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From Huan-Jing Luun-ll-Shei Ru-Men (Introduction to Environmental Ethics), ed.

Tsu-Mei Chen (Taipei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 174-189

ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

Translated from 'The River of Life: Past, Present, and Future," in Ernest Partridge, ed., Resporuibilities to Future Genertuions (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1981), pp. 123-132. Also in Philosophy Gone Wild, pp. 61-71.

~$~~~~$·M~~~~~~fi*~£~·~@·*~*.

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• .. ~ (actual) ~M~ (potential)"' EI.~ft!!A • A~~EI?& • JJl4- ~J.M~ • ~.?& (the is) ~I!I?& (the ought) ~ft~ • ft/f'¥Jff.lL 7 •

UrrJ*~ftAt4~~$~en~iJ~JJ!4- • ~!t~fIMfI (encapsulated individuals) • U~tf!ffMiJ.!1!~mf.ijI3R~±ft~A~f~a (subjective human selves) rdl~f!H:n"f~~$· U~~1it~JJl~$~M.~ ~~¥fDMiJ.!1!¥· tf!M.~EJ?&~fD:)(fl::~$::f-~~.~· i!~/f'

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;@:~fifr'tE@1!1}'jIJI¥J1!1A~m (individual human life) 7J~ait'HHJ. l¥J~a,&ft~~~~~~Afi~.~-m.I¥J·~ ••• I¥J~~ l¥J.tt'~ai~~.~S3~M.el¥J~.o~.M.~~*.1¥J n~ , 1:E~~._t~f4~* ' 1:E:)(fl::_t.3@~tt ' 3Z.~t~HE.ft~ *~~Aai5i!!J1ltl¥JhilfJ.!loo:Jt 0 ~1!1.~I¥J~l5Jtl:~. (cooperate nature) , ~f-f1m~fjt-J!t;l:t~fl;ftrEl}]{T3i~.a (atomistic paradigm) -t. ' ~m1:JH!I.I¥J7'C~tt (individual integrity) -m~'lil¥Jfn:~ , &ft~1:E~J1ltI¥J •• '7J~~~~-.~.Ml¥JhilfJ.!l •• '~ttff M-M.-~.M~mm~~~anrEl°

ftl¥J3il6~ : f!lA~~hilfJ.!l (individualistic ethic) ~9iffm~ , • ~~ •• ~ •• *~~,~~,ft~OO~M~T~liM1:E~.hilfJ.!l ~mT~~f-f~~~I¥J~~,m~~~~~m.o

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175

~ff:tE:3" ' :::t~!1JJ!I19.4-.ffl19.f'JM~:3" (a present carrier of this possibility) 0 lItfl**M!=1'.~-~tm*fl!j~I19ftt!A ' eft~ft1M119 **'~ft1M.4-ffmI19AMWft~~~~oeM!~~~~~'~~ .~a1M,e~ft1Mm~I19**,ft1MMm~I19**,ft1M~.I19~ ~°ft1M~~OO!1.~.:tE~.~.:tEl19m:tE°

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ritJmt.ftlllfHI1Jffiimt:~ • ~. zmtQIJft(ltpq~.~m1J (inner conative urge ) ffiimt:~ 0 f?f¥*.Wf~~mmJ.!l!tt~~m • Wil1§~filJ ~~M.~~.z~.'~~ •• T*·~W~~~MlIt-~?&~ tt~~~ •• offWA-g~~~~~~~JJl§.~~.'~~* *i!!~~~IIIJL' , ftB~fll~~~~~ffiif&:M~ • ~.zmt:1U~~~ ~°llt-~~~m1J·~~.~~~~~~lte*mtM~~mao ~~*$ffi A~1tDJJl • ft~t:£~*t!tf-tM~.~~$Jt~ (will to life) , ~mi'§~ft~ , Mz_§_mt~** 0 ~1It ' ~~tt!! ' :f:E¥.~J!t

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-MA~~~w.,I'ij"~@mx.&"a~"~gN*~.o8 a::t::ft (Egoism) Wl~J-fr;Bn.:lI~ "a" , ~a~~!HH.DJJi "ft!!" ~ "~" , 1:E~~.r*1t~~~{,,'1Iitag:tl'ij"tt$IJ~~~ft~ , -J.t ~ , ~8~~X8:!it8f!ij~ffJ~o flJft!!::t::iI (Altruism) ~f.!1~$1j "ft!!A" , fffl_§_i:!!~~IX~ (pluralistic) , {EHlPteJJiJ~tR~~~~ 1] 0 ~lf.¥m1!!Ela::t::ft~ffH1f!::t::ft~~~ , "a" filf.¥~it~~ "{~{" , l;§ ~~~J~te"a~"~I'ij"~tto~~a~8:!itB.~~~A,~a MJ~~lIIt!I~~~~aEl:!it (my skin) , fffl~m~~a~~lIt (my kin) 0 ~$~~~f*lma.ftD~ (sense of kinship) ~f1JMfffl* ' ffjj~'8"M$IJ~~it~~~.~~tt (togetherness) If.¥ ' 8 '!iHl!iiT~M 1£lWIn~$$o

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178

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180

~.~M~omfi~~~,~a~~w~~m~M~~~~ •• ~ H~ "~fI'iJ~~" (commons) ~.~, ~a~=1'M:figUtml*~§ a ' .R~mft~JJ!~*~~~ , §Jt~1}Jm •• ,c.,t!!.R~tlt¥(J9E~ ((.J~m~ , ~.Ri¥.ta~MlIl*~f(J~f'F§f.L.~.3t 0 (ut] §a~ ~~~~oom~a~M •• ~~~~~$'@~~~M~~.~.R ~m~a~~~$om&~A~ •• ~$*~~A'~~~_.M ~.jl{~3.$tlt¥(Jffi~ •• 0

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181

fl!1::E't£.ftf~IINJJ:_b+;;:~llIiJtfiiJ1m (environmentally homeostatic) , & WffiilJ1:.$~1miiJ1:J.N:JJl~J:E.1:J.ffm (projective enough to survive) , ~ .¥-E!mAMt£P'Jt!!~-f.l 0 "fiiJ1mtt" (Homeostasis) Mz7f~m~lW1m (static) I¥-JgPJ. ' j2i;Je7J~*)(¥I't-J.lf~aPJ ' Jt1:.~¥ffli*t£ti:NNij£ 1:.$mtJlEB~~J.!I!.JlIiJtllHT~~I¥-J~¥.'i~1b (supporting movements) , l£~rml¥-Jmt:j1[ig:t , ef)J.¥.'iJtEf:!iHIf.JtI~g (steady state) 0 m.~f* ~Zrm~~~~~~7f~;1:.$Wl£~~~~~~ng:t¥.'i.r~ot£ *If A~i'nm~1:.$~gg:t (prehuman life) , .ltttl~:Mz1F~IJttff~~ ; l£A~1:.$g:t'~w~m~·~J.!I!.~.¥.'i.tI~'7J.~-~ •• o fiiJ~tt:Mz7f~~tdJif~fl::~JM~flJlt ' iEle~Ptl:ite ' ffW**A~~ §1't-J'~.-E!~~.H~m.Mff~~*g~~~o~~~~'Rlf 1itH1r'~~B.R (sources) 7J~ "iiJ1I}Wf~" (renewable) , H~:;tiiJ 1:J. "11}1:." (regenerate) 0 t££a~flM*g:tl¥-JiWmaPJre ' 7f1l}~~*g~z¥ ~~E~A~z~,@~mA~~~~~'~~l£~~rn~~·.~ *~~mtlbg:t~.7f~oj2i;J.Itt'~~H~*g~f*~~A±,t!!tt~ m!f!W.H~**tltf-t~A 0

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182

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( li.1] Garrett Hardin, "The Tragedy of the Commons," Science 169 ( 1968) : 1243-1248.

(li.2] J.M.McTaggart,The Nature of Existence,vol. 2 (Cambridge:

University Press, 1921) ,Chap. 33.

* 1", m Philosophy Gone Wild, Chapter 4. Published 1989 by Prometheus Books,NY

189