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Histroy of Medicine

Histroy of Medicine

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Published by: Manish Chandra Prabhakar on Nov 14, 2010
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The History of Medicine

´Those who fail to read the history are destined to suffer the repetition of mistakesµ

Primitive Medicine
‡ It is truly said ³Medicine was conceived in sympathy and born out of necessity´. ‡ Due to limited Knowledge Primitive men attributed the disease to µwrath of gods¶ or µinvasion of body by evil spirits¶- supernatural theory of disease. ‡ As a logical sequence, the medicine they practiced consisted of appeasing the gods by prayers, rituals etc e.g. treatment of snake bite by mantras. ‡ Primitive medicine is timeless and rudiments are seen in many parts of world like Asia, South America

Indian Medicine
‡ 5000 BC ‡ µDhanvantari¶ Hindu god of medicine is said to be born out of churning of ocean in a tug of war between gods and demons. ‡ Some believe that µAtharvaveda¶ gradually developed into Ayurveda. ‡ Ayurveda=Knowledge of life ‡ Believed in µTridosha theory of disease¶. ‡ Vata(wind), Pitta (Gall) and Kapha (Mucous). ‡ Celebrated Authorities are Atreya, Charaka, Sushruta

‡ Charaka - Charake samhita - Mentioned about 500 drugs ‡ Sushruta - µFather of Indian Surgery¶ -Sushruta Samhita -Midwifery, Ophthalmology ‡ Other medicine of Indian origin- Siddha. ‡ Other medicines not of Indian origin Unani, Homeopathy etc ‡ Arabic-Drug, alcohol, syrup, sugar

Chinese Medicine
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 2700 BC First organized body of medical knowledge Based on µyang¶ and µyin¶ Pioneers of immunization Bare foot doctors To Chinese µThe great doctor is the one who treats not some one ill but some one not yet ill.

Egyptian Medicine
‡ 2000 BC ‡ Imhotop ± considered as both Doctor and divine ‡ Believed in Pulse-speech of heart. ‡ God of health is µHorus¶. ‡ Ebers Papyrus- mentioned 700 drugs. ‡ Specializations prevailed. ‡ Treatment with enema, Blood letting. ‡ Oldest treatise of Surgery, Mentioned about paralysis following cerebral fractures.

Mesopotamian Medicine
‡ 2000 BC ‡ Religion Based concepts. ‡ Herb doctors, Knife doctors and Spell doctors roughly equal to interns, surgeons and psychiatrists respectively. ‡ Hammurabi- King formulated Code of Hammurabi for Physicians. ‡ Oldest medical prescription was traced.

Greek Medicine
‡ 460-136 BC ‡ Taught men to think in terms of ³why and How´ ‡ Leader of Greek Medicine is ³Aesculapius´(staff entwined by serpent is symbol of medicine) Hygiea Fashion among Intellectuals Preventive Medicine Panacea Curative Medicine Gets the cash

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Father of Medicine Hippocratic oath Clinician and Epidemiologist ³Airs, water and places´-Book is considered as treatise to Social Medicine and Hygiene.

Roman Medicine
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 136 AD Borrowed from Greek Keen sense of sanitation Galen ± physician, contributed to Comparative Anatomy, Experimental physiology. ‡ Disease due to Predisposing ,Exciting and Environmental factors.

Middle Ages
‡ Period of Lull i.e. Pause ‡ The practice of medicine reverted back to primitive medicine dominated by superstitions due to dominance of religion.

Revival of Medicine
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Paracelsus-First to Attack superstitious beliefs Fracastorious-Theory of contagion Andreus Vesalius-1st Man of Modern Medicine. Ambriose Pare-Father of Surgery. William Harvey-Blood circulation Thomas Sydenham-Classification of Fever.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Leeuwenhoek ±Microscope Edward Jenner-Vaccination-1796 1800 ±sanitary awakening. 1854 ± Florence Nightingale; beginning of modern nursing. ‡ Rise of Public Health

‡ Chadwick-sanitary reforms. ‡ Louis Pasteur-1860-germ theory of disease

‡ 1864- International Red Cross

‡ 1882-Koch; Anthrax, Tuberculosis and study of bacteria ‡ 1898- Sir Ronold Ross ±Malaria transmitted by Anopheles ‡ 1900‡ Multifactorial cause of disease

‡ 1st Blood transfusion. ‡ 1921-Banting & Best- isolated hormone Insulin ‡ 1940- Fleming -penicillin ‡ 1948‡ World Health Organization ‡ Modern hard contact lens were introduced

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

1953-Watson and Crick; DNA 1954-Salk; polio vaccine 1956-Kidney dialysis 1967-1st Heart transplant. 1977-1st coronary Balloon Angioplasty was done.

Health care revolution
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Primary health care -1978 Health for all-1981 Millennium Development goals-2000 NRHM- April 12th2005

Primitive Medicine

Egyptian Medicine



Hammurabi- King formulated Code of Hammurabi for Physicians.



A. Vesalius

Thomas Sydenham

James Lind -Scurvy

Robert Koch



Edward Jenner

Rudolph Virchow

L. Pasteur



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