# budynas_SM_ch02.

qxd

11/22/2006

16:28

FIRST PAGES

Page 6

Chapter 2
2-1 From Table A-20
Sut = 470 MPa (68 kpsi), S y = 390 MPa (57 kpsi)

Ans.

2-2 From Table A-20
Sut = 620 MPa (90 kpsi), S y = 340 MPa (49.5 kpsi) Ans.
2-3 Comparison of yield strengths:
Sut of G10 500 HR is
Syt of SAE1020 CD is

620
= 1.32 times larger than SAE1020 CD
470
390
= 1.15 times larger than G10500 HR
340

Ans.
Ans.

From Table A-20, the ductilities (reduction in areas) show,
SAE1020 CD is

40
= 1.14 times larger than G10500
35

Ans.

The stiffness values of these materials are identical Ans.
Sut
MPa (kpsi)

Sy
MPa (kpsi)

Table A-20
Ductility
R%

SAE1020 CD 470(68)
UNS10500 HR 620(90)

390 (57)
340(495)

40
35

Table A-5
Stiffness
GPa (Mpsi)
207(30)
207(30)

2-4 From Table A-21
1040 Q&T S¯ y = 593 (86) MPa (kpsi) at 205◦C (400◦F)

Ans.

2-5 From Table A-21
1040 Q&T

R = 65%

at 650◦C (1200◦F)

Ans.

2-6 Using Table A-5, the specific strengths are:
Sy
39.5(103 )
=
= 1.40(105 ) in
UNS G10350 HR steel:
W
0.282
2024 T4 aluminum:

Sy
43(103 )
=
= 4.39(105 ) in
W
0.098

Ti-6Al-4V titanium:

Sy
140(103 )
=
= 8.75(105 ) in
W
0.16

ASTM 30 gray cast iron has no yield strength.

Ans.

Ans.
Ans.
Ans.

Ti-6Al-4V titanium: E 16.004 0.16 Ans.208 2(6) Ans. Sy ⫽ 45.304 2(11.016 (Lower curve) 0.58(107 ) in W 0.006 0.4 − 2(3.2 0.098 Ans. 10.90) = 0.03(108 ) in W 0.3(106 ) = = 1.5 − 2(6) = 0.1987 10 ⫽ A0 l ⫺ l0 ⌬l l ⫽ ⫽ ⫺ 1⫽ ⫺1 A l0 l0 l0 0 0 0. Gray cast iron: E 14.1987 ⫺ 0.286 2(7) 14. Ans. 2024 T4 aluminum: E 10.7 0. 30 E ⫽ 90兾0. 20 R⫽ A0 ⫺ AF 0. 2-9 E U 80 70 Stress P兾A0 kpsi 60 50 Y 40 Su ⫽ 85.  0.6 0.90) 18 − 2(7) = 0.002 0.5 kpsi Ans.05(108 ) in W 0.1 0.014 0.010 0.5 kpsi Ans.012 0.26 Ans.003 ⫽ 30 000 kpsi Ans.qxd 11/22/2006 16:28 FIRST PAGES Page 7 7 Chapter 2 2-7 The specific moduli are: E 30(106 ) = = 1.5) = 0.5(106 ) = = 5.5 0. 2G(1 + ν) = E 2-8 ⇒ ν= E − 2G 2G From Table A-5 Steel: ν = Aluminum: ν = Beryllium copper: ν = Gray cast iron: ν = 30 − 2(11. A0 0.1077 ⫽ (100) ⫽ 45.5(106 ) = = 1.008 0.8% Ans.282 UNS G10350 HR steel: Ans. Ans.8 (Upper curve) .333 2(3.06(108 ) in W 0.4 Strain.budynas_SM_ch02.5) Ans.3 0.

0036 0.06 44 354.701 774 4.4 kpsi Ans.2 kpsi Ans.197 8 0.187 5 0.0010 0.107 7 0 0.198 713 0.546 872 4.939 55 −2.001 575 0.388 10 064.666 121 4.1987 in2 4 ε = ln l l0 ε = ln A0 A σtrue = for 0 ≤ L ≤ 0.2306 = 108. Eq.198 4 0.2 Ans.198 713 0.198 713 0.192 4 0. Eq.000 65 0.178 895 4.84 46 511. For 20% cold work.1590 Eq.2231 A 0. The last 5 points of data are used to plot log σ vs log ε m = 0.138 046 . (2-10) and Eq.0028 in for L > 0.908 842 5.0004 0.000 3 0.62 68 607. A0 = Eq.198 713 0.012 216 0.854 18 −2.0013 0.503) 2 = 0.212 89 3.78 15 097. (2-13) give.098 568 5.240 083 0. ε.67 108 765. (2-15).5 kpsi from Prob.2 125 478.198 713 0.235 96 −0. 2-9.187 23 −2.2231) 0.156 3 0.913 05 −1.07 81 066.001 149 0.2306 The curve fit gives log σ0 = 5. (2-14): S y = σ0 εm = 153.2 137 418.418 956 0.836 369 4.130 7 0.budynas_SM_ch02.522 94 −3.63 46 357.0023 0.72 42 272.0028 in P A The results are summarized in the table below and plotted on the next page.491 01 −1.032 284 0.1987(1 − 0.036 49 5.196 3 0.303 834 4.17 20 129. Su = P 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 7 000 8 400 8 800 9 200 9 100 13 200 15 200 17 000 16 400 14 800 Su 85.0028 0. A = A0 (1 − W ) = 0.55 35 226.004 604 0.000 5 0.612 511 0 5032.699 01 −3.646 941 4. (2-4) π(0. the following equations are applied to the data.8 −3.9 kpsi 1−W 1 − 0.667 562 4.058 082 0.619 64 −0.1852 ⇒ σ0 = 153.1590 in2 ε = ln A0 0.2) = 0.626 053 4. with Su = 85.000 2 0.802 61 −2.002 804 4.0006 0.301 14 −3.1987 = ln = 0.001 399 0.5 = = 106.198 713 0.qxd 8 11/22/2006 16:28 FIRST PAGES Page 8 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design 2-10 To plot σtrue vs.2(0.0089 0. L A ε σtrue log ε log σtrue 0 0.198 713 0.336 85 −1.377 83 −0.

budynas_SM_ch02.1 4.80 1.44 0.1 0.7 5. 5000 − 0 = = 25(106 ) psi ε 0.5 2.2 ⫺1 ⫺0.2 y ⫽ 0.4 ⫺0.qxd 11/22/2006 16:28 FIRST PAGES Page 9 9 Chapter 2 160000 140000 true (psi) 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 0 0.0 ⫺1.3 0.4 4. (26 − 19)(103 ) = 14.5 − 1)(10 ) σ (kpsi) 60 0 5 10 16 19 26 32 40 46 49 54 50 Ans.5 0.0 1.6 0.001 ⫽ ˙ 35 kpsi Ans.20 0.4 true 0.4 (Sy)0.8 3.1852 5 log  5.2 0.0 2.8 log  ⫺0.9 ⫺1.6 Tangent modulus at σ = 0 is E0 = At σ = 20 kpsi ε(10−3 ) 0 0.2 0 4. 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3  (10⫺3) 4 5 .8 σ . 40  (kpsi) 2-11 ⫺1.2306x ⫹ 5.6 ⫺0.0 5.2(10−3 ) − 0 .0(106 ) psi E 20 = − 3 (1.

σ f = 106 kpsi. (2-14) S y = σ0 εim = 110(0.2 Eq.5 = = 76. (2-17) Su = 0.2231) 0.budynas_SM_ch02. ε f = 0.9 kpsi 1−W 1 − 0. Sut = 61.5 kpsi σ0 = 110 kpsi.495 (250) = 124 kpsi = 3. Su = Su 61.24 = 76. Eq. These constitute a useful pair of equations in cold-forming situations. (2-10) A0 1 1 = = = 1.0 kpsi.41 (250) = 853 MPa Ans. For H B = 250. Substitute for N in εo = ln  Gives   ε0 = ln   R+h R+N R+h    h 1/2 R+ R 1+ −R R    h 1/2   = ln 1 +  R Ans.qxd 10 2-12 11/22/2006 16:28 FIRST PAGES Page 10 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design Since |εo | = |εi |        R+h      R R + N ln  = ln  = −ln   R+ N  R+ N  R  R+N R+h = R+N R ( R + N ) 2 = R( R + h) N 2 + 2R N − Rh = 0     h 1/2 N = R −1 ± 1 + R From which. (2-13) εi = ln 1.7 kpsi Eq. The roots are: The + sign being significant. Ans. . (2-15) 2-14 m = 0. (2-12) Eq.24 From Eq. allowing the surface strains to be found so that cold-working strength enhancement can be estimated.24.85 εu = m = 0.2 Ans.25 Ai 1−W 1 − 0.    h 1/2 −1 N=R 1+ R Ans. 2-13 From Table A-22 AISI 1212 S y = 28.2231 ⇒ εi < εu Eq.25 = 0.

.budynas_SM_ch02.qxd 11/22/2006 16:28 FIRST PAGES Page 11 11 Chapter 2 2-15 For the data given.

H B = 2530 .

495(253) = 125.02 46 297.1077 A0 /A − 1 ε 0.0018 0.23(3.032 811 0.78 15 097.5 = 45. Ans.0006 0.1924 0.92 kpsi Ans.0005 0.0028 0.2 kpsi Ans.000 65 0.1963 0. H B2 = 640 226 640 226 − (2530) 2 /10 2530 = 3.887) = 1. 2-15.53 76 492. σ¯ su = 0.30 85 550.60 82 531.012 291 0.0023 0.17 74 479. (2-17) 2-16 From Prob. (b) P L 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 7 000 8 400 8 800 9 200 9 100 13 200 15 200 17 000 16 400 14 800 0 0.0002 0.032 811 0.887) = 0.059 802 0.0089 A 0.271 355 0.06 44 285.059 802 0.1307 0.35 .52 uR = = 34.1875 0.271 355 0.17 20 129.845 059 σ = P/A0 0 5 032.887 = 253 σˆ H B = H¯ B = 9 10 Eq.5 in · lbf/in3 2(30) (a) Ans. H¯ B = 253 and σˆ HB = 3.0014 0.73 66 427.0013 0.39 10 064.004 45 0. Ans.97 45 794. (2-18) S¯u = 0.0010 0.520 373 0.0003 0.012 291 0.55 35 226.845059 0 0. 45.001 15 0.1563 0.495(3.894 kpsi 2-17 .0004 0.7 kpsi σˆ su = 0. S¯u = 0.0036 0.23(253) − 12.72 42 272.520 373 0.887 Eq.

.2 0.2 0.6 0.005   90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 A4 A5 30000 20000 A3 10000 0 0 0.4 All data points 0.6 Last 6 data points 0.001 0.qxd 12 11/22/2006 16:28 FIRST PAGES Page 12 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design  90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0.003 First 9 data points 0.8  5 1 .002 0.004 0.4 0.budynas_SM_ch02.8   50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 A1 15000 A2 10000 5000 0 0 0.

= 66.059 8 − 0.845 − 0.004 45 − 0. .7(103 )in · lbf/in3 Ans.004 45) 2 + 81 000(0.4 − 0. uT = Ai = (43 000)(0.001 5) 2 i=1 1 + (45 000 + 76 500)(0.4) .059 8) + 80 000(0.001 5) + 45 000(0.

. or. and. For strength. 2-19. Aluminum. Steel. A = kl/E. and Composites. m = Fl ρ/S. Thus. Ans. Common to both stiffness and strength are Steel. k = AE/l. and composites. lines parallel to S/ρ give for ductile materials. and Composites. m = kl 2 ρ/E. Molybdenum. Thus. Nickel. and. or. M = E/ρ. From Fig. S = F/A. Titanium. Titanium. ductile materials include Steel. Titanium.budynas_SM_ch02. 2-16. Aluminum. Therefore. A = F/S.qxd 11/22/2006 16:28 FIRST PAGES Page 13 Chapter 2 2-18 13 m = Alρ For stiffness. M = S/ρ. β = 1 From Fig.