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Implement Three-Dimensional Pursuit Guidance Law with Feedback Linearization Control Method
Chien-Chun Kung Feng-Lung Chiang Chi-Yu Wu
Institute of Weapon System Engineering National Defense University Taoyuan, Taiwan Department of Mechatronic, Energy and Department of Aeronautics and Aerospace Engineering astronautics National Defense University National Cheng kung University Taoyuan, Taiwan Tainan, Taiwan e-mail:email@example.com e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract—In this paper, we will implement threedimensional pursuit guidance law with feedback linearization control method and study the effects of parameters. We first introduce guidance laws and equations of motion of a missile. Pursuit guidance law is our highlight. We apply feedback linearization control method to obtain the accelerations to implement pursuit guidance law. The solution makes warhead direction follow with line-of-sight. The simulation results show that the exact solution derived in this paper is correct and some factors e.g. control gain, time delay, are important to implement pursuit guidance law. Keywords-pursiut guidanc law, air to air missile, missile guidanc law
II. PURSUIT GUIDANCE LAW Guidance law is regarded as the most important portion of missile guidance system, and has intensely influence on result of interception. Pursuit guidance law that is simple to implement and has robust performance is adopted in this paper . The conceptual ideal behind pursuit guidance law is that the missile should always head target’s position. An observation is that tail-chase intercept occurs when pre-angle is zero, where pre-angle is the angle between missile’s speed vector and line-ofsight. III. EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR MISSILE Figure 1 shows the coordinate framework of the missile’s motion and the equations of motion are employed as follows 
I. INTRODUCTION Guidance laws of homing missile are studied within the two basic methods: Pursuit guidance (PG) law and Proportional navigation guidance (PNG) law. Those have been both well studied and successfully implemented in many fight vehicles, and the two kinds of guidance law have been proved to be useful guidance schemes in many air-to-air and surface-to-air systems for interception of airborne targets. In this paper, we attempt to combine the philosophies of feedback linearization control with the nonlinear engagement kinematics to implement three-dimensional pursuit guidance law. Guidance law plays an important role in pursuitevasion game. Many studies have appeared in the literature, such as papers  discuss the calculation and application of proportional navigation guidance law. The papers  talk about pursuit guidance law and proportional navigation guidance law at the same time. Basically, these guidance laws try to nullify the LOS (line-of-sight) change. Taking pursuit guidance law for example, all papers assume missile posture angle has been the same of visual angle. While literatures do not explain how to carry out PG law with missile pitch and yaw accelerations. In addition, the processes of implementation do not discuss about the effects of parameters, such as time delay, control gains and tracking orders. Therefore, this paper will implement nonlinear pursuit guidance law with feedback linearization control method to find the analytical solution of missile pitch and yaw axes lateral accelerations. Moreover, the capability and the stability of the angle tracking will be studied in this paper.
1 Tm mm
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a pc U
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g cos H m Vm
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Vm cos H m sin : m
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978-1-4244-5567-6/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE
respectively. a y . 7. we will enable γ m and ψ m respectively to track φ and θ . close to φ and θ depending on feedback gain k. From (2) and (3). missile will be support to change directions to pursuit target. V. In order to solve this problem. assume lateral acceleration a y as follows a p . inaccuracy of sensor and actuator on the pursuit guidance law will be discussed in next section.t zm Vm sin H m (8) Symbols are described as follows: H m : flight path angle. A. the angle between missile speed vector and horizontal plane. We can make sure that (12) and (15) enable γ m and ψ m respectively to track φ and θ to achieve the purpose of pursuit guidance law. equation (6). We have combined (9) with feedback linearization control method which has converted (9) into a linear differential equation. the derivation of a p and a y have been proved correctly by the two simulations. B. Hence. The simulation result is shown in Fig. Hm t g cos H m Vm ap Vm (9) The term of g cos γ m will make the (9) become a nonlinear equation and make system unstable. missile can pursue target but the path is not the best. and inaccurate actuator will cause the errors of γ m and ψ m value. missile will not pursue target. it shows the case of k=1 that spent time more than 2000 seconds and has slower decline in the proportion of θ . It’s clear that missile catches target at about 370 seconds and has faster decline in the proportion of θ . Let k=10 and k=1 to observe the effects of θ on pursuit. 5. we can rewrite (9) into (11) as Hm t K Hm KG (11) . According to the above geometric relation. γ m and ψ m . IMPLEMENT PURSUIT GUIDANCE LAW WITH FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION CONTROL METHOD a y = KVm cos H m (R : m ) (12) where K is the feedback gain. X m . The tail-chase pursuit guidance law emphasizes the pre-angle of speed vector of a missile is zero. If angle error is between 20 and 5 degrees. (8) symbolize the speed vector of X. This means that missile could modulate its line of sight at any time to keep warhead towards the target and catches ultimately. In Fig. 4 shows that a missile pursues a target that flies in straight line. we will discuss the relationship between pursuit guidance law and missile’s equations of motion. The case of k=10 is shown in Fig. we can let γ m and ψ m close to φ and θ . we can find that the two speeds. : m : azimuth angle. Therefore. Through these two commands. Inaccuracy of sensor and actuator In real pursuit. the angle between missile speed vector project on horizontal plane and the X-axis. 8. Dm : Drag of a missile. respectively. According to Fig. Y. The equations of motion combine with transformation of coordinate will be able to predict missile dynamics and position accurately. By the same method. No matter what kind of flight movements of target. Z m : inertial coordinates. From (4). τ : Missile time constant. a yc : missile yaw axis lateral acceleration and its command signals. we can understand when missile’s pre-angle is zero. From above. pursuit guidance law has successfully applied to the pursuit of target that has evasive capability. Z axes. We can get the result that greater feedback gain will enable γ m and ψ m approach φ and θ quickly. It's observable that pursuit guidance law makes warhead direction follow with line-of-sight forever. it is apparent that. the pitch and yaw acceleration commands a pc and a yc have to pass through time delay to obtain a p and a y . Effect of K on pursuit In (11) and (13). we can calculate the missile-target relative range. H m and Zm are exactly the same as ϕ and θ . measurement errors or mistakes of angles are due to inaccuracy of sensors and actuators. SIMULATION RESULTS In the section. we can derive Fig. Tm : Missile's thrust. missile’s speed vector always point to the target. The effects of modulating K. Ym . Assume that if angle error of actuator is above 20 degrees. 1 and 2. Observing from Fig. Inaccuracy of sensor will cause the angle errors of φ and θ value. we assume a p as follows a p = Vm K (G H m ) g cos H m (10) Therefore. 6. IV. Then (5) can be transformed into (13) as follows :m t K :m KR (13) Through (11) and (13). (7). the original nonlinear plant has been transferred to feedback linearization control system which is expressed as Fig. 3. a pc : missile pitch axis lateral acceleration and its command signals. Therefore.
NO.2. “Fightr Evasive Maneuvers Against Proportional Navigation Missile.1993. Z T M X Y In this paper.and William.” Journal of Guidance.Control and Dynamics. 289~293.NO. 1973. Golan. It means that if angle error of actuator is less than 5 degrees. National Cheng kung University. we can fully aware of how to modulate the parameters to improve the tracking capability of pursuit guidance law. 1993. august. Chi-Hsin Yang.5. vol. missile will continue pursuing target. REFERENCES  Fumiaki Imado. Tal Shima. 309~313. we will use the achievement of this study combine game theory to develop automated piloted air combat system.”Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. Block diagram of feedback system      ap Figure4.. It’s observable that missile can pursue target with angle error being less than 15 degrees. Coordinate framework of a missile Figure5.” Journal of Aircraft. 5 shown in fig.11. 10. 9. VI.NO.Next. Beijing Institute of Technology Press. 23. The range of angle error of sensor is larger than actuator. 1986. let the angle error be less than 5 degrees. “Head Pursuit Guidance” Journal of Guidance. From the simulation results. Target fly in straight line γm Dm ay Vm ψm X Y Z Figure1. Oded M. Gary. we implement pursuit guidance law with feedback linearization control method. Missile flight mechanics. CONCLUSION Figure2. 825~830. 16. Its stability and capability of tracking line of sight can be studied by linear control theory. vol. the tracking trajectory is similar to fig.pp. In the future.Control and Dynamics. Master's thesis. In Fig. Geometric relation between missile and target Figure3.R. vol. “Some Aspects of a Realistic Three-Dimension Pursuit-Evasion Game. Department of Aeronautics and astronautics. If the error of angle is in accepted range. Jui-Hsiung Lin. Target has evasive capability . there will be only few effects on pursuit. Fumiaki Imado and Susumn Miwa.pp. 2007. 30. The effect of control gain has been discussed in this study.”Optimal Evasive Tactics against a Proportional Navigation Missile with Time Delay.L. 1437~1444. and convert the system into linear control problem.5. 2000. vol. we discuss the effect of measurement error due to inaccuracy of sensor. Ya-Nan Chao. Hsing-Fang Chien.pp. Homing-missile three dimensional pursuit guidance law. 10.NO.pp.
© Vs time for k=10 Figure9.less than 5 degrees Figure7. Inaccuracy of actuator. Inaccuracy of actuator.less than 15 degrees Figure8.Figure6. Inaccuracy of sensor.less than 20 degrees . © Vs time for k=1 Figure10.
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