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fuzzytrc

# fuzzytrc

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01/12/2011

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# Fuzzy Traffic Control

Group Members: 1.Somjeet Roy - BCA/3519/08

2.Raspreet Kaur - BCA/3568/08 3.Sumit kumar - BCA/3545/08

Standard Traffic Lights   

Each Indicator or Characteristic is represented by a single traffic light, red, yellow or green in the standard traffic light representation. There is no smooth transition, just two sharp lines separating red-yellow and yellow-green. The meaning of the lights can be very sensitive to the location of these cuts.

Aim of Fuzzy Traffic Control System
The aim of using fuzzy methods is attempt to model expert·s thinking similar to the situations where development of an exact mathematical model of the phenomenon is very difficult or even impossible« The main goals of fuzzy logic in the traffic signal control are:  Improving of traffic safety in the intersection«  Maximizing the capacity of the intersection«  Minimizing the delays«  Clarifying the traffic environment«  Influencing the route choices«  Fuzzy logic traffic lights control is an alternative to conventional traffic lights control which can be used for a wider array of traffic patterns at an intersection«  A fuzzy logic controlled traffic light uses sensors that count cars instead of proximity sensors which only indicate the presence of cars«  This provides the controller with traffic densities in the lanes and allows a better assessment of changing traffic patterns«  As the traffic distributions fluctuate, the fuzzy controller can change the signal light accordingly«

Crisp Traffic Light Controller
A ³crisp´ traffic light indicator  

sharp transitions between colours make positioning the boundaries very critical A lot of information is lost

Fuzzy Traffic Control: Sensors
There are two ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS placed on the road for each lane«  The first sensor behind each traffic lights counts the number of cars passing the traffic lights«  The second sensor which is located behind the first sensor counts the number of cars coming to the intersection at distance D from the lights«  The number of cars between the traffic lights is determined by the difference of the reading between the two sensors«  The distance D, chosen to be 200ft., is used to determine the maximum density of cars allowed to wait in a very crowded situation. This is done by adding the number of cars between to paths and dividing it by the total distance. For instance, the number of cars between the East and West street is (s1-s2)+(s5-s6)/400.

Fuzzy Rule Base   

The inference mechanism in the fuzzy logic controller resembles that of the human reasoning process«This is where fuzzy logic technology is associated with artificial intelligence« The rule is illustrated as follows: If there are TOO MANY cars (TMY) at the arrival side and SMALL no. of cars (VS) queuing then extend the GREEN light LONGER(L) « If there are ALMOST NO cars (AN) at the arrival side and VERY SMALL number of cars on the other side (VS) then do not EXTEND the green light at all (Z) «

Fuzzy Logic Controller
Fuzzy logic controller is responsible for controlling the length of green time according to traffic conditions« If the traffic is heavier on the north or south lanes and the traffic on east lane is less then the traffic light stays green longer for the north or south lanes«

Fuzzy Logic Traffic Light Controller Design
A fuzzy logic controller was designed for an isolated 4-lane traffic intersection: north, south, east and west« In the traffic lights controller two fuzzy input variables are chosen: the quantity of the traffic on the arrival side (Arrival) and the quantity of traffic on the queuing side (Queue)« If the north and south side is green then this would be the arrival side while the west and east side would be considered as the queuing side, and vice-versa«     

The output fuzzy variable would be the EXTENSION TIME needed for the green light on the arrival side (Extension)« Thus based on the current traffic conditions the fuzzy rules can be formulated so that the output of the fuzzy controller -- will extend or not the current green light time« If there is no extension of the current green time, the state of the traffic lights will immediately change to another state, allowing the traffic from the alternate phase to flow.

State Machine  



The STATE MACHINE controls the sequence of states that the fuzzy traffic controller should cycle through« There is one state for each phase of the traffic light« There is one default state which takes place when no incoming traffic is detected. This default state corresponds to the green time for a specific approach, usually to the main approach. In the sequence of states, a state can be skipped if there is no vehicle queues for the corresponding approach«

Conclusion
The fuzzy logic traffic lights controller performs better than the fixed-time controller or due to its flexibility«  The flexibility here involves the number of vehicles sensed at the incoming junction and the extension of the green time. For example when a car is detected, the green time is extended for another 5 or 10 seconds until the maximum time limit is reached.«  In the fixed-time controller, the green time is not extended whatever may be the density of cars at the junction... 

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