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Understanding Comics

Understanding Comics

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WRITING AND ART SCOTT McCLOUD

LETIERING BOB LAPPAN

EDITORIAL ADVICE AND SELECTIVE EGO-TRIMMING

STEVE BISSETTE KURT BUSIEK NEILGAIMAN BOB LAPPAN

JENNIFER LEE LARRY MARDER IVY RATAFIA

EXTRA SPECIAL THANKS WILL EISNER

EDITOR MARK MARTIN

A paperback edition 01 this book was originally published in 1993 by Kitchen Sink Press. It is here reprinted by arrangement with Kitchen Sink Press.

UNDERSTANDING COMICS: THE INIIISIBLEART. Copyright © 1993 by Scott McCloud.AII rights reserved. Printed in the United Stales 01 America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews For information address Harpe-Collins Publishers, tnc., to East 53rd Street. r-.jew·York, NY 10022

HarperCollins books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. For information please write: Special Markets Department. HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022.

First HarperPerennial edition published 1994.

ISBN 0-06-097625-X (pbk.)

9495969798 RIPON 10 9 8 7 6 54 3 21

ANY SIMILARITY BEl"WEEN CHARACTERS/INSTITUTIONS IN THIS WORK TO ACTUAL CHARACTERS/INSTITUTIONS IS UNINTENDED ENTIRE CONTENTS COPYRIGHT scorr NlcClOUD UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED UNDERSTANDING COMICS IS A TRADEfvl.ARK OF scorr NlcClOUD All RfGHTS RESERVED

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS;

The book you're about to read look 15 months to produce and many of the ideas it contains had been on the back-burner for over nine years. so acknowledging all of those who have helped in its development may be next to impossible. Furthermore, since its initial publication in Ihe comics industry, I've received tremendous support from hundreds of fellow travelers in all corners of the publishing world. My apologies to anyone who is not listed below and should have been.

My deepest gratitude to Steve Bissette, Kurt Busiek, Neil Gaiman, Larry Marder and Ivy Ratafia who all reviewed my original draft in detail and offered many valuable critiques. Their contribution to the project cannot be overstated. I was also fortunate to receive detailed analysis from the talented Jennifer Lee and beyond-the-call-of-duty proofreading and good advice from Bob Lappan. Special thanks are also due to the magnificent (and magnanimous) Will Eisner who offered many words of encouragement and excellent advice In the project's later stages. Will Eisner's work has been an inspiration to me, and to thousands of artists, for many years. Eisner's COMICS AND SEQUENTIAL ART was the first book to examine the art-form of comics. Here's the second. I COUldn't have done it without you, wln. Thanks.

I'm deeply indebted to all of the friends and family who offered their thoughts on the manuscript as it was being prepared. Among this long list are Holly Ratalia. Alice Harrigan, Carol aataua. Barry Deutsch, Kip Manley, Amy Sacks. Caroline Woolf, Clarence Cummins, Karl Zimmerman, Catherine Bell, Adam Philips and the legendary Dewan Brothers, Ted and Brian.

In the comics world, special thanks go 10 Richard Howell, Mike Luce, Dave McKean, Rick Veitch, Don Simpson, Mike Bannon (technical support), Jim Woodring, and all of the wonderful clan at San Diego '92. Thanks also to the numerous professionals who have lent their support and

endorsements to the project. I'm particularly indebted to Jim Valentino, Dave Sim and Keith Giffen who used their own books as a forum on my behall. In the retail sector, my thanks to the generous members of the Direct Une Group, to Ihe many stores which played host during our first tour and especially to the Mighty Moondog himself, Gary Colobuono. Thanks, as always, to larry Marder, Nexus 01 All Comic Book Realities, for his tireless efforts on my behalf.

Thank you to the legion of journalists In print, radio and television who have been able to talk about this book without quoting sound effects from the old Batman TV show; especially Calvin Reid and the whole gang at PW

Early influences on the ideas in this book are harder to trace, but no less important. Kurt Busiek introduced me to comics tong ago and was my best guide for many years. Eclipse Editor-in-Chief cal yronwode helped shape my critical faculties over seven years on ZOTI and is one of the very few people in comics who real~y understood where I was coming from. Art Spiegelman, like Eisner, offered me a role-model for serious inquiry into comics as an art-form and, in his short comicsessay "Cracking Jokes." clarified comics' poten~ial for non-fiction and made this book a possibility. Other important early influences include Syracuse professor Larry Bakke, Richard Howell and Carol Kalish.

My thanks to all the fine people at Tundra Publishing, Kitchen Sink Press and HarperCollins.

Without Kevin Eastman this book might have never seen the light of day. Thank you, Kevin.

Without Ian Ballantine, you wouldn't be hold· ing it in your hands today. Thank you, Ian.

And without you, Ivy, it wouldn't have been much fun. I love you madly. Let's take tomorrow 011.

Scott McCloud

©@OOlY~OOlY®
~ IN!~~~U_C!~O~
~
1 SETTING 2~
THE RECORD
STRAIGHT
2 THE 24~
VOCABULARY
OF COMICS
3 BLOOD 60[1
IN THE
GUTTER
4 TIME 94~
FRAMES
5 LIVING 118~
IN
LINE
6 SHOW ~
AND
TELL 138
7 THE 162~
SIX
STEPS
8 A WORD 185~
ABOUT
COLOR
9 PUTIING 193~
IT ALL
TOGETHER 2

IN lESS THAN A YEAR:. I BECAME T077ILlY 1183/:$$/:0

WJTI-l COM1CS,!

I DECIDED TO 6ECQME A COMICS ARTIST IN fOtIT t:.7,1lADE ,A.ND BEGAN TO Pli!ACTICe,

Pl?Acr/CE_ PKACTTC'!

4

5

THE AlnFORlIII--THE MEOfVM--KNOWN AS COMICS IS A veSSel WHICH CAN HOLD ANY NVM(lEK OF /OEAS AND 'M"q@~S.

8

9

FIRST, WE SEPARATE WORDS fROM PIt:rUIl£$_

~a-DEER 'TIGER'S CLAW"

(A NAME)

*l~

11 HOUSE- 12MONKEY (A DATE)

THE YEAR' 1049 AD THE DATE: MAY3"" THE PLACe' HEKE!

i!

11

12

~=~ ~=E)

13

THE" SHEAVES ARE THEN RAKE!) OUT INTO A 7lfICK CAffET Or WHeAT.

THEN OXEN TREAD Kc~eLS OUT OF THE HUSKS

15

16

'" MAYBE 1 SHOULDN'T SAY "INVENT".

EUROPEANS WERE A BIT LATE IN D1SCOVfRING PRINTING

';4 #Nt.OTS Pll'OvllFSS AND ITS SEQUEL

~A KAKF'S PROGK€Sr PROVED SO POPULAR, NEW COPY!<'IGHT LAWS WERE CREATED TO PROTECT THlS

NEW FORM.

17

BRITISH CAR1CA.URE MAGAZINES

KEPT THE TRADITIONS ALIVE AND AS THE ZO"-'" CENTURY DIC'EW NEAR, THE COMICS WE CAlL COMICS SEGAN 10 APPEAl<: AND EVENTUAU ... Y TO TI>'~'YE IN A STEADY STREAM OF WAKING DREAMS THA. HAS YET TO ABATE

18

19

IF WE DON'T EXCtuDE PNOT06KAPHY FROM OUR DEFINITION, THEN HALF OF AMFINCA HAS SEEN IN COMlCS AT ONE TIME OR

ANOTHEI<:,

C MEANWHILE, PleTt/RES ~

__ !IV SF(}VEIVCtff A.RE FINALLY 8EIN6

.... RECOGNIZED AS THE EXCELLENT

, COMMt/NICATION rooL THAT THEY

ARE, BUT .sTILL NOSODY REFEK'S 10 ~

THEM AS COM/Cst ':&'IAGR"AMS' ~

SOUNDS MORE ,DIGlwn~a

1 SUPPOSE..

eem.tcs (kom'iks)n. plural in form, used with a singular verb. 1. Juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer.

20

21

FOR EXAMPLE. OUR DEFINITION SAYS N01HING A80UT SUPERHEROES' OR FUNNY AN/mAt.S'. NOTH1NG ASOUT FAN'TASY/ SCIENCEFICTION OR KEADEN

AGE'.

22

THOSE OF YOU WHO MAKE COMICS R:JR A L1V1NQ--OR WOULD LIKe 70, SOMEDAY--PROBABLY KNOW "THAT KEEPING UP WITH All "THE APVANCE$IN TODAY'S COMICS IS

A FUll-rIME J08

I'LL DO MY tY'iEJ'T IN "THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS 10 S'HFP LI(fiHT ON THAT UNSEEN SIDE, BUT AS WE FOCUS ON "THE WORLD OF COMICS AS' /T,S; IT SHOULD BE KEPT IN MIND AT At.l TIMES THA."T "THIS WORLD IS ONLY

ONE--

23

24

25

THIS 15 NOi A PLANET.

THIS IS NOT A COMPANY.

THIS 15 NOT ME.

~ .. :, .. '4 ~

~ 7HIS IS NOT A CAR.

m© [i~

THIS IS NOT A THESE ARE NOT SEPAlZATE

FACE. MOMENTS.

26

27

IN THE NONPICTORIAL ICONS, MEANING IS FIXED AND Assoa/r». THEIR APPEARANCE DOESN'T AFFECT THEIR. MEANING BECAUSE THEY

REPRESENT INVI.sr8~~ IPEAS.

28

29

OeFlfl/fNG THE CARTOON WOU LD TAKE UP AS MUCH SPACE AS DEFrN1NG COMICS, BUT FOR ,vOw- I'M GO!NG TO EXAMINE CARTOON!NG

AS A FORM OF AMPUFICATION THROUGH SIMPt/FICATION

30

THOUGH THE TERM 15 OFTEN USED D/SPARAGINGLY, IT CAN BE EQUALLY WELL APPLIED TO MANY nM€-T~r£D CLASSICS. SIMPLIFyiNG CHAlC!ACTEI<S AND IMAGES TOWARD A PUKPQS€ CAN 5E AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR Sro~TELUNG IN I.IIIJ\IH~_~ANY MED;:'c:U:_::M'-- __ :::::"

ANOTHER IS THE t/NIP'ERS'A~/Ty OF CARTOON IMAGERY. THE MOK'E CARTOONY A FACE IS, FOR INSTANCe, THE MORE PEOPLE IT COULD Sf SAID 10

peSeK/B€'

WHAT

ARE YOU

REALLY

31

BUT STlLL MOKE lNCIi:EDIBLE IS THE FACT THAT "rOU CANNOT AVO/O SEEING A FACE. HERE. YOUR MIND WON'T

ser yoU!

SEEiNG?

ASK A fRIEND TO DRAW YOU SOME SHAPES ON A PIECE OF PAPEJ<:, THEY SHOULD BE ClOS~/J CUI{VES, SUT OTHERWISE CAN BE AS weiRD AND fRRf?GUl.IU? AS HE OR SHE W/fNTS.

~~~ YOUR MIND HAS NO
TROUBLE AT ALL
CONVEIZTING SUCH
SHAPES INTO FACES,
YET WOULD IT EVER
MISTAKE THIS--
~(J 0
u ~ 33

34

35

EACH ONE ALSO SUSTAINS A CONSTANT AWARENESS OF HIS OR HEIZ OIlYTV fACE, BUT TillS MIND-PlCTURE IS NOT NEARLY SO VIVID; JUST A SKETCHY ARRANGEMENT".A SENSE OF SHAPE ".

A SENSE OF C7EN~li!Al PlACEMFNT.

---.....-- ....... -i

SOMETHING AS $1h1PJ.€ AND AS !.1ASfC--

Q

--ASA CARlDON.

36

37

THAN "HE HIT MY CAll..""

OR "Hrs CAR HrT MY CAR", FOR 'THAT MAnER

38

39

OUR IDEmlTIES 'BELONG PERMANeNTLY TO THE CONCEPTUAL WOR'LD. WEY CAN'T 6E sees: HeARt::'" SMellEp- TOlKHE.o OR 'TASTED. "THEy'RE MERELY /£)EAS AND EVERYTHING El8F--AT THE START--BELONGS to THE J'€NJ"lIAl WORLD, THE WORLD OUTSIOE OF US,

40

--AND THROUGH THE CflR'TOO,..y::

THE WOIZLD WITHIN.

INANIMATE OSJECTS MAY SEEM TO POSSESS sePAKATE l[)fflTIT/~S

SO THAT IF ONE JUMPED UP AND STARTED J'/NG"/NG IT WOULDN'T FEEL

OUT OF PLACE

BUT IN EMPHASIZING "'HE CONCEPTS OF OBJECTS OVER .,.HEIR PHYSICAL APPE,4flAM;E;

MUCH HAS 10 BE OMITTEO.

41

42

43

44

RELEA.SEABlE ONLY SY THE RfADER'S MIND.

45

CAN ANY

CONFIGURATION OF INK ON PAP~.R Sf M~E ABSTRACTED FRO"" "REAlITYN--

--YET STIl.L REPRESENl A FACE AS CLEARLY AS 7.iV/SONE?"

~ .. Q"==-- ...

46

47

BOTI-I ARTIST AND WRITER BEGIN, HANDS JOINED ACROSS THE GAP, WITH A COMMON PURPOSE: TO MAKE COMICS OF "GlUALITY~

t1

I

~

. ARTIe ··RH;I

,

,

,

~~Q'FACE

Tl-tc ARTIST KNOWS THAT THIS MEANS MORE THAN JUST STICK-FIGURES AND CRUPE" CARTOONS. HE SETS OFF IN SEARCH OF A HIGHER ART

THE WRITER KNOWS THAT THIS-MEANS MORE THAN JUST OaF:' POw..'" $'LAM/· AND ON,E"-A-.lJAY (iA&..s. SHE SETS OFF IN SEARCH Of SOMETHING PEEPER.

FINALLY, iHEY·RE READY. BOlH HAVE MASTERc£) Tf(fflR ARTS. HIS BRUSHSTROKE IS NEARLY INVISIBLE IN ITS SUSTLETY, THE FIGURES PURE MICIfAElANeEI.O. HEI( DESCRIPTIONS AI(E PA,ZZLIN(7.

THE WOR.DS fLOW TOGETHER LIKE A oSHAKES'P.EAJlEAN UVN"NE"T

THEy'RE REA,DY TO JOfNHANP$ ONCE MORE AND CREATE A COMICS MIISTERPIECE.

48

1·,·e·~·Qj

RECEIVED. . . . . j

CAC E T\M) EYES #zt~ r. +g~~~."~~,'

PERCEIVED

49

j

50

I~.\

I ,

/ ,

I ,

1M '

I ","1 ,

I ,

I ,

II I!(;, ,

I ~' ,

I ,

II/~ ",

/ ~ \

I ,

/~ ~ (iJ 0 Q\ FACE

._ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- --.

~ ~

MOST COMICS ART LIES NEAR TIlE 8OTTOM-- THAT IS, ALONG THE/CONIC ,4¥STRACTlON SIDE WHERE EVERY LINE HAS A MEANING.

NEAll THE LINE, BUT NOT NECESSARILY ON IT! FOR EVEN THE MOST STRfll(JHTFORWI1RO LITTLE CARTOON CHARACTER HAS A "MFANI""el~S

LINE OR TWO,'

51

IF WE INCORPORATE LANGUAGE AND OTHER ICONS INTO THE CHART, WE CAN BEGIN 10 BUILD A COMPREHENSIVE MAP--

--OFTN~

UNIVERSE CALLED

COMICS.

I ...... flY flEENER., "",mOII obe""CI. 2 . ..... RISC ... l·.Pb'. 3. o"'VE "cIlE ... N .... p.,'I""'on.<>I1h.m.n'.Iy ... ,ou .... 'nhl • •• ,1 .. C ... GES. 4 ...... IIC HE .. PEl·. GREGORY. S ...... RIIIEYEII ••. LIIRRY ..... "oER·. B .. nl,n "om T ... lES OF THE BEJ.NWDRlD. "l'I ••• mbIi"",· noIhitllJ ••• ' ..... (""_.II",.".,'01""lI;ht) ...... d.(,bo.,,,

~~~r:"d: {::~~ ... r::?t~~:.?~

..... nOTlInFIRES (C Eoition,ldbln"ir::t..l S_A._/"""'bI .... d .. ptylmpr .. IIoionIatir::ligl1tl!>g "~h Iconir:: fo,m •• 1Id 11 ... "". d.olgn~ri""'od co-mpoo.ion •. ln __ .".· •• h .. d ..... to

pt.<: •. HI. ALINE KO",NSKY·CRU .. I. 11. PETER II ... OOE·I Chuekll·Bor ',om

:~~~:,;I~FF;3.c:~~:r· ~~ ~~~

C FHoId 101 , Sy .... icol •. 1'. STEVE

WilliS'. Mony. 15. PHil YEH·. FRANK Tl1EUNICORN.la.JERRY .. ORI"'RTY·, ·JiOd<S.",ivo,·.B.aodclol.lyonflll_ liijII'ond.h_.b<rIdtoco ........... ...,o ... UOh .hlp ••. Simll., .H.Cla "'. rou .... In no.1

~i\~R~~;'~ ~iZ.'7. 1!~F~:~~;:~~?;

ul', ... lonllllc RAIN. 111. SPAIN'.

~:~!H~:~iH 2~e:u~~~~ ~~~;:~.~ T~~ ;;:~~I~" B.~mE";S~~~~O~Ie:·~ ~~.'~n~

MloAII.\II, Irom JOURNEY. n. DON SI"PSOH·. MEGATON MAN. BogI""I".., lram I

... ,1.110 .n.,omicol basi. Sim~"" dl"o~,"""

:;,.~~:;.' ~:i~~6~~~'~'C:E~;A~i~~0:

!:~E~~!:~~YO:Altm~~rEE!=~:

27. LYNDA lARRY. U. S ..... PEI 5HIR ... TO. 211. CItARlfS 'URNS'. BIG BABY. 211 1/2. (Whoop.) ClI,F STERRETT. Thactwactwpictllrodhlfl(lrom POllY ANO HER PAlS)miglrl bob".., lbi_. !>uISllrr.n· •• n.IiI<.F1 ..... '·.oII.nh .. d • upw .. dl ...... dlho .. ildlyobslta<:l.. P.A.H.P.IIC

~~~"~~g"' ~·;~~·~N~ySn.!Ic~·R~c. T~E

WAHOERER.S~.Mlighd_..-d.butwi~1 .trong~"u, .. ~ulitythatalw.,.'_u.cJ th.h.ndlh.,IIoId"hOJMn(.lsotru.ol ".21.3'.',). 31. ROIERT ... GREGORY'.

=~tH~ ~=~~~'Y~AAD~~

Com",II • .,n., Go,don C D.C. Com"" 3S. JOSE .. UNOZ "om • ... i.,.' Con,od. Mi.,., Wico'·. CMonozond~""",,.,. , •• C ... ROI..

HEiZ.GE STRETCHES

NEARLY fROM LEFT TO Ii?I(3HT-FROM KEAlISM 10 CAIUOONINr3-!$VT VENTURES VERY LITTLE INTO THE OPPEl? WORLD OF NON~ ICONIC ABSTRACTION

54

MARY FLee/llER, ON

THE OTHER HAND, VARIES ONLY SliGHTLY IN HER LEVEL OF ICONIC CONTENT, WHILE [HE LEVEL OF NON-ICONIC ABSTRACTION GOES NEARLy FROM TOP TO 80770M!'

AflTFROM COLOR PANELS TRACED FOR REPRODUCTION CMARVELENTERTAIN~ENTGfIOUP.INC.

IN THE MID-SIXTIES, JIlCK KfR8Y; ALONG WITH STAN Lee, STAKED OUT A Mf!)!)lE GROlfN.o OF ICONfC FORMS WITH A SENSE OF THE

REAL ABOUT THEM, BOLSTERED gy A POWERFULPESfGN SENSE

55

THIS FOLLOWS THE LEAD OF

THE POST~KURTZMAN GENERATION OF UNOERGROl/NO CARTOONISTS WHO USED CARTOONY STYLES TO PORTRAY ADULT THEMES AND SUBJrcT MATTER

IN THE EIGHTIES AND NINE'TlfS, MO$TOf TI-lE COUNTERCULTURE OF INDEPENDENl CREATORS, WORKING MOSTLY IN BLACK AND WHITE, STAYED TO THE /?16HT OF MAINSTREAM COMICS ART WHILE CovERING A BROAD RANGE OF WRITING STYLES

A ~

SOME ARTISTS, SUCH AS THE Ili:.REFRESSI6LE iSER610 Arf'AGONtiS', STAKED THEIR CLAIM ON A PARTICULAR AREA iON6 AGO AND HAVE BEEN QUITE HAPPY SINCE,

56

AfH (LEFT) e DAVE McKEAN, (RIGHT) 0 D,C. COMICS.

• CHECK OUT WA5SIL Y KANOINSKY'S TERRIFIC 1912 ESSAY, .. ON THE PR.OBLEM OF FOII!M','

57

58

THERE IS NO LIFE HERE EXCEPT THAT WHICH YOU GIVE TO IT

59

60

ALL OF US PERCEIVE "THE WORLD AS A WHOL.E THROUGH THE EXPERIENCE OF OUR .sENSES.

YEi OUR SENSES CAN ONLY REVEAL A WORLD "THAT IS ?RAGMENTED AND INCOMPLeTe

~-----~------

------~

-----~

EVEN THE MOST WIOElY 7RAVcllEO MIND CAN ONLY SEE SO MUCH Of THE WORLD IN THE COURSE OF A LIFE.

OUR PEIKEPTIQN OF "REALITY" IS AN ACT OF FAITH, BASED ON MERE FRAGMENTS.

62

63

cLCSUJ"l= CL S RE

"THE MENTAL PROCESS DESCRIBED IN CHAPTeR TWO WHERE5Y "THESE LINES BECOME A FACe:

COULD BE CONSIDERED CLOSURE

64

'" MEOlA. GU~U iDNY SCHWARTZ DESCRIBES 1"H15 65 AT LENGT}l IN HIS 800K ME"WA, l!!f §£gl!t'P qQg, ANCHOR BOOKS, 1983.

66

COMICS PANELS F~AC7VIZE 80TH 'TIME AND ,rPACE, OfFERING A JAGGED~ S/,'ICCATO ~HYTHM OF UNCONNECTED MOMEN7$'.

BUT CLOSURE ALLOWS US TO CONNECT THESE MOMENTS

AND MENT"It.LY CONSTRUCT A CON71NUOUS. UNIFIeD ReALITY.

67

BUT CLOSURE IN COMICS )S rAR FROM CONTINUOUS AND ,.4NYTHINO 6UT INVOL.l/N7ARY'"

I MAY HAVE DRAWN AN Axe BEING ~'SED IN THIS EXAMPLE, 6Ui I'M NOT THE ONE WHO LET IT DR'OP OK' DECIDED HOW HAIi?O THE BLOW,

OR WHO SCREAMED, OR WIlY.

mAl; DEAR READER, WM YOUR .sPeC/Al CR/M~ EACH OF YOU COMMITTING IT IN YOUR OWN ,sTYt..!F.

68

TO KILL A MAN SETWEEN PANELS IS TO CONDEMN

HIM TO A THOUSAND DEATHS.

69

70

71

A FIrTH

TYPE OF TRANSITION, WHICH WE'LL CALL ASPECT-TO-ASPECT; BYPASSES TIME FOil. THE MOST PART AND SETS A WANOERING eYE ON DIFFERENT ASPECTS

OF A PLACE, IDEA

OJ<. MOOD.

72

73

[TIi:ACfD AND SIMPLIFI~D FOR CLARI'T)"S SA!(~J

74

12345.

II

75

~~~~~

1.

76

--WHILE IN THE F/r17l TYPE, BY DEFINITION, NOTHING ?fAPPENSw AT ALL!

123t5('

2 3 t 5 (,

II

ANTHOLOGY BREAKOOWNS:

•••

UDON'TGETMOUND I/fl'RODUCTlON 'MAVS"

MUCH ANYMORE" (ORIGINAL)

•••

"SKINLESS "PRISONER (}/lIN "CRACK/NG

PERKINS" HELl, PlANEr' JOKeS"

•••

FRONT AN() "AC£'H{)££,MIDGEf" '·REAl.

BACK COV€P.S OEJCCTIVE' OREIlI1" 1975

JUST WHAT IS GOING ON HERE?,

77

'~

~

~

;;

~

"

~

" ~

I L_ ~

~-- -

~~5~'

78

79

II II Ii

7~O R'<>E'" ~f.I1"'eR.I'.(>N W<lcF ~C"B

(~1tc'e-.;Ic?) HMM' ,"OSIMA KOIt<~ j. KOJI/1A

111111

C'1~,,~O(}<I "-""""o>ilLS"""!;>tl

80

81

IN THE- GRAPf41C ARTS THIS HAS MEANT A GREATER FOCUS ON F/eu~E/GROl/NP RELATIONSHIPS AND ''lVEGAT/V~ 8PAC"c.N

',HE GFi:EAT WAVE OFF KAN~'AWA' elY HOKUS/\,I «.1829) (iUII:N '~IS. PICTURE' UPS lOt' DOWN TO SEE lHE OTHER WAVE OF Nf6AOII/E SPACE ... NI>.TURE'S YIN AND YANv.)

IN MUSIC TOO, WHILE THE WESTERN CLASSICAL (RADITION WAS EMPHASIZING 'THE CO/ilT/NtIOl/S, CO"'NECT~f) WORLDS OF MELQDYAND HARMONY, EASTERN CLASSICAL MUSIC WAS EQUALLY CONCERNE-D WITH THE-

ROLE OF .$/LENCE,"

82

IN lHE VISUAL AR.TS, THE!MPACT OF EASTERN IDEAS WAS BOTH POWERFUL A.ND

lAS7ING'.

83

84

85

AS CLOSURE BerWEEN PANELS BECOMES MORE INTENSE, RfADER INTERPRETATION "BECOMES FAR MORE £tAST/C.

AND MAIVAGING rr BECOMES

MORE' COMPLICATED FOR "THe CKEA70K.

86

c~.' C~K.'CLAK.'

Ir'/IOOSM

.; Splfp Splip ~

@iJ6JjlfPJOUJJ)f

~

87

WE AlRE'ADY KNOW THAT COMICS ASKS THE MIND TO WORK AS A SORT OF IN-8clWeEWeR-- FILLING IN -'-HE GAPS BETWEEN PANELS AS AN AN/MATOK MIGHT-- BUT I BELIEVE THERE',s STilL MORE TO IT THAN THAT

_-- .....

88

SINCE CARTOONS ALREADY EXIST AS CONCEPTS FOJ<: THE READER, THEY TEND TO FLOW EASILY "THROUGH THE CONCEPTUAL TERRITORY tYETWEEIV PANELS.

IDEAS FLOWING INTO ONE ANOTHER S'FAMLEoSSLY

90

SUT tl?EAL/ST/C IMAGES HAVE A BUMPIER RIDE. THEIRS IS A PRIMARILY V/$UAL EXISTENCE WHICH DOESN'T PASS EASILY IN10 THE REALM OF IDEAS.

SIMILARLY, 1 lHINK WHEN COMICS A1<:T VEfR'S CLOSER 10 CONCERNS OF l"HE P/CTUJ?£ PL.ANE; CLOSURE CAN BE MORE DifFICULT TO ACHIEVE', THOUGH FOR DIFFERENT REASONS

91

92

--ANDA}1It7KLP OF 1MA<71Mt1770N

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