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Pioneer IV Press Kit

Pioneer IV Press Kit

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FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
OFFICE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION 1520 H STREET, N. w. WASHINGTON 25, D. c.

EX. 3-3260

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EXT. 6325

PIONEER IV INFORMATION PLAN

I.
11.
111.

Background Policy Responsibilities Procedures Communications Release Clearance Policy

IV .
V.
VI.
Annexes

1. 2.

Preplanned Briefings and Announcements Communica.tions

3. Photographic, Film and TV Requirements

4. Contractor Activities

February 28, 1959

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

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P i o n e e r I V Information P l a n
1.

Background

U. S. p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n p o l i c y p r o v i d e s f o r t h e widest p r a c t i c a b l e d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n concerning space a c t i v i t i e s and t h e r e s u l t s t h e r e o f c o n s i s t e n t w i t h F e d e r a l s t a t u t e and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . Within t h i s c o n t e x t , h e r e i s a b r i e f review of t h e moon and space probe s e r i e s w i t h which t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p l a n i s concerned:

On March 27, 1958, the Advanced Research P r o j e c t s Agency of t h e Department of Defense announced a s e r i e s of f i v e experiments -- three by t h e A i r Force, two by t h e A r m y -- designed t o o b t a i n data from t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e moon and beyond. A f t e r t h e f i r s t ARPA-Air Force experiment (August 17, 1958) t h e remaininr experiments were t r a n s f e r r e d by Executive Order t o t h e N a t i o n a l Aeronautics and Space Administration on October 1, 1958. Here i s a b r i e f review of t h e t e s t s c a r r i e d o u t t o d a t e :

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On August 17, 1958, t h e A i r Force B a l l i s t i c M i s s i l e D i v i s i o n , under ARPA d i r e c t i o n , launched t h e f i r s t U.S. moon probe. A n engine f a i l u r e i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e of t h e f o u r - s t a g e Thor Able I r o c k e t caused t h e v e h i c l e t o blow up 77 seconds a f t e r l i f t - o f f . The probe was n o t named.
The second t e s t , conducted by AFBMD under N S d i r e c t i o n , took AA p l a c e on October 11, 1958. The probe, c h r i s t e n e d P i o n e e r I, t r a v e l e d 71,300 m i l e s i n t o s p a c e , a n d was deemed a q u a l i f i e d s u c c e s s .
The next AFBMD-NASA moon probe attempt ended i n f a i l u r e on November 8, 1958 when t h e c a r r i e r r o c k e t ' s t h i r d stage f a i l e d t o i g n i t e . T h i s was P i o n e e r 11.

The f o u r t h t e s t was a deep space probe on December 6, 1958 by N S w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e of t h e Army. A f o u r - s t a g e Juno I1 r o c k e t AA p r o p e l l e d a probe 63,580 miles i n t o space. P i o n e e r I11 r e v e a l e d v a l u a b l e r a d i a t i o n data and, l i k e P i o n e e r I, w a s c o n s i d e r e d a q u a l i f i e d success.
T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p l a n concerns t h e f i f t h and f i n a l t e s t i n t h i s s e r i e s planned as p a r t of t h i s c o u n t r y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the IGY. (There w i l l be l a t e r non-IGY moon' and space probe attempts.) T h i s t e s t w i l l be conducted by N S w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e of the A r m y . I f AA t h e experiment i s c o n s i d e r e d a s u c c e s s , t h e probe w i l l be named Pioneer IV.

The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t e 3 t are s i m i l a r to t h o s e of t h e Decemb e r 6 experiment; namely, t o achieve an earth-moon t r a j e c t o r y ; t o probe t h e p h y s i c a l l i m i t s of t h e Great R a d i a t i o n B e l t (made up of t h e two s o - c a l l e d Nan Allen r a d i a t i o n b e l t s ) ; t o determine t h e e x t e n t , i f any, of r a d i a t i o n i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e moon; and f i n a l l y , t o

- 3 t e s t a p h o t o e l e c t r i c s e n s o r which w i l l be a c t i v a t e d when i t g e t s w i t h i n about 20,0,00 m i l e s of t h e moon. T h i , s d e v i c e i s a p r o t o t y p e f o r an o p t i c h l t r i g g e r t o c o n t r o l p i c t u r e - t a k i n g mechanisms i n f u t u r e space probe experiments. T h i s device, however, does n o t t a k e p i c t u r e s of any kind; i t simply r e a c t s t o t h e moon's li r e p o r t s t h i s f a c t to e a r t h . (See press k i t f o r d e t a i l s

TI. P o l i c y
While n o n - s e c u r i t y s c i e n t i f i c experiments are c a r r i e d o u t p u b l i c l y , c e r t a i n r u l e s f o r d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n must be observed. Care should be e x e r c i s e d t o a s s u r e t h a t t h e volume of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e a s e d i s n o t i n e x c e s s of t h a t warranted by an e x p e r i m e n t ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e o r degree o f s u c c e s s . There should be an avoidance of c o m p e t i t i v e p u b l i c i t y e f f o r t s r e g a r d i n g space a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have t h e o b j e c t of b u i l d i n g up, w i t h the p u b l i c and t h e Congress, t h e agency c a r r y i n g out t h e experiment. F i n a l l y , space experiments should be s t r e s s e d as United States e f f o r t s .

IIJ

0

Responsibilities

N S w i l l conduct t h i s experiment w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e of the AA N A S A ' s J e t P r o p u l s i o n Laboratory developed t h e second, t h i r d a d f o u r t h s t a g e s of t h e Juno I1 r o c k e t , the s c i e n t i f i c payload and prepared t r a j e c t o r y data. The f i r s t stage, an Army J u p i t e r , was developed by t h e Army B a l l i s t i c Missile Agency, H u n t s v i l l e , Alabania. ARMA is also r e s p o n s i b l e f o r assembling and launching Juno I1 and fo;? c a r r y i n g o u t t h e e a r l y t r a c k i n g phase. JPL d i r e c t s t h e longm r . y ~t r a c k i n g phase.
Army.

Phase I, P r e p o s i t i o n i n g Yewsmern w i l l be b r i e f e d by t h e D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c Information, on an o f f - t h e - r e c o r d basis a t 2 p.m, on Wednesday, February-25, three days b e f o r e the scheduled f i r i n g t i m e -- lO:l3 p.m. on Februam 28, 1959. The b r i e f i n g w i l l a c q u a i n t newsmen w i t h t h e n a t u r e of t h e forthcomlng experiment, i t s complexity, and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements f o r p r e s s coverage. A similar b r i e f i n g w i l l be conducted by t h e Commander of t h e A t l a n t i c Missile Range a t about t h e same time.
NASA,

Press k i t s c o n t a i n i n g a b r i e f summary of t h e t e s t s conducted t h u s f a r , a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e launching r o c k e t and t h e s c i e n t i f i c payload w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d simultaneously by NASA, Washington, D. C . and by AMR, Cape Canaveral, F l a . , on February 27, one day p r i o r t o I aunch.

Press k i t material, i n c l u d i n g photographs, w i l l be marked HOLD
F O R RELEASE UNTIL LAUNCHED OR INDEFINITELY DELAYED.

For purposes of t h i s p l a n , t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i l l apply:

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...Launch
A lift-off

and f i r i n g of a l l stages, o r a l i f t - o f f which a b o r t s

d e s t r u c t i o n . I f a c u t o f f o c c u r s p r i o r t o l i f t - o f f , t h i s would n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a launch and t h e postponement announcement (see below) w i l l be used.

f o r any cause, i n c l u d i n g misfire, f a i l u r e i n f l i g h t , or d e l i b e r a t e

...Hold A temporary delay i n t h e launching count-down which may extend f o r s e v e r a l hours. For purposes of t h i s p l a n , Hold w i l l n o t extend beyond such time as t h e assembled press a r e t o l d t o l e a v e t h e launch site and r e t u r n t h e n e x t day.

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...Postpone
A delay beyond a Hold p e r i o d which, f o r t e c h n i c a l o r o t h e r r e a s o n s , w i l l c o n t i n u e up t o b u t n o t beyond t h e p e r i o d scheduled f o r t h e e x p e r i ment. I n o t h e r words, a postponement w i l l be announced when and i f t h e assembled press a r e t o l d t o l e a v e the launch s i t e and r e t u r n a t a l a t e r date. The postponement announcement does n o t release t h e p r e s s k i t material.

... I n d e f i n i t e
t4he experiment.

Delay

A d e l a y l o n g e r t h a n a postponement, r e q u i r i n g a r e s c h e d u l i n g o f

These d e f i n i t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h e press k i t and w i l l be s p e l l e d o u t a t t h e pre-launch press b r i e f i n g s a t AMR and NASA.
Phase 11, Launch T h i s phase i n c l u d e s t h e t i m e p e r i o d from two hours b e f o r e programmed launch u n t i l s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e of same, i n c l u d i n g t h e f i r i n g of a l l stages has been determined. During this p e r i o d , AMR w i l l be prime s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n .

O f f f c i a l c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e launch w i l l be made by NASA s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n Washington and a t AMR -- u s i n g Item C, Annex I, Page 8 , w i t h i n one minute of l i f t - o f f . O f f i c i a l simultaneous c o n f i r m a t i o n of the f i r i n g of the second and t h i r d and f o u r t h s t a g e s w i l l be made by NASA as soon as t e c h n i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n h a s been made -- probably w i t h i n about 20 minutes a f t e r Care w i l l be t a k e n n o t t o apply t h e term " s u c c e s s f u l " t o lift-off. t h e s t a g e f i r i n g s i n t h e i n i t i a l hours u n t i l data have been c a r e f u l l y analyzed. See Item D, Annex I, Page 8 .

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Technical failure in the launch phase will be swiftly confirmed by NASA if it occurs within sight of newsmen. If it occurs later in the flight, it will be announced as soon as possible. See Item F, Annex I, Pagt 9

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NASA will announce postponements simultaneously as indicated (above) in Phase I. See Item G, Annex I, Page 10.
For Indefinite Delay statement, see Item H, Annex I, Page10,

A brici' meeting with newsmen will be held in the press area near the launch site at AMR as soon as practicable after launch or technical failure within the launch phase. Representatives of NASA and ABMA will take part in this meeting. Participants will avoid speculation about the experiment's possible success,
This conference will end with the announcement that all further information about the experiment will emanate from NASA, Washington. Phase 111, Tracking This phase will be initiated with an NASA press conference in Washington about two to three hours after launch. By this time, "quick look" tracking data will have revealed whether or not the space probe is flying according to plan.

An early position report may be issued by NASA between launch and post-launch press conference.
The A r m y Ballistic Missile Agency and the U. S, National Committee for the IGY will be represented along with NASA officials on the press conference panel at NASA. The press conference will produce details of instrumentation, tracking, etc. and a position report of the probe. This press conference will be transmitted to AMR by telephone f o r the benefit of the press there who will be able to relay questions to NASA, Washington by teletype or telephone. Periodic "quick look" progress reports, based upon the analyzed data from JPL, will be posted on a plotting board at NASA. See Items K and M, Annex 1,Pp 13-14for prepared statements. Progress reports will be made on an after-the-fact basis, Speculation about possible end results of the experiment will be avoided. However, if there is m y deviation from the programmed trajectory this will be acknowledged as circumstances dictate.

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- 6 During t h e t r a c k i n g phase , personnel o p e r a t i n g t h e t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s w i l l be a u t h o r i z e d t o acknowledge whether o r not t h e y are r e c e i v i n g t e l e m e t r y s i g n a l s from t h e t e r m i n a l v e h i c l e b u t w i l l r e f r a i n from amplifying such announcements, See Item N, Annex I, Page 15. The A d m i n i s t r a t o r of N S w i l l announce t h e a c t i v a t i o n of AA
t h e p h o t o e l e c t r i c s e n s o r as soon as t h i s has been confirmed about 20 hours a f t e r launch. See I t e m 0, Annex 1, Page 15,

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The t r a c k i n g phase w i l l t e r m i n a t e w i t h a p r e s s conference a t NASA when s u f f i c i e n t data a r e a v a i l a b l e t o p r e s e n t c o n c l u s i o n s as t o r e s u l t s of t h e experiment. Again, all i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d .

Phase N Post-Event
A l l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning t h e s c i e n t i f i c r e s u l t s of t h e experiment w i l l be r e l e a s e d by NASA, Washington, D. C. i n coordina t i o n w i t h t h e U.S.-IGY o r g a n i z a t i o n which w i l l make such f i n d i n g s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e 66 o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i n g n a t i o n s i n t h e I C Y programs. (See Annex4 f o r d e t a i l s of s t i l l photographs, t e l e v i s i o n and f i l m coverage of t h e e v e n t . )

Phase V, Communications
A t e l e p h o n e and t e l e t y p e conference w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e D i r e c t o r , O f f i c e o f P u b l i c Information, NASA, and h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t t h e A t l a n t i c M i s s i l e Range s e v e r a l hours b e f o r e programmed launch time. The t e l e c o n f e r e n c e w i l l be maintained through f o u r t h s t a g e i g n i t i o n and announcement t h e r e o f by NASA. Frov launch time onward, a t e l e p h o n e and TWX conference w i l l be maintained between N S and JPL, Pasadena. Commercial t e l e p h o n e AA w i l l connect NASA and ABMA.

Phase V I , Release Clearance P o l i c y
Prepared s t a t e m e n t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e Annexes t o t h i s p l a n , as w e , l l as press k i t material, are c l e a r e d f o r r e l e a s e a t t h e times i n d i c a t e d under t h e c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n IV, Pr'ocedures. All o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s , releases and i n f o r m a t i o n must b e c l e a r e d w i t h NASA.

(See Attached Annexes I t h r u 4 )

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PIONEER IV INPORMATION PLAN
ANNEX I February 25, 1959

ITEM A
Briefing Guide: Prepositioning

A.

Introduction:

Plans are underway for the launching of a Juno I1 rocket containing a space probe similar to the December 6 , 1958 experiment. The forthcoming test will be conducted by NASA with . the assistance of the U. S Army. This experiment is the fifth and last of a series of lunar and space probes planned as part of this country's contribution to the International Geophysical (There will be later non-IGY firings.) Year. The press kits will contain a brief review of the four experiments carried out to date three lunar probes and the December 6 space probe.

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The purpose of this meeting today is to inform you of the administrative and logistical arrangements which have been made to transmit Information about the test to you, Since considerable information about the program has already been released, there is little need for protracted discusston or question and answer session here today.

B.
ITEM B

The following information is off-the-record.

Logistical Briefing for the Press The news reporting system f o r the fifth and last test vehicle in the lunar and space probe series planned for the IGY will generally follow the plan used in the December 6, 1958 attempt. Newsmen are invited to witness the launch at the Atlantic Missile Range. NASA will confirm the launch and staging as it occurs. A press meeting will be arranged a t the AMR press s i t e within an hour after successful launch. Representatives qf NASA and the Army Ballistic Missile Agency will be present at this

meeting.
After the AMR press conference, the source of news will shift to NASA, Washington, D. C. and no further announcements w i l l be

- 8 provided f r o m Cape Canaveral. ABMA w i l l a l s o be r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e N S p r e s s conference along w i t h JPL and NA$A o f f i c i a l s . T h i s AA conference w i l l be piped t o AMR where r e p o r t e r s w i l l be a b l e t o r e l a y q u e s t i o n s t o Washington. During t h e remaining t r a c k i n g phase, raw d a t a will f e e d from t h e t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s t o JPL i n Pasadena, thence t o NASA headq u a r t e r s where i t w i l l be announced i n i t i a l l y . P r e l i m i n a r y t r a c k i n g i n f o m a t i o n based on "quick look" d a t a w i l l be provided p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r newsmen.
ITEM

c

February 28, 1959

Statement by NASA
Time:
T p l u s about one minute

The United S e a t e s launched a f o u r - s t a g e experimental space v q h i c l e a t t h e A t l a n t i c Missile Range, Cape Canaveral, F l o r i d a ) today. at ( The launching was accomplished by t h e N a t i o n a l Aeronautics and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n with t h e a s s i s t a n c e of t h e U. S. Army. It i s t h e f f f t h and f i n a l f l i g h t t e s t i n a s e r i e s designed t o g a t h e r s c i e n t i f i c d a t a as p a r t of t h e U. S. c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Geophysical Year program. There w i l l be l a t e r non-IGY l u n a r and space probes.
The v e h i c l e i s c a l l e d Juno 1 . It c o n s i s t s of id J u p i t e r PRBM 1 a s t h e fir$% t a g e , o r b o o s t e r , and t h r e e upper stages, The s v e h i c l e i s c a r r y i n g an instrumented, s c i e n t i f i c "payload. I 1

ITEM D
Statement by N S AA Timer
T p l u s about 20 minutes

The second, t h i r d and f o u r t h s t a g e s o f t h e United S t a t e s f o u r s t a g e experimental space v e h i c l e launched a t t h e A t l a n t i c Nissile Range, Cape Canaveral, F l o r i d a a t ( ) today have been fired,
A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r o g r e s s of t h e t e s t w i l l be r e p o r t e d a s t h e d a t a a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s and are, i n t u r n , t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e d a t a r e d u c t i o n c e n t e r f o r analysis

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All further information on the remaining phases of this experiment will be released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at its Washington, D C headquarters . .

.

ITEM E

February 28, 1959

Statement by T Keith Glennan, NAs,A Administrator .
The NASA gave the name Pioneer IV today to the payload of the U S space probe, the fifth and last in a series of probes . . . . planned as part of the U S contribution t o the International Geophysical Year.

ITEM F Statement by NASA
Time:
A,

February 28, 1959

A few minutes after event occurs

An experimental four-stage space vehicle designed to g a t h e r scientific. data as a part of the U. S -1GY program ex. ploded OR its launch pad at ( ) today at the ATLANTIC MISSILE RANGE, Cape Canaveral, Florida, during an attempted launch. The cause of the technical difficulty will not be determined until all data have been collected and analyzed.

B. A experimental four-stage space vehicle designed to n g a t h e r scientific data as a part of the U S. -1GY program (was . destroyed) (exploded) at ( ) after (minutes-seconds) of flight today a t the ATLANTIC MISSILE RANGE, Cape Canveral, Florida. The cause of the technical difficulty will not be determined until all data have been collected and analyzed,
C . The (second, third, or fourth) stage of an experimental four-stage space vehicle designed t o gather scientific data as hl part of the U S -1GY program (failed to ignite) (exploded) during . . a launch attempt a t ( ) today at the ATLANTIC MISSILE.RANGE, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The remaining portions of the vehicle continued upward for a short period of time before falling into the Atlantic Ocean. The cause of the technical difficulty will not be determined until all technical data have been collected and analyzed

.

NOTE:

These should simply serve as guide lines and do not necessarily have to be duplicated verbatim. There should be some leeway t o a l l o w for unexpected action.

ITEM 0
Statement by N S AA
T e s t Postponement
Time:

10

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As r e q u i r e d

P r e p a r a t i o n s p o i n t i n g toward an e a r l y f l i g h t of a U. S. space probe launching v e h i c l e were postponed today a t t h e ATLANTIC MISSILE RANGE. O f f i c i a l s a t t h e range s a i d t h e postponement was due t o No irlformation on t h e n e x t f i r i n g date is available.

.

ITEM H

Statement by NASA I n d e f i n i t e Delay Time:
A s Required

P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e f i r i n g of a U. S. space probe launching v e h i c l e were delayed i n d e f i n i t e l y today a t t h e ATLANTIC MISSILE RANGE. O f f i c i a l s a t t h e Range s a i d the i n d e f i n i t e delay was due to N irkfornation about t h e n e x t launcho ivhg d a t e i s a v a i l a b l e .

.

ITEM I

February 29, 1959

Resume of Launch and S t a g i n g
Times

For u s e a t NASA P r e s s Conference a t T p l u s two t o t h r e e hours
This i s a s c a l e model of t h e Juno I1 space probe v e h i c l e ,

It c o n s i s t s of t h e U. S. Amy J u p i t e r i n t e r m e d i a t e range b a l l i s t i c
m i s s i l e as t h e f i r s t o r b o o s t e r s t a g e , and three high-speed upper stages
T h e second s t a g e c o n s i s t s of an a n n u l a r r i n g of 1 s c a l e d 1 down, s o l i d p r o p e l l a n t S e r g e a n t s ; t h e t h i r d s t a g e c o n s i s t s of a c o n c e n t r i c r i n g of t h r e e scaled-down S e r g e a n t s , and t h e f o u r t h s t a g e c o n s i s t s of a s i n g l e scaled-down S e r g e a n t . I n t h e upper s t a g e s , t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s t h e same as t h a t used by t h e Army

to p l a c e t h r e e E x p l o r e r s i n o r b i t .

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11

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Before launch, while t h e Juno I1 v e h i c l e i s s t i l l on t h e pad, t h e upper stages are s e t s p i n n i n g on a r o t a t i o n a l l a u n c h e r b u i l t i n t o t h e J u p i t e r nose. This i s done to provide d i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y i n f l i g h t . I n i t i a l l y , t h e v e h i c l e rises v e r t i c a l l y , s l o w l y t i l t i n g o v e r i n t o its programmed b a l 4 i s t i c path. A nonr o t a t i n g guidance s e c t i o n a t t h e rear of t h e h i g h speed s t a g e s programs t h e c o a s t i n g high speed s t a g e s i n t o t h e planned t r a j e c t o r y . A timer i n s i d e t h e r o c k e t i g n i t e s t h e second s t a g e s o l i d propellant rocket cluster. The t h i r d s t a g e i g n i t e s a f t e r t h e second s t a g e burns o u t and f a l l s away and t h e n t h e f o u r t h stage f i r e s . A t f o u r and one h a l f minutes a f t e r launch, t h e 13.40-pound payload s e p a r a t e s from t h e burned o u t f o u r t h s t a g e and t_ravelS a t varying Speeds on i t s Pioneer I V ( o f which t h i s t r a j e c t o r y t o t h e moon. The payload i s a f u l l s c a l e model) c o n t i n u e s i t s f l i g h t i n space.

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ITEM J

Space Probe I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n

(Ns:

T h i s i s an a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n r e l e a s e i n press k i t . )

The U. S. space probe is a g o l d - p l a t e d , Conical i n s t r u m e n t package which weighs 13.40 pounds, measures approximately 20 i n c h e s i n l e n g t h and i s a l i t t l e more t h a n n i n e i n c h e s i n d i a meter.
Here i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i n s t n u n e n t a t i o n :
1.) A battery-powered r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r designed t o send c o n t i n u o u s l y on a frequency o f 960.05 megacycles f o r about 90 hours -- long a f t e r moon-intercept which should come about 34 h o u r s a f t e r launch.

The t r a n s m i t t e r r a d i a t e s 180 m i l l i w a t t s of power.
2.)

Two Geiger-Mueller t u b e s t o measure r a d i a t i o n .

Telemetry from t h e p r o b e ' s r a d i a t i o n experiment w i l l be

broadcast i n i t i a l l y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t five-and-one h a l f hours of f l i g h t when i t i s p a s s i n g through t h e Great R a d i a t i o n Belt
(made up of t h e two s o - c a l l e d Van Allen r a d i a t i o n b e l t s ) . A f t e r t h e probe h a s passed through t h e s e i n t e n s e r a d i a t i o n bands, one of t h e t u b e s -- whi'ch r e p o r t & h i g h - l e v e l r a d i a t i o n *ill s h u t o f f . The o t h e r t u b e w i l l continue f u n c t i o n i n g and r e p o r t on moon r a d i a t i o n .

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. . ~. .

.

.._I. ..

-.

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. .-. . . .. .. .

-.

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.

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.

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.

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3.) A p h o t o e l e c t r i c s e n s o r , shaped l i k e a p i s t o l , i s mounted on t h e bottom of ' t h e probe a t an a n g l e t o command a view of t h e moon a s i t p a s s e s i t .
Two small a p e r t u r e s opening i n t o two p h o t o e l e c t r i c c e l l s a r e mounted i n t h e b a r r e l of t h e s e n s o r . The a p e r t u r e s a r e spaced s o t h a t o n l y a comparatively l a r g e l i g h t image w i l l be wide enough t o e n t e r both a p e r t u r e s and t r i g g e r both c e l l s , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . When a l i g h t image of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e i s encountered, t h e s e n s o r w i l l r e p o r t t h a t f a c t t o e a r t h with pulsating signals.
A t about 20 hours a f t e r launch, when t h e probe should be about 140,000 m i l e s from t h e e a r t h , a h y d r a u l i c t i m e r w i l l arm t h e s e n s o r ' s memory d e v i c e which w i l l r e p o r t subsequent l i g h t ima e s . A t t h a t p o i n t , t h e e a r t h w i l l o f f e r t o o small an image t o a c t v a t e b o t h c e l l s , and t h e o n l y o b j e c t capable of doing s o w i l l be t h e moon. The s e n s o r experiment w i l l provide a t e s t f o r a t r i g g e r d e v i c e which could be used t o a c t i v a t e picture-taking mechanisms i n f u t u r e space experiments, b u t t h i s s e n s o r w i l l n o t produce p i c t u r e s of any kind.

B

4 * ) The de-spin mechanism i s an important element i n t h e experiment. The upper s t a g e s of Juno I1 a r e s p i r i - s t a b i l i z e d b e f o r e and d u r i n g launch s o t h a t t h e probe i n space c o n t i n u e s t o r o t a t e on i t s long a x i s a t approximately 600 r e v o l u t i o n s p e r minute. A t t h i s speed, t h e s e n s o r d a t a would be meaningless, s o a method had t o be found t o slow t h e s p i n r a t e down a f t e r t h e probe i s i n space. The answer was found t o be a sirpple a p p l i c a tion o f an elementary p r i n c i p l e of p h y s i c s . Two small weights, about seven grams each, a r e f a s t e n e d t o t h e payload a t t h e ends of w i r e s 60 i n c h e s l o n g , During and a f t e r launch, t h e w i r e s and weights a r e wrapped around t h e payload and a r e secured i n p l a c e . A t about 10 hours a f t e r launch, a h y d r a u l i c t i m e r w i l l f r e e t h e weights and c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e w i l l make them s p i n w i t h t h e payl o a d a t t h e ends of t h e i r w i r e s . After a few r e v o l u t i o n s , t h e y w i l l be r e l e a s e d t o f l y o f f i n t o space. T h i s w i l l be enough, however, t o cause t h e payload t o slow down t o about n i n e revol u t i o n s p e r minute i n one q u a r t e r of a second.

-13
ITEM K

February 28-29,

1959

Proposed NASA Statement Post-launch NASA p r e s s conference a t T p l u s two t o t h r e e hours
At (E.S.T.), P i o n e e r IV, t h e United S t a t e s space latitude, l o n g i t u d e and was p m b e , was s t a t u t e m i l e s above t h e s u r f a c e of the earth.
T h i s i s an approximate p o s i t i o n determined as a r e s u l t of "quick look" data a n a l y s i s and i s s u b j e c t t o change.
I

ITEM L

Tracking S t a t i o n Schedules Time: T h i s i s an a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n of a r e l e a s e which w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h e press k i t on a Hold f o r Release U n t i l Launched o r I n d e f i n i t e l y Delayed b a s i s .
The t r a c k i n g of t h e U.S. space probe t o be launched by a Juno I1 r o c k e t c o n s i s t s of two p r i n c i p a l phases -- powered f l i g h t and space

flight.

The U.S. Army B a l l i s t i c Missile Agency, H u n t s v i l l e , A l a . ,

(an agency of t h e Army Ordnance M i s s i l e Command) i s charged w i t h
t h e f i r s t phase. NASA! s J e t P r o p u l s i o n Laboratory a t C a l i f o r n i a i n s t i t u t e of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e second phase.
The f i r s t phase ends about four-and-one h a l f minutes a f t e r launch when -- a l l stages having f i r e d -- p r o p u l s i o n c e a s e s and t h e probe becomes a body moving on a t r a j e c t o r y through space.

During t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d , Army t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s a t Cape Canaveral and M i a m i , Fla., F o r t Stewart, G a . , and t h e B a l l i s t i c Research Laboratory, Aberdeen, Md., f o l l o w t h e probe. The d a t e a r e f e d d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e Computations Laboratory a t ABMA, Huntsv i l l e , where t h e y a r e reduced and f e d i n t o a computer.
The computer t h e n determines t h e payload v e l o c i t y ; t h e v e c t o r angle ( a n g l e a t which t h e payload i s t r a v e l l i n g w i t h r e l a t i o n t o t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e ) and t h e r e l a t i o n of t h e a c t u a l f l i g h t p a t h t o t h e planned f l i g h t p a t h . These d a t a a r e s e n t t o JPL, Pasadena.
The second phase b e g i n s between about f o u r and f i v e minutes a f t e r launch when a 1 0 - f o o t diameter J P L t r a c k i n g antenna a t Mayaguez, P u e r t o Rico, p i c k s up t h e probe and h o l d s i t f o r t h e n e x t f i v e o r s i x hours by which time t h e probe should have t r a v e l e d about 50,000 m i l e s -- t h e l i m i t of i t s t r a c k i n g c a p a c i t y .
.. . . .

.I.... ..,-.

. .

.. ..

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. .,

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14-

Before P u e r t o Rico has l o s t t h e probe below i t s horizon, J P L ' s 85-foot d i a m e t e r space t r a c k i n g r a d i o t e l e s c o p e a t Goldstone Dry Lake i n Camp I r w i n , C a l i f . , will a c q u i r e t h e s i g n a l and l o c k o n t o it f o r t h e n e x t n i n e to t e n h o u r s . The g i a n t p a r a b o l i c antenna, b u i l t s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r space t r a c k i n g , should be a b l e t o r e c e i v e t h e p r o b e ' s r a d i o s i g n a l a t l u n a r d i s t a n c e s and beyond -- p o s s i b l y up t o 400,000 m i l e s from t h e earth. It i s mounted on a 110-foot tower.
The Goldstone f a c i l i t y w i l l f u n n e l t r a c k i n g and t e l e m e t r y i n f o r m a t i o n back t o t h e computing c e n t e r a t JPL, Pasadena, which w i l l a l s o have data from t h e e a r l i e r t r a c k i n g phases. T r a j e c t o r y e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be relayed from t h e J P L d a t a r e d u c t i o n c e n t e r to NASA, Washington, D. C.

A t t h e end of i t s f i r s t a c q u i s i t i o n p e r i o d , t h e Goldstone antenna w i l l l o s e t h e probe f o r about 14 h o u r s . During t h i s p e r i o d it w i l l be t r a i n e d on t h e h o r i z o n p o i n t where t h e probe w i l l reappear a t t h e end of t h a t t i m e .
After t h e antenna p i c k s up t h e probe t h e second time, i t w i l l hold i t f o r a n o t h e r n i n e t o t e n h o u r s .
T h i s second a c q u i s i t i o n p e r i o d by Goldstone i s a c r u c i a l . one; d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e probe should i n t e r c e p t t h e p a t h of t h e moon, i t s c l o s e s t approach t o t h e moon coming about 34 hours a f t e r 1.aunch. At t h i s p o i n t t h e moon and probe a r e o v e r Goldstone.

ITEM M
Posit:ion Report
Time:
T p l u s s i x hours or l a t e r
E.S.T. miles

The p o s i t i o n of t h e U. S . space probe, P i o n e e r I V , a t was latitude l o n g i t u d e and was above t h e s u r f a c e of t h e earth.

P i o n e e r IV's r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r i s f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y (and i t i s proceeding approximately on programmed course through space or (and it has d e v i a t e d from pre-planned t r a j e c t o r y with e x p l a n a t i o n ) .

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I

I _

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_ I _

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...

,

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ITEM N Tracking Station Announcements Time:

15

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T plus about three hours
1.)

Affirmative Statement:

' I am receiving signals from the U. S. Pioneer IV Space ' Probe. I am tracking it now. I am not able t o give more information because the telemetry data I have are in the raw state and must be analyzed before they become meaningful. I I
2.)

Negative Statements:

(1) "I am not receiving signals from the U. S. Pioneer IV Space Probe. I do not expect to be receiving at this time,"
(2) "1 am not receiving signals from the U. S. Pioneer IV Space Probe, I am now inspecting and checking my equipnent to find out why. II

ITEM 0
Activation of Photoelectric Sensor Release at about T plus 20 hours

February - 1959 9

The photoelectric sensing device in Pioneer IV was sucessfully activated by a hydraulic timer at T plus 20 hours, at which time the speeding probe was 140,000 miles from the earth. The photoelectric sensor, mounted on the bottom of the probe at an angle commanding a view of the moon as the probe moves beyond it, will start to send radio signals in the form of audible pulsations when the probe is within 22,000 miles of the moon. It will continue to send back information until it is on the far side of the moon on its way out into space. The sensing device, activated by the light received through two apertures in the pistol-shaped mounting on the bottom of the probe, provides information on proximity of' Pioneer IV to the moon. This device is a prototype for an optical trigger which might be used to control picture-taking mechanisms in future space probe experiments. This mechanism, however, does not take pictures of any kind.

ITEM P

16

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Time:

T p l u s 33 hours

Proposed NASA-IGY Announcement P r o j e c t s c i e n t i s t s have r e p o r t e d t h a t P i o n e e r I V i s now i n o r b i t around t h e sun. It i s t o o e a r l y t o s t a t e t h e p r e c i s e p a t h of t h e o r b i t , b u t t e l e m e t r y r e c e i v e d by t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e performance of t h e p h o t o e l e c t r i c s e n s o r , a s w e l l a s t h e p o s i t i o n , v e l o c i t y and d i r e c t i o n of Pioneer I V a t t h e time of f i r i n g , a s s u r e s achievement of a s a t i s f a c t o r y o r b i t . A l t e r n a t e s t a t e m e n t i f above n o t confirmed P r o j e c t s c i e n t i s t s have r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e Pioneer I V i s continuing t o return telemetry data t o tracking stations. Its p s o t i o n i s , ( i f known).

I

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17

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PIONEER IV INFORMATION PLAN ANNEX 2 COMMUNICATIONS:
1. This plan will be supported by continuous communications between the sites of the test activity and sources of evaluation and information.
2. In essence, the communications network required for this project will consist of two major integrated nets. Each have a specific purpose as follows:

A.

The Amy-NASA Tracking Network: (See Item L)

B.

Public Information Network:

This network provides direct telephone and teletype communications between NASA, Washington, D. C. and AMR, Florida; telephone and TWX communications between NASA, Washington and JPL, Pasadena; and commercial telephone between NASA, Washington and ABMA, Huntsville, Ala. (See Phase V, for: details).

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1 8

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PIONEER I V INFORlvlATION PLAN

ANNEX 3

P i c t o r i a l , Radio and TV Requirements
1.)

Motion P i c t u r e Ffim Coverage:

Motion p i c t u r e s t o c k f o o t a g e of pre-launch and launch a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be programmed by Walter Hering, NASA Photographic Coorc$inator, A t l a n t i c M i s s i l e Range. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r accomplishing motion p i c t u r e f i l m coverage:
,

The RCA f i l m group a t t h e A t l a n t i c M i s s i l e Range w i l l accomplish 5m t h e f i l m coverage i n 3 m b l a c k and white and c o l o r 16m c o l o r f o r pre-launch and launch a c t i v i t i e s . Processing and d i s p o s i t i o n o f motion p i c t u r e f i l m footage: The pre-launch f o o t a g e w i l l be r e l e a s e d t o t h e n a t i o n a l TV and newsreel pool members on a h o l d f o r r e l e a s e u n t i l launched or i n d e f i n i t e l y delayed basis, v i a Defense Department processing and and s e c u r i t y review, The launch f o o t a g e w i l l be flown t o Washi n g t o n by t h e A i r , F o r c e and r e l e a s e d t o t h e n a t i o n a l TV and newsreel pool members., 2,) 28-Minute National r e l e a s e f i l m on Probe

The f i l m s e c t i o n of JPL i s p r e p a r i n g a 28-minute motion p i c t u r e i n c o l o r and sound. T h i s f i l m w i l l i n c l u d e a h i s t o r y of t h e Juno p r o j e c t s a s well a s photography of t h e scheduled February 28 launch. T h i s f i l m w i l l be given n a t i o n a l r e l e a s e i n t h e weeks a f t e r t h e launch.
A 20-minute, e d i t e d v e r s i o n of t h i s f i l m ( d e l e t i n g f o o t a g e of t h e launch) i n black and white w i l l be r e l e a s e d t o t h e t e l e v i s i o n and newsreel pool members on a h o l d f o r r e l e a s e u n t i l launched or i n d e f i n i t e l y delayed b a s i s on February 24, 195g0

3.)

TV-Radio Coverage:

TV coverage a t AMR w i l l be accomplished on a pool basis by t h e pool member designated. T h i s coverage may be r e l e a s e d upon launch according t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s plan,

Post-launch announcements and p r e s s b r i e f i n g w i l l be covered by radio-TV a t NASA, Washington. This coverage may be live and w i l l not be pooled, It w i l l a l s o be a v a i l a b l e to motion p i c t u r e newsr e e l s . L i a i s o n w i t h r a d i o and T a t NASA, Washington w i l l be proV vided by Dick Mittauer.

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19

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PIONEER IV INFORMATION PLAN

ANNEX 4
February 28, 1959

I. Policy:
Civilian contractors particlpathng in the development, manufacture or test of equipment used in the space probe experiment, and with the conduct of the experiment itself; will be given appropriate public recognition, Contractors will be authorized to conduct advergising and public relations activities in support of the program, within the limitations of NASA regulations and subject to the clearance and approval in advance by NASA through normal operating channels,, This release will n o t be made earlier than determination of a successful launch and trajectory between two t o three hours after launch,,

I1, Procedure:
A. Principal point of contact for information for all contractors participating in the space probe experiment will be NASA, Washington (Paul Haney).
I

I

B e Upon approval of this plan NASA will provide implementing instructions to all contractors,,
C, Companies participating in the experiments will be authorized to prepare and submit for clearance brief releases describing the company's participation in the program and 8 x 10 glossy photographs with negatives of the item o r activity with which the company is concerned. When cleared through NASA, this material will be incorporated in a '1 Contractor Press Kit" to be released after a successful launch at NASA, Washington and AMR.

D. Participating companies w i l l be authorized to prepare hometown releases on members of their organizations directly involved in development, manufacture and test of equipment and the conduct of the experiments. These releases may take either written or audio-visual form. Releases will be submitted to NASA, for review and clearance prior to release.

E Institutional advertising, giving recognition to the program . and to the contractors' participation therein may be prepared ahead of time by contractors for release after determination of a successful launch and trajectory, Proposed advertisements will be submitted to NASA for review prior t o release.

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END

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