Biography of Hazrat Umar-e-Farooq (RA
Second Caliph (582-644 C.E) Hazrat Umar Farooq (r.a) is the most respectful personality in Muslim Ummah after Abu Bakr (r.a). He is also one of the Companions (r.a) of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w), who was given the reward of Heaven in the world by Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w). He was born in the tribe of "Adi", a branch of Quresh, 40 years before migration of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w), from Makkah to Madinah and 13 years after the incident of Aam-ul-Feel in 582 C.E. His name was "Abu Hafs", a patronymic name of old traditions. He was the strongest and brave one in all the Makkah. No body in Makkah existed in His youth who could dare to fight with Him. But after embracing Islam He was the most fair and just in ever. On 6th year of Prophet hood by Muhammad (s.a.w.w), he embraced Islam. His embracing Islam is the most popular story of the Islamic history. He was the one who took Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w) and a small group of Muslims in Kaaba to offer Namaz for the first time in history. The wordings to Kuffars was: "If anyone want to make his children Orphan and wife as a widow, do stop us!". The same words were heard by the Kuffars again at the time of migration of Muslims to Madinah. Hazrat Umar Farooq (r.a) earned the title of "Al-Farooq" (the one who makes the clear difference between Right and Wrong) from the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w). He participated in all the battles of Islam with Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w). History notes that He donated his half of the property when being asked for by Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w) in the way of ALLAH. Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w) noted and said many times that it looks, Umar speaks and Quran is bestowed upon. Few examples of ALLAH's rule are; Hijab, offering 2 prayers as "Nafal" at "Baab-e-Ibrahim" in Kaaba, solution for the prisoners of Badr, not to offer Duua on "Munafiq" grave etc.... Hazrat Umar Farooq (r.a) passed his great Caliphate of approximately 10 years after the death of Hazrat Abu Bakr (r.a). His Caliphate is the most popular and memorable Caliphate according to fair and just amongst all others. A Jew named "Abu-Lolou-Feroz" inserted a dagger in His back, while He was offering the Fajr prayers to Muslims in the position of prostrating (Sajdah). Jews kept the name of a stone in name of their partner who martyred Hazrat Umar Farooq (r.a) as "Feroza" (a sky blue like stone usually been wore in the form of a ring in finger. Hazrat Umar Farooq (r.a) breathed his last on 26th Dhul-Hajj, 23 Hijri. He is buried next to the side of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w).
MILITARY AND CONQUESTS:
The tempo of war increased as Hazrat Umar was elected as Caliph. Muslims were fighting on two fronts ± In Syria they were engaged with the powerful forces of the mighty Roman Empire and in Iraq they were arrayed (grouped) against the formidable (dreadful) forces of Persians. Puran Dikht, who ascended the Persian throne, had appointed Rustam as the commander±inchief of the army. All these arrangements could not check the Muslim advance and the Persians under the command of Narsi were routed at Kasker. Rustam appointed Bahman, a sworn (confirmed) enemy of Muslims, as the commander of Persian forces in Iraq. A bloody battle was fought at Beruit in 635 A.D. in which the Persians beat a hasty retreat leaving behind a large number of dead bodies Muthanna, the Muslim General, declared that he had taken part in several
a Persian chief. Armenia. The wise policy followed by the second Caliph of Islam in the selection of his generals and his liberal terms offered to the conquered races were instrumental in the lightning victories won by the Muslims. Hurmuzan. I am a servant of Allah (God) and His people. who was sworn (confirmed) enemy of Muslims. Hazrat Umar was a great military strategist. truthfulness and integrity of Muslims in general and their Caliph in particular strengthened the faith of the non-Muslims in the promise given by Muslims. Hurmuzan much struck with the honesty of the Caliph accepted Islam. A study of the history of Tabari would reveal that Farooq-the great. was captured in the battle-field and was brought in the presence of the Caliph at Medina. He knew that he was sure to be beheaded for his massacre of Muslims. guided his armies on the battle fronts and controlled their movements. The teachings of the Holy Prophet of Islam had infused a new spirit in the supporters of the new faith. Thereupon the great Caliph made a memorable speech before the Medinites. Persia. Muslims ruled over an area of 22530 square miles which included Syria.
HONESTY AND TRUTHFULNESS:
. ³Brothers of Islam! I am not your ruler who wants to enslave you. he would not drink water any more. It is my duty to make you comfortable in every way and it will be an evil day for me if I wish you to wait on me every now and then. A handful of illequipped and unskilled Muslims had overthrown two of the mightiest Empires of the world.
Leadership Styles and Qualities:
A study of the military operation would reveal the factors which were responsible for the sweeping victories of Muslims in such a short period. Kerman. The Caliph kept his word and did not kill him. saying that he might be killed while drinking it. Mekran and part of Baluchistan. The water was brought. Iraq. he issued detailed instructions regarding the conduct of operations. sitting thousands of miles away. but he was reluctant to drink it. who fought simply for the sake of Allah. Previously 100 Persians could overpower 1000 Arabs. I have been entrusted with the heavy responsibility of running the caliphate administration. The wily Hurmuzan at once threw away the water saying that since he got the assurance of the Caliph. Egypt. Azerbaijan. Kurdistan. but the tables had been turned now. I want to educate you not through my precepts (law) but by my practice´. He thought out a plan and asked for a glass of water.engagements against the Persians in pre-Islamic days. The great caliph laid sharp stress on the moral side of the conquests by offering liberal terms to the conquered races and by granting them all sorts of privileges which are denied to the conquered races even in this advanced modern age. The unsuspecting Caliph assured him that he would not be killed unless he drank it. During the reign of the second Caliph.
who visited different counties and enquired into public complaints. saying.´ The great Caliph had established separate departments for different subjects which were headed by efficient and honest officers. The judiciary was fee from the control of the governors and the Qazis (judges) imparted justice free form fear or favors. had constructed a palace there. He was the first man who separated judiciary from the
. ³If such frankness is not exhibited by the people. On another complaint. Governor of Kufa. one was a GENERAL ASSEMBLY which was convened when the state was confronted with critical matters and the other was SPECIAL ASSEMBLY comprised of persons of unquestionable honesty who were consulted on routine and urgent matter. He at once dispatched Muhammad Ansari who pulled down a portion of the palace which hindered the easy entry of the public. Justice during his reign was supervised by Qazis (Civil Judges) who were appointed by the Caliph and were free from the control of the Governors. Saad was deposed from his post. Islam being autonomous (self sufficient) in religion. He had separated the judiciary from the executive. Two consultative bodies functioned during his reign. the Amil (Governor) of Egypt had kept a gate keeper for his house. if we do not listen to them. a remarkable achievement which has not been achieved even in the most modern states of the present day. we would be like them.EQUALITY AND FAIRNESS:
The true equality as preached and practiced during the Caliphate Rashida has hardly any parallel in the history of mankind. Even the officials working thousands of miles away from Medina could not dare to do anything against the interests of the people and the state. Muhammad Ansari who was immediately sent to Egypt found the report to be correct and brought the Governor to Medina. None could ever contemplate (consider) gaining the displeasure of the Iron Caliph. attained its full stature in the Caliphate of Umar. A report was received by the Caliph that Ayaz bin Ganam. The plant of equality Islam planted by the Prophet. The Caliph humiliated him publicly. The fundamental difference between the administration of the tyrants and his was that while the tyrants used rod for their own good. Such strict measures adopted by Hazrat Umar ensured an efficient and ideal administration in his vast state. At times a commission was appointed by the Caliph to enquire into various charges. Once a complaint was lodged with the Caliph that Hazrat Saad bin Waqas. The Prophet (peace be upon him) himself did not take momentous decisions without consultation.
COMPLIANCE AND OBSERVANCE:
Hazrat Muhammad bin Muslamah Ansari. Umar used it for the good of the people.
JUSTICE AND INTEGRITY:
Caliph Umar is particularly known for his administration of impartial justice. the Quran had explicitly laid it down as the fundamentals of Muslim policy that the affair of the state should be conducted by consultation and counsel. The audience wanted to silence him but the Caliph prevented them from doing so. a person of unquestionable integrity was appointed as the wandering investigator. they are good for nothing and.
In the fixation of monthly honorarium he gave preference to those who were close Companions of the Prophet.e. He never favored his own pious and learned son Abdullah bin Umar. The administration of justice during his time was perfectly impartial and he himself set an example by thoroughly carrying out the orders of the Qazi (Judge). He was intrinsically conscientious (careful). ³the Hakim-ush-sharaa. his motto had always been the service of his people above self. for law rules through the declaration of justice and the power of Governor carries out the declaration of it. he returned the lands to their tillers who were mostly non-Muslims. but to serve them. and the remaining stripes were delivered on his grave. I have not appointed you to rule over your people. so much so that with the transfer of their lands they were also transferred. When Umar conquered these countries. Thus the Islamic administration even in its infancy proclaims in word and in deed the necessary separation between judicial and executive power.´ Such separation of executive from judiciary has not been attained by some of the most civilized states in the modern times. Once his own son Abu Shahma was reported to have drunk wine The Caliph lashed his son with his own hands till he died. ³This is the peace.
The success and efficiency of his administration mainly depended on his strict compliance over the staff. otherwise he observed equality even between the Quraish and the slaves. ³The judge was named and is still named. No Muslim will be allowed to stay in their churches which will not be demolished. Even the Syrian Christians had no right over their lands. They will have full freedom of religion and will not be harmed in any way. When a governor was appointed. i. ³says Von Hammer. the latter complained ³Asama had never surpassed
.. He granted peace to the Christians of Ellia who had surrendered. to the inhabitants of Ellia. thus ensuring free and even-handed justice. the slave of Allah.´
PERSONALITY AND NATURE:
The greatness of Caliph Umar is apparent from his sympathetic treatment of his non-Muslim subjects. The history of the world cannot produce a single instance in which a state or public leader showed so much regard for justice and the rule of law as did Umar. so that people may follow you.executive.´ Hazrat Umar possessed an exemplary character and practiced himself what he preached. When he fixed higher salary of Asama bin Zaid than that of his son Abdullah. ruler through the law. You should set an example with your good conduct. The peace terms run as follows. Umar was so firm in the enforcement of fair justice that he did not spare even his near and dear ones if they were at fault. ³Remember. Before the advent of Islam the rights of other races in the Roman and Persian Empires were worse than those of slaves. so that people could know the terms of appointment and could hold him responsible for abusing his power. his letter of appointment which detailed his duties and privileges was publicly read. Addressing a group of governors once he said. granted by Umar.
Once during his illness his physician prescribed honey for him.a) petrol till late night to see needy and helpful people in streets and houses. The Empress returned the bottles filled with precious stones. that there was nothing in the kettle except water and a few pieces of stones and that she was lulling (calming) them into the belief that the food was being cooked for them. he asked the woman what was the matter. if he was wrong.
Why I choose Hazrat Umar (r.´ The pious Caliph at once replied. The Patriarch (head of tribe) of Jerusalem was profoundly struck by the respect for social equality shown by the esteemed Caliph when he observed the slave riding the camel and the Caliph leading him by the rope. ³But he was closer and dearer to the Prophet. he never leave his own relative.w) the angles seen by the man or not´ then Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: yes. When Hazrat Umar learned of it. that Hazrat Umar (r. Hazrat Umar (r. mean the work of public. Hazrat Umar (r.´ Unstinted service to humanity was his foremost concern. She told him that the children were hungry.a):
No doubt. once presented a few bottles of perfumes to the Empress of Rome. Umme Kulsum.a) said ³then its ok I handle them´.8 million square meters. After waiting for sometime.a) does his work own. He was very justice man. He is also the person that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) tell Hazrat Umar ³you are in haven´ during his living in earth.a) is great leader in the world after Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
.me in the service of Islam.a.w.a) asked to Muhammad (PBUH). The Caliph had great respect for the social equality of man. Tons of honey was kept in the Baitul Mal. Hazrat Umar (r. Yarsool Allah (s.a) has quality Action speaks louder than words. he observed in a house a woman cooking something and two girls sitting besides her crying for bread. His wife. but he did not take a drop of it unless he was permitted by the people¶s committee. He roamed about during the night often incognito (undercover) in order to acquaint (notify) himself with the condition of his people. He ruled area of 1. Honesty and integrity were the highest virtues in the character of Umar. Then Hazrat Umar (r. once Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) teaching on grave process that ³grave time is very though one when man died the initial process difficult for man. I think that¶s the good qualities of a leader.a) is great leader that only Hazrat Umar established the administrative system police system. Hazrat Umar (r. he deposited the jewels in the Baitul Mal. angles were in frightening appearance´. Hazrat Umar (r. One night as he was roaming outside Medina. Hazrat Umar (r.a) is very brave man.a) was second caliph in Islamic history. Hazrat Umar (r. when man alive again angles asked some question to man in very dangerous and frightened way.