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How Holograms Work
by Tracy V. Wilson
Browse the article How Holograms Work
Introduction to How Holograms Work If you want to see a hologram, you don't have to look much farther than your wallet. There are holograms on most driver's licenses, ID cards and credit cards. If you're not old enough to drive or use credit, you can still find holograms around your home. They're part of CD, DVD and software packaging, as well as just about everything sold as "official merchandise."
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Unfortunately, these holograms -- which exist to make forgery more difficult -aren't very impressive. You can see changes in colors and shapes when you Image courtesy Consumer Guide Products move them back and forth, but they usually just look like sparkly pictures or Mass-produced holograms smears of color. Even the mass-produced holograms that feature movie and often look more like comic book heroes can look more like green photographs than amazing 3-D green photographs than 3-D images. images.
On the other hand, large-scale holograms, illuminated with lasers or displayed in a darkened room with carefully directed lighting, are incredible. They're two-dimensional surfaces that show absolutely precise, three-dimensional images of real objects. You don't even have to wear special glasses or look through a View-Master to see the images in 3-D. If you look at these holograms from different angles, you see objects from different perspectives, just like you would if you were looking at a real object. Some holograms even appear to move as you walk past them and look at them from different angles. Others change colors or include views of completely different objects, depending on how you look at them.
If you tear a hologram in half, you can still see the whole image in each piece. The same is true with smaller and smaller pieces. Holograms have other surprising traits as well. If you cut one in half, each half contains whole views of the entire holographic image. The same is true if you cut out a small piece -- even a tiny fragment will still contain the whole picture. On top of that, if you make a hologram of a magnifying glass, the holographic version will magnify the other objects in the hologram, just like a real one.
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or light that is all one wavelength. for his assistance with this article." but holography does require lenses. It's a layer of lightsensitive compounds on a transparent surface. Special Thanks Special thanks to Dr. which divides the beam of light into two parts.htm/printable Once you know the principles behind holograms. a camera's lens focuses light. The other beam. Transmission holograms create a 3-D image when monochromatic light. understanding how they can do all this is easy. which is necessary for creating a hologram. holograms that use a red laser rely on emulsions that respond most strongly to red light. In some cases. Making a Hologram It doesn't take very many tools to make a hologram. The difference between holographic and photographic film is that holographic film has to be able to record very small changes in light that take place over microscopic distances. Depending on the type of laser you're using.howstuffworks. 2. 4. so we'll start with an overview of what it takes to make one. you may also need a shutter to control the exposure.transmission and reflection. Holographic film: Holographic film can record light at a very high resolution. Professor of Physics at the University of North Carolina at Asheville. like photographic film.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. One beam. light and your brain work together make clear. Mirrors: These direct the beams of light to the correct locations. All of a hologram's properties come directly from the process used to create it. There are lots of different ways to arrange these tools -. the mirrors have to be absolutely clean. A beam splitter: This is a device that uses mirrors and prisms to split one beam of light into two beams. but the light from a laser pointer tends to be less coherent and less stable. This article will explain how a hologram. this article discusses transmission holograms viewed with the help of a laser except where noted. Along with the lenses and beam splitter. reflects off of the object and onto the photographic emulsion. usually helium-neon (HeNe) lasers. Dirt and smudges can degrade the final image. 1. Each of the two beams passes through a diverging lens and becomes a wide swath of light rather than a narrow beam. are common in holography. Lenses: Holography is often referred to as "lensless photography. hits the emulsion without reflecting off of anything other than a mirror. Chuck Bennett. 3. Reflection holograms create a 3-D image when laser light or white light reflects off of their surface. which can make it hard to get a good image. while the lenses used in holography cause the beam to spread out. Transmission and Reflection There are two basic categories of holograms -. You can make one with: A laser: Red lasers. the reference beam. The laser points at the beam splitter. Some types of holograms use lasers that produce different colors of light as well. Mirrors direct the paths of these two beams so that they hit their intended targets. For the sake of simplicity.com/hologram.we'll stick to a basic transmission hologram setup for now. it needs to have a very fine grain. However. 3-D images. 2 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . In other words. 5. travels through them. Some home holography experiments rely on the diodes from red laser pointers. the object beam.
four basic steps happen in an instant: 1. If you don't have enough space for such a large table. A good option for adding a little light to the room without affecting the finished hologram is a safelight. you have to keep your lens clean. These are under the table's top surface. Holography labs and professional studios often use specially designed tables that have honeycomb-shaped support layers resting on pneumatic legs. safelights like this one may interfere with the final image. holograms are recordings of reflected light. how much the lens magnifies the scene and how much extra light you add to the mix. recording its amplitude. Holograms and Photographs When you take a picture with a film camera. How Cameras Work and How Film Works. These precautions sound a little like photography advice taken to the extreme -. and they dampen vibration. The darker the room is. there are green and blue-green safelights made specifically for holography. Making them requires steps that are similar to what it takes to make a photograph: 3 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . Like photographs. For these reasons. control light levels and hold the camera absolutely still. You can make your own holography table by placing inflated inner tubes on a low table. You can make lots of changes to this process. This is because making a hologram is a lot like taking a picture with a microscopic level of detail. Light passes through a lens and hits the photographic emulsion on a piece of film.htm/printable Getting a good image out of this setup requires a suitable work space. the four basic steps are still the same. To make clear holograms. The shutter closes. and so can the movement of your body. like the ones used in darkrooms.when you take pictures with a camera. 2. Heating and air conditioning systems can blow the air around. but these won't be as steady as a larger setup.howstuffworks. 3. Since darkroom safelights are often red and holography often uses red light. as it reflects off of the scene in front of you. In some ways. We'll look at how holograms are like photographs in the next section.com/hologram. your eyes and brain interpret the light that reflects from the picture as a representation of the original image. regardless of changes to the setup. like how far the shutter opens. Holography also requires a working surface that can keep the equipment absolutely still -.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. the requirements for this space are more stringent than the requirements for your equipment. 4. In addition. your breath and even the dissipation of your body heat. But no matter what changes you make. red darkroom using cups of sand or sugar to hold each piece of equipment. then placing a box full of a thick layer of sand on top of it. or intensity. In photography. you'll need to turn the heating and cooling system off and wait for a few minutes after setting up your equipment to make the hologram. You can learn more about the process in How Vision Works. A light-sensitive compound called silver halide reacts with the light. A shutter opens.it can't vibrate when you walk across the room or when cars drive by outside. The sand and the inner tubes will play the role of the professional Image courtesy Consumer Guide Products Since holography typically uses table's honeycombs and pneumatic supports. the resulting picture is still simply a recording of the intensity of reflected light. you can improvise red lasers. light passes through a lens and a shutter before hitting a piece of film or a light-sensitive sensor. When you develop the film and make a print of the picture. you need to reduce vibration in the air as well. the better.
Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. we'll explore exactly how light makes interference fringes. and vice versa. monochromatic or white light reflects off of the surface of the hologram to make an image. Holograms and Light To understand how interference fringes form on film. Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum -. In holography.areas that were light are dark. blocking the light.it's made of high-frequency electrical and magnetic waves. Reflections from completely smooth surfaces are specular. Next. In a reflection hologram. 4 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM .) 2. the result of this process is a piece of film that has recorded the incoming light. Decoding these interference fringes requires a key -. Turning this frame of film into an image requires the right illumination. when you develop the holographic plate and look at it. Your eyes and brain interpret the light shining through or reflecting off of the hologram as a representation of a three-dimensional object. Developed film from a camera shows you a negative view of the original scene -. In a transmission hologram. but you can imagine them as similar to waves on water. The shutter closes.htm/printable 1. The light from both beams comes into contact with the photographic emulsion. you might see a dark frame of film or a random pattern of lines and swirls. Rather than recording a simple pattern of reflected light from a scene. But when you look at a developed piece of film used to make a hologram. The light from the object beam reflects off of an object. It does this as a pattern of tiny interference fringes. you can still get a sense of what the original scene looked like. or scattered. Instead. Obstacles can absorb or reflect light. and most objects do some of both. The light from the reference beam bypasses the object entirely. Each fringe can be smaller than one wavelength of the light used to create them. you need to know a little bit about light. or mirror-like. The holograms you see on credit cards and stickers are reflection holograms. These waves are fairly complex. You need the right light source to see a hologram because it records the light's phase and amplitude like a code. what you see is a little unusual.howstuffworks. it records the interference between the reference beam and the object beam. They have peaks and troughs. However. Just like with a photograph. 3. When you look at the negative. where light-sensitive compounds react to it.com/hologram. while reflections from rough surfaces are diffuse. a pulsed laser fires a single pulse of light. eliminating the need for a shutter.that key is the right kind of light. A shutter opens or moves out of the path of a laser. (In some setups. light passes through a shutter and lenses before striking a light-sensitive piece of holographic film. 4. and they travel in a straight line until they encounter an obstacle. monochromatic light shines through the hologram to make an image. you don't see anything that looks like the original scene.
Lasers produce monochromatic light -. Light's amplitude.it has one wavelength and one color. diffuse or scattered. Colors at the red end of the spectrum have lower frequencies. or the height of the waves. while colors at the violet end of the spectrum have higher frequencies. or Hertz (Hz). but to make a hologram. The light that emerges from a laser is also coherent. Laser light.com/hologram. The frequency of light determines its color and is measured in cycles per second. on the other hand. This is because 5 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM .Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. This relates to the wave's frequency. including ones that are beyond the visible spectrum. like sunlight.htm/printable The wavelength of light is the distance from one peak of the wave to the next. corresponds to its intensity.howstuffworks. White light. Even waves of the same wavelength can be in a different phase. Although this light allows you to see everything around you. The waves line up spatially. You can check out How Lasers Work to see precisely how a laser does this. is orderly. contains all of the different frequencies of light traveling in all directions. or the number of waves that pass a point in a given period of time. All of the peaks and troughs of the waves are lined up. it's relatively chaotic. It contains lots of different wavelengths traveling in lots of different directions. mirror-like (left). You can make and view a photograph using unorganized white light. as well as temporally. you need the organized light of a laser. Light reflection can be specular. or along the length of the beam. or in phase. or across the wave of the beam. or alignment between the peaks and troughs.
these two numbers add up. the sine wave is the carrier wave that is overlaid with a second wave that carries the information. In order for the film to record these differences.it absorbs some of the laser light that reaches it. On top of that. even if it looks smooth to the human eye. The light-sensitive emulsion used to create holograms makes a record of the interference between the light waves in the reference and object beams. 2. the angle of incidence.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. There are a couple of things to keep in mind about the object beam. Either way. This diffuse reflection causes light reflected from every part of the object to reach every part of the holographic plate. you combine a sine wave with a wave of varying amplitudes. the resolution of the image you see in half a hologram isn’t as good. At every point at which the two beams intersect. 6 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . A column of light leaves the laser and passes through the beam splitter. One is that the object is not 100 percent reflective -. We'll look at how this happens next.com/hologram. or the angle at which the light hits the surface. they amplify each other.each portion of the plate holds information about each portion of the object. and the lighter portions absorb less light. The holographic plate captures the interaction between the object and reference beams. you combine a sine wave with a wave of varying frequencies. In other words. so it causes a diffuse reflection. All the waves have to be identical when they leave the laser. or physically blocked by the surface of the object. they cancel one another out. It scatters light in every direction following the law of reflection. Redundancy If you tore a hologram of a mask in half. The two columns reflect off of their respective mirrors and pass through their respective diverging lenses. 3. You can think of the peak of a wave as a positive number and the trough as a negative number. you also remove half of the information required to recreate the scene. they follow the law of reflection. The object reflects off of the object and combines with the reference beam at the holographic film. Here's what happens when you turn on a laser to expose a holographic plate: 1. you could still see the whole mask in each half. either flattening or amplifying that portion of the wave. the light has to start out with one wavelength and one phase across the entire beam. In amplitude modulation (AM) radio transmissions. This is destructive interference. while holograms record differences in both amplitude and the phase. When two wave peaks meet. the holographic plate doesn’t get information about areas that are out of its line of sight. Capturing the Fringes When light waves reflect. the surface of the object is rough on a microscopic level. In a hologram. This is constructive interference. the two intersecting light wave fronts form a pattern of hyperboloids -. This is why a hologram is redundant -. In addition. But by removing half of the hologram. is the same as its angle of reflection. changing the intensity of the object wave. In frequency modulation (FM) radio transmissions. You can read more about hyperboloidal shapes at Wolfram MathWorld. or the light at which it leaves the surface.three-dimensional shapes that look like hyperbolas rotated around one or more focal points.howstuffworks. The darker portions of the object absorb more light. When a peak meets a trough.htm/printable photographs record only the amplitude of the light that hits the film. The angle at which they strike the surface is the same as the angle at which they leave it. This a lot like what happens when you transmit information using radio waves. For this reason.
parts of the emulsion that receive more intense light get darker. When you develop the emulsion.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. The amplitude of the waves corresponds to the contrast between the fringes.howstuffworks.com/hologram. 7 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . When the waves collide. captures a cross-section. or a thin slice. Both the spatial coherence and the contrast are a direct result of the laser beam's reflection off of the object. It has peaks and troughs.htm/printable The holographic plate. and some of the waves are taller while others are shorter. If you took a picture of this aquarium and covered up all but a thin slice in the middle. they will constructively and destructively interfere with each other. of these three-dimensional shapes. You can visualize the interaction of light waves by imagining waves on water. These darker and lighter areas become the interference fringes. just imagine looking through the side of a clear aquarium full of water. resting where the two wave fronts collide. while those that receive less intense light stay a little lighter. what you'd see is a cross-section of the interference between two sets of waves in one specific location. The silver halide in the emulsion responds to these light waves just like it responds to light waves in an ordinary photograph. If this sounds confusing. If you drop two stones into the water at opposite ends of the aquarium. The light that reaches the holographic emulsion is just like the waves in the aquarium. waves will spread toward the center in concentric rings. The wavelength of the waves translates to the shape of each fringe.
which passes through unchanged. just like it would with ordinary light. and the light begins to travel in lots of different directions. Sometimes. microscopic mirror. Decoding the Fringes The microscopic interference fringes on a hologram don't mean much to the human eye. The trouble is that all the tiny. just like it did when it bounced off the object to create the hologram in the first place. glass. This is where things get interesting. it is clear instead of dark. Regardless of whether they are dark or clear. overlapping interference fringes can make the hologram so dark that it absorbs most of the light. In fact. letting very little pass through for image reconstruction. In a bleached hologram. Each interference fringe is like a curved. which causes monochromatic light -. like the apparent bending of a spoon placed in a half-full glass of water. you see a 3-D image in the same spot where the object was when the hologram was made. the light passes through a diverging lens. your brain and the right kind of light to decode them into an image. Once a hologram is bleached. A lot of events take place at the same time to allow this to happen. variations in the index of refraction change how the light waves travel through and reflect off of the interference fringes. Differences in the index of refraction also cause rainbows on soap bubbles and on oil stains in parking lots. water. But that changes when monochrome light passes through it.com/hologram. the light illuminating the hologram comes from the side opposite the observer. processing holographic emulsion often requires bleaching using a bleach bath. all you're likely to see if you look at the developed film of a transmission hologram is a dark square. since the overlapping fringes are both dark and microscopic. In a transmission hologram. This spread-out light is what forms part of the interference pattern on the emulsion. You can magnify a displayed hologram by using a laser with a longer wavelength to illuminate it.howstuffworks. Light that hits it follows the law of reflection. For this reason. the interference fringes reflect some of the light. the light from the object beam passes through the glass on its way to the emulsion. The index of refraction is the difference between how fast light travels through a medium and how fast it travels through a vacuum. We'll look at how this happens in the next section. It takes your eyes. to record the interference fringes.to hit every part of the hologram simultaneously. These fringes are like a code. the speed of a wave of light can change as it travels through air. Suddenly. such as dichromated gelatin. this produces visible distortions. Its angle of incidence equals its angle of reflection. You can also use the holographic process to magnify images by positioning the object farther from the holographic plate. The magnifying glass spreads out the laser light. Another alternative is to use a light-sensitive substance other than silver halide. The light waves reflected off of the object can spread out farther before they reach the plate.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. For example. it transmits a lot of this light. Its interference fringes still exist. Holographic Magnifying Glasses If you make a hologram of a scene that includes a magnifying glass. Since the hologram is transparent. 8 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . but they have a different index of refraction rather than a darker color. First.htm/printable Turning these fringes back into images requires light.or light that consists of one wavelength color -. different gasses and different types of film.
Since the object was on the other side of the holographic plate. causing lots of intersecting wave fronts to appear in a very small space.com/hologram. creating an image in the process. Each of those little pieces will go on spreading on the other side. The beam also travels in the same direction as the original object beam. and your brain interprets it as a three-dimensional image located behind the transparent hologram.a real image that you can see if you put a screen in its path. Next. your brain interprets it as a beam of light reflected from a real object. When your eyes detect the light from the virtual image. Only a little piece of each ring will make it through each gap in the panel. This description applies to transmission holograms made with silver halide emulsion. Your brain plays a big role in your perception of both of these images. It uses these same cues to interpret the pseudoscopic real image. we'll look at some other types of holograms. This virtual image comes from the light that hits the interference fringes and spreads out on the way to your eyes. it moves downward and converges. When light passes around an obstacle or through a slit. These are usually mass-produced using a stamping 9 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . Your brain uses multiple cues. However. Holography and Mathematics You can describe all of the interactions between the object and reference beams.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. holograms can display both images at the same time. However. so you see the object as the same color as the laser used in its creation rather than its natural color. The real image is pseudoscopic. With the right illumination. as well as the shapes of the interference fringes. This beam is absolutely identical to the original object beam before it was combined with the reference wave. This makes it possible to program a computer to print a pattern onto a holographic plate. You can see what this looks like using an aquarium with a slotted panel placed across its width. The wave of information returns to its original state. distances and parallax. using mathematical equations.or frequency-modulated information. but you encounter this phenomenon every day. creating a hologram of an object that doesn’t actually exist. Other Hologram Types The holograms you can buy as novelties or see on your driver's license are reflection holograms.howstuffworks.it's the opposite of the virtual image that you can see without the aid of a screen. whether you see the real or the virtual image depends on what side of the hologram is facing you. This may sound far-fetched. or spreads out. shadows. Instead of moving upward and diverging. There are so many slits among the interference fringes of a hologram that it acts like a diffraction grating. the dimmer it becomes along the edges. and some of the light passes through unchanged. or flipped back to front -. the relative positions of different objects. including. or differences in angles. waves will spread toward the panel in concentric rings.htm/printable The interference fringes in a hologram cause light to scatter in all directions. its wave front expands on the other side. But that's only part of the process. But the light rays that make this image aren't on the other side of the mirror -they're the ones that bounce off of the mirror's surface and reach your eyes. spreading out as it goes. This process is a direct result of the light traveling as a wave -. Your radio receiver removes the sine wave that carried the amplitude. This is what happens when you listen to the radio. the beam travels toward you. you see yourself and the surroundings behind you as though they were on the other side of the mirror's surface. in some cases. it undergoes diffraction. The fringes diffract and reflect some of the light (inset). This diffraction grating and reflective surfaces inside the hologram recreate the original object beam. Every time you look in a mirror. It turns into a focused reproduction of the object -.when a wave moves past an obstacle or through a slit. before it was combined with the sine wave for transmission. If you drop a pebble into one end of the aquarium. Most holograms also act like color filters. light that hits the reverse side of each fringe does the opposite. to interpret this scene correctly. Your eyes focus this light. The more a beam of light spreads out from its original path.
then using it to stamp the interference pattern into metallic foil. There is more physical space for recording interference fringes. When light enters the first layer. some of it reflects back toward the light source.htm/printable method. 10 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . It passes through the emulsion. the Bragg effect can be different for different wavelengths of light. It's like you're viewing a holographic flip book. Image courtesy Dreamstime The holograms found on credit cards and other everyday objects are mass-produced by stamping the pattern of the hologram onto the foil. holograms can appear to move and recreate entire animated scenes in midair. you can view these holograms in normal white light. similar to the way you can create lots of photographic prints from the same negative. One method of mass-producing holograms is coating this surface in metal to strengthen it. You're still seeing a virtual image -. When you view this hologram from different angles. At different viewing angles. You can also use a pulsed laser that fires for a minute fraction of a second to make still holograms of objects in motion. A lot of the time. bounces off the object on the other side. You view this hologram when white or monochrome light reflects off of its surface.com/hologram. This changes the texture of the emulsion's surface. where the process repeats. and it's a necessary part of the reconstruction of the object beam in reflection holograms. with the laser. The beam from the laser starts out as the reference beam. You can get the illusion of movement by exposing one holographic emulsion multiple times at different angles using objects in different positions. This means that you might see the hologram as one color from one angle and another color from another angle.howstuffworks. The hologram only creates each image when light strikes it from the right angle. When you develop a holographic emulsion. You can think of holograms that are made this way as having multiple layers that are only about half a wavelength deep.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. This is known as the Bragg effect. A common one is an inline setup. Reflection holograms are often thicker than transmission holograms. the surface of the emulsion collapses as the silver halide grains are reduced to pure silver. You can also mass-produce holograms by printing them from a master hologram. holograms with a strong Bragg effect are known as thick holograms. creating an interference pattern. There are lots of object and laser setups that can produce these types of holograms. your brain interprets the differences in the images as movement. In movies. This also means that there are more layers of reflective surfaces for the light to hit. But reflection holograms can also be as elaborate as the transmission holograms we already discussed. The Bragg effect is also one of the reasons why most novelty holograms appear green even though they were created with a red laser.your brain's interpretation of light waves that seem to be coming from a real object on the other side of the hologram. The Bragg effect can also change the way the hologram reflects light. The light from each layer interferes with the light in the layers above it. while those with little Bragg effect are thin. and returns to the emulsion as the object beam. the emulsion and the object all in one line. but today's holograms can only mimic movement. and some continues to the next layer. In addition. especially in holograms that you can view in white light.
and Steven A. P. al. were not invented until 1960." Popular Science. creating one hologram that displays different images depending on viewing angle. though.htm Kasper.edu/alumni/engineer/03FW/ research/holography/ Goodman.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science." Wired. Marty. Joseph E. "Basics of Holography. stationary images. (4/9/2007) Graham." John Wiley & Sons. Inc. like a gust of wind or a vibration. researchers are studying ways to project fully 3-D holograms into visible air. Atheneum. Scientists can use holograms to study objects in three dimensions. and filters make his light more coherent. et. Some researchers even believe that the human brain stores information in a manner that is much like a hologram. which are necessary for creating and displaying good holograms. But holograms have an increasing number of practical uses. 2002. and it's not usually used for mass-produced holograms. "The Complete Book of Holograms. To learn more about holograms. (4/9/2007) http://www. 2/7/2007. "Fake Holograms a 3-D Crime Wave. Multiple exposures of the same plate can lead to other effects as well. Keats. This lets researchers see exactly how the stimulus changed the object. You can expose the plate from two angles using two completely different images. which produced monochrome blue light. The Magic of Holography. 1986.engin. (4/9/2007) Gargaro." Cambridge Press. Paul.howstuffworks. Although holograms don't currently move like they do in the movies. In the future. The First Hologram Dennis Gabor invented holograms in 1947.com/html/about.holophile.umich.com/hologram. "A New Dimension in Research.popsci. Heckman. The famous hologram "The Kiss" shows a sequence of similar. Feller.org Sources Encyclopedia Britannica. Using lasers to make three-dimensional images of objects may sound like a novelty or a form of art.htm/printable Image © 1996-2007 Holophile. (4/9/2007) http://www.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online.. and they can use acoustical holography to create three-dimensional reconstructions of sound waves." (4/9/2007) http://www. "Holography. This process is tricky. “Holography. Holophile. Philip. Joseph W. and your brain interprets them as moving images. "The Holographic Television." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill. you may be able to use holograms to do everything from watching TV to deciding which hair style will look best on you. lasers. Exposing the same plate using the exact same scene and red. Lots More Information Related HowStuffWorks Articles How Light Works How Holographic Memory Works How Holographic Versatile Discs Work How Cameras Work How Film Works How Vision Works Why do CDs reflect rainbow colors? More Great Links HoloWorld Building a Display Holography System MIT Media Lab: Holographic Video MIT Museum: Online Holography Collection Holographer. green and blue lasers can create a full-color hologram.html 11 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . follow the links on the next page. Your eye sees many frames simultaneously. He was attempting to find a method for improving the resolution of electron microscopes. "Holography.com/popsci/whatsnew/ 569f0e0796b84010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd. Gabor won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention in 1971. Jonathan." Michigan Engineering. Holographic memory has also become an increasingly common method of storing large amounts of data in a very small space. 1987. You can also expose the same scene before and after the subject has experienced some kind of stimulus. 5/13/2002.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/02/72664# Hariharan. However.wired. (4/9/2007) http://www. Gabor used a mercury vapor lamp.
Gary. "Fake Holograms a 3-D Crime Wave.com/id/7759505/ Outwater. "The Complete Book of Holograms. 2002. Holophile. Paul. (4/9/2007) http://www.msn.holophile.engin. (4/9/2007) Lots More Information Related HowStuffWorks Articles How Light Works How Holographic Memory Works How Holographic Versatile Discs Work How Cameras Work How Film Works How Vision Works Why do CDs reflect rainbow colors? More Great Links HoloWorld Building a Display Holography System MIT Media Lab: Holographic Video MIT Museum: Online Holography Collection Holographer.holo. P. (4/9/2007) Graham.com/holo/book/book1. "How to Make Holograms at Home. "Holography. 5/8/2002.html University of Georgia. Keats.htm Kasper. Jonathan." Michigan Engineering. "How to Make Holograms at Home. Philip. Earl." Dimensional Arts. Heckman. "Holography. “Holography.umich. 1986. "Practical Holography.com/hologram.html Krakow. "Holography. et. "Practical Holography. “Holography. "A New Dimension in Research. al.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science.. 5/8/2002.com/id/7759505/ Outwater." MSNBC. Atheneum.msn. (4/9/2007) http://www.msnbc.htm/printable Krakow. 5/6/2005 (4/9/2007) http://www.com/popsci/whatsnew/ 569f0e0796b84010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.popsci. (4/9/2007) Gargaro. 5/6/2005 (4/9/2007) http://www. (4/9/2007) Williams. (4/9/2007) http://www. "Acoustical Holography. Paul.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. (4/9/2007) Gargaro. Joseph E. (4/9/2007) http://www. "The Holographic Television. "Basics of Holography. (4/9/2007) http://www.html University of Georgia.wired." John Wiley & Sons. 5/13/2002.msnbc. The Magic of Holography.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online." (4/9/2007) http://www." Popular Science.umich. and Steven A. (4/9/2007) Lots More Information Related HowStuffWorks Articles How Light Works How Holographic Memory Works How Holographic Versatile Discs Work How Cameras Work How Film Works How Vision Works Why do CDs reflect rainbow colors? More Great Links HoloWorld Building a Display Holography System MIT Media Lab: Holographic Video MIT Museum: Online Holography Collection Holographer. Earl. Feller." HyperPhysics.holo.com/holo/book/book1." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill." MSNBC." Wired. "Acoustical Holography. Joseph W. (4/9/2007) http://www." Dimensional Arts. "Holography.com/html/about. Gary. "A New Dimension in Research.howstuffworks. Christopher and Van Hamersveld." Michigan Engineering." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/02/72664# Hariharan.org Sources Encyclopedia Britannica.edu/alumni/engineer/03FW/ research/holography/ Goodman.edu/alumni/engineer/03FW/ research/holography/ 12 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . 1987." HyperPhysics." Cambridge Press.engin." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill. Marty. Christopher and Van Hamersveld. (4/9/2007) Williams. 2/7/2007.org Sources Encyclopedia Britannica.
Heckman. The Magic of Holography. "The Complete Book of Holograms. Jonathan. Philip. Atheneum.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/02/72664# Hariharan. (4/9/2007) Graham. The Magic of Holography. (4/9/2007) Williams. (4/9/2007) http://www. al.com/id/7759505/ Outwater. 5/6/2005 (4/9/2007) http://www. Joseph W. 2002. Feller. "Holography. Marty.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/02/72664# Hariharan." John Wiley & Sons. Feller. 1986. Keats. "Holography. (4/9/2007) Williams. and Steven A. "The Holographic Television.htm Kasper." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill.html University of Georgia. al.com/holo/book/book1." Popular Science. 5/8/2002.com/html/about.com/popsci/whatsnew/ 569f0e0796b84010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.com/holo/book/book1.holo.htm/printable Goodman. (4/9/2007) Graham.holo.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online." HyperPhysics. "How to Make Holograms at Home. “Holography. "Holography. P. "Holography. "Basics of Holography. 5/13/2002. Earl.com/html/about. Jonathan. "Fake Holograms a 3-D Crime Wave. 1986. et. "Practical Holography.popsci. (4/9/2007) http://www." (4/9/2007) http://www.org Sources Encyclopedia Britannica." Wired. (4/9/2007) Lots More Information Related HowStuffWorks Articles How Light Works How Holographic Memory Works How Holographic Versatile Discs Work How Cameras Work How Film Works How Vision Works Why do CDs reflect rainbow colors? More Great Links HoloWorld Building a Display Holography System MIT Media Lab: Holographic Video MIT Museum: Online Holography Collection Holographer." Popular Science.wired. 5/8/2002. (4/9/2007) http://www.umich. Earl..Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science.wired." Michigan Engineering.msnbc. 5/13/2002. (4/9/2007) http://www.html Krakow." Cambridge Press.com/popsci/whatsnew/ 569f0e0796b84010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.msn.msnbc. Keats. Holophile. Holophile. Gary. et.howstuffworks.com/hologram. "Acoustical Holography. (4/9/2007) http://www.holophile. Christopher and Van Hamersveld." HyperPhysics." Dimensional Arts.holophile.msn. Gary." MSNBC. "How to Make Holograms at Home." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill. "A New Dimension in Research. 1987. "Holography. Atheneum. "Practical Holography. Joseph E. Heckman. (4/9/2007) http://www. "Fake Holograms a 3-D Crime Wave.html Krakow. Joseph E.edu/alumni/engineer/03FW/ research/holography/ Goodman. (4/9/2007) Gargaro." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill.html University of Georgia. Christopher and Van Hamersveld. "Acoustical Holography. Joseph W. "The Holographic Television.com/id/7759505/ Outwater. Philip.engin. (4/9/2007) Lots More Information Related HowStuffWorks Articles How Light Works How Holographic Memory Works How Holographic Versatile Discs Work How Cameras Work How Film Works How Vision Works Why do CDs reflect rainbow colors? More Great Links 13 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM .htm Kasper. "Holography. Marty. 2002.popsci." Wired. 1987." Dimensional Arts. "Basics of Holography. 2/7/2007." MSNBC.." Cambridge Press. 2/7/2007. P. 5/6/2005 (4/9/2007) http://www. (4/9/2007) http://www. and Steven A. "The Complete Book of Holograms." (4/9/2007) http://www." John Wiley & Sons. Paul.
Christopher and Van Hamersveld. "Holography. P. Heckman. Atheneum.edu/alumni/engineer/03FW/ research/holography/ Goodman. (4/9/2007) http://www. (4/9/2007) 14 of 15 5/24/2009 1:41 PM . "Acoustical Holography.msnbc. Philip. The Magic of Holography. (4/9/2007) http://www. "Holography.html University of Georgia.html Krakow.holophile. 2002. (4/9/2007) Graham. Earl.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/02/72664# Hariharan. 5/13/2002." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill. "Acoustical Holography. "Basics of Holography. “Holography.holo. Jonathan.com/popsci/whatsnew/ 569f0e0796b84010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.Howstuffworks "How Holograms Work" http://science. Joseph E. (4/9/2007) http://www. "Holography. "Fake Holograms a 3-D Crime Wave." Wired. "A New Dimension in Research. Joseph W.com/html/about." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill. Holophile. Gary. "How to Make Holograms at Home. The Magic of Holography.com/holo/book/book1. (4/9/2007) http://www." John Wiley & Sons. "The Complete Book of Holograms. Atheneum." Dimensional Arts.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online." Cambridge Press.. Marty.htm/printable HoloWorld Building a Display Holography System MIT Media Lab: Holographic Video MIT Museum: Online Holography Collection Holographer.msnbc. "Fake Holograms a 3-D Crime Wave. 5/6/2005 (4/9/2007) http://www." MSNBC. "The Holographic Television. 1986.holophile. Feller. "Practical Holography. “Holography. Keats. and Steven A. (4/9/2007) Gargaro. 1987." (4/9/2007) http://www. (4/9/2007) Williams.com/id/7759505/ Outwater. Joseph E. 1986. (4/9/2007) Williams. et.msn.msn." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill. "The Complete Book of Holograms.engin. "Holography.com/holo/book/book1. and Steven A. 5/13/2002.howstuffworks.html Krakow." HyperPhysics.com/id/7759505/ Outwater." John Wiley & Sons. Feller. "How to Make Holograms at Home. Jonathan. 2/7/2007. Heckman. (4/9/2007) Lots More Information Related HowStuffWorks Articles How Light Works How Holographic Memory Works How Holographic Versatile Discs Work How Cameras Work How Film Works How Vision Works Why do CDs reflect rainbow colors? More Great Links HoloWorld Building a Display Holography System MIT Media Lab: Holographic Video MIT Museum: Online Holography Collection Holographer." HyperPhysics. Paul." AccessScience@McGraw-Hill." Michigan Engineering. 5/8/2002. Joseph W.popsci. P.holo. Philip. Gary.popsci." Dimensional Arts.umich. Holophile.com/popsci/whatsnew/ 569f0e0796b84010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html University of Georgia. "Practical Holography.org Sources Encyclopedia Britannica.edu/alumni/engineer/03FW/ research/holography/ Goodman.htm Kasper. 2002. "A New Dimension in Research. Earl. Keats. Paul." MSNBC.engin." Popular Science.umich. 5/6/2005 (4/9/2007) http://www." Cambridge Press. al." Wired. (4/9/2007) Graham..wired. 1987. Christopher and Van Hamersveld. Marty.org Sources Encyclopedia Britannica.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/02/72664# Hariharan.htm Kasper. (4/9/2007) Gargaro." (4/9/2007) http://www." Michigan Engineering. (4/9/2007) http://www. 2/7/2007. (4/9/2007) http://www. al.wired. (4/9/2007) http://www. "Holography. (4/9/2007) http://www.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online." Popular Science. 5/8/2002. "The Holographic Television.com/html/about. et. "Holography. "Basics of Holography.com/hologram.
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