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10

Section

Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

ROGER A. LABOUBE

Research & Development Manager, Butler Manufacturing Company, Grandview, MO

Cold-formed steel structural members are shapes commonly manufactured from steel plate, sheet, or strip material. The manufacturing process involves forming the material by either press-braking or roll forming to achieve the desired shape. Forming in press brakes is economical for moderate production volumes of a specific shape. However, the production of large quantities of identical shapes is best accomplished by roll forming. This is a fully mechanized, high-speed process that is superior for mass production. Although it is possible by cold forming to produce shapes up to 1 in thick, cold-formed steel construction is generally restricted to the thicknesses given in Table 1.

Sheet and strip steel is the more common material used for cold-formed steel members and is ordered in decimal thicknesses, rather than by U.S. Standard gage numbers. However, the use of gage thickness is so ingrained that its informal use continues in trade and profession.

1. Materials A considerable variety of sheet and strip is available for use in cold-formed construction. To be suitable, the material must possess adequate and reliable strength and ductility. The specified minimum yield point is the primary criterion for member strength under static loading, whereas the tensile strength is the primary criterion for connection design. The tensile strength is of secondary importance for member design provided there is reasonable spread betweenIt and the yield point. This is because fatigue strength and resistance to brittle fracture, which relate chiefly to tensile strength rather than yield point, are rarely of consequence in cold-formed steel construction, the former because the loading of such structures is seldom of the repetitive type, and the latter because the very thinness of the material almost always precludes the development of the triaxial stress conditions which are essential for the initiation of brittle fracture. Ductility is required to enable the material to be cold-formed to relatively sharp radii without cracking and, in the formed member, to provide plastic stress redistribution in regions oflocalized stress concentrations, particularly in bolted connections.

Elongation in a 2-in gage length in combination with the ratio of the tensile to yield strength F../Fy is used as a measure of ductility.' Generally, sufficient ductility is available

10-1

10-2 Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

if F,./F. is not less than l.OH and the clongation in 2 in is not less than 10 percent. Steels that do not satisfy these requirements can he used but only for shapes that require nuld cold fonning and that are IIst'd without highly stressed connections. e.g .. roof and wall panels and deck sections.

TABLEt Thicknesses and Weights of Uncoated Steel Sheets

U.s. St.andard gag" No.

AI'PrclX thickness, in.

4 o 8 10

12 14 . I() 18 20 22 24 2() 28 30

9.375 8.125 6.875 5.()25 4.375 3.125 2.500 2.000 1.500 1.250 1.000 0.750 0.()25 0.500

0.2242 0.Hl43 0.1644 0.1345 0.1046 0.0747 0.0598 0.0478 0.0359 0.0299 0.0239 0.0179 0.0149 0.0120

As suuuunriz ed in Sec. A:l.1 or lIer. I. the rollowing ASTM spccillcatlous dcflue the

qualities of sheet and strip stee-ls suitahle lor cold-formed construction:

ASTM A:3(i/A3(iM-H'la: Sl ructural Steel

ASTt.,,1 A2'I2/A2-12M-HS: High·Strength LOW-Alloy Structural Steel

ASTM A-H I M-H5: lIiglo·Stn:ngtlo Low-Alloy Structural Manganese Vnnaclium Steel ASTM A1'{(i/A116M-H5: (Grades A. ll, C, D & F) Steel. Sheet. Zine-Coate,1 (Galva-

nized) by the Hot-Dip Process. Structural (Physical) Quulity

ASTM A500-H1: Cold·Formed Welded aut] Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tuhing In Hounds lind Shapes

ASTM A52D/A529M-!l5: Structural Steel with '12 ksi Miuiuuun Yield Point (~ in.

Maximum Thickness)

ASTM A570/A570M-!l5: Steel. Sheet and Strip. Carbon, lIot·Holled. Structural Quality

ASTM AS72/AS72M-!l5: High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Steels of Structural Quality

ASTM ASIl8/AS8IlM-!l5: High Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksl Minimum Yield Point to 1 in. Thick

ASTM AGOG-85 Steel: Sheet and Strip. Iligh Strength, Low Alloy, l lot-Ilnllcd and Cold-Rolled, with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Ilesistauce

ASTM Afi07-1l5: Steel Shed and Strip, High Strength, Low Alloy. Columbium or Vanadium, or both, Hot-Ilolled and Cold-Hulled

ASTM AfiII-8S: (Grades A. B, C. & D) Steel, Sheet, Carbon. Culd-Hollcd, Structural Quullty

ASTM A71S-8S: (Grades 50 and ()O) Sheet Steel and Strip, High·Strength. LowAlloy, Hot-Rolled. With Improved Formability

ASTM A7!l2-!l5a: (Grades :13. 37. '10 & 50) Sted Sheet. Alumuuun-Zinc AlloyCoated hy the Hut-Dip Process, Generallle<luirclllents

Table 2 lists the principal properties or these steels.

In addition to material ordered and produced to these ASTM speciflcutious, other sheet and strip steels are used. To ensure the safety of such lise. the minimum physical properties of such steels should he specified ill a manner similar to thai or ASTM steels. and their structural sultublllty established hy stipulating an adequate spread bel ween yield

**TABLE 2 ASTM Steels: Principal Tensile properties
**

Min. ~

ASTM Mtn. F •• Min. F". elongation F

deSignation Grade ksi ksi in 2 in, % •

A36/3()M·8.Ja: 36 58-80 23 1.61-2.22

Plates and hars

A212/A242M-85: 50 70 18· 1.10

Plates and bars.

t ,.:; Y. in

M>1I/M>11M·B5: 50 70 18· 1.10

Plates and bars

M46/A416M-85: 33 45 20 1.36

Sheet A 52 18 !AI

B 37

C >10 55 16 1.38

D 50 65 12 1.30

E 80 82 1.02

F 50 70 12 1.40

A500·84: 33 45 25 1.36

Round tubing A

42 58 23 1.38

B 62 21 1.35

C 46 ®

45 25 1.15

Shaped tuhing A 33

46 58 23 1.26

B 62 21 1.24

C 50

A529/A529M·85: 42 60-85 19· 1.43-2.02

Plates and hars

A570·85: 30 49 21-25 1.63

Sheet and strip 30 CR 22

33 33 52 18-23 1.58

36 36 53 17-22 1.47

40 40 5!5 15-21 1.38

45 45 60 13-19 1.33

50 50 65 11-17 1.30

A572/A572M·85: 42 60 24 1.43

Plates and bars 50 65 21 1.30

60 75 18 1.25

H5 80 17 1.2~

A588/A5S8M-85: ,'50 70 21 1.'10

. Plates and bars.

t .;; 4 in

A606·85: Hot rolled

Sheet and strip (rolled cut 50 70 22 1.'10

lengths)

As-rolled coils 65 22 1.44

(annealed or 15

normalize(l) ss 22 1.4>1

Cold rolled 45

A(i07·85:

Sheet and strip Class I 60. lIR 23-25 1.33

45 45

en 22

so 50 G5 111120-22 1.30

en 20

55 55 70 llR1S-20 1.27

eRI8

(iO 7[) 111\ J{)··II! 1.2.'5

GO en If>

65 SO HR 14-16 1.23

65 1~ en 15

70 85 I-IR 12-14 1.21

70 CR 1-'

10·3 ..

..

..

•

I . ,

i ,1 j,:

·1 '\ I,

I

! 'i I

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i 10-4

Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

TABLE 2 ASTM Steels: Principal Tensile Properties (Continued)

ASTM designation

Min. ~!

Min. Fy, Min. Fill elongation

Grade ksl ksi in 2 in, % F

y

Class 2

,15 45 55 Hn23-25 1.22

en 22

50 50 60 un 20-22 1.22

en 20

55 55 65 nn IS-20 l.lS

en IS

60 60 70 BUI6-IS l.l7

en 16

65 65 75 rm 14-16 1.15

CHI5

70 70 80 lin 12-11 1.14

en 14

A 25 42 26 I.GB

n 30 45 24 1.50

C 33 48 22 1.15

D, Types I and 2 40 52 20 1.30

E SO S2 1.02

50 50 60 22-2·1 1.20

60 GO 70 20-22 I. 1 7

33 33 4,s 20 1.36

37 37 52 18 1.41

40 10 55 ](j 1.31l

50 ,sO ss 12 1.30

SO SO S2 1.03 A611-S,s:

Sheet

A715-B5:

Sheet and strip

A792-85a:

Sheet

Note: Hll - hot-rolled, cn = cold-rolled . °In 8 in.

and tensil~ st~'ength and sufficient ductility. Adequate controls by tests and analyses should be ~nstlt.uted by the producer or purchaser to verify the specified properties.

Steels With Yield 'pOI~ltS of 30 ksi or less arc rarely used for structural applications. The bulk .of tl~e us.age lies III the range of 33 to 55 ksi. Higher-strength steels are limited to specific situauons, e.g., ASTM A44G Grade E, l~ = 80 ksi, is commonly used for panel and deck sections.

The static strength of steel structural members depends not only on the yield point b"l also on the shape of the initial portion of the stress-strain diagram. Sheet and strip steel, and structural members ~11ade of them, exhibit one of the two types shown by Fig. l. Curv~ a shows t~le beh~vlOr of a sharp-yielding steel with a practically straight line lip to y~eldlllg: a definite hOJ'l.7.or~ta.1 yield plateau, and in most cases a distinct upper and lower Yield point. In such steels It IS the lower yield point that determines the performance or the member. Curve h shows the behavior of a gradually yielding steel. For such steels,

b

Fig. 1 Inlual portions of stress-strain curves of (iI) shnrp-yleldmg steel and (b) gradual-yielding steel.

Shapes and Uses

10-5

the yield strength is defined either by a 0.2. percent offset, as shown, or by a stipulated amount of total elongation, usually 0.5 percent.

The strength of cold-formed steel members is generally controlled by local and overall

instability. The strength of members that fail by buckling depends not only' on Young's modulus E but also on the tangent modulus E, (Fig. 1) determined at the magnitude of stress at which buckling occurs. Current design procedures are formulated for steels having a proportional limit not lower than 70 percent of the specified minimum yield point. This precludes the use of the AISI specification I for such materials as stainless steels in which the proportional limit is often considerably lower. However, AISI has promulgated a specification for the design of stainless-steel cold-formed structural members."

2. Shapes and Uses Because of the ease of manufacturing a great variety of coldformed shapes, structural sections of this type have not been standardized. Many manufacturers have developed their individual product lines, and their catalogs should be consulted for specific information. It is always possible for designers to devise their own shapes for particl!lar applicalions. Cold-formed steel structural members arc classified by two major categories: framing members and panels and decks.

A number of typical framing members are shown in Fig. 2.. The depth of these sections

[[1 L

n

(0)

(b)

(e)

(d)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(k)

(Il

IIIID

(n)

(0)

(p)

(q)

(r)

(u)

( s)

(t)

Fig.2 Cold-formed framing members. (Adill'lcdjrolll Hr.! 3)

10-6

Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

generally ranges from about 2 to 12 in and the thickness from about 0.187 to 0.0.'5 in. These dimensions frequently result in plane elements having large flat-width to thickness r~tios. Such slender clements are commonly stiffened with edge stilfeners or Intermediate ~tlffeners to ~orestall premature local buckling. The more common shapes used in buildIIlg construction for beams. columns, and truss clements are Z-sections. channels. hat sections. angles, and tubular sections.

Geometric properties of several typical framing members are tabulated in the AISI· Manual.' These are not standardized manufactured sections and are given only as a guide for designers.

Figure 3 depicts several typical panel and deck sections which may be used as roof and wall panels. floor dec;k. roof deck, and bridge forms. These members are load-resisting shapes that also provide a usable surface. Generally the geometry of such shapes ranges III depth from IJ{ to 7J{ in, and material thickness from 0.075 to 0.014 in.

~ (0)

~ (b)

~ (c)

Ribbed roof decks

r L.__ __ ---L.-[ __ ---JC

(d)

(e)

(I)

Long span roof decks

LTVUV

(g)

(h)

(i)

(jl

Cellular floor and roof panels

(k)

(m)

(I)

Curtoin wall panels Flg_ 3 Light-gage surface members. (Adopted 1..0111 Ref 3.)

Although framing members arc optimized to produce maxinunn strength :111<1 stilrness per unit wei~ht of I~laterial. panels. and decks must satisfy a variety or Iuuctiunal require~ents of which optimum strength IS on I)' one. Other requirements arc the coverage provided b~ a given flat widtl~ of s~leet. i.e .• the Ilat-wklth to thickness ratio, and the ahility to function for lIoor electrlflcuuou und tclccommunientton conduits. An optimum design must therefore serve multifunctional requirements.

Typical applications of cold-fonned steel structures and lIlelllhers arc discussed and illustrated in Hef. 3.

DESIGN

Many design procedures that apply to structurul members fahri('all'd [rorn hot-rolled plates or shapes arc equally npplicnhle to cold-formed steel structural members. Howev~r. differences in behavior under load hetween the two types of construction are sufIlciently pronounced to necessitate dillcrences in design methodology. The main reasons for this are the following:

1. The design procedures for hot-rolled construction have liccn developed chiefly

J !

(

around the relatively lew structural shapes and forms germane to that type of construetion. In contrast. in cold-formed construction the variety of shapes that can he fabricated is almost unlimited. For this reason. the design methods must he so general that they apply to almost any possible shape.

2. The flat-width to thickness ratio of the plane clements of a shape arc frequently much larger in cold-formed than in hot-rolled construction. For slender thin-walled members it is necessary to employ more elaborate design procedures to account for the local and post local buckling behavior of compression clements. Also. the relatively smalle!' thickness of the cross section results in torsional stiffness that. in relation to Ilexurnl stillness, is much less in cold-formed members than in similar thicker hot-rolled members. This is important in regard to torsional-flexural buckling of beams and columns.

3. The production and fabrication processes peculiar to the two types of const ruetion alfect in different ways the elfective mechanical properties of the material. Thus. hotrolling and welding cause residual cooling stresses in structural shapes, which may strongly alfectthe buckling strength of such members. Conversely. the cold work resulting from the cold-forming process changes the mechanical properties of sheet and strip. especially in and ncar corners.

Design procedures that specifically recognize the inherent complexities of cold-formed steel construction are given in the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members, developed under the auspices of the American Iron and Steel Institutc ancl issued as Part I of its "Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual."! The Mnnual also contains a commentary on the specification and aids to assist the design engineer. An indepth discussion of the behavior and design of cold-formed steel members is given in Hek:3 and '1.

3. Section Properties The calculation of areas, moments of inertia, and other properties of intricately shaped cold-formed steel members cau he shnpllflnd by using a so-called linear nwthod, in which the area of the section is assumed to be concentrated along the centerline of the sheet and the area clements which compose the section. i.e .• flanges. webs. anti corners, arc replaced hy straight or curved line clements. The thickness of the sheet is accounted for after the linear computations have been completed. Figure 4 gives the properties of various straight and curved clements for usc in linear-method calculations.

To account for local buckling and subsequent postbuckllng strength of the compression elements or a member cross section. the actual area of a compression element is replaced by an effective area when calculating the section properties. Thi.~ is discussed further in Art. '1.

4. Thin Compression Elements The strength of a flat plate subject to compression is inlluenced primarily by its flat-width to thickness ratio wit and its boundary conditions as described by the buckling coefficient k.

Compression elements with large io]t ratios arc prone to local buckling. The compression Ilange of the lIexuralmember of Fig. 5a. being supported along the longitudinal edge where it is joined to the web, buckles locally at a lower stress and, once buckled. shows more pronounced distortions than an element or the same w/t ratio but of the type shown in Fig. 51>. The latter. hecuuse it is supported along both of its longitudinal edges, has a higher buckling strength. Elements of the type in Fig. Sa arc known as unstillenecl cornpression clements.

Although compression clements buckle at stresses which decrease with an increase in so]! ratios. such buckling docs not represent the load-carrying limit of the clement; instead, it means that the distribution of the compression stress becomes nonlinear and is concentrated in the less-buckled regions of the plate element. The more highly distorted region is not capable of resisting an increasing stress as the load Oil the member is illcreased. Therefore, once hll('kling h"gins. the lnngitudiunl eompressiou stress, as for exumple in a still'ellcd compression element (Fig. Sh). is distrihuted across the width non'Illifonllly as shown ill Fig. G. As the load increases, t he compression stress al the cdges increuscs and the nununilormit y of distrtbutton liccomcs more pronounced. For the purpose of design. the nouuniform stress distribution is accounted for by replacing the actual plate width IV hy a reduced effective width II such that the total area under the actual stress-distribution curve is equal to the area or the rectangular stress distrihution having a width of II (Fig. (j).

Thin Compression Elements

Hl-i'

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11,1.

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I!' 10-8

Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

L 3 cos 2 0 Ln2

I," -'-2- " 12

L3 sin20 Lm2

12"---" --

12 12

I _ L3 sinOcosO Lmn

'2- '2 "12

4

2

4

2

R sinB C,"-o-

C2" .!3__(I-cOSO) e

L" R8

4 2

4 2

L "1.5.7R, c-O.637R

I," [O+SI~:COSO _ sin;O ] R3

1 - [O-sinOcoso (I-COSO)2J 3

2- 2 ---0-- R

I - [s;n20 s;nO(Coso-oJ 3

'2- -2-+ 0 R

13 " (0 + sin 0 cos8) ~

2

I4"(0-sinOcosO) R3 2

R3sln20 134"--2-

Fig. 4 I'ropertics of [inc elements. (Fmlll Be]. 1.)

• In. order to avoid exc.essiv~ly (~crorrnahle members and safeguard the integrity of cross sections, the AISI specification limits wit ratios as follows:

StilTcned element with both longitudinal edges connected to other stiffen xl cl v.,

ments: ,')00 c (.

Stiffened clement with one longitudinal edge connected to .. web or flange clcmc II

and the other to a simple lip: GO ' .1

Elements with Stress Gradient

10-9

[ -,

f l+-""b/,-,2~

L----"'-----t

b/2

(0)

(b)

Fig. 5 Local buckling of (II) unstiffened cornpression Ilange, and (b) stiffened compression flange. (hom H,j 3.)

Fig. 6 Stress distribution and effective width of stiffened compression clement. (Adapted [rom Be]. 3.)

StilTened element with one longitudinal edge connected to a web or flange element and the other to any kind of stiffener other than a simple lip and having I, > In and D/IV < 0.8 (Art. 7): 90

Unstiffened element and elements with an edge stiffener having I, < In and D/IV ,.;;

0.8 (Art. 7): GO

E.ffective Widths. The effective width b used in the AISI specification is given by the

following equations:

/J = pu:

I - 0.22/A

A

(l a) (II»

p =

(I.c)

where IV = Ilat width of clement t = thickness of element k = buckling coefficient / = stress in element

E = modulus of elasticity

A review of the development of these equations is presented in Rer. 4.

5. Uniformly Compressed Elements Stiffened Elements. The effective width of a uniformly compressed stilTened element supported by a web on each longitudinal edge is determined by Eqs. (1) with k = 4 and with

I ! IV

) -

"w

(2(1) (2/J)

if A";; 0.673 if A > 0.673

For Ilexural mcmhcrs / = F. in Eq. (I c) if the initial yield produces compression in the clement. Otherwise/for the element is computed on the basis of the cffective section at the moment M. causing initial yicld. Iflateral buckling is a consideration,/ = MJSfwhere AI, and Sf are defined in Art. ) ) .

For compression members/ = I'~, in Eq, (Ie), determined according to Art. 10. Unstiffened Elements. The elTective width of a uniformly compressed unstilTened clement is determined by Eqs. (1) with k = OA3 and IV as defined in Fig. 7.

Deflection. glfective widths for calculating deflection can be obtained by substituting for fin Eq. (I c) the compressive stress in the element computed at the load for which the deflection is to be determined. A better estlmate can be obtained for members with stilTened elements by a procedure described in Her. I, Part I.

6. Elements with Stress Gradient Stiffened Elements and Webs. The widths h, and /)2

(Fig. 8) are determined as follows:

(3)

10-10

Design of Cold-Formed Stcel Structural Members

Siress f

......... IL-. _--I[====J ( if---. b___.j~ I

_W I

(

1 I

Actuol element

Effective element ond stress on effective elemen!

Fig. 7

Unstlffeucd clement with uniform compression.

'I (compression),

'1 (compression)

12 (tension)

'2 (compression)

Flg.8 ElTective clements 'lilt! stresses: Webs and stiffened elements wlth stress gradient.

where y, = f./fl with It alldl. (:Olllllllt<,<1 for t h., elrective section. The./~ is r-ompressiou, to be taken positive, while./; call he eit her "'"sioll (-) or cumprcssiou. If II alld I. arc both compressive, the larger is to he taken as fl' If Y, < -0.2;}G,

I be

)2 = -

2

hut bl + b2 must not exceed the compression portion of the clement calculated on the basis of the effective section. If y, > -0.236,

In Eqs, (4) and (5) b, = cllcctive width b according to Eqs. (I) with f = fl and k given hy

k = ,1 + 2(1 - y,)" -I- 2(1 - y,)

UlislifJi:lIl!l/ Elenients IIIld Edg,: SI(Ui"wrs. Tlae cllcctivo width is givl:n hy Eqs. (I) witll k = 0.4:3 and f = /, as shown ill Fig. H.

Dejlcction. Ellective widths for calculating dcflection arc obtai lied hy substituting for fin Eq. (Ie) the compressive stress in the element computed at the load for which the deflection is to be determined.

7. Elements with an Edge Stiffener Notation.

S = J.28VFJj

d,w,1) = dimensions defined in Fig. H

cl: = effective width of stifkllcr (Fig. H)

d, = reduced elfective width or stilrener (Fig. 0) c"ez = coellicleuts defined ill Fig. !)

A: = effective area of stillcucr"

"The round corner het ween t l«: st ilrelwr nucl Ihe element it stiffens is 1101 considered to he part of the stinen" r. For the stiili,ncr shown in Fi~. 0, A; = d;1 and I, = ((/"1/12) ,in2 O.

(5)

(fi)

Elements with an Edge Stiffener

10-11

w

Effective s1ifiener for colculoling see lion proper 1 ies

Siress f3 for lip

Fig. 9 Element with edge stilfener.

..

A, = reduced area of stiffener

I, = moment of inertia of stiffener about its ceutroirlal axis parallel to the element to be stiffened'

In = moment of inertia of stlllener such that the connected element will behave as a stiffened element

SU/JClIC.- (Fig. 9).

Case 1: io]! < S/;}

,. ..

and

il, = <I;

A, = A;

Case II: S/3 < io]! < S

cl'I

d, = .2..! -c d; for simple lip stiffener In

A;I, f I ur I

A, = - or ot IeI' stl lcner 5 rape

I"

3

where I" = 300 ('1t - 0.:33) 1'1

Case III: io]! > S. Same as case II except 1I,'5w/t

1" = --S-- -I- 5

ElCIIJ(",t (Fig. 9).

Case I: wit < 5/3

b = W

Case II: S/3 < w/t < S

".

C' I,

'2 = - ~ In

....

where 1" is the same as for the case II stillener, and b is calculated from Eqs, (1) with

. ( 51)) 0.' 51)

k = 4.82 - - - -I- OA:3 ,,;;; 5.25 - -

W ~ W

D

for O.B :;;. - > 0.25 IV

...

e ~

I

i

I

II

:1

"

,I

I!

, :'!

: 'il

! il

1

1

,

i

i

1

"

!

:1

'i

: 'I ,

I 'i i : il; . '~ I

, , "

10-12

Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

Case III: wit > S

C, = 2 - C2 C2 = ~ .;;

I.

where I" is the same as for the case III stiffener, and b is calculated from Eqs. (I) with

(is/)) (1,)'/3 5D D

k = ,1.82 - - - + 0.'13 .;; 5.25 - - for 0.8 ;;. - > 0.25

w I" w to

Deflection. Ellectlvc widths for calculating dellection are determined as in cases I, II, and III above, using for fthe stress computed at the load for which the deflection is to he determined.

8. Elements with an Intermediate Stiffener In addition to the wicltl: b; shown in Fig. J 0, the notation of Art. 7 is used in this article.

Case I; b.Jt .;; $

b=w

Case II: S < b.Jt < 3$

I = 50 (b.Jt - 1)t"1 II'S

A=N!;""N

l .s (, -..::: s

where b is calculated from Eqs, (I) with

k=3' I!: + 1.;;1

Vt

Case III: b.Jt ;;. 3$

I = (128 b.Jt - 285)t<

" S

A=N!;""N

, .J (. --=:::: .s

where b is cnlculatcd from Eqs. (I) with 1/3

k=3(t.) ·+1.;;4

9. Members The AISI specification approach to the design of members with elements in compression can he summarized for columns, beams, and beam-columns as follows:

I. The huckling stress (called the nominal stress F,,) is evaluated, assuming uurcdu(·"d·w.-lillu properties.

2. TI,,' ,·(reetive areas arc then computed at the nominal stress.

:1. TIll' uomina] capacity is then calculated as the product of the nouriuul stress and the c(r,·,'livc-s('ction properly.

Till: ahov(' slt'ps arc also npplicablc for the determination of d"''''.-lion, in wl:leh ('as(; Iht: dl"ectivc areas arc computed at the stress for which the dellectiun is desired, usually the stress rl'sldting from the design load.

10. Compression Members Thln-wallecl compression members can Iail in one of the 1'01· lowing ways: flexural huckling. torsional buckling. or torsional-flexural budding. In all three cases. d<']lending upon the slenderness of" the compression elements that inuke lip the sectiou, the buckling mode lIlay he influenced b), the interaction of local and overall buckling.

The cruss-scctlou geometry of a member dct ermines its failure mode. A closed section. e.g., a tuhular section, will not fail in a torsional or torsional-Ilexural mode and is therefore a very cllectlve compression member. Doubly symmetric sections and puint-syiumetric sections, whose shear ccnter coincides with the centroid, also do not buckle in a torslonal-Ilcxural mode. The torslonnl-Ilcxural mode is exhlhitcd Ily singly symmctrlc sections such as :Jngles, channels. Cvscctlons, and hat sections.

rr,---

"f -'-.....,

Ri

.o

I I I

I I I

I I I

I I I

I I I ~

I I I

I I I ~

JY ""0

c~

OC

.j!!~

~~

EQ)

_g)Q)

Q)~

~hl

I hl'li3

:j::C

;1 I LUO

I

I I

·1

~ : I

:: 1

I' I I I

I: i ~--

.1',

, ,

,

C

2

~~

Q)

:j::

1 :t=

(/)

,;' .j!!

C ..:

~ '"

c

Q) ~

0 Qj t:

.o ~ v

"

o '6

« '"

E

'"

]

-5

.~

~

i:

'.: '"

E

'~;: '"

t ra

tii 0

I",

ti en

K II

:~! 10-13

::\' 10·14

Design of .Ccld-Formed 'Steel Structural Members

In general, if the shape and length or a member arc such that torsional or torsional. flexural buckling can occur, the urcmbcr will always buckle at a lower load than a member of the same slenderness KL/r whicli is not subject to torsion. A twisting failure mode is often easily prevented by the usc of bracing, as in wall studs where adequate nttacluneut to wall sheathing will enhance the tc>rsional strength.

The AIS[ allowable concentric load 1'" is l',Jflr> where 1'" is the nominal axial strength

and fl,. is the factor of snlet y. The nominal strength is given by .

1'" = A,.Fn where A,. is the cllcctlvc area at the stress I';,:

IF" ( l' )

I~, = . '} -:7

I' 11 ,.

ifF >~

, 2

ifF .;;;~

,. 2

In Eqs, (8) F,. is the least or the Ilexural, torsional, and torsional-Ilcxurul buckling stresses. The factor of safety 11,. is 1.92 except for sections having wall thicknesses greater than 0.09 in and not subject to torsional or torsional-flexural budding. for which 12,. = % + 3(Fy/2F,.)1/2 + '!.(I'~/2Fy/2.

For C· and Zvshapes and single angles with unstlflencd flanges, 1'" is the smaller of the values by Eq, (7) and

where A = unreduced cross section

IV,! = width and thickness, respectively, of unstillcnecl elcmcut

Angle sections must he designed lor the axial load together with a moment I'L/IOOO, about the minor principal axis, callsing compression in the leg tips.

Sectiolls No! Subject. to Torsional or Torstonal-Flcxural BIICklill/!.. For clouhly xyuuuctrlc sections, closed cross sections, and other sections which can he shown not to be subject to torsional or torsionnl- flexural buckling, 1' .. is given hy

.".2E F=--

r (KLjr)2

where K = effective·length Iactor L = unbracecl length

I' = radius of gyration of unreduced cross section

Sections Subject to Torsional or Torsionnl-Flcxural fjll{:klill/!.. For douhly or ,illgl), .'Y'"_ metric cross sections, 1':. is the smaller or 11.1' valnes hy 1':'1. (10) alld

1~. = ;{J lIT,., + (I, - V(IT •. .r + ITY - 4{JIT,·,(I,1 (II)

where {J = I - (x,,/r,,)2

XII = x-nxis distance 1'1'0111 centroid to shear center I'll = polar radius of gyration nhnut shear center

(T, •• = I':. hy 1':(1. (((I), with tIl(' ruxix take-n as the ;.xis of syruuu-try fur sillgly syrumetric sections

I [, .".2 fCw J

1T, = AI"~ G) + (KIL,)2

A = unreduced area of cross secuou ) = SI. Veuunt torsion constant

Gw = warping constant G = shear modulus

K, = effective length [actor lor twisting 1" = unhraced length for twistin~

A conservative eslimalc of 1':. call 1)(" ohtained from

I'~ = .....!!..!'!.!: (12)

(1, + 0,,_(

(7)

(8(1)

(Ilh)

(9)

(10)

Compression Members

10·15

..

J0607"

Fig. 11

Example 1 Determine the ullowahlc axlul Ioud for the ,ncmiJCr shown in Fig. I I wit h K(L~ = Kr/'!I

= K,L, = (l ft ,nd t·~, = .50 ksi. '. .

Tile following pn;p(~rties of the (TOSS section arc calculated Irom formulas ~IVCIlII1IIH~ AISI Manual.

Part Ill:

XII = -1.9.'11 in'l J = 0.00:327 in' C:,. = 2.0!) in'i

A = O.IHHI in' t, = 1.(;57 in·' I" = 0 .. 52·1 in'

r, = 1.:165 in I'y = 0.768 in 1"" = 2.502 in

From E'l. (1<1)

F,.

.. ...

1'1'0111 E'l. (II)

= 2U,!)OO~' = 10-1.(; hi

o •. , (6 X 12/1.:3(;5)2

I [ 2U.500 X 2.0511'2]

«, = ., 1I,:lOO X 0.00327 + -(~ X-I 2)2

O.I!H!J X 2.502· ".

= 27.32 k"j

{1 = I _. (-UI51)' = 0.3!12 (i.2!)!)

F = 1 IIO'l.(; + 27.:12 -v'(ltH.H + 27.32)2 - ,I X 0.392 X 1<14.6 X 27.32]

,. 2 X O.:1!J2

= 2:3.27 ksi

The smulh-r value- "fl':. is less Iha" /';,/2. Therefore, /';, = 2:).27 ksi IEq. (Il/,)!. Effeclive A"('(I. Eflcdivc widths of the clements arc detcruuncd as follows:

Flm,gr·(Arl. 7). rI = O.H07 in. [) = O.OJ in, W = 1.111 in.

, /;;:5()(i

s = 1.211 V' 2:1.27 = 15.57

~ = .!2'.2 = 1:3.17 < ~

(U1l5 :3

S ,1

TIIl~reforl', ('a~w I of Art H applies, ~IIHI /J = w = l.li 14 in.

Wei, (Arl. .5). IV = 2.!11·1 in. k = .1.

1.052 2.U '"

x=--x--

v'1 O'.lllS

23.27 = OAIO < 0.673 2!J,500

Therefore. b = IV IE(I. (2,,)1. ami

~ = 2.!JI·1 = 27.M < ~jOn I O.t05

O.K. (Art. 6)

..

;,;

::.'

• 1

! :

• I· i

, ... ':

" '

i

I

'.1 ,I '1

10-16

Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

Lips (Art. 5). d = 0.607, k = 0.43.

1.052 0.607

A = v'if43 X 0.105

23.27

29,500 = 0.260 < 0.673

Therefore d, = cl; = cl = 0.607 in.

Since "II clements arc fully ellective, A, = A = 0.889 in2•

P" = 0.889 X 23.27 = 20.69 kips 20.69

1'. = 1.92 = 10.78 kips

11. Flexural Members The AISI allowable moment, uncoupled from axial load. shear. and local concentrated forces is given by

where M" = nominal moment

Or = factor of safety = 1.67

Lateral liuckling is not likely to occur in most finishcd structures; for example, a floor joist cannot usually bend out of its vertical plane since the floor it supports constitutes a rigid diaphragm which braces it. For such a member the effective yield moment M" is given by

(I'la)

where S,. is the elastic section modulus of effective section withextreme compression or tension fiber at p". Alternatively, a procedure based on the inelastic flexural reserve capacity may be uscrl.'

Lateral Buckling. If a beam is unbraced over significant portions of its length, lateral buckling can occur. The corresponding value of M" is given by

M,

M" = S,S J

where Sf = elastic section modulus of unreduced cross section for extreme compression fiber

S, = clastic section modulus of effective section calculated at the stress MJSf in the extreme compression fiber

M,. = critical moment according to Eq, (1.'5) or (18) as applicable

For 1- or Z·secliolls heut about the centroidal axis perpendicular to the web (r-uxl»)

[M.

M, = '% M. (1 - ~)

3.6M,.

M,.

for Me ;;. 2.78 M"

for 2.78 M, > M, > 0.56 A-I" for M,. ~ O.5H M"

(].')a) (15[,) (15,,)

where At" ~ moureut ('allsilll-\ initial yield at cxlrunu: filwr of IInreduced section M,. = elastic critlcnl momeut according to E'ls. (16)

For doubly symmetric l-scclions

- 2£(' ~

M,. - 1r 'I> L2

(lOa)

and for point-symmetric Z-sec:lions

'-I = 21'(' ~ II ,. 1r J '/, 2/}

(1(;1»

where L = unbraced length

1",. = moment of inertia of compression portion of section about section gravit)' axis parallel to web, calculated for the unreduced section'

d = depth of scction

(13)

Flexural Members

10-17

The CI> can be conservatively taken as unity or calculated from

IU, (AI,)'

CI> = 1.75 + 1.0.'5 -1 + 0.3 - ~ 2.3

to 2 M2

(17)

where M, is the smaller of the two bending moments M, and M2 at the ends of the unbraced length. M,/M. is positive for reverse-curvature bending and negative for singlecurvature bending. If the moment at any point along L is larger than both M, and M2, Cb = I. Also, for members subject to combined axial load and bending, Cb = 1.

For sections symmetrical only about the x-axis:

if M, > 0.5M.

(18a)

{My (1 -~)

M, = '

M,

(J8b)

The moment M, in Eqs, (18) is given by the following. For bending about the axis of symmetry" (x-axis) oriented so that the shear-center coordinate x" is negative

(1 Dn)

For bending about the !I-axis

M, = C,A<T" (j + C, CTF

/+ ,-f,~)

(ft'.!:

(1 Db)

where rf, = Vr~ + r; + 1'1. r"r. = radii of gyration 7r2E

U('X = (KxLJryJ2 7f·E

<T,y = (KyL./ry)2

<T, = <T, defined in Art. 10

A = 1',,11 cross-sectional urea

e,l' = O.H - O.'lM,/M2, where M, a"d !112 are as ddlned in Eq. (17)

Cs = -I- 1 for moment causing compression on shear-center side of centroid, and -I for moment causing tension on shear-center side of centroid

j = 21/y (Lx' ciA -I- L"!l2 ciA) - XI)

Exnmplu 2 Di-Iuruuno the ulluwuhlc ruunu-ut , hased on the Iuitiation of yiclJillg. of the section shown in Fig. 12, with the compression Hallge braced against lateral buckling and with 1;" = 50 ksl,

Fur the first approximation assume U compressive stress f = F!/ = 50 ksi in the top Ilbers, and that the web is fully eflecttve.

, COMI'I\ESSION FLANCE. io]! = lA71/0.0()0 = 24.5 < 60. O.K. (Art. 4). k = 0.43 (Art. 5). From 1;'15. (J),

1.052 , r5iJ

A = v'CGi3 X 24.5 V 29,5iiO = 1.619 > 0.673

p = I - 0.22/1.61 !J = 0.534

1.619

!J = 0.531 X 1..t71 = 0.786 in (E'I.2b)

'Alternatively. M,. hy Eq. (lOa) IIIay he userl Ior this cuse.

10·18

Doslgn 01 Cold-Formod Stool Structural Mombers

Effective-section properties:

I' uhout own axis"

Effective Distance Y

length L, from top

Elements in fiher, in

Web 5.692 3.000

Upper corner! 0.195 0.075

Lower corner! 0.195 5.925

Compression llnnge 0.786 0.030

Tension flange l.'I71 5.970

Sum 8.33!) Ly

17.076 0.015

1.155 0.024 8.782

27.052

51.228 (l.001

(;.846 0.001

52.428 I I (l.504

15.368

-I' denotes moment of inertia of line element. iGeometry of corners from Fig. 1_

15.:lii8

Distance from top fiber tu r-uxis = 27.052/H.:l39 = 3.2,11 in. Since this is greater thun half the beam depth, the lop fiber stress, 50 kxi. governs as assumed.

wzn. (Art.ii)

!: = 3.2·(·( - 0.151 X 50 = ,(7.(j3 ksi (cumprcssiun)

I :l.2.(o1

j: = _ 2.7.% -- 0.154 X 50 = -10.11 ksl (tensiun)

2 3.21-1

of = -10.11 = -0.11,(2) -0.236 -17 .ii:1

I - of = I - (--U.tH2) = !.IH2

k = ,1 -I- 2 X !.IH2' + 2 X 1.812 = 20.1'''' h = w = 5.(;92 in

~ = 5.(;02 = 94.9 < 200

t o.oeo

From Eq, (6),

O.K. (Art. 7)

,,= ~ X!H 87 '17.(i3 = 0.89:) > 0.ii73

y'20.IIH 2!),500

= 1 - 0.22/0.8U3 = 0.844

p 0.IHl3

b,. = O.IH,( X :'.%2 = ,!.IlI)'! (E'I. 21l)

b2 = ~ = 4.8()'! = 2A02

2 2

_ 4.801 = I 250

hI - 3 - (--0.8,12) .'

III -I- b. = 1.2:'01 2.·102 = 3.H52

From E'ls. (I),

Fig. 12

Beam Webs

10-19

The compression portion of the web Is bused on the effective section = Ycg - 0.154 = 3.0!) in. Since hI + b2 > 3.09, it must he taken as :l.09. This verifies the assumption that the web is fully clfective. Therefore,

I; = I{ + Ly2 - Ly~g = 15.36B + 11 0.504 - 8.339 X 3.2H· = 311.116 ;,,' 1, = 1;1 = 38.116 X 0.060 = 2.287 in'

S, = l.!_ = 2.287 = 0.705 in'

Ycg 3.244

M" = S,F. = 0.705 X 50 = 35.25 in-kips

M" 35.25

M. = n = 1.67 = 21.11 in-kips

12. Boom Webs The strength of a cold-formed steel web element is typically limited by local instability resulting from bending, shear, web crippling, or combinations of bending and shear or web crippling. The shear capacity of a web element is usually controlled by buckling.

The AI~I allowable shear V. for unreinforced webs is given by the following:

Forhjt";;3.19 ~

V. = 0.88t2-v'F.E ,,;; O.4F/lt (20a)

..

..

For hit > 3.19 \IE/F.

(20b)

The specification also provides formulas for allowable shear in webs with transverse stiffeners.

If the web consists of two sheets, the sheets are considered separately, each carrying its share of t he total shear.

Combined Bending aiul Shear. For beams with unreinforeed webs the moment M and shear V must satisfy the following equation:

(:r + ( :.r ,,;; 1 (21)

where M. = allowable moment when only bending exists V" = allowable shear when only shear exists

Crinnling. To guard against crippling of Hat webs which have no stiffeners at supports or at other points of concentrated load, the allowable load I', for single webs is determined by Ihe following equations, which are given here in a different form than in the AISI specification.

1. Opposing loads spaced greater than 1.511:

a. Load or reaction at end, shapes with stiffened flanges:

1'. = t2I'~(l.')3 - 0.0IF,)(5.42 - O.~lll) (I -I- O.O/N) (22t1)

b. Load or reaction at end, shapes with unstiffened flanges:

r, = t2F,(1.33 - O.OlF.) (3.55 - 0.00:5511) (1 + O.~IN) (221))

If fijt > I, the value of P, by Eqs. (22) must be reduced by multiplying by 1.15 - O.ISfi/t >

0.5. IfN/t > 60, the factor 1 + O.OIN/t lIlay be increased to 0.71 + 0.015Njt.

c. Interior load or reaction, shapes with stiffened and unstiffened Hanges:

1'. = t2F.(I - 0.00546F.)( 10.76 - 0.0~-1811) (I + 0.0~7N) (23)

If fi/t > I, the value of 1'. Blust be reduced by multiplying by 1.06 - 0.06fijt ,,;; 1. If N/t > 60, the factor I + O.,007Njt may he Increased to 0.75 -I- 0.01 IN/I.

2. Opposing loads spaced closer than 1.5h:

a. Load or reaction at end, shapes with stillened and unstillcncd !langes:

P" = 12FV(1.33 - O.OIF.) (-1 - 0.00:39/,) (I + O.~lN) (2'1)

"

..

..

'.,

r l :

I

, : ~ : 11 \ ,'I ,I:

I

, '

,!: ,I ,!

;: "I

10-20 Design of Cold-Form~d Steel Structural Members

If H/I > I, 1'" must be reduced by ~nulti'p~ying by 1.15 .: .?5R/t.> ,~ .. ~. /J, Interior load or reaction, shapes with stifl'ened and unstillcned [lunges:

( 0 0370h) ( 0.0013N)

I'" = t2F.(L22 - 0.00667Fy) 12.6 - -'-t- 1 + --t- (25)

If H/t > I, 1'" must be reduced by multiplying by.L06 - 0.06H/t:

The following notation is used in the above equations:

t = web thickness, in

h = nat depth of web, in

N = length of bearing, in

R = inside bend radius, in Fy = yield stress of web, ksi

Figure 1:3 shows various positions and spacing of the loads P and the correspondin!~ equations.

ez I I I 1 1111 ! III; I

~ 1.1 <I 5h

2: 1 5h - Eq (23) Eq 22)

Fig. 13

ComlJined Bending fllld Web Cd/Jpling. Unrei~lforeed single flat web~ with ce.>nce,~: trated loads or reactions in regions with high bending moments M must satisfy the Iollo«

ing interaction equation:

1.21' + M ,,;; 1.5

P" M"

where P = allowable load according to Eqs, (22) to (25)

Ai' = allowable moment for bending alone . I

Eqllatio;; (2.1) need not be applied at the interior supports of contin.uous :)eam~ W\I. I' twe; or ,~ore single webs (e.g., an inverted-hat section) if the ~om[lresslO~ ec ges o .. at pce~:. webs are laterally supported in the negative-moment region by ~ontlIluous 01 ml<;"lll tenti connected flange elements, ridge cladding, or later~1 bracll1~, and the spacl.ng of adiaccnt webs docs not exceed lOin. Furthermore, for this exception to apply, the p.os iti~e bending 'resis;ance of the beam should be at least no percent of the negative bend".

resistance.

(2(\)

Connections 10-21

13. Combined Bending and Axial Compression The AISI specification provision is given hy the following equations:

l' C""M, Cnn,My

-+--+ ,,;;1

r, u,», Maya"

P M, M

-+-+..::.:.y_,,;;1

PIIII u.; "-In!!1J

If 1'/ p. ,,;; 0,15, the following formula may be used in lieu of Eqs, (27):

P M, M

-+-+~";;1

P" M., M"y

(27fl)

(27b)

(28)

where P = applied axial load

M"My = appliod momcnts with respect to ccntroirlal axes of effective section determined for the axial load alone. For angles, My is to be taken as either the applied moment or the applied moment plus I'L/IOOO, whichever results in a lower value of P •.

1'. = allowable axial load according to formulas of Art. 10

1',,0 = allowable axial load according to the formulas of Art. 10 with F; = [<~ M""M"y = allowable moments about centroidal axes according to Eqs. (13) and (14) M",o,M.yo = allowable moments about centroidal axes according to Eqs. (13)

a,,"', = 1 - U.,I'/ P",

U, = factor of safety used to determine P" P", = 7r2Eh/(K"L,Y

I,. = moment of inertia of unreduced cross section about axis of bending L" = lIn111'aced length in plane of bending

K" = effective-length factor in plane of bending

The coefficients C"" and C",y are the values of e", according to the following:

G,n = 0.85 for members in frames subject to siclesway

e", = 0.6 - 0.1M,/M2 for rcstrained members in Irumes braced against sidesway and with no transverse load between supports in the plane of bending, where MI/M2 = ratio of smaller to larger moment at ends of the segment of member unbraced in the plane of bending, positive when member is bent in reverse curvature and negative when it is bent in single curvature

For compression members in frames braced against sidesway in the plane of loading and with transverse loading between their supports, C", may be determined by rational analysis, or taken as 0.85 for members with restrained ends and as 1 for members with unrestrained ends.

14. Connections Conventional methods '01' attachment, i.e., fusion welds, resistance welds, and holts, find application in cold-formed steel construction. However, because of the relatively small thickness of the members, other forms of joining, such as screws, seams formed by bending the members, staples, and adhesives are also commonly found.

Fusion welds are used for on-site welding to connect cold-formed to cold-formed or cold-formed to primary structural members. Welding of thin sheet, which is often galvanized, requires weld shapes and welding techniques that are often different from those used for welding thicker sheet, plate, and shapes. The puddle weld, which is the standard way of connecting a floor or roof deck to structural framing, is made by burning through the deck and then filling the hole with weld material. This gives the same type of connection as the plug weld in structural steel members, where the hole is predrilled or prepunched. The AISI specification provides both the nominal and allowable load-carrying capacity for a groove weld in a butt joint, arc spot weld, arc seam weld, fillet weld, aud Ilare groove weld. These welds represent the commonly used welds in cold-formed construction. A WS D 1.3-81 contains detailed provisions on welding procedures, control, lind inspection and should be consulted on all matters concerning fusion welding of coldformed steel members.

Resistance welding, in the form of spot welds, is primarily used for shop fabrication.

The AISI specification lists an allowable shear strength per spot weld.

Bolted connections in cold-formed steel construction may behave somewhat differently from bolted connections in heavierconstruction. The chief reason for this lies in the relative dimensions of sheets and bolts, the sheet thickness generally being a small fraction

10-22

Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

c of the bolt diameter. Extensive testing has shown that bolted, cold-formed steel connections are susceptible to any of the following four failure modes:

1. Shearing of the material parallel to the direction of load. This type of Inllure can be avoided by providing adequate edge distance between the center of the bolt hole and

the edge of the sheet in the direction parnllcl to the applied load. .

2. Tearing of the sheet perpendicular to the direction of loading. A failure 01 this· type is commonly referred to as a net section failure. It manifests itself as b~aring of the holt on the sheet, followed by tearing of the sheet at the bolt holes, perpen(hcular to the

direction of load.

3. Bearing of the bolt on the sheet. This failure mode is attributed to a lligh l~)calizcd

stress in the sheet at the point or contact of the bolt and the sheet. A bearing I:,ilure is indicated hy a piling up or the sheet material in front of the bolt in the direction 01 applied

load.

4. Shear and tension on the bolt. This failure mode is a function of the type of bolt,

e.g., A-307, A-325, A-449, and the holt threads with respect to the shear plane.

Unlike connections in heavy construction. the capacity of a cold-formed steel connection may be enhanced Significantly by the use of washers. under bot~l t!l~ bolt head and nut. The AISI specification contains specific design provislons for avoldlng each of the

above failure modes.

In regard to screws, staples, and other special but frequently used connectors. information on the strength characteristics should be obtained from the manufacturer because the grcat variety of such devices makes it difficult to develop lnlormatiou of a general

validity.

15. Wall Studs Cold-Ionucd stee-l sections have gained wide acceptance as wall framing

members. However. because or tlleir configuration and dimensions, they b.ck stability. Stability of wall framing momhcrs is achieved by their attachment to the wall sheathing material. Typically. the sheathing material is gypsum board. lignocellulosic hoard. fiberboard, or plywood. Such material is usually allixed to the cold-formed steel sections by means of screws or nails. which provide an ecunomical solution for hoth curtain walls and load-hearing walls. The AISI sp"dlication f.(ives design provisions for computtng the strength ofC> and Z-scction wall stllds tl",t arc braced by sheathinf.( materials.

16. Effects of Cold Forming on Steel Properties Cold working has marked cll'ccts on the mechanical properties of ductile metals. This results from a combination of strain hardening, strain aging, and the Buuschingcr ellect. In general. II.le yield strength can be mised considerably by cold workinl(. the tensile strength is alIeclcd to a lesser degree. and the ductility as measured by permanent elongation is reduced. When shapes arc made from Ilat sheet or plate by cold forming, dillercnt amounts of cold work arc performed in different parts of the section. The largest effects are produced in the corners and are more pronounced the sharper the corner. When cold forming is done in press brakes, the metal in the flat portions is little aflecred. but when roll forming is employed. the yield strength of the nat portions can also be raised. It follows that the stress-strain curve of an as-formed member dlllers [rom that of the flat material before forming. This stress-strain curve represents the weighted average of the individual curves for corner materials and for llnts. It cuu be ohtnincd directly by performing tcnsion or compression tests on short pieces of the as-formed member (so-called full-section tests), rather than on isolated coupons. The yicld strengths determined in such tests arc higher than those of the virgin material in hoth tension and compression. The magnitude of the increase

depends primarily on the pcrcr-nruge of corner area in the cross section. .

The AISI specification permits til<' delennination of the weighted yield point o{ the asformed member by two methods. One is to make full section tension or compression tests on short specimens cut from the formed member: the other is to calculate the wcighted-

average yield point using empirically derived equations. .. .

17. Tests for Spectal Cases In addition to thc full section test mentioned in Art. I () lor determining the nverage tension ami compression yield stress, the AISI spcciflcatiou also contains provislous for conducting tests for determining and confirming structural

performance. '. .

Tests for determining structural performance are sanctioned because the cokl-forming process makes it possible to produce an infinite number of different shapes. It is not feasible to develop design procedures to the point that they would be applicable to any

Shear Diaphragms

10-23

conceivabl? shape. Therefore, it may be necessary to employ tests rather than accepted methods (I{ calculations to define structural performance, However, tests should never be a substitute for calculations that can be made by acceptable methods With!ll the AlSI spcclflcation.

Tests for confirming structural performance are recognized by the AIS! specification for such situations where the manufacturer, the engineer. or a third party. e.g., a code olllclal. desires to confirm the performance of a cold-formed steel member whose strength has been calculated by the provisions of the specification. For such tests. the performance of the test specimen or assembly must exhibit the factor of safety implied in the applicable specification provision.

18. Industrial Storage Racks Iudustrial steel storage racks were developed to store palletizecl, containerized, or large unit loads usually placed in the rack by mechanical handling equipment. The height of a rack structure is limitcd only by the equipment used to store or retrieve the material. The design criteria for determining the structural performance of steel rack structures are contained in The Rack Manufacturers Institute specification for the Design. Testing. and Utilization of Industrlnl Steel Storage Racks."

19. Shear Diaphragms Roof and wall panels. when adequately interconnected, can reSist, loads a.cting bot~1 ~eq~endicular to their surface and in the plane of the panel system. rhe action of resisttng in-plane forces is commonly referrcd to as diaphragm action. By interconnecting the individual cold-formed steel panels. Iloor. roof, and wall diaphragms have been used successfully to resist wind and seismic loads in single and multistory buildings. Diaphragm systems are also used for bracing structural members. such as beams, wall studs, and columns against buckling in the plane of the diaphragm system. By recognizlug the synergy of the building elements. significant cost savings can be realized in a building project.

,.

G

"

Fig. 14 Shear diaphragm bracing against wind and seismic forces (schematic).

The action of a light-gage steel shear diaphragm is illustrated in Fig. 11. which shows the conventional steel framing of a one-story structure with roof panels in place, The framing is designed for vertical load only. Horizontal wind, earthquake. or other loads in the transverse direction are represented by the load IV in the plane of the roof deck. If the panels are merely fastened to the frame, hut not interconnected. they olfer little resistance to such loads, and special hracing or other measures must he provided. However, il they are interconnected hy intermittent seam welds or otherwise, as schematically shown, then the diaphragm so obtained, together with the longitudinal framing members 131' and ce. acts similarly to a plate girder supported at Be and FG by the shear walls ABeD and EFell (schematically indicated by the cross bracing). A dill'erence compared with normal plate-girder action exists because of the fact that such diaphragms, though possessing sizable shear strength. do not resist any significant Ilexurnl compression or tension in their own plane. Therefore, the entire moment is resisted by the perimeter members acting as flanges, the diaphragm supplying only the shear resistance. Shear stresses being equal in sections at right angles to each other, it is irrelevant whether individual panels nrc placed longitudinally or transversely (Fig. 14).

Although cold-formed steel diaphragms are widely used. there is no single recognized

! .

I

! OJ:

'. ;

10-24

Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

document for determining their performance, strength, and stiffness. The following four

methods arc commonly cited: .

J. The AISI method, Ref. 6

2. The Steel Deck Institute (SOl) method, Ref. 7

3. The. Trl-Servlces method, Ref. 8

4. The European method, Ref. 9

. 20. Folded-Plate and Shell Roofs Shear-rigid diaphragms are also used in shell structures (or lightweight roofs. The types of shells that can be so contructed are limited by two re(l'l~rements. (J) S~lrfaee members of the type of Fig. 3 are fabricated straight; they can he sl.lghtly wa!ved 111 place hut are not produced with longitudinal curvature except for special, propnell~ry systems .. Hence, they can be used only for shells which have straight generators. (2) Since such diaphragms, 111 their own planes, resist shear but not normal stress, they can he used only for shells where the surface proper is essentially subject to shear and where special members can be provided to resist normal forces of tension or compression. Two types of shells satisfy both these conditions; folded plates and hyperbolic paraboloids.

A. simple folded-plate roof is shown in Fig. IS11. Folded-plate action, in general, recoglllzes the fact that any constituent plate is very rigid in its own plane and quite flexible perpendicular to its plane. Therefore, any load such as P applied at a fold line is resisted by the two abutting plates in the manner shown in Fig. ISb. Under such loading each plate deflects in its own plane, and the actual deflection ab of the fold line can be found from the construction of Fig. ISc. In customary reinforced-concrete folded-plate structures, the plates themselves resist the longltudlnul flexural tension and comprcssiou : stresses as well as the shear stresses. In light-gage steel structures, the plates resist shear only, an~1 it is necessary to provide special fold-line members to resist the longitudinal forces (Fig. lSt/.) They consist of simple hent plates for proper bearing and connection of the transverse panels. Various other folded-plate roof shapes are shown in Fig. 15e. Hound structures with radially arranged folds are also possible.

Th? structure acts in the following manner: Each inclined or horizontal plane is made up o( panels which span transversely between fold-line members and arc designed as xinrpie spans. At any fold-line member the two reactions arc combined into a single [orce, such as l' in Fig ISiJ, and this force is decomposed in the direction of the two ahllttin)! plates as shown. Thus, in general, anyone plate is loaded by one such load in its OWl; plane .at each of its two 101!gitlldinal edges and is designed for this loading as a beam spnnnuu; between the end Irames. The longitudinal forces in the fold-line members arc obtainccl by dividing the bending moment by the distance between these members. Thus, ' each (old-I.ine m~mber, acting as a flange, receives a longitudinal force from each abutting plate and IS designed for the sum of these two forces. The shear callsed by the two ;11-

p

P

.~"/

b

(b) (e)

P,

(d) (e)

Fig.15 Folded-plate roof structures. (F,.om Iie]. 10.)

References

10-25

plane edge loads is carried by the diaphragm, which is attached to the end frames by shear-resistant conncctions, generally puddle welds or fillet welds.

Because the plate action in such structures is not continuous across fold lines, as it is in reinforced-concrete folded plates, small di!Terences in fold-line deflections do not affect moments and shears, which makes sliperflllolis the type of deflection analysis which is freqllently necessary in reinforced concrete. Also, because of the longitlldinal flexibility of such diaphragms (bellows effect of panel deformations) strain continuity of the plates meeting at one fold line neeclnot be considered. These two features make the design of light-gage steel folded-plate structures much simpler than that of reinforced concrete. Details and full-scale test confirmation arc given in Her. 10.

Fig. 16 lIyperbolic-paraboloid shell.

Concave down parabola

----~J

--------

Hyperbolic paraboloids are doubly curved shells made up by two families of straight generators intersecting at right angles (Fig. 10). When properly connected to edge members, such a shell, according to elementary theory, is subject to tensile membrane stresses along the concave-down parabolas, and to equal compression membrane stresses along concave-up parabolas, i.e., along lines at 4S' to the edges. This state of stress is equivalent to pure shear in the directions of the generators. Consequently, if panels are laid in the direction of one set of generators and are interconnected to form a diaphragm, under uniform load this diaphragm is subject to shear only, a state of stress to which it is well suited. The shear is transferred to the edge members by suitable connections; these mernhers are then stressed in tension or compression, depending on the manner in which the shell is supported at the corners. Details and test confirmation are given in Ref. 11.

REFERENCES

I

2.

3.

(~! 4.

~j:l

I.. 5.

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'\'~i Ii.

~,

l'

K~: 7.

·~W

\. 8.

:~1

1'.;;:~

9.

I O.

I 1 "Col(I-Fonncd Steel Design Manual." Auiertcau Iron uucl Steel Institute, Washlugf uu. D.C., 1987.

"Stainless Steel Cold-Formed Strudural Design 1 v f nuual." American Iron and Steel Institute,

Washington, D.C., 1974.

Y". Wei-Well: Cold-Formed Steel Vesigll, Wiley-Interscience. New York, 1985.

Pekoz, Teoman: "Development of a Unified Approach to the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members," Report SG 86-4, American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, D.C., 1986. "Specification for the Design. Testing and Utilization of Industrial Steel Storage Hacks," Hack Manuf'aC'lIlr<'rs Iusl ilute, Charlotte, NC, I nil".

"U('sign of 1.11~bt (;a!~1' Steel J)laplll·a~~lIls." Alllt'rit'ali lrou und Sted 11I~lltlite. Wn"ihlll~~lon. D.C.,

1\)67.

Luttrell, L. D.: Steel Veck Ilislitut" Diaphraglll Vesigll Manual, Steel Deck Institute. SI. Louis, MO,

1981.

Department of the Arilly-TM 5-809·10. Department of the Navy-NAVDOCKS-I'·355, and

Department of the Air Force-AFM 88-3, "Seismic Design for Buildings," Washington, D.C.,

1973.

European Convention for Construction Steelwork: "European. nccommendations for the Stressed

Skin Design or Steel Structures." ECCS·XVJI-77-1 E. Constrado, England, 1977.

Nilson. A. H.: Folded Plate Strllctures of Light Gage Steel. J. Sll'IIcl. Div. ASCE, Oclober, 1961. Gergely, Peter. and George Winter: Experimental Investigation of Thin-Steel Hyperholic Pnraholoicl Structures.}. Struct. Div. ASCE. October 1972; Ilanavalkar, 1'. V .. and Peter Gergely: Analysis ofThin.Steelll)'pcrbo(ic Paraboloid Shells,}. Struct. Diu. ASGE, November 1972.

- On Writing
- The Shell Collector
- I Am Having So Much Fun Here Without You
- The Rosie Project
- The Blazing World
- Hyperbole and a Half
- Quiet Dell
- After Visiting Friends
- Missing
- Birds in Fall
- The Great Bridge
- Who Owns the Future?
- The Wife
- On Looking
- Catch-22
- A Farewell to Arms
- Goat Song
- Birth of the Cool
- Girl Reading
- Galveston
- Telex from Cuba
- Rin Tin Tin
- The White Tiger
- The Serialist
- No One Belongs Here More Than You
- Love Today
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- All My Puny Sorrows
- Fourth of July Creek
- The Walls Around Us

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