Jean-Claude VEILHAN

The Rules of Musical Interpretation in the Baroque Era
(1 7th - i8th centuries)
common to all instruments

According to BACH, BROSSARD, COUPERIN, ,, HOTTE TERRE, MONTÉCLAIR, QUANTZ, RAMEAU -d'ALEMBERT, ROUSSEAU, etc.

E1

ALPHONSE LEDUC - PARIS _1 75 , rue Saint- Honoré
Réf.: UN

VI

Contents
PREFACE
IX

METRICAL SIGNS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS Metres of four beats Metres of two beats Metres of three beats Lesson on every variety of metre (Montéclair) PHRASING Articulatory silences Detached notes Slurs
Complete indication of slurs, 15; Complete or partial absence of slurs: should they be added, 16 11 13 1

^i
1 3 6
10

^
C

o


e

e^

F.

i.^
Unequal notes
Different degrees of inequality, 22; Reversed inequality, 23; Table for unequalising values in the principal metres, according to Cajon and Hotteterre, 24; Exceptions to the rule of inequality, 25 20

Dbuble-dotted notes
Different instances of double-dotted notes, 27; Exceptions to the rule of double-dotted notes, 31

-

27

Rubato

32

EMBELLISHMENT GRACE NOTES
Accent, 34; Chute (Fall), 34; Coulade (Run), 35; Coulé (Passing appoggiatura), 35; Flattement (Finger vibrato), 36; Pincé (Mordent, Schneller), 37; Port-de-voix (Appoggiatura), 38; Son enflé (Messa di voce), 42; Tour de gosier (Turn, Gruppetto, Doublé, Circolo mezzo, Double cadence), 43; Trill (Shake, Cadence, Battement), 44; Vibrato, 47 33

Two examples of pieces with grace notes added by their composers ORNAMENTS French ornamentation
A.L. - 25.732

47 49

50
L,,

^=c

VII German ornamentation Italian ornamentation The cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 51 55 58

THE VARIOUS TYPES OF ADAGIO AND ALLEGRO CLASSIFICATION — TEMPO — CHARACTER Classification of tempo indications according to Marpurg Classification of tempo indications with their metronomic values according to Quantz Characteristics of the various tempi according to Brossard and Rousseau 60 60 61 62/63

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ADAGIO SHOULD BE PLAYED (Quantz) ...... 64 OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ALLEGRO SHOULD BE PLAYED (Quanti) ..... 67 CHARACTER AND TEMPO OF THE VARIOUS MOVEMENTS AIRS AND DANCES
A llemande, 70; Aria, 71; Ariette, 72; Bourrée, 72; Branle, 72; Canaries, 73; Chaconne, 74; Contredanse, 75; Cotillon, 75; Courante, 75; Entrée, 76; Forlane, 76; Furie, 77; Gaillarde, 77; Gavotte, 78; Gigue, 79; Loure, 80; March, 81; Minuet, 81; Musette, 83; Overture, 84; Passacaglia, 85; Passepied, 86; Pastorale, 87; Pav an e, 88; Polonaise, 88; Prelude, 89; Rigaudon, 90; Rondeau, 91; Saltarello, 91; Sarabande, 92; Siciliana, 92; Tambourin, 93; Villane ll e, 94

70

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED INDEX OF TERMS, SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED INDEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES (by subject and composer)

95 96 99

A.L. - 25.732

for the musical era known as the Baroque. principles. Veilhan A. For it is essential to speak about rules. they constituted the very musical and social air they breathed. . And it is all this that the qualificative term rules. Bach's death). if the performance of their works could already be described as "appalling" in 1775. but many. We have. effects. used in its most flexible an d general sense. p.13. and thus to help them in avoiding inconsistencies of style. concepts and instruments had undergone a radical development. Even within the period itself. Certain writers being quoted more than once. The word may seem didactic and suggestive of fixed precepts. There is not just one possible interpretation. the old forms. We are witnessing a true return to the sources. Freedom of choice. the date of their works is not restated at each quotation. Nowadays. the divergent views put forward at the time. In the last reso rt . conventions an d inventions which make up `good taste'. N. and it is this same good taste that in the long run remains the sole criterion for expressing a musical discourse that is at once both alive and sensitive. the Baroque era had been in decline. 95. where necessary.L. S. indeed. Even though certain traditions persisted. J.732 . however. Formerly rules were passed on from master to pupil. it is the job of the musician to create his own interpretation. Beethoven five years old: another musical world had decisively eclipsed the preceding one. Corelli. But in fact.IX PREFACE What would Lully. knowing full well that a book of the present size cannot hope to be complete (a totally comprehensive study would take up dozens of volumes!). Mozart nineteen. then. In 1775 Haydn was forty-three. must be taken to indicate and encompass. See the Bibliography. adding. only a few years or decades after their graves had been freshly dug? Indeed since 1 750 (the year of J. the instruments and the rules of the past. and especially over the past few years. research into specific periods can guarantee greater fidelity to authentic interpretation. what we are concerned with is a body of traditions. The dawn of Classicism was beginning to be clearly visible. C. Couperin and Rameau be saying today.25. This book is simply a compilation from the p ri ncipal contemporary treatises (chiefly those published in French) in which the most significant definitions and opinions have been selected in such a way as to present today's reader—as far as is possible—with a synthesis of this famous `good taste' in interpretation. It is this state of awareness we must seek if we want to make the music of our predecessors live again in the present with a true sense of continuity: a resurrection. however. All quotations in this work are printed in italics. confined ourselves to the principal rules (common to singers an d instrumentalists of all kinds) which constitute a set of clues enabling us to decipher and complete the outline that a score of this period generally represents. there was not always unanimity over ce rt ain points of interpretation: where there is disagreement I cite the general prevailing opinion in an objective way. not an exhumation! Theoreticians and musicians of the period often tried to lay down these rules in treatises so as to convey them more easily to students and music lovers. must always remain within the limits of the style and practice of the time.

/MO IMMa WM NM NM 411•1111. In all metres it would be a very good idea to indicate the tempo as the Italians nearly always do.rlNBNIN• sss . but not really in `Airs de ballet': A.^^... -=MOW ---.L.. normally. (Marpurg) Allegro: F. since the same species is sometimes very fast and sometimes very slaw. . BARSANTI (1724) .rrrrLt a.11s MIMI OM ---r . In these definitions one often finds the terms `slow' and `light' which correspond roughly to the tempo indications `lento' and `allegro'.a MIMI MN MOMS r D L'Affilard: The measure of four slow beats is shown by a C: .. _ .^rrr^^^ ..•„ AM:AMII= MI MN NM 1.1 Metrical Signs and Their CharacteristicsThe most perplexing thing when one starts beating time is the number of signs which distinguish its different species..B.11 -AI IIIIIIIIIIIMIrIMI. Fuguc etc.IIIrO1s>L •rrr* •iMMIE= 11/... — —s— l !— 1111r71. ) It is used both in vocal and instrumental music (.I AMINO 011 NMI MIMI JIM r . (Hotteterre) This chapter gives some of the p ri ncipal contemporary definitions of the various metrical signs used.rr^ r^^ Hotteterre: The metre of four slow beats is indicated by a C (. . the unit is the half note.• RIM rrlr11MM./ •-a NMr•••s rILA rs •sI ^ ILlrt MOM • ^I rll s•=rM.1r1111111•1111.l=r11/M 1111111111-NIMrr113rr 1... Adagios. very slowly ( .__ 111/71M ISM_.) It is taken in 4 and.. 24. . • . along with the characteristics of each. ) For instrumental music it is suitable in Preludes or first movements of Sonatas.---.. .+rrlrM•rrlrrOMrr .732 . This metre is used only in fugues and counterpoint. sum rw•••••s SW' V rrr^^l>♦or rrrrr^^ r MOM ea sour . Allemandes.1L./11P"111_ MIP".rs=111111r s rrrr•WI/O! ^rr^.25. See the table of `unequal' values in the principal metres on p. METRES OF FOUR BEATS This relatively little used metre has four beats to the bar. N../s rrlrrlMINIM= —.

^^^ M ^I^^^^^^^1^t /.4 eighth note triplet groups to the bar. (Brossard) 5101 (1) That is to say. but gravely.. ) has four beats. There are three quavers.L.. each beat having three crotchets or the equivalent: t I-011s 11111111••• NM1111•111=111111MMI. . but of a very light character: 'S.111 /^^^ 12 This compound metre (2) is suitable for extremely lively and rapid music.111r »MIAOW 1•1/ . ( This compound metre ) is exactly right for spirited and lively kinds of expression. However. or the equivalent.. ) is similarly taken in 4. .R V '10•11111•1111M^^ ^^^^.1111111B ^ MIN IBM =1111•••• ^^^^^^^^^I 5D—_ a — arm. (Brossard) In former times this sort of metre was performed with two beats to the bar.iINNIIIII'f IfXIMINIM WM JINN MI . P • A. 4 sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar.732 i• `^ • x• ^ ^-^ '~ -K $^ ^- ^ ^ - -' a^. since on its own it denotes gaiety... . 1.a~emme w— _. it Thus the sign C alone does not suffice to indicate the tempo: the real determining factor is the character of the piece at the head of which it is placed. N. parallel to the preceding (4) metre (. each with` six subdivisions.a •t1IIMMIINNI • =Y s ••._^IIMS 4•11. but lion) half as fast again.B. affectionate kinds of expression. The sign 4 was hardly in use at this time. _^^^^^s— t 12 8 The metre 8 . (Choquel) flag Z^r tig L'Affilard: This metre is shown by a 12 and a 4 and is performed with four beats to the bar. and sometimes for lively and animated kinds. (Brossard) ^ ^ L'Affilard: This metre (. 5 Allemande from the same Largo Allegro 15. which the 16 Italians describe with the word prestissimo.70•1 ^ . (This metre) is suitable for tender. to each beat..2 Prelude from a Sonata b y Signor CORELLI. people used the expedient of beating in 4..r1111•11••••• .r .. it is often used by the Italians for tender and affectionate feelings though it will then carry the words adagio affettuoso or some other verbal indication. but as this was found too complicated. __`'111 . (2) That is to say. op.25.

% which is taken in two spirited beats (Denis) In a four-beat metre. 29) It must be noted that this metre (which the author calls quadruple time with a light beat) may equally well be taken in a slow duple time (. poursui . de Lulli used it in his operas pretty well as the equivalent of plain duple time. p.s V• 1E= a v .732 . this last having two light beats. either in the pulse of the metre or in the manner of playing the quavers. and tempo di cappella or tempo alla breve.••s • • •IMINII0 MOM MIS 1=III MOO '." Ma M.. when the C has a line through it one must be sure to observe that this line means the notes will be given a different value.L. 5 Tempo di Cappella Tempo di Gavotta ( han . by Sign' CORELLI. by Sign' STUK.••••• •1•1•. as it were..eons jusqu'au trépas A..25. op. and has 4 beats to the bar: s••/..tons. It is made up of (the value of) 4 dotted quavers. chan -tons les doux trans-ports Ist extract from the opera Alceste (Lully) 2nd extract from the opera Armide (Lully) 2 slow beats 4 light beats Quickly Poursuivons.. (Quantz) — (See also note (1) .3 Hotteterre: A famous composer of our times has introduced a metre of 16.s•s••••s iii•MINI . ^ « s•• .•IIM• . I. Couperin. hence 12 semiquavers. WNW . since the different ways of beating do not change its nature. The Italians only use it in what they call tempo di gavotta. we are referring to a harpsichord piece by Mr.11s a--•••s MU= IN JOB MIMI •ss••••••s••• ow. Mr.MIMI. ^ ••s••••••s. (Cajon) Hotteterre: Normally the pulse is 4 light beats or 2 slow ones. 1st book. . ) This should change absolutely nothing.UMW METRES OF TWO BEATS The metre of 2 beats comprises: 1) 2 slow beats shown by Q' 2) 2 light beats shown by a 2 3) 2 lively beats shown by a 4) 2 very fast beats shown by a 8 5) 2 extremely fast beats shown by a ló 6) 4 which is taken in two slow beats 7) finally.. This sort of time is called: alla breve or alla cappella. or a metre of two beats. and should be performed twice as fast as when the C has no line.< U' ..

.11NWII•.. which we are about to look at. It is suited to light and `piqué' (spiccato) airs.^ ^^l V%i: >11•11La/r s Qu'à vo -tre gloi -------tout cons . •a MAW La rtar AM MENDE-MO /MI . (Choquel) Hotteterre: This metre has two light beats.. there should be a clear indication of the fact. (Câjon) When the words alla cappella or alla breve appear alongside the time signature...••11 ..at01111atat. .-4=1t. Rigaudons. ) is normally lively and `piqué' (spiccato).411 r>•••1 aa\. If it is used in slow pieces. Branles. (Hotteterre) 2 or 2 I The sign for this metre is 2.a t/.W. . It is found more in cantatas and sonatas than in motets or operas. ^r ^./M• MINIM .a< ^.r II -Alls t1INIIINI. A.. MOM s -AM Min •11 SI -. . WINN • •M1E1E1 4111•11•10 NMI ^a^a^ March from the same Bourrée from the same Gavotte from the opera Roland (Lully) Rigaudon from L'Europe Galante (Campra) + The speed of this type of metre is neither too slow nor too fast. in the Entrées of ballets. ) The metre is taken in 2 beats. with the quavers changed into crotchets: Overture from the opera Phaéton (Lully) Entrée from the same opera 2 rG rr r . sometimes extremely fast."\ i-I -t:i. ..a. metre is in reality that of C divided into two.1•IMI. MIN .^ s -••••. ) It is not known in Italian music. but should be moderately paced. If you think about it. 1 .25. .W-. Alm= 1111ss •••••• ss•s Or •M• a From a Sonata by Sig r Masciti -F/Mil ED MIME ME S.NNI.pi .. It is found at the beginnings of Opera overtures.' >^as OM . (Marpurg) There are two sorts of tempo in duple time: sometimes slow.s. it is really no more than light quadruple time cut in half: From the 1st Cantata by Mr.Mr •1•11 MI MEE INN WI VIM OM MIN. Cotillons..•1=• AM =II MI NM MIN ^ ^•.t ••••-•11•1ft. MI ^I t^.. an exceedingly fast tempo is indicated ( 1 ).i. (Choquel) cP* p Hotteterre: This metre (.a.. etc. Marches.re (1) Marpurg applies this same rule to the 4 metre..^^ .^^.a. Gavottes. Moreover it can be said that th.L.732 i ^ E Ÿ.'>. .11118s . !MIR Da. I•11. (..4 It may be concluded that this metre is mid-way between quadruple time shown by a C and duple time shown by a plain 2. Commonly it is indicated merely by a plain 2 ( . A= 11•7IMINMOI' NI= + . Bourrées.WON An . Clérambault IAA sMION/1111•11t ..

•• rra t•• 2 8 One might also use 8 metre which ( .__+•—__—S_ _.Jr•^•1111.r•rr• 'r•• -AMU rr.^ -..111111•• ^^..•v.732 .— .I•I•• ^ . .___•. in some Airs from 'ballets de caractères etc.^. so that each beat is occupied by a crotchet or its equivalent: •ION•11111.. iY••••••• • al tL^/'11111..w ^'f^---^• . r•^ r•rr. L'Affilard. =SIM r.••••1t•. = rAt/IBr••rrwAIMIIr•I= •r•r•••J^Srf• t !7r•1•t•11•r. . from Alcionne Shepherds' air: Mr. (Hotteterre) Tambourin DENIS ^•el.r. in Loures./ . . and on the..•••'.25..••s •s•• s f• MD IN Y ^^^^ ^ ^.ra OM •••• MEN r•^r•••^ts .. from Roland L'Affilard calls this metre: a metre of two rapid beats..•rra.. contrary many lively..•. however one seldom sees a slow air composed in this metre. . •a•••ta Gigue... .. for example... 1•1•1.^. atvaIMMa:s.Jr••0•1r. ) would be taken in one very light beat.1. ^•^^trs1•tr v+. ^ f 1 •I ts C^7 I.. ) It is used in the reprises of Opera overtures.••••.^. Marais. .•••IIM• "It•\•M^• r•./+/•^r••..iratrar MII•raa .•I^•='••J_+_ s MN. from Roland (Lully) Forlane. This metre would be suitable for certain Tambourins or other tunes of a similar character. adding: this metre is shown by a 4 and an 8 and is taken in 2 very fast beats.00••.111.••••111•1111.rGJr. Forlanes.rna . from Le Triomphe de l'Amour (Lully) (1) As... buoyant airs are so written ( . Gigues..••_ •••s .1111•11M-. from L Europe Galante (Campra) IMI •^ .. •.rr• ^ •_• .s I MS/NMI •s = NEE r•. .••rMOWS __ NMI SINIMNP71•.1• •A. r' ^tr.•r•.^.11I •I•••• ..t•. A.r 5 4 8 Hotteterre: Some composers have indicated it (4 metre) in this way: Sailors'air: Mr..11I.•. de Lulli.. r•^ ^^.•.i ^r•r.. .I i • ^ Air of the zeph yrs.\•^'t/fa/• Y Y r.MEZIN•l•^^^r•7f•^^r_J_•_r^^r•^^^••^fa. ) Some call it 'the metre of six slow beats' (1) ._^..L.^ I/ta+Ct•. It is rarely found in Italian music: Reprise from the Overture to Armide (Lully) Loure: this is from Thétis (Lully) ^ M 11s . ..-ta•__ MIMI .•• /fa r/•. NO 6 Hotteterre: 4 This metre is nearly always taken in two beats ( ...

si^^. .. sometimes.. Hotteterre: It is taken in 2 beats ( .^: . The metre in three beats is the most varied.^ ^ ^r s ^r.^^^.Z.s. (Choquel) (1) That is to say.. two quarter note tri p let groups to the bar.. especially when the metre is taken in 2.. being the second.- t< >ga -^"^vas 6 Normally this compound time (1) is used for tender. only four characters or signs are found—namely 2.. it is taken at a tolerably fast speed.^. whether old or new.^t .r ^. L'Affilard tells us that it may be taken in 7ix light i i ^ beats: 4 .^^. . affectionate movements.^. A. but a 6 over 8 suggests a movement twice as fast.. . animated and spirited. being the first.u^ s .^.:^.. ) It is in fairly general use. (Brossard) r6 16 i^ • METRES OF THREE BEATS I 16 This metre is shown by a 3. in consequence. plain 3. but more commonly it is in two. (Brossard) The sign 6 over 4 decrees a very spirited speed. and it is composed with a strong beat.^. or again major triple....^:ras ^i^s. though very incorrectly.^....r==. a weak beat. .. but chiefly in Cantatas and Sonatas.s¢Ys ^^ ^. and $ which were not in widespread use in 4 France.^....rs^^.^sq. (Saint-Lambert) 6 8 According to the above definition by Saint-Lambert it is clear that normally a 68 indicates a faster speed than a . extremely lively. Denis adds the metres .^..::^^^ '^.^. 4 and . .L.•.... and in France quite often..^^ ^^^ r. s^s.rr^^ ^s .^. ^.^. s ^ O .s^s^wsrrs^^^. because its pulse should be twice as slow as that of ordinary triple time (4). This metre is very much used...^ ^^^srsrs^ . NM .25. (Denis) g Nevertheless.. .. it appears in swift.^± • a. fast pieces. This compound time (2) is suitable for modes of expression that are lively..732 ! .. and a final 'idle' beat.^.. that is. it is cálled double t riple...:. it is particularly suitable for Gigues etc. amongst all composers. yet it is the one in which indication of the various kinds of pulses by special signs or characters has been the most neglected.^ s^a^^^^^..^s^.nr ^. (2) That is to say. two eighth note triplet groups to the bar..

. Cantatas. Minuets. .bics On this particular way of notating 2 Choquel has this to say: Sometimes in this sort of metre.111111• I= NMI WIN ALJr1101. Clérambault has done in his Cantata A lphée et Aréthuse . in France it commonly serves for Chaconnes.sf• OM MI MINN IMIN•M1••••••=1r1•11/111•111111• s •111 ^^1 Mal 11••=111•01111I I\• t)111s11a11111.. in Sonatas and in Courantes intended for dancing.L. so one should expect to find these (white) quavers elsewhere. from the opera Persée (Lully) s 111111•111 s11. It is taken in 3. Italian Courantes. MINIM * nl Air from the Cantata by Mr.732 . Sometimes it is very slow and sometimes very fast. this is what Mr. Plaints. the pulse is normally a trifle brisk. white quavers are used so as not to use black quavers when the minims are to be divided in the vocal line.7 Hotteterre: Titis metre is normally taken in three slow beats (. from Phaéton (Lully) Another lullaby.: The Sleep of Protée. Graves. Sarabandes.25. Bernier It is also noted in this way: qui tant dc mi sé - ra . etc. it is suitable for tender. `Airs de bù llet'. Chaconnes. Minuets and other spirited and animated dances. (Brossard) Hotteterre: Titis metre is indicated by a 3 or sometimes 4. affectionate kinds of expression and the pulse should be moderate: neither too fast nor too slow.--- Courante by Sig+' Corelli Allegro A. When it is written with a simple 3. Passacaglia from the opera Armide (Lully) Sarabande from Issé (Destouches) Slow tempo Solemn tempo Chaconne from Phaéton (Lully) Spirited tempo Demons' Air from Thésée (Lully) Lively Minuet from Roland (Lully) Spirited --. etc. It is used for Passacaglias. 4 3 or 31 1 When triple tizne is written with a 4. ) It is used for moving. tender pieces such as Lullabies.

8 3 8 In pieces having the sign g. in the same way as the ordinary triple (4) or even the major triple (2). it should go twice as fast as the (previous) triple sign (4 metre). but since the bar contains only three quavers. with but one to place on each beat. the metre is again taken in 3. ) is taken in 3 slow beats. (Brossard) Hotteterre: This metre is taken in 3 beats ( . very fast: however. in one beat only. A. ) Sometimes it is used in Cantatas. parallel to the preceding one (4) ( ) is similarly taken in 3.L. (Saint-Lambert) Hotteterre: This metre. (Brossard) Montéclair: Slow on the second beat The metre 8.. (Denis) This compound time (1) is suitable for tender and affectionate kinds of expression and should be taken at a moderate tempo: neither too slow nor too fast. etc. but half as fast again. 3 (in three) (in one) 9 4 The metre 4 (. three eighth note triplet groups to the bar. Each beat is made up of three quavers. but more often (1) That is to say.. from op. which should be fast. that is to say. 5 Adagio by the same. or their equivalent. Canaries from Isis (Lully) (in one) Passepied from Le Temple de la Paix (Lully) (in one) Vivace by Sig' Corelli. Passepieds. . op. three quarter note triplet groups to the bar. !alled minor triple. . as it were.732 . the metre is customarily taken. on account of this great speed and of the difficulty of making three such hurried movements with the hand. (2) That is to say. it is then taken in three beats. have used it for very slow Airs. (Cájon) This compound time (2) is suitable for lively. is made up of a dotted crotchet. spirited kinds of expression and should be taken at a lively. spirited pace. however. . It is taken in one when up to speed. etc. Some composers. It is suitable for buoyant A i rs such as Canaries.25.

r.1^11•` ^I^iiitA^ -^i--^l^^^Ì^• I1IIIIIIIIr i NM MP • /^.4•111..1111110./ s1^/N1i.111•11-4s 111rIMI11•1tiM1111•r 1111101•1s1111s1 111s WM. _ JIMMINEMII1 1MUM.9 in Sonatas.i.WNi11<)1• ^^i^ ^ i•1^.. (2) That is to say.732 .111/7J1=11 NMI MIS EMU •J•'bi•41•111s1•1•110•J111•1.mour (Hotteterre) Montéclair: Light ^ '/' 1^r. a a ^^ A./ . one sixteenth note triplet group to the bar./ 1J^r/1^II lt♦ l7r1^I ^)^* + AII[/1 _ .=.w^./•/i.-... 11•1111i1I/ .101111•1 =M This air may also be sung at a slow and tender pace./if. 1st Cantata by Mr.il1 n ^ ^•^^•ii^^ t..J /If -.r•i^1^^ a a (1) That is to say. 16 (Brossard) Passage-work Hotteterre Briskly (in three) -+ tI I_ ^11iÌ• .111111111P••. or better still in one) /• i st ASO 1/7J•IMIir1.1/~ MIME 1t •1• tiN1i. In France it has only been in general use for a short time._.L.•=UMNP.I A lil/ ^ ^/^ /^l^i / ri / 1`^ ti is i lï VI^\ Ir^^^^^i^t./•t•1^ _a — i-1 RIM Briskly (in three) . and above all in Gigues. Finally let us mention three rarer metres given by Hotteterre and Brossard: 3 This compound time (1) is suitable for extremely lively and exceedingly rapid music. i•1-^^^— i./ .I f. Bernier Gigue by Sigr Masciti Res .01e116..411111tLA=111111111•1111^/^^^i1t /111111 /. 9 This compound time (3) is really for very fast and very swift kinds of expression. (3) That is to say. equal semiquavers (in three.iIIIIIP7 .01.• ^' I W en" t á••••• ^ Jr.25.1/r1MIIIVAiiIT It 1.. . (Brossard) Passage-work Hotteterre Spirited.^tr^.IIl^ I W 1.7111111• JIM OW t`7 >•i s111s111111M111I•/ GsINIV'1•11s!!i l tJ•INIV AIM= Ilia M11.r1/NI•^N ^1t r.^^ I. ^^// • .1. two sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar.1=0 mil /1J• .i111iINiJ M •^•^U1/^.)1t11•tIJ /Il /J• .: f:/1IIMMr7 7IIIMMINMI i^ MS _ ^ /. INN ANNI •i<) MINIM Nt1 ^1^•N a•^1iN 1^^1•s •1111M irN1•1 1111Y1•111•111111i.1•11111•111111t1 >!^ MUM. /NM ^^ ^•=^/^1•^^r•^ NM ^1^ MUM 6 This compound time (2) is for varieties of movement and expression of the greatest 16 rapidity: what the Italians describe with the word prestissimo. ai /^111fi AS•• /M^li••i M /r^A•^•r 1^^i^1i^^1^li•i s t^•Ir^^i —1 V:+ N ii^ ^ •=r^^1•^i^^^^i^•i^ti^i^li^^-.•MINIi SOINIM \t• i. three sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar.i•illttelr Ls I r11111II. .7S7 a. 16 (Brossard) Passage-work Hotteterre Jestingly (in one) ^ V— .per-tons l'A ./ D INNS /Jr^..

1 a'aPaa ^ ' a^aa -•/ A I ra^rlsaa..11^j 7e ••••••0•• APR* ••••••••/'^tra^s0tow/••s•a^.4 IRAN' r.^^ IOWA d aItur lent j t cri 1• :•a•11 ammo.^flRTraa t •r•^r ^.. s•1 1/.s•im -"mra•aarraras1sw^..r -+wsa.i^^^"I ^ asafaal SIM IMO loam.l•r.111.l^ WOW a.^^^ a oseL . E.^ .ípi s r s r.•s.1 ^•.r^11••staa•rrs^Ri^^s•0 s r. r ^ \V Iron aMaa._: =Se 11r1a(•Mar ar i••ruaaaimw !p _ `..0".L rc a7l D•^]IÓ r + a[^7a*: 1.`:a••s >tsr afta.. • err • A al •.tN•11 _r711111s01.'+ aarna•.Y^• ^aa1 sdt' 1aMr/ a•1r^••A•^f• ^^a>.•wlas^I^swsagar>tis.111. _ -.- ^aa!•raf•^ • a••' a w.. . .. •.al•aarA•ssll•t^tlit. &rrs • ntivrs.. /.: 1•aa .`f:r mums .rf rt ^l• as ITV as a••••111 t`.•la•w sfa+. sr• al are asrlrMI Wee s• a+ wir ..nnjp.ga _ 1 A 111I ' V r a1 *! ..^rw s•sa í twrl*ma.71M •. -AM.4•40 a ir^^^lpl •. A uabr In. ar 11 ^^ s r• ^^rti•^rrt7ar aps••a•laila•:•lt-. s #.m.nvt i O •!MA Il•aCaRa+r:ltrmr2141< 3^ 90111^a111•• +.. -.a^ A. allo.a• wtrrrl• a...^7 AIst• -I^aa7•r7t axt71 r a.r v s &hers va/e._^ une fors 1t[^ in: vit*.e.r.. J' • t. il•aral•ti pm* wommisa1•al J71r. ^•••1slisr•11 11•!!•1fE• _^^• S .11111•1111•81 I laa _1•11WI•8•IS WM.^ts.732 ^^^ .•ll••. e.a a•=n •l•al a \M .afa.t a^t^aa f a..^rl^k^lr^^f. ` . aR• Yi"1_:1 a.. /Carla I as• ^•laY r•l/a amp ass r.t%.7stralrs í ma sis rill a••a1•1a1m1••l• t•. lf.^wtlr^.. emu r i J /'i^ ..a 5 ^ e íir É^. .rw.a.r r • • d aalrc Ion.a=. ..err.^s1.10 LESSON ON EVER Y VARIETY OF METRE Montéclair.a. imm'm••s•sef•mrss. •••ra•a•a••a1a••alla•1•an MINI mMy^• l•r••• ia•• s1••• ••M•a lb •:i • Am ^ ^^í.a••ar 1.. (s^srr^a7^t^^r^ i rsi •l•••••t 1•r a••1a•a.+' sé7I ti.40r as L7a 'aOl • aAraq 7.25.1•111.r7r =NO a•^ I rt^^ ^= a r^^aa^^. t Jlaell•w11••. Sotr.^ .wa• s•sma^mmo J Amax arnr 017 s •!^ a ltt yt a ts a••••• mow 11114111sM•1r•11•11111111.a•^a. 1 .l•:/^^N^^ u^s^mattm^/mrSi ^ limm/ f s /.L.lr.•roas^•s^L f.r.fs a>ra!.a y. ^ d 1lMrJ s'77G^ 1111^!' d MN /3.c.r Sr m^rrsY^.^ de/flexure.^'^t/at .^ ^`i•lalarmualsrYar.011111sssss ^!C srssmi AM IR7 r • f .!•n••a••ISatl/• .t l.7•a^afA maim a+.u.woman!.^al•^ o. Ma W111111101qf ism I:fom1111111q•r a.---.r r r atr.rr i m s^ ss^l '^:Aíl..iaw^^a ter... axa^a a e^r.s . .^^s/^•f^1^^^•^s• t ra^••^•i 117•Aa^•l^r. • a • ----^ d c>ras á^tnr • trs al♦ IBM ai. e..1^aaaar• IMP A main.rs^. 1.^.^nh'tpcprt : r .e♦.11r art I aU L•.•1r•.a' ./ •lIP'mmer..41•••sias... 11.^•l wrr^u /a^c.sr a •INMP•P71Or1 1Asrt a aY allali•rJ12111ax ^^ 4111allb Ammar. a•^ a••tsp ss^er !^•^ •1s.r.1142111111•111$161•1•30 . s••rs.r. ia/1•• t! a^a1a a•s• s /• •sa•7r•^a•t..alaa/ a•rl1••••at••^aaa•la[ •sa•saar.? ^•r! MIaa1•lati :^li•• lam•••R• slara•aaa•a•ra esa.lÌ.•aaaas •••sarlsl•lrlr. tal =UMW NM MI hamorlF t IN ì e i/at/ ONS mom r sa.^l a^ . a -.rNr •allil..4.r r arET Aim s•a.e^rcf•O^t .-.aa '! 0^an•••ll^... emir alrl• s^ sr_asf•imlr•.l^^ eta=•^all ..IIiYs1ss••s1an•• f•./ a s all.ttt C •.7. ^^r^ ^> •1 sa A iro & itnta • a^s .Arm ^ áruarfsn>...a sa.^rs^^G^^nmlár^•^ tt Italft tLi Y V. ammo Iils Isams.srlrir^s^ wr^^f•ls^4^-! WET l^rratal•^msa# se/as ..f a'.•• ar .r.aa.als4sa• 'mamas aaaafsslh•ass••. Principes de musique (1736) rPe't'Il stir 'll^tcS tt . ^sm s^ ^.s r a A bcis tans & crr.la ^ ILar'u^im ^s alaT• r..r S •J6N>/'Q .f. A aamaYaa.r♦ ..+ • aas•7•7•wII7•INGII•t s1•a•7 f/ alVIINr eaa•ael•'alc. A! A .^ltMm^mr a Mrs t•!amaa•arspTam^:U 1a/'+roa =Mom arli^ti•a rla a sttE ar^ 7l111 s•lwlq••aq ••1 • s^^ri>iÌ11^•1as^^•^ sarws •:wr.01••••• ••/htkl ia m : ríi NM ' aY't a:^aa•^l•••ra fa•l^ _.•r ..^aas• 1111• ••••-: 1tNI•r• 11t ..t •r.'^^ 1. •'^naar•rsar ^J7irlt ^aa la•a•l•a••al•^•r^Te7•r^1• 1. It .u lA^^l♦•l•lts••ü . It 11 •a..1111111:msm`r i8. MU 10. a4sltrr :OM1P0JtG rsuux ra7AipOJet .. ^ ime ^^ rvrawrof ^ a+rr s ^ rra s^^ aAi^ rN ^r-s^a>♦. SOW= sfsssolums•••• ss rI/Daodemlls&arAril wc I7a1a111al.aP.s.if/s1a^•^`. ill* .•NaA arsarllrLrr.l••r•1a•i C.rrtlQz ..ti7r MANI ^irlwc^-Y •aarota••a••aa•t^•^aCUMMINS= Sawr a..wa^r1 aAilrs. • NO.uac.al•s^11^I11 —r." 01.i•aa••^I ^isf• -^ -.artll ^wlrr.:11•r 1•81:711•11•111111r Saws worm or= M ss r1•••••1114/111MINI •Ii :7 Jaltal.ar r a+Ll ari ^.r• .•rlsfs s• •1•ar ^^n. -r -im/ eitre eenrPoaer • tn a. .•/am.Y411•111s . .a^ ^s^ srara•l^ f^'7t< aal SIM= ^ Ole :..rutlr .^i•a1• .••• 1i^1•a1•^ ^ ir^ ^•i sa•la••r-'a r • s a••C7a^^a^^r•`.•^...>A f atalleMH11•MliatrtnleaAS ensIMÏri now I r e a Alma ssírr aIr/MIIINl••••t.. .fclnt" A tl/Mir~ Mina ring slam.efJf• a1.^ mil r11• a! s11171. I7trt .^tilaref sfa•r ^ O s •sasl. rr^i•^.rt•1 afar:ilmsr s:: at• NIP l4  riDrYs WIN aatu OLJNalaaiv asasr. •In ••s.^ ^^iwiiá a^a^ iliiia r ^^^ * iri %i^al^7lt^i^ir^ i^i.alr•a•• 6 .. -on .:^ (.•Ym♦ sLlomo1i<tM.faLd. ^fl aa/a• m aw •^^^fl a1 •i• ra>ra.L.T Lan Imo sal. ^^^a^..m••sa• UMW .

732 . these latter apply equally to faster pieces. that is practised in performance but is difficult to notate (as are most other rules of interpretation). depending on the character of the note. we give an approximate transcription of the articulatory silences as they ought to be (it will be seen how complicated the notation becomes' In the subsequent Allemande. notes were not held for as long as their notation would subggest. In the Sarabande. each note should be shortened by a silence whose length will vary according to the duration of the note and the character of the piece.. tivithout articulatory silences would have no more grace than a folksong from Poitou played on insipid musettes which produce only blusterous. it is necessary to soften the attack and release. unarticulated sounds. without them these could not be detached from one another. is partly sustained and partl y silent.. so that only the touch (`tact') of the notes is indicated. and a piece of music. each note should be rounded: for this. when added to the sustained sound. the part which I call silent is always at the end. To sum up what Engramelle says in another way. it has a given duration of silence which. no matter how beautiful. Sustaining will be more. but their true lengths and the value of their silences which are integral to them and serve to detach them from one another are not shown by any sign ( ) However in performance they are not all realised in the same manner. as it were. but without playing in too dry or `piqué' (spiccato) a manner. That part which I call sustained or sounding is always at the beginning ofa note. my use of the term articulatory silences in music refers to every such hiatus. ) These silences at the end of each note define.. its articulation and are as important as the sounds themselves. . and they are consequently concluded by a considerable silence ( . with mordent or without.fi 11 Phrasing ARTICULATORY SILENCES — DETACHED NOTES — SLURS — UNEQUAL NOTES — DOUBLE-DOTTED NOTES — RUBATO ARTICULA TOR Y SILENCES In Baroque music. This `aeration' between the notes is called an articulatory silence. and even those of equal value are in some cases to be interpreted in quite different ways ( . Again. great or small. As Engramelle makes clear.e. gives the total value. • In the following two pieces one must try to respect an articulatory silence after each note. from which no note is exempt. that is to say. . whether trilled.L.. one distinguishes between sustained notes and those called broken (`tacté'): sustained notes sound for the greater part of their value and their silences are cbnsequently extremely short. A.25. broken notes on the other hand are those in which the sustaining is very short. the player will have the task of determining the silences for himself. French or otherwise. or less long. and the length of the silence will depend on the duration of the sound ( . as a general rule. j\'otes must not appear to be glued together. notation) indicate very precisely the total value of each note. . On the contrary. avoiding any sharp cut-off. ) In performance every note. and are then shortened in proportion to the duration of the notes. This is a general principle in old music. (Quantz) Engramelle explains this practice in detail: Notes in the music (i. ) There are not even strokes ofa trill that are not separated by very short tiny gaps between the rise and fall of the fingers upon the keys.

.. Van HEERDE (1st half of the 18th Century) (Played) (1) ^^s 7tt^^^t•1^ta OEM NMIt IM1* MUMa•^t•t W.^^•tt^lr^t••••t• s a^t•^•••••s •^^^1 • IN s rrs^t7 MINI MANI •p..11•/. ^^ill^^lt t•♦ :1 s7IIIIa•s t•..12 Sarabande: A.^^s^ t^c•ttr /a ^ •1^^ • a ^ ^ ^^••♦ tt^^ 1•111~as•tr•tl'•tL:^^ IL.7O^ .AININNO r — ^—tttrJritlt•ts^t^^^^t . 3 and 4) A.7••1NIIIs •INNIIIIIMIIII/M1111•=111116.••••R••I• ^ ^ .^ 1 MI• dll (3) arm •rrioloww MO= ^70•11:11 11r1MI t: s meow lV.^ ^^ ^.:=tS^.t••. p.25. = M•1111. 27 (2) See unequal notes..•.••s MOM t^lr^ttt^ MI/NMI a>•1=11 1111s •••••• a..•NU •..0 /^t:•^t<7ttW^:Y/r•a:t71 t1 .^ •s^s•••11• . =NI'"" •• t• 41•1111 I•1I• s••••s MO I • • • E (1) See double-dotted notes.111^^i7ts . MOM 11=1••••1••7••s MI= __+•••• •1=111••• MN NM M MIMI =MINIM __ J1•M•11-s••••t1••ss• s .tif•i^a•^^^ ^^ttiattt^ti'a•7•tstttttt• ^ttt7^7tts^tlill ^ ^a tttr r im ^ OMEN/MO IIIMt•:r tit /NM /r MO MIMI f NM MO • MEN — 1 Allemande: D.732 .^+e•r a ^I^tts .• sv^t^tt^ s REM WM:.t:s ^^ A^tt:1 s.• c ^ s ^^: ^ ^s •11••s•11•• ^ ••c• •• wv ^rts^ltr^trl•t^7^tt^ ^ r^^crer^c^a^ r=-^:•/aa^^twc-sw^^ ^^t^r:-rti^ ^ cMMI•a•s ^^•1^^ s IVY a••c^Itl1•1•7ss=7s 1/...•s:1t•••• NMI.a../ •rs =1•21•1 1 M NM II l::s11.110•M ♦7t 1.7 • 11111•Irat•• r.4.. MIMI= II•-s• 111.^ 1//^^ ^ ^.•L't'lmasimmea.t ..1 S^ i•I•tt^ s 1 •11=111.4•1M111—attr.wir7t• s . 20 (3) See double-dotted notes.^.^Q s !'^t1^a t r17/^^[=..11•I.7t^t. p.L. O7•INI •w•• .:^ r.1111•7••s •III7=1111•11•ta1 •••• ••••s •••• ^ WWII._•—.t^s! \t .^s^tt^ aJttt[-^ts ^S.s ls ^t•tt. 28 (ex..•••••s•/ 7•tat^^ vtt^t 7r7^• 1^ •^^•^ n.raa^at/^-^.11111111•1• ^ /1•/•=1•1• ia r l/••••• ^r• WAN= attr7^ t^. rs ININ••lML ^^^%^! IMINIMr •1=P111=1 I.. . DEMOIVRE (1st half of the 18th Century) =11111•111MM•.i•t^^[7 ^ tca^.1 ^ ^ ^ tr r/. p..tY^tt ^t^ •ts1L=^lr!♦t ÌttV E R:•tttttttts.s•1118r ANII•11rt1= ia7r ^. I /W 7V •^1I^Issr 5^^a1^if^I^ls 'IIItM!— WV.war ^^/ • t^..ws• ar .w=r•^t^s tt^tiaal^ar •aa^ J^rsa^a NEVI ^V • s••=111^ (2) t tr...

as has been said above. . and each one marked with a pressure on the bow: Bordet defines the latter as pearled notes: one must simply increase the sound of each dotted note under the sign (slur). the word detach implies a dot or dash on each note: (1) The dots signifying 'detached notes' should not be confused with similar dots signifying 'equal notes'. strokes). however. Bordet explains: One must use a sharp attack (piquer) and cut off the sound of each note regardless of its value. (Marpurg) In the following example. of which only the first is made to sound: Here the rest takes the place of the second note. dashes sometimes indicate a more marked articulation than dots: When there are dots above the notes oYe must play them with a very short pressure or bow-stroke which should not. (Méthode raisonnée pour apprendre la musique.25.13 In a group of slurred notes. (2) Marpurg does not seem to establish any distinction between dots and dashes (short lines. and not detach them. For notes with dashes. p. 1755) A.732 . however many there are. In this case they would spell it out in words or indicate it with short dashes (or sometimes dots (1) ) over the note-heads. See paragraph 'unequal notes'. 20. the final one is not exempt from the rule concerning articulatory silences.L. Detaching the notes is when one divides a note into two others of equal value and pitch. composers might ask for more markedly detached notes in certain pieces. all the notes must be taken in one bow. be really detached. For all that. (Quantz) Quantz adds: If there is also an arch (slur) above the dots. When this detached articulation is not expressed by rests as in the preceding example. as Dom Bédos points out: Two notes slurred Three notes slurred DETACHED NOTES Beyond the customary use of articulatory silences. it is indicated by dots or little dashes (2) above those notes which should only be half heard.

20 A. ) Thus crotchets become quavers. .8•0111s AMP Mill _s e^ :WNW o^irWW.^ ......1/ a. DANICAN-PHILIDOR (1712) Equal notes (1). and detach .-^ II r -SOS > •1 _NM WM > ZW.^o—^--^^^^^^^^^^^----s ^ ^r^^ WNW — ^-2115•1111WMII^IWW^^^^^^ -.1^.. staccato • simile _________ _________ _________ _ '^1•^^^^^^M^^^7^^..IMISa1.AWa...UM .WIN WINIIMrIs 111./WILAWIWEWaJEW •WIIIWIWINEN W=. BACH — Cantata BWV 127 (1725) .1111P4M1 e11WN.L.1IIIWII MI AM T When the word staccato is found alongside a piece.MISSIIIMMINIIIIIIISIMMIIII s111M1 ..^— -. e I .. :^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^-. ^e_ —^^ ^.IWINGW . / AWI77WW^^e^^^ ._--1=^^^^— ^ ^ (1) See unequal notes. (Quantz) Aria: J. • 7. detached bow ( .^^^^^^^^^^^ R a ..^e e e =wee ^ r^r7e^^7^^ 7W ^1•^^ ^ ..ASMISMIASI.25..fl^..-- I Pia iaWWISWWWWWWWWWW111WININ=Is WWIWIIWINWrtl^5^7^^^^S7waa.. ^ / Z r r AL __••_ —••_--__ -^^^--^. WM—..11•• ir .. / IN IIMIIMIWIWI 1111WW•111WINIEWIIW ^ .^.s11 WW1/s11111111117s 1=1.732 4Qg .11W1WI1. ^ L_. .. = MNP77WUMMO WW ISM MEMO= MIN NW WW.-WA. s7WIMP MIMI WIIII7ININ WW. -.. ) They must only sound for half the time they last according to their (written) value ( .. p. ^:v^. ) It is customary to put dashes above the notes to be played staccato (.^7 f^^ ^^el^^ ^^^^^r^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ . ^^MM^e^^^^t^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^^—^--M' ^ = a ^ r..^^JJ^a^r^i7 = ^^^^ ^ 1•^^^ .•^^^—__777 ea 1=1"." IMIEW...ä ^ ^ 14 Gracefully: A.eIMI.. ^^ V. ..1.r -. . every note is played with a short.r. S.1111 yr.MININ WISINWfasaWs1 Me — PW.. quavers semiquavers and so on.es . v^^ — •ANW. •^^^^^^^7e^M^ ^1 .b ___ • w...^W^^r^^ s^^^^^^^^^^1^^ ^ ^ --^ .. ^r^ . •t.J^.e^^^— Vo^....INWaNEMrL/5..^7 ^^.as . ^^^^^^' ^ !•W1 —^ . .

' I I ^li 1 Y1 ^Y-Y1Y^Ti1^1^ ^S-w^1 Y^rYr^r^^^1 ^^^ . . therefore.15 Grave: J. Sometimes the composer himself writes in all the slurs he wants. or not at all: Complete slurs. Different instances may be cited according to whether the composer indicates the slurs completely.111 1.lYJ111/6l L71J1 1111111/411=11•11 s Y 71• 1•1•11 Y1111•11•0111111ESJJ1111Y1•MILJMMINI J1 YY1=MOM =MUM 1•ti 11. to add any further ones: A. `aerated' manner of performance (we have seen the importance of articulatory silences) that is characteristic of music of this pe ri od.11111J1 J1 1/Y7l=P7IM 1 Y Y1 Y YIJI r 1^s 1Jt ^ ^' Y Y^/Y^^1^YYI1^ ^Y11^1Y^Y^^^lYlY1^_^ ..L. FASCH (1688-1758) ^ I I I I I fff ^ r^11___L. making it unnecessary.732 . F. partially.--a r 'Ir Urfl • Ull'JJ111•10 1ti24J. the use of slurs is much more restricted than it was to be in the Classical and more especially the Romantic periods.^^^^^ ^^--- SLURS In this highly articulated.25.

25. it is as well to recall Quàntz's warning: Notes must not appear to be glued together. any slurs would seem superfluous: Andante: A.L. BACH (1721) MINI rN= MOMS MINIM amnia •111 NIrsIIMIMININI •sss• 01•1 .. VIVALDI (1678-1741) Cantabile A. composers do not write in the slurs.732 . in the following example. In this case.=MIM. . leaving it to the performer to decide whether or not the musical text needs them. Thus. •11111^ r1111111111 -•••••011•10 Complete or partial absence of slurs: should they be added? Very often. S. however.16 Andante: J.

El 1 . .. the rapidity and a rt iculation of the phrases may permit the sort of slurs suggested here uy means of_ dotted lines (all other ligatures are original): Allegro non molto: A.._ ral`^^r^ffi^/ff^•flalaf•^^fafLffi fla^ ffl•f•1••^r^ .LJ../11• i s Maiff•ifffAJi 1 !l^:l^tY1^7Arf/^^f/ffA^7tl/7 ••s ill .ifl^ ^a>r afa•_ +••al^^. in the Allegro movement below. NAM ff:1..i..L. .^ •AfaMOfflfif• r•r• llifi .4•11111U--- •Mat =J 1oimi fiJ ^ ^^ = f• t•— ff af! • •r•af a^fJirarl.1f .....flf•/a1i MA MAIM' a/ M l MI^•^ MOM= ff NM :1]!S ---1111=1111L` ----1111=11111— . the choice is left to the performer: A. In the following extract. ^s•s 'aA. i •_.f^^^ M^ ^f•f•f• fIii_`^ ^^^^^^.— I ^^) .f/^•^i^f• J•^/ffi•id•/ ••J•^.••••JA v Milli MI • W IA fiAfAJftrf !Mil no By contrast.. i• (b) • •1 •ilfifaJff. 11011á•ffii Mil MI AIllAi••••I v •••f•l MnillA^..-^ ^ ^^. Telemann only indicates a few ligatures_ Aside from these. •• .. VIVALDI (1678-1741) • • Mr •AfraA•ANEV r__—.25.^a•ffl —`^^^ m./ f/ rv__+ J•^^.a•Ma•f l•A^^A^7faA' —_ —^` aff^r^—J/ alral---_= f^^ --__+af^ a^ ^a fi ^ ..r r^ 1•11 I .• AIM JI ^_•^^^^^1Alfaa^ffalJ•f•^^ ^JfflJ• r _A MMJ AI^Afffr Eli ^^^^^Af^fi^MMMAlM MUM ff^^^ M ^ ar7 Similarly.Mi.sMIIIMi.i..r Jral. in the following example..I rIlraL••••••1afll•Mrlfli UM J .r!•r1^••.17 .f/7t•J I7.732 . ff =.^.)( ...r•ar•^ara..^1 Vr^•fa—'^ ^i -.1♦f••• Mai iJAr 1111• _^^ IM\^ ^li!MMIMMAJ••• ^I i.^•^f.r _ •'p ` •^ 7^7^a1•^ urIIID.^]•ra•••'J^ ill vrl^A^•r•^ .a•^^f•_ .M•11A1••• I .M1AiAfiiir 41IMralir!♦ Mai afif•a/1An.` a^7ifa^..I 1•7N• •IAt!•lliO. expression and rapidity of the phrases..J Milli i^^^^. one can choose between an interpretation entirely in detached notes and one that is enhanced by a number of slurs to be determined by the articulation.\•I.•^•nri — r>•.^f• -1^ ••r^r^...-.••_. main f•sM^t -^^ ". •1 MI M•f_i••f•._. .. /••f/-!'irilla• MN AI UMW Jilin •••• Will //.a•y• ^i ^^i^C^^ . ')( (..i.1•^f/J•I /J1ra•miOr• .a^..

.t)^^.. t MI MINI ^ .^r•. as often happens in Overtures. petits of .^ _ ... (1736) tiratas ^^^^. or r the same syllable: MONTÉCLAIR. TELEMANN (c1716) !.lez pe-tits Oi - seaux According to the character of the piece. vo . 35 (2) See paragraph `double-dotted notes'.r^^ —/_—. then.1^ 1.. tonguing for each note.111 .L:r. p.^f :i:^w^rr •11111111•1111110M. vo . the absence of slurs may also indicate the composer's wish for an interpretation entirely in detached notes. Entrées and Furies. A. ) they are then played at the fastest possible speed (2).J^^J /AMU t. Ph.+-ár/^^ ^ = ^^ _ *w^^^^^ 1^^•. lJ. . I /^1'Jr1^7^^r^^^. ^ ^^ =^^^ -.Icz. and the 'coulade' (run) takes all the notes under a single bow. 27 (3) What Quantz says here for the strings can equally apply to the wind....1•1M . s. on wind instruments.^.^11s1.^/^. ut ^^aJF ^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ MINIM . .^^ ^_`^__ + ^^ . or in a single tongue stroke. one must give to each of these fast notes its own distinct bow-stroke (3) and hardly anything may be slurred. when there are three or more demkemiquavers after a dot or rest ( .seaux vo . (Quantz) (1) See also the `coulade' (run).732 .25.41._ g- 18 (Allegro): G. However. as this definition of the tirata by Montéclair suggests: The tirata requires separate bowing or. .dJ JJ^^^1 ^^1 ^^.lez. p.. in particular the flute.. a succession of rapid notes may require to be performed as detached notes: .I.^^ -' _ i ^/ r.^ ^^ _^ ^.•r=1 ^ ^ 1/^ 1• The tirata (detached) and the coulade' (run) (1) However. the detached notes being produced by very rapid double-tonguing. • .. N .

^'^ r :^ :^ ^^CM=^:d . (Quantz) Prelude: HOTTETERRE (1719) Moderately 1. ..732 ..J. But equally. ÌI'lUMWW>'1>•MO MMIW MOW' a / OM 011J w-s11111 Iw^1 MMMMM ...-^^^^^^. one must not slur those which should be stressed.MU t . one is at liberty to detach all of them.r C:^ ^C^ ^C.. The performer.lJI /D = is•ammon.^^ _—` . smaller than the treble and tuned a fourth above it.•- ^_^^^ Arpeggio • (simile) I allIIIIJ•1JIIIIIMWM IIIMMINt 1111•11111/ff .^^^ s •••_. ^ ^ ^^^ 1^ JMMMM^ ^ 1 r.^-. however... so as to facilitate the bowing ('Six Sonatas for 2 transverse flutes.. In that case it seems logical to observe what he has written: Notes which must be slurred should be played as they are written.s 1011 N./ .— _ JONI M =7 _ I7 JO WM ^^ _ MI _ + • 111111W1 WM 1 1J11W • WWI t..^—_— ^^_^^ —_.. but that as a general rule the performer should introduce them only with the greatest discrimination. V.^ ^A^.25. especially in the pardessus (1) and the violin. A. always bearing in mind Quantz's warning—which it is worth recalling yet again: The notes must not appear to be glued together.^. .__ i= .^^ ^^ ^C ^.B. and should be exclusively reserved for cases in which there are special instrumental difficulties.M IN 5. pardessus de violes and all similar instruments).^ .WIOMIIIIr. .1:I ^. O ^^ ^^. marks slurs over certain passages and not over others.•=)>i weir >I.=^ .-^^.571 MII1.. Atir. then. should be taken only rarely and with great care. is allowed a certain amount of freedom to modify the articulation shown by the composer. since a particular expression is often sought thereby.^^ ^^' •MM. >r^^^ ^.-_ J WM Vr 1M---. This liberty.^. as with Hotteterre for example./1IIIMMIMIWJMIrtJ WM OM MAIMS WM OW OM MIMI J • MOMMIMIJ7JIW _ „mi.111 . It is then correct to apply the given phrasing to the whole section: Passage-work: HOTTETERRE (1719) • MN -.L..^1 /19^•1^ ^V-m _ ow. or group them in twos..1^^^^^i^^ 11111MIM WOW IIINIMINI11J . the composer often indicates the slurs at the beginning only. .111sI1s111Y011111M. however.^^—^ _^^t—^+^ -- ^ Alternation of slurred and detached passages It may happen that the composer. It may be seen.7. (1) (Translator's note) Pardessus de viole —a member of the viol family. that the possibility of adding slurs (where they are not indicated by the composer) depends on the musical context.s^^^^^ ^^^^^^^.maw _á NNW ss MOM ^^:D^:D^: ^?^ ^^_^ ?. we have this on Bordet's authority: Although I have almost always slurred the first two quavers of each bar or beat.19 Filling in slurs according to a given opening When the nature of the passage-work is constant..7^J^ ^^J^^^^/^^/^^_^^^_^^^^r^ _ ^^r^^^^^^^_^_—_^_-_^_J /^I • s—m^^.

fast passages in Q very rapid pulse where the speed does not allow unequal playing. This inequality cannot easily be notated. in such a way that in each figure there should be a stress on the strong notes. the fastest notes must be played with some inequality. in France. etc. But this is c re only if these notes are not mixed with figures of even faster. A. 21) This definition sums up the principal points on unequal playing made by musicians of the 17th and 18th centuries. jazz. (Choquel) This inequality is not only found in Baroque music.20 UNEQUAL NOTES Inequality of notes is a manner of playing which bestows on them a sort of swinging motion. third. both Western and Eastern. Loys Bourgeois mentions this in his treatise 'Le droict chemin de musicque (2) See also Câjon's observation on this point. namely the second. The Baroque era. . or even in an Adagio.732 .). 24.25. although one should not sustain them for as long as if they were dot:cd. It is to be seen in older music (1). viz. namely: — Inequality consists in prolonging and leaning on notes to make up pairs of one long and one short. In very schematic and general terms it can be roughly transcribed as follows: (1) As early as 1550. it gives a flow to the melody and makes it more supple.) (y) (') (. fifth and seventh. p. . .L. was pretty well systematic in its use of it. more than on those which come between them. and where one cannot lean or apply a stress except on the first of the four notes ( . although they appear to be of equal value. however. sixth and eii h. (See the second example from Naudot on p. or shorter notes in the same metre. for then it is these la tter which should be played in the manner just described. primarily. designed to give then more grace (Saint-Lambert). fourth. (2) If for example one wished to play the (following) semiquavers slowly with equal values. and in various present-day forms of music (Pop music. the first. Here is Quantz's definition: In pieces in a moderate tempo.) (. giving the sound a little more strength than on Le second and fourth notes: (.) (>) (›-) (>) But exempt from this rule are. ). this would not be so agreeable as when one leans a l'-tle on the first and third of the four notes.

.r. C. The two examples below are extracts from the first movement of a concerto by J./W '.= M . these should always be unequal.. —M=M • ^— MIMI MI 111 IMI.^ WM/BM MAI MM. within a movement.710sAW a^^ ^^^^M ^^^ vr^.IIMIMIMMIS MI/r-.^^^ • _^^^.25..A111 1111 M MMMM.^ AU s7^7 ^=^.— ^^^•^^ ^^^^^ ^L ^ ^^ M^^^^ ^ _ (-) N.^I / rMM ^^^ — MI MI ME MI =MIMI M._ . f^'a ^^^^---MAO— ^—^ —I I iisI•wilms UMw •MNs1s=11MON1 NI . except for those of too fast a speed to make it practicable (see p.40 .s r71 .011M IMIN. ^^^.B.MIMr110 MOM ' MOM Mom ^^ — Inequality is applied to every movement permitting notes to be unequalised in twos..011P. therefore. 25 for other exceptions).MIN NM MIs ME NMI MMIL— „. 1) i^-^. Naudot: the eighth notes in the first example and the sixteenth notes in the second are unequal: J.W.21 i. they can be rendered as follows: Allegro (_) I .M1/ s^^r MEMO NMI NM MINN ^A^^^a.. those of a given passage) which are made unequal (1 ) (with the exception of notes considered as gracenotes. Thus in the previous extract from Naudot's concerto. •11111=M1 -AM= ^^ — It is the smallest values of any single movement (or.._ wa: MINIIMIM MOM IMMJIM Mil ^ MUM 1111111111 RE_` 7. 27). 24 A.. r ^ .732 ...M^o.^^^^^ ».• ^^^i ' r Allegro 2) :t7>• ! ^^ \Vi =1 NM Min ME MN MOr . ^^^ ^^^ ^ . Only a considerable rapidity of execution can. See p. NAUDOT (c1741) Allegro . consult Cajon's remark on p. where there are four notes to fill up a beat. ^^ ^ l r^ __ V = ^^.11MINMI ^.ili/s77»— m• =EMU s ^^^^^^^t 5^^^^ — ^-------_` s MIME= M . prevent the sixteenth notes from being played in unequal twos. In this case only the first note of each group is lengthened and stressed.._—_-_--tJ^s WM/ Ar 12/.A1 NM/ WV! w^^^^MMM J^ . • .WI'IMMII _ =rMU ^^. ^^^. for we must not forget Montéclair's caution: Whatever the metre may be. ^. C. if the speed chosen does not allow the sixteenth notes to be played unequally.^.L. (1) Again on this point. . ..R ^ 3 I MIMPAIMM s11010" MEN NW IMAM= roaromeri r. (^) (=) (y) •t:ANUO1---_^ —__—_ 1+ _^—.^.

. they will be made equal.+ rJ• t ^1 .. I'M . ) is longer.^Il^^/'^^ L1d^1M^^J^^/^ ^^^^^MIIMrlNN / V. (+)^ (+) MINI-NI MINI I1 MN 01.. ^ ^ ^ s /l^li . sustaining and silence. so that the first note is worth two thirds of a crotchet and the second its remaining third. and others where they require to be less so.MMr^ . w^ In/7._.. aJ0OINrrrrrMIIF MM.^ ^.•rINI IJrrJrrr MINuacr171MIIIIIIIIM11 V OM' /MAIM V MINNr=^=raaJr M rlrr^i/1• Va WiaIIIPrara. ^. As to the triplet quavers.__„ ..1 ) • :1IINIs ^tr.^^^^^I^^r^/r^^=^>•i1^^^J^^ ^J^ -"MOM =MN AIM rarrra rr ^r111111 NE r I/ ^^^ `.^^ a^ll^^rrr^r^^r^^^^a^ar^71 Speaking of the eighth notes. yet it would seem essential to define it. ....fi 22 Different degrees of inequality When notes are to be unequalised.^. so that the first notes are to be played as if dotted quavers and the second notes semiquavers. •.^. and this is rarely heard in performance (.INNIMIN MN NM• MINIM i^ 11111 V t^^^^^=rr1 ^r• . should be in the proportion of 3 to 2 as if the first note were 3/5 of a crotchet and the second 2/5. .25.r^s ^^.1111•11111.732 .^: ».. . this too is decided by taste.. taste must decide whether they should be unequal by little or by much: there are some pieces where it is appropriate to make them very unequal..INIJMNII MJIrra1MINP. . . (Saint-Lambert) Engramelle defines the different degrees of inequality thus: There is an essential observation to be made concerning quavers that are often played unequally in twos..... Here are two examples of inequality cited by Engramelle which relate respectively to the first case (marked inequality) and to the third case (slight inequality): Marked inequality: The King's March NO rt ar7 Ma/ 17•111110 • MIINI M / /WIN aa.111 . 11111111110111M11 rt>•MI . .-71♦ Min .1111i/-aMMrraMIJlIN/ wrrt =MEMO= VIM • 1M. if it is a half. a less palpable one. they would all be equal in duration.`v x. ) Unequal quavers are marked in twos ( .L.^ II/r^r Y +_rI_-^-. in others the difference is of a third. Engramelle says: It is as if the first notes were dotted quavers and the second semiquavers.1s11.=1111 I) l. 'MIMI if. finally there are others where this difference. This gives us: A. as with pulse..rl• . .. .. for if the notated value of the quavers were to be observed exactly as they are written on the music paper. Written scores do not tell us what the value of this difference is.s Lot r.. a third or a quarter.^. ) is shorter: but what is the difference between the longer and the shorter? In some cases the difference is a half. .iN/I WW1 . ) of which the first ( .rrrtrrrrr /1rr••Jf /MINN IIINIA>•M OM MI arT rrJ MEMO ENNMI/ IJMMMJM / ONN MINN rJrar a. and the second ( .

In the following table. ^_^•1111^11/^1— S/ Yrlrrr^rlt•1^1^ a==`1N^^^ 1 ^a^ó ^ ii •1^ s s L^^ ^ etc.11— A/1/ra/T 1 A 1 M NI ^\ / MOM IRE JItJ MOW 1rr7/1 1 I /I /7J /= al Illr= /T IJ1r1 IIINr/•1 ^ .4•111 RV 1^ -.811•11111111111111 ^ simmwmpossossala NM USN ^^^^^^1_^^^^^^^ s••/^ r^ ^^ — — s _ aNS/ ^1 1J/^1 1• IOW SI.J0110•r1MINI•J1r/ MON IN MI SW Is1 =MIMI MSS /1.. sec p. w/i. The same applies in the following example. T etc.. This can be realised as follows: ^ r^ /1 1/r MI•A^^ r.iss. and that it may vary according to the character and speed of a piece./ N MIMI IN MI / Air • 1171: /7 / :IOW 1 11/.B. as Engramelle specifies. . .111•111P.. is not without resemblance to the `chute' (fglling appo ggiatura.^ .. 8 1I•mMI 1.tlt♦ ^t: IIMPW 1 ^ 1 •J•r1^.1 1 Q=misosrI•asso1 MN.I s 1/7/ //1/ I r1111= 011111•1•1=J1=_1IMMIlJ //J1t 1/I/_11/J 1IIIIIIII/1^1/f 1111/ MIMI • ..a1^1I11' ^ IMI ^ 1♦^r1sr^1^^^l1Jt r/ u r^1/1^I/r1/ Mr•INE_ '''IMI/t• ^^1^1^^1sJ^^L^ . t•1 ^^^t♦• t♦1 L^1^ 111111 MIN Ell ^1 I The semiquavers are unequal in the proportion of 3 to 2... Reversed inequality: Sometimes inequality can be reversed by making the first (half beat) shorter than the second: LOU LIÉ This type of inequality.732 ..-=Yr1/=_=====J1/^1 V.eC alh'Z ` . good taste and musicality remain the only touchstones.. 34)..L.23 aIM• . which would make a performance as dull as if the notes were being played with strict equality.•^_taJr^/I^t•Jf ^^^^t. N. we set out the note values which should be unequalised (dotted) according to the principal metres in which they are found along with the definitions by Cajon and Hotteterre which epitomise contemporary practice: A.t I011IIMI•s1I1111W ^SJ^11r1NIr^rI11^Jr1/I sr11Jr^1J= WI = s7IM. Slight inequality: The Fountain of Youth 7 1♦ 17 1. . 11011111/.a1^ .... MIMI= IMP 11 r• JIM / NE ^l1^•• ^1^^ ^^^ ^^ r>t'^^r•r1^^II IMI1SIM111.t ♦^1 i....INII IJI^^rlrlrrr r^ i « n MN =. The performer will determine the articulatory silences for himself. Thus it can be seen that inequality may assume different forms.SIMNS I[ as Ma ^ I ./1111111W^ L•^ ^^r/•r111=1 r IM= -1 rrMS IM11 ^111111 1JrI••J /7•1•11 ^1 .• MINI t• SIM memr-wwww 1 a^ 1 ..1 AIM11/4111=/ tsr1W1 ^ — /1^11//•1J1 /Y /a1^/1/.25. 11.. t.. and is particularly applicable in fast movements.s r1'1r•_11 s11J ar7 INI 7•1.. less common than the first. • aJIMEr/Jr1111111•11. As a result one must be careful not to interpret this inequality in a systematic or monotonous way. — . There again. .111M-.

then the quavers become equal. as the notes of lesser value should be unequal. Thus. For the same reason. 2 and 4 and 8 Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) Quavers are played unequally (Câjon) Normally quavers are equal and semiquavers dotted (Hotteterre) One might also use a which would be composed of 2 equal quavers or 4 unequal semiquavers (Hotteterre) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) 8 6 4 6 8 Metres in 3: 3 2 3 and 4 3 8 9 4 9 8 (Observation): Here quavers are played unequally.r ^-:. (Câjon) A. and when these are not used in `his metre then it is the crotchets that are played unequally (Câjon) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers dotted (Hotteterre) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) When in a melody there are notes of lesser value than those which are prescribed as unequal by the kind of metre in which they are found. those which the nature of the metre ought to render unequal will become equal. in every metre in which semiquavers ought to be unequal. they will become equal if the melody has demisemiquavers._ .L. This rule would even extend to demisemiquavers if a melody made regular use of hemidemisemiquavers.^--_- •^ :^ = 24 Table for unequalising values in the principal metres according to Cdjon and Hotteterre Metres in 4: C 12 4 12 8 Metres in 2: s*. it is the same for every metre in' which quavers are declared to be unequal. then.^^^^m-3. if semiquavers have been used in a melody whose metre is 2..732 • . -25.

which does not allow unequalisation in twos: All notes. (Denis): Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Briskly and with equal quavers ^^:. C.^^ LIC_r= ^ • =a^ ^^ r^ V^ . etc.^^ ^rrrrrrrr_^^ MI ^ ^^^ 1111111.^7• _ I •• 1s I I MIN-.. 21).1• s••••111111111111MM111•111•M MINN ^^^^^^^^^^^ MO ^^^^^^. except in the following cases: —contrary instructions from the composer (`equal quavers'. — repeated notes: One must also make the same exception when several notes of the same pitch follow one another./^. that are played in groups of three are always equal.111Pt.alls111•111•7•11111 MNI/S-71M-41•11MINNIO sIIMM MIN ^^^^^^^^^^ • w11$111111/7» :0•7. ^ i- — note-heads which have dots or dashes: an exception should be made for notes on which there are dashes or dots... F. that is./ MIPt 1111111 = 1s7 s r71s ^ ^ •/ ^ • MI •/I^1^^. . ) when there is an arch (slur) over notes in groups of more than two.11111V11111 • • r / INI NE ).25 Exceptions to the rule of inequality The rule of inequality is of general application.. A. (Quantz) When one finds quavers or semiquavers with dots above or below.^^_ ^^^_^ ^^ . groups of 4./^M.) —when the notes are played in groups of three. whether these be natural or incidental to the type of metre present. 6 or 8. DALL'ABACO (1675-1742) a W •a•11M•411111111 _^^ . (Quantz) Allemande: J.25. one must then make them equal and detached.^^^M. SCHICKHARDT (1670?-1740) Allegro MNIMII ^^..41.^. { .^^. (Cájon) Gigue: E.L. ••1111 ^^ s-s•11rr1111•111111111.^1^f= ^^^^^^ s ^=M^^^^^^Y^^J^^^. of whatever value. r=1/11111111111111•1111=100r MEN --^ IMM ra.^^^ ^ ^^^ — when the tempo is too fast for inequality in groups of two to be performed or perceived (see p..^^^^ ^^ ^ _..-1=111 ^^ — rIN10rr0111 ^^^^^^^^^ MO ^= ^^ ^^• ^^` spiccato — slurred notes: (..732 • C L* — • i[. (Quantz) Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Spirited • ^ V • .

s^....Iu^^^^^ • .ILAMM+... equal quavers %maim ^uJ^I.^ R:S]=^ .^ What makes the quavers equal on this occasion is firstly their intervallic leaps. s ^^ 1^ ^ ^^f^^f ?i r /m^/'7r^^^ . the fact that they are intermired with semiquavers. such as that required by Hotteterre in the following example: Musette: HOTTETERRE Gently.. (Hotteterre) ^ ^^ ^ r.^ ^^^. 1111111.J^^lJ^^rM •^ ^=^^ ^ ^^^ MU ^. Mr/^^^^^^^^I= mamma =Mir ^^^^ :! }_^_•_iss^^^^ .111M.r^^ ^s . and further. .^ — A. that a number of slurred notes greater than two will not always preclude a certain inequality..L.25..^ wr^•^^ ^^j^^:^. ^^^^ v^^•w=M^rMMMM^^:== ^ ^r :::^^.. however.^fífl'ssss. . .732 .I7 J^17 ^a^s. sequence of disjunct intervals: Fugue: HOTTETERRE Spirited.. (Hotteterre) Another example of equal quavers. m ^= ran..m.^.^/rl/t. this time in Italian music: Courante by SigrCORELLI Allegro (Hotteterre) — the basses of Sarabandes when the y arc entirely in quavers: Sarabande: A..IM. D..:^^.I Mrs^^rs+.B.r.26 c í^ N.fl^^ W/ ^ Couplet from the Passacaglia in Armide (Lully) l. PHILIDOR (1712) equal notes ... It may happen. with the quavers dotted I Go t —a o..

with the articulatory silences which L'Affilard does not neglect to mention (To make the dots into their value. (Quantz) The short notes which follow dotted notes are always shorter in performance than their value suggests. .. mumg WIWI.M^^.(equal) -1 ^ NM 7 • 'IMINf' UNIM .wry 1^^^^i7^^^r^Mj r1•^^ L7•. Rousseau: In Italian music the quavers are always equal. A. (C. t.M MMI ^^^^MM[ :M M1MMlIMIMMIMM14/11' WM= 111s1( 74E1 AION 7•INV /rMmilt.7 7J.27 — notes of small value which correspond to ornaments: Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Solemnly .M^^.•+ -a- ^s ^^ ^--.7•••••s11111110 s1s1^ ^^^ ^1 m Obse rvation: The Italians make less use of inequality.•M>>I =NI -• s••7=11J•• ^>•^^^ 1+^'^^^M^MI. The note which follows the dot is always extremely short. rr ..25. Bach) This would be transcribed as follows: or rather. P. According to J.732 r it I a. (1) Hence it is necessary to double -d ot the dotted notes. J.. (equal) --. and those in ex.Mt1 =1111111=1111 :7.. it is therefore superfluous to add dots (to dotted notes) or hooks (to short notes).. applying to dotted notes followed by notes of small value: in performance the dotted note is double-dotted and the small value shortened.. one must hold the dotted crotchet and play the subsequent quaver quickly): h • IN _ ^^- Different instances of double-dotted notes Quantz is very explicit about these different cases: The dotted notes in example 1 (see below) require almost the full value of a crotchet. -___ ^ ' (equal) .1/IU IrIIMIIsM -.^T r (equa» .L. 2 that of a quaver (1). unless they are shown as dotted. E.^^ 1 ^ • .7^M>•rM^M^.NMI r . Y :. DOUBLE-DOTTED NOTES This is the name for a type of inequality which is very pronounced.

.__.nmm..= /01111111•111s71^^^•s^r .. -. A. 1 Ex.womr1. . 28 One cannot determine precisely the value of the short note after the dot.732 . the more caressing and agreeable will be the expression: Thus this extract from a Prelude: HOTTETERRE Solemnly Ex.s AIM/Wits MIMI n^^^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^s.ss•s ••s •-aJssummoomiw/wniar/seum. ..•r cosiLarossus•r I/wwwwwe. . —x-_ =^^ . ^ita^ s^^.^.-^-^ -^-' ^^. 3 Ex. MIrIIMIis s'...---r. 2b (Quantz) Dotted notes followed by more than one short note In this case the short notes must likewise be played more rapidly than they are shown: The more one prolongs the dots after the notes (examples 3 and 4)...25.'..^INI i `^ 1...111= OW E E s: É %1 ^ ^^ (1) By `dotted notes' Quantz here means the notes a/ter the dots.i..:^:>. lb Ex. 2 Ex.í irr^^r•i^c^áií^r ^i^^^ lAM as. ._ -°--- – — " .^.— _. 4 (Quantz) . To form a clearer idea of it ( . ^ .^-r?=^ r .. s ?^ _ r --= •..L.^•^^^ v r. The dotted notes( 1 ) will only last as long as the lower hemidemisemiquavers. lb and 2b).__^. -:-^-e .-.-.as s V• •. that is to say the sixteenth notes and thirty-second notes in the upper line which would be played as sixty-fourth notes (see ex. . ) play the upper notes (of ex..^^^^ ^w ^^ító• ^ i^. lb and 2b) and hold the dotted notes until the time required for the lower dotted notes has elapsed. Ex.•s••s=rsi sI/eummummamor sow imaw mallowm^••=lreescs imuot/— ass 1.^ ^sa^^^^a V ^^^ ^ s 11111111•1•11M/MEW MMININW~ a1•••111111111-11111s11r111 MN L should be performed: N ^ ^r ^^i'a ^ ^áw ^^^.^•^rrs^^^^ ^t ^^^ ^ r^^r8üi^ ^1^irMí^r^.

Quantz specifically tells us: If in a slow Allabreve (1) or in a full bar of four beats one finds a semiquaver rest on the beat with dotted notes following it (example 8). Rigaudons. Bach confirms: When there is a short rest. (Quantz) As C. whether the tempo is slow or fast: Ex. instead of the ¢ they put a large 2 which likewise indicates that the notes are to be played twice as fast as in other metres. -25. therefore. especially in slow pieces. E. etc. and at the same time avoid getting out of time. the quavers which follow the dotted crotchets are not expressed according to their true value. (Quantz) A. Ex.. Before playing them. and when there are three or more demisemiquavers after a dot or rest they are not always performed according to their true value. there are demisemiquavers (example 7). the latter should always be played very quickly. When. Gavottes.29 Reversed dotted rhythm When the rhythm dotted note—sho rt note fl is reversed ^•. after a long note and a short rest. the same rule must be applied. the rest must be performed as if there were a dot or a rest of half its value after it and the following note had an extra hook. Ex. as we know. the same rule still applies to the short note and it must again be shortened. even at the price of hurrying the group which follows. The notes D and C (in example 5) should not last longer than those (in example 6).. one must wait until the very end of the beat to which they are allocated.732 . However. as for Bourrées. 6 Silence replacing the dot When the dot is replaced by a short rest. as often happens in Overtures. it indicates. the Allabreve metre. but one waits for the very end of the beat to which they are allocated and plays them as fast as possible. 8 to be performed: A A A (1) When the Italians modify the metre whose sign is a large C by drawing a line through this sign (4). The French use this metre for different types (of movement). sharp manner (. All dotted notes are treated in the same way if the tempo permits. P. it must be prolonged. in this metre as well as in crotchet triple time (3/4) which is used for the Loure. Entrées and Furies. whether in an Adagio or an Allegro. and the Chaconne. Moreover. 5 Ex. 7 to be performed: It is the same for a brief rest followed by a group of notes in dotted rhythm. but in a very short.L. Rondeaux. the Courante. Entrées. the Sarabande. ).

.-25.r 30 A nacrusis: Similarly.1 • According to Quantz. .1111M. 1 Mai MEIN INN arr III II.á+ 111111111111•1111111 VW — W. The short note following the dot must not be sounded until after the third note of the triplet rather than at the same time as it.lMa7//ralr ^lr^^r^ IV ^^ i^Ilr^'^t ^^^^ ^r/^r ^ . S. Unless this is done the metre could be confused with 6/8 or 12/8 (example 2).illl 11111111•11M1NIM4// Mad= ^^rrlI^^rr^^^ /l•^ rl.. Thus the third movement of the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto should be performed in the rhythm shown above the stave: Allegro: J. ..- 1":71 Of"7"") il i ti r^rr11^1^^lr^It^ r^t...rr^^^^ Ir ^—^ t t Mr s L. Quantz writes: This rule (of double-dotting) should also be observed when one of the parts has triplets against which the other part has dotted notes (example 1). Observation: Quantz's rule only applies when triplets are added to a rhythm which is initially dotted. instead of being brilliant. ) If one were to play the dotted notes appearing beneath the triplets in such a way as to give them their normal value.s-7. 1 should be interpreted in this way: r which thus differentiates clearly between the two rhythms.: ^^ ^t A•.sas • ^^^ ^rr^ ^^Iworrl^^^^r1IPAIl. would merely be deformed and insipid: Ex. on the contrary. then. 2 ^ 1 !' U..L.11111111P r.^•^ .1.^.732 .imillirMa.. A.. the dotted notes are then interpreted as in the lower part in example 2.^^IA♦^ a^ --— a1r 11111 rrlaa ^r 'M ar ^ 3 3 - M R1110140I /1 Ilegg. the notation r 77 not being in use at this time. BACH (1721) r— s –I J oh 171 r0ttrW111. irrl^r iniirsmw^=r^ —i — ^^^ l s^^-^o^^^ ^r^ ` ut. the rhythm is essentially composed of triplets. (Saint-Lambert) Allemande (J) . If. this may be further shortened: A single quaver is always short. when a short note (anacrusis) begins a movement./s^^^ ININI^lIg-. ANN All=111s9•1=1111 Ex.. the effect.1111M ^t. and the two types of note must be treated very differently from each other ( . ex.MI•11•• ^ Superimposition and succession of different rhythms: On this subject.

L.t^1^^S..NNW ^.25. E./N1 . for there are exceptions. double-dotted notes should be used knowingly. It is only in the generality of cases that short notes should be played quickly.=M .t ='7 _ EMI MI .732 .. . ^^^^ A. BACH (1721) Andante 11111111111111•11•11111111 ogimmol Mir OEM s•. Melodies in which they occur should be examined carefully.MO OM /11/7M-AM _-. (C.am= 11111•11111=1111 ^a^^ Sonata: J. ^7^^^s a^r^^^^^^= ^^^^ ^^ =Ell ^^_ m /.Exceptions to the rule of double-dotted notes Naturally. P. FASCH (1688-1758) Allegro Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Spirited _^S. F.^^^^^^^^^^ s ^iMI MIMI =^^ ^^^-^-Vr^^^^^ s ^^ . S. and one should distinguish between melodic passages and those cases where the short values following a dotted note are simply the opening of a rhythm which does not lend itself as a whole to double-dotting.• ^^ 1s1111111111/ sow mu witm allow ••s• -. Bach) Thus the short notes in the examples below do not appear to need double-dotting: 2nd Brandenburg Concerto: J.

.^_rI/1trrs^—=ICs^^e^ _^^^^^^ M r_^_ s /\ ^M^^^^^^^—l^^M1^^II^ IIINs11111111•a-als a/•111111MINNI1111116./11111 ^^ _ WWI s I>•••• s. AP7MIIIIM111•1111117 . ) For if Italian music draws its energy from slavery to a strict beat.. Li .25.32 RUBATO tWhat we call rubato—that sort of elasticity in playing and of suppleness brought to a rigid beat—is not an invention of the Romantics: far from it! Already in 1601 Caccini alludes to it (Nuove Musiche). .1rI/MINNIa:aaIN/aINO r. hurrying it and retarding it.d. to the neatness of the passage-work. and it was to become a characteristic feature of musical interpretation in the 17th and 18th centuries.-t•MIIIIMIIIMMIIIME M=MIMINIMI•1110r .732 .. (Mersenne. or to the differing passions of the subject.O s •' s-a1 /7 .4 it there may be no four bars that are of exactly the same length (.^.I .n^r^ ^^Mr^ NI.^ 1f 1'1-1•NIF • /Mr .IM•1M0 MlIIII•r MTIMII/•PIM =IMPIP"INE MIMI r 111/111•Mo1 lrAr MI IMI 1Ei.M11111 IM1^ .V11NMt PI MrMEIIIIMMrM-74S1111•1MINIM7 11. `Harmonie Universelle'..d111110 111•111 h11/211/.f 4. everything must be sacrificed to taste. —'r. the French put all theirs into subjecting this same beat to their will. /M \ I. The beat—whether in two or in three—is changed a number of times to make a given piece of music sing.. COUPERIN) A. • !s _11• NM I } = (F.r a..rlS-as•s /NM •1M011sr NM! ^r S..s ••_••a..r11•rfr101L7l'I 11.L.. T ^wv .••s•••s• [0: NNW ••• _ -^^ i -^ ..M../M^r tn^^ ' .T.1Ma.M1 1111•71. 1636) Perhaps in an . . •--. . hurrying or retarding the downbeat or tale upbeat according to the text and words. according as the savour of the song and the agility of the singer's organs dictate.•~~ My ^ AO 1.Mina MOM= ^• .. and to an adequately affective r^ rendering of the accents marked with a mordent: Double of the Nightingale in love (1722) MÌL..rr1Pra•18-ININIIIINNINIZIMrsir11141 . (Rousseau) tr• Ohs 1001 d One must not adhere too precisely to the beat in the Double below. •J111INK.

indeed to adorn the skeleton of the musical text (we shall return to this later). In such cases the more usual terminology is adopted. This is why great care must be taken over these invaluable adornments of music every time there is need of them. A. by inappropriateness. much circumspection is required in knowing where to place them correctly. however quickly it has to be played. Sometimes two authors will give the same grace note different names. By inappropriateness. by excess and by want of skill.33 Embellishment notes For greater convenience. it is very important to know how to perform grace notes well. added by the composer or (more often) the performer to embellish. For it is impossible to give rules for the placing of grace notes that will apply in every case.. Afterwards one must listen to people who have a reputation for playing well. (Montéclair) When. the vibratos etc. even though these two terms were frequently confused in the past (as they are today). heavy and constrained.L. is a list of the p ri ncipal grace notes. ) Good taste is the only criterion. and 'grace notes' (agréments) essential ornaments oi grace notes. the trills. it becomes confused and ridiculous.. (Muffat) Where can one learn to distinguish those notes which should be coloured and those places in the melody where one kind of grace note is more suitable than another? One must study pieces in which all the grace notes are written out and in which there are neither too many nor too few of them (see examples at the end of this chapter). for otherwise they will disfigure pieces instead ofincreasing their beauty. (Marpurg) It is impossible ever to fully understand how all these grace notes must be expressed. By omission. the appoggiaturas and arpeggios should be quicker than when the movement is slow. the musical text and increase its beauty. (1) Let us say that ornaments are variations. to wit: by omission. because it is not possible to explain it completely in writing. (1) `Ornaments (ornements) were often termed optional ornaments or grace notes. and it would be better not to play them at all than to play them badly. a clear distinction should first of all be made between grace and ornaments.. (Saint- Lambert) Here.. one must take one's time to prepare the fingers. thus.25. embellishments designed to vary..732 . where and how to apply grace notes It is easy to err in any of four ways over this important aspect of melody (the subject here is grace notes) ( . and perform it with boldness and freedom (. since even the living voice of an experienced master barely suffices for that.. one must never hurry in making a grace note. the playing becomes crude and uncouth. in alphabetical order. By excess. or grace. since the manner of expressing them changes according to the pieces in which they are used. And by want of skill. ). (Saint-Lambert) GRACE NOTES It is almost impossible by using the written word to teach the manner of forming these grace notes well. the melody and harmony become naked and unadorned. . ). And here I can only say in a general way: grace notes should never alter the melody nor the metre of a piece. and much dexterity in expressing them well (. for pieces in a spirited tempo. However.. and that grace notes (or `notes de goût')—more sober an d more concise—are the little notes. with a summary of contemporary definitions. It is from such models that one's taste must be formed while doing one's own practising at the same time.

aromm.^^^^n fall AB • fall AB fall AB a ^^car.^.25. . the sound of the first note must therefore be lengthened. . . normally it appears at the very end of a dotted crotchet when it is followed by a quaver on the same degree. .. __ v . 1708) strong note accent Strong note accent r (Montéclair) lam CHiJTE (Fall) The fall is an inflection of the yoke which. 34 Observation: In the majority of cases. is terminated by means of an imaginary note above the one on which the sound is. 1 'r • 1111•rn.^^uw. it is expressed by a broken inflection of the voice: ILO ^ A ü a i •7 ^ ^ ^ i7 I 1A^ ^ ^^ 1^ [l (David) The accent is marked by a small perpendicular dash above the note and is only made upwards or at the end of a held note. leaning heavily on its vowel.^^^r. gently. and the accent must be felt at the end of the name (I) of this note. (Denis) ( . where the quavers are unequal: (Hotteterre) (1st book for the transverse flute. according to the expression (of the piece). (Choquel) The accent is an aspiration or sorrowful lifting of the voice which is practised more often in plaintive Airs than in tender ones. fall 111•1•1•111111 WI= 111ria • ^^ri ^ ^•^it:. -. or `son coupé' (interrupted sound). it never appears in spirited Airs nor in those expressing anger: One can hardly determine all the places where the accent should be placed.^^.^^•v^..411•111INOI riiIIIIIIIMMII. in metres. These grace notes should therefore be interpreted flexibly and in accordance with the context in which they appear.r1/1111•MisIBMVAIIIMM INIOr^^u. ) The fall brings much grace to songs of pathos: sar.L.MMIa.....^.mWEIINIOI NIMMr_^11•=1 • MI i 1w11111. ) The little quaver must be felt as if it were indeed a note. .11MM IMiNN/WZA.^_^w• ^.IMraa.IIritar. . its name in solfège (translator's note).a. tables of grace notes given by writers of the past are only schemes for realisation. --< . .. ..732 E' ta 0 . ACCENT The accent.e. that is to say. after having leant on a note for some time (A).. and as if dying.11ris1111111 i port de voix ^^^ (Montéclair) (1) i. also called aspiration. -_ __ -P . A. falls onto a lower degree (B) without lingering there ( .: -1..a^.MON/fi0. but with a very weak sound. .IIII s 1-21MINi.ass. since otherwise the performance of this grace note would not be in good taste..AM.-_. . on the pitch of the note above. s • Ir i1= MN OIIIIIIirui .s-:..ua.

732 • t+ ::r^ . the smoothness or the beauty of the melody: run fall run run run flatté >~^^^7^ri^irA^^^^^7a. It is used on various occasions.. falling from a strong note. and tastetkìvill decide on the places where it should be inserted. rid= VM III NM 'MIMI MI MI IA OM :AIM • r ^^ 1i ^ ^^^ ^C^ ^ rï ^^^ i-^ii si ^^^' iii . rn ^a x .25. that is to say. ' i _ _ ^ / 1 6 :^ ^^f/I!•1:^ ^7:` ^ UI1• ^^^ ^ ^ ♦ / ^ _ //J• _ ^_^/^O ^_^/^ ^_ Miff MIMI IMP IN 0 I^^^^^ • ^^^^^^ •5l1^^^^^r11d^^^^ i.%/111111111MIN ♦ coulé coulé . less strong one.35 The fall has a totally different effect from the `coulé' (see below).^ ^!• VI ^ coulé coulé • Wen. ) small notes in stepwise motion. reaches a lower. which can be made without interrupting the flow.L.A M Jt• a< t111/711«I -`^ NMI fJf.. See also p. .tJ ir-u. It is an inflection of the voice which. following directly on one another. . AM )1l7 Mff. particularly where the melody falls by a third. / / • ^^S!•^^^i MIN •s ^^ i (Montéclair) `Coulés' are performed by means of one or more notes interposed between the 'backbone' or essential notes of the melody where the interval is a descending third or fourth: 41 r J J I _(r^^^J^ I o (David) It will be observed that a coulé' should be made between nearly every interval of a falling third: A (Hotteterre) A. (Loulié) The run is shown by a number of little additional notes following one another in rising or falling conjunct motion.MI NM WI =II _^^ T ♦ ha. however. making it smoother by binding the notes together.5•11111mm/1•mma t/m =Iw/ tA :aMIIli. 18 COULÉ (Passing appoggiatura) The coulé' is a grace note that softens the line..B.s 11 MIL I/lt. ) or simply by means of a slur: :t^f/11UNINI1111/2•111 .. and this depends on the words. . There is not normally any sign to identify it. for to judge by the note alone this would not show the slightest difference from the `coulé'. Iffl•r/. .í^i Ól (Montéclair) N.f/AINIIMUMMI. (Choquel) COULADE (Run) The run is two or more ( . there are some masters who show it by means of a small note linked by a slur to the strong note onto which it must flow (.1111=11 t1M1/7 111111111111 1111IIff.. inserted between two disjunct notes to make a more graceful link between the one and the other...

the `flattement' is a sort of finger vibrato produced by rapidly tapping the finger (or fingers) on the edge of one or more holes.____ O MIN ^^I^I^ ttlllllr.ber ton ton . they must be made slower or faster accordifi • to the tempo and character of the piece." `S. 1st book of pieces for the viol). Fais tom . the descending thirds are not joined up by a `coulé': good . the terms `flattement' and `vibrato' did not always have distinct meanings. especially for stringed instruments. without raising or lowering the pitch.re.1111 s1 NMI . On the viol.MIIIIII^ ^^ 1^1^iN 1I If utr/tl^It• /1^ M^ M ^all• s•••111•tl c>s 11111t 111111•• .^r^^^ II 1=INIPIIIIM1111111111•t•INIILIMO.fais tom -ber ton ton . (1st book for the transverse flute) Montéclair: The ' latté'isa sort of rocking which the voice makes with many soft. the `verre cassé' (2) or plainte' (3) is usually effected by the little finger. at this period.^1^ ^ If Mat n43sNOININI IMI. ' lattetnent' or flatté' can also mean a lower mordent or a shake. 47 (3) Pla inte can also mean accent.1•11 NMI MNIIIMMINNE•111r __&_$_I__. on a note of long duration.25.36 When the words express anger.ber. fais torn .ner . It can also be achieved with the bow. (2) See also under Vibrato. . others tap it over the whole aperture and even over two at the same time depending on the force and expression they wish to achieve. On wind instruments. it might be shown by a wavy line ^•^: mordent accent flatté coulé quasi shake fall sudden shake complete shake cadence (1) Sometimes this term leads to confusion. 34 A. Marais.flattement' is a slower throbbing than the `tremblement' (shake). p. short aspirations. Formerly. or when the melody is in a precipitate tempo. with a wavering motion of the hand (M. this embellishment is most often added where one is swelling or diminishing the sound of a long note.L. Some tap it on the extremity or edge of the apertures by stretching out the finger which is to effect the throbbing.re. where the holes are stopped by the fingers. just like shakes and short trills. and that.ber. and is made with a lower note that does not form the interval of a semitone. for example. see p. by pressure on the hair. There is at present no sign to identify it with. or on a note of repose. The .r^t^^1sIW .732 . s. This embellishment produces the same effect as the vibration of a taut string set in motion by the finger. and sometimes over the centre of one or two complete holes. (Montéclair) FLATTEMENT (1) (Finger vibrato) The `flattement' is a characteristic embellishment whose effect falls roughly between the shake (trill) and what is today meant by vibrato.Iia *41s1s1IW111I411111111111 S7=_•= M etc.MILD poor .ncr . (Mahaut) Hotteterre adds: One will observe that flattements' must be made on almost all long notes. Fais tom . The finger which makes the throbbing should remain in the raised position to finish with.

see p.4111.732 . etc. see p. upper mordent) Lower mordent: To form this well. (F..4111. Couperin) It was frequently identified by the term martellement in France. flatté flatté flatté flatté flatté MESSA DI VOCE: see SON ENFLÉ./MINI.25.IN•11111/= --MIIII . sometimes two or more (`pincé double'.MINIMINII—JMINI. Generally it comprises a single alternation (`pincé simple'). Schneller) (Montéclair) The `pincé' is one of those shakes so short that they have neither a preparation note (`appui'.4MI. the voice must first of all be carried onto the pitch of the strong note (principal note) and then descend to the next degree after which the voice reascends promptly to the strong note and stays there: P pince note of repose (Montéclair) Upper mordent: When one uses the pincé' by contrary motion. .. it is called the `pincé renversé' (. `pincé triple'...1 /MMININIMt. ) The term Schneller' serves to describe it in German: i • NIIIMINIII ri1111111 swr mn sI sii~. p. 42 PINCÉ (Mordent.). would be performed as follows: A.: : ^^ /' W.MMII s3MINO. 46). or Schneller in Germany. s rr. 44) nor a pause (`point d'arrêt'.L. Schneller. `martellement'.^_= (Marpurg) The `martellement' is a very short trill which one makes after having sustained the sound of a note (Choquel): martellement ntartellemen t which. according to Choquel's directions. It is somewhat like our present-day mordent.=1•1•1111•••011M..37 Were the ' latté' to be used on every strong note.. `Schneller'): pincé (lower mordent) pincé renversé (martellement.Ns ^^ •t ir 1. it would become unbearable in that it would make the melody tremulous and too uniform: mordent poor mordent poor mordent accent complete shake preparation cadence note tr. It can be performed with the lower note (this is the usual `pincé') or the note above (this is often called `pincé renversé'.s91111Cs IIMMINININEWw 011•ao.".

. such as some in four and in two... and when the sound has been lodged it must be softly threaded through the first of the three segments into which the duration of the note must be divided. which should be done rapidly. MI MM. that is ( .25. Only through the feelings of a mind thoroughly imbued with what it is saying can one attain perfection in this embellishment. ) It is also shown by this sign: V .^ ^ MUM /^ ^ •-•1111. note that one can play more of them in lively airs.^ `1 A. One should only make one mordent in each bar when there are only crotchets. The port-de-voix is the inverse of the coulé' I think that this sign / would be more suitable than the sign V to identify it: The port-de-voix is not marked at every place where it must be made.4. taste and experience provide this knowledge (. a fourth or a sixth.. ). ••s MN Ms •s MN IMMs11s111111sss••••MI ' W/ AEI + . 'inflated sound'). that it serves to express all that the soul can feel.L. crotchet and quaver.= MI MNIO. imperceptibly swelled (1) (I) See 'son en fl é' (lit. so long as the metre or pulse is not too precipitate. S • AMP =NINO aJIM L! WIN. with the finger curled rapidly just once or twice.. ^ N= BIN Ng 'W// . such as the minim. therefore it is very difficult to give a good written definition of the manner in which one must set about forming it well.. and few singers have succeeded in making it as touching and sensitive as it should be. Lia ^ ^. by which I mean on the first of the last two notes. because they make the melody more brilliant. 42. a/ WWI IMIIIIWOI i rlIM ri IMMEsIMIs M How and where to perform the mordent Short trills or mordents are a sort of appoggiatura. The portde-voix is always accompanied by a mordent: Port de voix Port de voix (Montéclair) David: The port-de-voix is one of the most essential of the melody's appurtenances. All quavers that are preceded by a dotted crotchet or its equivalent should be played with a mordent. whether a tone or a semitone beneath. ). but they are taken abruptly. . .. and the same applies proportionately to the other values.b 38 ^. When it is made on a third. and must first rise. there must generally be a mordent on the last notes of each piece. it adorns it in so graceful a manner. and all those in three beats.732 . p. (Freillon-Poncein) PORT-DE-VOIX (Appoggiatura) (V) The port-de-voix is sometimes marked by a little added note (. One should never play two in a row. so long as it is in the minor . Short trills or mordents are made on notes which begin the air or melody. it must be emphasised like an appoggiatura.. ): one must tap the finger on the aperture. In metres which are solemn. There are three varieties: 1) The prepared and sustained port-de-voix is played upwards and it originates on the note beneath that on which the sound will settle.

One could call the first accented and the others passing appoggiaturas.. ) When the preceding note is one or two degrees higher than the following one. The other kind ( ... in place of the principal notes. But if the preceding note is lower than the following one.. in front of which the port-de-voix is found. this is what characterises the port-de-voix (. and made to die.732 . the latter should be taken from above (example 1). ) on the previous upbeat. it should be taken from below Ex. but it can be tolerated and practised in certain cases: 1r . .^l ^ second. originates on the note preceding that on which one will come to rest.L. the melody would often be dry and extremely simple (. on the third segment.. Ports-de-voix are a slowing-up of the preceding note (. ): Z r1° ^ V 2) The double port-de-voix originates on the third below the note on which the voice will come to rest: ?) 2 t ti 0 3) The disjunct port-de-voix. just as it has been given birth. . both descending and ascending.25. 1 Ex. . 2 (example 2): There are two kinds of port-de-voix. Passing appoggiaturas (before the beat) are found when a number of notes of the same value descend by leaps of a third: A. ) Dissonances should sometimes excite and arouse (the ear). .39 on the second segment.... They are sounded on the beat. ). this is too o 1 1 R^ `Gothic' and unbearable to make general use of. (David) Quantz: Without them (ports-de-voix). To that end ports-de-voix have much to contribute (. ) oñ the beat. borrowing the sound of the first to slur it onto that of the . One kind should be sounded ( .

.MB =I NM 10111•1 MI MN l:li1111111111•11la MIN ^^ not to change the dissonances into consonances: me sr r.w i MI .. 1 11 .7 MY . ./ !NallI V tal. MINI MIS LI.L. . unless it is absolutely necessary to take a breath.1 '411111•111 s Is1Y. as may happen in a Gigue.M111I11=11111111a11111s1•11&. •s ^t•S r^^••1•Is ^1 ^ÌI . in a metre of 6/4 or 6/8.t• M ^t^^a^r^^•al^. own am/ ai If 1111. namely the length of the dot: When..I • 1 . two note s are tied.III? s l =IIIIIIMM-1111 s1 a.. C D (M..• M./ t A= NM WII11IIMII•111 WARM II /tJ1aO1alI s11♦ a l•a^^= ^^^^^-^1^. the first being indicated by a small note and the second by a note which counts within the metre: Accented appoggiaturas (on the beat) are found in front of a long downbeat that follows a short upbeat. aIMP"7111111•11.a a/ (a JO . I. ).. CORRETTE: Méthode raisonnée .4•If. so as • 11/711 Mi.•a s I N rSatMIN•tM14 i•s 111111tss t.732 . and even longer (DJ. Often there are two appoggiaturas before a note. a WM71111E1 INI.—a1M11/ NM IIE s ALI MI n. 1 I When there is a port-de-voix before a note and a rest after it.•^ i^/V^a^ a11111MIlMININIIIII.. the port-devoix is given the value of the note and the note the value of the rest: (Quantz) . 1• ^at I^I^I/O/a^ ^i VA AN `=^^J•^rs^. one should hold the port-de-voix for the entire value of the first note with the dot: •.. one should make all ports-de-voix preceding these .. the latter is divided into three equal segments of which the port-de-voix is given two and the note itself only one. . the first being followed by a dot. making a small shake after it. When there are shakes on notes which form dissonances against the principal harmony (.I —a a /tt7111111•111l shakes exceedingly short. 1750) A.25. (1) In Adagio movements the Italians sometimes make the port-de-voix (C) as long as the note which follows it. The appoggiatura must be sustained for half of the following principal note (1): Where the port-de-voix ornaments a dotted note. UM MSS 111114111111111111M1 r • r11~ M1111110.111•11M11 1 • aIIIIMr1•111I•It♦• iN IIIMI sra1IIIaIIIIIIII OM al ..40 The appoggiaturas we are dealing with here require a caressing expression. .s :Nit mare/ 11111aP•maleIaaia.

Jos .732 .1 /IMM IMsP ^^^I^LMNIMIIIIIINiNILa MO= ^^^^ ^^/ !I s /^^^^ ^ l• 4/NOSHOMM J .^^'/. .am 11.. If one wishes to mix the grace notes of examples 1. one must also know how to insert them in an appropriate way when they are not written.IMMI— . ^1^^^ .s MI • . ^ 1^ ^iJll^."'°- 11. ) It is not enough to be able to perform ports-de-voix according to their characteristics and individual differences when they are marked in the score./• = ^ ^ ^ / ^ V^—\t/^^ ^ 2A I Ira I ^ir v^^. _ • • ^L^^^ J^ —^ ^^^^^J^__^ MIME ^^^J_^^^^^^^ M...^ ^ . a port-de-voix must be placed before the long note. 2 A Ex.. the preceding note will show whether the port-de-voix should be taken from above or below. ^—^^ ^^^^^^^ .. 3 turn (Quantz) N./ /IMMIONNII• =WM J .^ >•a ñ a^0 ^^.^ i^.. A. See also p.s ws BM sIMIIsIMMI _ /^ ^s/^^s —JL^^ M ^l/' 1^^^ . ^ Il 1.. ..7JMiY Mam / TM /if 1. 1 A Ex. 1 half shakes Ex.L. The (following) brief sample contains most of the ports-de-voix (. ) It will be seen from this example that ports-de-voix are most often placed in front of notes that are preceded or followed by faster notes and that there must also be ports-de-voix with most shakes. .^^ t --a^1111^ .• 41 ( .^^^ wil^t r:I^r—^ 1. (1) These examples should be adapted to the pitch of the relevant passages.i7JMMI ss• s J 1MILIM/ /TI/^ I^^ ^^ /^—/^^^^r ll7i^ MM W MI WWI IML MN /IMJ^ .^—^^^= ^ ^ JIJ r aJlll^^^ i M". 42 for Quantz's observation on how to make ports-de-voix on the transverse flute: 'If there is a held semibreve or minim . in order that a pleasing line should be constantly maintained... ¡ ^` .NINISIMr/ /•11111111~SI/ AllsMr MINIM A•11110'.. Here is a rule that may be of use in learning this: Wizen after one or more short notes on the downbeat or upbeat of a bar there comes a long note which remains consonant to the harmony.WW JrPINIMMI^^^ :^_^ INE•1111ss••s1. i.I MI NM . B. _ Matz_ . 2 and 3 with ports-de-voix and use them in the following example.ONNIM =GIFT>. this may be done on the notes over which the corresponding figures appear: Moderato 3 ! JJ1Jn.^^....t/^^ OPM11^_-1111.^^iI11s1 MUM (I) Ex. 1..^i/ I^ sIIMIN ^— .. s•^ s . y --^ v -^ • • •1•01•Mo^I^.. .1•1111 i 11M= INMEJ L1/" IIINSIMr• /.^ NM MOM St•.7 1J^1^ ^^^0_^^^_^W^^ Jl .-:-a^^^r. ..25.^ i so7 IN= ^ ^^ i R2•11M=t.IN /111111 s01•11111111111114— ^ 11••s /11•111iMtM1111111111111M11/.^^/^^ M ^i—^ ^ L^/^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^M.011111111— 1••tJV71 s 1•11s111/Itl 4•111111./ /1111111. 2 ^.. 2 mordents Ex.

(Quantz) Quantz. then. (F.. where the embouchure by itself (fixed wind-way) does not allow so great a correction of tuning as on the transverse flute.... In this way the sound will always be in tune with the accompanying instruments. ) There is no symbol by which to identify inflated and diminished sounds. The voice should be. whether one is blowing strongly or weakly.fit has other advantages (. Quantz adds... ). so to speak. however—and to increase the volume of sound until half-way through the note.. each requires to be treated in its own particular way.L. ) the transverse flute and the recorder.. by prolonging the voice without any wavering whatsoever. it must first be sounded softly (. Couperin) A.To inflate a sound well. and end with the same softness as one began with. despite the resemblance between these instruments. ). it is therefore advisable to execute the `son enflé' with circumspection: Reflecting on the difference between (. `inflating' it mid-way through its duration (that is. . where it was not possible (2) (apart from the clavichord and the bowed harpsichord). moreover: Piano and forte must never be exaggerated. . On the recorder. `inflated sound' arises from the vocal procedure which consists in attacking the sound softly. strengthen the bow mid-way through the value of the note on which the sign is found.This sign: -411111 ^ means that one must begin softly. thereafter one starts to diminish the sound until the end of the note. Here are some comments referring to the `son enflé' taken from composers of the 18th century: How to inflate a sound: . after which one starts to breathe out—quietly. it must first go forth from the breast. ( . nor must instruments be forced beyond what their nature allows: for that is exceedingly disagreeable to the car.. one will find that.. ) But in order that the sound should neither rise nor fall in pitch as it is being reinforced or weakened (a defect which might arise from the nature of the flute). Unlike `threaded sound'.42 SON ENFLÉ (Messa di voce) Inflated sound (`son enflé') and threaded sound (`son filé'): `Inflated sound' is the opposite of `threaded sound' which Montéclair defines as follows: 'Threaded sound' is executed on a note of long duration. thrusting out and éxtending the voice until it reaches its greatest fullness ( . — 25. (Quantz) `Inflated sound' was a stylistic feature much in use at this period (particularly in Germany) and was practised on all instruments with the exception of keyboard instruments. gives special attention to intonation and moderation in `inflating' the sound. the rule which we have given (1) must be applied here. (Montéclair) Montéclair here shows it by wedges: inflated sound diminished sound inflated sound diminished sound full voice . as smooth as a mirror throughout the entire duration of the note. then diminishing it during the final part: If there is a held semibreve or minim. increasing its strength). beginning with a tiny fraction of the voice: it is threaded. and strengthened bit by bit. the transition from one to the other should be made imperceptibly: (1) Quantz here refers to the technique of embouchure on the transverse flute which makes it possible to maintain correct intonation when the dynamic level varies. (2) Though th e harpsichord cannot swell its sounds (.732 .

as far as speed allows. TOUR DE GOSIER (Turn.B. Desplanes. 1712) Where to inflate the sound Long notes should be sustained in a manner distinguished by swelling and diminishing the strength of the tone. Double cadence) The turn is indicated by the sign 419 .25. the five notes which serve to make it are taken in a single breath ( . a quaver or a semiquaver. p... if the speed allows it. 1111' n^ o (Montéclair) N. See p.. and move on to the following note slightly more softly. (. ) After having paused on the stressed note.B. ) To execute it well. should have its own piano and forte. A. Circolo mezzo. Sonatas for solo violin and violoncello with harpsichord. Doublé. making a kind of very sudden shake on the second small note (o): r . ) the tongue should begin ports-de-voix softly. 38-39 the example and the quotation from David concerning the `son enflé' which accompanies a port-de-voix. by exhaling. make them swell.43 Prelude Grave e affettuoso i Ply f ^ * (J. also the 'Messa di voce' on the first note of a Fermata.. one could still increase or lessen the force of breathing during these notes in such a way that some notes will be louder and others softer. The turn can also be the termination of a trill. 46. See also on pp. (. (Quantz) N. . the throat (`gosier') must make its turn by moving lightly from the first note to the fifth. But if a number of notes follow one another. whether a crotchet. ) each note.mm/ i/ P P ar7mt Lawssiissdmormi ^i =^. that is to say.L.-A. Gruppetto. 59. the voice must emphasize the strong note (M) where the sign cv appears (. .. And this change in the strength of the sound should be made from the chest. . and the speed does not allow one to swell each note's sound.732 .

.732 .L. it may start on the note below the main note of the trill. or long. Couperin) This is the general rule. then the first note of that turn should not be reiterated: eka s . Signs for the trill These are numerous and their interpretation often varies from one composer to another. probably derived from t. depending on the note that precedes the trill.. what we call the trill (derived from the Italian 'Trillo') was given various names. Here we will deal with the usual. Cadence. +. chief among which were `tremblement' (shake).25. which should be formed on the note above the principal note.^^^ ^. see under 'Pined' on p. often indicates a trill..^^ (Marpurg) TRILL (Shake. —The termination is preceded by a `point d'arrêt' (a rest or a pause on the principal note).-.. mordent. —This termination is always rapid. _. (Quantz) — It always starts on the beat and generally on the note above (except when it is preceded by a port-de-voix from below). However. `battement'). but it may equally well mean a different embellishment of the performer's choosing (mordent. .).^_ v! . .' _. •. The latter sign (+).and 18th-century France. The most frequent are t. This is the preparation note._ 44 When a slur precedes the turn (`doublé'). according to the requirements of the mode and the note from which the shake originates. For the short trill (`martellement'. .. (F. mr Tr —. the speed of the strokes will increase. The trill can be illustrated roughly as follows: preparation note ^ strokes 10111•71111 ^ r e^ • e7 I7 'point ^ d árret mï^r 17 r1 iii^N ^^^^^ ^^^r-^ s 111s11s111s The beginning of the trill (preparation note) With which note should one begin a trill? The preparation note. tr. `flattement'. etc... :. Rules for the trill The trill obeys the following general rules: — A shake should occupy only the space of a tone or a semitone. t ri ll.^. `cadence' and `battement'. gruppetto. _ ^ — r ^'-F• v . Battement) In 17th. — If the duration of the preparation note permits. Every shake begins with a A.. 37.

one must begin by moving the fingers very slowly. and one can then lift the finger once or twice more (hence making two or four more notes) during the time of a pulse. (Loulié) One should mark it (the trill) by leaning on the note which immediately precedes that which carries the trill... '..L. the finger made hardly more than four movements. . I would imagine. Beyond that one must be able to distinguish what kind of piece one is playing ( . ) If. . (Van der Hagen) Quantz: One does not have to play every shake at the same speed. which is a meritorious achievement on any instrument. . strike progressively faster while swelling the sound. a somewhat slow shake will make a better effect than a fast one (. . .IIIN IM..+ rr.. ^ :^t:"^ . (Quantz) Duration of the preparation note The preparation note of a shake should be longer or shorter in proportion to the value of the note on which the shake is made.732 . .: a ' . however. they should nonetheless begin more slowly than they end: but this gradation should be imperceptible.25. of course.//. but in spirited pieces they must be played faster ( .MINI (Choquel) Choquel's advice is. :.. The strokes In tables of embellishments of the period.. and then humming (trilling) for the other half of this duration: becomes ^^. on the other hand. It would be rather difficult to indicate precisely the correct speed of a good shake.^IME... ). strokes in trills are most often represented as equal..::+. .r•. that the speed of a long shake in preparation for the end of a piece would be neither too fast nor too slow if. . which should always be perfectly perceptible. and end it (the trill) as fast as possible.. it is a small place or a room hung with tapestries. . i:ti:^^_L:. (Quantz) A. . One should adjust not only to the place in which one is playing. where the listeners are quite close... and consequently eight notes: ^s In fast.. during the space of a pulse ( = 80). However.45 port-de-voix which is in front of the note and is taken either from above or below. . . lively pieces the short shakes can be a little faster. This must be regarded merely as a simplification of notation: Although the strokes are shown equal in the table of embellishments in my first book.. rigidly schematic. If the place in which one plays is large and reverberant.. . (F.. Couperin) To succeed in making a good trill. but also to the piece itself that is to be performed.. . it underlines the importance of the preparation note.1•1111 ^ ^ C^ ^^ •. ) In sad pieces the shakes are played slowly. a rapid shake will be more suitable than a slow one. and that for half the value of the note.

732 G . where they appear too difficult to play. The termination of the trill is always rapid.^ ^^1^ ^^I both a port-de-voix and an after-stroke.2 Ex. Couperin) (See the first example under `Trill'. (pause) The length of the pause is included in the value of the trilled note: The strokes and the note where one stops should both be included in the value of the essential note (i. First organ book.44. Lebèguc. This rapidity can vary according to the character of the piece.-J. 1676) A. ROUSSEAU: ari r^^. but it is always greater than that generally indicated. :. the strokes are interrupted on the principal (i. which merely represents a systematic way of notating it. and sometimes with a turn: stroke fall turn (Montéclair) This turn is called `after-stroke' by Quantz: The ending of each shake consists of two little notes which follow the (principal) note of the shake and which are added at the same speed (as the strokes).•^^ ^^^^^ ^^/ ^^ \w^^ MMrMM • ^^1 { NI AW. 1 and 2). p.^/ sounding Those who find it awkward to make certain shakes. 3) one should assume there will be ¡ ^'. the note carrying the trill). In those days. whatever the speed of the piece in which it appears (the note which follows the dot should always he extremel y short. are explicit in this respect. but rather for tempi to be observed very precisely.^^. may pass over them.25.. In German they are given a name meaning 'after-stroke' (ex.e. ^ . 1 Ex.MU.e. Quantz). lower) note of the trill in a sort of pause. J.HOTTETERRE: Prelude tion. .^ J^J^J^^ • . just as in the example opposite by Rousseau. but when Ex. (N. I. it was called the `point d'arrét' (halting point). The terminations in the above examples by Montéclair and Hotteterre. 1).46 The `point d' arrêt' (pause) ^ Just before the termina.^^. not wishing their hands to be constrained in any way. • .. because otherwise the shake would be neither complete nor brilliant enough: ^^.L. (F.3 only the principal note itself is given ir (ex.) The termination Sometimes one ends the shake with a fall (`chûte ). Sometimes these two little notes are written out (ex.

^J^^s •I t=^^ • _ • ww NW 0 11M1 a:i^• ^• •. ) It is not possible to represent it in notation. . A..~ZIP71 OMNI NBLIINIMrMINIIIII> /9M !t/1•^i^T^^^^&M ..41s1111Js1 1•1•5. the finger should be rapidly rocked on the fingerboard.... . De Lusse writes: There is yet another kind of flexible shake which the Italians call 'tremolo'..732 . Mersenne puts it precisely: Whilst the bow is in motion on the strings. or `tremblement' in French) is never used on half-bodied sounds (`threaded sounds') (.MTE>•NIIIMIs1111111•111WaMINMI1 . this oscillation of the sound was very diversified and was consciously used as an embellishment. 'rocking' must be preceded by a messa di voce ('inflated sound').[.. It is known that in the 17th century. I.. hu. `broken glass') ( 1 ). 1761) TWO EXAMPLES OF PIECES WITH GRACE NOTES ADDED BY THEIR COMPOSERS C. 36. Tartini writes: This embellishment (tremolo.. MIMI= s aJMIlli. It is an imitation of the Tremulant organ stop ( . . • ^^ .minor-Irmo.1•js ^•^ IMO/ ^^ ^^^ AINNIIMMINN MN NSW NW Mw I . Concerning the tremolo.-25.. WIWI IMO •LANIM1 01st:TEMIMINNW _ ow JIM/ S. ^ ^^^^í^iu^^^áYi á ^ / . French lutenists and viol players termed this effect the 'verre cassé' (lit. m =cm . hu. hu.. ). which lends a great deal to the melody when used appropriately. .^ . ) On a long note. in Italian 'tremolo'. whatever the metre ( .^..f l>• WI • MIIMi. ) This embellishment produces a very good effect on the final note of a musical phrase.. (1636) Marpurg adds: 'Rocking'.^.r 11 IMO 1MIN11•r•ta .47 VIBRATO Today vibrato has become an almost systematic. in fact../_^.s11t VIM ^^Y^^^ I^Y I^ I ^M^^y^^ ^ ^Y . It appears to have been particularly highly valued in Poland. DIEUPART: Overture (c1710) • .wr ^ RIM UM VANNES !I. obligatory embellishment.111111=11111. is nothing other than the repetition of a note on the same pitch. ^ MI /MI 1alM1111 ^^^ i i II (1) See also p. especially among string players. ) It also makes an extremely good effect on the long notes of any melody at all.. (L'Art de la flûte traversière.1. etc.^^^^^^•^+ M. . since in 1545 Agricola recommended flautists to use it in imitation of the Polish viol players. In former times.. It is made simply by an active movement of the lungs breathing out these syllables: Hu. The vibrato seems to take its origin from the rocking motion of the finger on the string of a viol or lute or on a clavichord key. when the note is a long one ( .. with the difference that the repetition is not made by fresh articulations (.if 11•111•110M1ss•11r1IIMINIIPUINIMMI rWO= 1•1111a-s111111t• ONOMINI ANNIMvirs IMMIMIN =NMI 1•t.

vibrato..1•1/M•11•1111•11INMAIi\f RUE ^ ^••••- .L.25.732 .11111/ SS L••sIMP fall port-de -voix and mordent J. ^ .Iis•• s .. One may add to these pieces embellishments which it was not customary to notate.^^^^^ mordent (lower) double 'cadence' shake with mordent a.s1•1 AM:7 I ICII•E-1111111.f 17/11 s. B. A..•110r . 1731) These pieces are embellished with all their grace notes: Courante • . Amme Y MPì=1NY M. ..« Nrs11111.•^^^^ a^^^ M sLL^ I. 'flattements'.11••..11111^^ •1•7•Ir MINIM •• WNW r•••••s•••/^^^^^L^1•11s1 J11•• •• IIM•1•11rNMI MOE I= MI IN••s l••••t1 ARUM.s IMMINI 1•MMIII .M.A•••17 '-s•s .. such as `threaded' and `inflated' sound. t^ r^M-//UNIMII =NI IN •11111111 mar I •rs• I•• =al s 1=IMIMI•10•1••ss•111M•r IMI MINN a sI•NIMI s IMO=1•a -•••11111111111111 N. de BOISMORTIER (Six suites of pieces for the transverse flute.ii/^^^^. B.WM 111•111••s •• MIMI MUM M•11•1111•111. _^^.7^ _r_^^^^s^ ^^^ ^ _ ^I -.. etc.Extract from Dieupart's table of grace notes: Explanation of signs shake .. _ •MOMINIIIW7 1 0/ ^ _^_7^^^__^^^^^_^.

diminutions and passages. Ornaments are therefore the variations added (by the composer or the performer) to the melodic line. of which Loulié gives the following definitions: Passages' are many little sounds that are interwoven amongst the simple grace notes. These 'passages' are commonly called doubles (va ri ants). î _? . Diminution. and at the same time the character of each variation must be marked by differences which sustain the attention and prevent boredom. thus distinguishing them from grace notes. The word variations encompasses the terms doubles. 33. Examples of `passages' or doubles (Montéclair): 'simple' 'passages' or variants Examples of diminution (Montéclair): 'simple' 'diminished' r lr r n-7 A. However much one multiplies and crams the variations. which is a sort of embellishment of the melody. whether by diminution or by 'passages' or other embellishments to adorn and embroider it.49 ORNAMENTS Let us recall (1) that by ornaments we are here referring to variations and embellishments designed to diversify and decorate the bare bones of the musical text.L. it must always be possible in the midst of these decorations to recognize the heart of the air.732 -F3•77:-F-- (1) See the chapter on Grace Notes. which is how we have described the little discretionary notes. consists of several measured notes put in place of a single one. trills. Rousseau defines variations thus: Under this name one designates every manner of decorating and varying an air. called the `simple'. .25. etc. p. appoggiaturas.

1111i. ) Passages are arbitrary..1111s..^^__^^ ^J^_ BMW ^ ft MOW= AO. the first in triplets. ). (J.11i JrNIIIIMMI a IIIIII•t __fi1Mt♦ ai111•ai1MINIIMI MOM I.4/1/1.. noble simplicity to the absurdity of doubles and irregular kinds of music ( . The first manner calls for a clear and sustained expression throughout the melod y.. above all..s•s•111f12 ^ (Double 2) WM: araa•l•11•ifi11M MO I aaali tt//1..11•1111al .fi^ : ^^^ s i ^J = ^ MEN Li^ 7 s '/:' ^^ ^^ ^>. finger vibrato.. firstl y according to French taste..•i/ s ai1•i•ia•11 s11rdEll ••. and. For greater clarity we have here set them out vertically under the theme of the minuet: Minuet (J... with respect to the manner in which it must be played and decorated.••••"---s I.L. short trills. (Quantz) A. From this 4th book." = a^i \V r<^^ a ^ •^ ^i^ir•^^^^ fff/fa^ •as arT••r^iilrt=ai^a7tl •^ u AIM raL. (Montéclair) If the French musician uses ornaments.6^11•a/ \r ^ ^a/". and everyone can play them more or less to taste and inclination.afaat MINf•i ft111 r 1M1 Am•-. his Italian neighbours. but in addition there must be no extensive passage-work.50 FRENCH ORNAMENTATION The French musician of the 17th and 18th centuries was inclined to make more use of grace notes than of ornamentation such as we have defined it on p.. which are added to melodic and expressive pieces and which only serve to disfigure them. Leclair. . here is the beginning of a Minuet which Leclair follows with two successive doubles (on the sanie bass). in contrast to his German..^fifa^^ffafafa/r^^^i -^ ^ M •^ i•^ I ... lack of affectation and.aatf^^^^ •^^•/^ r• l3tsi^ri'm (Double 1) or L. nor a lot of arbitrary grace notes.. LECLAIR) 1738 Allegro non troppo .nme<•frfif al' 1• rip) f/fifafsffifaifflf/lutiffur I. mordents. 25-732 . and one which cannot be stressed enough. ar 1111.aJ.•11111•111a•iJ•1• L// /11111/al•A111M1aaaalitaa/ia.fi•fi IIIIIIaAafINILt AMP' --• r ^ f•s7f^^ar^ aia^in•f /7 •T^•^•s ai•••arai•i•ralaft'a.t /111171111aal1•11aiIIMIiWa • u•110•lANIia• LAM •1111111•111MfY •/S AV^M1111 s r11 ILA fa1i1•i •^•^a•^ r1111111111. ) preferred melody (. secondl y according to that of the Italians.* MSS s ^ t♦ Omfiss rffit♦=eamt•fi. lastly. M.^ ^^^^ =11J MNP.--. his `good taste' persuades him to do so with discretion and poise (later we shall see examples of Italian `extravagance'): An important point.•arif M ts • sanfif = s f ai "Sa111111 s1=i•O1S =YIP' ^i (1) One can consider the Adagio in two ways.m. (1) The incomparable Lulli (.. M.MEN r^^^rir^rf s ^^^. fitness of expression.^^^^w ^^uut ^a^/^^^^^^rr i/'r ^V•—^ S.. 49..= afa•i1.." ^ ^itfa^ . is to avoid this confusion of notes. 4th Book of Sonatas for the Violin.4111•1111 SWIM L :./••11s1111P11111•1111=1.11111MWMII/ -/ /\ -.m:ai.ew•afÌ/' v7i /r •w1lA1fafl111M1iii/... etc.. .111•<.a•aff>♦ ^ira/ i^•alai^^a^iJaif♦•i BMW /7J^^I♦ Nfif... and a style always combined with the essential grace notes. aWi4I1•1J LI'1/V'l. the second in sixteenth notes.-ar I Mims mama NMI r a . turns. single and double shakes. such as appoggiaturas. 1738).r /1/11•15 MP" a^Vfa al .. r ^^ ft♦ s^>i ^r 3 -.

One can also choose another note in harmony with the bass. ). we have set out the simple form above the ornamented one): Adagio (M.51 Here is an example from Michel Blavet of the ornameï iation of a phrase upon its being immediately repeated (as before. care must always be taken in variations that the principal notes on which these variations are based are not obscured. . especially outside France.732 sf 4. this is why I would advise against becoming too involved in variations instead of rather applying oneself to playing a simple melody in a noble..25. provided that the principal note is heard again immediately afterwards ( .7 .^..t •'• u L•s••— scL/rl-sorJ---rms-am-arJIaI-1=1..^^^•^-^^-!' -r1111 _ I7I a•. and seek to perform the melody with different arbitrary variations ( .-M-ENIM--MNI– \V. . When variations are made on crotchets. whether greater or smaller than a crotchet.•s-I •rC•..limi arm n a-a. in the main they wish also to follow their own taste..i 1t Bah •s ONS–wrM •-/-•1am-rI • ••••• .. BLAVET) 1732 = ss ^-.. ) Likewise./ r'7••^-^ ^^^^= ^^^^^ MINIM I. ). and the same must be done for every variety of note.^–•^^7 l. Variations should only be made when the unadorned melody has already been heard (. is not content to play solely the essential grace notes.. A..--. whatever its value. ... appropriate and clean manner. unless one is sure of making them better still ( . melodies which are already well written and which already have enough grace notes must not be varied.. the first of one's added notes must usually be the same as that of the simple form. ). ) In general..L. let us cite the following: Almost every person who applies himself to the art of music. It is not enough to play a long succession of quick notes (. It is in this respect that the greatest abuses are perpetrated. W--IIII---1J =I -1111Ms-s11MI Mr MVO --mmll GERMAN ORNAMENTATION Amongst the numerous precepts given by Quantz.

.It•t• 'r^-^ t• _t•iiit•_Ÿtrrt•t•^ . J 1J^^r••r^\t^ r as ^ ^ t• •"/:.11^ NIP" rr/ `^ rr/.^ ^^t•t• •• LJ1IM•I<!t•rrtl.r•.7 .40 J110•11 srr..._ ..r•^r^1^n^rr ^I^.^_ ^^ -^r^r/r^o d) .^-zs^'a _ ^ .1=1 1r^t•-It /..imo -r.ìes.<tt•^^t•^ ^ w / t•t♦<I --.= ID = r ^t ^ r ^r r ♦ ^ris•r•a^^-rrrrs t• • ): mow •' r. ^ •í • i ^^••^r• r•ttr^ ION r. (1) Here..4^-r^-rrrrrr-r^rrllL-_==.r<f/^ ..d<s 411•111al1'».41M.111.•.!111111111•V _ ^ NW _ ^_: ^^ ..^^.^ + 1)+ /' -i-^.a^ ^^^^^ •^ .•r ` .1111t<r•• sMININLrI AIM Ial111._ t••tr•t•) asl^= / rr•^• r•r/\J•^ ^t ^s .11111t• •411111111t• 10=1•111•1•12ts t-•I^O•r^l^^r^t<t^^^r^^^ • ^ii ^..-on^imeMamoso•verr ama14 0.i=7^ JON= v•-rr•N^r ^•^I a•^•.IIMrt•.Ai &a r•-.^^ii^^^ r•• rt•tr •t. 111==1. ^^ r .s ^^ m _ Ì ..//1sP'77•11.^ ^áe Lr^^1r_r" .•^./ 8 íiií •^ ^ r ii^ 7^^ ^^ ^ av.25..•PW rr•••••t• ^•` —•^— I VW .^ ^ ^ ^=ó^ r i^ = . .a^rrr.i..PMMIMa. from Telemann.a ^^^ ^^^r •a•.----.SS is ^s^ w ^=isss• ^^.)/ r.^r^-•t• • ^ ^+^ ._ ^: • ^^^ <t!•t•^I^t• I. are two examples of ornamentation. . ^sil .v n+w+ r __ í/t••I•••L•s<tt•r!•t♦^•1^. and Couperin les goûts réunis' (conjoined tastes)..4/f ^^^^^^^^ =M r ^ ^_ 11111111::: . • ^^^ t/^ min)f tL7^ r. /P'".^Irri•'rr rrsrr^r^ 1.n^r-••r-rrrr•mr+c•ca. P.AMNI r^^t••^r^^ .rA^^! 1=i .4/•s/=11111/Ir =It i^C: s^i/„. `' ^ .r V 9 l >• . . 52 QUANTZ: different ways of varying a single phrase: 7x i "NV 1110111ININP7 <117:011/71 •/ -MINN _^ ^ ^t..__ .. rt r• Jt••M .^•: ^• r• .I7 ^--^^^^ .. I /` .MOM an^ ^ ^I ^ ^r<rl ^.t•t_t• In the matter of ornamentation Germany underwent French and Italian influen.^ ^t.a•-.r• \\Ì OM MIN /.I]. WNW _^ rl AMMO IMMUNE ^^^^^ IMI )l1111 ^ -.—- — _^ -_ ^ . ^•^.L.-rr. Al 411. mt .L•^ ^ ^^^ ^ • MIN INN r•W ^ NW 11. t•`.^r.1.11.ïi r^ ^^ /1111.s1r•r.732 } • ^ l^ ^•: :._r ^`i/.r••.. the second more Italian in the style of its ornaments: Example 1 Sicilienne (G. IMI IM í lV•^t♦ rim mil r -_/' _ w-^-J+M-_)^--•_-)_+_^^/r••+•..^r/ •/ :vta_^ =r•^ r•rrr•-r)rrt• t^ ^^^-!.I M ^ ^.r^ _ \^'Ir7^7M / '^»1 •.•r^ ® .. 4. •rrrr•^ r^^ u.^ ^^r^ ..^r^~••r • ^ ^•rrrr•rr•.r• rJ..^•.rrr.1.1=1 •^ • ^•^^^=t•t•^^^^^-• •.r• ^^^ ^r ear ^ ^^^ ..^ e^ .•t<^^a•^ ^i ^•^^ ^^oi•4r^i i=ii^á ^^i ^ i •^i ^^^ 1\•. TELEMANN) 1732 /MOM ^. _ (1) Resulting in what Quantz called 'style mêlé' (mixed style).t•^rrrr. A. the first more specifically French (mainly grace notes).Art..

.♦1=1=11 I ININIMPsII s MMMM.I7<7 -AND -.JI /MV/JM^MIM=^I. / . .I/. •^^-.MM-.• I_ W•I7^7 w^. I. -IMM -IME1111 In the example below.t7=/.M^ MMM •MEMM I IME MIM ... TELEMANN) 1732 I•M../M1IMMMMMNMI.MNI ^.25...01•111MINa. 1 MI ^ M. M MM/.•t]M•MVJ-.' • o..i..^^^^ .53 Example 2 Adagio (G./ /W7^"./ JI.^^MI^.BIM MMMMr MINI= -II....L.I711 —/I M OEM MM EMI MMM7t l.I MS 7MINN M=J..^^J DYA 1 IN ^ . Bach (harpsichord) .-I M MMMM I••• M.t._M - M tM. .4sI .M.• Jai/ /./.IIM-MMMJM I.1 l»i^r.•1111111 . •11111 M MN.MJ MMIIIM/TM1/gat I'1 II /JMM.. /..S. _ ^ ..MIEN Im.M-MCMMMMI-M-M-I^MM-MIII^I MM-1 .IMMM ¡roam =SIM II NI MIIMIMMMIMMIIMMEMEINISnMr7r 1r111MM. Min I MIR MIN MON= -MMMM^ I .iM _.^^^^ .^M-c>r-^MMM/ \./ .t I.M.M!•..7f ^^ ^ /' ^a^M.J.MEM-M EMI MM^MMI s A.a.. -••••••..i....I. . 1J-RMMMM1111•111.. + ^/MMEINSI! M— MMME IEIMMr7MMM..61M I . .^^. —II ^r^_ tMM f^ ^ ^ — ^^^ • • MEMO MIN ^ • -.I 7 M M MM ^I M^ J----M-^ I._MI MM-M..• 1J61Mr7f II -.IIIIIIMr111111111I I --M.. .M— I -••=1• M-MENIP ^ (^) ^^^i I• ••1 I= 1 .61111111s-ME NOMIP711I/t-I / .^ ^ •••••-10•E._ MMN...^V _ ^ . Jr 1 rw I JJMIM AI 1M J1 rs rvsMMMI•s ... ss•I4JMMEI-M-II a • 1^MM^_M _MM` MMMMMMMr-^MN-MMM--^-MMSuMMM^ —I—I—i .MM-MI••=M. o^ .I • ^M.J1>a 7M.1•NM -EINS =II MMMMMM71111M^-ANNIENIMAINIEN MMMIMMM MM1=11=.MMYIaI.^^. M^.•=1=NI MS= MM-MINIMNIS -* _ =.._ -MI.MYMIMMIMMMM. . M M.^ -• ^M^M . I ..MMMMMMM-. Bach has ornamented (for the harpsichord) a theme taken from tarcello.^/ J.J ! 1^N/.-7-IsI I I JMI MO MMM-I 1.^I^IMt/ ....ls./11-IaMrM ^—s -M ISM INI ill =FM -MM.•r • M I'1•I WS.M-=MN! •Ali iM--MMM-M MMIM MSS INN M ME.Irmer7 -..Jtt I 1T Man= =. P.JMMM MI s ^_ \•I MMM..MM=ME l.• MM/M s' MS/-Y^. 1 1 1 IMMf...7I•. . . _^MMI ^ SI _ ^— .4 • IZa ...=NM IME= MMI7 -MMI IMM-1111111M^7 17i.-^MMMM -^MM MI-.MiI.0 M^^.^^ ••11M.sMI. J...^.MI^ ^t^^s^ J.E^.^.^ ^ . NM I= _ ^MM^ • MI.M.-.1MMEM/ !A M-117311111s 1 1 1 1 J.I -MI-MrMI WNW =.MMMMI.•111I111=i1J1Ns-III IMO ENS =NM./ AlMr1 I. .MMMMM^.^^MM NO IN MI.r 7s MM. —`M M-I^I I sos-1M.732 .61s11Yi41.0MMM IMI-.MIMMMMMMMMM ..•{MNIS.= = =MEIN= =111/41sINNI lt. 1 . ^MM INS -M.^ >_.ME1!-7i.611-11.1%/I IIIJ•IMEM=.f ILMIY^MM^.A.MI M1^^MIM^-MI M^^-^ ^.CM= .6IMi /II.. S.^^ISI0.^ M-MM^-IM^M-MMM=1.IJI /•./'M^t M rf .M1M-MI-r• 16.JMM . iIME• MMMM_IMMMMM -^ • Emir .MIM .IN= MIMM-MMIME= .I.^..!•YrLr.I7 N_..M MiMM• s M ^MMyIMMMMMMM M--M .MMM MIN MMMI .aMM.^MM M. " MI' .1 a ^-III-II./ Ml EINMPIIIMIIIIIIIIIIMM-MMr/ 1 /7.IIMJMJM MEIN M.=^ ....1••st^•••'".I^I/_lE1MM MI MI. s-M.0 J716 =7 M^1// -IMMI I •.M -MM.1MS.IM7MM MM—ll .W.17. 7JMM=^MMIMMI-I•IIMM1-MMI-IMM JMM IM MOVIE= EMMA EE I 7lM-IM0MMMM/•. It will be especially noted how Bach varies his ornamentation at different repetitions of the same motifs: Adagio (MARCELLO-BACH) Alessandro Marcello (1684-1750) (oboe) I soy ^ - M^^^^MIMMMI.....

^=r.—•^ •t^..-•/-a^—••.••7^ •••a.= /•^ .^ W.•^. ^i.^.^ •/. -MI MEN ^1 .I .^_ ^.^^ .^^^t'.•77í /r ••M a—ß.^^ ^.^ ^^^1 ^C-.:.^.. .r ^^^• S V.^.••1111•1•211111111^..^s .^^a^...^ 1( .^ 3 :^a /J!17 rt ^.^. ^ ^ -.•••s••. U ^^. >.+r Illa i :• ^sa^ ^ ^^•i ^ ^s^^w^ ^ í^ ú+= rI• ^^ WINNO -.^^ ^.41111111111.••at ^.•. II ^ M .^—^••^s —•^. Inn NOME •110•Y•••.I.m^r^—!^..1..^^•r ^••^ T %1 ^\ !/r•u ' in— Min I • MO/ 1111s1•• ^: r•^ a.•.._^. ^ •^ •a^^—•a^ / .^^•^^--.11/211111•1111•MB I:—:'^•^ .a.•••.s 1...^••I. vr•a•—^^ ^^•^^^•---nr—r^••^y-••. ^../ 1 aI— ^ mar INN •r i^--^ ^^..•^s^ ^^—.....—.a^....•a.--^^•OM.^•...-...• .^^A^1••.—^....—..•••.. WWI MUM -.^I..l^P ._rr= ---.M.•1 a.—..O .^..1...^•. — N•_• ^ --^-/^—^ i.".•• ^.^ L:/J1-.•.. ^ .. »• _-./1/~/5/41>—aa..^••^• .•.0 ^•' .1MI ••.•../.._... a / •— -'-•IIMI.p..^......Il. U. .=1:11•1•1•10••••1...\S•^ ^^^^•^^^• _ ^^^^^^^^^^D^^^ .^r. 401..Jat ••.•^..^mJ— —rLS.^^—+.Ir•••I•11•MI ^^^ r ••••s•1 ^^ MANNI. 1 ii/•••—••r••I— fii AlIM11^a•1••r .•—^^ • s •^•0•M•• ^ ^.•I^.s -.wi i1.- A. ^^. ./ ..1 La/ ^ ••a• M .^^^^^ —^•I a-s :i.^ ^.a-^^1•^ .^•/—•1•^•. .A.•••••••=11111 ^.al—_•^'_•^^_s -!^.^.r.. ^----•-.54 ^• ..•• _.^•i^. .__•^^__^_.r. —^^./.^. • ^^YY m—a['IL .... NV ^ • ---E4/111/- - .1-71 \Vs ^ { NMI •— ^ all.. —^^^ •-..^ • ^ .25.••^•i ^ ^ ...^.^^^^—a-at^^ ^ r •^^•^^ ^.s I.Ar^ tit ..^ -^^._•111•.r j^ I-r-r rrw. ^...^iii^i^^ -- .•^•.//// UMW ^•1.11•M.. Ism WI 11111M.•_...^•1^ 1 ^^^!^' -•-^• ^ ••s••••s+•• ' ' IIIIrir .— _^^.^ r—•...-..^ >.... • smormil ..WV NNW • •-^•^--.L..•^ ^.732 .-.^.^^^ Nowa.. ••7^a1a1/ •.....Ras --/ ^a•rr^ -I r a/^.J J •111•1•11-8•11 a :-.. f J^1M ...--1^.rJJ •..—..^^ a..r^...• ••.0 1.01M•11 .^^^^ 0 s•••s•••••••.J aV.41•1 ^.. _ l'Or.5.. ..•^'— .^al-1^•--`. -• •11... 1^ 1... .!.-. ^----r -.^•a^•^•s•.r•••• ^...

the performers contribute as much as the composers.^rrl/ /^^J/^^^^rRilJ^J^^^ ^^ s^1^^^^iM1^ ^. within the limits of his capacity and judgment..^^^^^ ^•^. o.^ ^_. .55 ITALIAN ORNAMENTATION Quantz: In music composed in the Italian taste.1.of certain passages written in an extremely simple. ) One cannot deny that for a piece to make its full effect in Italian music. dry manner.r /^^ •^^^a_^ s ^^^---^ +--r-^i-^^ ^ s--^^^^'w ^^ u ./7 r^s r r.^^r MU =Y:a^^^a^^^^^ ^'_^ W. much is left to the caprice and capacity of the player (. _^ _.. Knowledge (of figured bass and the art of composition) is essential in Italian music. to vary them repeatedly so as constantly to surprise the listener with new inventions ( . Here the (following) example may be taken as a model where these optional ornaments are fully written out in notation: Adagio (QUANTZ) a. yet always consonant with the harmony. .s-NE =NNW NMI ^ s=r01111111 =MI =IN ^ SLAM N ^. leaving t'e player free.. s) + ^r ^^^ I li III..... 1 i M ^:a/ ta^^:3^sM. )... .^^ _^^^_^^^^^w^^^^r^. .i. one does not content oneself with these little French grace notes. . this is because . Wizen perfori p ing in the manner of the Italian taste (in playing and decorating the Adagio). but one tries to find such larger ornaments as are elaborate and refined.

^^.•Y^L^ ^-^•1^ A/. especially now.^... i11^ ^ ^^ __ -MY I ^^ If•. •101. . -.25./D/J/MEMO . wanting to imitate the Italian taste.. This constitutes only one suggestion among some fifteen different variations offered by him.ss•. ^ s^st /- - I I. the line of which is already over-written in the first place.^^ .1. .rJ•^^ ^^^^A ^ ^l tL ai^—. : A..^1• ^ ^^^7`^7^•^ ^ 1^1 I•_^^• I^ .. moreover.-_ ..T1^^ s •• ^. NIMI. .41Is --_ .. ^ ^r _^^i^ll^l•.^.The Italians often decorate melodies with even greater ._^I^J. .r-./C^{ -Jr{.rI.^.s ^ . ...• _ — .^ {{ .. ^^ r SIM MIMI MM ^^..r^^.... he leaves it to the performer to invent others as he pleases .. . . which is not always to the taste of the French: They (the `passages'...-' _ 7.t 1^t 1^•i -^ OL1 ^ 1^^^rss ^ !^_^ I!•H ^^lr^^^^^•^ ^J. ornaments) are practised less in vocal than in instrumental music.^{^ . _^Ji^ r^ ^ _ -^^ ^.^ J^^1A •. disfigure the nobility of simple melodies by variations which are often ridiculous.•••••s . ^^..J^^^^ ^:Jr^ ^-^^•^ ^^r^^^^ ^^ 1^1/•J/ .L. imaginative freedom and virtuosity.m•^. when instrumentalists. ^ ^7// 1//f lr^ sssr^^^^As^•1^^•V7^^= 1..r :^^•s ^ ..^^ lfJ 1 l<: Js 11•^=^^=i^{^ ^ ^• ^.^^ _ r I • I Aasoritir^^ r •^=>v. .rs . . t ^. (Montéclair) Here is how Tartini decorates the melody of an Adagio.^1Ar.732 -7...."".56 : .

^^ -^ 1•••••••=1I .^^ r7t:•••••••7111•MI1 ^:..L.11.^^-Unlr . • r^r - imp A. A =Ana e t c.^^^^ ^ ^..1.. .^..^al^r^^^. IBM 11••Il ••• •1•11•1•••1•1110 11..MIN 1=11•IIIMIM =MINI EMI •••• _ _"11111111..^l^^^^ u. TARTINI (1692-1770) Adagio ^ sì^^^ 3f^^^ ^^^ t ii ' i >r^^^^^r ^^ci i^ ^n i..u••c1•••s••••=1 \C •41•1• MUM MINIM .^i n ••••/.1r s ^^^^^^^= =^^^•1•^ ^=^L1 i •s•1 s mown MIIM!!•IIIIIMINI MOM= `^. ..41•• •••11•I ^I --s--41=„11111•1111A11611p11111:M_ 117••••s•1 I i /CI I' II :: 11 •..1.• •^^ ^ A.y.732 á.—sommtw.^s^^i^ =^ ^ =IMAM NE EMI ^ s•ss••••.-^...MNI i ^ _.G.•111•11<1••••••111111 IN MOM MI MUM MI IN •••• NM OMNI NB ^' %MN MIN s 71•••• s ••••s••••••r1111•"• s ••••••• .? 1•7^71•• MN ••••••1111•1•/ NAB 1i.1• s ^^^7r^ ••••••1111•11MINI••1•11•11a11•1•1•111•11. EOM= •••••s•11iit•1M•11J1M•111MI•lwaf Jai ! /t. IN L/ // 1 /••••s •11=11MrrL/J•11JI s•1•17ii••• s• s •••• í + + • ^^ 'I<^^u^^7.^^^ r ri -7011^ • I AR:VW 177 W •••11•111=1•• s •111•11•1101 •••sr115•1•s 11••rI vv.1^r^A^^:^r^ ^ìu117 ^rr 17^^ AM".25.1/7I 1 iJ•1111MIIIIMIIMI•11•1JINI/ IM1i/11J IJILII /• MIMI 111•11•• s••1111•11••s •• s ••••••• s^^^S. 1•^ ^^r^ J♦ ^771^^::^•^^^J^ti4Y1•^ ^i1^^— ..>t^= ^— } _ ^^^^^ le- + 1^^ Itt. (+) . us.

and they have n-ver been used in French music. there is then no better solution than to choose one of the most pleasing passages.. became fashionable ( .^. and the Italians excel in this sort of decoration. slow pieces.y ... )..^ r^s 1^^^^^^^1 A ^J^^^^^_^-^^ ^ prises the ear with new s inventions... to wit.. and to leave a singular impression on his mind.^.58 THE CADENZA (improvised on a pedal-point) Here we refer to that optional ornament which. It was only in the period roughly between 1710 and 1716 that cadenzas such as we now have..irrr . . the French have abstained ( . . and to fashion the cadenza ^ ^ from that ( .^ Therefore one must al^ I 'II MN OM MI MINI M r 41/7 AN .. -7 MUM-NI . for this reason it is sufficient to make only one cadenza in a piece ( . they require not so much knowledge as a lively mind. It sometimes happens that other preoccupations may prevent one from inventing something new on the spot. Here are some important extracts: It is perhaps not yet fifty years since these cadenzas became fashionable 1.rr >7. r. and in fast pieces which are serious at the same time.. Cadenzas for the voice or for a wind instrument should be such as can be completed in a single breath. ). )..i.-----.. They only occur in sad.. A string player may make them as long as he wishes. touching admiration through something unexpected. Cadenzas should always partake of the principal sentiment that prevails throughout the course of a piece. _______ —_ ^^ ^^_ ^ ^^i ^^' \ •^ -^^ ^^:^-^^^ ^ ` s figures of different kinds: ^t pi/ :. nor to confuse the one with the other. / air NM /ta Kra_ Wear NMI r-••The more one surv:^. with a pause in the bass. However.il111s MIN ways blend together . They must contain a short repetition or imitation of the most agreeable passages found therein. Up to now. (Quantz) It is rare for pedal-points to be made in our Latin music. ) A. . and elevate to their highest point the passions one is aiming for ( . rh the Italians. ^^:^ * NB •L' :r ^ ^ ^^^r^w^ w /^al. on the penultimate bass note.. .. ^. ..732 .25.. (Choquel) Quantz devotes a whole chapter to the manner of performing the cadenza. is added in the principal (solo) part at the end of a piece. he stands to gain more from appropriate brevity than from tedious length (. Their greatest beauty is in that they arouse the listener to a new. )..L. depending on the performer's wishes and imagination. at least until now (1759).. _ _ Care must be taken here not to mix the spirited with the sad in an absurd manner. the more pleasure one gives. ). A lively cadenza will consist of large disjoint leaps and of spirited passages with an admixture of triplets and shakes: (.. ... ). The aim of cadenzas is to surprise the listener yet again unexpectedly at the end of the piece. the fifth of the key in which the piece is written.. provided that they are sufficiently rich in invention. Cadenzas should be invented virtually on the spot.1•1111=1111•1 ^^^^^^^_— NM MN ISM s•••1111•1J ! .41111111111111 s w. I do not know whether tastes migra change. who have been imitated by the Germans and by other nations who are intent on singing and playing in the Italian style. iNI..

IIIIMIrs 11•111s 11111111•110 EMI JIM/ tJt11•11t11•1111Ms /IN/ 1rINIII• WI MI !NW s•1•11111/ O111111 s •••••t1•11•1 ^/^ =NM /IV=. (..^ ^ bass. over the first of which there is an arch with a dot inside it.. ). The example du (opposite) may serve as a model: One may stay on the first note under the arch with the dot.^ .. decreasing and increasing the strength of the sound.1111Jr /1111711•1111111JI MOrINNINWIlf MI ^^^^.732 ./ /•111•1111171J ^^ s JM^t^ ^1^t0^^ ^^1 1111•11 Y >•MMI.a/IN/MINt11111... but for instruments. though even so. in the Adagio of a concerto.7 /Jtt^_^^^t=_ t^^^^^ V•^ ^^ i^^^^ .= mom other keys is not permitted..^ .. Sometimes they are encountered in vocal pieces.t amor..^... they are much rarer. for instance. they may be found.25.. t/ MOti t 11MSL A melancholy cadenza is almost entirely made up of intervals which are very close together. A.^.=1111M1._.) But since it is not possible to write out cadenzas just as they should be played. . 42. (messa di voce) (1) for as long as one's breath permits... at the beginning of an air. ss1111sIr >. and it is used to give the singers an opportunity for making an embellishment at this point (. intermingled with distances: I should make some further comments on fermatas..MO MIMI IIM MIN =MI MIMI sI MNr MINI tMOW" Vf -.-1•111 r^^r^ EL: (ii) 41) . (Quantz) (1) Messa di voce (`inflated sound'): see p..59 •^f^^.111M111 . forming an interval of a descending fifth.T..t1IIMII OM^^^J•^^^^ 1J s =a^v^.RIM I ^ ^^^^^^..rs:.. 1J1^W s JIt^^^M^t:. as passing into 11101111 lMIMIMM7 . ^^^ w r • t:11111111.. ON ". where a pause is made ad libitum.. However... The fermata usually consists of two notes..L..NNW /111s1. Thus it is only by paying great attention to cadenzas played by several able people that one will learn to perform good ones too. one must have enough breath left over to complete the subsequent decoration in the same breath..1111•1111M4W ... any number of examples of well-wrought cadenzas would not be enough to give a complete idea.4111/ . ^ t^r r^!!t 1. ^. This embellishment should consist only of such principal va Va do notes as are found in the chord of the figured ^ ..

. for the most part. A.(Let us remember that Quantz is writing this in 1752.. Gracieux (graceful). Concerning rapid tempi. such as Agitato.L. namely one which is fast and one which is moderate (in the ratio of 2 to 1). C.. Each of these degrees is further modified and subdivided into others. .fin Allegretto is written and performed today. were marked. Adagio. 12/8 etc. Gai (spirited) and Vite (fast). N. Quantz goes on to say: It must be observed that above all else it is necessar y to give as much consideration to the word written at the beginning of a piece to indicate the tempo as to the quickest notes that make up the (rapid) passagework. Quantz remarks: In the past. of which one must distinguish those which indicate only the degree of rapidity or slowness.-.. Con brio.. .. etc. ^< .. Where the words Allegro assai ( 1 ). Presto. Quantz suggests a pulse beat (at 80 to the minute) as a standard which could se rv e to give one an idea of each tempo in question. and thirty-second notes or sixteenth notes in bars of 3/8. etc. there were certain rules about this and they were to be observed as they ought to be. a great many pieces that are at present completely ruined by an ill-chosen tempo would make a better effect and bring more honour to their composers. Allegro and Presto. then.. Andantino. what was said to be played exceedingly fast was performed almost twice as slowly as today. and those which additionally indicate the character and expression of the Air. 1 . Thus the great number of fast notes formerly found in instrumental pieces by German composers were much more difficult and perilous in appearance than they proved in performance. and these words are rendered in French (with much less precision and in a much looser sense than in Italian music) by the following: Lent (slow)..The Various Types of Adagio and Allegro CLASSIFICATION — TEMPO — CHARACTER There are five principal modifications of tempo which. etc. etc. such as Larghetto. (Quantz) To do this. are expressed by the words Largo. If. or the major errors that can be committed in this regard. 3/4. depending on whether there are sixteenth notes or eighth notes in bars of 2/4. Gustoso. Modéré (moderate). 6/8. Andante. 61. etc. Vivace. Allegretto or Prestissimo.) • ^ ^ G CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPO INDICATIONS ACCORDING TO MARPURG The three gradations of slow tempo are: Very slowly Adagio assai ( 1 ) Adagio di molto Slowly Adagio Largo Lento etc. (1) See note (2) on p. ranging from slow to fast. The French of today still.Pt •... for each of these different tempi has two principal kinds of pulse.25332 Presto or Prestissimo Allegro assai (1) Allegro di molto Velocissimo Vivacissimo Vivace Poco presto etc. 9 Largo} ( i ) or di molto. (Rousseau) IMPORTANCE OF THE TEMPO No-one can doubt ( ) the importance of seizing upon the tempo required by each piece. observe this moderate speed in fast pieces. Less slowly Andante Poco adagio Andantino Poco largo arghetto Poco lento etc.B.. The three gradations of fast tempo are: Very fast Fast Allegro Veloce Less fast Allegretto Poco Allegro Poco vivace Poco veloce Allegro ma non troppo (non tanto. the music was written in the same manner and played barely faster than . . Furioso.. non presto) etc.

= 80 when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6 quick notes (sixteenth notes) to the . = 160 when this metre contains no semiquavers =40 when the bass moves in quavers J = 160 when there are semiquavers and quaver triplets 3/4 J = 40 (Adagio assai.L. Affettuoso Pomposo 4/8_(2/4) J = 160 when these metres are taken fast 6/8 J.25. which is its usual sense. = 160 when these metres are taken fast (Alla 12/8 J1 = 160 siciliana) 12/8 J.bar 3/8 J. as we can see. Mesto J=40 CJ = 40 Adagio cantabile Adagio spiritoso Arioso Larghetto Soave ¢J=80 CJ=80 Allegretto Allegro ma non Allegro ma non Allegro ma non presto etc. Quantz. which should be performed in twenty seconds. = 107 (Presto) when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6 quick notes (sixteenth notes) to the bar (Arioso) (the metronomic signs for all these metres refer to the Allegro tempo) (1) Note that this tempo is the same as that indicated by Engramelle for an Allegro of twenty bars in duple time. but should remain within a prudently moderate slow or fast speed depending on the different characteristics that have to be expressed.61 CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPO INDICATIONS WITH THEIR METRONOMIC VALUES ACCORDING TO QUANTZ 4. . here takes 'assai' to mean 'a great deal'. troppo tanto CJ= 120(1) Allegro Poco allegro Vivace 4a=160CJ =160 Alleg ro assai (2) Allegro di molto Presto etc. the adverb 'assai' for some means 'a great deal' and for others means that the metre and the tempo should be in no way exaggerated. that is to say: 2/4 J = 120 or ( J = 120 etc. J = 40 Oh= 40 Adagio assai 12) Adagio pesante Lento Largo assai 121 Grave etc. Lento and Mesto if the bass only moves in crotchets 3/4 (Adagio cantabile) =80 if the bass only moves in crotchets and the melody is arioso rather than sad 314 3/4 J• = 107 (Presto) when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6–. Dolce Poco andante Maestoso Alla siciliana etc.732 . A. = 80 when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6 quick notes (eighth notes) to the bar 3/8 J1 = 80 3/8 J. (2) According to Brossard. quick notes (eighth notes) to the bar J.

graceful etc. vivacity. Often it also means to sing or play quickly. pace. to walk with even paces. that all the notes must be made equal and the sounds well separated Allegretto Allegro diminutive of Allegro. pretty. brisk. pompous.62 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SÉBASTIEN DE BROSSARD Largo means extremely slowly. and consequently almost invariably slowly means smoothly. playful. in a leisurely way. sweet. It roughly the same as Allegro means fast.732 ^a . with majesty. . etc. without hurrying. bordering on the lively and animated Vivace Italian adjective often taken ( . etc. tenderly etc. spirit. or at a bold. consequently almost invariably slowly and drawing out the metre a little lovingly. comfortably. animated. j as an adverb to show that one must sing or play with fire. as if broadening the metre and emphasizing main beats that are often unequal Larghetto Crave Adagio Affettuoso (or affetto) Andantino means that one must beat time and sing and play gravely. way always means lively and really animated. but in a graceful. etc. rapture. means a little spirited. This normally indicates liveliness. and consequently gravely and slowly. etc. blithely. especially for the continuo bass. most graceful manner possible means in a majestic. -25. that is to say the metre must be hurried along or its beati made extremely short.L. sedately. spiritedly A. though with vivid and well-marked expression agreeable. emphatic manner. frenzy or swiftness. and consequently almost invariably slowly Andante from the verb andare': to go. means. . etc. Presto Prestissimo Arioso Dolce Maestoso Soave Légèrement (lightly) means in the saine tempo as if one were singing an Air means that the voice must be made tender and the melody rendered in the softest. very often quick and nimble but also sometimes at a moderate speed.

25-732 . slower than Andante.^ ^_ A.e() Very fast adjective taken as an adverb (..' ^ • v ^ . s t ^^^i. It corresponds almost to the Italian Vivace (1) See note (2) on page 61. quick. animated tempo.. the most lively of all after Presto. a certain gravity in performance adverb which suggests leisurely. 7. a pulse halfway between the spirited and the fast. 61 this word indicates a tempo still faster than 'Gai' (spirited).L. ' ^^ ^ . In French: 'Vif. 1 iM i d ^ ^i ^ . ) it is often applied to transports of fury.1I ^ _::^ ^ • 1 n!!! ^ i ^ loi s ^a^ .^ ^11 . .) indicates a tempo halfway between Andante and Adagio.t^ ^^ ái l^ tllh -%4 u ^ q ^ ^ ' trill t ^^1 t±.. a slightly less slow tempo than Largo. the metre being slightly less vivacious adjective taken as an adverb ( . It describes a tempo that is decided without being lively. and it is also the indication for a spirited tempo.-.. and in addition. s 1l `74.BI ^ . `ia1 i rr ^ ^ . s i ^ ^ _ ^s .. ^ ^1 ^ ^ ^ ^i ^ sometimes an even more precipitate t mpo is indicated by the superlative Prestissimo or Presto assai.-fi ^ ^^. s1^i^^ ^ __ tl/ ^ ^ ::: 1^^ 7. corresponding almost to what in French is denoted by the word 'Gracieusement' (gracefully) indicates a more moderate liveliness (than Allegro).s c iii ^ i ii` ` ^..63 VARIOUS TEMPI ACCORDING TO JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU a tempo slower than Adagio.1 1.. i i^111 s .^ orr.. and an affectionate and sweet expression in the character of the melody the metre slightly less spirited (in relation to Andante): it should be particularly noted that the diminutive Larghetto has quite the opposite meaning (in relation to Largo) present participle of the Italian verb andare'.r . But ( .. .. ^ 11.`7^ 'l'-`: w 4. ^ L -= ^ ^ III— ^ .^!.^ ^ ¿ ^ %ÌÌ ! C 1 /ir ^J `ÿ ^ IìGI^ •Z ^^• ^. RBI R ti ^^ v this word Dolce (sweet) is the opposite not only of strong (`Fort') but of harsh (`Rude') ^ •r iw ^b ` ^.^^I . steady performance adjective taken as an adverb (. quickly) (see below: Légèrement) means fast s•". 114^ III. ^ °é r ' ^^.t.41i1^ ` If^ 't J 1. 11C11^ ^r t 1 : Ï^^ 5 .^. i..s .. 1 11^.^ ^ in t :to. Vivement' (quick.1. ^ .' to go. ^ îít^ I^..f'/^/. ' ^. - ^^ 4. frenzy and despair.: ^ ^` ^^'I. and very close to Andantino adverb which indicates slowness in tempo. i s:1^1^ ^ ^ ^ti!' .r^ s . . and the very ultimate in slowness.^¡^r s ^ r• ^" r ^ ^`111 ^ s^. It shows that the long sounds should be 'threaded'.1^ ^ ^^ ^ •u r ^ ^.12 ^ r ^Il 1 f♦ lr ^^. .^f ^ 4111. .^^ tali . ' ^^ •\ [Ili L J F' ^^i /s . . ^.-^^. • s1 _^ñ ^ ^^^ ^is . ^ zs till ^. elaborate and appropriate for important Airs t:... .) indicates a style of melody that is sustained. etc. ir : ^`''= 11'^ .. .. which are anything but sprightly spirited. ) means lively. the beats and the metre drawn out. to be performed with boldness and fire.

except when the composer requires some notes to be cut short in order to waken the listener who may have been languishing.L. SWELLING THE SOUND When in an Adagio the soloist alternately swells and diminishes the strength of the sound. firstly according to French taste. In order then to play an Adagio well. Andante. NOTES FOLLOWED BY A SILENCE Especially when rests are encountered. it must be judged in the total context of the piece. . . As regards the two ways of playing and decorating the Adagio. .) An Adagio can be compared with a flattering supplication ( . An extremely sad Adagio is normall y shown by the words Adagio di molto or Lento assai.64 OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ADAGIO SHOULD BE PLAYED (1) (extracts): J. on the other hand. TONGUING In the Adagio. V. thereby putting light and shade into his expression. so as not to play a very sad Adagio too fast or. A. a lyrical Adagio too slowly. QUANTZ DIFFERENT SORTS OF ADAGIO—THEIR CHARACTER AND TEMPO Thé principal mood of the Adagio is one of tenderness and sadness. etc. the note after the dot must not be stressed. The Adagio affords more occasion than the Allegro for both exciting and subduing the passions. see the chapter on Ornaments. 50 (now (1)) and p. it must be slurred with the preceding note. As to the tempo required by each particular piece.-C. it is better to sustain the last note a little longer than its value calls for ( . the mind must as far as possible be in a tranqur almost sad state (. . each note should be caressed and soothed.25. Largo. . DOTTED NOTES When in the Adagio there are slurs over dotted notes (see example)..53 (Telemann). Arioso. and rough tonguing must not be used. secondly according to that of the Italians. The right method of playing an Adagio requires the soloist to allow himself to be held back by the accompanying parts rather than to go ahead of them. In playing. the sound must not be cut off at once. one must also be governed by the principal sentiment intended by the composer in Iris piece. an excellent effect is produced. Larghetto. Andantino. the sound gradually diminishing to piano (see Quantz's chapter on the Violin): (1) Subheads by J..B. the key and the metre—knowing whether it is equal (duple) or unequal (triple)—also provide some elucidation.732 . p. so to speak. Affettuoso. J. A pathetic Adagio should be clearly distinguished from these other kinds of slow piece: Cantabile. N. ) letting it die away gradually.

65

A A A
A

If there t a dot after the second note, in an Adagio the first note must be played as shortly as in an Allegro, but without as much force:

A A A A
A

THE EXPRESSION OF ASCENDING CHROMATIC SEMITONES When in a slow movement there are semitones intermingled with the melody, those which are raised by a sharp or natural sign should be l^^ °...^ :^ perceived as louder than the others; this is produced 'V7^^^ sot 1•q -^I N3•ININMM.^'^^,".MOI when, on wind instruments, the wind is increased: (')

s (>)

^^

A
A

GRAVE A Sostenuto, which is the opposite of Staccato and which consists simply in a well sustained, serious and harmonious melody, in which there are many dotted notes which must be slurred in twos, is normally headed with the word Grave; for this reason it must be played with a long, weighty bow-stroke. A Grave, in which the melody consists of dotted notes, should be played in an elevated, lively manner (... ) The dotted notes must be swelled as far as the dot, and they must be softly and briefly slurred onto the following notes, unless the interval is too large. For very distant leaps, each note must be stressed separately. If such notes rise or fall by step, the long notes, which are most often consonances and cduld ultimately displease the ear, may be preceded by a port-de-voix. (1)

A A

A

A A
A

o
A

i

ADAGIO SPIRITOSO An Adagio Spiritoso is most often composed in triple time with dotted notes, its melody being often interrupted; and the expression requires even more vivacity than we have requested (for the Grave). For this reason the notes should be stressed more than slurred, and fewer grace notes should be used. Above all, ports-de-voix which finish with half-shakes may be used (2) ; but when some cantabile ideas are found amongst the rest one must adapt one's performance to these as well, mingling the serious' with the charming in alternation.

A A

(... ),

*fl ow'

If many conjunctly rising or falling semiquavers are found in a Cantabile or Arioso in ), one must strive to express these sorts of notes in a simple triple quaver metre (3/8) ( and charming way, sotnetimes using `piano' and sometimes 'forte'. If leaping quavers are interspersed, rendering the melody dry and failing to sustain it, leaps of a third can be filled up with ports-de-voix or triplets. But when tize bass has notes of the same value for the same harmony throughout a bar, then the principal part is free to make more grace notes. Nevertheless, grace notes slzould never deviate from the general manner of playing in which one is directed to perform such a piece.

4 A

(1) See paragraph 'Port-de -vo ix', p. 41 ('When after one or more short notes ... J. (2) See paragraph 'Port-de -vo ix, p. 38, example by Montéclair.

A A

A.L. - 25.732

A

4 47

ANDANTE, LARGHETTO In an Andante or Larghetto written in triple crotchet metre (3/4), where the melody consists of leaping crotchets accompanied by the bass in quavers, with six often remaining on the same pitch and in the same harmony, one can play with more seriousness and with more grace notes than in an Arioso. But if the bass goes hither and thither by step, one must be carejtrl with the grace notes to avoid making forbidden fifths and octaves with the principal voice.

As regards the interpretation of the Adagio on the violin (for wind instruments substitute `tonguing ' for `bowing'), Quantz says:
An Arioso. Cantabile, Soave, Dolce or Poco andante is played with calm expression and with a light bow-stroke. Even if the Arioso is mixed with different kinds of quick notes, it still requires light, tranquil bowing. A Maestoso, Pomposo, Affettuoso or Adagio spiritoso should be played seriously and with somewhat weighty and pointed bowing. A slow. sad piece, which is indicated by the words: Adagio assai, Pesante, Lento, Largo assai or Mesto, requires the greatest moderation of tone and the longest, most tranquil and weightiest of bowing.

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67

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ALLEGRO SHOULD BE PLAYED (1 ) (extracts): J. J. QUANTZ

THE ALLEGRO AND ITS VARIOUS APPELLATIONS Firstly it must be noted that, of the various names given to pieces of music, the word Allegro, unlike the word Adagio, has a very broad meaning, and under the term Allegro are included several kinds of pieces in fast tempo, for example: Allegro, Allegro assai, Allegro non presto, Allegro ma non tanto, Allegro moderato, Vivace, Allegretto, Presto, Prestissimo etc. Here we are using the word Allegro in this broader sense, referring to all kinds of lively and fast pieces, and paying no attention to the special meaning of the word when it describes a particular sort of fast movement. Since many composers use the words assembled above more from habit than to give a good description of the true tempo of pieces (... ), many cases are found ( . . . ) in which the composer's intention must be guessed at from the content of the piece rather than from the word found at the beginning to denote the tempo. CHARACTER AND TEMPO The chief characteristic of the Allegro is sprightliness and liveliness. The Allegro must not be begun faster than one is able to play the (fast) passage-work to be found in it ( . . . ) It is for this reason that the speed must be decided on in accordance with the most difficult passages of the piece. However much vivacity the Allegro calls for, one should never deviate from a controlled and reasonable speed. For everything that is hurried will cause the ear more discomfort than satisfaction. One must always have as one's aim the sentiment that is to be expressed, and not set out merely to play rapidly ( . . . ) Hence, if in an Allegro one wishes to affect and charm the ear, each piece must in fact be played with suitably fiery expression; but one must never hurry the tempo, as the piece would thereby lose all its grace. TO AVOID HURRYING The tempo is hurried when the fingers are lifted too quickly, especially for leaping notes. To avoid this fault one must give a little emphasis to the first note of fast figures; in this way the important notes should always be heard for a little longer than those which are merely passing notes. As for triplets, one must take great care to make them very full and even, and not to hurry the first two notes too much ( . . . ) To give this effect one may stress the first note of a triplet since it is the most important note of the chord. TONGUING (See also p. 68, `To set off the theme', `To express different sentiments') The fault of hurrying too much also very often results from lack of attention to tonguing. The fast passages of the Allegro are those which must above all be played roundly, cleanly, with vivacity, with articulation and distinctly. To this end, liveliness of tonguing contributes much (... ) The tongue must sometimes be applied robustly, sometimes gently, according to the requirements of the kind of notes in question.
(1) Subheads by J.-C. V.
A.L. - 25.732

25. (1) See paragraph 'Double-dotted notes'. But if majestic sentiment makes up the character of the principal ideas. then more tranquility should prevail in it. A. ). TO SET OFF THE THEME AND COLOUR IT When in an Allegro the subject comes back several times. and on the other hand the low notes of the flute are neither as strong nor as penetrating as its high notes. the wider the leaps. If charm is the piece's dominant sentiment. majestic. TO EXPRESS DIFFERENT SENTIMENTS (spirited. These last should be firmly stressed and played with animation. the more strength must be given to the low notes. ).732 . (1) One can also sometimes use shakes on the dots.. Whether majestic or charming. charming) Sentiments change frequently.. likewise with syncopated notes. If. cantabile notes. where the first half can be played softly. the alternation of piano' and forte' will lend much grace to one's playing.. and the first ones consequently hurried. one must immediately moderate one's fiery expression and play the slow notes with the sentiment they require. 27. it must again be noted that it is principally vivacity of tonguing that expresses a spirited sentiment. p. it can always be made perceptible by vivacity or moderation in the movements of the tongue (. Spirited sentiment is imitated and represented by short notes ( . one must then play it in a spirited..68 HOW TO BREATHE Breath must be taken at a suitable time and carefully husbanded so as not to separate the parts of a melody which belong together by taking a breath at the wrong time. it must always be well differentiated from the less important ideas in its expression. so that the listener will not experience any boredom. the piece must as a whole be performed more seriously. Majestic sentiment makes itself felt in long notes ( .L. ) and in dotted notes. ORNAMENTATION In the Allegro as in the Adagio the plain melody should be decorated and made more pleasing by ports-de-voix and other small essential grace notes. because on the one hand they become essential harmony notes. as much in the Allegro as in the Adagio. in an Allegro. Bold sentiment is represented by notes in which the second or third are dotted. THE LOW NOTES IN LARGE INTERVALS In passage-work. there are more spirited than majestic and charming ideas. as also by piano' and forte' And for reprises in general. CANTABILE PASSAGES When fast notes are followed by some slow. lively fashion. The dots are sustained and the following note is passed over very briefly.. Charming sentiment is expressed with slurred notes which rise or fall by step. A majestic sentiment does not allow much to be added. bold. and anything appropriate to it should always be performed in a sublime manner. . and more force given to the second. according to the requirements of the sentiment it contains. lively or bold..

A charming sentiment requires ports-de-voix, slurred notes, and a tender expression. On the other hand, a spirited sentiment demands cleanly finished shakes, mordents, and a playful expression. As regards the interpretation of the Allegro on the violin (for wind instruments substitute `tonguing' for `bowing'), Quantz says: The Allegro, Allegro assai, Allegro di molto, Presto and Vivace require lively, very light, short and well detached bowing, particularly in the accompaniment where the manner must be playful rather than serious. However a certain moderation of tone must be observed. An Allegretto or an Allegro that is qualified by the words: non presto, non tanto, non troppo, moderato etc. (... ) should be performed a little more seriously, and with bowing which may in fact be somewhat weighty, but nonetheless lively and vigorous. In particular, semiquavers in an Allegretto, as with quavers in an Allegro, will require a very short bowstroke (... ): but fast passage-work should be played with a light bow-stroke.

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-^^.^^i

^

70

Character and Tempo of the Various Movements (Airs and Dances)
The various movements (airs and dances) in use during the 17th and 18th centuries will here be listed in alphabetical order. For each we have selected the principal definitions given by writers of the period, citing more than one when they complement or sometimes even contradict each other: in such cases, the date of the definition must be taken into account, the character of movements having often been subtly modified from one period to another. Whenever a precise speed is given for the tempo, it will be translated into a metronomic figure. (The patent for the metronome only dates from 1816. Before then, theoreticians used different means of indicating the tempo, such as chronometers—pendulums—, pulse beats, the number of seconds required for a given number of bars, and so forth.) AIR: see ARIA ALLEMANDE At first simply a dance, at the end of the 17th century the Allemande became the first or second piece in instrumental Suites. Its tempo was generally moderate, except in the second half of the 18th century when it often required a fast, sometimes even very fast tempo (Dom Bédos: Fast Allemandes of thirty-two bars in twenty seconds, that is J = 184!).
A sort of tune or piece in which the music is in quadruple time, taken gravely ( . . . ) The Allemande in a Sonata is now universally obsolete (... ); those who still use it give it a more spirited tempo. The Allemande is also the tune of a dance extremely common in Switzerland and Germany. This tune, as well as the dance, has much spirit: it is taken in duple time.

(Rousseau) Allemande (HOTTETERRE) 1708
Gravely

raararara^rar^^^ /^^ %a:aaaar ar111.`Ta=1•401111 -.111•1 s111M1111111111r ^ =aar ^^ara 1111111111111.1 alIllraraIIE.a '!t a• a^^^ra^r^ ^a •a ^ar^ sr,•ra^^rarar, s ^ra^ra^ra^ra^^ra ^^^r^^rar^a^r ^^ MANI= MIMI al MIN ta ••• 1111faM = ara .^. i sa•s•s aaaa^affir Ill a41•111s11s1111 al MIIIII– .—

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A.L.- 25.732

71 Allemande (HOTTETERRE) 1708 Gracefully
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MOM • 7 /1•1MIIIIMI 1M =MO- 1 G"6.11=11•ININ EV Mt Jaa:W1111 7 ^r_^ = ^_^. J ^J ^1•7^^^T7 /MINIM= 111111 _ p7_^\1•^^'!^1 _ ^ `^ ^^^1 s 11•.^!•r^ l^. ^I ^ _ 1 [.i.^sr _._^ ^• i

T

+`.+

1
1

Allemande (ENGRAMELLE) 1775 J= 184 (from Dom BEDOS)

ARIA Aria means Air or Chanson, that is, a melody whose pace is precise and even, and whose beats, especially the first of each bar, are well marked; its tempo is nearly always somewhat fast and sprightly, provided there is no term such as Aria larga or affettuosa etc. to render it otherwise. (Brossard) Air (J. B. DE BOISMORTIER) 1731 With spirit
L..N/r. Am" mart -.a rr Ir.t M •.•11s 71r7. ••=111111s1./7 1=1•r r••./tj /WV .111•111 •f•IIM1•1•.s••,1111111•11. /'I•tA./ •.s .M.I111111•1111111.1.JI.MEMIIIIIN•=•11111'I• ISM MUM 1•11•7/ I .•1•tt •1• /I•^•/ 1^^.^^^•^•.••^r1^^^ MO' . A1'.4113/i 1-_•__^l"^R^.11^^11 1[ .: ^•!r•^.^^Ir.i ^' ^^^^•^^ 1•___ •=.111111M •^^^^11• •• I1•111111111M11 I

r

Tender air (L'AFFILARD) 1694

= 80

Aria (J. M. LECLAIR) 1738
Affettuoso
't.t1~ •._I VINNIIIIMMI•1=1•1/• MINION NM .rlr7iIMIIIIMwINEMIwMIIIII/MIIIBMIIIII MOME MIS MOW 11111n411 -...INIIIIMIIIIIIIMINIw WM IMIIIII!lias !NNW /SWS — IIitlr
MING rINI./ rr • 2>•.I•Ir72111111111/ 1 ,/ /a MIC1i71 1 111r=.:J.e•I .'..I11111i liall1♦1MI 7 1 I 1 -••s•..... — ME .....= NMI

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A.L.-

25.732

. 1762) . lf.•1111 11...-t)t•^^^^J^^ a^ —r WIC .^ -__ 1 BRANLE = 112 (L'Affilard) Very spirited kind of dance which is danced in a circle to a short tune in rondeau form..-N.5^.111111•--^— ---•__...MP B.7.111111111s1M1.^... MitilHarlIMINCI.L. means a short Air or Chansonnette.. or is repeated da capo in the manner of a rondeau.^. CAMPRA) 1710 = 96 (Choquel. .a/ . An Arietta normally has two reprises.. =MIL-1111111111•111 1 MINI111111.1.732 ^ ..^_^^ a^.^.. ) The Bourrée is in brisk duple time./J.7...11111111 11111..^ ^lj^^^r^.7..1111. with the same refrain at the end of each couplet.= INNE/MsI .' ..f JIIMIP7MM111111=111•11111..u...7[^^^ .^ 1^•^^^^/^. Jr.01^^I111^.^ L7 /^\^^ If^^^/M..•. .1..72 ARIETTE (ARIETTA) The word Ariette implies a spirited Air. (Rousseau) The Bourrée is virtually the same thing as the Rigaudon.. ^ Ariette `Ce n'est plus la mode' (A.11/111107.. and begins with a crotchet before the downbeat.r iJl^ ..1.-av^c^aMINIIIIIIIlal• WIN 11:1111M-MIIIN.7.^..111111111111111111 s =1111111i. i^ ^^ ^^^_^^^^^^^^ a ^ .. in the Italian taste. light bow-stroke...^.. (Villeneuve) Arietta: diminutive of Aria.. ^I^. 1II •1111111=1MIr. (Brossard) Ariette `Cruel vainqueur' (L..1^^ . INNI1.11=1=11..11111111=1 NI= MN SIM a..—/s-1111•1111s..^.'r1111. (Rousseau) A.. [>•^.1.^ = t. that is. r0 (Rameau-D'Alembert) JP ^ Bourrée and Rigaudon are played with spirit and with a short.^.IM MLA! i. /.. 1.25....=1111111M ^. 1762) Sweetly and `spiccato' a ... CLERAMBAULT) 1713 J = 87 (Choquel.i... which is believed to have come from the Auvergne ( .. 11111...=M1a/// AMAMI r1111. BACH) c1720 144: • Bourrée (L'AFFILARD) 1694 V.^ .^-=. S.^.^.^^ ^ 11M MEN'..^ Vi NME• 1•rJ•111•1141111111•111ra /Mr N MIAMI sS MINI AMMO .MI + + BOURRÉE = 120 (L'Affilard) 01= 160 (Quantz) Sort of tune associated with a dance of the same name. ./OEM n 11M = 120 . MAIM . (Quantz) Bourrée (J.

111s11/t•fi ^I<•f•^^^^^^^I^^<i^lf^I^ f^ • !^ -••• s• px.732 . (Rousseau) Cana ries (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 Quickly '_] 1/•••//!'fI t>•. because of the speelof the tempo required by these two tunes..-^.i . 6/8 metre is more suitable to the Canarie and the Passepied than 318. • •IIIslfls/ MI1111•111f•11 t 111/ ^ T CANARIES fast.f^^fr•– ^Ia^^I^Ii^^I^ ^^^r^^>•1 II . . s1a. .f >•.as ^:^^.L.. ) This dance is no longer in use today.t.I AIf/'f/ fIIMINA /. (Montéclair) Canaries en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694 J. Gigues and Canaries must be played extremely (Muffat) Sort of Gigue whose tune is even faster in tempo than that of the ordinary Gigue ( .-11111111Ia11•11s•11:11 I r .= 106 A. >_.73 Branle en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694 d = 106 END I . •f^^rff= . »1/.. = 160 (Quantz) Whatever kind of metre is indicated.sW a^^l^^^. = 106 (L'Affilard) J.s7 =. ir ARNE ill–I–_.I`ION.. :^ -^--. ./ ^s^^^^^^^ 11117J11111tJ M Ilf ill 1!1M1 A'IllIM NMI ^^^^^^^I•f^^^^l l• Ill ^ft tlf^^7 Vi^^ ^^ –••1tif• M l Ill (1st couplet) MS ^^^ IMMMIIIIIIIIMIt Ma a/ f^ I I I (2nd couplet) MAI //.l♦ l In IMlIIIIf11111I111•1•= I \_I IlINIfr••1•INIIt _^^^^Il^i^l e\..r IIIMI:4111111=I1111fa.I^^^ .^I.s/Z1 laall•t L » IS /f• ^^1 I .25.^^t .vIAIMBIA'/If<•= f.

s^^^ .^.... but on the second beat. ).25.. whose tempo is moderate and whose metre well marked. .. It is composed of a number of couplets which are varied as much as possible ( . (Rousseau) A Chaconne is played as majestically (as the Sarabande.T r7 J^Rs iw.732 . (Quantz) The metre is shown by a 3 which is taken in three light beats. or in one and a half slow (beats). (Denis) Chaconne (M. the Entrée.L. .> 111•1r111.) which are spirited (. s ^. the Loure and the Courante). (Rameau-D'Alembert) One may alternate at will between major and minor (..sr•ItF_• ^:^^f ^i^M^tl... the Villanelle ( .J^^^. . (Freillon-Poncein) It is known that the Chaconne. without ever hurrying or slowing down the metre. - . not on the downbeat. ^ ' ?lnïr•^— Chaconne (L'AFFILARD) 1694 j= 156 A..^.-^ V^!Ç4^14'@P. ) Normally the Chaconne begins. CORRETTE) 1738 Met ^^• • 11•11•11ra s s i s r•1111 -NM 10•111rwis. MIA ^^^ s .t^^^ ^^^^ s^sr^r^/s ^s^ .. .. ) and between grave and sprightly or tender and lively.74 Cana ries (DENIS) 1747 CHACONNE J = 156 (L'Affilard) = 160 (Quantz) The Chaconne is a long piece of music in triple time.

(Bacquoy-Guédon) Courante in the French manner (MONTECLAIR) 1736 Slow •AL1>_•1111111•111111 wIMc.MEN NM W1111111u s /11111=1111111//11111=11111111111121111 tl!•—.. ) that at balls is normally danced after the Minuets. (Rameau -D'Alembert) The Entrée.r/lbi S=11•11111111111111•1"/ s / /•/1•• 111111t/ JO MIMI ^ s 1 a A.11MONII s s Ill /UMW. they should be very rhythmical. since they are repeated with great frequency. 1696-1762) ^ MIME sI .. Cotillon (E.s s .L.111 I.11111•11 sr71111111=1.11 w 1131171 vIIII WO' r zs^^>r1 . P._-. (Rousseau) Contredanse (E.11 MM11111/71111 rNI MI MI ri111/1MINI1s1t MIIIIIII•1111•1111111•1•1131 1. .aMirt MIS r>rsMINO MI I= war 1111111•11 sIf ///s^1•11nr• MINII5.732 .s Wt. a^ + COURANTE j= 90 in 3/2 (L'Affilard) j= 80 in 3/4 (Quantz) The Sarabande is really a slow Minuet. as being more spirited ( . ^ ! • • • Contredanse (CHOQUEL) 1762 ej= 132 COTILLON This is a sort of Contredanse which was later to become the Quad ri lle. ) The tunes of Contredanses are most often in duple time. CHEDEVILLE.1.r 75 CONTREDANSE j= 132 (Choquel) Tune for a sort of dance of the same name ( . the second gccupying the third beat only. P..! s 111MMII.013///L1 IMP I la^^^^•^^^a s ^1. whether it has a dot or not. 1696-1762) -4y ^ . (Quantz) Those who did the Courante put two steps in each bar.IV1^^rla•1r)1^^ ^.111.. .♦ Ls. and the Courante a very slow Sarabande. a s!11s111111=111 s I v %•111s ` s•ss r1Yr1 s!••1111tl!• MIaall•IIIM•• IMMrrJ♦1r!•tlria1l 1 — MIMI —. the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically. they would become intolerable if overladen (with figurations)..25.^Z1^.1J^^ 111 ._••--^_wr Z2/"Ur — s -. brilliant and sprightly. CHEDEVILLE. and the bow is detached at each crotchet. while still possessing much simplicity. .•r11•1•••111 sr>.wstiss 1 3 + •11•^ ^ .

^^ r a^^^ ^^^^ a_^r s. at the Opera.a ^^^i^s^ ^.. (Quantz) Entrée de ballet in two slow beats (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 First part of the air • 4- 6 • ^ e FORLANE The Forlane is in a moderate tempo.L.25.^ ^^^^ a .^^: ^.^^^a^r^^ ^^^a ^ ^. the Italian Courante is fast and in 3/4 time: Corrente (M. whether it has a dot or not. (Brossard) Tune for the Sinfonia with which a ballet begins.732 .. the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically.. .`3•:i - ::s-L'A 76 Courante (L'AFFILARD) 1694 J = 92 Unlike the French Courante. the term is used for an entire act of an Opéra Ballet where each act makes a separate subject.^ar•^ ^ w^ ^^a^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ .^ ^ ^^ ENTRÉE J = 80 (Quantz) These are normally Preludes or Sinfonias which serve to introduce or prepare for the movements to follow._ _ ". (Rameau -D'Alembert) A. half-way between the Loure and the Gigue.^ ^.=:^^_"^r. Further. (Rousseau) The Entrée. BITTI) c1712 Allegro a.^-^^w11=11•1••=11 MUM % . and the bow is detached at each crotchet.^ ^ ^^^a^ss.

/:1111111...Mtl1:i1LLL I AMIBolm• =nit MUM A=r-.LL1.1f ANI'' MI milINIOINIW LLL^^INI•sin^ Li s MN InLL^^L^ _ AMU_ ___ __ _ r: ^ !I^I^i v^v^ MI ^ ^ //2 Vr^LLLf / LV^^/^^LM^^^^^ "'LL ^ -^ILf1Lt 1'L•/NI '__- i.LnL<'7IIMr ANI/f AP./ . ' •L..111111LLI OJM11L11111= NI =IN AP.r/LSY1.IIMIIIIIM NMI L•IIIMILLLL/NM IMINr1•1•111WW• 1 s=1f LM •LN ^^ .JAI7 NV.=11M111111•11. BACH) c1720 • NA= MAMA 11 /aL/ .. S. It is called Forlane because it originated in the Friuli.) Formerly it was called Romanesque because it was said to have come to us from Rome. UM _ GAILLARDE (GALLIARD) Tune in a spirited (duple or) triple metre from a dance of the same name (. i1•1s11•Lt4111111r. and the dance is very spirited too.••sf S1111s1Ln1•••••^1rrn111111lr111 t: 111 I •41111111L AMIN= IM111Y.I i7Laf. (Rousseau) Forlane (J.../M11111.L.1=1 L^^1 11L.732 .•1••M1/11• > ♦ ^^=1L1111111111101 i rLW/•11111111t11111111/ Llr s11=31 I O/1 • Forlane (DENIS) 1747 FURIE J = 160 in C and in 3/4 (Quantz) A Furie is performed in a very fiery manner. in a fast..M1. .f 11KiJANIs 1 I = A. ^L^L^LLL^.25. where the inhabitants are called Forlani.... (Brossard) Furies tune (DENIS) 1747 I. (Quantz) Con furia: furiously.•11•111•11•1•1 .-._.1111MrSIE.s L♦ L♦ MI 111•1 s1r71 L./a<^^^^ M^^^^IJ ^i r•^^^^/^ s 11111.s 22M/»..77 It is taken cheerfully.1WTf a^L^7 L. violent and very fiery tempo.. (Rousseau) Gaillarde (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 . ) long out of use ( .

.M11111//f ...:..41111=111•. it has a more moderate tempo. s11•11111111•41=1 111111.111M.rrrgm .IIIM. . (1) (Quantz—who gives j = 160 for the Rigaudon in (V) Its phrases and cadential paints are articulated in groups of two bars.MIIIMB.^^... AL+.11111. the pace of the Gavotte is sometimes slow. .1111M1111M1111 MN s.•11W.^ NM 1NNIIIMIN ^^^^i . (Freillon-Poncein) The Gavotte is almost the same as the Rigaudon.. ) The metre is shown as 2 and should be taken very slowly. without deferring to the Gavotte's normal number of bars or reprises.^^.^ ^ . (Rousseau) Gavotte (HOTTETERRE) 1722 With gravity V r ^ r r LJ Gavotte (Jean-Baptiste LCEILLET) cl 715 Presto .11111s11 MO AI.a.r — •11V rlmomor s .r 77-1^ .1111.rr^^ —ww--. (Brossard) Allegro tempo di gavotta (attrib....m. A.^^..11. NM M.=.^.^ .78 GAVO TT E d = 120 (in (V.732 L..L. but never extremely fast nor excessively slow...s.=11.i • ^ • Tempo di gavotta: this is when it is only the tempo of a Gavotte that is being observed. .-25. and is made up of two repeated sections having four.'•111=1 NM .11= ^^m^...7^ = r ^ ^^1^ ^s ^ Gavotte (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 61 = 120 va11. Choquel)(1) The Gavotte is in duple time....~ 111s11 =NB _-. sometimes sprightly. however...me ow . = 1 L^ 1^^^ : ^.A/ NI . L'Affilard) = 132 (in (V.11111.111Mr1s1 J^^ ^ MAW M.^.•111 ^^^ i. VIVALDI) 1737 .11111. MEIN í ^ii^•^^` r^ • (1) Choquel gives the same tempo for both the Gavotte and the Rigaudon.r. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt ) These are graver and more serious tunes (than Rigaudons and Bourrées) and a more touching kind of expression is found in them ( . eight or twelve bars each.•111...^.

' •.2.s•••h. This contrasts with the contrary indication of Freillon-Poncein quoted above.211M •7s11111011J MIMEO_ MI OMNI WIIMIIII ZS 111IM ON MPS NI NB Millrl7=WW1 ^ Vr/NM=•!_MI MI M1111^'IMI^^^^^i^V^^1^ ^^ a ^^t .s CM= MP./AIIIII NO EOM =AMINE/ MN r AJ NM MP ^^ /. 4/2.. (Muffat) The Gigue is really only a very lively Loure.411=1 MIN AI= Mo. .M117• sIIIIIMEN11•11/ Ar. which applies to the older and slower Gigue in 6/4.L.11M =V/ A11»L•111110 =WINO =IN NM OEM Is11 .t^OM Ms NM NUM MI OM Ili•111. ` I= .: Mr:1•I•1•• INN EMI /7 1/1./ NM III I '^•s1111. of 918 or of 1218 very buoyantly.V.732 . Gigue (J. 3/4 and 3/2 also exist. s•s t 11J^f . (Rameau-D'Alembe rt ) The Gigue and the Canarie have the same tempo. it/w•al a^ ••••• LTV !•U1NO.s•s••Lniu.4MIN= MIMI INN I. even an extremely rapid one (as Quantz's tempo indication shows).4•MIPS• 1111111111••• MIMI /1/M-4111•uIIIIIIM. WW1.1•1•11111M 7 INL Mira/NM AEI= MONIAEMBOINI•11•1.a.^^^ r 1LIN % iw•rw9I /!1S:aJ 1.0.! 11111•11/ AM AM MI MO IIM.. (Freillon- Poncein) Whatever kind of metre is indicated. 2/4. The Gigue is played by means of a short. of 618. whose tempo is far more rapid. = 116 a•La) av A ilff 111111s11••t MMIIIP•917111•1•11 IIMI a WIN= 4/WIIM7ItnfalsW 1111•111111atar Li.0111111•• ^ L7wMSC 1.. MIMI/ r rs+t 111111i . Quantz) The Gigue requires the metre or pulse of 318. = 160 (in 6/8.11 1 Gigue (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 el. light bow-stroke./M BM NB ^.^..r a ENE ^l ri rf' /1•11/s =1." ^ . PAISIBLE._aIIN.= 100 PAY MIN .•s•111111= ME/".ir Lary.IM 1171MINNIPa7 t. (David) The metre is shown by a 4 and a 6 (1) . and (6/4) and is taken in slow duple time.s • = /JIM MI MIMS MIIIIIMr ^^^i : . s 171••f I111.MI IAMB MIMS MI/ L101 II III.79 GIGUE J.10s11 IIIMI SIM II MINI NM 1 NMI • IN NMI =111•11=1.c s11=11s-aJNO.= 100 (in 6/8. Ms MI ^^^11 1 NNW.1s 10 WIN NM PANNE-II I MI •:.WMIIIIV.1•••_ al .=mosamemiespimmi.. Gigues and Canaries must be played extremely fast.i. .41aM •a N= MIMI= MI . 1650?-1721) MUMS. L'Affilard) J.. s •s•• IM M Mr cMIPIMMININII NMI ••• rn111 /PT CI •a11•11• MN IMP • 1. L'Affilard) J..t AIIsMIM NM MUM III l•71111•1 Mall= JIM •110•1111•1111••• .ts I= MN r11•11111111.1111 AIM= ^a^^ MI INII 1•01 r IMO S-4•01. s111110 MIN MI MIMI MI NM. • Sa. • • • A111110••••••saININ M11a911•r a-411•IIIIN.-JW ^ s _ iJ•^^ MN WHIM IN VIM •1111•1s31 MIIIIIIIIMI.AMINUM.Ami ring/ =maw = a/1•S 1311111111 =11MIl 1 MI 1111••••••1 I amomamo..• a IC 1111 rC^ ^ me • !♦ awirmint.MN ^. EMI MIMI.IIIM -- MN t1•1 l Gigue (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J.25. A. = 116 (in 3/8.s•V aAIN/Mr•1111111116YMINIIMI NI= 1111. r^^^^^ ^^^^r^^^^^^^Y W. (Quantz) Thus the majority of writers of the period endow the Gigue with a rapid tempo.111..^ (I) Gigues in 4/4.111J'f 1.r Air 41• IN IIMI :11ANI61111111I11 NM •11111-JA_____-+1/.

. without however dotting or sharply accenting it. IMENLa1•••ME•r^ 11EMO MOM MAIMED/NM ENO AMMER I .^^^ENEN^rra^lrr uENM^a^Er•rWrMENaMMsw^Ma^i^^^EN•^Mr r •aa• alINN1^••^./ Lourer (lit. is shown (as) 6/4.411EN =MI EN NIA M .Ill• ^ rENOWINDErrIEN1EENNrINW ru.. whether it has a dot or not.4111f.1i.411111s11•111•sMERrr•sIIIIMEINiaalm_ in AMMIIMMIMErUNO ^^ =WWI& .MINV.41rrlrlrl /MIMI /rrr N r•rl1/r1 .ri sr s• r.. the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically.41111E MEMO SIO-DIMMENEEIMMININNIIMIE as 'DENIM.-B.s 1111111•11las1_411. LCEILLET) c1710 Gigue (DENIS) 1747 ^i •r=I^ -^ MEMO .1•NIEr'NOMM _^^1_r1M1^t'Jtsrrl/r 1 1^ 7/ 1Y 21M11/. `to Loure'): ' this is a manner of singing which consists of giving a little more time and force to the first of two notes of equal value. Mr/r1♦ MEM ^^rarir NM ^ arar>.NIN 11111ti.MENEWNIEENnow MN MO rENI>.. (Brossard) Loure (M.tM M• NMOM= .^^ • 7^r>• rll^ -. two quavers etc. L11II1ENN rlarrarIMMMEE +/'r s!•IIs 41111 OM ENEMA= EN EIME•DOMMIEN• W I NNE • mOmM. t1=/^w•rW 11r rtt lr7l=1111 MMrriMMrllalr.-25. ^ /'rlrl• • Mo.m1rI_I /W a•rr'rlraal/ NIVltllr MIN r. a. such as two crotchets.10_.•tENDEMINrMINrut. I + . (Brossard) (1) Loure is the name of an old instrument similar to a musette. (Quantz) The first beat of each bar (is stressed) more perceptibly than the second.N.411.a aMrNIa•ENaEN. CORRETTE) 1738 r•.W MIS NM rENIMrlrla NOIONra/I W a MO.a•v:a/r 1747 -f.732 ..MIPr rINIF. ^ ..^^^E-NIJ 17WMEIMIE r>•Irr rarriMENraENNOr>tr•rIENNEMME77 —1• r .r MIEN . on which the tune of the dance in question was played.ME ON. it usually begins on the upbeat.Gigue (J.NEN/INM IMMIN'A ENNEAD' /-4MOMMIEWMEMI NE MIN riMMII. and is taken in duple time. shortened). >... UMW •4111EEN ••* sNI ND' INEI• EMY•l7M/ WWII! MOM /rrlEIt MUM I MI ••s1 MIN W M I i•^ ' LOURE (1) j= 80 (Quantz) (2) The Loure is a tune whose pulse is slow. which here he must be assuming to be 2/4.sOMEMIr 11W-MINEMI EN •s^^a>.11r. than to the second.M.. (Rameau -D'Alembert) The Entrée.e. Normally the note in the middle of each beat is dotted (i.rrl. Al. (Rousseau) (2) Quantz does not indicate the metre.1" WIENS ^^I^^ w r1EO1MErI1•S.'IN= MEMO IED•Waar•IEM•Et • la/ar • MEIIr.I • ^^I/^^ ^r _ ^! J.— / Loure (DENIS) •at. and the bow is detached at each crotchet.aMI1 MOW LAM ~MN a EMI• V II. 1=1 Ir MFEN AIM • i-aUa.sINIMME .Y. ^ `. M1111111111111/f J•raIII I^IIrLMMEN ANEM/EEDNENI•4/ ! M / Nall/ • 77111..1 MIMIWIMEMEN-IEWIMEMEMOMIEMENIMI MEO MIME . M•NIEMIOEN1J. 1 l.MEIMMr.

••1/.MN MI •r•l MN NM IMP— •W MI /.1•1•. .1 • !'7• . Very sprightly dance which originally came to us from Poitou..) are both equally suitable metres for the March.=••••••l..•LL.^•lr.tl 11•1sLI1 SLIM a.7111•M _•. .. (David) A March is played seriously.^1f^ •r1 ^ MINUET J = 160 (Quantz) = 76 (Engramelle) JI . which is always very spirited and fast.t••s•-s•1 s111 VIP" t1♦..••^1^1 . (Quantz) The tunes of Marches should have different characters depending on the occasions at which they are used.ir•=s lr-..732 .1=•..11. • MEWAM•11• :S!^ /^ ^_^ 7 111•1•1•0111•1..1a/!•a•1••11•INE MO . MIN. .1 atfM1•••s•i March of the Shepherds from Jepthé (M.1111••••s MOW! MEMOIR Ir111111•1sf i^ 1.. Quantz) Duple and triple time (. L'Affilard) J = (in (t.1.ol••••I 1 ^ • a .i1111•1f11•••iisf/ MP 1 Mil ra Va MI[.^•^•^^\S•F r1r s I^1rt . Vrft/•..^1^•1^•1•: ^l^1 .L. a tempo he increased to 120 in the 1717 edition. BLAVET) cl 737 Tenderly ._ 1•!•..n111111. .25.. 1f/ !1•1.• s 1•111111 •^ •M .11111111•Il .a1• ^L MINIM r•MNI All a•1 :o 1 JIM f a7♦/1/IL IN I NM 1• >f1. while once again noting only the most significant definitions. (Rousseau) March (L'AFFILARD) 1717 J = 120(1) + (3) ..11ra.111. In imitation of the Italians.•./ ••!JIMI•111 1 s1•111111= ^. 11•11•111M /NE r%Iái I MIN IMMIF. /I ^ •^^11/l/1^^/^^I^1.11 •r r 1• MMININNEO...s= AMID 111s .tY7 i7.^ tl•Il11s1110M 111111.s1P.11=11111/l1111111. the sign 3/8 or 6/8 ought to be used to show the pulse.•• NNW" mnii 111. A. L'Affilard) ( 1 ) J = 150 (in 6/4.-111•11 1 s•01 1 Marche en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J = 150 s•1111.••11111J•1•ILaf 17r..1 . MP' MI 1i. (Brossard) (1) In the 1705 edition L'Affilard gives ei = 96. mlIN111 IIII/Tf . but the practice of marking it with a simple 3 ( .811111s. 711E11 / rlrr2/1•111/I ^ iJl.= 70 (L'Affilard) J. ) has prevailed.= 76 (L'Affilard) The importance of the Minuet and the large quantity of writings concerning it make it necessary to give it a fairly generous amount of space here.1111r^ .81 MARCH J = (in .

= 70 r ^' ^ ^..25. and it is for this same reason that dancers take the Minuet in 6/4.^ ^as w0 1 . It is therefore worth making a clear distinction between. especially in the Minuet.. we even compare the metre of the Minuet for dancing with that of 614 in terms of its values. as it were. ) only in one ( ) Minuets for dancing are also taken in this way ( ..L7. although the Minuet's tempo undeniably slowed down as soon as it was no longer danced. on the other h an d. and the musician should take care to make this division evident with well marked cadential falls. lifts the dancer. it is usual to take this metre ( . The metre of the Minuet is of three light beats ( . . But on the contrary the character of the Minuet is one of elegant and noble simplicity. the contrastingly lively character of the music where the tempo is either very rapid if taken in t riple time. and a genuine Minuet tempo could be found by using a pendulum.. this dance is very spirited and its tempo very fast. because this number is required to complete the steps of the minuet.^^ ..^N I IO . (Rameau-D'Alembert) According to him (Brossard). (Quantz) It c an be seen that on the subject of how Minuets are written nearly every author of the period stresses (and often deplores) the difference between their notation in triple time and their beat in duple time. it was only in the second half of the 18th century that this tempo became palpably more ponderous. so that in taking the Minuet in 6/4 time.82 It often happens that very good musicians do not dance in time. It is a different matter in the theatre. an d consequently the period in question and the musical context must both be taken into account in performance. and it can be said that the least spirited of all the types of dance in current use at our balls is the Minuet. and the crotchets are marked with a slightly weighty though short bow stroke. (Loulié) Moreover.^ ^^ ^ ^. ) The number of bars in the tune should be four or a multiple of four for each of its repeated sections. which ought to be directed towards always taking two bars to execute the steps of the Minuet. only the first of which bars. (Choquel) Because of this great speed. the tempo is moderate rather than fast... (Rousseau) The Minuet is played in a manner which carries along or. because of this. .. or moderate if taken in duple time (6/4: two bars of t ri ple time). *Th. so as to assist-the dancer's ear and keep him in the correct rhythm.^ii^ ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^í ri^iwsii ^i ^ + x A. . ) because they are played in a very spirited manner. which we call the strong one. (Bacquoy- Guédon) The downbeat in this metre (6/4) is called the strong beat (`bon temps') and the upbeat is called the weak beat (`temps faux'). and this overriding habit sometimes distracts their attention. even though it is only ever marked in 3/4.^7. being stressed.732 ^•^--.L. the metre of simple triple time is so hurried for the true tempo of the Minuet that the hand has insufficient time to mark each beat when moving through the triangle formed by this kind of metre.. Finally.^^^.. on the one hand. L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J. through the habit they have contracted of stressing each bar. I say Minuets for dancing since there are harpsichord Minuets which are not normally played so fast._ _ _ ^^^. Minuet (M.^^r. because in 3/4 this strong beat is not distinguishable from the weak beat. and this is the only reason why 6/4 is used instead of twice 3/4... and the consequent difficulty there would be in making three hand movements so hurriedly. the slow character of the steps in the Minuet as it is danced and.^ . all these inconveniences could be avoided... (Saint-Lambert) The Minuet is a tune in triple time and in a moderate tempo.

411r /011••r•..III•••/ I Mill MN LAMM' -.a V/^^•IL '^^ s •=1=1•1111•s1\1111•• IMO s^ ••1111•r••MMIMNAIIr. whose metre is of duple or triple time with a somewhat slow tempo.•J •r.= J•/ 11I•• s •.1••••11•11Wl^-•_r^—_\_===.. TELEMANN.•^•a = ^ ^^^ ^•^^•^••_^^./••__^.••. Quantz) J(or J. as t te MUSETT E J(orJ) = 80 (in 3/4.=11•••10.••^^^^^r•r^^ ^^ •^ i11 •^1 l 1 •r^l Minuet (M. Minuet (G.. —•rrJ."•111•1•111•11 _•1•^J^J AIM ^ s^•^^ _^ ^_M^^=^•r•r•r• • ^ ^•^^ ^^ ^ _ ^^.r•JIII •M7•r__^7^^•^ 1. MiNIN/WW I ..ra•• .732 . in triple time) to each bar.1 ../ •/ • 1• * lJ•••• J••• 11•I1•77•./ 1J MAINE •411•1\W•111•1••11•••N1M=MI MI s 011 s/s//\ --. the first Minuet by L'Affilard quoted on p. IrW s JIMI1♦ r•..111 Minuet (John LŒILLET) c1725 • MIS/•V r•r••rJN •11Jr•JI•s \=111 • .^7. and for this reason known as a musette bass.7911. 82. for instance.25. ♦ _ Vi—\•L< AIM= ^Ir r\ra .^_^\rr>I r•11•11rr11111111•1111\_ ---\_ • vvr•.. and normally featuring a held bass or pedal point such as a musette can play. L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 = 76 -I+ r ^-^ =MIR 4C81YP7 • s V =11•MZEIIII /7 /• t •••••/•• ss •••••• . (Rousseau) A Musette is to be played with great charm (. •aMIMr.•rI:!a/.^/ • + Minuet (CHOQUEL) 1759 W \' 11_J A/ v ANIMIIMP. but for playing only) necessitates a slower tempo than. naive and gentle in character.• •/ AENEENE JMINI•MMIJ•/ 1* 1111•M•I 1sr../ Ar^M 1./INP111=1L . r e • NIMMIIIIM•1•71 Jr♦♦• Bi•Nr• •J^7 •JEEI •.1••11r! aar.. ) = 80 (in 3/8. (Quantz) A.‘••••••1•10.J•I^•J••• r^ ^^ ss ^I I MOM.. Quantz) Kind of tune (. ) Sometimes it is the whim of certain dancers to require it played so fast that there is only one pulse beat (80 to the minute.oppp - i 11.101.s-s t .II7 ^T^1 1I 1• •.4111 /MN •11... P.MION/M•a /V >._=1MIN•11. . ). .SII • 1•^^^^_/ i ^•MII • I N. 1 .83 Minuet (ENGRAMELLE) 1775 J = 76 V • .r•r n^^ ^I^IS •!^^•rJ•Jl^rra^•^•^^^^•r^ ^ ^^•^•t. It is clear that the elaborate writing of this last Minuet (no longer for dancing. 1681-1767) IL e J•1•111.••• s ••ral r 1•• —..-^ ^•^^^^^ ^-^^ ^ s•ss ^ ^` O 1. s / 7••••••-7 .^_ VP 1111•11___11•11311•1 ^••rl^••IJ•••Irl s •••rw•I ..B.v WM.`1 •• 1•11•1•1•1•1•1.I^•r^^•^_ •^^^^ _ J••==pr1••^^ ^^•^^^^ `—s.L.MW _ MI 11s11/ NW s M.

1<:D^^/^11•^1^1I^^^I^ME•1J111111/ ••••••1 ^^^^1 l. See also on p. Jbecoming J._ — s^^. solemn character.1•S•1•J1I^11^1/ LJIM1S 1 /J11I11•1•MM1J•ar L11JWI11111/..732 . The French Overture was to be adopted throughout all Europe._—_ _—. Lully established the French Overture form: slow — fast (— slow) which was to be notably successful. but a few German composers.11s111 L411110t. P. . an Overture may serve as an introduction to an instrumental suite (and sometimes the term Overture may even be stretched to cover the whole of a Suite as.11 = .•111.I/I/I al 1•2•1•31 1111111111M• 1.\ /=^• ^^^1 ^.^. JEI ) as a necessary requirement of its majestic. Telemann's Overtures. have far surpassed him.-25.t •' 1111I1!•1J J• rR=]/ I11 V. without being slow + . the four Overtures by Bach. Lulli provided good models for it..••••••.11•111111L1 1110.•••MM II . CHÉDEVILLE. 92 the interpretation of the Alla siciliana according to Quanti which.84 N. 1696-1762) Gracefully. =le:- __ _ _ V .).. he claims...mm=1r u eJ.mu.L. An Overture (. B. especially Handel and Telemann.S • =RIM I ARNI • Ll1111•s 411•11//111 •11•1•.---=1../ WW/M MINIM IM••41111.i11111111111111•111C s111111 I ^.+ Musette 'la Sincère' (E. 1696-1762) With nonchalance ^__ -do ^--}^r-J1/^1—r: r^ Á t♦11^^J^ + + ^ ^^tÁ ^ ^ ^/ 1^. By extension.11^•^•^= Musette `la Favorite' (E.m••N11ENNIIIIM==IMIIIM1Ill s'''1.t'^ ^^1111 MIMI 1^1111^^1^1I:^ 11•1•^11111. Musette en Rondeau (M.-.t ^1111•^^ ^ 76^ . P. ) It owes its origin to the French.__••-. ) should have a majestic and solemn introduction (. • .. without being slow . (QuaiAz) A. 1•1`18•1111a11^JII/ W ^1 J^11 ^^. I• IMINI NM J14/1s1111M1/1 r1111^ •s•••••'s — FINN= MIL -.I1j s \ •I1.A11111•11 ^i1•^ JIII111M •1•a••'9•1•1111 /111•11111. 1~111111111•IM I^1^ :I1^ V/^^ 11^ ^^ 1^ 1^11^^1.1t11J 1^1^1J1•^^. + am ---^ y ^I^ ^ . etc./^ ^I ^\1^A ^7♦/`•w=^r/ 'J••C^^tJJrl^/ A ^R/ /7♦I11111IILtI 1II =I • M 1111•1111•J11 M J 1LA III If LIIIIIIIMIItlllllll/11/11/11•11011111•1111111\J. BLAVET) c1737 Gracefully..^----.J••s1 NMI + . ^ 1^' ^^1•M• OVERTURE The Overture has its origins in Opera: it is an orchestral prelude designed to open (French `ouvrir') an opera. applies equally to the Musette. CHÉDEVILLE.. de BOISMORTIER) 1731 Gracefully ^L'1•t1 .^1 ^1• ^1^'^1r s11^I^/^^ ^ 111111 s11 1 d1111•11114111. for example.B. The slow section of the French Overture calls for double-dotting (j.11 Mr 1 •.^ No •M11s Musette (J.

AMi ..^WM_M M .MMMMMMMMIAMM.^M/ ^!!M•:MM^^. an M M • M. and a skipping repeated section styled `spirited' ( ..•••••.MIIN• • ! 0 M/MM•.• AIMS .^MiMMMI.•10111•1 IV_ _HI AEU Ell 11J11•MIA.JmiMMJMMMMMM•••J ===== =OM .• I.. •I • . . >•M f= Ar M^^^^1 t•' 1 • . s.M•.^^M./ . I= MI– !•III . ./M•MM r• ^ s r^•r /AII MItMMINtMIMMM WM• ^MMIaA•t0M•J . )./Ar7 MOM s MM . . LAO A MM/MM..IAI I /MM•IL^.M^'MMMMMt^r I^MM^IMM^ ^MIM/M•MAMMM . MM r= M••s••••s /M-s'. (Spirited) r LarMIMMMoI•T 1r= .a. The Italians ( .1111 .. I AMIN. imposing and harmonious ( .MIIMIMMMA10•M/M .Ast•1111•1•11•MM FAO MMM.Wl1 MCI 110.l. M..-4111•11•1•1111111 'uMMl/MIM rain. 112. .MMMMM Q MM IL ^11•11M A•AM • vimM•MMM memomI•dLammo MIMEO M.ntlF .• V7 . . .-.M• AMMMMMat M MMI/1MAMM. They start with a leaping. .MI LM >•7=M•<Z.1.^M 1^•MM M• MI ^MIMIMIMMMI M M..85 A Sinfonia which one strives to make brilliant..I s !f 1^MM11MIMIA W MI 1Is7M M•711 •11s1 M 1•T s AMIMIM s1111M•111MI II111. ): a number of these repeated sections finish by returning to the slow tempo ( .M••111 A M...r .1 0 Ammo /oir.^MA• T 17 In 1•MMI•MM.A. . ) nowadays organize their Overtures in a different way... M`MIM M ^ M •^'^^^^ M • -iiM7ArMWMMAM•rM JINN=A IMAMA•MMM . DIEUPART) c1710 (Slow) •. WI • .^ ummMM-7MIAMM/'M AIM/ • L.1•01•1M•M AM . ^ i. s •IMM• 1:711s11•9•MMAMMRAM1.I ~eV MI • It.M1111MI II11110MMM..1 W.1 8 ILI ^7• M^1 . _^ a • <:aMMI/A•sZA7 W71MMM0MMM n1As111•IAM.= MM/•lsINIWVIIIIIIIIIIEWIllMMM.MI osM. 25 -732 ..M^ MMMIA^. I 12. /M• MI M•MIIIa1•MISaM111M .11M.MM^ MI MM. normally in triple time.1•IAMrAM IM• r / MMMMMAMM• I= •M.A.M:M^7Mr7 .r. -MM •/7•M• –i MM.L.M•wumlMAMA AIA.aMlt . (Rousseau) Here is a typical example of the French Overture: Overture (C.AO.rI !L.•//•• I M.MMWM•M/•MMIM M P MIM.MMIIM. 1I7M•Jsi0M /611W7111.MMMM LM AU Is7/71:711••1♦ .•.M/M1•••• WOW MM•A•• ! MNIOIMMMI. M SWIM= .V70•••MMM•MMII111.•MM. WIN 1A •<^II^ umsaMM /1/ AMmmMtMWmer7 sTimr1 •nmA••IuTs7sw' s•1 .wma...1MM•II MIME MI WMI1s rMiAM MIAMI MMIMM.I.MIAJ^MI Mr MMLri • .1l MMMMI IMO M•MrM EMI MHNNI •T MM. ^ (Slow) %S 'SIIIMI–M-r7 MIN MMM AM•..A• aM.• M•AM. before ending with a brilliant Allegro. .•MMM AA. O MM MA MMMMMM7M^MJMM•M^M 0 . T 1MMII[.M new / I •M•111111=1•11• 111.s. lively piece in duple or quadruple time. 1..MMMMAMAMMMM.1..1.111=111M•1=1.1 s AMMAIMMMMM MMMr MN= s MMMMM 11=m– J^ .MMrMM. ^ M MINIIII=M/MLMW MM ^MW^.MMlMMM1^MMMM^MMMMMM I ^1 we PASSACAGLIA j= 106 (L'Affilard) a little faster than j= 160 (Quantz) The Passacaglia differs from the Chaconne (see the definition from the same A.'711 MA =I /MI M M IMI /1•1•11M^7MI . VI AMMA>•M7MlMM• UMW • •AM7/.• lAIA..77/1s4... .'IJ OM 11•11/71s M•MMIAWMWMA OM •• 1MMEMf MIMM/ •A^M1M.MIMr MI MI _ .MIA1•111111MMM INN= /AIA7 III Mr MIM-1 1 ^ I V.I.M11MIaM/AM••111111MI MM M•t>I7A71•1Mr. =III ILA A7 ^ 1.'^l•MIAMIMMtMMMIAIMMMMtMM^IM1\ IV= 1♦. .U.. ) consist of a lingering section labelled `slow' which is normally played twice. ) Overtures ( .1•M W AM In s. then they slacken the pace by a half and provide an Andante in which they endeavour to deploy all the charms of bel canto.

1 MOM r A1ffr.•A 1111•• •-• BMW r11111111MI 411111111./ WIN AA= ale i: aNIS...11111Mi •11111111•1111•11111•11AINIIMI • N! J. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt ) A Passacaglia is the same (as the Chaconne).. Often it is found that two bars are written as one (1). 74) only in that it is slower and more tender....Aw/i/MA111 111•101/r1111111•1.41111 •^. Quantz) The Passepied is in reality a very fast Minuet which does not...^i•ftrf• Vi^ i^^ l^ sl^1^t^•^^^ M L . is shown by a 318. a11. Quantz's contrary view seems to refer to the Passacaglia for dancing.1i11111111s.•r0r.11. L'Affilard) J.•I M 11 711111. = 88 (in 3/8.s111 .writers on p. = 96 (in 3/8..^^ ^^ ^•^•^ t1^ ^.^ • - Passacaglia (VILLENE UV E) 1733 Slow and tender M.IN.WsrMMAN•71 tT7f! /1•1•71•117 . (Rousseau) The Passepied is played both slightly more lightly and more quickly than the Minuet. (Choquel) A..732 .-rte (1) It is in this (double) bar that dancing-masters impose the step they call the 'contretemps' (syncopation)...1M.^^a:•:I[ Ar^f^.7AR11•1•.111M1•11•1 .rrw^•^r^.25.4111 ilk /IMs NMI MINI WARM WWII 41•1=11•11.II/a111110. and is taken in one beat.111111111•f 1fi. begin on the down-beat.111•711111. (Quantz) Most writers of the period agree in giving the Passacaglia a slower tempo than that of the Chaconne (in instrumental suites)..111111:•111111sr1111111••lIMIIi1•111.•.11•.. Passacaglia (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 j= 106 • Arosom sows..111111. but whose two repeated sections begin on the third beat. the character of the melody almost similar.a s s. but it is played a little faster.^r^•u•^nr ^•^ iiTr ^^a •••11111111.0'1rf D-4/01111>•..rl r• arlr^ .1 ^^^^r//1 ^ %^•s^•^•^r•^••^r•• ^.l^rt^^^^i. The tempo is faster than that of the Minuet. Choquel) J = 160 (in 3/4.111•i•M!– •r0•41111111 sIIIMM11111wMI =I••11111111111• OISE s•111011NI 1 • PASSEPIED J.IS •• 1. .400/ •// lIIMMw11111.^r•^^^^^^!• wr ^ ^1^^^•^i•. .11 ir•lOWr1111111M11111rr•111111111rMINIIMIIM NM r111.•. and normally begins on the downbeat.^ .L..11111•1. and there are two vertical strokes over the central note: aura .. BRIM . ar'Ir11. 1.. • _ _ _ _ _ ^ ^^• _ s^lr. (Rameau-D'Alembert) The metre is triple..111111114111•11•/ .^7^ 1:f1i•i . as the ordinary Minuet.

^^- ----Ng equal / '— AM •...• .^^. (Rousseau) A..^ . -1f—^^1^•= '. r•••..••—IC1 • J•.01 11. BACH) c1720 ^ >. Passepied (J. l.1111•11ft_^ ^ • /MU 1•1711111111111r•••111111•_ .25.—__^^•.• ^ _^.•._ s•. Italian Pastorales are more pointed.732 .11= sI 111111s11[1• •IMIII • •1•11•11s •.• 1JY• AI . sI ! Passepied (CHOQUEL) 1759 sl•a.s ----1 — —IM MINN —S • •1 — ••••••—S WIEN_ /I 1•IIIIM1. between which they insert the bar-line. more charming.1•11. ISM sIII•I•^•1•—. .1•1•••••ss/ —711s1111=1— s ^^^^^^^^ I a^ 1•1•._ ._-111•1•./ i-••• a.^ — • _-__ • !•.4•11•—••—MININI•••s M. _ -• ^ ^ ^ —. =IMO MIAMI 1..S>1•J•^•J•—.11 •111=1.= =••I• ss =s --- fast...t Mt•..^ .•^.41.1.as/1111s.4111.^7• MI= /1JW . . In performance these notes are played in the same way—namely..IIII =II — _INIII ••••I_ -111111111111 ••s '..87 Some leave these two bars separate and instead of the crotchet and the strokes write in two quavers with an arch (tie) over them.11•••••s••••11U•ANIMIIYAM •—•101.^— ••--.. Their metre is always 618. with a short.^ ./ I. —••—KI —•—IMIL--I•11111•11•1•t•• ^i •1111• s •M..• Wa••••IIMI•. ^ •1111111111•1111•••••111111•1•111••••••••1111••• IN= I — ^ 111 I♦• —W7'[•1MIU>♦•s•1/•1 ^ 1s 11•.c71111•1_411__•_ ^.r MN" •1.11M•1/7. •^•^ Iwo. = 96 [TTI 1-271 • a ^1 ^•^^ •_••1. equally sweet and less dull.^7 MANE.MIII'.• ...1 1•.••11•111. S. 1s •s•I 1./ NW= •111..s .1s1111I 11•INIIIIII••••••s .--.•d--•—•—.11t • >•I•1111111• ••—.M •I1=11•I— •— /.—•••1111•11•WM —•—. I.17•. (Quantz) E Passepied (MONTECLAIR) 1736 :/v'^11111••••. French Airs called Pastorales are normally in duple time and have the character of a Musette./•1M••—.I • "4•1r•••rs .L.i.a .^—^f— 1 / V.—• .^—•• ^—. detached bow-stroke for each of the two crotchets—and in the same tempo as for a triple crotchet metre (3/4).4s1 ^ ]111s.. s . equal quavers V.• MII —S •..—J•—.^• ••— _ ..1111•1••r../ INII.•111s•1111111.—MMIIMMJ11 r ^^ PASTORALE (PASTOURELLE) Italian melody of the pastoral type.I 1•^.s 11/!^1 _^„!./ Ell•s .._1•••/•. .NMINIIMI—./ / AMM.•••••ss11 s01 1=01111 •1•11111111•• •r• u Mil ••• =M I.1 .-••-. 1 ..•__ t11 minim —M••.1s1. ••J /11•/1 ^ .—/•••MII•111/1 ^. ^-.11..

^a^ '"•••=11111•MMI..411s r. ^s a.. generally in triple rather than duple time..110•11=1.r11•11MININII. -m_ now..4 MOM- INW/ =7111•111J{.I !• NI L^.^ ^ ^ Pastorale ad libitum (attrib.^ !a _. • PAVANE = 92 (L'Affilard) A grave and serious piece which is generally taken in duple time.t MOM L» .^^. VII-7111M NMI MIU=MI. subsequently fashionatlle in 18th-century Germany.111s1116.11111. AIM )'..A /rM11111111IM MON 111•111MMINIII•I ^1♦_^^^t ï.r..IIM_ t•INMI =MY" Mir-•111111r1=/111M/YMINNIMIIIIIIMMIMMIIIIMaOINIMIN 1+1 POLONAISE Court Dance.•1111..NINIM ^/ . rNINIa.r•^.Mll. ..11111> !•/J111111 s 11111111 NIMIIIMrMINI=1111111MINIIIIIIMlMES MILAN ^J ^•^^411MUNMINI /MOM .^y a/JJ^ J•^J . 'I•'A.I _/rJlf•. a . r. .I nn.._^•7 J•J^r^r1r^.=Mr...I a f.1•1111•1111NJ111=^4111•1r/WW11111 /.^^^ :a^..^lr. Polonaise (TELEMANN) c1 716 A. (Brossard) Pavane (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 Moderate '411111111•1.rr7111111111 +^.mow ... MIUMMISMAIIII!•IIIIIIIMI/rIUrMMINIF /. often followed by a Double.^^..0 IWW sal..1•WIIIMIBMINIBOI IrIIIMr_r• •s••.r^^... /.^^. ^^/^J^ ^ ^.IIIMIIIIWINII/.^^1111• s • • 7 011111MIIMMIIMEJ.^^^ • s1.=J Ais11/ t•EMMINO NMI A1•1111s11IMIM l's•11•1111 'S^ .^r•rW^^^f a • ^^.1111WII..^^ 1111•1•1..r^^ ^w^ .AMMI/1/11111•01•11111•1111111•111 s ! ^ 1s11111•11011M1111•r.JI. where it adopted the gait of a rather moderate movement. ..732 . ^^^J.1U ^ !• NM MINIM ^.J ^SI^/IMs^^M.1U+WV IPr.1//M.711MIN .IIIIIII 1•MIIIUw MI 11111.ss••_ .88 Pastourelle from Jephté (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 + '.\^^ sJ = 1a^.7♦•^sr J^ lma ! ¡♦ ^'fT•^...IMI1♦.1•.111 I. + + INNIMME IMIN.. VIVALDI) 1737 .1...:.^. . 0•1111s711111•/1M111111•111 s.^___^^_^-I^^. IIIM...MIIMMw.=OW 11s1/11M•111.r/^I. ^.M1111=NI.^^^^^. BLIMP-11 rJ^^^^^^^^^ ^ .11•11MIM : MIIM7/11111MMW .rr._.INENEr.^..L.IMMEINIIa..25. =•11•0.41111s.1~. introduced in 1574 at the coronation in Cracow of Henry III of Anjou.

and which is a genuinely formal piece.L. each Prelude must begin on one of the three principal degrees of the mode one wishes to begin in and finish on any one of these three.. Hotteterre's intention was to show how an `impromptu' Prelude could be improvised. In the following written-out Prelude. though it is always best to stop on the tonic. this sort includes Preludes put into Operas and Cantatas to precede and sometimes to herald what is to be sung. (Double) PRELUDE Two different sorts of Prelude may be considered: one is the composed Prelude which is normally the first piece of what is called a Suite or a Sonata. long or short–and in discontinuous metre.732 . it is worth while aiming for a very free interpretation that will as much as possible give an impression of improvisation: (1) and positioning the hand well on an instrument before beginning a piece of music.e. major or minor) wherever one wishes to play. in other words in such a way as not to discomfort the ear. abrupt.89 H2. (1) This is normally done as a consequence of the power of the performers' imagination at the very moment when they wish to play without having written anything down beforehand.) (This) Prelude should be produced on the spot without any preparation. (Hotteterre) Here is how Freillon-Poncein defines the `impromptu' Prelude: It is quite simply an inclination to take the key of the mode (i. then. (Freillon-Poncein) In his `Art of playing Preludes' (L'Art de préluder). they are done in various ways as the player fancies–perhaps tender. . however. and this is really the true Prelude (. The other sort is the impromptu Prelude (Prelude de caprice').. (Rousseau) A. There is no special rule about the tempo or the length of Preludes.25. one can even pass through all sorts of modes provided one arrives and departs to some purpose.

110214/1.--. light bow-stroke.70&440/M0 IN Igwom..-..10111MMII MOIR OE 00110101 4030MI 01..0/~/ ill I Mr 01101100 IMIIM ME ----.s--- ANNININW NAM . normally made up of repeated sections of four-bar phrases.4101100•400111101 I M./111s 9111VILI VW 111141111•111•111.' ex .010•NrINI JIM Wir r /1.11100= 11114011100111 0•011110 • MUM NUM .M00110000 .. IMAM ..-.W1111111...L. 1011M OM 4001101•104..110.10. .1111 .e... •wMf 111LINIMMIFIN.4•11 • MOM NIMMII I 003.111/9• 40 s110 /111/7111=111111010001/7 •lirrY 1•ILOMPOSNIEle . a:istmsw.. A.1•14•111K..•••. the following Prelude corresponds to what Hotteterre calls a 'composed Prelude': 'Composed' Prelude Preludio (G.ON ".amem — --...74..-.•• • MN 1.Nor 0701101111s01001101I-7 MO 01101s00010~.11P.11111111..04MM UM MINN Mr1011010•00110.. (Rousseau) Bourrée and Rigaudon are played with spirit and with a short....110111MIE 441101 s.1111101•01111011 . MO 11•0011100 'Miff 000 10W•dr .. 25-732 ..1..ME M11 s111.. /14.I 00010101101011•110 I 20111101000•14s111000.71. r.01 00' MING wail.1111011110101110. A kind of dance...111•11111MI MM.1•11111ilia • NO MIME IMINIMIIN4/ AlrIll Mg_ A /MI /11040111111110. •& .10s 4111110~011." Rams.•••••• ss•• .... (Quantz) Rigaudon (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 = 120 • .14117 s111•111101111•11rs INI•1111•111=111s7 JIM AMMO IN0101101.. 00.l• IMIL-711111.I' I1/ IINI MN IIIIIII MI ' — ft..001101•1 .1 OM MI!~ NIMINI•A MI MINIM= AM 1001 I Rigaudon (QUANTZ) 1752 j = 160 .. .4010/111000101010011/110 •allEIMIEZ4111.1•17a.4•0 IV dIffW s•06.4•000•0•1070.0111101•01 1IM1.....201101 101011 0..1...1.100111 . the tune of which is taken in duple time.01110000010 Mall ILNIPMPTININI...11:0100004•101010101 al OM =I UM.-N A -40- • Er •• • re- RIGAUDON j= 120 (L'Affilard) ej= 132 (Choquel) 160 (Quantz).""•s• •=1 IIMB 00111010110111400M1s4101110100140001111 /Min SS MN — -.mow ..A... BONONCINI) c1700 •.00010=10111011010111001 . B...s11s"..11•90101 0... :-.1 3•4•111000 Er1111 MIMI IIIIIIIIIC In contrast. 16.s A..01 1010=01MI 0111 010•11001011101100•111110100 . 10110100110 SIM MD*" •110110111 •00011010/.0101•0110111s7111=110101J010000181114/ .WIEL• 001111 .. OM MINIIIMMIU -s..11300..1s11111111•11s: Mail W"lo 00101111100110010M. s.. MN 010.••sss••// •s ••• Ammo ... 41.410/11 01/. in a spirited tempo.10/7. ... MINN Milli 01011011001101101•10 M•111•11.... 010.90 'Impromptu' Prelude (HOTTETERRE) 1719 With gravity 40 Or... l• 1110M10011000 11101140•000150011111•01•0•100.m. and beginning with the last note of the second beat.. NI MI WINN MN OM 011401011/14MMPIMINIIMMI10 ZWL-714•1111 200111M 0111004. s•s••••=1111•111M . 10110 1111111110 00110101110.11P11 MIMI UN .1•••s• ../~ ...4100.11 ir-IMMINIO MINIM i III a I•71 4.VW . AN ss• ..•10 0101=1014-1=1Ms110111110.

which is actually called the Rondeau. after which the second couplet is played. MIMI s ^^^==r I7 ^. I L ^••••11111. I-AMINNI•J W .WIMIMI WIWI.^^^^^/^ r = ^ m ^r M ^= MINIMS NB ^.91 ^L. W. before going on to the first couplet.L.s 111 IMMIIIIM_IMINOILAIMMM s1•11•1111•111110 SALTARELLO This is a sort of movement that continually leaps along.11111.). but this can be done without increasing the tempo.^1• ^ M ^^ 5!•^ta^^^^^_^ ^^^)♦ ^^ r1 1 I I I RONDEAU J = almost 160 (in or 3/4..1•11Y1111111s MY1111111111/1111111111111s. e^ .71 _. 1738) Marche en Rondeau (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 Spirited -1^ r711111111 —^. Marpurg defines it thus: One begins by playing twice the first section. (Brossard) Saltarelle en Rondeau (DENIS) 1747 A. Quantz) The Rondeau is a musical form which enjoyed a great vogue in the 17th and 18th centuries. (Rondeau) (END) (1st couplet) SalifiM . AN ON II/711/ /11/711111111•111.7•sr1111WW II. 1 (Rondeau) 0 (2nd couplet) b^9 (Rondeau) i ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^A^^ r.11• 1111/1111I1 I= ANILJ MI/ t-=A.M1111111111 MIN 11111•111sMt_ NM MN NI •. (Quantz) Nor is it any less ridiculous to change the tempi of two Rondeaux that are intended to go together.= . playing the major one more quickly than the minor one: certainly it is a good idea to brighten up the major one by one's manner of playing it.^./Q 1 = .7•^^/ If IJ^ s =^.011•11111111 _^_^^_I^. Leclair.1111/111•1•1•11sU 1• _ /1111/11111. 4th Book of Sonatas for the Violin. a/MN_ /• s•s•11•111111111INI /111111111:4111•I I7aIIIIIIIII• MN IMIIII/ M/AMI1=115 a . M. (Marpurg) A Rondeau is played with a certain tranquillity. NMI MN s AM = MM =WI -AIM. ^^ MM._I^^•^^ ^^ ^s11 M^J^^^^^^^^i I W . f .f /^\. M ^^ M ^ ^^^ 1 ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^a^^MMMMM_— =I•• . MIIIII IN I .M^^ J^. the first section is also repeated once.. 25-732 .4NUMM1111111 s111111411/ 4•11•11/111111sa1111/ sa111ss Wail >•1111111MI IN •j=11•11i i IIIIIII MIN= EN NM MIMI IWI.IZIIIIIMIMMI I IM r . =MI . This form could apply to all types of movement (`Gavotte en Rondeau'. NI /11. doing so almost invariably by groups of three notes with the first note of each bar dotted..1•111111s 11•1111. (J.111rr..:11111111r MI ^IIIIIIIIIi • NMI= w11/110. w -^^ I M . `Air en Rondeau' etc. /^ ^^7 v . finally ending with the Rondeau." . `Gigue en Rondeau'.IN AI ^.411IIII 1111111♦ = l'7 AN rVA^/^t^ M^_^^^1 . = s s111/1111111111r7 MN .ANNO ^^^^ '—.PWIIII/^ i^111••s11. ^^^eJ_^^ ^ .. When the first couplet has been played once.

in 1218 metre with dotted notes interspersed. etc. Quantz) J = 88 (in 3/4.a•. WW1 . -4- + + Sarabande en Rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J = 88 ++ + + it i 11111•111/7a/ Qa•rat nwat At /7^r t lilIrIla•t 17dga-=iK ^• 1 MOM/ a1. The Sarabande. slow. as for instance in the Sarabande and the Passacaglia.92 SARABANDE j= 72 (in 3/2. properly understood.111•f^ )i.J•••. (L'Affilard) Sarabande in six slow beats (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J= 134 '<..-^^al^aara• ^ r.//^rI. Grace notes can scarcely be used.:araa^l.aaa^ ^aa. tempo.• ^ ^^•a•\•' ^aa^ra^^ •^r^•••i I1 ••-ala\^ r• aiaa^ MINIM aar FM a/ •aa^a s^-• • When this metre is made to sing solemnly.1s••01101111111111M. but more lightly. with hardly any shakes.^^^^ ^a^l^ari/ ^^ i '^í:ar^a-^a^^^a^^^ar^r^^^^^^^^^a^a^^^^. (Freillon-Poncein) A sarabande has the same tempo (as the Entrée. (Rousseau) An Alla Siciliana.k•aa11•1a1110110 11111111•ana111•1rar. but even more A kind of tune for dancing ( pronounced that that of the Gigue.^a^alaa^^Iaa• ^aa.aew Nimble Sarabande (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 In the tempo of a Chaconne +.1•^a•a•1ar ='. but is played with slightly more agreeable expression. it is taken slowly in three equal beats ( . (Brossard) The metre ( . . ^ Ì i SICILIANA (SICILIENNE) ) having a tempo much slower.S a•^_ •aaaa\a•>. Ammn^••^^/^ a^v^^t^r^^^ ^^^w^/a^^ s^ Sra^r/a^m^on^ 1 crusa^ Ii t>.-. L'Affilard) J = 80 (in 3/4. (Quantz) Tender Sarabande (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 ej= 72 • aUa•Iaa^aa^a•/A •^^a11.abata. should be played very simply. .7[/A. except for a few semiquaver passing appoggiaturas and some ports-de-voix: A. serious.^ • aiiL^71 1I 1 MINIM •^.aaII MN NI 'ON/WIar l>•rwt i>•71!!!>•'O 1111r ^^ 11 • : ^^. and not too slowly.^ar ^ar/^aa^ i aa -^aa^•a^^a^nars a•r Mal •a.a/'^^^I/^^ aas / •rawasora1•rwomma. + r r .11a. the Loure and the Courante).L. alai.r ^. ^ w^1•0111111•• •^ ^tá ^i ^r^^^^. L'Affilard) From being a quick dance in the 16th century. L'Affilard) J = 134 (in 6/4.. : ..4•1•arra•a•aa•^aa•-••cW1a^. ). being only a Minuet with a grave. 25-732 I .+^^^ar^-•n1 1 -. the Sarabande became in the 17th and 18th centuries one of the (moderate or slow) movements of the instrumental Suite. ) is taken in 3 slow beats. the Chaconne is taken in the same manner.STa-ra•• Main .

. INI Siciliana (G... (Quantz) Sicilienne (John LŒILLET) c1725 Affettuoso ^^^ L.s 1115I1=1 /L^/111=J.93 because this is an imitation of a Sicilian shepherds' dance._ =.=11=J J. !'77t L• =1 ./^I/S 4.. It should skip along very rhythmically.411=r1rrt• AA I= WES J. ELM Ls /. III MN.^ii 1=1• / _^^=. Quantz) A kind of dance much in fashion nowadays in French theatres.• s /I/'//i.^^ •.^^.^7^^^^== =.J ^^.Z71... .J.1 s _ It !<=...iINSI. HANDEL) c1722 'MN= 1) 1_17 1•Uwt AlIJ•r./^^•.i w^•J^/•//1^..a1=1••••={J. . except a little faster. A =I =I . TAMBOUR IN a little faster (than 80 bars to the minute.^.J /LI =...1s1 S!•111M1111 =. OEM .r 5•=1.` ^^ V•s•=11••1.11=:7I.^ 1lts•1•^J.7^\^/r...L.../IIMII.^'^ :I. 451=. M1^^..1111' Pd= rJ. ar.=•. (Rameau-D'Alembert) A Tambourin is played like a Bourrée or a Rigaudon.^.••••11 .-P. ^ •/ ^ _ ^ .^.IIIII MAI INIIIM/ MOM .A/f•1• ^^^ ^t-^^^^•^. 25-732 . Its tune is very spirited and is taken in two quick beats.•==^I. RAMEAU) 1735 Nimbly Tambourin (DENIS) 1747 !LUSllt-^ / J/7^7=/I//^ s/=//.11111111 /W..=r181=. (Quantz) Tambourin (J...t 117r111111= .. A.. and the bass should strike the same note over and over again to imitate the tabor (.^^/ AM :i1I I MIIIIIr/L11•11.1••AL ^^^^^.INI IIII/L!'.IIIMICfI I 1717 A all/01 1 -'=. F. • />L7=•/ial.^^.JI1•11 I.1 sE. •A/J.I )11111S _/ ===== J • ....1 l71^f 71.l..1•J1=J11111111tJ...\1111= .MINIM . This rule applies equally to French Musettes and Bergeries.A. ) It is taken in two very fast beats and each section normally begins on the second beat.t =t .1•INIII _ /LA= AIM \`.11••=lf Al= MI II IIAA'===J•.MU .==s•^^^^^^ ==^.41/ =It s .2.AN W..^^^/^^^^^=.f L= .^ ^././..=^_ =NI ./ sLMIII.i !LM=11.^^^ ^ =/.. ) with which the piper normally accompanies himself (Rousseau) The Tambourin is in two repeated sections (.•111. NI =I.vJIM.. 17J•.=111111IJ// !7/ If .^..1lt 1 ^^ ^1• ^ A^rl.1INI J•.i.I.. or] pipe (`flûtet') of the people of Provence..MIs .^^^1^..=/•=A. imitating the [`galoubet'..11111 a4111=.

The basis of the tune is normally a fairly simple couplet on which one then makes Doubles or Vari'tions. .^^^ ^a1.94 VILLANELLE The Villanelle is a somewhat spirited Chaconne (see the definition by the same author). (Rousseau) Villanelle (CAMPRA) i 710 • L.L.. (END) /1 j• ^^^^• WW1 III ^^j .1^r^J ^ t) _ ^• +^J'__` M__ ^_ . a little more lively in tempo than the ordinary Chaconne.732 .^ ^w^^^^^^^^^rar ^ r^ ^ ^ / -^__ ___ _1J_._ a s- A. MAIM u^^^^.25. (Rameau-D'Alembert) A kind of rustic dance whose tune should be sprightly and articulated in a very clear metre.111sa._1_+_1_+_=-^ / _=^^^r^ ^^^ ri ^.

1767 SAINT-LAMBERT Michel de: Les principes de clavecin avec des remarques nécessaires pour l'intelligence de plusieurs difficultés de la musique. avec plusieurs remarques pour servir au bon goût dans la musique. 1792 VILLENEUVE Josse de: Nouvelle Méthode (. 1766-1778 BROSSARD Sébastien de: Dictionnaire de musique..732 . 1696 MAHAUT Antoine: Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre en peu de temps à jouer de la flûte traversière. ou nouveau système pour apprendre facilement la musique soi-mime.25. 1775 FREILLON-PONCEIN Jean-Pierre: La véritable manière d'apprendre à jouer en perfection du hautbois. 1755 MONTÉCLAIR Michel Pinolet de: Principes de musique. 1700 HOTTETERRE Jacques called Le Romain: L'Art de préluder sur la flûte traversière. Isolated references to other publications not listed above are given in full at the end of the quotations in question. . de la flû te et du flageolet. 1759 COUPERIN François: L'Art de toucher le clavecin. 1753-1762 BACQUOY-GUÉDON Alexis: Méthode pour exercer l'oreille à la mesure dans l'art de la danse. développés et simplifiés par Jean le Rond D'ALEMBERT. 1759 MARPURG Friedrich Wilhelm: Anleitung zum Clavierspielen (Introduction to keyboard playing). 1778 (Fétis) BÉDOS de CELLES Dom François: L'Art du facteur d'orgues. 1752 ROUSSEAU Jean-Jacques: Dictionnaire de musique. sur le hautbois et autres instruments de dessus.L. This bibliography lists the principal treatises from which are drawn the quotations in the present work. 1719 L'AFFILARD Michel: Principes très faciles pour bien apprendre la musique. éclaircis. 1703 CAJON: Eléments de musique.) pour apprendre la musique et les agréments du chant. A. 1702 TARTINI Giuseppe: Traité des agréments de la musique. 1736 MUFFAT Georg: Suavioris harmoniae instrumentalis hyporchematicae florilegium. 1771 VAN DER HAGEN Armand: Méthode nouvelle et raisonnée pour le hautbois. 1772 CHOQUEL Henri-Louis: La musique rendue sensible par la mécanique. B.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED BACH Carl Philipp Em an uel: Versuch über die wahre Art das Klavier zu spielen (Essay on the true art of playing the keyboard). 1737 DENIS Claude: Nouveau système de musique pratique. sur la flûte à bec. 1733 N. QUANTZ Joh an n Joachim: Essai d'une méthode pour apprendre à jouer de la flûte traversière. 1694-1717 LOULIÉ Etienne: Eléments ou principes de musique. 1695-1698. 1752 RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT: Eléments de musique théorique et pratique suivant les principes de M. RAMEAU. 1747 ENGRAMELLE Father Joseph: La tonotechnie ou l'art de noter les cylindres et tout ce qui est susceptible de notage dans les instruments de concerts mécaniques. 1717 DAVID François: Méthode nouvelle ou principes généraux pour apprendre facilement la musique et l'art de chanter.

25 Canaries 8. 4. 81. 3 66 Cantata . de 2. M. 55. B. 29. 59 Dolce 61. 66.36 Adagio 1.69 Allegro moderato 67. 62/63. 91 Lento 60. 66 LEBEGUE N.82. 3.91. 35. 66. I. 47 CLERA. 35. IX CORRETTE M. 91 MARAIS M. 84 BACQUOY-GUEDON A.61. 82. 82 Ballet 76 (see also: Air de ballet) Balls 75. 64. 74. 66. 76. A. 65. 85 Arpeggio 3r Articulatory silence 11-13. majestic 61. 68.76. 38. 7-69. 92 LULLY J.81. 84 LUSSE C. 67. 78. 23/24. 72/73 BROSSARD S. 29. 94 Doublé: see Turn Double cadence: see Turn Double-dotted notes 27-31. 75. 2. 29. Recorder) Flatet: see Pipe and Tabor Forlane 5. 29. 85 Allegro assai 60. 70/71 Allegretto 60. 8. VIII. 66. 82 Harpsichord.80. IX. 52 Couplet 74. 69 Allegro 1. 1-9. 75 Coulade 18. 33-48. S. 94 Courante 7. 75. bow-stroke 13. 46 LECLAIR J. 62/63. b2/63. 73. 79 Cantabile 64. 5.78. 75. /$0.22-24. 47 Air de ballet 1. 92 Equal notes 13. 74.-6-2/63. 59 Finger vibrato: see Flatté. Un equ. 61. 69 Allegro ma non presto 60. 55-57 59. 27. 67. 45.46. 31 BACH J. 9. 68 (see also: Transverse flute. 62/63. 93 Bowing.29. N. 53/54 A. 58.87. 42/43 Detached notes 13-15.88. 79. 48. 4. 38/39. 77 Furioso 60 Gaillard 77 Gavotte 4. 53. .. 50. 22. VIII.49.34/35. Flattement 33.7. 80.. 79.92. 81 DENIS C. 4-0. 44. 36 MARCELLO A. 23. 3. 2527. 61.76. 79. 18. 15. 19.-25. 1. 62. P.72. 69. 37. 14. 92 Fugue I Furie 18.45.35.732 . 76. 84. 92 Gruppetto: see Turn Gustoso 60 HANDEL G. 29. 36. 90 Improvisation 89 Inequality: see Unequal notes Inflated sound: see Son enflé Intervallic leaps 26. 62.L.6-9.65 Contredanse 75 Contre-temps 86 CORELLI A. 75. 78. 92 DAVID F. 20. 6. 65.35 Coulé. 37. 61 Entrée 4. 71 After-stroke 46 Agitato 60 AGRICOLA M. 34. 92 COUPERIN F. E. 88/89.35/36. 90. flautists 18.50 Flute. 92 Goats réunis 52 Grace notes 21. 8:8-9 Chaconne 7. 80.4. 19 BOURGEOIS L.82 Loure 5. 47. 61. 74. 29.92 CACCINI G. 34. 62/63. 49-52. 49. 67. 76. 60-63. 66 Dots (over notes) 13. 40. 60-66. 80. 25. 68 Adagio affettuoso 2 Adagio assai 60. 5. SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED Accent 34. 66.74. 67.96 INDEX OF TERMS. 27 Aspiration 34 Assai 61 BACH C. 25. 76/77 Forte: see Piano and Forte FREILLON-PONCEIN J. 72 Aria larga 71 Arietta 72 Arioso 61. 87 Fall: see Chute Fermata 43. 50. 50.61. 25 Dotted notes: see Double-dotted notes. Coulement 33.18. 66 Largo di molto 60. 73/74. 40 Cotillon 4.90 Branle 4. 83. 64 Appoggiatura: see Port-de-voix. P. 92 Larghetto 60-63. 6. 69 Allegro ma non tanto 60. 68. bowed 42 HOTTETERRE J. 75/76. 68. L. 76. 89. 74. 14. 91. B. 26. 86. 42. 29. 7. Flattement Flatté.46 Circolo mezzo: see Turn Clavichord 42. de 48 BORDET 13. de 47 Lute.94 CHOQUEL H. 76. 32. 40. 84. 91 Gigue 5. lutenists 47 Maestoso. 29.MBAULT L. 89. 61. 64. 91. 35. 7 Con brio 60 Con furia 77 Conjoined tastes: see Goats réunis Consonance 40. 34. 66.82 BEDOS Dom 70 Bergerie 93 BOISMORTIER J. 78. 50. 72. 44 . 92/93 Allemande 1. 23. 84 MAHAUT A. 7 Air en Rondeau 91 D'ALEMBERT: see RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT Alla breve: see Metres in Alla cappella: see Metres in Alla siciliana 61. F. 36. 18. 66 Adagio cantabile 61 Adagio di molto 60. 64. 43. 80. 42.86 Chronometer 70 Chute 23. 7. 74 DESPLANES J. 69 Anacrusis 30 Andante 60. Coulé Aria 71. 27. 68. 61. 6. 66 Largo 60-64 Largo assai 60.72.61. 85 Andantino 60. 36 Major 74. 68 Keyboard instruments 42 L'AFFILARD M. IX. 64.79.l notes Double 32. 84 Harpsichord 3. 80. 20 Bourrée 4. 75. 65. 47. 78. 62.66 Lento assai 60.62. 42. 29. 6. 38. VIII. 66 Affettuoso (Affetto) 61. 64 Adagio pesante 61 Adagio spiritoso 61. 19. 11. 61. 69 Allegro ma non troppo 60.77. 65. 84 ENGRAMELLE J. 14. 69 Allegro di molto 60. 53/54.71. 8. 3.82. 32 Cadence: see Trill Cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 58/59 CAJON 2. 80 Diminution 49 Disjunct intervals: see Intervallic leaps Dissonance 39. 24.74 Lento di molto 60. 61.85/86. 34. 67. 34. 36/37.75. 64 LOULIE E. 74. 6.

8.68. 60.43. passage-work 18.37/38.10.10.86 9/4 6. 66.4. 94 A. 20. VIII. 65.72. 89. ^^.87 3 or 3/4 6 7.37. 76. 84.60.86.88. expression of different 68 Shake: see Trill Sicilian a 92/93 (see also: Alla sicili an a) Sinfonia 76. .4446. 58 Stroke (in trill): see Trill Stroke (over a note) _.4.67 Presto 60..92 Passages.72.19.70-94 Tempo c': cappella 3.49-59.77. 47. 39. 61. IX RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT 72.70.24.29.94 Rubato 32 Run: see Coulade SAINT-LAMBERT M. 93 2/8 3.89.64-69. 93.40. 10. 92 Swelled sound: see Son enflé Syncopation: see Contre-temps Tabor: see Pipe Tambourin 5.51. 59.43. 17.44.4346.55. de 6.83.47.78-80.65.10.7. gavotta 3. 83 Pendulum 7a.44.74-84.5/6.87. 30. 74. 67.83.70.49.60. 36. 79.92 12/16 2/3 3/j.10.90/21.15-19.16.41.8 10.6.5. 3. 60.42.85/86.51/52.25.85.64.72-78.14. 40.65. 48. 73.61.4.79 Musette (instrument) 11.86.58.69.42.26. 87.37. 75.25.81.62.93 2/16 3 6/4 3. 29.f1ó Sonata 1/2.52. P. .10. 94 Recorder 42 Repeated notes 25 Rigaudon 4. 81 MARPURG F. 60.58-61.24.47. 50.89 Son diminué: see Son enflé Son enflé 13. 47.61. etc.24.10.9.82. 33.83/84.5.87.69.30.41. .48 Tremolo 47 Tremulant stop: see Organ Trill 11.0 Port-de-voix 37.56/57 TELEMANN G.67. Pastourelle 87/88 Pause (trill): see Point d'arrêt Pavane 88 Pedal-point 58/59.69 Pipe (and tabor) 93 Piqué: see Detached notes Poco Adagio 60 Poco Allegro 60.29.93 Oboe 53 Opera 4. 87.63. 49. 85.75. J. 45.9.62/53.61 12/4 2.68. 61. tongue-stroke 18. 27.92 6/8 3. chromatic ascending 65 Sentiments. 40.33.64.60.49.93 Prelude 1.61. OM. 74.46 Theatre 82. 90-93 RAMEAU J.66-69 Tour de gosier: see Turn Transverse flute 19.5.84/85 Pardessus de viole 19 Passacaglia 7.80 VAN DER HAGEN A. 30.24. 84. 61.4 Tempo d. 49.60.73.62. P. 29.42.81. 90.93 Threaded sound: see Son filé Ties: see Slurs and ties Time signatures: see Metres Tirata 18 Tonguing. 61.83 Musette (movement) 80.93 TARTINI G. de 8. 46. 45 Variation 33.43.79 6 96 6/16 9 9/16 9 Metronome 70 Minor 70 Minuet 7.92 Turn 43/44.29. 44.68.61 Poco Andante 61.80.21 ROUSSEAU J. $2/9Q Preparation note (trill) 37. 86. 47. 8.^ _-.80-87.W.92 3/8 6-8. 56. 43.68.24.34. SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED (continued) March 4.23 Termination (trill) 43. 3846.60.18. 50. 33.47 Messa di voce: see Son enflé Mesto 61. 89 Opéra-Ballet 76 Organ (tremulant stop) 47 Ornaments.18.) 47 Romanesque 77 Rondeau 29. 24.76.24. 85.50.L.13.10.81-83. ornamentation 27.68/69 Overture 4.46. P.11.68 Pincé. 84 Slurs and ties 13.27-30.65. 55.35.69 Passepied -K71786/87 Pastorale.69. 1. J.82.65.52.85 4/4 4/8 5.10.42/41. 24 186. 73 Motet 4 Mordent: see Pincé MUFFAT G.13.10.92 Mixed style: see Style mêlé MONTECLAIR M. 32.29. 79. 46 Polonaise 88/89 Pomposo 61. 22. 75.25.79. 82.24.87 Soave 61.66 Poco Largo 60 Poco Lento 60 Poco Presto 60 Poco Veloce 60 Poco Vivace 60 Point d'arrêt (trill) 37.90 2/4 3.49.20.732 . 24.73. 84.44.24 12/8 2.84 Tempo 60.65.50 Unequal notes 20-27. 79 "171 3.55.83. 86.80. 80. .24.72. 76.90 2or2/2 3.79.18.9.75-78.63 Sostenuto 65 Staccato 14/15.22 Presto assai 63 Quadrille 75 QUANTZ J.83.32. mordent 36.81. 25 Style mêlé 52 Suite 70.2 Pesante 66 Phrasing 11-32 Piano and Forte 42/.91 Martellement 37 MERSENNE M.49.50.92.68.10. 10. 74.50.16W. 82.93.24.65.4. 76.33-38.24. _^^--- 97 IN DEX OF TERMS.81. 32.44/15 Prestissimo 2.78. 65 Son filé 38.93 Rocking (in vibrato. 36.24.92 Schneller 37 Semitones.61.79.81.78.38-41.33.67.33.92 3/2 6/7.6 10.88. 26.66 Metres in 4/2 1.22.60.L.8/9. 19. 85. 64.60.65 Stringed instruments 18.50.48.50.39.61.36. 56.4. 82 Saltarello 91 Sarabande 7. 78.

Flattement) Villanelle 74.y. de 63. . 69 A. 91 Vivace 60. 42. 4T Vibrato 36. 47 Violin 19. 67.L. 50.Q4 VILLENEUVE J. 66.732 . 65.98 INDEX OF TERMS. 61.72 Viol 36..2/ó}. 69.25. 66. 36. Vivacissimo 60 Wind instruments 18. 58. SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED (continued) Veloce 60 Velocissimo 60 Vene cassd 36. 43. 48 (see also: Flatte.

78 Allegro non molto 17 Allegro non troppo 50 Allemande 2. 30.53/54. 79 Passacaglia 7. 5 MARCELLO A.31. 3.19.43.50.39 DEMOIVRE D.5.84 Grave 15.5. 8.93 Rhythm (reversed dotted) 29 Rhythms (superimposition and succession of different) 30 Rigaudon 4.55/56.78 QUANTZ J.51. 21. 25 A.38/39. 46 Rubato 32 Saltarello 91 Sarabande 7. 3.57.81.81 MARPURG F.31.16. 58. 47.25-28. 87 Chûte 34. 84.45.38.63 Grave e affettuoso 43 Gravely.87 Equal notes and detach 14 FASCH J. 34.31.78 Gigue 5. 4. 23 Loure 5.43.71.26.55/56.63 Adagio (of the manner in which the .72. 30.75. 37.732 . 71 Anacrusis 30 Andante 16. Coulement 35. 14/15. F. 87 Pastorale. A.47.39. 70.17.4. 25.77.48 Prelude 2.72.83 MONTÉCLAIR M. W. de 48.71-74. Pastourelle 88 Pavane 88 Pearled notes 13 PHILIDOR A. 12 Demons' Air. 25.92 SCHICKHARDT J. 37 Adagio 8. 2. 86 Passages (Doubles) 49 Passage-work 9. 31. 25.90 Rondeau (form) 73. B.50.5. 83 Entrée 4. 40. F.7. 78.36 COUPERIN F.28. J.48 Circolo mezzo: see Turn CLÉRAMBAULT L.88. 32 Couplet 91 Courante 7.41. .12.70. 85 Diminutiein 49 Dissonance 40.34. C.42. 31 Passepied 8. 51.6. 48.35.46.86. P.18. 90.53/54. 14. 22. B.71 LCEILLET J.80 Lullaby 7 LULLY J.92 Mordent: see Pincé Musette 26. 84 NAUDOT J. 50. 3. 38.34-38. 93 LŒILLET J. 76.76 Equal notes 22. 41.71. 93 DESPLANES J.77.49. 70.41. 37.84 BONONCINI G. de 8. 90 Bourrée 4. 48 Point d'arrdt: see Trill Polonaise 88/89 Port-de-voix 34.80 LOULIÉ E. 93 Canaries 8. 48 Gracefully 71. 77. 12. 27. 59 Dotted notes 64/65 Double 32. aria 71 Air of the zephyrs 5 Allegro 1. 20.31 Fast 87 Flatté. 26.2.87 BARSANTI F.93 Ornamentation (French) 50/51 Ornamentation (German) 52-54 Ornamentation (Italian) 55-57 Ornaments 27 Overture 4.9. 73.9.49.74. 15. P. 1.72 Consonance 40 Contredanse 75 CORELLI A. 45.46. 81. 86.59. 43 DESTOUCHES A.80 Grace notes 41.76.91..40.10.29.8.52.99 IN DEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES by subject and composer Accent 34. 86. 26 Pincé 36.L.22/23.40. N. D.76. 4.19. 7 Detached notes 13 DIEUPART C.87. B. 7 DENIS C. F.82.89 Doublé: see Turn Double cadence: see Turn Double-dotted notes 27-30 Double-dotted notes.26.5. 4. 91. 26 CORRETTE M. 21 Nimbly 92. 36. 76 BLAVET M. 5.36.30.84 BOISMORTIER J. Flattement 35-37 Forlane 5.35. L. 37. 93 HOTTETERRE J.46.25.9 Minuet 7. Con furia 77 Furies Tune 77 Gaillarde (Gaillard) 77 Gavotte 4.82.64.90/91 Quickly 73 RAMEAU J.30.93 After-stroke 46 Air. 7. 77.2. 23. 44 Martellement: see Pincé MASCITI M. 74 Cantabile 16/17 Chaconne 7.77 Furie. 75. 1 BEDOS Dom 13 BERNIER N.63 Andante (un poco) 63 Appoggiatura: see Port-de-voix Aria 71 Ariette 72 Arpeggio 19 Ascending chromatic semitones 65 Aspiration: see Accent BACH J. B. J. with gravity 2. P.78. C.81.74. 19.26 MARAIS M.35.25.74 Chaconne (in the tempo of a) 92 CHEDEVILLE L.80 Cotillon 75 Coulade 18.72 Branle 73 Cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 58/59 CAMPRA A. 25 DAVID F.90 L'AFFILARD M.75. 78 Gruppetto: see Turn Half shakes 41 HANDEL G. 47. 91. 53/54 March 4.9 BITTI M. exceptions 31 ENGRAMELLE J. S.84 CHOQUEL H.85 PAISIBLE J..79. should be played) 64/65 Affettuoso 71.90 Presto 63. 80.25.79. C.77. 73.35 Coulé. M.46. 92 Largo 2 LECLAIR J. 83. 92 ROUSSEAU J.9. 7. 3.26.76 DALL'ABACO E.48.65. 83.

90. 31. 53. 86 Tirata 18 Trill 36. 57 TELEMANN G. 76. 25. 37. 86 Vivace 8. 89 Tempo di cappella 3.25. 78 Tender Air. F. 12 Vill anelle 94 VILLENEUVE J. de 63. I.A2a3 'Spiccato' notes 25 Spirited (Gay) 10.91 Staccato 13. 46. 43. 52. 93 S il ences (Articulatory) 12/13 Slow (grave) 75. 14. 8 Slow and tender 86 Slurs (complete indication of) 16 (absence of) 16/17 (filling in) 17. 26. 28 Son coupé (interrupted sound): see Accent Son enfl t. 15 STUK J. 85. 16/17. (Messa di voce) 39. 10 Tempo di gavotta 3. 44. 78. i* 10 Li A. 83. 93 TARTINI G. 3 Table of grace notes 48 Tambourin 5. 85.92 Slow (lent) 3.100 IN DEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES (continued) Schneller: see Pincé Shake: see Trill Shake with mordent 48 Siciliana 52. 18. 18. 48 Unequal notes 20-23 VAN HEERDE A. 88 t^F ^^. 43. . 41. B. 44-46. 48 Turn (Tourde gosier) 41. 19 (alternation) 19 Solemnly 27.732 .63 VIVALDI A. 40. 7. 88. 71 Tenderly 81.L.

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