P. 1
Viking Encounter Press Kit

Viking Encounter Press Kit

|Views: 156|Likes:
Published by Bob Andrepont
NASA press kit for Viking arrival at Mars.
NASA press kit for Viking arrival at Mars.

More info:

Published by: Bob Andrepont on Nov 14, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/06/2011

pdf

text

original

Sections

K-4

1

-)

-

:

X.

4,L

I~~~~~~L

IIVS

.- "h,'

-

'4

44

VIKING ENCOUNTER PRESS
KIT
1 TOMImmirs
, Aol , Bi )i,,, itrli

TABLE OF CONTENTS

GENERAL RELEASE ....................................... 1-9 SCIENTIFIC GOALS OF THE VIKING MISSION ............... 10-13 VIKING SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS ........................ 14-61

,P

-

Orbiter Imaging ..................................... 14-18 Water Vapor Mapping ................................ 18-22 Thermal Mapping .................................... 22-24 Entry Science ......................................... 24-26 Upper Atmosphere ................................... 26-27 Lower Atmosphere ..................................... 27-29 Lander Imaging ..................................... 29-35 Biology .............................................. 35 Pyrolytic Release .................................. 35-38 Labeled Release .................................... 38-39 Gas Exchange .......................................39-41 Molecular Analysis .......................... ...... 41-44 Inorganic Chemistry ................................ 45-48 Meteorology ........................................ 49-51 Seismology ......................................... 52-54 Physical Properties ................................ 54-56 Magnetic Properties ................................ 56-59 Radio Science ....................................... 59-61 VIKING SCIENTISTS .................................... 62-64

VIKING PLANETARY OPERATIONS .......................... 65-93 Approach Phase ..................................... 65-67 Mars Orbit Insertion ..............................67 Pre-Landing Orbital Activities ..................... 67-68 Landing Sites ...................................... 68-70 Site Certification ................................. 70-73 Pre-Separation Activities .......................... 73-74 Separation .........................................74 Entry Phase ........................................ 74-77 Entry Science.7......................................7-79 Touchdown .......................................... 79-81 Landed Operations .................................. 81--83 Sols 1 through 7 (July 5-12) .......................83-87 Surface Sampling on Sol 8 (July 12) ................ 87-91 Orbital Activities ................................. 91-93 VIKING LANDER ........................................ 94-102 Lander Body ... LadrBoy.................. ...... .... ..... .... .. ..941 ................. .... .... 9
Bioshield Cap and Bade .................... 94-96

Aeroshell....................... ................. Base Cover and Parachute System ...................6 9 Lander Subsystems .................................. 97

-

.

.

. .

iiXl
Descent Engines .............................. 97 Communication Equipment. .......................... 97 Landing Radars .................................. 98 Guidance and Control ............................ 98 Power Sources .................................... 99 Data Storage .................................... 100-102 VIKING ORBITER.................................. 103-105 Orbiter Design .................................. 103 Structure. ................................... 103 Guidance and Control ........................... 104 Communications .................................. 104-105 Dat'a Storage .............................. 105 LAUNCH AND CRUISE ACTIVITIES ........................ 106-109 Launch Phase......... .......................... 106-107 Cruise Phase.................................... 107-i09 MISSION CONTROL AND COMPUTING CENTER .............. 109-111 Image Processing Laboratory ..................... 111 TRACKING AND DATA SYSTEM ........................... 112-113 VIKING PROGRAM OFFICIALS CONVERSION TABLE .......................... 114-120

I

...................... ........... 121

4.--

)

-

Iwis
National-Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, D C 20546 AC 202 755-8370

News
For Release IMMEDIATE

Nicholas Panagakos Headquarters, Washington, D.C. (Phone: 202/755-3680) Maurice Parker Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. (Phone: 213/354-5011 - JPL)

RELEASE NO:

76-103

VIKINGS CONVERGE ON MARS

The Vikings are converging on Mars.

After almost a year-long chase through interplanetary space to overtake the planet, the first of two Viking spacecraft is closing fast on Mars, aiming for orbit insertion on June 19. If all goes well, the first Viking's Lander will touch down on Mars on July 4, the 200th anniversary of the United States. Seven weeks later Viking 2 will reach Mars.

It

will

begin orbiting the planet Aug. 7, and its Lander will touch down about Sept. 4. -more-

./'

goH

-7ad.,5 --.

,.

;

-2-

The instrument-packed spacecraft, two Orbiters and
4

two Landers, will photograph Mars from orbit and on the surface, and conduct a detailed scientific examination of the planet, including a search for life.

Each Orbiter carries three investigations, each Lander contains eight more, and one investigation uses equipment aboard both spacecraft.

The Orbiter's investigations will begin severa' days before Viking 1 enters Mars orbit. Two high-resolution

television cameras will take photograohs of the whole disc of Mars, one of its moons and of star fields near the planet. At the same time, two infrared science instruments will begin scanning the planet to map its surface temperat res and look for water vapor concentrations in its atmosphere.

-more-

C:-

J.

i

i

1

-

ZJ

~

VOt

l-,~-

~ ''-

-'~t

-3During the two weeks between orbit insertion and separation of the Lander from the Orbiter, the Orbiter's instruments will carefully study the planned landing sites.

Selected several years ago,

these sites will be further Huge radar antennas

verified as safe places for the Lander.

on Earth wf1ll supplement data gathered by the Orbiter. Located at Goldstone, Calif., and Arecibo, Puerto Rico, the

antennas will bounce radar echoes from the prime and backup landing sites from May 11 to June 15.
-I

Prime target for Lander 1 is Gold" region,

in

the Chryse "Land of

at the northeast end of a huge canyon first spacecraft, Mariner 9. The

discovered by the Mats-orbiting

site is 19.5 degrees north and 34 degrees west.

Lander l's

backup site is Tritonis Lacus, at 20.5 degrees north and 252 degrees west.

Viking 2's lander also has primary and backup sites. The primary site is at the edge of the hood. Cvdonia, in the Mare Acidalium region, reaches of the north polar

sou:!co-nos:

Cydonia is 44.3 degrees north and 1" degrees west. called Alba, lying 44.2 degrees north

The backup site is

and 110 degrees west. -more-

rN

I.e

-4 Another pair of sites has been selected by Viking scientists in the event that Viking 2 primary and backup sites are deemed unsuitable for landinq.

No landing site is known to be completely free from hazards.' The task of the Viking site certification team is to compare

all possible data and try to minimize hazards to the Landers.

Once the Viking 1 Landing site has been certified, the Orbiter and Lander will be ready for separation, scheduled for about three hours before landing.

The Lander must survive the searing heat of entry through the planet's atmosphere, land gently on the surface and conduct an intricate series of scientific -.vesticvitions. n

As the Lander enters the Martian atmosphere,

se eral itruc-

instruments and sensors will measure the atmosphere's ture and chemical composition. A mass spectrometer, a

retarding potential analyzer and several sensors will atmospheric composition, temperature, pressure and der in the upper atmosphere.

ieasure ity

Continued measurements will 'c n

made in the lower atmosphere by other sensors on '-ho-

-more-

r

,

f

I. Ua

,

-.

4,

-5-

One important aspect of the entry investigations is learning as much as possible about the presence of argon in the atmosphere. One Soviet Mars mission reported the

presence of as much as 30 per cent argon in the Mars atmospe-_e. Argon, an inert gas, could have considerable effect on some especially the gas chromatograph mass

Viking experiments, spectrometer (GCMS).

Minutes after the Lander touches down on Mars, the taking of the first two surface photographs will begin.

rhese will be

telemetered to Earth through the Orbiter and should reach monitors at the mission con trol center by about midnight (EDT) on the July 4 landing date.

Several other Lander science instruments will also begin operation as soon as the craft touches down and, in the following days, other instruments will study the planet's biology, molecular structure, magnetic properties. inorganic chemistry and physical and

The Lander's surface sampler,

attached to a furlable

boom, will dig, up soil samples for incubation and analysis inside the biology instrument's three metabolism and growth experiment chambers, in the GCMS instrument and in an X-ray

fluorescence spectrometer (XRFS). -more:4

.

..

^

-6These three investigations are particularly important for understanding the biological makeup of Mars, and they will provide knowledge to other scientists on the chemistry and planetology of Mars.

The meteorology instrument, located on a folding boom attached to the Lander, will periodically measure temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction during the mission.

A three-axis seismometer will measure any seismic activity that takes place during the mission, which should establish whether or not Mars is a very active planet.

The physical and magnetic properties of Mars will be studied with several small instruments and pieces of equipment located on the Lander.

Radio science investigations will make use of Orbiter and Lander communications equipment to measure Mars' gravitational field, determine its axis of rotation, measure surface properties, conduct certain relativity experiments and pinpoint the locations of both Landers on Mars. A

special radio link, the X-band, will be used to study charged ion and electron particles. -more-

1v;,C WIk~!,lTrY 0j<P rILI' PAGE IS POOR o1(16(a.Ai,

-7Viking mission controllers will use a new term to signify time on Mars: word for a Mars day. Sol, which is the Viking Project The special designation is necessary

to keep track of the difference between Earth and Mars days. Because of its rotation period, a Mars day is 24.6 Earth hours long (24 hours, 36 minutes).

The difference between Earth and Mars days also causes periodic changes to the prime shiEt of mission controllers. In order to be on duty at about the same time each Mars day (Sol), controllers must move their work hcurs.

From an 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. schedule at the beginning of the planetary mission, controllers will shift, July 11, to a 4 p.m. to midnight shift. On July 24 the prime shift

changes to midnight to 8 a.m., and Aug. 6 sees a return to the regular day shift. throughout the mission. This cycle will periodically repeat l

Another time problem is

caused by the extremely long

transmission time required for telemetry of commands from Earth an. data from Mars. One-way transmission, at the

speed of light, takes from 18 to 21 minutes awhile the Vikings are operating on Mars. -more-

-8Mission controllers who send a cownand to the Lander, for example, won't know whether the command was received and executed for at least 36 minutes during the first days of the planetary mission.

And confusion can occur if a particular event'time isn't clearly designated. Viking l's landing, for example, is

scheduled for 9:41 p.m. EDT, but mission controllers won't have confirmation of landing until at least 9:59 p.m., which is designated as Earth-Received Time (ERT).

Viking is under the overall management of the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The

Viking Project is managed by NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. The Landers were built by Martin Marietta

Aerospace of Denver, Colo., which also has integration responsibility for Viking. The Orbiters were built by

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif.

Nerve center of Viking operations is the Viking Mission Control and Computing Center
7 50-perso:i

(VMCCC),

located at JPL.

A

flight team of engineers,

scientists and techni-

cians maintain constant control of the four Viking spacecraft throughout the planetary phase of the mission.

(END OF GENERAL RELEASE.

BACKGROUND INFORMIIATION FOLLOWIS.)

.

. . ...

.1..S

P0<

-9-

-

9 -

i

s

,4,

AP

R
(hIs

C8l~~tYOFT'IIN 'w>'me,
IS POO.R

(AAiG .. 'i

THE SCIENTIFIC GOALS OF THE VIKING MISSION

Mars has excited man's imagination more than any other Its unusual redcelestial body except the Sun and the Moon. dish color, which the ancients associated with fire and blood, gave rise to its being named for the Roman God of War.
The invention of the astronomical telescope by Galileo in 1608 opened a new era in the observation of the planet. Instead of appearing merely as a tiny disc, Mars' surface features could be resolved. Christian Huygens made the first sketch in 1659 of the Able to dark region, Syrtis Major ("giant quicksands"). observe a distinguishable feature, Huygens could show that Mars rotated on a north-south axis like Earth, producing a day that was about half an hour longer than Earth's. In 1666, the Italian astronomer Giovanni D. Cassini Observers observed and sketched the Martian polar caps. in the early 1700's noted changes in the surface appearance in a matter of hours, probably caused by dust storms, now known to rage periodically. In 1783, William Herschel observed that Mars' axis of rotation is inclined to its orbital plane at about the same extent as Earth's, revealing that long-term changes were often associated with seasons that would result from such inclination. In the 17th and 18th centuries, it was commonly accepted that Mars and the other planets were inhabited, but the real excitement was created by Giovanni Schiaparelli and Percival Lowell between 1877 and 1920. As a result of extensive observations, beginning with the favorable apparition of 1877, Schiaparelli constructed detailed maps with many features, including a number of dark, almost straight lie referred lines, some of them hundreds of kilometers long. to them as "canali" or channels. Through mistranslation, they became "canals" and the idea of civilized societies was propagated. Lowell's firm opinion that the canals were not natural features but the work of "intelligent creatures, alike to us in spirit but not in form" contributed to the colorful literature. To pursue his interest in the canals and ;,ars, he founded the Lowell Observatory near Flagstaff, Ariz., in 1894 and his writings about the canals and possible life on Mars created great public excitement near the turn of the 20th Century.

s

-- more

-

;

, .

I

- -

-

U

-

-11Speculation about intelligent life on Mars continued through the first part of the century, with no possibility of an unequivocal resolution, but a gradual tendency developed among scientists to be very skeptical of the likelihood. The skepticism was reinforced by the results of Mariner flyby missions, one in 1965 and two in 1969. The limited coverage of only about 10 per cent of the Martian surface by flyby photography indicated that Mars was a lunar-like planet with a uniformly cratered surface. In 1971-72 the Mariner 9 orbiter revealed a completely new and different face of Mars. Whereas the flyby coverage had seen only a single geologic regime in the cratered highlands of the southern hemisphere, Mariner 9 revealed gigantic volcanoes, a.valley that extends a fifth of the way around the planet's circumference, and possible evidence of flowing liquid water sometime in the past. Also revealed were layered terrain in the polar regions and the effects of dust moved by winds of several hundred kilometers an hour. In short, Mariner 9's 7,000 detailed pictures revealed a dynamic, evolving Mars completely different from the lunarlike planet suggested by the flyby evidence. That successful Orbiter mission showed a fascinating subject for scientific study and also provided the maps from which the Viking sites have been selected. The scientific goal of the Viking missions is to "increase our knowledge of the planet Mars with special emphasis on the search for evidence of extra-terrestrial life." The scientific questions deal with the atmosphere, the surface, the planetary body and the question of bio-organic evolution. This goal ultimately means understanding the history of the planet. The physical and chemical composition of the atmosphere and its dynamics are of considerable interest, not only because they will extend our understanding of planetary atmospheric sciences, but because of the intense focus of interest in contemporary terrestrial atmospheric problems. Scientists want to understand how to model our own atmosphere more accurately and they want to know how the solar wind interacts with the upper atmosphere; to do this more must be known about atmospheric chemistry, the composition of neutral gases and charged particles. Researchers want to reconstruct the physics of the atmosphere and determine its density profile. They want to measure the atmosphere down to the surface and follow its changes, daily and seasonally. From these data may come clues to the atmospheric processes that have been taking place and determining the planet's character.
-more-X

,

4

J

-

;
-12on Mars. Of special interest is the question-of water and rich in specuScientific literature is sparse in data in the Mars atmoslation. It is known that there is water atmosphere (about 1 phere, but the total pressure of the large bodies of per cent of Earth's) will not sustain any of braided chanthe presence liquid water. Nevertheless, are the result nels suggests to many geologists that they idea of episodic This water. of previous periods of flowing water suggests a very dynamic planet. interest among The geology of Mars has attracted great of features seen planetologists because of the wide variety in the Mariner photos. Volcanologists are intrigued by the high concentration Scientists who study of volcanoes near the Tharsis ridge. (Valles erosion are fascinated with the great valley wide,3,nnO km Marineris) that is 100 kilometers (62 miles) Some geologists (1,800 mi.) long and 6 km (4 mi.) deep. appears to be strahave focused on the polar region, which it has been tified terrain. The pole resembles a rosette; precession (wobbling) of suggested that this is evidence of is not likely the poles. One important question that Viking is the age of the to answer, due to payload limitation, planet. of nitroOne mystery that Viking may solve is the fate no report of nitrogen on Mars. gen. So far there has been up in the surHas it been lost by outgassing? Is it locked Chemists and bioface as nitrates or in some organic form? most cosmically logists both look upon nitrogen, among the elements, as vitally important because of abundant of the the atmosphere and the clues it provides to the evolution of of the planet itself. This may There is the final question of life on Mars. of our be one of the most important scientific questions to answer. time. It is also one of the most difficult no life on A negative answer does not prove there is site may have been in the wrong place, Mars. The landing the wrong during the wrong season, or we may have conducted is a low experiments. Many scientists still think there probability of life on Mars. search flow can this extensive effort to perform the that there is be justified? First, it must be aknowledged of life no evidence at present, pro or con, of the existence evidenco, on Mars. And what experimcnters seek is

[.I

i

IE - m -OFO
-more

-

<S

1$ POOR

-4•|. .

I.......

g

-13-

Dr. N. H. Horowitz, Professor of Biology, California "The discovery of life on Institute of Technology, stated: another planet would be one of the momentous events of human history." Finally, a knowledge of the organic character of the planet is regarded as of utmost importance. Whether life has begun or not, it is critical to our concept of chemical Mars evolution to determine the path of carbon chemistry. offers the first opportunity to gain another perspective in the cosmic history of planetary chemistry. The scientific investigations of Viking were intenThe Orbiter tionally selected to complement one another. select landing sites science instruments are used to help for the Lander investigations. The Lander cameras help select soil samples for the chemical and biological analyses. The meteorology data are used to determine periods of quiet for the seismology experiment. The atmospheric data are used in determining the chemistry, which in turn is used in understanding the biological result. The But Viking's greatest asset is its flexibility. scientist-engineer teams will be interacting, hour by hour, during the months that Viking will be returning data. Every day will bring new discoveries and fresh ideas for improving the mission to extract the maximum benefit from this effort.

-morem,

-

- -.

,--,

-'

-

-.-

-

~

--.-

-----

I

-'.*

.1 ,

-14VIKING SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONz Three science investigations use instruments located on the Orbiter: orbiter imaging, atmospheric water vapor mapping and thermal mapping. One investigation, Entry Science, located on the Lander, is conducted while the Lander is descending to the surface of Mars. Eight other investigations are conducted from the Lander: lander imaging, biology, molecular analysis, inorganic chemical analysis, meteorology, seismology, physical properties and magnetic properties. One investigation, radio science, has no specific instrument, but uses the Viking telecommunications system to obtain data and do certain experiments. Orbiter Imaging The orbiter imaging investigation has four objectives:

* Add to the geologic knowledge of Mars by providing high-resolution photographic coverage of scientifically interesting areas of the Martian surface. * Add to the knowledge of dynamic processes on Mars by observing the planet during seasons never before seen. * Provide high-resolution imaging data of the Viking landing sites before landing so site safety and scientific desirability can be assessed. * Monitor the region around each landing site after landing so the dynamic environment in which Lander experiments are done is better understood. The Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS) consists of two identical cameras, mounted side by side on the Orbiter's scan platform. The cameras will be used sion progresses. As Viking 1 will be photographed in three phere is expected to be clear, Mariner 9's approach to Mars, approach pictures since 1969. in different ways as the misapproaches Mars, the planet colors. The planet's atmosin contrast to the 1971 allowing the first useful

-more-

-15-

l*X
LU

I

LLJ

E
LU

/
-

=

-c1 (A,

CDI

(A(
< \ /\\
LI,-

or
CmCD

LA

CD-

>:

-

f

0
, v3.f

J

A-

L
LL -

UL

L.

J(

:E
V U

\ V

Lii

Ln
V))

LO

-more-.

Oil.

M PW

-1

G;-

Between Mars orbit insertion and landing the cameras will be used almost exclusively for examining the landing site. The intent is to characterize in detail terrain at the site and make estimates of slopes at the Lander scale; examine the region of the site for both long and short-term changes that might indicate wind action; and monitor any atmospheric activity. For most of the period after landing, the Orbiter will be a communications relay link for the Lander and its orbit will remain synchronized with the Lander; i.e., it will pass over the Lander at the same time each day. Areas visible from the synchronous orbit will be systematically photographed during this time. Areas covered will include the large channel system upstream from the primary landing site, chaotic terrain from which many of the channels seem to originate, and areas of greatest canyon development. The detailed observations are expected to lead to a better understanding of the origin of these features, and aid in interpreting Lander data. At the same time, activity will be monitored over all the planet that is visible from apoapsis. Any areas of unusual activity will also be examined in detail. The orbital period will be changed for short periods of time to allow the rest of the planet to be seen. During these periods, observations will be made of large volcanoes, channels and other features. Viking 2 will follow a simnilar plan, except for one major difference: shortly after Lander 2 lands, the orbital inclination of Orbiter 2 will be increased to perform polar observations. After the inclination change, a period of systematic mapping of the north polar region is anticipated, similar to that undertaken in the canyon lands by Orbiter 1. The succession of deposits in the polar regions, their thicknesses and relative ages, will be determined with these observations. This portion of the mission is particularly important because of its potential for unraveling F-st climatic changes and assessing the volatile inventory (primarily carbon dioxide and water) of the planet. Each visual imaging subsystem consists of a telescope, a camera head and supporting electronics. The telescope focuses an image of' the scene being viewed on the faceplate of a vidicon within the camera head. WThen a shutter between telescope and vidicon is activated, an imprint of the scene Us left on the vidicon faceplate as a variable electrostatic charg;e. The faceplate is then scanned with an electronic beam and variations in charge are read in parallel onto a seven-t-rack tape recorder. more

-

'K .

.

'7I'
-17-

LIv) I c

°

ED

z
LLU-

()

>0

EG

O

t)

-

z

-

-

-C

CDJ
,,-,
LU

-JL

'''

2
9-,

Z z/
-

O~,
C) 2f
LLJ j o

C
-n
I

V)
V)

G2A

<<

41

F- LLLJ <~~ V

LLJ j HL

U

z

:

< CD(::)-mor U-

)

PO<

5w()'\~s

"n'
-D c-

-

_

0

)-

-

O

-183-

Data are later relayed to Earth one track at a time. (picA picture is assembled on Earth as an array of pixels the charge at a point ture elements), each pixel representing image). on the faceplate (i.e., the brightness at a point in the the pixel array is slowly assembled, As data are read back, The image complete only when all seven tracks have been read. a video screen and film copies are made. is then displayed on

The telescope has an all-spherical, catadioptric cassegrain lens with a 475-millimeter (18.7-inch) focal length. mechaniThe sensor is a 38 mm (1.5-in.) selenium vidicon. A from 0.003 to 2.7 cal focal plane tape allows exposure times Between the vidicon and telescope is a filter wheel seconds. Each frame has 8.7 million bits that provides color images. (binary digits). The cameras are mounted on the Orbiter with a slight offset and the timing of each shutter is offset by one-halfand frame time so the cameras view slightly different fields combined effecc is to produce a shutter alternately. The swath of adjacent pictures as the motion of the spacecraft The moves the fields of view across the surface of Mars. lowest part in the orbit (1,500 km or resolution at.the This would 810 mi.) is 37.5 m (124 ft.) per pixel. the size of a football field to be resolved. allow an object The Orbiter Imaging investigation team leader is Dr. Michael 1I.Carr of the U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. Water Vapor Mapping Water vapor is a minor constituent of the Martian It:; presence was discovered about / years ago atmosphere. indicated from Earth-based telescopic observations. They/ disappearing appearing and that the vapor varies seasonally, in each hemiwith the recession and growth of the polar c sphere, and diurnally (daily), with its maxmum close to Some e.vid ce was found Ithat local (Mars) noon (Mars time). atmosphere, water vapor is contained in the lowest layers of the the surface. perhaps within the first 1,000 m (3,30 ft.) above The abundance of atmospheric ater vapor is usually of the given in units of "precipitable yipcrons," a measure that would be formed thickness of the ice layer or liquid surface if all the vapor in the atmospheric column above the
were condensed out.

-more-

Ie

I

-3 9--

e-

co~

r CDD
<

I
<t

I 1
I

Imre

I

l

F li

-n

01 4 C.

,

\

-20-

Compared with Earth, Mars' atmosphere contains very little water. The atmosphere on Earth typically holds the equivalent of one or two centimeters (0.4 to 0.8 inches) of water, but the most water observed on Mars is only a fraction of one per cent of Earth's or 50 precipitable microns (0.002 inches). The Mars atmosphere is a hundred times thinner than Earth's, however, and its mean or average temperature is considerably lower. The relative water concentrations, therefore, are not very different (about one part per thousand) and the relative humidity on Mars can be significant at times. It is misleading to refer to Mars as a "dry" planet. Yet in terms of total planetary abundance, evidence suggests that there is very little water on or above the planet's surface in the form of atmospheric vapor or surface ice. Since water is cosmically one of the more abundant molecules, the question arises: Has Mars lost most of its water during its evolution, or is water present beneath the surface, a subsurface shell of ice or permafrost, or perhaps held deeper in the interior to be released by thermal and seismic activity at some future time? Mariner spacecraft observations of Mars in 1969 and 1971 showed that while the polar hoods are predominantly frozen carbon dioxide, the visible caps left after the carbon dioxide vaporizes are water crystals. Mariner results revealed other intriguing facts related to the history of water on Mars: The atmosphere loses hydrogen and oxygen atoms to space at a slow but steady rate, and in the relative proportions with which they make up the water molecule. Surface features exist that appear to have been formed by flowing liquid . Thelatter are quite different from the river-like features caused by lava flows. They appear to be wide braided channels formed from an earlier period of flooding by a more mobile liquid than volcanic lava. Again a question: Are we now seeing the last disappearing remnants of water that was once much more plentiful on the planet, or is Mars locked in an ice age that has frozen out most of its water in the polar caps or beneath a layer of surface dust? Martian water clearly holds many clues to the planet's history. By studying the daily and seasonal appearance and disappearance of water vapor in more detail than is possible from Earth by mapping its global distribution, and by determining the locations and mechanisms of its release ibto the atmosphere, scientists should understand more clearly the present water regime, and perhaps unravel some of the mystery surrounding past conditions on the planet. more
-I v -\

-

-21-

In the context of Martian biology, such clarification may have great significance in establishing the existence, now or in the past, of an environment favorable to the survival and proliferation of living organisms. This presumes that Martian life is dependent on the availability of water as is life on Earth. The Viking water vapor mapping observations will be made with an infrared grating spectrometer mounted on the Orbiter scan platform, boresighted with the television cameras and the Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM). The spectrometer, called the Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MAWD), measures solar infrared radiation reflected from the surface of the planet after it has passed through the atmosphere. The instrument selects narrow spectral intervals coincident with characteristic water vapor absorptions in the 1.4-micron wavelength region of the spectrum. Variations in the intensity of radiation received by the detectors provide a direct measure of the amount of water vapor in the atmospheric path traversed by the solar rays. The sensitivity of the instrument enables amounts of water from a minimum of a precipitable micron to a maximum of 1,000 microns to be measured. The precise wavelengths of radiation to which the detectors respond are also selected so instrument data can be used to derive atmospheric pressure at the level where the bulk of the water vapor resides, providing an indication of its height above the surface. At the lowest point in the orbit, the field of view of the detector is a rectangle 3 by 20 km (1.9 by 12.4 mi.) on the planet's surface. This field is swept back and forth, perpendicular to the ground track of the Orbiter, by an auxiliary mirror at the entrance aperture of the instrument. In this way the water vapor over selected areas of the planet can be mapped. A small ground-based computer, dedicated to the use of the two orbiting infrared isntruments, directly reduce data to contour plots of the water vapor abundance and pressure. During the initial orbits, and particularly through the landing site certification phase of the missions before Lander separation, MAWD observations will concentrate on an area within a few hundred kilometers around the landing sites, to help in site certification and to complement landed science measurements.

-more-

-

.-.--'

--

-

-.... >b~itr~frir~ea

=4~>

-

-J

-22In later phases of the mission, observations will be extended to obtain global coverage of water vapor distribution and its variation with time-of-day and seasonal progression. The search for regions of unusually high water content will be emphasized during these later stages, and areas of special interest will be studied, including volcanic ridges, the edge of the polar cap and selected topographic features. The Water Vapor Mapping investigation team leader is Dr. Crofton B. (Barney) Farmer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Thermal Mapping

The Thermal Mapping investigation is designed to obtain temperature measurements of areas on the surface of Mars. It obtains the temperature radiometrically with an Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) instrument. Information obtained by the thermal mapper will contribute to the study of the surface and atmosphere of Mars, which is similar to and in some ways simpler to study than Earth. Mars appears to be geologically younger, and clearly is undergoing major changes. Studies of Martian geology and meteorology can have implications in tectonics (the study of crustal forces), volcanology and understanding weathering and mineral deposition. Just as fine beach sand cools rapidly in the evening while large rocks remain warm, daily temperature variation of the Martian surface indicates the size of individual surface particles, although the thermal mapper necessarily obtains an average value over many square kilometers. Measurements obtained just before sunrise are especially valuable (the detectors can sense the weak heat radiation from the dark part of the planet), since at that time the greatest temperature differences occur between solid and fine-grained material. One detector is used to measure the upper atmospheric temperature. That information may be combined with surface temperatures to permit construction of meteorological models. An understanding of the important Martian wind circulation depends on such models. Data received from the thermal mapper are intended to help establish and evaluate the site for the Viking Lander. Martian organisms would probably be affected by local water distribution and temperatures of the soil and air; these factors are either measured by the radiometer or are dependent on the soil particle characteristics determined by the thermal mapper.
-

X

2

more

-

o1c1G

,;.i',

IS POOR
\..-i

-23-

I,

00

00

4
QA)

--

X

I.

11

-24-

The Infrared Thermal Mapper is a multi-channel radiometer mounted sn the Orbiter's scan platform. It accurately measures the temperatures of the Martian surface and upper atmosphere, and also the amount of sunlight reflected by the planet. Four small telescopes, each with seven sensitive infrared detectors, are aimed parallel to the Visual Imaging optical axis. Differences of one degree Celsius (about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) can be measured throughout the expected temperature range of minus 130 degrees C to plus 57 deagrees C (ittinus 202 to 135 degrees F.). The instrument is 20 by 30 cii (8x10x12 in.) and has a minimum spatial resolution of 8 km (5 mi.) on the surface.

The large number of detectors (28) is chosen to provide good coverage of the Martian surface, and to allow several infrared "colors" to be sampled. Differences in the apparent brightness of a spot on the planet in the various colors imply what kinds of rocks (granite, basalt, etc.) are present. The temperatures themselves may indicate the composition of clouds and the presence of dust in the atmosphere. The spatial resolution available to the thermal mapper will permit reliable determination of the frost composition comprising the polar caps. The close spacing of infrared detectors and the spacecraft scanning mode improves the ability to identify possible local effects such as current volcanic activity or water condensation. The Thermal Mapping investigation team leader Dr. Hugh H. Kieffer of the University of California is at Los Angeles. Entry Science The Entry Science investigation is concerned with direct measurements of the Martian atmosphere from the time the Lander and Orbiter separate until the Lander touches down on the planet's surface. Knowledge of a planet's atmosphere, both neutral and ionized components tells much about the planet's physical and chemical evolution, and it increases understanding of the history of all planets, including that of Earth.

-more-

K~~ ~,-K-

-252

Zn

CD~C O na)

Co, c=o
U~,)X
U,\

Z_
co

C

>w t

c

LU
X-

E
EF
a)

I~~
< o

~~~~ > ~

-

"tJ+ LixSa <s

EC- ,
L1J
nQ

>,

CL

F0

CD Q
_

°

D
. '.

LUc coWwW
-X

LU

CL-E
CD.

Cl)_

-oe

C

I- *~ r-------------------------LU
aIf)
L-tl OU

IS
_

OR

C

_

coIT

F H

\(It
-niore -

IT POOHE

-26-

The question of the atmospheric composition of Mars is of immediate interest to scientists. Nitrogen, believed essential to the existence of life, has not yet been measured on Mars by remote sensing methods. Measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature, plus winds, are important in understanding the meteorology, just as observations made with weather balloons in Earth's atmosphere supplement surface observations. Upper Atmosphere. Studies of the Martian upper atmosphere composition begin shortly after the Lander leaves the Orbiter. The first measurements are made so high above the surface that only charged particles can be detected. These measurements are made with a Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) that will measure electron and ion concentrations and temperatures of these components. Measurements continue down to about 100 km (60 mi.) above the planet's surface, where the pressure becomes too high for the instrument to operate. On Mars, which has a weak magnetic field compared with that of Earth, charged particles streaming from the Sun (called the solar wind) and interacting with the upper atmosphere may be important in determining the nature of the lower atmosphere. At the very highest altitudes, the analyzer will study the interaction of the solar wind with the Martian atmosphere. Measurements at lower altitudes will make important contributions to knowledge of the interaction of sunlight with atmospheric gases, a matter of great significance in understand-ing the photochemical reactions that take place in all planetary atmospheres, including Earth's. Another analyzer will be turned on several thousand kilometers above the Martian surface, but the neutral atmosphere at high altitudes is so thin that measurements will not begin until the Lander drops to an altitude of around 300 km (180 mi.) above the surface. Measurements on the neutraL constituents of the atmosphere are made with the Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (UAMS). The mass spectrometer will sample and analyze the atmosphere as the Lander passes through. Inside the instrument, the gas to be analyzed is ionized by an electron beam, and the ions formed are sent through an appropriate combination of electric and magnetic fields to determine the amounts of the various molecular weights by which the various gases can be identified.

-more-

JrA

l S l

-

_

_

_

_

_

_l

-27-

From remote measurements, carbon dioxide is known to be the principal atmospheric constituent on Mars. The mass spectrometer should be able to detect 0.1 per cent of nitrogen and even a smaller amount of argon. Argon's principal isotope is a radioactive decav product of Potassium, an important constituent in many minerals. About one per cent of the Earth's atmosphere has come from the radioactive decay of potassium in the Earth's crust. The mass spectrometer will also look for molecular and atomic oxygen, carbon monoxide and other common gases that may be present in the Martian atmosphere. It may tell if the isotope composition in elements such as carbon, oxygen and argon is the same as on Earth, thereby providing measurements needed to understand planetary evolution. Lower Atmosphere. The lower atmosphere begins at about 100 km (60 mi.) altitude, become inoperative. where the analyzer atmospheric gases reside The bulk of the and mass spectrometer below this altitude. On Mars the surface atmospheric pressure is only about 1.5 per cent as great as on Earth. Measurements of Mars' surface pressure are all based on remote observations, principally alteration by the atmosphere of radio waves from Mariner spacecraft as they flew behind the planet. Viking will obtain direct pressure and temperature measurements in the lower atmosphere and on the surface. In passing through the atmosphere from lOn km (60 mi.) to the surface, the Landers will obtain profiles of the properties of the atmosphere: pressure, density and tempera-ture. First measurements will be by sensitive determination of the aerodynamic retardation of the Lander, from which atmospheric density can be derived. The density profile with altitude permits the weight (pressure) of the atmosphere above any given level to be calculated. Given atmospheric composition, pressure and density will define the structure of the atmosphere from roughly 100 to 25 km (60 to 15 mi.) altitude. Below 25 km, sensors can be deployed to directly measure the pressure and temperature, although these measurements have to be done with specially designed sensors because of the low pressure in the atmosphere. The importance of the profiles is that they are determined by solar energy absorption and vertical heat flow. Heat can be transported either radiatively or convectively (by infrared emission or absorption) or by currents and winds.

~*J

t

-

more

-

J
V/

I.-

?

a

-~

-

,

VI'

So
o---

<
CO i

V

LU.

ci
LA.

CC+I
~~tD
<N

CZj

-LJ

LO

<>
.Li

-

V)

z

-more-

Oki'A

PAGE, IS POOR

29The atmosphere of Mars appears to be windy compared to Earth's lower atmosphere. This is a result of the low density of the atmosphere, which permits it to change temperature rapidly, and causes large temperature variations from day to night and seasonally. There are large contrasts in temperature of the atmosphere, precisely the condition to create winds. One evidence for high winds is the frequently storms, such as the long-lasting one that greeted severe dust Mariner 9. These storms are a puzzle, since it takes even strc:.ger winds than those now calculated by computer models of the atmospheric circulation (18 to 46 m per second; 40 to 100 mi. per hour)to raise dust in this tenuous atmosphere. The vertical profiles of temperature will provide additional evidence of the thermal balance of the atmosphere and, it is hoped, of forces that drive the winds. Winds also will be measured directly in the parachute phase by tracking the motion of the Lander over the surface as it drifts, carried by local winds. These measurements will extend to an altitude of 6 km (3.7 mi.). The Entry Science investigation team leader is 0. C. Nier of the University of Minnesota. Lander Imaging As a person depends on sight for learning about the world, so cameras will serve as the eyes of the Lander and, indirectly, of the Viking scientists. Pictures of the region near the Lander will be studied to select a suitable site for acquiring samples that will be analyzed by other Lander instruments. The cameras will also record that the samples have been correctly picked up and delivered. From tire to time, the cameras will examine diferent parts of the Lander to see that components are operating correctly. One category of the Lander imaging investigation is the study of general geology or topography. Pictures of the Martian surface visible to the cameras are of the highest scientific priority. The first pictures will be panoramic surveys, and then regions of particular interest will be imaged in high resolution, in color and in infrared. Dr. Alfred

)

q

-more

-

AA

"-A7,12W~~ ,f'

I

--.-

ll

30-

.2-

co

C
D-a

LUJ

C2

'u

LL*
cm 4-

LU

CbC>

o

Cu

-

-

7

93

o

-,

.

-,

yre'

rT/sy

or TII'E

-r ore-

-31-

LLU
LaJ

zz
CD

.4

.

.

A.A'

-mre

K-32Stereoscopic views are obtained by photographing the same object with two cameras, providing photos in which threedimensional shapes can be distinctly resolved. Putting together this information, scientists can tell much about the character of the Martian surface and the processes that have shaped it. One can imagine finding shock-lithified rocks (as on the Moon), igneous.boulders, wind-shaped boulders (ventifacts), sand ripples, or a lag gravel deposit. Each of these possible objects could be resolved in pictures; each would bespeak a particular kind of surface modification. The advantage of operational flexibility is important. Scientists will study the first pictures and, on the basis of what they reveal, select particular areas for more detailed examination. This method will require sending new picture commands to the Lander every few days. Used as photometers, the cameras will yield data that permit inferences about the chemical and physical properties of Martian surface materials. Color and IR diodes will collect data .i.n six different spectral bands. Reflectance curves constructed from these six points have diagnostic shapes for particular minerals and rocks. For example, differing degrees of iron oxidation cause varying absorption in the range from 0.9 to 1.1 micron wavelengths. Another goal will be to spot variable features. Changes in features can be determined by taking pictures of the same region at successive times. The most probable change will be caused by the movement of sand and silt by the wind. Mariner pictures have revealed large-scale sediment movement; similar Lander observations are anticipated. A grid target has been painted atop the Lander; one aim of the variable features investigation is to spe if the target is being covered by sediment. The came.os singleline scan will be used each day to detect any sand grains saltating (hopping) along the surface. The most spectacular variable feature would be one of biological origin. Many scientists are skeptical about the probability of life on Mars; very few expect to see large forms that can be recognized in a picture. The possibility will not be discounted, however. If there are organic forms, they might be difficult to identify in a conventional "snapshot," Their most recognizable attribute might be motion, and this motion might be uniquely characterized by the single-linescan mode of operation.

-

more

-

t

.

PAGE

3PAGEIS

POOR

l

-33-

Another area of camera investigation is atmospheric Pictures taken close the horizon at sunset or properties. sunrise will be used to determine the aerosol content of Some pictures will also be taken of celesthe atmosphere. tial objects: Venus, perhaps Jupiter, and the two Mars satellites, Phobos and Deimos. The brightness of these objects will be affected by the interference of the atmosphere, and che cameras can provide a way to measure aerosol content. The cameras can also be used in the same way as more Pictures of the Sun and conventional surveying instruments. planets can be geometrically analyzed to determine the latitudinal and longitudinal position of the Lander on Maris. Each Lander is equipped with two identical cameras, (39 in.) apart. They have a relapositione' about 1 m tively unobstructed view across the area that is accessible The cameras are on stubby masts to the sirface sampler. in.) above the surface. that extend 1.3 m (51 The imaging instruments are facsimile cameras. Their design is fundamentally different from that of the television cameras that have been used on most unmanned orbital and flyby spacecraft. Facsimile cameras use mechanical instead of electronic scanning. In a television camera the entire object is simultaneously recorded as an image on the face of a vidicon tube in the focal plane. Then the image is "read" by the vidicon through the action of an electron beam as it neutralizes the electro static potential produced by photons In a facsimile camera, small when the image was recorded. picture elements (called pixels) that make up the total image are sequentially recorded. In a facsimile camera an image is produced by observing the object through sequential line scans with a nodding mirror which reflects the light from a small element of the object into a diode sensor. Each time the mirror nods, one vertical line in the field of view is scanned by the diode. horizontally by a small inThe entire camera then moves terval and the next vertical line is scanned by the nodding mirror. Data that make up the entire picture are slowly acc.umulrted in this way. Because each element (spot) in the field of view is recorded on the same diode, opposed to different parts of the vidicon tube face the facsimile camera has a photometric stability that exceeds most television systems. Pelatively subtle reflectance chatacteristics of objects in the field of view can be measured.

' 2

4
-

more

-S-,.--

l*

341

-3 4-X

There are actually 12 diodes in the camera focal plane; each diode is designed to acquire data of particular spectral and spatial quality. One diode acquires a survey black-and-white picture. Three diodes have filters that transmit light in blue, green and red; together these diodes record a color picture. Three more diodes are used in essentially the same way, but have filters that transmit energy in three bands of near-infrared. Four diodes are placed at different focal positions to get the best possible focus for high-resolution blackand-white pictures. (This results in a spatial resolution of several millimeters for the field of view closest to the camera--objects the size of an aspirin can be resolved.) The twelfth diode is designed with low sensitivity so it can image the Sun. The survey and color pictures have a fixed elevation dimension of 60 degrees; high-resolution pictures have a fixed dimension of 20 degrees. The pictures can be positioned anywhere in a total elevation range of 60 degrees below to 40 degrees above the nominal horizon. The azimuth of the scene is adjustable; it can vary from less than one degree to almost 360 degrees to obtain a panorama. The facsimile camera acquires data relatively slowly, line by line. Rapidly moving objects, therefore, will not be accurately recorded. They might appear as a vertical streak, recorded on only one or two lines. This apparent liability can be turned into an asset. If the camera continues to 'perate while its motion is inhibited, the same vertical line is repetitively scanned. If the scene is stationary, the reflectance values between successive lines will be identical, but if an object crosses the region scanned by the single line, the reflectance values dramatically change between successive scans. The singleline-scan mode of camera operation, therefore, provides ani unusual way of detecting motion. As the mission proceeds, pictures will be acquired and transmitted three ways: the first Lander pictures will be sent directly to the Orbiter for relay to Earth. On successive days, pictures will be acquired during the day and stored on the Lander's tape recorder for later transmission to the Orbiter. Pictures can also be transmitted directly to Earth at a lower data rate.

Ji

J(
-

more

-

31

LJ.TY OF THE PAGE IS POOR,

F-S

-35The number of pictures that will be sent to Earth each day will vary according to the size of the pictures, amount of data to be transmitted by other instruments, and length of the transmission period. A typical daily picture budget for one Lander might be one picture directly transmitted to Earth at low data rate, two pictures transmitted real time through the Orbiter, and three pictures stored on the tape recorder and later relayed to Earth. The Lander Imaging investigation team leader is Dr. Thomas A. (Tim) Mutch of Brown University. Biology Biology investigations will be performed to search for the presence of Martian organisms by looking for products of their metabolism. Three distinct investigations will incubate samples of the Martian surface under a number of different environmental conditions. Each is based on a different fundamental assumption about the possible requirements of Martian organisms; together they constitute a broad range of ideas on how to search for life on Mars. The three investigations are Pyrolytic Release (PR), Labeled Release (LR) and Gas Exchange (GEX). Martian soil samples acquired by the surface sampler, imes during each landing, will be delivered to the several There the samples will be Viking Biology Instrument (VBI). distributed, in measured amounts, to the three automatically experiments for incubation and further processing. Within the biology instrument, a complex system of heaters and thermo-electric coolers will maintain the incubation temperatures 'Between about 8 and 17 deqrees C (46 to 63 degrees F.) in spite of external temperatures that may drop to minus 75 degrees C (minus 103 degrees F.) or internal Lander temperatures that may rise to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F.). The Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiment Pyrolytic Release. contains three incubation chambers, each of which can be Tunis experiment is designed to measure used for one analysis. either photosynthetic or chemical fixation of carbon dioxide The main rationale for this is (CO ) or carbon monoxide (CO). 2 atmosphere is known to contain C02 , with CO that the Martian Any Martian biota (animal or plant life) as a trace component. expected to include organisms capable of assimilating one are It also seems reasonable that at least or both of these gases. some organisms on Mars would take advantage of solar energy, as occurs on Earth, and that Martian soil would include photosynthetic organisms. -more-

-

3$;-

oE

c

E

.4, (A

-.

LLiJ

CI

D

uVI

DD

.4-,

)ICzf

a)

lmorCU(,

*

UIT

OF

H

sore-

,

,

t

i)AGB IS POOR

-37-

ceZ 0
uJ
orJ

fI

9J

LItC,3LN'YO
-noe
.

H
UCU3ILTY O' TH sPO lUPG

-38The experiment incubates soil in a Martian atmosphere with radioactive CO and CO2 added. Then, by pyrolysis (heating at high temperatures to "crack" organic compounds) and the use of an organic vapor trap (OVT), it determines whether radioThis active carbon has been fixed into organic compounds. either in the dark or light. experiment can be conducted For an analysis, 0.25 cc of soil is delivered to a test cell, which is then moved to 'he incubation station and sealed. After establishing the.. incubation temperature, water vapor can be introduced by ground command if desired. Then the labeled C02 /CO mixture is added from a gas reservoir and a xenon arc Lpaxp, simulating the Sun's energy, is automatically turned on during the five-day incubation. After incubation, the teLt cell is heated to 120 degrees C (248 degrees F.) to remove residual incubation gases, which are vented to the outside. Background counts are made, after which the test cell is moved from the incubation station to another station. Here pyr-lysis is done by heating the test cell to 625 degrees r (1,160 degrees F.), while purging the test cell with helium gas. The purged gases pass through the OVT, designed to retain organic compounds and fragments, but not C02 or CO. The radioactivity detector at this stage will sense a "first peak" consisting mainly of unreacted C02/CO. This first peak is regarded as non-biological in origin. After this operation, the test cell is moved away from the pyrolysis station, the detector is heated and purged with helium, and background counts are taken once more to verify that the background radiation is down to pre-pyrolysis levels. The trapped organic compounds are then released from the OVT (1,290 degrees F.), which by heating it to 700 degree- C simultaneously oxidizes thera to CO2 . These are flushed into A significant second radioactive peak at this the detector. point would indicate biological activity in the original sample. experiment is deLabeled Release. The Labeled Release (LR) a soil sample moistened signed to test metabolic activity in with a dilute aqueous solution of very simple organic compounds. The rationale for this experiment is that some Martian organisms, in contact with an atmosphere containing COZ, should be able to break down organic compounds to CO;. The experiment depends on the biological release cf radioactive gases from a mixture of simple radioactive compounds supplied during incubation.

-more-

-39-

The test cell is provided 0.5 cc of soil sample and is moved to the incubation station and sealed. The Martian atmosphere is established in the test cell in this process. Before the radioactively-labeled nutrients (a mixture of formate, glycine, lactate, alanine, and glycolic acid; all compounds uniformly labeled with radioactive carbon) are added, Then approximately 0.15 cc of a background count is taken. nutrients are added, and incubation proceeds for 11 days. The atmosphere above the soil sample is continuously monitored by a separate radioactivity detector throughout the incubation, after which the test cell and detector are purged with helium. 'The accumulation of radioactive C02 (or other radioactive gases) indicates the presence of life metabolizing the nutrient. Data are collected for 12 days. These data will The shape of produce a metabolic curve as a function of time. can be used to determine if growth is taking place in the curve the test cell. The Gas Exchange (GEX) experiment measures Gas Exchange. the production or uptake of C02 , nitrogen, methane, hydrogen and oxygen during the incubation of a Martian soil sample. The GEX experiment can be conducted in one of two modes: in the presence of water vapor, without added nutrients, or
in the presence of a complex source of nutrients.

The first mode is based on the assumption that substrates (foodstuffs) may not be limiting il the Martian soil and that biological activity may be stimulated when only water vapor becomes available. The second mode assumes that Martian soil similar to those found in contains organisms metabolically most terrestrial soils and that these will require organic nutrients for growth. A single test cell is used for the experiment. After receiving 1 cc of soil from the distribution assembly, the test cell is moved to its incubation station and sealed. After a helium purge, a mixture of helium, krypton and C02 is introduced into the incubation cell and this becomes the (Krypton is used as an interznitial incubation atmosphere. nal standard; helium is used to bring the test chamber pressure to approximately one-fifth of an Earth atmosphere.)

-

more

-

V.

...

.1.,

-40-

At this point either 0.5 or 2.5 cc of a rich nutrient soUsing the lesser quantity, the soil l-ution can be introduced. does not come into contact with the solution, and incubation An additional two cc allows conProceeds in a "humid" mode. tact between the soil and the nutrient solution, which consists of a concentrated aqueous mixture of nineteen amino vitamins, other organic compounds, and inorganic acids, Incubation initially is planned to be in the humid mode salts. for seven days, after which additional nutrient solution will of the atmosadded. For gas analyses, samples (100 microiitrs phere above the incubating soil are removed through a gas This occurs at the beginning of each incubasampling tube. tion and after 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 days. The sawple gas is placed in a stream of helium flowing long, chromatograph column through a coiled, 0.7 m (23 ft.) into a thermal conductivity detector. The system used in the GEX experiment is very sensitive and will measure changes in concentration down to about one nanomole (one-billionth of a molecule). After a 12-day incubation cycle, a fresh soil sample can be added to the test cell to begin a new incubation cycle; the medium can be drained and replaced by fresh nutrients; and the originaL atmosphere is replaced with fresh incubation atmosphere. The latter procedure will be used if significant gas changes are noted in the initial incubation, on the assumption that if these changes are due to biological activity, they If of non-bioloshould be repeatable and should be enhanced. gical origin, they should not reappear. Each incubation station also con-tains auxiliary heaters can be used to heat soil samples to approximately 160 that The heaters will be activated degrees C (320 degrees F.). for three hours in case one or more of the experiments indicates a positive biological signal, after which the experiment will then be repeated on the "sterilized" soil samples. The detection of life This is the control for the experiment. would only be acknowledged if there were a significant difference between the "control" and the experiment. An electronic system within the Viking B3iolocgy Instrunt, containing tens of thousands of components, will autor ically sequence all events within the experiments, but will I- subject to commands from Earth. The electronic subsystem ~il also obtain data from the experiments for transmission
;'arth.

t

II

more-

,

.

A.,

_.

In addition to the electronic subsystem, each biology instrument contains four compartments, or modules, within a volume of just over one cubic foot. The common services module It contains a tank is a reservoir for the three f.ther modules. to move the incubation chambers of pressurized helium gas from one place to another, to purge pneumatic lines used in the experiments, and to carry other gases as required. The Biology investigation team leader is Dr. Harold P. Klein of NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif. Molecular Analvsis The Molecular Analysis investigation will search for and identify organic (and some inorganic) compounds in the It will surface layer (the first few centimeters) of Mars. also determine the composition of the atmosphere near the surface and monitor composition changes during part of a Martian season. Organic compounds on Earth are substances that contain carbon, hydrogen (almost always) and often oxygen, nitrogen All and other elements; all are attached to one another. simple ones contain a series of carbon atoms but the most attached to each other. On Earth carbon has the tendency to This may happen on form a variety of long-chain molecules. Mars, although it's possible that the situation may be different on another planet. The question of whether there are organic compounds in the surface of Mars and, if so, what is their chemical strucOrganic substances ture, is of interest for several reasons. produced by purely non-biological processes (such as thermal, ;tion-induced reactions) would tell photo-chemical or of these processes, and would something about the o(. -rrence allow speculation about precursors (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, water, hydrogen sulfide, etc.) that could produce Lhe substances detected. The possibility also exists that the planet abounds Their with chemical compounds produced by living systems. and structural uniqueness chemical nature, distribution could be used to argue the presence of living organisms on Mars. The wide area between these two extremes may represent manitestations of various levels of chemical evolution, or even of a planet that carried living systems that died gradually or through a catastrophic event.

-

more

-

j

-42-

Identification of the relatively small and simple organic molecules in the surface of Mars may enable comparison of the present chemistry of the planet to chemistry we assume Conversely, comexisted on Earth a few billion years ago. pounds may be encountered that resemble the composition of petroleum. From the distribution of individual structures, speculation can be made whether or not these hydrocarbons represent chemical fossils remaining after the decomposition of living systems of earlier times (a theory favored for the origin of petroleum on Earth). While the major constituent of the Martian atmosphere is known to be carbon dioxide, there is a conspicuous absence of terrestrially important gases like oxygen and nitrogen, at least at the level of more than about one per cent. Recent Soviet measurements indicate the possibility The concentration would of an appreciable amount of argon. Information of the early history of Mars. tell something constituents like carbon monoxide, oxygen, nitroabout minor gent and possibly even traces of small hydrocarbons or ammonia is important to an understanding of the chemical and possibly biological processes occurring at the surface of the planet. Periodic measurements during the day and during the entire landed phase of the mission are required for this purpose. Finally, because of the absence of nitrogen in the atmosphere, it is of interest to search for nitrogen-containing inorganic substances such as nitrates or nitrites in the surface minerals. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) was chosen for these experiments because of its high sensitivity, high structural specificity and broad applicability to a Because mass spectra can be interwide range of compounds. preted even in the absence of reference spectra, detection is possible of compounds not expected by terrestrial chemists. 'The spectrometer will be used directly for analysis of the atmosphere before and after removal of carbon dioxide, which facilitates the identification and quantification ofT minor constituents. Identification of organic substances probably present in surface material is a complex task because little is known about their overall abundance (which may be zero,,, and because any one of thousands of organic substances, or any combination thereof, may be present.

a

01

-ImoI-1TDUCIBTLITY

-more -

OF THE Tc 1stssIAC'" PO)OR.i!

s 4+Pk

43-

- C] ,< z V)- 2 0O
O/

CL o

VLt

-- J

I;;

L-

uJL

CLO

L'))

V'I

-more-

.

-

--.

-'.

-..

-44-

Durinq the experiment, organic substances will be vaporized from the surface material by heating it to 200 degrees C (392 degrees F.), while carbon dioxide (labeled with 13 C, a non-racioactive carbon isotope) sweeps t'irough. The emerging material is carried into a gas chromatographiz column (tenex), which is then swept by a carrier gas (hydrogen). While passing through this column (a thin tube filled with solid particles) substances entering the column are separated from each other by their different degrees of retention on this solid material. After emerging from the column, excess carrier gas is removed by passing the stream through a Dalladium separator that is permeable only to hydrogen; the residual stream then moves into the mass spectrometer. This produces a complete mass spectrum (from mass 12 to 200) every 10 seconds for the entire 84 minutes of the gas chromatogram. The data are then stored and sent to Earth. In this part of the experiment, materials that are volatile at 200 degrees C (392 degrees F.) will be measured. The same sample is then heated to 5000 C (9320 F.) to obtain less volatile materials and to pyrolyze (crack by heating) those substances that are not volatile enough to evaporate. The results of the organic experiment will consist of three parts: interpretation of the mass spectra to identify compounds evolved from the soil sample; reconstruction of the molecular structures of those substances that were pyrolyzed and gave only mass spectra of their pyrolysis products; and correlation of the compounds detected in the surface material with hypotheses of their generation on the Martian surface. The detection of inorganic gaseous materials such as water, carbon dioxide or nitrogen oxides, produced upon heating the soil sample, may permit conclusions on the composition of ;.inerals that comprise the inorganic surface material. Results of the inorganic experiment are expected to help in this correlation and vice versa. Atmospheric analyses are relatively simple and don't require much time, power or expendable supp.ies, but organic analyses are more involved. They consume a considerable amount of power, produce a large amount of data that must be sent to Earth, and involve materials that are limited (labeled carbon dioxide and hydrogen). For these reasons only three soil sampLes will be analyzed during each of the two missions. ConsLdering the limited source (the area accessible to the surface sampler), this should be an adequate number of tests. The Molecular Analysis investigation team leader is Dr. Klaus Biemann of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

-

more

-

.

.

. ,

-45-

Inorganic Chemistry Scientific questions, ranging from the origin of the solar system to the metabolism of microbes, depend largely on knowledge of the elemental chemical composition of surface material. The Inorganic Chemical investigation will greatly expand present knowledge of the chemi-try of Mars, and it is likely to provide a few clues to help answer some of these questions. The conditions under which a planet condenses are thought to be reflected in its overall chemical composition. The most generally recognized relationship is that planetary bodies forming closer to the Sun should be enriched in refractory elements such as calcium, aluminum and zirconium, relative to more volatile elements such as potassium, sodium anC rubidium. To be truly diagnostic, ratios of volatile/refractory el6mental pairs must represent planet-wide abundances, which will certainly be distorted by local differentiative geochemical processes (core/mantle formation, igneous and metamorphic differentiation, weathering and erosion, etc.). On the other hand, gross variations should be apparent. More detailed information on local processes (from other experiments as well as this one) will help reduce the effects of distortion. Weathering in a watery environment (especially one highly charged with carbon dioxide, as is Mars' atmosphere) leads to fairly distinctive residual products, whose nature should be inferable from the inorganic chemistry data. This is especially so in concert with data from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) (on the presence and perhaps the identity of hydrate and carbonate minerals) and the Magnetic Properties experiment (on oxidation states of iron). We hope, therefore, to obtain data of at least a corroborative sort bearing on the question of the possible former existence of abundant liquid water on Mars. The experiment, reduced to essentials, consists of exposing samples of Martian surface materials to x-rays from radioisotope sources, which stimulate the atoms of the sample to emit "fluorescent" x-rays. Each chemical element emits x-rays at a very few, extremely well-defined energies. This effect is analogous to the emission of visible light by certain fluorescent minerals..when illuminated wi.t..th_"la~cY. JJAh." By analyzing the energy of the fluorescent x-rays, the elements in the sample and their relative abundances can be ascertained.

x

.

-

more

-

,1
.~~~' * .. ._.__. -

-46Because of characteristics inherent in thc technique, elements lighter (i.e., earlier in the Periodic Table) magnesium are not individually measured. While several than of these elements (e.g., nitrogen, carbon, oxygen) may be abundant and very important for biological processes, their precise abundance in surface materials is of relatively minor interpretative value. Gross abundances should be deducible from x-ray data combined with data from other experiments, notably the GCMS and Magnetic Properties investigations. The sample delivered to the x-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) by the surface sampler may be coarse-grained material up to 1.3 cm (0.5 in.) in diameter (the opening of a screen in the funnel head) or fine-grained material that has been passed by vibratory sieving through 2 mm (0.08 in.) circular openings in the surface sampler head. The spectrometer contains a sample analysis chamberx-ray sources, detectors, electronics, and a dump cavity. The unit weighs two kilograms (4.5 pounds). Facing each window of the -chamber are two sealed, gas-filled proportional counter (PC) detectors flanking a radioactive source. These sources (radioactive iron and cadmium) produce x-rays of sufficient energy to excite fluorescent x-rays from the elements between magnesium and uranium in the Periodic Table. Elements before magnesium in the table can determined only as a group, although useful estimates be of their individual abundances may be indirectly achieved. The output of the detectors is a series of electrical pulses with voltages proportional to the energy of the x-ray photons of the elements that produced them. A determination of the energy level identifies the presence of that elerment and the intensity (count rate) of the signal is related to its concentration. A single-channel analyzer circuit divides the output of each detector into 328 energy levels and steps through each level, recording the accumulated count for a fixed period of time. A continuous plot of the count rate in eazh level produces a spectral signature of tho material.

-

more

-

, .4.

--.

-48-

CL

Co

-

Vc)
a,-I

LU

(a(

1Gg1

e:

L

ze

C.D

LLJJ

C),
XL

Cz

D

O
L

ul .41 z

Iui
LA.

L-more
LU.

0~<

U
F
LL-J

L0

0

-more -

'IrT-i

P- ir15

. . --

-

A

-49--

Meteorology Meteorology science measurements on Mars will be obto ta'ined primarily from sensors mounted on a boom attached direcwill include wind speed, wind the Lander. Measurements Atmospheric pressure will be measured tion and temperature. a tube to by- a sensor located inside the Lander and vented by the outside. Readings will be obtained during approximately of 20 periods every Sol*(Mars day), each period consisting several instantaneous measurements. The Meteorology investigation is designed to increase It will understanding of how the Martian atmosphere works. the meteorology be man's first opportunity to'directly observe as does of another planet that obeys the same physical lawsto extend and refine The opportunity Earth's atmosphere. the Sun's comprehension of how an atmosphere works, driven by the planet, should give radiation and subject to rotation.of better understanding of Earth's atmosphere. Scientific goals of the experiment are to: * Obtain the first direct measurements of Martian meteorology with instruments placedzin the atmosphere.' Until, now all information on wind speeds, for example, has come from theoretical calculations of the circulation speed of the atmosphere, or from calculations of the wind needed to raise dust. * Measure and define meteorological variations during that the daily cycle (Sol). The validity of existing theories can be compared with predict these diurnal (daily) variations measurements and the theories revised as needed. * Measure some of the turbulent characteristics of is the the planetary boundary layer. The boundary layer and this circulamain brake on atmospherid'circulation, known tion cannot be adequately understood until more is dissipation of energy in the boundary about the turbulent layer. * Verify whether such well-known terrestrial phenomena as weather fronts and dust devils occur on Mars by observing the the behavior of the atmosphere as these things pass near Landers. * Support other' Lander science experiments by providing results information needed for other experimtiits. Meteorology should provide inforduring the first few days, for example, mation on the best timeof d'ay- to -deploy-the sur-f ace-sampler boom to avoid damage from high winds. 0IRDTJCD3UX1YY OF T11BE -_more *24 hours, 39 minutes
-

OmK

PAGE IS POOR

-xw

--

a

-50Lii LUL

S

-u

aL

L L

(/)

Q

u~C.D
LzJU LaJD

0V

*

>0

<

moe-

z

I

iV)

OnCO
I.-.

cm

CD
>i

U-

CD

C.-more-

tm

V

-51-

The experiment's primary wind sensors are hot-film anemometers, two glass needles coated with platinum and overcoated with a protective layer of aluminum oxide. An electric current is passed through the platinum films to heat the needles, while the kind takds away the heat. Electric power needed to maintain these sensors at a fixed temperature above the surrounding air is the measure of the wind speed. The device measures wind speed perpendicular to its length, so two devices, mounted 90 degrees apart, are necessary to find the total wind. A third identical sen-t sor is mounted between the two, and it is used to determine air temperature and, through automatic circuitry, control the power applied to the active sensors. The sensors give the same readings for wind's from opposits directions, so an uncertainty remains as to: wind direction. This problem is solved by a quadrant sensor, an electrically heated core surr-unded bv four thermocouplesl (located every 90 degrees). Heat taken away from the core by the wind affects the thermocouples enough to eliminate uncertainty about wind direction. The quadrant sensor can also measure wind speed, so reaiings are combined from the hot-film anemometers and the quadrant sensor. A sophisticated computer program produces the best available determinations of both wind speed and direction.. Air temperature is measured by three fine-wire thermocouples in parallel. They are extremely thin tc a.L-kly respond to temperature fluctuations, but this makes them more subject to being broken by blowing sand. Eadh of the three thermocouples can operate independently, so breakage of one or two will not be catastrophic. The pressure sensor consists of a thin metal diaphragm mounted in a case. A vacuum is maintained on one side of the diaphragm while che other side is exposed to the atmosphere. As air pressure varies, the diaphragm moves slightly in response to the fluctuating force upon it. This movement is detect-ed by an electrical sensor and its output is converted to a pressure reading. The Meteorology investigation team leader is Dr. Seymour L. Hess of Florida State University.

-

more

-

|

1

mu-

'-

1'

-52-

S!eismo'logy

The Seismology- investigation will determine the level of seismic or tectonic (crustal forces) activity on Mars and its internal structure. Waves from naturally occurring Marsquakes spread throughout the planet and will be detected by seismometers on the surface. Each Lander has miniature seismometers that will measure motion ii-three perpendicular directions. Two instruments, and the three-axis nature of each, allows a crude triangulation to be made to locate a seismic event. Regions of active tectonism can be identified and associated with surface manifestations of faufting. The basic question: Is Mars a tectonically active planet or are the various surface featuresremnants of an earlier active period? The 'Barth is a tectonically active planet, primarily due to the motions of large crustal plates on its surface. Mars may be starting a phase of continental breakup or it may be a seismically dead planet. Either way, studying Mars will help scientists understand better the processes that cause quakes and plate motions in Earth. If there are abundant Marsquakes, scientists can begin to unravel the internal structure of the planet. Seismic waves are used to map deep discontinuities and to determine seismic velocities-as a function of depth, and would help determine if Mars ha's a crust and a core like Earth. Thisknowledge i's-important in understanding Earth's ea'ily evolution and the evolution of 'the atmosphere. The seismology instrument consists of an approximately cubical package, about 15 &m (6 in.) on a side that weighs about 2.3 kg (5 lbs.). In the package are three miniaturized seismometers 'for sensing ground motion, and electronic circuitry for amplifying, conditioning and compressing data. The seismometers are arranged in a mutually perpendicular manner to sense the components of motion in three directions. They consist of a 20-gram (0.7-ounce) mass with an attached coil, elastically pivoted from the instrument frame on a short boom, so the coil projects into a magnet mounted -on the frame. Relative motion of the'coil and magnet, induced by the mass's reaction to ground motion, generates a varying voltage that is applied to the 'input of an amplifier. Modes of operation may be changed by command from Earth to accommodate whatever seismic environment might be found on Mars; the modes may .also be automatically cycled by internal ~controclsr.

more

RETRODUCIBILMTY Ol' 'ni OR M PAGE IS T`(OR

-53-

3-U

mJ

-J

LU--LL

OC-,~
LUa
C~~l:

1
<

<C-

L

is
UU

I

-E ,D

=0
°~N n X0

_V)
00
--.

0on

-more. -.

-

-

U

-

at

-

-54Modes include selection of various filters to determine frequency content of seismic data, or to adjust for the best possible reception of specific types of data; a low sampling rate for readinc the general level of activity; a.high data rate for more detailed- examination of events; and a compressed, medium rate for continuous monitoring of Marsquakes. This laswt mode normally will be dormant, with the system operating at lo. rate until activated by a quake event. Since the amount of raw data produced by the seismometer is much g'reater than the capacity of telemetry, data must be compressed to reduce quantity without seriously degrading' quality. Normally, many 'samples are required for high-frequency data. Data compression is done in two ways. First', normal ground noise (microseisms) is observed by averaging its amplitude over a 15'1second period as it is passed through selectable filters. Its average amplitude and frequency content can be indicated by one sample every 15 seconds. Second, when a Marsquake event occurs, a trigger activates a.higher data rate mode that samples, not oscillations in the data, but amplitude of'the overall event envelope. This varies at a much lower rate than individual oscillations and requires only one amplitude sample per second to indicate its shape. At the same time, crossing of the zero axis by the oscillations (change in polarity of the data s.Xgnal) is counted and sampled once per second. The shape of the envelope and its incremental frequency content can be trans-. mitted' to Earth with relatively few data samples and reconstructed to approximate the original event. The Seismology investigation team leader is Dr. Don L. Anderson of the California Institute of Technology. Physical Properties The Physical Properties investigation group frequently has beer, called "the team without an instrument." While the statement i's not quite true, the investigation mainly will use available engineering data. Hardware for the investigation includes two mirrors (mounted on the surface sampler boom),,Ž stroke gauges on each Lander leg, a grid on the Lander's top, ultraviolet degradable coatings, and current-measuring circuits in the surface sampler.

-

more

-

i-

-,

-55-

Beside3 engineering data, selected images will be taken by the Lander cameras to determine properties of the Mars surface such as grain size, bearing strength, cohesion, and eolian transportability >(how easily surface material is moved by the wind). Other properties to be examined include thermal inertia (how quickly surface temperature changes) and the ultraviolet flux levels. The bearing strength of the Mars surface will be one of" the first characteristics determined. Immediately after landing, a panoramic picture will be taken that will include the Lander's number 3 footpad and its impression in the surface. This picture,- data on Lander velocity and attitude at landing, and the amount of leg stroke (compression) will be used to calculate the surface bearing strength, an important fundamental parameter. ThM' footpad impression will also give preliminary data on the cohesion of the surface material. Early in the landed missinn, the surface sampler collector head will eject its protective shroud. Following the ejection, the camera will image the spot where the shroud hits the surface, using the boom-mounted mirror (tihe area under the retroengine), and again photograph the footpad and its impression on the surface. This image will be analyzed like the one taken after landing to better define critical surface properties of bearing strength, cohesion and eolian transportability. While the surface sampler is acquiring samples for the analytical instruments, the physical properties investigation will automatically be acquiring data by measuring the sampler motor currents and taking pictures of the surface markings generated by the sampler. Even the pile of excess sample dumiped by the sampler after giving the instruments all they need will be of interest to the Physical Properties-scientists. When the sample for the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is comminuted (ground) the comminutor motor current will be recorded for analysis by the scientists to determine grain size, porosity and hardness. The team has defined several unique experiments to better understand surface properties. These include digging trenches, examining material in the collector head jaw with the magnifying mirror, piling material on the grid atop the Lander, picking up and dropping a rock or clod on the surface, pressing the collector head firmly into the surface and using the collector head thermal sensor to measure surface temperatures.

-more-

t

,.BIT

OF THE
'LPAGE IS POOR

W'i

;,

-!)WWV4T

at @Y

::

-56Another very simple experiment for the Physical Properties investigation is the addition' of ultraviolet degradable coatings on the camera reference'test charts. These coatings darken in the presence of ultraviolet and the amount of darkening, to a certain limit, is proportional to the total amount of ultraviolet received. The investigation will provide valuable information to complement the results of other studies, such as and mineralogy. Know)edge concerning the structure geology of surface can be very helpful in understanding apparently the flicting data and grasping the, significance of otherwise conunexplainable findings. The Physical Properties investigation team leader 3's Dr. Richard W. Shorthill of the University of Utah. Magnetic Properties The Magnetic Properties investigation will attempt to detect the presence of magnetic particles in the Mars surface material, and determine the identity and quantity of these particles. Iron-in magnetic minerals is usually an accessory phase in naturally occurring rocks and, surface materials on Earth, on the Moon and in meteorites. The chemical form in which this magnetic iron occurs on a planetary surface may vary from elemental metal to more complex iron compounds (i.e., ferrous oxide magnetite, highly oxidized hematite, the hydrates goethite and lepidocrocite). The abundance chemistry of the accessory Iron minerals on the surface and bearing on the.-degree of differentiation -and oxidation have of planet; the composition of its atmosphere, and the extent the of interaction between the solid surface materials and the atmosphere. This investigation uses a set of two permanent, samariumcobalt magnet pairs, mounted on the back of the surface sampler collector head. Each Pair consistq of an outer rn:;, magnet, about the size of a quarter, with an inner coreslronno magnets. (The maximumfield obtained is approximately 2;,500 gauss. A gauss is a urit of magnetic field intensity.) maqnet of opposite polarity. 'These are keiativply

-

more

-

1--'

P

* -57-

46

.LI

'a;
ot

.

.

LUA

0

TO

A-C-0 uCoz CoUJ -'

uj C

oc.D

-

W LU
CjTT T

u.JEF
1.1e

TH

-,5 8-

.58

.

!

LOJ
< z<

C-,)
12

co0,I_

a-

'I

LI..J
I I) ~

I.<
y
L)n, -moQre-

Q z:

;
,L

-

-59-

The magnetF are mounted at different depths from the outer surface of the backhoe to ensure a gradient in magnetic field strength. In addition, a similar magnet pair is mounted on the photometric target atop the lander, where it will be automatically photographed when the camera system is calibrated., The magnets in this location should attract any magnetic particles that might be present in windblown dust. In acquiring samples, the collector head will dig into the surface; and any magnetic particles will tend to adhere to the magnets. The collector head can be directly imaged with the camera system. A five-power magnifying- mirror can also be used for maximum resolution in black-and-white or color. These images will be the scientific data return on which the conclusions will be based, The Magnetic Properties principal investigator is Dr. Robert B. Hargraves of Princeton University. Radio Science The objectives of the Radio Science investigation are to conduct scientific studies of Mars using the Orbiter and Lander tracking and communications systems that are required for spacecraft operations and data transmission. Scientific uses of the systems erolved from recognition of the potential applications of the data, and developments in data analysis to extract scientific results from information contained in the radio signals. The science investigations will provide new and improved determinations of the gravity field, figure, spin axis orientation, and surface density of Mars; pressure, temperature and electron profiles in the planet's atmosphere; and properties of the solar system. Radio science applies the principles of celestial mechanics and electromagnetic wave propagation to relate tracking and communications systems signals to physical parameters. The investigation has no specifically dedicated instruments except the Orbiter's X-band transmitter, which provides a dualfrequency capability on the downlink. This is unique to Viking, compared with previous Mars missions, and is especially important for the Radio Science investigations.

-

more -

RErpwrlPUMTBLITY OF THE OW$!
<..U J'AGE IS POOR

1

f

.

-60Radio science characteristically deals with-small perterbatiors or changes in spacecraft orbits, deduced from tracking data analysis, and with small, variations in frequency, phase or amplitude of received signals. The investigations are intimately involved with data analysis, using complicated analytical procedures and associated computer programs to determine the physical effects that produce the observed variations. Data must sometimes be collected for an extended period to produce results. The basic tracking data consist of very ments of distance (range) and line-of-sight precise measurevelocity (range rate) between the spacecraft and Earth tracking stations. Range and range rate measurements are the primary data used to determine global Mars gravity field and local gravity anomalies, precise Lander locations and radii of Mars at the landing sites, spin axis (pole) orientation and motion, and the ephemerides (assigned places) of Mars and Earth. Variations in the signal and other characteristics determine Mars atmospheric and ionospheric properties during occultation experiments. During Viking.'s cruise phase, properties of planetary medium, particularly the total electron the intercontent and its variations, can be determined by analyses of differences in signal properties on the two downlink frequencies. From such measurements intensity, size and uistribution of electron streams from the Sun and from solar storms can be studied to increase understanding of the Earth-Mars region of interplanetary space. While the Orbiters are being gradually maneuvered to pass over the landing sites, large local gravity anomalies might be detectable in the tracking data. If such anomalies appear near the landing sites or elsewhere they will be of considerable interest with respect to the geology and internal structure of the planet. After landing, tracking data will be used precise Lander locations, including the radius to define of Mars at these sites. Tracking is also used to define the spin axis (pole) direction, and possibly variations in the spin axis related to the global internal density distribution of Mars. As the Orbiters rise and set with respect to the Landers, the signal amplitude received at the Orbiter on the Landerto-Orbiter communication link to An attempt will be made to analyze these i's expected to vary. variations determine dielectric properties of the regions near the Landers; these properties can be related to surface density.

-

more

-

,J

;-.

-61-

After Orbiter 1 has been in Mars orbit for about 80 days, it will be placed in a non-synchronous orbit to make a global survey of the planet. Tracking data taken near periapsis will be used to determine the global gravity field and local gravity anomalies. Several timfies during the missions, Aars passes near the line-of-sight between Earth and a quasar (an intense extraRadio signals from an Orbiter and the galactic radio source). quasar will then be alternately recorded at two iracking stations at the same time. This "is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment that yields a precise measurement of the angular separation of the two sources. With suitable data analysis, the results give the precise location of the spacecraft, Mars and Earth with respect to the fixed, inertial frame defined by the very distant quasar. By making such observations over a period of years, in various spacecraft missions, 'the precise orbits of Mars and Earth with respect to the inertial frame can be deterOne application of such information is to determine mined. the relativistic advance of the perihelion of Mars, providing a test of the general theory-of relativity. In October 1976 Orbiter 1 passes behind Mars, as viewed from Earth, during a portion of its orbit. The spacecraft signals are gradually cut off or occulted, by the planet. Variations in signal properties (frequency, phase and amplitude) as the spacecraft enters or emerges from occultation are used to infer atmospheric and ionospheric properties. Occultations for Orbiter 2 start in January 1977. Mars and Earth will be in conjunction Nov. 25. 1976. As the planets approach conjunction radio signals from Viking spacecraft pass, closer and closer to the Sun and are gradually more affected by the solar corona, particularly the electron content. Signal variations, again meas-red with the dual frequency downlinks, will yield new information on the properties of regions close to the Sun, including the characteristics of any timely solar storms (Sun spots) or high activity events. Spacecraft signals are also affected by the intense gravitational field of the Sun, so a precise solar gravitational time-delay test of general relativity theory will be done in the conjunction time period. Tests to resolve small differences in the Einstein formulation of general relativity, as compared with more recently -proposed formulations+, can. have. an important impact on fundamental physical laws-and on studies of the Universe'ssevolution. The Radio Science investigation team leader is Dr. William H. Michael, Jr. of Langley Research Center, Va.

- more -

iAd-

-62-

VIKING SCIENTISTS The Viking scientists represent an outstanding crossThev were selected from section of the scientific community. universities, research institutes, NASA centers and other government agencies. The scientists are divided into investigation teams, each The teams headed by a team leader or principal investigator. consisting of a chairman, are led' by a Science Steering Group, vice chairman, the leaders of each team and two other members'. The scientists have worked closelv with Viking engineers Consideration"s -f'weight, in designing the science instruments. power, data constraints and the necessary flexibility 'of the investigations were developed through cooperation between the two groups. Team leaders are listed first in each group. Science Steering Group Dr. Gerald A. Soffen, Chairman, Langley Research E5.nter, Hampton, Va. Dr. Richard S. Young, Vice Chairman, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. A. Thomas Young, Langley Research Center Dr. Conway W. Snyder, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Orbiter Imaginq Dr. Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. Dr. William A. Baum, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Ariz. Dr. Geoffrey A'. Briggs, Jet Propulsion!Laboratory Dr. James A. Cutts, Science Applications,, Inc., Pasadena Harold Masursky, U.S. Geological Survew, Flagstaff, Ariz. Orbiter Water Vapor Mapping Dr. C. Barney Farmer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. Donald W. Davies, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Daniril D. La Porte, Santa Barbara Research Center, Ca'if.

)t

Goleta,

-moreRETRP
TJerlJITY Oi THI.I

ORIGINAt PAGE IS POOR
.,'

-63-

Meteorology Dr. Seymour L. Hess, Florida State University, Tallahassee Robert 14. Henry, Langley Research Center Dr. Conway Leovy, University of Washington, Seattle Dr. Jack A. Ryan, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics, Huntington Beach, Calif. James E. Tillman, University of Washington, Seattle Inorganic Chemistry
Va. Dr. Priestley Toulminn III, U.S. Geological.,Survey, Reston,

Dr. Alex K. Baird, Pomona College, Claremont, Calif. Dr. Benton C. Clark, Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, Colo. Dr. Klaus Keil, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque
H'drry J. Rose, Jr., U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va.

Seismology Dr. Don L. Anderson, California Institute of Technology Fred Duennebier, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston Dr. Robert A. Kovach, Stanford University Dr. Gary V. Latham, University of Texas, Galveston Dr. George Sutton, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. M. Nafi Toks'0z, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Physical Properties Dr. Richard W. Shorthill, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Dr. Robert E. Hutton, TRW Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Redondo Beach, Calif. Dr. Henry J. Moore II, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park Dr.=Ronald-F. Scott, California Insti-tute of Technology Magnetic Properties N.J. Dr. Robert B. Hargraves, Princeton University, Princeton, Radio Science Dr. William H. Michael, Jr., Langley Research Center Dan L. Cain, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. John G. Davies, University of Manchester, England Dr. Gunnar Fjeldbo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. Mario D. Grossi, Raytheon Co., Sudbury, Mass. Dr. Irwin I. Shapiro, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dr. Charles T. Stelzried, Jet Propulsion Laboratorl Dr. G. Leonard Tyler, Stanford University *Joseph Brenklei Jet Propu-l-sion-Laboratory *Robert H. Tolson Langley Research Center *Associates -more-

.

,@

-

-

-6 -64-

Orbiter Thermal Mapping Dr. Dr. Dr. Dr. Dry. Hugh H. Kieffer, University of California, Los Angeles Stillman C. Chase, Santa Barbara Research Center Ellis D. Miner, Jet Propulsion Laboratorv Guido Munch, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Gerald Neugebauer, California Institute of Technology

Entry Science Dr. Alfred 0. C. Nier, University of Minnesota, Minneabolis Dr. William B. Hanson, University of Texas, Dallas Dr. Michael B. McElroy,'Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Alvin Seiff, Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif. Nelson W. Spencer, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. Lander Imaging Dr. Thomas A. Mutch, Brown University, Providence, R.I. Dr. Alan B. Binder, Science Applications, Inc., Tucson, Ariz. Friedrich 0. Huck, Langley Research Center Dr. Elliott C. Levinthal, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif. Dr. Sidney Liebes, Stanford University Dr. Elliot C. Morris, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. Dr. James A. Pollock, Ames Research Center Dr. Carl-Sagan, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Biology Dr. Harold P. Klein, Ames Research Center Dr. Norman H. Horowitz, California Institute of Technology Dr. Joshua Lederberg, Stanford University Dr. 'Gilbert V. Levin, Biospherics, Inc., Rockvi'lle, Md. Vance I. Oyama, Ames Research Center Dr. Alexander Rich, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Molecular Analysis Dr. Klaus Biemann, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dr. DuWayne M. Anderson, Polar Programs Office, National Science Foundation Dr., Alfred 0. C. Nier, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Dr. Leslie E. Orgel, Salk Institute, San Diego, Calif. Dr. John Oro, University of Houston, Tex. Dr. Tobias Owen, State University of New York, Stony Brook Dr. Garson P. Shulman, Casa Loma College, Pacoima, Calif. Dr. Priestly Toulminn III, U.S. Geological'Survey, Reston, Va. Dr. -Harold C. Urey-, University of -Cali-fornia at San -Diego, La Jolla, Calif. -more-

-65-

VIKING PLANETARY OPERATIONSApproach: Phase Ten days before Viking I is scheduled' to enter orbit around Mars, a final course correction is made. This approach midcourse correction (AMC) consists of a small change in velocity and direction to ensure that the Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) maneuver, scheduled for June 19, results in an orbit that permits coverage of the prime landing site (A-1}. The orbit will be adjusted as required after MOI. MOI instructions, sent to the spacecraft computer one day after AMC, will enable Viking to enter Mars orbit even if no further commands can be sent before MOI, This safeguard is essential because Viking has only one opportunity to enter Mars orbit. If this is missed, the spacecraft would fly by the planet and continue on its orbit around the Sun. The commands tell the Orbiter how to orient itself so its rocket engine can thrust in the right direction, how long the engine must thrust, and how the Orbiter is to be reoriented after engine firing is completed. Radio signals are used during approach to determine the precise path of the spacecraft after AMC so it can be commanded into the correct orbit by the MOI maneuver. Instructions for MOI can be updated five days before the maneuver takes place -to allow the use of additional radioderived navigational data to refine the velocity change and spacecraft orientation needed to enter the required Mars orbit. A final correction, based on optical navigation with the Orbiter TV cameras, can be made about 16 hours before MOI. Five days before MOI, Viking. starts optical navigation and science experiments directed toMars. TV images are obtained of the whole disc of Mars, of star fields-and of Deimos, one of two moons of Mars. Infrared scans of the planet give gross determinations of surface temperatures and concentrations of water vapor in the atmosphere in preparation for more precise measurements to come. The science experiments are made during final approach because: * Instruments can be calibrated for the first time with Mars as a target. -more-

-66-

* Some scientific measurements can only'be made at this time, such as color pictures-of -ihe full disc; later Viking will be too -close to Mars. * Observations 6f Mars, Deimos and the star background provide final, precise navigational data for an accurate MOI. * Look for changes in markings and present condition of the planet. Eight images (frames) of the Mars disc are taken June .14, using red and violet filters. The first optical navigation? pictures are obtained June 15 by the two Orbiter TV camerasi alternately photographing Mars and a star background. Alternate cameras are used because of the great difference- between exposures needed for Marsand for the stars. Since the axes of the cameras are precisely known, the position of Mars in the image from one camera, and the positions of stars in the image from the other, can be accurately related. During the approach to Mars, science data are roughly equivalent to data expected during a flyby of 'the planet. This science will supplement earlier observations made by Mariners 6 and 7 in 1969. The approach of Mariner 9 to Mars orbit in 1971 did not provide such science coverage because the planet was shrouded in a global dust storm. The approach pictures of Mars will show the planet'si rotation on its axis. Some pictures are repeated in three colors for later reconstruction, These initial color pictures should s'how Mars free of major d'u'st storms; at MOI the planet is-c-lose to-aphelion (greatest distance from the Surn), and global dust storms are observed to take place around peni helion (closest distance to the Sun). The pictures will not show a full disc because Viking is approaching Mars in such a way that its cameras see the planet in a half-moon phase, a view of Mars that can never be obtained from Earth.. The picture sequence, extending from.50 to 24 hours before MOI, will gradually change from views of Mars similar to those seen by the best Earth-based- telescopes to views that show craters and a wealth of surface detail, including a first look by Viking at the landing sites. A similar picture sequence is repeated by Viking 2 as it approaches Mars seven weeks after Viking 1, providing valuable science information about large-scale changes on the -planet in -the- period- between- arrival- of -the two Vikings. -more-

-

- -

-

----

---

'

1.

-

--

i.j

-67-

r

'Fifteen days before 'MOI-, the Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) instrument will be aligned and calibrated. In the final day before MOI, the IRTM does low resolution thermal mapping of the Martian surface. Five days before MIA the Mars Atmosphere Water-Detector (MAWD) will make , first scan of the planet and repeat a similar scan each djy. The best water vapor data are obtained within the peri&d'one and a half days before MOI,i when several scans are made. Mars Orbit Insertion The June 19 MOI maneuver places Viking 1 in'an orbit that later requires only minor corrections to permit the Lander to touch down in the prime landing site. MOI is a critical event, but it is based on experience with only tone
earlier spacecraft put in orbit about Mars -Mariner 9
--

plus experience gained orbiting the Moon in the Lunar Orbiter program.

Hi

The spacecraft is first. rolled, then yawed, then rolled again to facilitate alignment of its high-gain antenna toward Earth. This maneuver will maintain good communications while the spacecraft is in a burn attitude at its great distance, 380 million km (236 million mi.), from Earth. No science experiments take place during MOI, but engineering data continue to flow to Earth, except during the brief period between the two roli maneuvers, when communications are interupted as the high-gain antenna points away from Earth. The resumption of telemetry data to Earth will indicate that Viking has oriented itself for its engine burn. First indication of a successful burn is an abrupt change in-a graph, displayed on screens to mission controllers, showing that the trajectory has changed. After the MOI burn, the spacecraft reorients itself, ready to begin its science investigations in orbit. Pre-Landing Orbital Activities After Viking achieves orbit around Mars, it conducts major activities: three * Certifies the landing sites.

i

* Navigates to the site chosen for Lander 1. * Checks the Lander and updates its computer with commands to automiatidadly desdend to the -Marssurface andybegin its mission even without further commands fr.m Earth. -more-

Tlhere- are -only 15 Earth days, frd,~ MOI scheduledLander separation from the Orbiter '(June 19) to the (July 4). Landring s'ite-certification,is andhs piriy accbmplished wihth6 Orbiter science isrmnsadsupplemented b aa data obtain

edt'.'f r

Earth-based observationsb

e

,Landing Sites The landing site for Viking 1 was selected several years ago, based on-Earth observations-,and Mariner graphy. A -panel of geblogists and other scieiitists 9 photopicked four sites: two prime and two backup. They were 'selected to provide two geological types of Martian surface ling, to psovide unobstructed areom tfor meteorology for sam ibe at low altitudes, where atiospheric pressure is and top great enough to help landing and where there is a possibility'of liquid water. The sites were also chosen in areas of Mars that ~to provide a vakied opportunity to study the planet's appear tion and wherethe Landers -may be expected to observe evolu9Marsquakes. They hsd to be between 25 degrees South and 50 degrees northolatitude, at locations where there are only gentle slopes with few arge protuberances and surface rocks, and t are expected at less than 99 km per hour (160 mph). where winds Viking 1 is aiimed for a landing site at north latitude and'34 degrees west longitude, 19.5 degrees ir apregion
called Chryse.

<

The of deeply southern half of the possibly area consists mostla dissected plateaus, Chryse of material. Much maerial from this area seems pvocano-deposited to swept northward along well-defined channelsoto a have been low area only slight relief, where Viking 1 will land. Scientists of believe the surface at this site is partially covered by wind-transported dust deposits. There may also be material washed from the canyons and interspersed with dust layers. This ~site is withkn' a region where water may have 'flowed copiously in 'the past.
A

The second V'iking- is targeted to land farther north in an area called,'Cydonia, a flat stretch of the northern cale rse ~basin plains. Known as, prime site B, this site is 44.3 degrees north latitude and 10 degrees west longitude.

t.-

-more-~

R-13PRODJC1IBILITY OF THEli ORIGINAL PAGE IS POOR

-69-

The area consists or smooth and mottled rolling plains, possible basait flow4s covered by wind-borne debris, volcanic dust and water-borne sediments. It is on the eastern side o'f the Mare Acidalium, where the plains units of the Martiannorthern lowlands abut the higher equatorial plateaus and hills. There may be volcanic cones and'lava fl6ws in the area, and wind- and water-borne debris. The prime B site is inside a 'band around Mars between latitudes A4Q and 55 degrees north. In this band liquid water may be present for a period'of time during the summer. Life might briefly flourish each Martian year, taking its water from the soil as permafrost melts into liquid. Both prime sites have backup site~si f the Drime sites are rejected after observations from orbit. The backup to site A is -in a region known as Tritonis Lacus at 20 degrees north latitude and 252 degrees west longitude. The backup to-,site B is in the Alba region at 44.2 degrees north latitude and 110 degrees west longitude. All four sites are in a variety- of plains in the northern lowlands, comparable to Earth's ocean floor basins, close to the margins of the Martian continents. The A sites are where the highlands drained, so samples there should provide regional highland material. The B sites are in low flat basins. This combination gives the best possibilities for fossil and present water, and the best samoles to test theories about Mars' evolution. TV images obtained by Viking from orbit will not have significantly better resolution than Mariner 9 pictures. They can only show details of the surface larger than about 83 m (250 ft.), although the theoretical limit-with the optimum contrast is 40 m (130 ft.). Another problem is that Earth-based radar cannot look at the Chryse site until just before landing. Less powerful radar looked at the area in 1967 and -showed that the A site and its backup have different radar characteristics. The 64-m (210-ft.)-Deep Space Network antenna at Goldstone, Calif., bounces radar echoes from the prime A region May 29 through June 1-2, and from the backup A region from May 11 to June 15. A larger antenna at Arecibo in Puerto Rico also examines the sites. The Goldstone antenna works at X-band and the Arecibo antenna at S-band frequencies.

-more-

-70-

The surface of Mars is about five times as rough as that of the Moon, in both major elevations from place to place on Mars and in small-scale surface a(ffects revealed by radar reflectivity. There appears to be no conclusive match between radar results and pictures from orbit, but recent studies reveal some connection betweent the two methods Plains-areas that show extreme radar scatof observation. are believed to have large slopes at sizes below the tering resolution of optical images. Some of these rough plains could be sand dunes, since radar experiments that look down The deat Earth show similar scattering from dune fields. crease in returned signal power is about the same from terrestrial sand dunes as from Mars' rough plains. New processing methods have been devised for Viking so radar data can be interpreted quickly enough for use in the site certification process. Radar probing of the sites must wait until just before the arrival of Viking at Mars because the planet's position in its orbit and the tilt of its axis did not earlier allow the landing sites to face directly toward Earth so a radar echo could be received. The prime landing site that seems safest and of high scientific priority, based on preliminary analysis, is at the mouth of the big channel system of Mars. The channels appear to have been formed by running water, and material at the mouth should represent material gouged from the highThe site provides a good place to search lands to the south. for complex organic molecules and to look for both wind and water modifications to the Martian terrain. No landing site appears completely free of hazards. The site certification task is to compare all data and try to minimize hazards to the Landers. As with the Apollo missions, there is likely to be site adjustment as the Viking missions unfold, especially for the second landing. Site Certification The first of a series of tests to calibrate the Orbiter The cameras are tested in producing cameras begins June 20. pictures of the surface at close range while the Orbiter stereo is near periapsis and the Chryse landing site. The pictures include views 'looking forward, toward the landing site, and backward after passing over the site to provide good stereo If 'the fi-rst -orbit'after 'MOI' is- -clos- to the desired pairs. orbit, these pictures should include the A site in their fields of view. -more,J .-'

-71-

After MOI, Orbiter activities are timed in relation to orbital revolutions which are counted from the first periapsis. Revolution 1 is devoted to acquiring test data on the cameras and some infrared observations of the surface, globally and at the Chryse site.

jRevolutior.

2 is assigned to orbital corrections.

Revolution 3 concentrates on photography of the Chryse site, to provide a quilt-like pattern of slightly overlapping pictures of the surface to cover an area that includes the region around the site. The Revolutior. 3 photo series will provide basic data for site certification. Revolution 4 concentrates on stereo coverage of the Chryse site, which is in late afternoon, Mars time. The angle of sunlight on the surface at the site is not small enough, to produce long shadows that would show surface irregularities in sharp relief, but geologists anticipate that they will be able to determine from these pictures whether the surface is too rough for landing. Revolution 5 is reserved for a second orbit trim maneuver. Revolution 6 is used to extend the coverage of Revolution 4. North of the chosen site the surface is believed to develop into sand dunes. Revolution 7 -- Infrared observations and a set of higi altitude pictures of the landing site will be taken. Revolution 8 repeats the stereo coverage of Revolution 4. All necessary camera data have now been gathered for site certification. The cameras are then used daily until Lander separation to monitor surface conditions and to particularly check for evidence of wind and dust storms. Variable surface features, such as dust tails downwind of obstructions might be used as natural windsocks to reveal wind direction and intensity about the landing site. Hatch is kept for Martian "dust devils" and development of local dust storms. If serious wind or dust conditions develop at the site, the landing will be delayed. -more-

,

.'

-72-

Thermal infrared maps of the surface are made on-each available revolution for more than half the orbital period. IRTM mapping includes: * High altitude, low-resolution scanning maps over the whole planet. * Intermediate altitude, better resolution scanning maps that slowly fill in details 'of the whole planet during several revolutions. * Low altitude (near periapsis), highest resolution maps obtained with a fixed pointing of the IRTM so the spacecraft's motion carries the track across the planet's surface. During the first 14 days after MOI, infrared mapping is directed toward site certification. During the first few revolutions, the IRTM obtains representative observations gin the general area of the Chryse site to provide basic information about the surface at several different wavelength bands. made tain When best On revolutions 4 through 8 detailed observations are of the landing site and its surrounding area to ascerhow surface thermal properties vary around the site. the Orbiter is over the landing site and obtains the infrared resolution, the time is Mars sunset.

The IRTM will also measure and monitor the temperature of the Mars stratosphere each day, typically at an altitude of 20 km (12- mi.). A box ?(can on Revolution 3 will determine the atmospheric stability above the landing area. This type of survey continues unt-l one Uay before separation. Water vapor information is not critical to site certification, but the MAWD instrument obtains data before separation. Scans of the planet on Revolution 1 at different wavelengths seek to confirm the spectrum of water vapor. The MAWD then takes a detailed look at water vapor concentration above the Tharsis-Coprates area, with highest resolution Obtained over the Chryse site. These observations continue until separation to establish the diurnal variation of water vapor in the atmosphere of the landing-area.

-more !1T1111Y Or, 1'M

010(f_

i

'.E IS POOR J'i

+

~~~....

-. 1.

1..

D

I

-

-

-73-

Lander 1 will land at prime site A unless something negative is revealed by site certification observations from orbit and from Earth. Radar data are augmented by Earthbased optical telescopes that keep close watch on Mars to chef for major dust storms. This planetary patrol activity begain months before Viking's approach to Mars. A series of three orbit trim maneuvers can take place between MOI and Lander separation. The first takes place at periapsis on Revolution 2 to remove an error in the orbit period and to syrnchronize the Orbiter period with the rotation period of Mars. The trim also adjusts the orientation of the orbit, if required, so its periapsis point in space is directly over the landing site. A second trim maneuver, if required, can take place on Revolution 5 to further adjust the orbit period and orientation. A third small maneuver can take place on Revolution 10, at periapsis, to correct the periapsis altitude and fine-tune the orbit period to the exact timing required for landing. Pre-Separation Activities About 36 hours before the scheduled separation (on Revolution 13), a set of commands is transmitted from Earth to the Orbiter. It consists of a navigational instruction to the Lander to enter the Martian atmosphere and reach the surface at the landing site. The set of commands is also ':ransmitted to the Martin Marietta Aerospace plant in Denver, where it is used in a computer to fly a test version of the Lander. This computer simulation will insure that there are no mistakes in the cominand sequence. its out was The Thirty hours before separation, Lander switches on power systems. A five-hour pre-separation Lander checkthen takes place, similar to ones made before Viking launched and one made during cruise in November 1975. Orbiter then recharges the Lander batteries.

Engineers on Earth analyze all telemetered data from the Lander checkout to make sure everything is functioning correctly. Navigation calculations are made to double-check the Orbiter's elliptical orbit and the landing trajectory for the Lander. At nine and a half hours before separation, command instructions within the-spacecraft can be modified if necessary.

-more-

e

t

h

~

f,

A

-

v~

"-

-74-

A final oppbrtunity to update the instructions afnd refine the landing sequence is available three and a half hours before separation. This is a backup in case modifications fail to get to the spacecraft at the nine-and-ahalf-hour transmission. About one and a half hours before separation, the Lander is again-powered up, ready for separation. Separation Separation is scheduled-for 3:20 p.m. PDT* July 4. The separation sequence is fully automatic, but the Orbiter must receive a "go" signal from Earth before the sequence can be initiated. If the signal, transmitted about 45 minutes before separation time, doesn't get to the spacecraft, the separation cannot be executed and the landing is aborted. The landing cannot be attempted again for five days, the time required to repeat the Lander pre-separation checkout and give the spacecraft a new descent trajectory and for Lander temperatures to stabilize. At separation, pyrotechnic devices fire to release the Lander from the Orbiter, and springs push the two craft apart. The Lander then orients itself for its de-orbit engine firing. The Lander's three small attitude control engines burn for about 20 minutes to decelerate it from its orbit, and it begins a three-hour coast toward entry of the Mars atmosphere.

Entry jhase After its de-orbit burn, the Lander coasts along its descent ellipse, telemetering data in short bursts through the Orbiter, which transmits them to Earth at a four-kilobit rate. Midway along the descent path, the Lander executes a command to change attitude under gyro control. It rolls through 180 degrees to expose its base cover to solar ultraviolet rays to sterilize it. The cover will be jettisoned and falls to the Mars surface. The roll makes sure no terrestrial life forms are carried there. (she Lander was sterilized before launch, then kept free of contamination within its aeroshell.) *Plus 18 minutes transmission time from Mars to Earth. -more-

I

-

-75Bioshield Cap

Aeroshell Cover

Parachute

Lande

derCent
go Capsule

N
Aeroshall & m s \

Stowed
Position

Bioshield Base

Bioshield Cap

Aeroshell Cover

/

v

~

ander

Separation Point

Aeroshell Heatshield Bioshield Base

OpjCq1NAL PAGE IS POOR

-76-

Six minutes before entering the atmo~sphere, commands orient the Lander for its encounter with the rarefied upper atmosphere of Mars. The x-axis is aligned so the Lander has a minus 20 degree angle of attack, need for scientific purposes. Just before entry into the upper atmosphere, at about 30.5 km (100,000 ft.);, .a programmed pitch places the Lander in a minus 11 degree orientation. Aerodynamic forces coupled with an offset center of gravity then cause the spacecraft to maintain this angle of attack. In this attitude the Lander experiences a lift. so it does not plunge too steeply and overheat. As soon as the atmosphere decelerates the Lander by 0.5 gravity force (sensed by an onboard accelerometer), the pitch/yaw attitude control is disabled, and control now concentrates on damping pitch or yaw motions to prevent any aerodynamic instabilities. The Lander continues to be slowed by atmospheric drag, and its aeroshell prevents entry heat from penetrating the Lander. Entry velocity of 16,500 kmph (10,300 mph) is gradually reduced until, at six km (20,000 ft.) above the surface, the Lander has slowed to about twice the speed of sound. A supersonic parachute is now deployed to further slow the Lander to about 220 kmph (135 mph) at an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft..). The aeroshell is jettisoned just after parachute deployment, and the Lander's legs are extended. Three throttleable, terminal descent engines (TDE) are started and, once idling correctly so they can control Lander attitude, the parachute is jettisoned. Parachute deployment and start of the TDE is controlled by an altimeter aboard the spacecraft. The Lander c *:inues toward the surface, using its TDE to further slow its -speed and maintain its attitude. The engines orient the Lander so their combined thrust vector opposes the spacecraft's velocity vector and the terminal descent phase can begin. Two limiting altitude/velocity profiles in the Lander computer are permissible limits of velocity at each altitude, based on the amount of Lander propellant and the thrust capability of the TDE. If the Lander enters its descent phase under conditions of no wind, its computer allows it to "coast" to the upper contour of altitude versus velocity, then follow this contour to the surface as a pilot follows a glide path indicated by his- airplane instruments. If there is wind,, the' Lander followsa contour that is an interpolation between the two limits, as a pilot adjusts for a cross-wind. -more-

-77Either way, the Lander reaches a height of about 16.8 m (55 ft.) above the surface with a remaining velocity of 8.8 kmph (5.5 mph) and continues to the surface at this terminal velocity. As soon as a sensor on any of the three landing leg footpads touches the surface, the TDE are switched off. Entry Science The Lander begins its science investigations of Mars while in its entry phase. Its science instruments will investigate the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for three categories of experiments: * Electrical properties of the ionized or electrically charged upper atmosphere. * Constituents of the neutral atmosphere, including details on the quantity of argon in the atmosphere, an important measurement for later experiments on the surface. * Temperature, pressure and density profiles of the atmosphere from high altitudes down to the surface. An instrument called a Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA), located in the Lander aeroshelli will measure the temperature of ions in the atmosphere, and is expected to detect low-energy ionospheric electrons and high-energy solar wind electrons. Constituents of the neutral atmosphere will be observed with an Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (UAMS), which identifies atoms and molecules in atmospheric gases. Previous experiments suggest that the neutral atmosphere of-Mars is predominently carbon dioxide, with minor constituents of carbon monoxide and oxygen. There could be as much as five per cent nitrogen, and there may be inert gases such as argon. The argon question is important, and its solution has top priority during entry. Indirect evidence from a Soviet spacecraft revealed the possibility of a large amount of argon in the Mars atmosphere. The Soviet Mars 6 carried a mass spectrometer that was opened during parachute descent to sample the Martian atmosphere in regions of relatively high pressure. The mass spectrometer had to be evacuated of gas to operate, and its sputter ion pumps used the principle of gettering (introducing a substance into a partial vacuum to combine with residual gas and increase the vacuum) with titanium. This process does not work if there are rare gases present such as argon, because they do-not enter into-chemical reactions and cannot be taken from a pump by titanium gettering. -more-

*~

v

I

-78-

The Soviets did not obtain the expected pumping of their instrument, so they concluded that a rare gas must be present in large quantities in the atmosphere to block operation of the pump. They concluded that argon is the most likely gas.

The effect of argon on the GCMS instrument, designed to sample the Mars atmosphere and later make organic analysis This instrument has a pump of the soil, could be disastrous. be made ineffective by a high concentration of argon. that would The original plan for. the GCMS was that it 6omplete its atmospheric analyses before making organic analyses., This insured that the instrument would not be-contaminated by organic soil samples before it sampled atmospheric gases. If argon is present in substantial quantities in tele atmosphere, however, the GCMS plan must be changed. The UAMS instrument, fortunately, is very sensitive to argon, and it should easily detect the several isotopes of this element. The amount of argon will be determined within a few The other science questions will not hours after-landing. be answered until returned data have been thoroughly analyzed. The third important entry experiment category is determination of the profiles of temperature, pressure and density of the atmosphere as a function of altitude above the surface. Direct measurements will be made by pressure and temperature gauges on the Lander,. and indirect measurements will be made from deceleration of the Lander as it plunges through the atmosphere.

-more-

RPPRODUC1BILITY OF THE ORICANAL PAGE IS PooR

'.4-S

-

-------

---

-79-

Drift of the Lander during descent of its parachute by the terminal desand mean wind velocity will be measured An accelerometer on the Lander cent landing radar (TDLR). the landing site will help determine the planetary radius at than radar to within 17 to 170 m (56 to 560 ft.)-, better measuring instrumeasurementsfrom Earth. An entry pressure the true ment can measure surface pressure and determine which is\about three km elevation of the Chryse landing site, of Mars. (10,000 ft.) below the mean surface level Touchdown
the time could ;(Plus 18 minutes transmission time), but

PDT July 4 Touchdown on Mars is. scheduled for 6:40 p.m. vary

If the landing is delayed, the by five minutes either way. later each day landing time will change by about 36 minutes of delay. long.) (Each Sol, or Mars day, is 24.6 Earth hours Sol 0. touchdown is The first midnight at the landing site after the beginning of Sol 1. but a No single display light will signal touchdown, place within the quick series of automatic actions takes Occurtouchdown. Lander during the first 12 seconds after by several data disrence of these events will be received First signals plays or communication network announcements. of a safe landing will include: from * Change of the Lander-to-Orbiter data rate per second. The change would four to 16 kilobits not occur if the landing was hard. is off * Display of a data bit called ENABLET-. It a all through descent, and within one second'of This good landing,it automatically goes on. indicates that Viking has made a soft landing, a that the footpad switch has closed and that to start signal has been passed to the computer the landed sequence. of * Display of the word ENGON, indicating status on during descent, but ENGON is the TDE heaters. the heaters are turned off as soon as a footpad If a disastrously switch is closed by landing. the engines might be switched hard landing occurs, off by a switch closure, but the closure would probably not also pass its signal through the computer to turn off the heaters. -more-

I~

-

-

-.

'-V~

-more--

rP711PtODUCDIBIT Or, THE IS POR p, i

1Y

-81-

* Display of voltage and current of the Lander bus. Current drawn is significantly reduced immediately at landing'because all equipment used for descent is suddenly turned off. * Continued telemetry data from the inertial reference unit (IRU). The IRU runs for 12 seconds after landing to provide reference data about Lander orientation so the computer can move the high-gain antenna from its stowed position and point it toward Earth. If the data link is lost for an unexpected reason, lack of receipt of these telemetry zignalsdoes not necessarily mean that Viking has not landed safely. The data link could be regained, even on a later pass of the Orbiter. Landed Operations As soon as the Lander touches down on Mars and telemeters to Earth a status review on its engineering equipment, it begins its scientific investigations. The first picture-taking sequence begins 25 seconds after touchdown with a high-resolution, black-and-white photograph of footpad number 3, its leg and the soil surrounding it.' The picture, taken by Camera 2, will show how'the' footpad has affected the Martian soil during landing. It will provide about the same detail as would be seen by a person sitting on the Lander at the Camera 2 position. The same camera will take a second picture aF six minutes, eight seconds after landing. This image will b,. a wide-angle panorama starting at 105 degrees and sweeping as far to the right .as possible in about nine minutes. Total width-of the picture will be about 300 degrees, and its height is 60 degrees -20 degrees above to 40 degrees below the horizontal plane of the Lander. If the spacecraft is level and on level ground, the horizon will be 20 degrees, or one-third of the frame, below the top of this picture. These first two pictures will have priority over other data, and they will be sent to the Orbiter as cuickly as possible for immediate relay to Earth. Buildup of the pictures on TV monitors at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory should begin about 7:37 p.m. PDT. Hard copies should be available about a half-hour later, within four hours of their being taken on Mars. -more-

9

_

_

_

_t

-

L

-82-

After these first pictures have been taken, meteorology science starts and continues at intervals throughout ealch Sol. The meteorology instruments operate in short intervals of two minutes duration, spaced two hours apart each Sol, with some long observations lasting up to one hour twice each Martian day. The sequence of observations of temperature, pressure, wind speed and wind direction is slowly moved in Martian time so that data are ultimately gathered to cover a whole day's changes. By the end of Sol 20 the meteorology team expects to have a very good idea of the diurnal variations of meteoroThey are of scientific interest and logical measurements. practical importance to other experiments. Very precise surface measurements of pressure are expected because a twin of the pressure sensor, operating for many months on Earth, has not deviated from its nominal reading by one count. The meteorology of Mars poses an interesting question about the pictures to be returned from the surface: will they show mirages? Mirages are expected on Mars because of great temperature differences between the ground and the atmosphere, as a result of the thin atmosphere of carbon dioxide. Two other instruments are calibrated during the first the seismometer and the X-ray fluorescence instrument. S61: This calibration is part of the first task of the seismology team to determine the seismic background of Mars, to ascertain the frequencies of vibrations of the Martian surface (e.g., the background noise produced by winds). As this calibration progresses, the instrument is reconfigured so its gain settings are best suited to the natural environment of Mars and it can effectively search for true seismic events. The first few Sols of seismology are very exploratory. seismic team works closely with the meteorology team in The data interpretation so that background noise caused by wind can be understood. The first calibration of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer instrument after landing operates the instrument without a sample and uses a calibration plaque within the instrument. The instrument is extremely sensitive to the presence of argon, so this calibration is expected to reveal the presence of argon in the atmosphere of Mars and confirm the UAMS entry determination, so important to effective operation of the GCMS. -more-

.,

..

.

.

-,

- M

-83-

Calibration of the instrument is important to ensure that there have been no chanc-2s to the X-ray spectrometer ,n the spacecraft. Necessary caused by landing stresses, instrument changes will be made by Sol 7, to prepare it to start its sampling of surface materials. As the Sun sets at the Lander site on this first Martian day, scientists have- looked at the surface and the panorama of the landing site,, they know the Lander is operating and that several of its instruments are functioning correctly. The Lahder carries instructions within its computer memory-for a 58-Sol mission -in the event it cannot-be commanded from Earth. During the next few days, early data sent from ,Mars must be analyzed by Earth controllers to determine how much this program of activity is to be changed. This analysis begins while the Lander enters its first Mar'tian night. Sols 1 Through 7 (July 5-12) This period of landed operations concentrates first on certifying the site from which the soil sampler will scoop samples for the biology, organic analysis and X-ray fluorescence experiments. Sample site certification relies heavily on the imaging Although the procapabilities of the two Lander cameras. grammed 58-Sol mission includes a sample site, it must be The scientists want evaluated before actually being used. to use Viking's adaptive potential to convert the programmed Later experiments will mission into-an-adaptive mission. reflect what earlier experiments reveal. The first question to be answered is whether the sampling sequence programmed into the computer will aim A decision must be made the sampler toward a safe site. to let the computer program continue to by Sol 5 whether sample as planned or change it to take a sample at another, safer site. The first two pictures on Sol 0 show the nature of the soil, but-they couldt;be incorrectly exposed, and they don't give an accurate impression of the distance of objects from the Lander. Experienced photo interpreters can estimate the location of the sampling site to within one foot from the pictures. -more-

-- 8

-

Protective Post Outer Housing Window and Door
Assembly \

Window Mirror i \ e Upper Elevation Assemblyf Elevation Assembly Lens Cell Thermal Control
Board Assembly"-

-

Waveguide , Photosensor Array (PSA) Duplex Bearings
Torque Motor

Azimuth Assembly Resolver
Azimuth Tachometer

Radial Bearings, Thermal /1 Insulation
Processing

\

>

j

-$

Electronics --^ Mounting Mast
-a

LANDER CNIERA ffJ1TY OF THE

13O- POOR
;

!

O

p1

-85-

1 Pixel

)

Window
m-

\<gX> A ; --

Camera
\

can Mirror Lens Set Objective

II

-

Detector

MMast

Martian Scene

Functional Electronics

Lander

Transmitter Marse Earth
I

I

Dee Spce

Magnetic Tape

Reconstruction

Equipment

/;

-Reproduced Scene on Film LANDER CAIERA SYSTEM OF OPERATION

.

--

-86-

Photography continues on Sols 1 and 2 with Camera 2. On Sol 1 the camera produces high-resolution black-and-white These pictures and low-resolution survey color pictures. show the sample site and the color-coded calibration test chart (number two), on the Lander. On Sol 2 the protective cannister wover on the sampler collector head is ejected onto the surface, close to the Lander footpad that was photographed on Sol 0. The area is now rephotographed to provide further information about the surface from observed interaction of the cover with the soil. Camera 1 is first operated on Sol 3. If conditions are not dangerous, the camera is moved from behind' its protective dust cover and photos are taken to repeat the survey of picture number 2 (Sol 0) and the high-resolution coverage within the sampling area obtained during Sols 1 and 2.. The area photographed just after tou6hdown may showchanges caused by wind, but the stereo effect is still suitOne of the mirrors able for an analysis of the sampling site. mounted on 'the sampler housing is included in the field of view which provides a reflected image of the surface beneath the Lander, showing how one of the multi-nozzle rocket engines has disturbed the surface during landing. If the selected site is hazardous to the sampler, the initial program will be altered. The extension stroke of the boom can be shortened, or the boom can be commanded to a completely new site. The whole sequence 'can also be cancelled, but this requires a longer time to resequence and Would delay sampling and later experiments. The decision to keep the initial sampling program or to modify the commands should be made by Sol 6 if the first sample is to be collected early on Sol 8. All commands that affect temperature, power or mechanical motion at the Lander must arrive there in time to be verified by a radio response before they are executed. After pictures have been obtained for sampling site certification, the Lander cameras continue to obtain other images. The cameras will do spectral analysis of the surface What is the to try to objectively answer the question: true color of Mars? Is it really red? -more-

P'FI'h

1 CThIBrTY OF THE A s X GE IS POOR

.

-87-

This is important in understanding the processes that -have molded the surface and how the Martian crust has reacted with the atmosphere (e.g., does the' crust contain iron Although pictures are transmitted from the Lander oxides?). to the Orbiter at 16 kilobits per second (kbps), pictures are only transmitted directly from the Lander to Earth at a 250 A direct link is used daily to send bits-per-second rate. real time images to Earth. These images are also sent to the Orbiter, where they are stored in its tape memory for later transmittal to Earth at a high bit rate. If there are not large amounts of argon in the atmosphere, atmospheric analyses with the GCMS should be done in the first three Sols, before the instrument is used for orIf there are large ganic analyses of surface materials. amounts of argon, as much as 40 per cent, atmospheric analyses cannot be made because the argon will comtaminate the instrument. The Lander programmed mission calls for three organic analyses. The presence of argon in large quantities will ieduce the number of atmospheric samples that can be analyzed before those organic analyses are made. After the atmospheric analyses, if anyare made, the GCMS is prepared for its organic analysis. On Sol 6 the analysis column is conditioned and the gas chromatograph cleaned for its organic analyses, which start as soon as a sample is delivered on Sol 8. Preparation begins on Equipment is set up and its samples on Sol 8. On Sol 3 place with the gas exchange
.

Sol 2 for the biology experiments. readiness checked to receive a 16-minute test analysis takes biology experiment.

Surface Sampling on Sol 8 (July 12) The first surface sample, to be taken for the bilogy ii.;estigation, is scheduled at 2:46 p.m. PDT July 12 (6:45 a.m. on Sol 8). The collector head will attempt to take, between four and six cc of Martian soil and place it in the sample hopper atop the Lander body. If a detector in the hopper does not sense any delivered soil, the sampler automatically tries two more times at the same site. If there is still no sample, it tries one more time before it shuts down to await the next sampling try for the organic analyses about an hour later. The biology analysis begins at 4:16 p.m., PDT, if a sample is delivered with the first cycle, taking 12 days to complete. -more-

*y

.

A

-

-

I.,

-\ =
-

88
-

OE LI

Z,

\

0

/
-~4

/

EE

------

/
Z

Eeli
/

~

'!

lIIIY0
4.

ti;

0
Cd

'4-'.

,1
4%

"4

cCI

R~f'~u~'~_~WITY Ol I*II ORIGINAL PAC-E5 IS POORi

-89I

The soil is distributed to the three biology experiments: pyrolytic release, labeled release and gas exchange. The first experiment is the pyrolytic release, using a dry soil sample illuminated by simulated Martian sunlight.
i

I

*

No food or water is provided to the sample, and it is incubated for five days (to Sol 13). The first cycle of the experiment ends at about 9:00 a.m. Mars time on Sol 20. If a positive result is obtained, a control sample, half of the original sample, is sterilized by heat and put through the same test. If-the first test is negative, the next cycle of the experiment repeats the- test several Sols later, but the sample is provided'with some water. A second biology experiment, the labeled release experiment, begins with measurement of the radiation background from the sample, in its ttst chamber. The background test is made from '2-:50 p.m on Sol 8 to 4:50 a.m. on Sol 10 (Martian times). Background radiation is then sampled over the seven Sols, and the experiment iscontinued for two and a half more Sols. If a positive result is obtained, a second half of the original sample, retained as a control, is sterilized and put through the same test sequence. If this control produces positive results', the experiment has not likely revealed the presence of organic life on Mars. If the control shows negative results-, the experiment may have detected a Martian life
form.

*ff

NJ

The third biology experiment is the most complex. The gas exchange experiment Frovides several choices, and assumes that living systems must affect their environment as they live, breathe, eat and reproduce. ,week or more, A soil sample is incubated for one beginning about 4:00 a.m. on Sol 9. The test chamber atmosphere is checked daily for evidence of metabolism (i.e., looking for the presence of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and methane, and for changes to the amount of carbon dioxide). Analyses are made and data from them returned at about 8:00 a.m. each Mars day. Each biology experiment can be done three times on each Lander. If positive re. tlts are not obtained until the third test sequence, a fourth test is possible within the biology package to provide a control test. All biology samples are essentially samples from the top layer of soil.
-more-

-90-

The first sample for the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) organic analysis is obtained at 4:20 p.m. PDT July 12 (on Sol 8). The experiment seeks to establish whether organic molecules are present in the soil of Mars, but it is not expected to give a clearcut answer such as could be obtained with an inorganic experiment. The second sample for the GCMS experiment is expected to be gathered on Sol 22 and analyzed by Sol 27 or 28. This sample is from below the surface, from the bottom of a trench made by the backhoe- sampler head. Data from these first two samples are used to plan the third sampling, scheduled 'for about Sol 38. But on Sol 8 the third experiment sample is for inorganic analysis of soil with the X-ray fluorescence experiment. The sample is obtained at 6:03 p.m. PDT July 12. It should ideally

consist of 30 cc of particles, all less than 12 mm in diameter, to fit through the mesh of the screen. If the sampler arm can orrly reach areas of sheet rock, a sample might still be obtained for the experiment by waiting for- wind-blown dust or pebbles to gather. The sampler arm might even be used as a deflector to cause wind-blown material to fall into the sample funnel. . A second X-ray spectroscopy sample is taken on Sol 27, after the second biology sample. The plan is to analyze each sample many times, during which the sensitivity of the spectrometer is moved to different parts of the spectrum for each analysis. Five samples are planned for a normal mission. More could be' taken, depending on the size of earlier samples. The limitation is the capacity of the cavity into which samples are dumped -after their -ana-lysis is- completed. The X-ray spectroscopy experiment is expected to supply basic data about the elemental composition of the Martian surface and to enhance the interpretation of other experiments and determine general physical properties of the surface. At the end of the first sampling period, when the sampler boom is in use for about four hours, it is left to rest for at least two weeks because it is essential for later cycles of' the biology, organic analysis and inorganic analysis experiments. After its use for these priority experiments, the sampler is used for other science experiments on the surface and in the atmosphere. For example, it establishes bench marks for x,, y and-,z coordinates to support the Lander camerasin topographic mapping of the landing site. If a camera should fail, the shadow from the sampler boom can be used as an aid to stereo assessment of the landing site. -more-

-91-

During this period of science activity on Mars, the U.S. G'.logical Survey will take the topographical map constructed from Viking information and recreate the surface features of the landing site in the atrium of the von Karman Auditorium at JPL -- a section of Mlars on Earth. The seismology experiment continues during this period, but not until three weeks after landing is it operating continuously for a substantial part of each day. Data quantity limitations constrain operation of the seismometer. Early in the mission the need for many images of the surface uses much of the available transmission time. Seismic data also require much transmission time, and must be delayed until more urgent experiment data are collected. The'seismometer experiment is a long-term investigation; it will continue to operate as long as the two Landers remain operational. Meteorology is another continuing experiment. The first 20 days on Mars are not too fruitful for meteorology because other experiments have higher priority. Meteorological experiments increase in scope as biology and-imaginj investigations complete their major i'asks. The meteorology investigation has been described as a net stretched in time, rather than space, to catch interesting events on Mars. This is quite different from terrestrial meteorology, where nets of many stations are spread about the planet. Mars will have onlv two stations, and these have to wait for meteorological events to pass by them jor results from meteorology experiments on Mars come from ex-ended observations on the surface, ideally extending over a complete Mars year (two Earth-years). Orbital Activities After Lander separation, science investigations continue from the Orbiter. The first experiments are directed to learning more about the geology of Mars. The surface near and southeast of the landing site is covered by overlapping photographs during several orbital revolutions. High resolution imaging provides information to help d '-ermine how the Mars channels were formed. Stereo swaths across the channeL mouths allow better estimates of the volume -f water that must have flowed.

j

-more-

r

\:----

-92-

The next area to be covered is along the track Orbiter southwest of the landing site. The Viking 1 covers some of the most interesting terrain of Mars, boundary between the two hemispheres of cratered and terrain.

of the orbit the volcanic

Some of the coverage is in stereo, which is of great use in analyzing surface features such as knobby terrain. A few color images are also obtained, important because color differences between lava flows in lunar photographs were related to chemical differences among the flows. Inferences can be' drawn about the chemical composition of much- jreater areas of Mars than can be sampled by the Landers. Targets of special interest are investigated when revealed on the images. Every 20 days the Orbiter photographs the whole disc of Mars from high altitude and in color. Toward the end of the first Lander's planned mission, on Sept. 7, the Orbiter rocket engine fires a trim maneuver, to cause the spacecraft to orbit the planet slight out of synchronization with the Mars rotational period. The Orbiter now "walks" around the planet so all of its surface can, be imaged -in great detail. Orbital surveillance of Mars can continue through-a whole Martian year, until June 1978. Thermal mapping also continues after separation. The IRTM instrument is extremely sensitive to the presence of dust in the Martian atmosphere and can follow the development and progress of dust storms. Atmospheric dust can be detected even when it is not visible to the cameras. Volcanic activity might also be detected, and another experiment will' try to- obtain details-.of grain sizes of material along the bottoms of the Martian canyons. The MAWD instrument will obtain data to -seek answers to questions about water on Mars. What is the source of water vapor observed in the Mars atmosphere, and where does it go? 1How much water is trapped in the polar caps, and is there a large amount of water locked in the surface? Why is there not more water vapor in the atmosphere? Has there been a greater abundance of water in the past? The MAWD investigations will try to develop a water budget for Mars on a daily, seasonal and epochal basis. If present quantities of water vapor in the atmosphere were -onverted to ice at the poles, for example, a layer several meters thick would build up every 1,000 years. -moreI

,
(Jt

'*

1f111i OF 'SPOE YI

i.

,^ '.kGE IS POOR

'The A and B sites are good places to look for evidence of the exchange of water vapor between surface ice and the atmosphere. Radio investigations will use signals from the Lainders and Orbiters throughout the mission. Radio signals from Viking 1 on the surface of Mars will be used to determine, with great precison, the distance from Earth to Mars. Global gravity surveys are made by the radic science, investigation during the Orbiter "walks" around the planet, based on the fact that periapsis is the orbital position most affected by gravitational anomalies,,-and the walk moves periapsis around the planet. When the orbiting spacecraft pass behind the limb of Mars into occultation, ads seen from Earth, radio waves penetrate the Martian atmosphere and provide details of the properties of the ionosphere, and of atmospheric temperature, pressure and density. During the period of conjunction with the Sun, radio experiments probe the solar corona to ascertain its electron content. A relativity test is made to determine how much the Sun's mass bends radio waves coming from the Viking to Earth, delaying their passage. The masses of Mars' moons, Deimos and Phobos, will be more accurately determined as the Orbiter passes within 30 to 40 km (18 - 25 mi.)of Deimos in December and Phobos in January and March 1977. -Orbiter 2's experiments have an additional sequence. When Lander 1 completes its 58 Sols of operation, Orbiter 1 is moved to act as a relay fbr Lander 2. The Orbiter has its orbit changed to an inclination of 75 degrees so its cameras and infrared instruments can observe the polar regions. At this period of the Martian year, the north pole is clear for observation, without its hood, and the south pole is in the middle of winter and dark.

-more-

-94-

VIKING LANDER The Lander spacecraft is composed of five basic systems: the Lander body,- the bioshield cap and base, the aeroshell, the base cover and parachute system, and Lander subsystems. Operational design lifeti-e for the Lander is 90 davs after landing. The completely outfitted Lander measures approximately 3 m (10 ft.) across and is about 2 m (7 ft.) tall. It weighs approximately 576-kg (1,270 lbs.) without fuel. The Lander and all exterior assemblies are painted light gray to reflect solar heat and to protect equipment from abrasion. The paint is made of rubber-based'silicone. Lander Body The bbdy is a basic platform for science instruments and It is a hexagon-shaped box with three operational subsystems. 109-cm (43-in.) sidebeams and three 56-cm (22-in.) short sides. It looks like a triangle with blunted corners. The box is built of aluminum and titanium alloys, and is insulated with spun fiberglass and dacron cloth to protect equipment and to lessen heat loss. The hollow container is 1.5 m (59 in.) wide and 46 cm (18 in.) deep, with cover plates top and bottom. The Lander body is supported by three landing legs, 1.3 m (51 in.) long, attached to the short-side bottom corners of the The legs give the Lander a ground clearance of 22 cm body. (8.7 in.). Each lag has a main strut assembly and an A-frame assembly, to which is attached a circular footpad 30.5 cm (12 in.) in diameter. The main struts contain bonded, crushed aluminum honeycomb to reduce the shock of landing. Bioshield Cap and Base The two-piece bioshield is a pressurized cocoon that completely seals the Lander from any possibility of biological contamination until Viking leaves Earth's atmosphere. The two the shield's measures 3.7 It's made of bonded to an bioshield halves generally resemble an egg, and It white thermal paint heightens the resemblance. (6.4 ft.) deep. m (12 ft.) in diameter and is 1.9 m coated, woven fiberglass,, 0.13 mm (0.005-in.) thin, aluminum support structure. more

RIMP1QDUMtBIUAi"

OY THEf

()I'A(liJ';L PAGB IS POOR

-9 5-J

0 ICD

~_jU
0 CD

~~unL
Z

0 0xn L 0 C-) 0

LL. l Zg CA 0

U-i

or

00
In0

0i uJCD m'-iCD 0 co < CD
LALU

-I

z

oU
00

(A
LUL

C
L-j
_

__j

V)

H
-i I

z

0<

zL
z

LLUL

C

L

<

ULU

C-)5

___-

LU

0

LU

0

II:

L/Z

0
I(A

i

L

(A

LLJ <
D
) in

CDL

-<ore

-96-

The bioshield is vented to prevent over-pressurization and possible rupture of its sterile seal. Aeroshell The aeroshell is an aerodynamic heat shield made of aluminum alloy in a 140-degree, flat cone shape and stiffened with concentric rings,. It fits between the Lander and the bioshield base. It is 3.5 m (11.5 ft.) in diameter and its aluminum skin is 0.86 mm (0.034-in.) thin. Bonded to its extericor is a lightweight, cork-like ablative material that burns away to protect the Lander from aerodynamic heating at entry temperatures which may reach 1,500 degrees C (2,730 degrees F.). The interior of the aeroshell contains twelve small reaction control engines, in four clusters of three around the' aeroshell's edge, and two spherical titanium tanks that contain 85 kg (188 lbs.)'of hydrazine mono-propellant. The engines control pitch and yaw to align the Lander for entry, help slow the craft during early entry and maintain roll control. During the long cruise phase, an umbilical connection through the aeroshell provides power from the Orbiter to the Lander; housekeeping data also flow through thisconnection. The aeroshell also contains two science instruments -- the Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (UAMS) and the Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) -- plus pressure and temperature sensors. Base Cover and Parachute System The base cover fits between the bioshield cap and the Lander. It is made of aluminum and fiberglass; the fiberglass allows transmission of telemetry data to the- Orbiter during entry. It covers the parachute and its ejection mortar, and protects the Lander's top during part of the entry phase. The parachute is made of lightweight dacron polyester 16 m (53 ft.) in diameter. It weighs 50 kg (110 lbs.). The parachute is packed inside a mortar 38 cm (15 in.) in diameter, mounted into the base cover. The mortar i's fired to eject the parachute at about 139 km per hour (75 mph). The chute has extra-long suspension lines that trail the capsule by about 30 m (100 ft.).

more

!
\

('lLITY OF THE
+'t E, IS POOR

-97-

Lander Subsystems Lander subsystems are divided into six major categories: descent engines, communications equipment, power sources, landing radars, data storage, and guidance and control. Descent Engines Three terminal descent engines (TDE) provide attitude control and reduce the Lander's velocity after parachute separation. The 2 ,600-newton (600-lb.) throttleable engines are located 120 degrees apart on the Lander's sidebeams. They burn hydrazine mono-propellant. The engines use an advanced exhaust design that won't alter the landing site environment. An unusual grouping small nozzles on each engine will spread engine exhaust of 18 over a wide angle that won't alter the surface or .unduly disturb the chemical and biological experiments. Two spherical titanium tanks, attached to opposite sides of the Lander body beneath the RTG wind covers, feed the TDEs from an 85-kg (188 lb.) hydrazine propellant supply. Four small reaction control engines use hydrazine-monopropellant thrusters to control Lander roll attitude terminal descent. The engines are mounted in pairs during on the TDE propellant tanks and are identical to those used on the aeroshell. Communication Equipment The Lander is equipped to transmit information directly to Earth with an S-band communications system, or through the Orbiter with an ultra-high frequency (UHF) relay system. The Lander also receives Earth commands through the S-band system. Two S-band receivers provide total redundancy in both command receiving and data transmission. One receiver uses- the high-gain antenna (HGA), a 76-cm (3 0-in.) diameter parabolic reflector dish that can be pointed to Earth by computer control. The second receiver uses a fixed low-gain antenna (LGA) to receive Earth commands. The UHF relay system transmits data to the Orbiter with a radio transmitter that uses a fixed antenna. The UHF system will operate during entry and for the first three da;ys of landed operations. After that it will only operates during specific periods. more

-98-

Landing Radars The radar altimeter (RA) measures the Lander's altitude during the early entry phase, alerting the Lander computer to execute the proper entry commands. The RA is a solid-state pulse radar with two specially designed antennas: one is mounted beneath the Lander and one is mounted through the aeroshell. Altituide data are received from,1,370 km down to 30.5 m (740 mi. to 100 ft.). The aeroshell antenna provides high-altitude data for entry science, vehicle control and parachute deployment. The Lander antenna is switched into operation at aeroshell separation and provides altitude data for guidance and control, and for terminal descent engine ignition. The terminal descent landing radar (TDLR) measures the horizontal velocity of the Lander during the final landing phase. It is located directly beneath the Lander and is turned on at about 12 km (4,000 ft.). It consists of four continuouswave Doppler radar beams that can measure velocity to an accuracy of plus or minus one meter per second. Both radars are essential for mission success, so the terminail descent landing radar can work with any three of its four beams, and identical sets of radar altimeter electronics can be switched to either of the RA-antennas. Guidance and Control The "brain" of the Lander is its guidance control and sequencing computer (GCSC). It commands everything the Lander does through software (computer programs) stored in advance or relayed'by Earth-controllers. The computer is one of the greatest technical challenges of Viking. It consists of two general-purpose computer channels with plated-wire memories, each with an 18,00/0-word storage capacity. One channel will be operational while the other is in reserve. Among other programs, the computer has instructions stored in its memory that can control the Lander's first 58 days on Mars without any contact from Earth. These instructions will be updated and modified by Earth command once communication has been established.

more

-99-

Power Sources Basic power for the Lander is provided by two SNAP 19style 35-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) developed by the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). They are located atop the Lander, and are connected in series to double their voltage and reduce power loss. The SNAP 19 Viking generator is 147 cm (23 in.) across the housing fin tips, 96 cm (15 in.) in length and weighs 15.3 kg (34 lbs.). The- first isotopic space generator was put into service in June 1961, on a Navy navigational satellite. Advances'in SNAP systems were made with the the development and flight of SNAP 19 This use of SNAP 19 aboard Nimbus II-I, launched in April 1969. represented a major milestone in the development of long-lived, highly reliable isotope power systems for space use by NASA. The SNAP 27 generator was developed to power 5 science station's left on the Moon by the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 astronauts. The continuing operation of these generators is providing new Four dimensions of data about, the Moon and the universe. SNAP 19 nuclear generators are providing the electrical power for each of the two NASA pioneer Jupiter fly by missions (Pioneers 10 and 11) currently in space. The generators will provide a long-lived source of electricity and heat on Mars, where sunlight is half as strong as on Earth, and is non-existent during the Martian night, when (minus temperatures can drop as low as minus 120 degrees C 184 degrees F.). The generators use thermoelectric elements to corvert heat from decaying plutonium-238 into 70 watts of electrical power. "Waste" or unconverted heat is conveyed by thermal switches to the Lander's interior instrument compartment, when required. Covers over the RTGs prevent excess heat dissipation into the environment. Four nickel-cadmium,, rechargeable batteries help supply Lander power requirements in peak activity periods. The batteries, mounted- in pairs inside the Lander, are charged by the RTGs with power available when other Lander power requirements are less than RTG output. more

-

-

- -

-

.

-

-

--

X

- -*

-

*

.

-

'~

II

--.

-100-

Data Storage This equipment collects and controls the flow of Lander scientific and engineering data. It consists of a data acquisition and processing unit (DAPU), a data storage memory and a tape recorder. The DAPU actually collects the information and routes it to one of science and engineering three places: to Earth through the S-band HGA, to the data storage memory or to the tape recorder. Information will be stored in the data storage memory for short periods. Several times a day the memory will transfer data to the tape recorder or back to the DAPU for further transmission. The memory has a storage capacity of 8,200 words. Data are stored on the tape recorder The recorder can transmit at high speed back for long periods. through the DAPU and the UHF link to an Orbiter passing overhead. It can store as many as 40 million bits of information, and it can record at two speeds and play back at five.

-

more

-

S

-

Av

~

...

-..

-

0 1-

ILJ.

0U

amp.--.

!IM-

z
AP,,

-11) 2 INSULATION CAPSULE SUPPORT. RING END PLUG
'

SLEEVE

SUPPORT

FUELS

LINER
| STRENGTH MEMBER CAPSULE CLAD

DISCS
ISAEEtES

ICAPSULE

I,,A
HEAT SHIELD

REP!.

,( I iTlJ.¶Y (n' 'I'll"I ~- ~ T~~IS POOR !

SNAP 19/VIKING HEAT SOURCE
oR 'a:R. -

VIKING. ORBITER to the Mariner The Viking Orbiter is a follow-on design with specific design changes for class of planetary spacecraft the Operational lifetime requirements for the Viking mission. the landing. days after Orbiter are 120 days in orbit and 90 Orbiter Design influenced by the The design of the Orbiter was greatly larger spacecraft strucsize of the Lander, which dictated a storage for a longer ture than Mariner, increased propellant upgrading of the attitude burn time for orbit insertion, and and larger impulse control system with additional gas storage capacity'. Lander was one The combined weight of the Orbiter and transit time to Mars, factor that contributed to an 11-month The longer flight instead of five months for Mariner missions. for the-spacecraft, life time then dictated an increased design allow for longer degradation from solar larger solar panels to gas. radiation and additional attitude control Structure an octagon approxiThe basic structure of the Orbiter is sides of the ring-like mately 2.4 m across (8 ft.). The eight are alternately 1.4 by structure are 45.7 cm (18 in.) high and 0.6 m (55 by 22 in.). of the structure Electronic bays are mounted to the faces at four points. There and the propulsion module is attached of the long sides are 16 bays, or compartments, three on each and one on each short side. 9.7 m (32 ft.) The Orbiter is 3.3 m (10.8 ft.) high and Its fueled weight is 2,325 kg across the extended solar panels. (5,125 lbs.). m (161 square Combined area of the four panels is 15 square unregulated direct ft.), and they provide both regulated and to the radio transcurrent power; unregulated power is provided mitter and the Lander. batteries Two 30-ampere-hour, nickel-cadmium, rechargeable the Sun during provide power when the spacecraft is not facing occultation. launch, correction maneuvers and Mars -more
-

-10 4-

Guidance and Control The Orbiter is stabilized in flight by locking onto the Sun for pitch and yaw reference and onto the star Canopus for roll reference. The attitude control subsystem (ACS) keeps this attitude with nitrogen gas jets located at the solar panel tips. The jets fire to correct any drift. ,A cruise Sun sensor and the Canopus sensor provide error signals. Before 'Sun acquisition four acquisition Sun sensors are used and then turned off. The ACS also operates in an ali-inertial modetor in rollinerti.al with pitch and yaw control, still using the Sun sensors. During correction maneuvers the ACS aligns the vehicle to a specified attitude in response to commands from the on-board computer. Attitude control during engine burns is'provided in roll by the ACS and in pitch and yaw by an autopilot that commands engine gimballing. If Sun lock is lost the ACS automatically realigns the spacecraft. In -loss of Canopus lock, the ACS switdhes to rollinertial and waits for commands from the spacecraft computer. The nitrogen gas supply for the ACS can be augmented by diverting excess helium gas from the propulsion module, if necessary. Two on-board general-purpose computers, in the computer command subsystem (CCS) decode commands and either order the desired function at once or store the commands in a 4,096-word, plated-wire memory. All Orbiter events are controlled by the CCS, including correction maneuvers, engine burns, science sequences, and high-gain antenna pointir-g,; Communications The main Orbiter communications system is a two-way, S-band, high-rate radio link providing Earth command, radio tracking and science and engineering data return. This link uses either a steerable 1.5 m (59 in.) dish high-gain antenna (HGA) or an omni-directional low-gain antenna (LGA), both of them on the Orbiter. The LGA is used to send and receive near Earth, the HGA as distances increase. An X-band link is used for radio science through the IIGA. S-band transmission rates vary from 8.3 or 33.3 bits per second (bps) for engineering data to 2,000 to 16,000 bps for Lander and Orbiter science data. -more

-

r-105-K-s

Relay from the Lander is through an antenna mounted on the outer edge of a solar panel. It will be activated before separation and will receive from the Lander through separation, entry, landing, and surface operations. The bit rate during entry and landing is 4,000 bps; landed rate is 16,000 bps. Data Storage Data are stored aboard the Orbiter on two eight-track Jigital tape recorders. Seven tracks are used for picture data and the eighth track for infrared data or relayed Lander- data. Each recorder can store 640 million bits. Data collected by the Orbiter, including Lander data are converted into digital form by the flight data subsystem (FDS) and routed to the communications subsystem for transmission or to the tape recorders for storage. This subsystem also provides timing signals for the three Orbiter science experiments.

i

Bioshield Cap

Ae oshell Cover & Parachute

Descent Capsulet

r

Lander

Acroihell &Heat Shield

Bioshield Base

ORBITER SYSTEM
Capsule/Orbiter Interlace

Orbiter

-more-

-106LAUNCH AND CRUISE ACTIVITIES Launch Phase Vikings 1 and 2 were successfully launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., Aug. 20 and Sept. 9, 1975, aboard Titan/Centaur III launch vehicles. Viking 1 lifted off at 5:22 p.m.. EDT, nine days later than planned. The launch delay was caused by two problems. The first occurred less than two minutes b~efore the planned launch time on August 11 when a thrust vector control valve on the Titan solid rocket's'booster stage did not properly respond during checkout. The launch was cancelled for the day. The valve was one o ~2^4 that help maintain directional control on the vehicle daring initial liftoff. Mission controllers decided to replace the faulty valve and reschedule the launch for August 14. On August 13, however, technicians preparing to charge the Orbiter batteries discovered that the batteries' normal charge had dropped from 37 volts to nine volts. The batteries had been drained because a motorized rotary switch aboard the Orbiter had moved to the "on" position sometime after the August 11 launch postponement. The switch should have remained in the "off" position until seven minutes before launch. Controllers decided that the entire Viking spacecraft had to be removed from the launch vehicle and returned to its assembly facility for de-encapsulation and trouble shooting of the Orbiter. At the same time, the second Viking spacecraft was removed-to the launch complex and prepared to replace its ailing mate for the first launch. The drained batteries on the first Orbiter were replaced with new units. Extensive checks were made on each subsystem to insure that the low voltage did not cau- any damage to the Orbiter's electronics. Viking 1 was successfully launched August 20. Every aspect of the launch sequence was normal, and the Titan/ Centaur vehicle precisely inserted Viking 1 into its planned trajectory.
-

more

-

RET.PI1-0)UCJJ3ILITY OF THIE ORaciEi~L PACE IS POOR

-107from A mid-course maneuver of Viking 1 was commanded the spaceto change the Jet Propulsion Laboratory August 27, and-velocity just enough to bring it within craft's direction will allow its the desired targeting area near Mars that point was purinsertion into orbit. The original aiming Mars ,to avoid any considerable distance from posely biased a the surface if possibility of the spacecraft impacting separation from the either Viking was inoperable after launch vehicle. encountered Back at Cape Canaveral, the second-Viking of the S-band radio problems when the receiver sensitivity isolate the problem subsystem suddenly degraded. Efforts to successful, so the spacecraft was and work around it were not detailed troublesent back to its assembly building for frequency coaxial hardware shooting. All Orbiter radio was replaced with new equipment. 2:39 p.m. EDT Viking 2 was successfully launched at correct spacecraft September 9. A mid-course maneuver to trajectory was done September 19.

Cruise Phase to Mars Viking l's interplanetary cruise from Earth 333 days. will last will last 304 days; the Viking 2 cruise summer season Both spacecraft will reach Mars during the time Earth and Mars in Mars' northern hemisphere. At that 380 million km will be at maximum distance apart, about (236 million mi.). to correct Only two mid-course maneuvers art necessary possible trajectory errors-and insure the launch aim bias, at the right time Viking's arrival in the proper location for Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI). proper During cruise the Vikings are kept on their star tracking, trajectories by a combination of ground sensing. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking and Sun radio signal. The tracks Viking through the spacecraft's and checks DSN determines Viking's position and velocity, Orbiter solar the condition of both Orbiter and Lander. the craft's star panels are kept pointed toward the Sun and sensor acquires the star Canopus.

-

more

-

II

-108Orbiter high-gain antennas are repositioned each day to keep the narrow radio beams aimed directly at Earth. Although the distance from Earth is many millions of miles, the relative movement of Earth, as seen from the spacecraft, is great enough to necessitate daily antenna changes. As spacecraft distance from Earth increases, changes become less frequent. Orbiter science instruments are checked during cruise, and the Canopus star tracker calibrated. The Orbiter's two television cameras, the Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MA.WD) and the Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) were periodically checked and some test TV pictures were taken of Earth and Mars. Orbiter gyroscope drift calibrations were made, and some signal-to-noise ratio and radio subsystem threshold tests were completed. The Viking Landers remained quiet during cruise, except for some venting of science instruments and routine tape recorder maintenance. Lander l's batteries were giuten a ful. charge October 19 as~part of their conditioning' f6r future operations. Initial battery conditioning of Lander 2 was scheduled to begin October 31, but the battery charger did not turn on in response to a command from Earth. Furthei^ attempts were made to charge batteries, but the charger did not respond. After detailed analysis, controllers tried charging one Lander battery with a backup charger. The attempt was successfully made November-5, and all four batteries received full charges. During a checkout test of the Lander 2 gas chromatographmass spectrometer (GCMS) in January, one of three small ovens inside the molecular analysis instrument apparently did not operate. Data from the test's-showed that oven number 1 either failed to heat or that data are faulty from a timing device that indicates if an oven is on. After the assumed oven failure, mission controllers examined pre-launch test results on the GCMS ovens aboard Lander 1 and found a similarity in data on one of its ovens, leading them to suspect a second failure. Telemetry from a monitoring device associated with the ovens may be faulty, however, and the final test will occur on Mars when soil samples are placed in the ovens.

-

more

-

-109-

The ovens, three in each GCMS instrument, are designed to heat Martian soil samples to 500 degrees C (932 degrees F.) to release organic constituents in the soil for analysis by the instrument. The loss of one oven on each experiment will not affect instrument operation, but it will result in the analysis of two, rather than three,, soil samples by each instrument. During the cruise phase, radi6 science investigations used a dual frequency downlink from the spacecraft to Earth to measure small perturbations or changes in the spacecraft orbit, deduced from analysis of tracking data and small variations in frequency, phase or amplitud6Nof signals received from Viking. Basic tracking data to navigate the spacecraft toward Mars consist of precise measurements of distance (range) and line-of-sight velocity (range-rate) between Viking and tracking stations on Earth. Viking 1 arrives at Mars orbit June 19, only one day later than originally planned. Viking 2 will arrive at Mars This compenAugust 7, the exact day originally scheduled. sation for the late launches is made possible by introducing minute corrections to the trajectory aiming points, launch vehicle burn durations and injection velocities while the Small changes early in spacecraft were still near Earth. the mission caused big differences after journeys of more than 400 million miles. MISSION CONTROL AND COMPUTING CENTER The focal point of all Viking flight operations is the
Viking Mission Control and Computing Center (VMCCC) at the

Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Viking Flight Team (VFT) is housed in the VMCCC, and data from the Orbiters and Landers will be processed and presented to the flight team for analysis. Housed in two buildings at JPL, the VMCCC contains all the computer systems, communication and display equipment, photo processing laboratories and mission support areas for mission controllers, spacecraft performance analysts and science investigators. By the time the first Viking spacecraft arrives at Mars, the facilities will house more than 750 flight team members, plus several hundred more VMCCC people who will operate the .facilities, computers, laboratories, maintenance shops and communications networks.
-

more

-

-110-

The VMCCC's large and complex computer systems receive incoming Orbiter aned Lander data, process--them in real time, and display and organize them for further processing and Data are first received as radio signals by the analysis. Deep Space Network (DSN) stations around the world and are transmitted into the VMCCC computers, where processing begins. Software (programs) in these computers does the receiving, display and organizing of data. Commands that cause the Orbiters and Landers to maneuver, gather science data and do other complex activities are prepared by the flight team. Commands- are introduced into the-computers through the team's control and are communicated to a DSN station for transmission to the appropriate spacecraft. Three sets of computer systems are in the VMCCC. One is a complex of UNIVAC 1530, 1219 and 1616 computers that are designed to receive, process and display all Orbiter data in real time and do preliminary image reconstruction on video data taken from Orbiter cameras. Another set is a system of IBM 360/75 computers that receive, process and display in real time all Lander telemetry and tracking data from the tracking stations. They are the means through which commands are sent to the- Orbiters and Landers. They also do early image reconstruction and display of video data from Lander cameras on the surface and they provide computing capability for many ,programs that do command preparation, Lander data analysis and mission control functions. Two large UNIVAC 1108 computers are used in non-real-time to do many detailed analyses such as navigation, science instrument data analysis and data records production. Exposed film from the computers will be processed in the VMCCC photo processing lab. High-quality prints will be These pictures from Mars orbit and quickly made available. from the surface will be analyzed by scientists housed in the mission support rooms of the VMCCC. The VMCCC system is the responsibility of JPL's Office of Computing and Information Systems.

-

more

-

1)CBILITY OF THE p pr'
- aPAtJ IS POOR

-11 1-

Image Processing Laboratory JPL's Image Pkocessing Laboratory (IPL) will correct

all of the images (photo products) returned from the Lander and Orbiter spacecraft. Digital computer techniques are used tb improve details of returned images and to correct distortions introduced into the images by the camera systems. Large mosaics will be constructed from the Lander and Orbiter images, using the IPL products. Speci/'&l techniques developed for Viking include a program that will display Lander images for stereo viewing. The three-dimensional images will be used to evaluate the terraiwnear tzhe landing site before activating the surface samples arm. IPL will also do the processing to obtain the best possible discriminability (details) of images acqui'red by the Orbiter during site certification befcre landing.

-more-

-112-

TRACKING ANL DATA SYSTEM Tracking, commanding and obtaining data from the Vikings are parts of-the mission assigned to the Jet Propulsion The tasks cover all phases of the mission, Laboratory. including telemetry from the spacecraft, metric data, command signals to the spacecraft and delivery of data to the Viking Mission Control and Computing Center (VMCCC). Tracking and! communication with Viking, from the cruise phase until end-of-mission, is done by the world-wide NASA/ It consists of nine communiJPL Deep Space Network (DSN).. cations stations on three continents, the Network Operations Control Center in the VMCCC and ground conanunications linking all locations. DSN stations are :strategically located around the Earth: Goldstone, Calif.; Madrid, Spain; and Canberra, Australia. Each location has a 64-m diameter (210-ft.) antenna station; and two 26-m (85-ft.) antenna stations. The three multistation complexes are spaced at widely separated longitudes so spacecraft beyond Earth orbit are never out of view. Each DSN station is equipped with transmitting, receiving, The data handling and inter-station communications equipment. 64-m antenna stations in Spain and Australia have 100-kilowatt transmitters; at Goldstone the uplink signal can be radiated at up to 400 kw. Transmitter power at all six 26-m stations is 20 kw. Nerve center of DSN is the Network Operations Control All incoming data are validated here while Center at JPL. being simultaneously transferred to computing facilities in V'MCCC for real time use by the Viking Flight Team. The global stations are tied to the control center by NASCOM. Low-rate data from the spacecraft are transmitted over high-speed circuits at 4,800 bits per second (bps). High-rate data are carried on wideband lines at 28.5 kilobits per second (kbps) and, from Goldstone, at 50 kbps. Commands to the spacecraft are generated in the VMCCC and sent in the opposite direction to the appropriate DSN station. Ground communications used by DSN are part of a larger network, NASCOM, which links NASA's stations around the world. For VikingNASCOM may occasionally provide a communications satellite link with the overseas stations.
-

more

-

I

. 1
-113-

Tracking and data acquisition requirements for Viking greatly ekcceed those of the Mariner ad Pioneer projects. As many as six telemetry streams--two from both Orbiters and one or the other Lander--will be simultaneously received. Both Orbiters or an Orbiter and Lander will be trackedsand commanded at any given time-although the two Landers will
not be operated at the same time.

In the 16 months of the primary mission, the critical period lasts at least five months, beginning with Mars approach. Early in this period, two sets of antennas will be communicating with Orbiter 1 and Lander 1 and conducting their respective missions. A third set of antennas will be required to track Viking 2, still mated and approaching at some distance. During this phase, the entire capability of the DSN is occupied with
Viking.

J 5 .

Principal communications links between the Vikings and Earth stations are in the S-band (2,100-2,300 meqaHertz.) The Orbiters will also carry X-band (8,400 MH,) transmitters. Operating with the Orbiter S-band system, the X-band transmitter will allow the network to generate dual frequency
ranging and doppler data and will contribute to the re''.o

science investigation

at Mars.

Telemetry will be immediately routed from DSN stations to the VMCCC for distribution to computers and other socialized processors for data reduction and presentation to flight team engineers and science investigators. Simultaneously, range and range-rate information will be generated by DSN and transmitted to the VMCCC for spacecraft navigatio- - nputations. Commands to Viking are transmitted from the VMCCC and loaded into a command processir.g computer at a DSN station for transmission to the proper spacecraft. Commands may be aborted and emergency commands may be manually inserted and verified at stations after voice authorization from VMCCC. During planetary operations the network supports celestial mechanics experiments that may use wry long baseline interferometry (VLBI), using DSN and other antennas outside the network. All of NASA's networks are under the direction of the Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition. JPL manages DSN; STDN facilities and NASCOM are managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Goldstone DSN stations are operated and maintained by JPL with the assistance of the Aeronutronic Ford Corp. The Canberra stations are operated by the Australian Department of Supply. The stations near Madrid are operated by the Spanish government's Instituto Nacional de Technica Aerospacial. -more-

-

.,-

-114VIKING PROGRAM OFFICIALS NASA Headquarters Dr. Noel W. Hinners Dr.-Anthony J. Calio Dr. S. Ichtiaque Rasool Robert S~. Kraemer Walter Jakobowski Dr. Richard S. Young Loyal G. Goff Robert A. Kennedy Rodney A. Mills Gerald M. Truszynski Associate Administrator for Space Science Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Science Deputy AssOciate Administrator,Science Director, Lunar and Planetary Pxoqrams Viking Program Manageri, Chief Program Scientist for Viking Viking Program Scientist Deputy Program Manager (Orbiter) Deputy Program Manager (Lander) Associate Administrator for Tracking and Data Acquisition

-'

Langley Research Center Donald P. Hearth Oran W. Nicks James S. Martin Jr. A. Thomas Young William J. Boyer Dr. Gerald A. Soffen -moreDirector Deputy Director Viking Project Manager Deputy Project Manager (JPL Operations) Deputy Project Manager (LaRC Operations) Project Scientist

-~

~

~

J. ----

K
Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. Bruce C. Murray Gen. Charles H. Terhune Robert J. ParksHenry W. Norris George Granopulos Douglas J. Mudgway Viking Flight Team James S., Martin Jr., LaRC A. Thomas Young, LaRC

-115-

*1r-

Director Deputy Director Assistant Director, Flight Projects Orbiter System Manager Mission Control and Computing

Center Manager
Deep Space Network Manager

Viking Project Manager Mission Director Deputy Mission Director Deputy Mission Director Deputy Mission Director Deputy MIssion Director Chief Engineer Project Scientist Science Analysis & MissionPlanning Director Spacecraft Performance & Flight Path Analysis Director Mission Control Director Lander Support Office Chief Lander Science Group Chief Orbiter Science Group Chief Mission Planning Group Chief Orbiter Performance Analysis Group Chief Lander Performance Analysis Group Chief Flight Path Analysis Group Chief -more(Denver)

4

Robert L. Crabtree, JPL Louis Kingsland Jr., JPL Dr. C. Howard Robins, Jr., LaRC Marshall S. Johnson, LaRC John D. Goodlette, MMC Dr. Gerald A. Soffen, LaRC B. Gentry Lee, MMC Dr. Peter T. Lyman, JPL Marius J. Alazard, JPL Robert J. Polutchko, MMC G. Calvin Broome, LaRC Dr. Conway W. Snyder, JPL Dr. James D. Porter, MMC Ronald A. Ploszaj, JPL Rex W. Sjostrom, MMC William J. O'Neil, JPL

-116-

Kennedy Lee R.

Space Center Scherer Director Director, Unmanned Launch Operations KSC Viking Representative Chief, Centaur Operations Division

John J. Neilon

Harold Zweigbaum John D. Gossett

Lewis Research Center Bruce T. Lundin Dr. Seymour C. Himmel Director Associate Director for Flight Programs Director, Launch Vehicles Acting Titan/Centaur Project Manager

Andrew J. Stofan Lawrence J. Ross

Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. John F. Clark Tecwyn Roberts Donald L. Schmittling Leonard Manning Director Director of Networks Chief, NASCOM Division Head, Communications Branch

-more-

-117-

Energy Research & Development Administration Division of Space Nuclear Systems David S. Gabriel Glenn A. Newby Harold Jaffe Director

(ERDA)

Assistant Director Chief, Isotope Power Systems Project Branch Acting Viking Program Manager for ERDA

Vincent G. Redmond

VIKI. Orbiter Prime Contractor Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, Calif. Orbiter Subcontractors Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver, Colo. Rocketdyne Corp. Canoga Park, Calif. General Electric Co. Valley Forge, Pa. Honeywell Radiation Corp. Lexington, Mass. '7lotorola, Inc. Scottsdale, Ariz. Aeronutronics Ford Corp. Palo Alto, Calif. General Electric Co. Utica, N.Y. Spacecraft, Inc. Huntsville, Ala. Motorola, Inc. Scottsdale, Ariz. Texas Instruments Dallas, Tex.

CONTRACTORS

Propulsion System

Propulsion Engines

Attitude Control System

Celestial Sensor

Relay Radio and Telemetry; Radio Subsystem S-Band and Relay Antennas

Computer Command System

Computer Command System

Flight Data Subsystems

Data Storage Subsystems; Electronics

-more-

-118Orbiter Subcontractors cont'd.) Lockheed Electronics Plainfield, N.J. Electro-Optical Systems Xerox Corp. Pasadena, Calif. Data Storage Subsystem; Transporter Power Subsystem

Science Instrument Subcontractors Ball Brothers Research Corp. Boulder, Colo. A.T.C. Pasadena, Calif. Santa Barbara Research Center Goleta, Calif. Bendix Aerospace Systems Div. Ann Arbor, Mich. Orbiter Imaging; Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS) Water Vapor Mapping; Mars Atmosphere Water Detector (MAWD) Thermal Mapping; Infrared Thermal Mapping (IRTM) Entry Science; Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (UAMS), Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) Lander Accelerometers

Hamilton Standard Div. United Aircraft Windsor Locks, Conn. K-West Ind. Westminster, Calif. Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver, Colo. Lander Prime Contractor Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver, Colo. Lander Subcontractors Schjeldahl, Inc. Northfield, Minn. Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver, Colo. Goodyear Aerospace Corp. Akron, Ohio
-

Aeroshell Stagnation Pressure Instrument Recovery Temperature Instrument

Bioshield Aeroshell Parachute System

more -

PEPRODUCMILITY OF THE Uhtci{AAL PAGE IS POOR

-119Lander Subcontractors Rocket Research Corp. Redmondi, Wash. Celesco Industries Costa Mesa, Calif. RCA Astro-Electronics Div. Princeton, N.J. Honeywell, Inc. Aerospace Division St. Petersburg, Fla. Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver, Colo. (cont'd.) Landing Engines

Surface Sampler Communications Guidance, Control and Sequencing Computer (GCSC) and Data Storage Memory Data Acquisition and Processing Unit (DAPU) and Landing Legs and Dotpads. Radar Altimeter and Terminal Descent and Landing Radar Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG)

Teledyne Ryan Aeronatuical San Diego, Calif. Energy Research and Development Administration
(ERDA)

Washington,

D.C. Inc. Tape Recorder

Lockheed Electronics Co., Plainfield, N.J. Hamilton Standard Div. United Aircraft Windsor Locks, Conn. General Electric Battery Division Gainesville, Fla.

Inertial Reference Unit (IRU)

Batteries

Science Instrument Subcontractors Itek Corp. Optical Systems Div. Lexington, Mass. TRW Systems Group Redondo Beach, Calif. Litton Industries Guidance & Control Systems Woodland Hills, Calif. Lander Imaging; Facsimile Camera System

Biology Instrument

Molecular Analysis; Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS)

-

mcre

-

f g

o z

A .~~rx d

--

-

gm

-

-

A

-roo

Science Instrument Subcontractors Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver, Colo. TRW Systems Group Bendix Aerospace Systems Div. Ann Arbor, Mich. Celesco Industries Costa Mesa, Calif. Raytheon, Inc. Sudbury, Mass.

(cont'd)

Inorganic Chemistry; X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) Meteorology Instrument System Seismometer

Physical Properties; Various Instruments, Indicator, Mirrors Magnetic Properties; Magnet Arrays

Launch Vehicle, Contractors Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver, Colo. General Dynamics/Convair Titan III-E

Centaur

-more-

-121-

CONVERSION TABLE

Multiply
Distance: * inches feet meters kilometers kilometers statute miles nautical miles nautical miles statute miles statute miles feet/sec meters/sec meters/sec feet/sec feet/sec statute miles/hr nautical miles/
hr (knots)

By
2.54 0.3048 3.281 3281 0.6214 1.609 1.852 1.1508 0.8689 1760 0.3048 3.281 2.237 0.6818 0.5925 1.609 1.852 0.6214 3.785 0.2642 0.4536 2.205 1000 907.2 0.02832 70.31 4.448 0.225

To Obtain
centimeters meters feet feet statute miles kilometers kilometers statute miles nautical miles yards meters/sec feet/sec statute mph statute miles/hr nautical mihles/hr km/hr km/hr statute miles/hr liters gallons kilograms pounds kilograms kilograms cubic meters grams/sq. cm newtons pounds

Velocity:

km/hr Liquid Measure, Weight: gallons liters pounds kilograms metric ton short ton cubic feet pounds/sq. inch pounds newtons

Volume: Pressure: Thrust:

C40%,UTfo4

June 4, 1976

#-

- ^-

-

-*

1

4

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->