but not as difficult as it had been in previous years when local men had held the Sikh pilgrims. Amritsar was given responsibility for the upkeep and further development of the route. Srinagar. The going was difficult. the architect commissioned to draw up plans for the new gurdwara designed . At that time. the first organized jatha was formed in 1952. Accordingly. she was able to convince them of the sincerity of her mission by describing details of Hemkunt that never having been there before. Over time. In 1951. the bus terminus was at Chamoli. presented herself in Gobind Ghat in 1960 and revealed her purpose. The small group of pilgrims were led up the beginnings of a path which was not completed until two years later. When Mata Ram Kaur. Then.
petals touch the ground while stem is skywards. or any other anecdote related to the spot or the gurudwara. Work still continues at the site to improve paths and facilities……………. but work could not begin until 1968 when the motor road was extended to Gobind Ghat and beyond. The originality of this post by Rattanbir is limited to identifying the spot on Google Earth. that is why. and the final hexagonal perimeter of the gurduara began to take shape. Alongside early sketches of the new structure published in ‗Sri Hem Kunt Sahib: History and Guide‘. The plans were drafted in 1964.‖ The roof of the gurdwara has been designed to withstand the weight of heavy winter snowfall. several designs were considered and experiments were made. At the end of the 1993 season. pillars were erected. In case any reader has additional information on Sohan Singh Modan Singh or the identity of the architect who designed the gurudwara. On these plates.it with the image of a lotus in mind. five half-ton foundation plates were laid over the course of three years required to haul them up. At its base. restructuring and clarifying the information contained in the thesis by Heather Michaud (1998) titled*: WALKING IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF THE GURU: SIKHS AND SEEKERS IN THE INDIAN HIMALAYAS and adding some tales he heard on his own journey to the shrine in 1989. the upper storey was completed and the Guru Granth Sahib was installed at the start of the 1994 season. Since no specifications or guidance were available.. The lower storey was completed first. At its base the gurudwara measures 110 by 110 feet. Sant Sohan Singh . From heavens He holds the stem of the Brahm Lotus in His Hand. "Look at the design and you will feel that the Creator of Universe has gently placed a Brahm Lotus at the exact spot where Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji had realized Oneness with Him. along the Alaknanda valley towards Badrinath. and doors on each of the five sides symbolically welcomed pilgrims from every faith and direction. a caption reads. but duly supported by a credible document. and in a room in its centre the Guru Granth Sahib was installed beneath a brass canopy.
Then one day he heard some stories about a lake known locally as Lokpal. Guru Tirath Sangrah and the ancient texts of the Mahabharata. as were the Sharomani Gurdwara Parbandakh Committee. he climbed the steep slope towards Lokpal alone. He then decided to contact Bhai Vir Singh. Suraj Parkash.Sant Sohan Singh was a retired army general. When he saw the beautiful lake he started to count the peaks which surrounded it. Bhai Vir Singh offered his help to develop the site of Hemkunt Sahib. They got a local building contractor to start construction of the gurdwara after obtaining local permission. He crossed the river with the assistance of the villagers and started towards the sarovar they had spoken of. nobody would listen. . Sohan Singh was accompanied by a Havaldar (army sergeant) called Modan Singh who had offered his services. Discovery of Hemkunt sahib Sant Sohan singh wanted to spread the news of his discovery but none wanted to heard it. On the final day of his journey. He read Bhai Vir Singhs description of Hemkunt Sahib and was so moved by the account that he vowed to make it his lifes mission to find the place where Guru Sahib Ji had meditated. wondering if this could be the place described in Bachitar Natak. he decided to investigate. He set out in the spring of 1933 following the clues in Bachittar Natak. He accompanied some local women who were on their way to Lokpal to do puja (prayers) to Lakshman. The Gurdwara committee of Musourie the closest town to Uttarkhand were very skeptical. In 1934 Sohan Singh met Bhai Vir Singh and convinced him that he had found Hemkunt Sahib. it fell on deaf ears. A year later both of them set off again. He gave Sohan Singh funds to buy material and construct a Gurdwara on the shores of the lake. He travelled past Rishikesh towards Pandukshwar always enquiring from local people about their folk laws.
as for Sikhs. Long before the Sikhs knew the lake as the Guru's tap asthan. He also used to inscribe his name as Bhai Hazara Singh Giani as well as Hazur Hari. and the holy lake itself is a place for prayer and worship . In the early days there was no shelter on route to Hemkunt Sahib and Moden Singh would shelter from the fierce wind and cold weather in a hollowed out tree trunk. Shiva. Bhai Savan Singh. it was also enlarged and improved. famous in his day in classical Sikh learning. Hazara Singh was apprenticed to Sant Chanda Singh. The family had migrated from Harappa. He had strong literary inclinations nurtured by his association with the education department set up by the British after the occupation of the Punjab in 1849 and by the Singh Sabha renaissance which provided new creative incentives. he studied Persian and Sanskrit and acquired facility in both. the tales of their deeds woven together with images from local landscapes. and Vishnu.Out of respect for the Hindu mandir that stood on the shores of the lake. the journey continues to be an act of devotion. His father. Srinagar.sikhiwik i. Today there is a string of gurdwaras from Hardwar to Rishkesh. This 'lake of ice' is also sacred to the hill people who live in the valley below. Early in his career. For them. now in Pakistan. was employed in the Golden Temple as a store keeper. Besides the Sikh texts. scholar and educator. He . to settle in Amritsar. was born in Amritsar in 1828.a place where wishes can be fulfilled. They tell of the gods Lakshman. This tree trunk still stands in the grounds of the gurdwara of Gobind Dham. Such was the devotion of Modan Singh that after retiring from the army he dedicated his life to the service of Hemkunt Sahib. these people knew it as Lokpal. php/Giani_ Hazara_Singh Giani Hazara Singh Giani Hazara Singh (1828-1908). Hanuman. Joshimat. Gobind Ghat and Gobind Dham where devotees can rest for food and shelter. http://www.org/index. and made annual pilgrimages to its shore.
Bhugol Darpan. Gulistdn and Boston into Braj verse and adapted Nazir Ahmad's famous Urdu novel Mirdt ulArus into Punjabi which was published under the title of Dulhan Darpan. he collected and transcribed Sanskrit manuscripts and wrote verse in Braj thereby laying the foundations of the family's literary tradition. Dr Singh was the seventh descent from Diwan Kaura Mal. poet and musicologist. He prepared textbooks in Punjabi such as Bhugol Manjari. In the education department. studied Sanskrit. In Punjabi. http://www. Gurmukhi Parkdsh and Dulhan Patrikd. Charan Singh. besides Ayurveda and Western medicine. His father was Baba Kahn Singh and mother was Mata Rup Kaur. Hind da Sugam Itihds.org/index. Hazara Singh worked as an inspector for vernacular schools. Giani Hazara Singh died on 27 September 1908 at the ripe age of eighty. and Varan Bhai Gurdas (4 vols) which is a commentary on the vdrs of Bhai Gurdas. Charan Singh (1853-13 November 1908). Kahn Singh (1788-1878) who was of a retiring disposition had spent some years in the company of wandering ascetics before he was persuaded to give up the life of a recluse and become a householder. His son. Braj. In addition to his practice of indigenous medicine. celebrated Sikh savant and poet. liihds Prashnotn.was an active member of the Amritsar Singh Sabha and acted for a while as one of its secretaries. and the biographies of Guru Har Rai and Guru Har Krishan. Pntam Ganit. he wrote Suraj Prakdsh Chavamikd.sikhiwik i. which is an abridged version of Sn GurPraia? Suraj Granth. He rendered Shaikh Sa'adi's Persian classics. php/Dr_Charan_ Singh Dr Charan Singh Dr. a dictionary of the Guru Granth Sahib initiated by him but which received its current form from his daughter's son. Bhai Vir Singh. an influential eighteenth century Sahajdhari Sikh. Persian and prosody. . His more enduring works were Guru Granth Kosh. was born at Amritsar in 1853.
Sri Guru Granth Bani Beora explains the titles of compositions comprising the Guru Granth Sahib. He translated Kalidasa's Abhijnana Sakuntalam into Punjabi and started working on two novels (fang Marauli and Sham Sundar) which he left incomplete and which were published posthumously by the Khalsa Tract Society. with details of compositions in each raga as well as of the individual contribution of each of the Gurus and bhaktas. the youngest. He resigned the appointment to set up as a private practitioner and to pursue his literary tastes. His Gurmat Sangit Nirnaya is a work on the ragas or musical measures employed in the Guru Granth Sahib. a book of didactic Punjabi prose. and Sn Maharani Sharab Kaur. and furnishes information about the verse-forms and the ragas or musical measures employed. a reputed man of letters. a vignette of Guru Gobind Singh.A boyhood experience which must have left a deep impression on his mind was the preparation for his benefit of a copy of the Guru Granth Sahib in the hand of Suhel Singh. He had four sons of whom Bhai Vir Singh (1872-1957). his maternal uncle. Young Charan Singh watched from day to day the large pages being inscribed in handsome Gurmukhi calligraphy. and the Dasam Gur Charitra. His Gargajj Bole is a book on the Sikh martial patois. He was married in 1869 to Uttam Kaur. scientist and scholar. was the eldest and Dr Balbir Singh. He first practised Ayurvedic as well as Western medicine serving from 1 August 1872 to 12 November 1881 in government dispensaries. Charan Singh's Atal Prakash is a versified account of Baba Atal Rai's life.1918 Bk) was marked by rejoicing and feasting and distribution of charity. daughter of Giani Hazara Singh (q. All his works have been .). The completion of the work on 25 February 1862 (Phagun Vadi 5.v. Among his several works. the celebrated Punjabi poet and savant.
He wrote of Hemkunt as one among the 508 Sikh shrines he described in Sri Gur Tirath Sangrah (first published in 1884). http://www. html Hemkunt Sahib connection Bhai Vir Singh was instrumental in locating the site of Gurdwara Hemkunt Sahib. http://www. he read the description of Hemkunt in Bhai Vir Singh‘s Sri Kalgidhar Chamatkar (1929). a nineteenth century Nirmala scholar. the responsibility for Hemkunt Sahib shifted to the Chief Khalsa Diwan branch in Kanpur. the first jatha (group of pilgrims) was formed and sponsored by the Chief Khalsa Diwan.veersingh. Sikhs began to search for Hemkunt — a place high in the Himalayan mountains and mentioned in the autobiographical Bachitra Natak of Guru Gobind Singh. in a sense. scholar . in 1952. php/Bhai_ Vir_Singh Bhai Vir Singh Bhai Vir Singh (December 5.net/ interfaith. Amritsar.dialogues/ 5225-bhai. In the late nineteenth century. With the inspiration of Bhai Vir Singh. 1957) was a poet. Pandit Tara Singh Narotam. In 1932. was the first Sikh to trace the geographical location of Hemkunt. The title of this work roughly translates as the ―wonderful drama‖. Later.sikhiwik i.published in one volume in the second part of Shn Charanhari Visthar. 1872 . In 1958. Sohan Singh was a retired granthi from the Indian army who was working in a gurdwara (Sikh temple) in Tehri Garhwal.org/index.June 10. Besides composing verse himself. He died at Amritsar on 13 November 1908. Charan Singh presided over a salon of local devotees of the Muse. Bhai Vir Singh was instrumental in developing Hemkunt after it had been. and took active interest in the rising Singh Sabha movement.sikhphil osophy. Bhai Vir Singh‘s description was so compelling that on reading it Sant Sohan Singh resolved to search for the place where Guru Gobind Singh had meditated. rediscovered by another Sikh in search of the Guru‘s tap asthan.
Dr Charan Singh. Born on 5 December 1872. Baba Kahn Singh passed on his interests to his only son. in Amritsar. His identification with all the important concerns of modern Sikhism was so complete that he came to be canonized as Bhai. His mother's affection ultimately reclaimed him to the life of a householder at the age of 40. Baba Kahn Singh (1788-1878) was. Dr Charan Singh took active interest in the affairs of the Sikh community. mainly as a Braj poet. the first in the family to become a Sikh. under Nawab Mir Mu'ln ul-Mulk. he is acknowledged as the creator of modern Punjabi literature. 1752). perhaps. His maternal grandfather Giani Hazara Singh compiled a lexicon of Guru . very early in his career. For his pioneering work in its several different genres. A literary heritage from both sides of the family To this patrimony of Bhai Vir Singh was added from his mother's side a living kinship with another rich tradition of scholarship in exegesis of the Ckiani school. Apart from his sustained involvement in literary and scholarly pursuits. the Brother of the Sikh Order. Punjabi prose-writer. then experiencing a new urge for restoration as well as for change. Bhai Vir Singh was the eldest of Dr Charan Singh's three sons.and theologian who was a major figure in the movement for the revival and renewal of Punjabi literary tradition. who rose to the position of vicegovernor of Multan. musicologist. With the title of Maharaja Bahadur. Adept in versification in Sanskrit and Braj as well as in the oriental system of medicine. going back to the times of Guru Gobind Singh. prosodist and lexicographer. The family traces its ancestry back to Diwan Kaura Mall Arora (d. He became a recluse when he was still in his early teens and spent his entire youth in monasteries at Haridvar and then at Amritsar acquiring training in traditional Sikh learning. when he got married.
The family traced its ancestry to Diwan Kaura Mal. under Nawab Mir Mu'ln ul-Mulk. who rose to the position of vice-governor of Multan. Siddha and Yunani). any political destiny and a concern for redefining the boundaries of their faith. Dr.wikipedia . Born in 1872. but also received grounding. he got married. Persian and Braj. At the age of forty. Muslim and Hindu movements and even from agnostic cults such as Brahmo Samaj. the gradual emergence of an urban middle class.org/wiki/ Bhai_Vir_ Singh (Article forwarded by Tejwant Singh Malik) . His grandfather. Kahn Singh passed on his interests to his only son. Apart from being a Braj poet. the decline in the fortunes of Sikh aristocracy. of proselytization from Christian. and wrote a commentary on Bhai Gurdas Varan. Dr. As a schoolboy. Charan Singh. Parallel to the developments foreboding gradual appropriation of Sikhism by the Hindu social order emerged a powerful end towards Braj classicism in the Sikh literary and schlolarly tradition. spent his entire youth in monasteries at Haridwar and Amritsar. musicologist and lexicographer. Charan Singh's three sons. Bhai Vir Singh used to spend a great deal of his time in the company of Giani Hazara Singh under whose guidance he not only learned the classical and neo-classical languages. the dissipation of the "national intellectual life" of the Punjab owing to the neglect and decay of any indigenous education of the local people aroused among the Sikhs a concern for the survival of Sikhi. Sanskrit. with the title of Maharaja Bahadur. Further challenges arose in the concern over modernization. Bhai Vir Singh was the child of an age in ferment. in the science of Sikh exegesis. Kahn Singh (1788-1878). then experiencing a new urge for restoration as well as for change. Adept in Sanskrit and Braj as well as in the oriental systems of medicine (such as Ayurveda. both theoretical and practical. Charan Singh took an active interest in the affairs of the Sikh community. http://en.Granth Sahib. Vir Singh was the eldest of Dr. in Amritsar. The extinction of Sikh sovereignty in the Punjab. Punjabi prose-writer. acquiring training in traditional Sikh learning.
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