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MECHATRONISCHE SYSTEME

FÜR KRAFTFAHRZEUGE
(Automotive Mechatronics)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Isermann

Institut für Automatisierungstechnik


Technische Universität Darmstadt

R. I.
TU Darmstadt 2005
AUTOMOTIVE MECHATRONICS
• INTRODUCTION

• DESIGN PROCEDURE

• HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

• MECHATRONIC SUSPENSIONS

• MECHATRONIC BRAKE SYSTEMS

• MECHATRONIC STEERING SYSTEMS

• ACTIVE FRONT STEERING CONTROL

• CONCLUSIONS
R. I.
TU Darmstadt 2005
system theory
micro electronics
modeling
power electronics information
electronics automation technology
sensors technology software
actuators
computational intelligence

MECHATRONICS

mechanics

mechanical elements
machines
precision mechanics

Mechatronics: Synergetic integration of different disciplines


R. I.
TU Darmstadt
man/machine
interface
reference
monitored
variables
variables
information
processing measured
manipulated
variables
variables information flow
energy flow

actua- mechanics &


sensors
tors energy converter

auxiliary energy
energy con-
energy supply
supply sumer

mechanical
hydraulic
thermal
electrical
R. I.
TU DarmstadtMechanical process and information processing develop towards mechatronic systems
o Definition

• Many technical processes and products show an increasing


integration of MECHAnics with elecTRONICS and information
processing
• The integration is between the components (hardware) and the
information-driven functions (software)
• Their development involves finding
– an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and
actuator implementation
– automatic digital information processing
– overall control
• This synergy results in innovative solutions
IFAC T.C. Mechatronic Systems (2000)

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TU Darmstadt
Mechatronic
Systems

Mechatronic Mechatronic Mechatronic Mechatronic


power power Mechatronic Mechatronic
machine motion consuming
producing automobiles trains
components generators machines machines
- semi-active - integrated - brushless DC - integrated - antilock brake - tilting trains
hydraulic electrical motors multi-axis (ABS) - active boogie
dampers servo drives - integrated AC machine tools - electro- - magnetic
- automatic - integrated drives - integrated hydraulic levitated
gears hydraulic - mechatronic hydraulic brake (EHB) trains
- magnetic servo drives combustion pumps - active (MAGLEV)
bearings - integrated engines suspension
pneumatic - active front
servo drives steering
- robots
(multi-axis,
mobile)

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TU Darmstadt
Examples for mechatronic systems
o Functions and integration of mechatronic systems

• Distribution of functions
• Operating properties
• New functions
• Integration forms

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TU Darmstadt
o Functions and integration of mechatronic systems

• Distribution of functions
• Operating properties
• New functions
• Integration forms

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TU Darmstadt
• New functions
– Control of nonmeasurable variables
• Tire slip
• Slip angle and ground speed of vehicles
• Internal temperatures or tensions
• Damping parameters
– Advanced supervision and fault diagnosis
– Fault-tolerant systems with redundancy
– Teleservice functions
• monitoring, maintenance, repair
– Programmable functions
• flexible adaptation through software change
• changes during design, commissioning, after-sales
• shorter time-to-market
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TU Darmstadt
• Integration forms
- consideration of integrated overall system
- generation of synergetic effects
→ classical mechanical-electronic system:

micro-
actuators process sensors
computer

“addition of available components”


integration of components

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TU Darmstadt
Spatial integration (integration of the components)

integration of components

micro- actuators process sensors


computer

“Integration of the components at different places”

 actuator and microcomputer


 smart actuator
 process and microcomputer
 sensor and microcomputer
 smart sensor
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TU Darmstadt
Hardware-Integration
integration by information processing
knowledge base software-
mathematical performance integration
process models criteria

information gaining design methods


- identification - control
- state observer - supervision
- optimization

online information processing


supervision adaptation
control
diagnosis optimization

integration of components
micro- hardware-
actuators process sensors integration
computer

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Mechatronic overall integration
Runge,
ATZ 2000

R. I. Mechatronic control module for a 6-gear-automatic transmission


TU Darmstadt
(ZF 6HP26)
History of ABS Systems
ABS 2
kg kByte
200

z
d en

nd!
T en
6

ige
st e
ABS 5.0
6,2 kg ABS 8

128kByte
ABS 5.3
ABSR 5.7 100

3
3,8 kg

2,6 kg
2,5 kg

48kByte
1,8 kg
24kByte
16kByte
8kByte

1989 1992 1995 1998 2001

Rob. Bosch GmbH


R. I.
TU Darmstadt Anti-lock braking systems (ABS)
Quelle:ATZ/MTZ Extra „Der Neue Golf“ Oktober2003
Volkswagen

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Direct automatic shift gear box with double clutch (2003)
Volkswagen Q uelle:A TZ/M TZ E xtra „D er N eue G olf“ O ktober2003

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Electro-hydraulic control system for DSG
AUTOMOTIVE MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS
• INTRODUCTION

• DESIGN PROCEDURE

• HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

• MECHATRONIC SUSPENSIONS

• MECHATRONIC BRAKE SYSTEMS

• MECHATRONIC STEERING SYSTEMS

• ACTIVE FRONT STEERING CONTROL

• CONCLUSIONS
R. I.
TU Darmstadt 2005
DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR MECHATRONIC
SYSTEMS

o Mechatronic engineering
o Modelling and simulation
o Software tools

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TU Darmstadt
system
definition

requirements
engineering
(specification)

traditional mechanical electronic information operating


& electrical engineering & control engineering
engineering engineering engineering

process/ electronic inform. proc- human-ma-


component hardware cessing & soft- chine inter-
design design ware design face design

integrated
(concurrent) integration of components integration by information
(hardware) processing (software)
engineering

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TU Darmstadt
Design procedure for mechatronic systems (iterational steps not indicated)
integration of components integration by information
(hardware) processing (software)

integrated mechan.electronic system


generation of
integrated synergetic
effects
(concurrent)
engineering reliability &
safety
engineering

manufacturing
engineering

mechatronic
system

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Design procedure for mechatronic systems (iterational steps not indicated)
o Modelling and Simulation for design and integration:

– Software-in-the-loop simulation (SiL)


• Process and controller (ECU) simulated (not real-time)

– Rapid-control-prototyping (RCP)
• Real process and high-performance prototyping computer (real-time)

– Hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HiL)


• Simulated process and real ECU (real-time)

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
process-model ECU-model
θFW p2,stat p2 SiL p2
θFW control upwm
algorithm
neng
neng T2,stat T2 p2,Setpoint

simulation tool high performance

P
real-time real-time computer

C
iL

R
(full pass, by pass)
real-time

integrated
mechatronic
system
real process real ECU + real actuator

R. Isermann
TU Darmstadt Simulations for mechatronic development
Diesel engines

Truck engine Passenger car engine

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator für truck engine control

IAT/DC
1992-
1999

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TU Darmstadt HiL-Simulator, dSpace DSP & Power PC
R. I.
TU Darmstadt HiL-simulation of a single injection pump valve cut off
1 gear shifts

2 drive train oscillations

3 soot limitation

4 speed limitation

5 turbo charger inertness

R. I.
TU Darmstadt HiL-simulation of a full power acceleration of a 40 tons truck
AUTOMOTIVE MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS
• INTRODUCTION

• DESIGN PROCEDURE

• HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

• MECHATRONIC SUSPENSIONS

• MECHATRONIC BRAKE SYSTEMS

• MECHATRONIC STEERING SYSTEMS

• ACTIVE FRONT STEERING CONTROL

• CONCLUSIONS
R. I.
TU Darmstadt 2005
Wheel speed sensor Anti-lock brake system
(1979)

Acceleration sensor Anti-skid control (1993)

Electronic stability progr.


Yaw rate sensor (1995)
Brake assist
(1996)
Radar sensor
Adaptive Cruise Control
(1999)

Susp.deflect. Active Body Control


(2000)
Brake-by-Wire (EHB)(2001)
Pedal position
Active front steering (2003 )

EHB-pressure Brake-by wire (20??)

Steer-by-Wire
EMB-force sensor (20??)
Collision Avoidance
Figures: Continental Teves AG & Co. oHG (20??)

R. I.
TU Darmstadt Vehicle dynamics control systems
Sensors and actuators for gasoline engines
Sensors Actuators
 Engine speed (1967),  Electronic fuel injection
camshaft phase (1967, D-Jetronic)
 Engine temperature (1967)  Microelectronic
 Manifold pressure controlled ignition and
manifold temperature (1967) injection
 Knock sensor (1969) (1979, Motronic)
 Airmass flap (1973)  Exhaust gas valve
 Oxygen (lambda) (1976)  Tank vent valve
 Airmass hot-film (1981)
 Secundary air valve
 Ambient pressure (1994)
 Throttle- and pedal-position
 Variable geometry
(1997, E-Gas)
manifold
 Tank pressure
ca. 15-25 measurements  Electronic throttle (1997)
 Ion current (20??)
 Combustion pressure (20??) ca. 6-8 manipulation variables  Variable camshaft
timing
ca. 80-120 look-up-tables
 Variable valve lift(2001)
Abbildung: Adam Opel AG

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Sensors and actuators for gasoline engines
Mechatronic
automobiles

Mechatronic Mechatronic Mechatronic


combustion drive Mechatronic Mechatronic
suspensions brakes steering
engines trains
- electrical - automatic - semi-active
hydrodynamic - hydraulic anti- - parameter-
throttle shock-absorbers
transmission lock braking (ABS) izable power-
- mechatronic - active hydraulic
- automatic - electronic stability assisted
fuel injection suspension
mechanic program (ESP) steering
- mechatronic (ABC)
shift transm. - electro-hydraulic - electro-
valve trains - active pneumatic
- continuously brake (EHB) mechanical
- variable geo- suspension
variable trans- - electro- power-
metry turbo- - active anti-roll
mission (CVT) mechanical assisted
charger (VGT) bars (dynamic
- automatic traction brake (EMB) steering (EPS)
- emission control drive control
control (ATC) - electrical parking - active front
- evaporative (DDC) or roll-
- automatic speed brake steering (AFS)
emission control control)
- electrical pumps and distance
& fans control (ACC)

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
40 - 75 Electronic Control Units
30 - 150 electrical motors
2- 4 km cables (harness): 40 - 80 kg
4 bussystems
2500 signals

Source: VDA 2001

R. I.
TU Darmstadt Control units and data exchange
Bordnetz des VW Phaeton

Quelle: ATZ Sonderheft VW


Phaeton

R. I.
TU Darmstadt VW Phaeton: Elektrisches Bordnetz
AUTOMOTIVE MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS
• INTRODUCTION

• DESIGN PROCEDURE

• HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

• MECHATRONIC SUSPENSIONS

• MECHATRONIC BRAKE SYSTEMS

• MECHATRONIC STEERING SYSTEMS

• ACTIVE FRONT STEERING CONTROL

• CONCLUSIONS
R. I.
TU Darmstadt 2005
VDA 2001

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Stabilisation through single wheel braking with ESP
VDA 2001

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Electro-Hydraulic Brake System
EHB1 Hydraulic Unit Components
Suction connection
Electric motor Sealings for pressure sensor modul
Contact spring
Pressure sensor modul

ECU

Valve
Accumulator with
multilayer diaphragm Magnet group
Sealing for ECU
Pump element
Medium separator
Rob. Bosch GmbH
R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Electrohydraulic brake
Chassis Systems
Electro Hydraulic Brake System EHB1

Rob. Bosch GmbH


R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Continental Teves (2003)

R. I.
TU Darmstadt Electro-mechanical brake (prototype)
AUTOMOTIVE MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS
• INTRODUCTION

• DESIGN PROCEDURE

• HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

• MECHATRONIC SUSPENSIONS

• MECHATRONIC BRAKE SYSTEMS

• MECHATRONIC STEERING SYSTEMS

• ACTIVE FRONT STEERING CONTROL

• CONCLUSIONS
R. I.
TU Darmstadt 2005
Hydraulic
Active Power
Electrical Front
Electrical
Power
AssistedSteering
PowerSteer-by-
Steering
Steering
(HPS)
(HPS (AFS)
Wire
+ EPS)
(EPS) electrical
(larger(SbW)
vehicles) steering
hydraulic torque motor
pump for haptic
feedback
Hydraulic
Electrical
Active Power
Electrical
Front
Power
Assisted
Power Steering
Steering
Steering
Steering
(HPS)
(HPS + EPS)
(AFS)
(EPS)

electrical
hydraulic
hydraulic
electrical actuator
electrical
electrical
hydraulic hydraulic
actuator generates
actuator
actuator additional
actuator
actuatorsteering
actuator valveangles
in steering column
R. I.
TU Darmstadt Mechatronic steering systems
Servo pinion
Torsion rod

Torque sensor

Steer pinion

Servomotor

ECU

VW Q uelle:ATZ/M TZ Extra „Der Neue Golf“ Oktober2003

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Electrical Power Steering (EPS)
Superposition of a steering angle

BMW (2003)

R. I.
TU Darmstadt Active front steering
Development of driver assistance systems

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Automotive surrounding sensors

1. Close range: ultra sonic, radar

2. Medium range: lidar, radar, camera

3. Remote area: radar, camera

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Gemeinschaftsforschung mit der Industrie
Arbeitskreise begleiten Forschungsvorhaben: 2-3 Jahre
Finanzierung: 50% Industrie – 50% BMBF oder BMWi
Auftragsumfang: 65.000 € pro Jahr und Vorhaben
Verbrennungsmotoren Mechatronische Systeme
Forschungsvereinigung Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft für
Verbrennungskraftmaschinen die Anwendung der Mikroelektronik
FVV DFAM
Dieselmotoren-Regelung (1992-1995) Intelligente dezentrale
Dieselmotoren-Steuerung (1995-1997) elektromechanische Komponenten (1996-1999)
Nebenaggregate-Management (1995-2000) Einfach anwendbare Diagnoseverfahren für
Fehlerdiagnose an Dieselmotoren (1999-2002) mechatronische Komponenten (2001-2003)
Fehlerdiagnose an Ottomotoren (1999-2002)

DFAM

Mechatronische Pumpen
Fachgemeinschaft Pumpen VDMA
Störungsfrüherkennung an oszillierenden
Teleservice Verdrängerpumpen (2002-2004)
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
Projektträger des BMBF
Verbundprojekt OKTEL
Modellbasierte Telediagnose elektrischer
Antriebe und Textilmaschinen

R. I.
TU Darmstadt FG Regelungstechnik u. Prozessautomatisierung
Forschungskooperationen mit Firmen
Forschungverträge: 1-3 Jahre, Finanzierung: 100% Industrie
Auftragsumsatz: ca. € 700.000 pro Jahr
Verbrennungsmotoren Kraftfahrzeuge
Dieselmotoren (seit 1992) Brake-by-Wire (seit 1995)
 Modellbildung  Regelung und Rekonstruktion
 Echtzeit-Simulation der Bremskraft einer EMB
 Regelung  Intelligentes Bremspedal
 Regelung der Horizontaldynamik
Ottomotoren (seit 1996) mit BbW-Aktuatoren (ABS/ESP)
 Brennraumdruck-
Regelung Aktive Fahrwerke (seit 2001)
 Zustandserkennung für aktive
 Abgasrückführungs-
Regelung Fahrwerke
Personenkraftwagen (seit 1990)
Ottomotoren (seit 2001)  On-line Simulationsmodelle
 Optimierung der Verbrennung  Automatische Abstands- und
beim Direkteinspritzer Geschwindigkeitsregelung
Verbrennungsaussetzer-  automatisches
Erkennung (1996-2001) Parkassistenzsystem
 Druckanalyse im Energie-/Produktionstechnik
Abgasstrang
Heizungssysteme (seit 1986)
 Ionenstrommessung
 Modellbildung, Simulation
W1  Adaptive Regelung
Medizintechnik W2
 Fuzzy-Regelung
Dialysesysteme (seit 1998) Zementproduktion (1992-1997)
 Modellbildung  Modellbildung, Simulation
 Optimale Regelung  Strukturvariable Regelung
 Patientenadaption von Mahlanlagen

R. I.
TU Darmstadt FG Regelungstechnik u. Prozessautomatisierung
PRORETA Elektronische Fahrerassistenz für ein
unfallvermeidendes Fahrzeug

Regelung
Aktorik

Notlenken Notbremsen

Steer-By-Wire

Sensorik

Brake-By-Wire
Radar Lidar

In Kooperation mit

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
CONCLUSIONS

• Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic components are


integrated with microelectronics
• Software determines functions
• Mechatronic components improve functionality, safety,
economy and comfort
• Modelling and simulation tools allow simultaneous
engineering and fewer prototypes
• Same mechatronic development for combustion engines,
transmissions

→ Mechatronic components change the design of automobiles

→ Mechatronics: emerging area of innovative engineering

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
AUTOREG 2006
-Steuerung und Regelung von Fahrzeugen und Motoren-
Wiesloch, 7. und 8. März 2006

FVT
Veranstalter: VDI/VDE-GMA und VDI-FVT
Ausschuss “Steuerung und Regelung von Kraftfahrzeugen
GMA
und Verbrennungsmotoren-GMA 7.62”
Steuerung und Regelung
von Fahrzeugen und
Motoren - AUTOREG 2004 AUTOREG 2006 (3.Tagung)
Aufruf zur Einreichung von – 2 Plenarvorträge
Beiträgen
– 64 Einzelvorträge in 3 parallelen Sitzungen
– 15 Posterbeiträge

GMA FVT
www.vdi.de/gma/autoreg2006

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
END

80 Folien: 65 min effektiv benötigt.... Seoul ICCAS: 0.8 min/Folie.

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
CONCLUSIONS

• Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic components are integrated with


microelectronics
• Integrated components comprise hardware and software
• Hardware is partially simplified, software determines functions
• Mechatronic components improve functionality, safety, economy and comfort
• Mechatronic design allows parallel development of hardware , electronics
and software
• Modelling and simulation tools allow simultaneous engineering and fewer
prototypes
• Same mechatronic development for combustion engines, transmissions
• Next steps: surrounding sensors, collision avoidance, drive-by-wire
• Open issues: steer-by-wire (fault-tolerance? costs? advantages?)

→ Mechatronic components change the design of automobiles

→ Mechatronics: emerging area of innovative engineering

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
CONCLUSIONS

• Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic components are integrated with


microelectronics
• Integrated components comprise hardware and software
• Hardware is partially simplified, software determines functions

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
CONCLUSIONS

• Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic components are integrated with


microelectronics
• Integrated components comprise hardware and software
• Hardware is partially simplified, software determines functions

• Mechatronic components improve functionality, safety, economy and comfort


• Mechatronic design allows parallel development of hardware , electronics
and software
• Modelling and simulation tools allow simultaneous engineering and fewer
prototypes

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
CONCLUSIONS

• Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic components are integrated with


microelectronics
• Integrated components comprise hardware and software
• Hardware is partially simplified, software determines functions
• Mechatronic components improve functionality, safety, economy and comfort
• Mechatronic design allows parallel development of hardware , electronics
and software
• Modelling and simulation tools allow simultaneous engineering and fewer
prototypes

• Same mechatronic development for combustion engines, transmissions


• Next steps: surrounding sensors, collision avoidance, drive-by-wire
• Open issues: steer-by-wire (fault-tolerance? costs? advantages?)

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
CONCLUSIONS

• Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic components are integrated with


microelectronics
• Integrated components comprise hardware and software
• Hardware is partially simplified, software determines functions
• Mechatronic components improve functionality, safety, economy and comfort
• Mechatronic design allows parallel development of hardware , electronics
and software
• Modelling and simulation tools allow simultaneous engineering and fewer
prototypes
• Same mechatronic development for combustion engines, transmissions
• Next steps: surrounding sensors, collision avoidance, drive-by-wire
• Open issues: steer-by-wire (fault-tolerance? costs? advantages?)

→ Mechatronic components change the design of automobiles

→ Mechatronics: emerging area of innovative engineering

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
OUTLOOK

- Intelligent mechatronic systems


 adaptation, learning, decision making
 sensors, actuators, devices (optics, office, medicine)

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
OUTLOOK

- Intelligent mechatronic systems


 adaptation, learning, decision making
 sensors, actuators, devices (optics, office, medicine)

- Fault- tolerant mechatronic systems


 highly reliable and safe systems (vehicles,
engines, drive systems, production machinery)
 Medical devices (operation robots, implants)
 Aero-space systems

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
OUTLOOK

- Intelligent mechatronic systems


 adaptation, learning, decision making
 sensors, actuators, devices (optics,office, medicine)

- Fault- tolerant mechatronic systems


 highly reliable and safe systems (vehicles,
engines, drive systems, production machinery)
 Medical devices (operation robots, implants)
 Aero-space systems
- x-by-wire mobile systems
 brake-by wire, steer-by wire, drive-by wire
 autopilot-driver assistance, auto-navigation
 mobile robots (agriculture, production, home)
R. I.
TU Darmstadt
(S.Niilola,Tekes)

R. I.
TU Darmstadt
Six-legged walking forest machine (Finland)