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RESHIMAH #8 Divrei Yemei Chayei Admur Hazokein Copyright © 2010 by Kehot Publication Society 770 Eastern Parkway / Brooklyn, New York 11213 (718) 774-4000 / FAX (718) 774-2718 editor@kehot.com Orders Department: 291 Kingston Avenue / Brooklyn, New York 11213 (718) 778-0226 / FAX (718) 778-4148 www.kehot.com All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof, in any form without prior permission, in writing from the publisher. The Kehot logo is a trademark of Merkos L’Inyonei Chinuch, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8266-5068-9 Manufactured in the United States of America

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,oey`xd epia` w"k cedn llkd zepwqra zlaewn dhiy mdl yi c"ag i`iyp w"k ced .`ltp gxe`a dcqi xy` owfd x"enc` :5 eycw ixac dfe © ocpeax`t fi` hlree xryicxr xrc oi` jie` l`xyi mr xrc ,6 ux`a cg` ieb l`xyi © © zeinyb oet hk`n l`xyi mr xrc oe` ,zeinyb zeipgex oet hk`n z"iyd ,cg` 'd hin ixqend cnrn mr rexf iaely mikled l`xyi mr ly ilklkd avnd ipipr dpd okl .zeipgex .l`xyi mr ly x`zl gxkda dpd ,7 llkd zepwqr mrhn dreci dcna e`ven oirne qxhpewd ik zeidle © © x"en`` w"k ced ly eze`iyp inia llkd zepwqr ly illkd avnd z` Ð ok`n hp`wra Ð dyecwd ezcear z` jixrdl izpeek oi`e ,hxta oirne qxhpewd zrted onfae llka w"dxd Ð mipy yng Ð mipy ylye mirax`a Ð llkd zepwqra w"dxd x"en`` w"k ced ly raye ,`"rif n"bap d"dllwevf y"xdn w"dxd x"enc` eia` w"k ced iiga Ð a"nÎg"lxz oi`e ,zillk dxiwqa mb s` ,eze`iyp inia Ð s"xz oqipÎ8 b"nxz ixyz Ð dpy ivge miylye .oirne qxhpewl `eane aizp xi`i `l` df ixn`n miycwd ycw cr 9 [ycw] ixxda dzceqi c"ag i`iyp w"k ced zepwqr ik zeidl mpn` cr mipy dpeny oa ezeid f`n dpy miyyk jyna dcqi xy` owfd x"enc` w"k ced zhiy zian dnglne drxtd ilizta dxefye zepey 10 zetewzd .oic `nlr iiga oexg`d eycw mei dtewzdn zillk dxiwq i"dfra zzl gxken ippd ,Ð milikynd Ð uegne Ð micbpznd Ð ced zetewzn ok ixg`e ,`edd onfa ixqende ipxezd avna zillk dxiwq lr sqep ,`idd .zexvw zexiwqa c"ag i`iyp w"k * * * *

,l`xyi ipax eid ,11 ecqed ixg` hxtae ,zevx`d rax` cre cqep mxh mb mcwne f`n xeavd ipipr lka xeacde drcd 'id mcal mdle ,xecd ibidpn ,miny z`xie dxezd ilecb mrl rbepd xac lka mixyde jlnd iptl miavizn eid dcrd ixiga zebef mr mde ,llkde .ilklkd eavna oke ipxezde ixqend ecnrna l`xyi ilecb l`xyi ipaxn lecb wlg dpd ,12 c"kwz zpya ,zevx`d rax` cre lhay zrn mpn`
209 'r a"g zepexkfd xtq d`x .t"x'd zpya (11 zrcZ xtq seqa "micedid zcerzZ xn`n mb d`xe .jli`e .(h"pxz ,yh`wpen) "mipeapl zenvrnd oia oilet ly dzwelg zligz zeawr (12 Ð c"kwz zpya Ð ipletd oehlyd dxed dze` zeaaeqd .zevx`d rax` cre wexit lr .2 dxrd lirl d`xe .lel` fk "mei meidZa wzred (5 .`k ,fi `Îminid ixac .bk ,f aÎl`eny (6 jli`e bky 'r .dk 'r f"g ycewÎzexb` d`x (7 .(jli`e 4 'r oirne qxhpew) .b"nxz ixyz bi wlzqp y"xdn x"enc` w"k (8 .` ,ft mildz t"r (9 .zetewza ,oic :l"ve` :zetewzd .oic (10

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v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

cibnd axd epxen eycw mewn `lnne h"yrad epxen zhiy cbp welgl e`vi d`xide dxezd .13 l`xyia dgxw eyr dfa xy` ,yhixfrnn ¨ edpyne 14 o`qlrcprn dllegn xy` zipilxad dlkydd zrxv rbp dhytzd `idd zra dagxzp dlkydd zti`ye miny z`xia dreci dcna ebdpzd 15 lfiee wcwcne oylad elflfie zeiyrn zevn meiwa lwdl eligzd df mre mipaxd ler z` mdilrn ewxtie l`xyia .l`xyi ibdpna ixqend eavn lr d`xide dxezd ilecbl xrve db`c mxb zevx`d rax` cre ly elehia onfa 'id xy`k `giwt `pira mibidpne mirex ilan Ð r"l Ð mi`lt cxi xy` i"ag` ly lr ycwd zeldw ly dkxcdde dgbydd ler qinrdl dxezd ilecb ehilgie ,cred meiw xzk qnred `pliee xirae ,mdizeayen zenewne mdixrl dxezd ilecbn dlebq icigi .r"p `"xbd ezepe`b ced lr dbdpdde dkxcdd cwy dpy ynge miylyke Ð t"z oqip e"h clep Ð mipy rax`e mirax` oa f` 'id `"xbd ezeninze ez`xi ezxez Ð 16 r"lrna zery mixyr Ð denk oi`n zblten dcnzda ecenila lawl gxked df lka ,zepaxa elit`e ,ze`iypa utg `l ezepzepr lcebny s`e ,ezpne` eid .eit lr mikzgp eidi miixwird mipiprd xy` c"a`xd ziae dldwd zkxcd zxhr inlyexie ilaa `xnbe dpyn `xwna d`ltpd eze`iwae dxeza ezepe`b lceb cal ,`"xbd xy` exn`a ,rcne dnkg ade` 'id ,xqene xwgn dlaw ixtq lke ,yecwd xdfe miyxcn zeidl mda lecb jxev yi dxezle dxezd iwnrna md zelkyende 'irahd mircnd lk iyxy epzxezl zekxvp zenkgd lk ,`yicw 'ineta `lbxne dxezdn mixa` od zenkgd lk ryz el oexqgi zenkgd ix`ya zerici mc`l exqgiy dn itk ik ,17 da zelelke dyecwd .18 ecgi zecnvp dnkgde dxezd ik ,dxezd znkga zeci ,`"xbd ly dyecwd ezcra jezd icenrn '` dzid eznkg zx`tze l`xyi zxcd dpekzd znkga rbi envra .dxezd zrici lr sqep l`xyia dnkg zeaxdl c`n 19 rbrbzde icka ycewd oeyll zene`d inkgn dnkg ixtq dnk wizrdl evie cere dpibpe d`etx `vnpe mznkg 'i` epzne`l el`yi xy` mine`l oe`y xeqie l`xyi mr oia zrcd daxzy .llgzn miny my dnkg ziy`x xy` ,ez`xi zcn dpwa mc` lk z` ccn ezeninze ezwcv lceba `"xbd rxe`ne ,mircnd zrici ly 'il`da aegzd uewd z` d`x `l z`fld ezepzepr awre 20 'd z`xi fÎc"lwz zepya ,`plieea mipievnd dxez ipa zcra dlkydd gexl xry gzt c`na aivrn

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v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

ilztp 'x v"dxd mqxetn zten yi`e ciqgd recid oe`bd ly ecinlz 'id `paec y"x .r"p h"yrad epxen icinlzn cg` 32 `paec xirc c"a`x

xira xbd dgnen `texl reqpl edevri mi`texde c`na ilztp 'x v"dxd dlg `idd zra © gly Ð 34 d`ltdd lra Ð 33 qgpt 'x v"dxd oe`bde Ð oiinc hxetwpxtl dkenq Ð j`aite` © ipipr xnbyke .j`aite`a ezay ini lk eynyle p"xbd ly eycw ipt lawl eicinlzn dnk xy` eycw ipt z` xgyl envra t"x b"dxd rqp ezial xefgl el xizd `texde d`etxd hxetwpxt zldw l`xyi zcr z` cakle 35 n"pr hxetwpxta ely daiyid z` xwal li`ei .exewaa ,jxcd lnrn gepl micg` mini dny akrzie oilxa jxc rqp ,36 ezial p"xd v"dxd xfgyk xtqie oilxaa ezaiyi zec` exenl y"xd xtiq ab` jxc ,eynyn 'id `paec y"x ecinlze ¨ ecinlzl r"p p"xd oe`bd xn` dn epl rcep `ly s`e ,enebxze o`qlrcprn zece` lr mb el ¨ xy` ercia ,`plieel rqie o`qlrcprn zia z` c"yxd afr mihren mini xeark j` ,c"yxd xkyyi 'x oe`bde ,38 wecwcd cenil z` miaagn 37 laiit `bxy ixe` 'x oe`bd epzge `"xbd og `vni xy` dew ,39 wecwcde oeyld zpekz t"r dxezd lr extq z` xag `"xbd ig` .dxezd lr exe`ia z` qitcdl mdipira qrlrqrR 'x recid xiabde ,zeti mipt xaqa mipe`bd eicinlze `"xbd z`n lawzp c"yx ¨ eig`e 42 oif`l`een miig 'x mipe`bde lecb ceaka eziaa `ipqk` el ozp 41 `"xbd ly eaexw .44 exe`ia lr mdizenkqd epzp 43 rlrnlrf 'x
40

¨ yxtl c`n cwey 'idy eilr ecedn ozp oe`bd xy` oif`l`een onlf 'x mqxetnd oe`bd oiaiag ,exe`iae c"yx zec` lr azk ,mweic zilkza minebxzd lr cwye eheytk `xwnd hytd jxca mikledd mipencwd miyxtnd lkn hwl xy` cngpd exe`ia ixac c`n ilr mi`iap lr mb mixeaig xagl zexyt`d el zzle `paecn mkgd z` wfgl xxern eznkqdae .miaezke ipt lr cakpe `"xbd ly epini ci 'idy 45 laiit l`wfgi 'x axd ,`pliee xira mixyin cibnd

.ezligza "mipn`pl dtyZ d`x Ð qrlqrt edil` x"a sqei 'x (40 .my "'ipaxe `paec xirZ .136 'r (`"nxz ,`pliee) .` ,k (d"lxz ,`yx`ee) "my iyp` zeclezZ d`x (41 .n"kae .`"twzÎh"wz (42 .g"nwzÎf"hwz .onlf dnly 'x (43 135 'r "mipn`pl dtyZa eqtcp zenkqdd gqep (44 oifeleen miig 'x i"zk mvra dnkqdd meliv .jli`e rlrnlrf 'x i"zk mvra dnezgd dnkqdd melive fh oeilb "l`xyi xe`Z uaewa oiiycpen i"xd i"r enqxet ly ih`if`d oe`ifena cp`lcixt sqe`n Ð jli`e apw 'r inelvz zwlgna enelvze ,bxeaxhta mircnl 'incw`d .milyexia zine`ld 'ixtqay i"dzk zeclez) "mc` zeclezZ xtq xagn .b"vwzÎe"hwz (45 .(43 dxrd l"pd rlrnlrf 'x ly eiig

.f"lwz xii` 'i xhtp (31 "'ipaxe `paec xirZ eizece` d`x Ð .e"hwz zpyn (32 .24 'r (a"qxz ,`w`xw) c"a` a"lwz zpyn .uieexed ield qgpit 'x w"dxd (33 d"qwz fenz 'c mipy c"r oa xhtp .oiinc hxetwp`xt .(817 'r hxetwp`xt zldwl zepexkfd xtq) dpey`xl qtcp zeaezk q"nr d`ltd xtq (34 .f"nwz ,j`aite`a .oiin xdp lr = (35 .28 'r .24 'r "'ipaxe `paec xirZ d`x (36 ` ,dn .a ,l (a"pxz `pliee) "edil` zeilrZ d`x (37 .(dpey`xd ezy`n ezeclia `"xbd ozg 'idy ,mye) "dnly zxepnZ xtq xaig laiit `bxy ixe` 'x (38 edil` zxc` yexit mr qtcpe dxeqnd lr "lilk zgpnZe .z"dr `"xbdl (g"txz ,milyexi) "edil` zgpnZ xtq d`x (39

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

i

eizeyxca giked ezeyixt lceba mqxetne eznkgl zncewd dlecbd ez`xia exec ilecb lk mr `xwnd cenill mizr erawiy yexcie `xwnd cenila mihrnn xy` lr dxezd ipa z` .dxzqp dnkg ceqi lr dxeza mipt ilbn 'ifdd ilran ewgxzie hytd c"r miyxtnd dciwya da ebdie ycwd oeyl zricil mixirvd dxezd ipa zweyz dxabzp `idd zra me`pl oeyld inkg zecire onfl onfn xcqn 'id `"xbd ig` xkyyi x"xd oe`bde dnevr .mixirvd zeal z` aidldy dn mixirvd iptl dgaya xdv xtq lra Ð 46 rprd onlf dnly 'x yiyid recid wcwcnd gkep 'id zecired zg`a iazkl dfr dad` gexa xacie oeyld zxez lr me`pie ,`plieea f` gx`zdy Ð 47 daizd .eazkp da xy` dtyd cenla cewyl eirney ldw z` xxerie ,ycwd aezkl eqpie oexyk ilra mdipiae "ycw zty iade`Z mixirv zxag dcqep `idd zra dpd f`ne dxexa dtya milecb mixetq aezkl egilvdy cr zepey zevilne mixiy mnvra .`hill oilxa zlkyd dapbzd * * * *

epxen xy` b"wz zpya 'idy rxe`nd z` dlawa erci yhixfrnn cibnd axd icinlz :mdl xtqie `yicw `ixagd eicinlz iyiywl `xw r"p h"yrad el ozie blten ocnle miwl` `xi eny mgpn 'x m"zq xteq 'id fpky`a mixrd zg`a dlawa oin`n izla ezeidle `xnbe dpyn `xwn enr cenlie miaeh miyeg lra oa z"iyd drxl df lrt yecwd xdfd lr dxq xaice ,qb xeaica mb zeaexw mizrle eala dze` dfane .dpen` ipipra xrpd lr `eaie exir z` afr dxez cenll wwezyn dpy dxyr mizy oa mezid epae n"x znyk mhtn n"qde dxezd cenil lr sqep mircn x`y mb cenll wyg mye fpky`a zxg` xirl l`xyia dgxw dyrie zeafek zerca l`xyi z` ziqdl xga ea ik ecia gilvne eze` eicinlzne epnn lvpi epkxc t"r ekxc fg`i xy` lke ,ezxezae 'da mixtek cinrdl .eicinlz icinlze ¨ icinlz ipwf dpd ,o`qlrcprn ly enebxz zvtd zec` lr Ð e"lwz zpya Ð rnydae biq zeyrl ickae exe`iae mebxzd cenil cbp e`vi cibnd axd icinlze h"yrad epxen mxby i"yxt mr wx j"pz ecnliy miciqgd lr gibydl al eniyie wecwcd cenill ecbpzd .micbpznd zcrn dxezd ipa dpgna lecb yrx * * * *

dpekz d`etxa ,mipey xtq izaa cenll fpky`l mirqepd mixirvd eaxzp dpyl dpyn zepexyk ilra eid maex ,cere cere oeyld znkge dpibpd znkg dthde xeacd znkg mircna zelecb zerici yekxl egilvde dlecb dcnzda mdicenila ecwye milecb xtq izaa d`xed zenewn mdl zzl meaxwie xtqd iza inkg z` e`iltdy mdne miirahd .mzclen ux`l exfg x`yde dlecb zexikya

.b"vz ,oilxa (47

.e"wzÎf"nz (46

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v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

ex`yp xirfn hrn dpd mircne zenkga dlkydd xzka mixzken e`ay micinlzd lwdl eligzde mz`xi z` mdn dccy dlkydd dpd maexe zevne dxez ipipra mzeninza .Ð `edd onfd jxr itl Ð drx zeaxzl e`viy mdne ,zeiyrn zevna x`ya rcnd ilrae dcyde fegnd ixrn mixr dnka zeaeh zepedka exczqp mi`texd xrepde l`xyi ixirv z` lirxdl mal lk z` epzie zelecbd mixra exczqp maex dpd zenkgd exga maexe miny z`xi ly zilha eqkzp mdiyrn jygna zeyrl ickae dlkydd iperxfa .micinlzde mixedd ipira og e`vn fpky` ixcqe iqenipa elbxedy itle zecnlnd zk`lna dweyzd zexabzd lre llka jepgd jldn lr `hile oileta f` erityd dlecb drtyd .dlkydd zxia fpky`a f` erxi`y zerxe`n ipy ,hxta ycwd oeyl cenll mixirvd axwa ef zipkz it lry 48 lfiee uxid ilztp wcwcne uilnd jxry miclil xtq zia zipkz .` .`ixhqe`e fpky`a xtq iza dnk f` ecqep xacle aezkl cenll oilxa icili mixar mipkeze miqcpdne mi`tex mihilwxt zceb` .a .xar ztya * * * *

oilete `ivilba zeciqgd i`iyp mr dtepz zngln milikynd ekxr Ð e"lÎc"lwz Ð f`n © mdi`iype c"ag iciqg zcre xzqlt iazke zepiyln zelilra ,`hile `pi`xwe`e oild`ee milikynd on dfn xarn elaq 49 dk ,mdizebltnl miciqgd i`iyp x`y znerl miltka elaq .micbpznd on ipyd xarne dazkp daexay micbpznd zextqe milikynd zextq z` `xewd y`x zexry dpxnqz .d"a `xeaae dxezd zyecwa mixteke l`xyi zc i`peye milikyn icia h"yrad epxenn zeciqgd ini ixacl mribda dpd minid ixac iazek mipeixehqidd mb .xyeide zn`da micbea md oexg`d xec cr r"p xyei iwg mdl yi ,hlree xrhpe` ic Ð dhn ixc Ð migvexde miapbd mb ,xen` oixne` ,oald z` exigyie xegyd z` epiali mhra xy` minid ixac iazek ok `l ,mnrh itl .xev yinlgk miwfg mihpnewec ceqi lr lkde ,mgex jldne mvtgk lhan d`eapd xdeh z` llgnde dxezd zyecwa xtekd 50 uhrxb xn mipeixehqidd ia` eze`a zend mqa 51 eax` lrx z` miyi ipertvke xenb lehiaa zeciqgde dlawd znkg z` exeag ik uhrxw mya edepk wcvae extq seqa zeciqgde dlawd zec` lr xvwd xn`nd .l`xyi znkga `id dx`nn zrxv dpd `ed mb 52 aepaec xn milikynd ihepga hhgne mihpneweca wcwcnd oeixehqidd .dxeye dxey lkn zvavan miciqge zeciqgl ez`py ipipre ze`ltp ixetq ly ltxr jezn ,r"p h"yrad epxen zecleza exetq z` `ed ligzn

.eqx` :l"ve` (51 .a"yzÎ`"kxz .aepaec oerny (52

.(a"nwz ,oilxa) "zn`e mely ixacZ eiazkna (48 .ik :l"ve` (49 .`"pxzÎg"rwz .uhrxb yxid iav (50

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

ai

dfgna `l` `xap `le 'id `l 53 in yi` exvie e`xa xy` cibdl xyt`y cr zeldz ly ceak ik ,l`xyi 'x eny xy` yi` 'id h"yrad xy` oin`dl `ed gxken epea`cl la` ,ipeinc h"yrad Ð licadl Ð ly exec oa `edy Ð 54 oenin dnly xwegde xteqd dpd egex zexnl .55 eilr cirn Ð t"r l`xyi ini ixac azekl mb dne ipepia yi`l mb xyeide zn`da dqb dciba df oi`d .zexye`n zecerz iwecwc d`ay onf lkae zr lka dpd mdicinlz icinlze milikynd icinlz l`xyi ixteq lk ze`xdle mdi`iyp ceake zeciqgd zxez ceak z` litydl mdilr aiag mcil zepncfdd .ilklkde ixqend l`xyi llk zaehl mzceare mkxr herin lr rav`a © © © gekiea xy` 57 `ikexkk 56 o`a`l`a xi`n wrev `xep mrfae eizty lr svw svya © iletltae yiakr ixew zei`xa df gikene 58 r"p h"yrad epxen szzyd `l mihqiwp`xtd ipa xy` 59 (?) ze`xdl r"p h"yrad epxen ly eceaka hrnl icka cegia `ed df lke ,lad .ezxeze l`xyi zpen`l cegia rbepd dfk xacl epinfdl ez` eaygzd `l exec © xy` lkl mqxetne recid xacn dcazi edenk it`xbeilaa mkg xy` oeifa i`cke `l` df oi`e 62 r"p h"yrad epxen ixyewnn eid 61 g"x oe`bd 60 my`xae gekieda mitzzynd .epexb jezn zxacn mdi`iype miciqgd zeciqgd z`pyy eidi mixyi miyp` ici lr mdi`iype zeciqgd icbpzn milikynd zextq xwazyk .mzelilre mdixwy cra mler oe`xce zetxgl mdixteq * * * *

dxezd zyecw lr mnvr xeqnl ald ixia`e zrcd itiwz ,63 mler ipzi` c"ag i`iyp zeciqgd qp z` ewifgie mcnrn lr wfg ecnr 64 epnz `l ik z"iyd icqga dpd zevnde .ziwl` dxeaba mdne Ð milikynd mr dnglnd zifga c"ag i`iyp ecnr 65 dpy ynge mixyr d`nk cr zrce dnkg zevrena Ð micbpznde milikynd mr dletk dnglna dpy ynge mirayk iigc `pli` itpr zeciqgd zhiy iptl jxa rexkl mdicbpn mdi`pey lr exabzd xy` .hxta c"ag zeciqg zhiye llka r"p h"yrad epxen
yeaifrn l`xyi 'xe ,hxet`tx g"x aealc dpicn axd ."'eke uhieelf`in ax xra 'xe ,ax xilf`xe ,my lra .i"gzy dwzrda d"k (59 my iyp` zeclez .my "owxetde zectdZ d`x (60 .69 'r (d"pxz ,`w`xw) 'x z"ey xagnd lra .hx`t`tx odkd miig 'x = (61 ,bxranrl) miigd xkf .(`"kxz ,bxranrl) odkd miig .`"lwz fenz bi xhtp .(e"kxz c"ewl) e"pxz a`Îmgpn fk oneid zniyx mb d`x (62 .(jli`e 000 'r lirl .jli`e ` ,ctwz c"g .` ,`i d"x t"r (63 .ak ,b dki` (64 .q"xz zpy jxrl cr (lirlck) e"lÎc"lwzn (65 .xy` :l"ve` (53 .`"qwzÎ(jxrl) b"iwz (54 132 'r (b"lyz aia` lz) oenin dnly iig d`x (55 .jli`e .a"yzÎf"lxz (56 .cere .jli`e 306 'r "ziwp`xtd drepzd zeclezZ (57 dn 'r a zxaeg "minzdZ) zeciqgd zea` xn`n d`x (58 "minzdZ Ð dfipbd iazkl my oiivne (000 'r lirl .[` ,r] xtq .140 'r e"vxz zegiyd xtq .[a ,hrx] ck 'r e zxaeg gekied c"r oicnr awri 'x y"n d`xe .h"t `"g zepexkfd ,`pehl`) "owxetde zectdZ q"eqa mihqhiwpxtd cbp exgap f`Z :(a ,hk) "rilc`ta `xep iyrnZa (h"kwz [?mixgapd] mixxapd eid micedid on ,cv lkn dyly

bi

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

oiprzdl eligzd mdipinl l`xyi ixteq xy` 66 dpy mirax`k e` ynge miylyk df ,mdi`iype zeciqgdl zegayze zeldz ixiy mixnfn dnk mdne mdi`iype zeciqgd zhiya miltpzn cere wcvae zn`a mcxna miwifgn xakrde xifgd xyan minhetnd micg` wxe .mdi`iyp ceake zeciqgd zxez lr aeh mixacnd mdixag lr oeirx eaxwa uvepzd cli epcera dpd dcyd ade`e xtkd cili owfd x"enc` w"k 67 ced eia` zfeg`a eayiizp xy` ` mdia ihilt z` axwy lecbd aexiwdn d`xpk dnc`d zcear ¨ mditk ribin qpxtzdl mccerie rpf`il zeaiaq Ð iryhex ilria Ð 72 oal oirn 71 jexa 'x .mzxfra zeidl eia` ceak z` xxerie obae dcya l"ixd xiabd za mr jczydl mikqd oikeciyd zperl owfd x"enc` w"k ced `ay oeikne `ipecpl gihady Ð jrlcprx Ð adfd ilwy mitl` zyng xy` i`pza ,wqarhieen 73 l"bq ecvn zeaxrzd mey ila evtgk mda zeyrl Ð owfd x"enc` w"k ced ly Ð ezeyxl xeqni ceak ezirx znkqda dpd Ð 74 j"wz zpya Ð ezpezg xg` dpey`xd dpyae .l"bq l"ixd ly evxy zegtyn zveawl adf ilwy mitl` zyng jqa eped z` xqn ,75 `pxrhq zxn zipaxd

owfd epiax epwf w"k ced xy` y"xden x"enf`` epa w"k cedl xtq wcv gnv lra x"enf`` w"k ced (` mb eid mdipiae mipcnle `"xi eidy ezeclia eia` zfeg`a eayiizpy mdia iyxebn gaya xtql daxn 'id bltene `lten qcpdn 'id ezepe`b lr sqep oiihybiprwn iav awri 'x mdn cg`e dnkge dxeza miblten ecnl Ð wcv gnv lra x"enc` xtq Ð 68x"enf`` w"k ced zeidae dpibpa `ltp yeg lrae dpekzd znkga 69a"i oak f` `ede yhiee`aeiln xra xkyi 'x oe`bd mr eceniln xfgyke dpekzde dqcpdd znkg v"ix © v"ixd ig` a"x eia` zfeg`l dkenqd dfeg`a ayiizd `idd zra .v"ixd mr dxiwgd cenila xeriy el raw dlawa iwa 'id la` ipepia 'id z"tbay s`e oiihybiprw xirn mdia iyxebnn `ed mb eny 'il` mgpn 'x xtiq y"xden x"enf`` w"k ced .dninz dpy jyn epiax w"k mr cnle i"zka l"fix`d iazk elv` eide x"enc` epwf w"k cedn lawy wcv gnv lra x"enf`` eia` w"k ced ycw iazk oia xy` x"en`` w"k cedl zezay g"x inie zeclende zetewzd ipnf mr Ð l"wzÎe"hwz Ð dpy dxyr yng jyn lr gel 'id owfd ¨ x"enc` w"k ced ly eycw ci azk ,rpf`ila micixid ini mb eid mipey`xd mipy yng e` ylyae micrene dreci dcn Ð hihrt zcna wexi rava ar xiip milr miylyk ,xyr oa 'idyk excqe exag xy` owfd .70f"kxz lel` 'g meia dzidy dtixyd zrya ca`pe ,aedv xer jxekn Ð zeciqg ixn`n iwizrnl

.p"ye .(000 'r lirl) xtq .000 'r onwl) z"iy'd sxeg dniyx d`x (70 .p"ye .(395 'r z"iy'd zegiyd zepexkfd xtq .c"kt `"g iax zia Ð ezece` d`x (71 b"yz .79 'r z"y'd uiiw zegiyd xtq .jli`e i wxt `"g oneid zniyx mgpn zxez .117 'r d"yz .153 'r .151 'r .cere .`iy 'r (b"vxz) .`nx 'r (a"vxz) 'r lirl) e"pxz oeygÎxn 'k oneid zniyx d`x (72 150 'r a"yz zegiyd xtq .(jli`e 87 'r h"yz n"dq .000 .78 'r d"yz .jli`e .k 'r onwl d`x (73 .(000 'r lirl) 69 dxrday dniyx d`x (74 .(jli`e a"rq ,cp) c"kt `"g iax zia Ð dzece` d`x (75

Ð (zncewd dxrd d`x) q"xz f`n dpeekd d`xpk (66 .ef dniyx zaizk onfl cr fiz r"q e"g ycewÎzexb` deeyd Ð oldl `ada (67 d"yz zegiyd xtq .fp 'r h"g ycewÎzexb` d`xe .jli`e .131 'r .78 'r :hay f "mei meidZn xirdle .o`k xqgy d`xpk (68 dqcpdd znkg cnl dpy ryz oa owfd x"enc` zeidaZ ezeida .dpy dxyr yng lr gel xcq Ð xyr oa .dpekzde ycgd yecw zekld miaxa cnly oncfp xyr mipy oa mdici ,cnrn eze`a eidy ,mipe`bd e`vn `le ,m"anxdl ."yxcnd ziaa mdilbxe .dpy ryz oa x"enf`` w"k zeidae :o`k l"ve` f"tre zecqizda zelylzydd ote`Z Ð oneid zniyx d`x (69 l"q (h"qyz ,z"dw) "ipy xec ,oey`x xec ,c"ag zeciqg

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

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izae miigx oipale dcear ilke g"rae dnc` ighy zepwl liaya dnc`d zceara xczqdl .mizytle xnvl dehn w"k ced ly etqka `pieec xdp jxe`l wqarhiee xirl jenq exczqp milecb miaeyi zeaegxae miweeya gex ly zeqpxtd z` aefrl miaxa yxec 'id onfl onfne ,owfd x"enc` ,ynega dxezl mizr reawl mxxerne aeyid ilra z` xwan 'ide ,dnc`d zceara xczqdle .`xnbe dpyna epiad `ly miheytd zaehl dcb`e yxcn * * * *

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© © yi` ezeidl dpd ,dkelnd `qk lr ayi 118 lree`R dpae 117 `pixrh`wri zixqwd dznyk 119 mikiqpd my`xae mixyin iade`e zn` iyp` mikiqpa envr aaiq ,dgepn ade`e aeh © ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ mze` zwgxn dzid `pixrh`wri zixqwd xy` el`k cere iwqxin`aeil ee`wex`bl`c .zezgyen zecn ilrae mirx miyp`a dxgae © dpicnd iyp` zaehl cewyie miaeh miyp`a lree`R jlnd silgd dkelnd ixy z` mb © gxf` zekfa cp`lxew icedi z` dkif dkelnd `qk lr ezelra ,micedid zaehl mb mdipiae ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ dzid l`xyi iade` eidy ee`wex`bl`ce iwqxin`aeil mikiqpd eirix xy` xen`ke .l`xyi iiga ayep ligzd dycg gexe eilr daexn mzrtyd xbeg lldzi l` x"enc` w"k ced ly eycw ixac z` aihid exkf llkd ipwqr cre ixag ixac dpd dlynnd zexitqa dxeyd aehd gexa ik mdl 'id xexae dreyid 'dle gztnk .miiwzdl miligzn x"enc` w"k ced ly eycw xeqnie 97 lifiin dyn 'xe 120 xrwpriliee dyn 'x miciqgd z` eil` oinfd x"enc` w"k ced erqie ie`xd xcqa xnegd z` xcql mdilr evie p"xe f"yx e`iady xnegd lk z` mci lr uaewnd xnegd mr ynzydl ji` dvr eqkhi mipwqrd cre mr cgi dnye bxeaxrhrtl .l`xyi ly mzaehl ritydl elkei xy` miliv`de mikiqpdl e`ivndle

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.17 'r 'r e zxaeg "minzdZ Ð epiax zniyx ezece` d`x (120 wlg) jli`e nwz 'r c"g ycewÎzexb` .[jli`e a ,`rx] g .000 'r lirl) xq`nd zniyx .(fenz gi "mei meidZa wzred h"vxz zegiyd xtq .(236 'r f"txzÎt"xz zegiyd xtq 207 'r g"yz .110 'r .59 'r c"yz .58 'r b"yz .309 'r .gy 'r .by 'r (b"vxz) oneid zniyx mgpn zxez .jli`e

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m`eaae ,eehvp xy` lkk eniiw xrwpriliee dyn 'xe lifiin dyn 'x miciqgd © i"r Ð xrpqic n"cxl rcepy itke ,dny oiee`yfxrc xteqd z` e`vn xak bxeaxrhrtl © .exewia ceqi lr ez`vxd z` carn oiee`yfxrc dpd Ð fixkn © z` yibie dklnnd zexitqa f` xxy xy` gexd avn mr aygzd `l oiee`yfxrc xxevd l` ihxtd eazknae ,drx mzaic z` `iaie micedid ayen ixra exewia ceqi lr ez`vxd © eci z` zixqwd d`ln xy` itk ezcerze ezaeg z` `lin wcva xy` azk lree`R xqiwd .ezriqp mxh el dxn` xy` 'ixac z` wizrie ,miycg dylyk jyna Ð dgilvd xrwpriliee dyn 'xe lifiin dyn 'x miciqgd zek`ln ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ xteqa xqiwd xrb ee`wex`bl`ce iwqxin`aeil mikiqpd zxfra Ð ipy xc`Îhay © iagxn lka l`xyi gexe ,y`a dptxyz eize`vxd lk xy` xefbie dtifpa oiee`yfxrc .drbxp dpicnd oiihvd ezexrpa cer ,ezrca siwze alde zrcd agx eraha 'id lifiin dyn 'x ciqgd onfl onfne dlecb dcnzda dzid ezciwy ,`ltp oexkfe dpade dxidn dqitz zepexyka 22 mdxa` 'xe `"xbd ig` 21 xkyyi 'x mipe`bd edeglyyke ,eizericia ielir xg` ielira dlr oilxraa mye f jxra miyly oak f` 'id e oilxal miblten micinlz eirxn zfeg` mr r"p d`ixwa h zelild zeaxl minid lk weqr 'ide g ziwlhi`e ziztxv zifpky` zety cnl .mcewn d`x `l maexy xwgn ixtq maex ,mipey mixtqa ipira og `ype ,filrd erahae minkegnd eixacae aehd ed`xna og `yep 'id n"xd ,el yexcd onfl mipey mixtq el eli`yie mixtq cwr iza mdl eidy oilxa ixiabn micg` .minid lk bdp dkk ,`xwnl mixg` mzxenz el migley eid Ð x`ecd i"r Ð mxifgn 'idyke ezevixge milrpd eizepexykae ldwd on`pe xteql dpnzp oilxan eaey ixg` mizpyk i c"eqid zenin xy` egaya biltn 'id `"xbde dldwd ipipr lka miig gex gitd dlecbd .`i ezenk 'id `l

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'r c"yz zegiyd xtq) c"yz dcerqa z"gny zgiya (* zeiecreezd mgpn zxez) c"kyz z"gny mei zgiyae (43 my c"yz zegiyd xtqa la` .h"kwz :(124 'r `"g c"kyz ,elx) 'a jxk c"ewl oiire myexd o`k drh d`xpkZ :dxrda ."jli`e e"h ze`n (`

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dln ,epte` lr xac xac ,eihxt lkl rxe`nd xac z` xtqie n"xd cnr dzynd zrya miaeqnde ,x"enc` w"k z`xed t"r mipwqrd zlert z` yibcie ,dlibnd z` `xewk dlna x"enc` w"k i"r z"iyd zreyie dxifbd xac xy` cg` dt ehilgie zcgein daywda erny .mdizeayenl miciqgd izcr lkl glyeie xtqa azki miciqgd ly llkd ipwqre i"r z"iyd zreyie dxifbd c"r hxetn azkn jxr gv oeyl lrae xidn xteq 'idy n"xd mixiv i"r x"enc` w"k z`xed t"r bxeaxhta c"ag iciqgn llkd ipwqre x"enc` w"k ced zeayen lkl meglyie zewzrd ze`na azknd z` ewizrie `pliee iciqg zcra micgein © dribd drenyd xac xy` l`xyi zeldw lkae ,`ivil`be `ipinex zpicnl mb miciqgd ced z` mikxane migayn Ð miazknd z` enqxt miciqgd ik Ð 126 micedil oeyye dgny .zlcbzne zkled miciqgd zcre miciqgd ilbc lr migtqp mitl`e ze`ne x"enc` w"k * * * *

x"enc` w"k ced m`iype c"ag iciqga mgeld micbpznd cre ixag l` drenyd dxcgyk zelilbn mdixag z` mb epinfde `plieeay c"ag iciqg erawy dgnye dzynd xac lr ecrezie mt` dxg zeldwd lkl mixfeg miazkn mb gelyl eyry lecbd meqxtde miwegx .miciqgd zehytzd cra xevrle mceak livdl zeyrl dn zck dvr qkhl ¨ aezkiy yhiee`niig rhp xqiwd urei mya xgaend olawd xiabd l` zeptl (` :ehilgie © xy`e micedid lr aeh eal xy` lree`R xqiwd ly egaya micedid lkl ielb xfeg azkn ¨ ¨ z` xqiwd lha iwqxin`aeil jiqpd ly ezrtyde Ð yhiee`niig ly Ð ezelczyd t"r © zeigxf`d htyn z` wfgie `iqex icedil miliabn miwg zeyrl oiee`yfxrc zervd ¨ .rpf`iln cibnd m`iype miciqgd lr mxg lehiy `"xbd z` xxerl (a .127 micedil rqp ik ,eziaa ede`vn `l mgex zxenl la` ,rhp 'x xiabdl dcakp zek`ln gly cred 128 e"pwz xii` c"k Ð illk azkn cred ixag ekixrie mzial exfgie fix`Rl mikiqpd cg` mr © `iqex zpicn iayei micedid z` d"awd riyedy dlecbd dreyzd z` miaxa ricedl Ð © xqiwd urei xic`d xiabd zelczyd ici lr oiee`yfxrc xxevd zeaygnn mlivdl dxic`d ¨ ¨ .iwqxin`aeil cqgd yi` jiqpde yhiee`niig rhp zegayza llednd mqxetnd olawd xy` cala ef `l dpd lirlc Ð ipy xc` seq Ð drenyd dnqxtzp xak ik zeidl mpn` 'a Ð mazkna wvelq cre z`f cer dpd micbpznd icrea elit` al eny `l cred azknl ipyk df xy` ixg` (` dfk xfeg azkn enqxt xy` lr `plieec creed z` giked Ð oeiq rhp xiabd olawd xy` ixg`e (a eihxt lkl xacd zyxt z` zkd dnqxt miycg © ¨ Ð zah ycga erqnn xfg oiee`yfxrc xteqde xard oeyg xn ycga cer rqp yhiee`niig .xii` c"kc cred azkn z` yigkdl enqxty df g"x axrn zkd cre azkna aezkk * * * *

yi j` ,i"gzy dwzrda d"k :e"pwz xii` c"k (128 © ,f"pwz oeyga dzn 'ipyd `pixrh`wri zixqwdy xirdl jelnae dzen xg`l (lirl x`eznk) 'id dlvdde geixde © .'ixg` lree`R dpa

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135

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142

`pky mely 'x g"dxd mitzeyd l"end mr dfeg eyr xtqd l` miciqgd zweyz lcebn
.c"pwz zpya qtcp el`k (eh .sl` xyr dyngk (fh .'eke zeaexrz zetxh ,dhigy 'hpew ,oipdpd zkxa 'hpew ,ziviv qxhpew (fi .`ipz myd sqep qtcpyke cal mixn` ihewl `xwp i"zka (gi .mixecqd zepeilb lr azka mipewizd eidy (hi

.(my 1 dxrd d`x Ð oeiq g"x jix`za ,mye) .eaala rbp :my (141 w"dxd iciqgn ,gp 'x mqxetnd g"dxd ly epa (142 eia` eilr zena .(ux`d ixt lra) w`c`x`dn n"nxd ezece` d`x .jpgzpe lcbzp mye ezial owfd epiax egwl .(jli`e a ,gp) c"kt `"g iax zia

'r lirl) ci 'r "wqpina lecbd gekieZ mb d`x (137 .(000 .(000 'r lirl) e sirq 69 dxrday dniyx d`x (138 .p"ye .d`ad dxrd d`x (139 jli`e 183 'r `"g "micbpzne miciqgZa qtcp (140

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

al

ik ,143 r"p ikcxn x"dene ,wcv gnv lra x"enc` w"k ced ly eia`e x"enc` w"k ced ozg drax`ke ,miciqgd zeayen lkl cgein xiv i"r eglyi qetca exnbiy miqxhpew dyng lk micbpzndn daxde lilbd liaya mitl` ipyke ,`plieea milawn eid mixltnfk` mitl` .miqxhpewd z` i`yga micnel eid mipeznd ¨ jxca mikled miciqgd xy` zrcl gkep `ed mb dpd oif`l`een miig 'x xic`d oe`bd 'id onfl onfne ,`ey zelilr `l` epi` mipy zexyr jyna mdilr exn`y dn lke xyid ,micbpznd crea enewn z` afre miciqgd l` axwzp zeiniptae `ipzd iqxhpewa oiirn cred ixage yelg `"xbdy drenyd dhytzpy `"xbd ceak leflf eal l` rbp xzeiae .ezricia `ly `"xbd mya mixacn qrlrqrR sqei my`xae * * * *

© l`xyi 'x ly ecinlz cinlz 144 eny oerny hen`f igxf`n cg` `plieel `a a"pwz zpya cv lr j"pza iwae wecwca rprd onlf 'x ly ecinlz cinlze dqcpde dpekza 145 uiytil c`na edeaxwie `"xbd oa mdxa` 'xe `"xbd ig` xkyyi 'x mipe`bd ipira og `ype `ltd .`plieea z"za j"pz micnlnd lk lr illk gibyn xeza eze` excqie eywia mbe c`na ecaik `"xbde miwl` `xi opaxn `axev ly `lhvi`a xzzqd oerny milikynd on `ed df oerny xy` xryl leki `l yi`e 146 'il` wecwc extq z` xwal .dlkyddl zeytp zeyrl 'id epirn lke mixzqpd xaky el`n mipievn zepexyk ilrale mdizepexyk itl z"zd icinlz z` xcqn 'id `ed geha 'idyke i"yx 'it lr mitqep miyexita j"pz cenil xciq daiyia `xnb cenll e`vi mirqepy dp`eza fpky` ixrn zg`l driqp xcq mdl xcqn 'id eqx`a mze` lirxd xaky ¨ © .wqixae o`bx`nqe wvelq ,wqpina zeaiyid zg`l dnd xceqn xcqa ezcear jiynd dke milecb minekqa mb xfer 'id xzeia mipievn mixirvl mixacn eid `le aln egkyp erqpy oeikn xy` miipr ipaa xgea 'id aexd lre ,ax uxnae .mzece` ,dlkydd itpk zgz o`iadl zeytp ccevl xzzqnd ziqnd ,oerny car mipy rax`k zepexykd ilra micinlzd oian xgea 'id dpy ivg lkae ,xceqn xcqae dlecb zevixga zrtyd zgzy xtqd izal mgley 'id 147 dxez mewnl dleb ied ly dyern zeninzae z` jneze xzqa likyn 'idy ,qrlrqrR sqei zlef yi`e ,oilete `ivilba milikynd .edpd zerca iytg ik oernya ea cyg `l mbe rci `l milecb minekqa milikynd axrzn 'id `ly zeidle miciqgd ixigal speg 'id `plieea oerny ixebn zepy jyna
,xc`c hxetwpxt) l`xyi gvp q"gn (*a"lwzÎq"z) .uiytil `ed ezgtyn myy ep`vn `l j` .(`"wz .b"vwz `pliee dpey`xl qtcp (146 .c"in c"t zea` (147 .ee`lwyn uieexed ield l`eny x"a ikcxn 'x (143 2 dxrd l"pd ycewÎzexb`) l`dhprilil oerny (144 l`dhprilil mgpn x"c xteke likynd ly eaq .(b"deya 5 'r dlkydd zrepze v"vd qxhpew dkex`a d`x Ð .` ,`lz b"g c"ewl) 2 dxrday gqtd bg zgiy .jli`e .(jli`e 91 'r .83 'r b"yz zegiyd xtq .jli`e ` ,glz .4 'r c"yz zegiyd xtq uyen`fn l"bq ield dyn x"a l`xyi 'x `ed ile` (145

miwqetd zeclez .690 'r (f"nxz `yx`ee) l`xyi zqpk (* .453 'r (a"txz ,`yx`ee)

bl

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

zercd iwelga dlidwd ipipr dnka mipiad yi`k 'id minrtle ,miciqgde micbpznd aixa y`xa micnerd al z` aepbl mkgzd xzeiae ,miciqgde micbpznd dldwd iqpxt oia eidy ycewd oeyl iaagne wecwc ilra mzeidle lifiin dyn 'xe 95 ikcxn jexa 'x miciqgd zcr y"xd z` cakn 'id 148 mixiy aezkl dyleg el 'idy lifiin dyn 'x oe`bde ,eze` miaxwn eid .mifexga wxt rcei 'idy miciqgd oia x"enc` w"k ced ly dltzd gqep hytzp xak `idd zra dpd xen`k gqepl xzei mi`zn `edy d"lyd ly minyd xry xeciqa miepiyd eazky mdn ,137 i"zka zepeilb lr owfd x"enc` ly dltzd gqep z` miazek eid aexd lre owfd x"enc` w"k ced .mda milltzn eidy fpky` gqep mixeciqd lr micbpznd s` oexg siqed miciqgd liaya cgein gqep oipr zellky s` dpde dtepn `ed owfd x"enc` ly dltzd xeciqa wecwcd xy` eced cg`k mlk la` miciqgd z` owiz dpd gqepd z` dpiy `ly zelitzde miheitd mze`a mb ik ,zetp dxyr ylya .wecwca mipe`bd z` mb `iltdy dn oeyld zxdhe wecwcd iwg i"tr cewipd 'ide owfd x"enc` w"k ced ly dltzd xeciq z` gayne lldn 'id xzzqnd oerny wqr el oi` ik dne`n cibdl ezlekia oi` mixenfnd xcqe gqepd oipra ik 'ineta `lbxn ,wiecn eznbec oi`y `ln dta xnel leki `ed wecwcd iwgl rbepy dna la` ,zexzqpa .oeyld zxeze wecwcd znkg z` micnel miciqgd oi` xy` lr ezdinz z` `iaie * * * *

© e`a mdixg`e ,milikynd zeticxe zenglnn elaq xy` mipey`xd eid `ivil`b iciqg ¨ ilikynn micg` ik dzid xacd zaiq ,mipexg`dn eid c"ag iciqge oilete oild`ee iciqg oinipa 'xe ,129 wiy qgpt 'x ,ealk sqei 'x mipe`bd c"ag iciqg ixiga mr epncfp oilxa ¨ c"ag iciqg ik zrcl milikynd egkeie 150 bivRiil icixia ee`lwy iciqgn cere 149 wvrlwn zilbpd dxeza mdizerici lceb lr sqep xzqpae ziwl` dxiwg zricia dagx drc ilra md gexe uxn ilra miyp` miyexc mgvpl ickae ,zecnd oewze alay dceara miwqer df mre .ax © ,`pi`xwe`e `hil iciqg mr megll milikynd erbie elnr Ð e"pwzÎ`"pwz Ð mipy yngk zricie wecwcd cenil 151 gxkd zece` lr xxerl miciqgd zeayen zenewnl mixiv egly mi`xew eid `l q"pkdial mi`a eidyke mdn ewgxzd m`ea mewn lka la` zixard dtyd eid aexd lre on` eixg` epr `l yicw xnel aiegn mdn in 'idyke dxezl zelrl mze` .miciqgd ly zeiqpkd izan mze` miyxbn heyt erqp xy` mixzqpd milikynd mdixiv z`n milikynd fkxna elawzpy zericid ilbxl

zegiyd xtq .cnx 'r (a"vxz) oneid zniyx mgpn zxez .258 'r g"yz .127 'r .97 'r c"yz .127 'r .124 'r b"yz .p"ye .my g"yz zegiyd xtq mb d`x (150 .zxag :zewzrdd '`a :gxkd (151

"dyn zxiyZ extq ee`lwya qtcp g"nwz zpya (148 xryd sc oeyl) "mixvw mizaa zevn b"ixz lr xy xy`Z .(xtqd ly xtq .(` ,`r) e"kt `"g iax zia Ð ezece` d`x (149 'r a"g ycewÎzexb` .jli`e 6 r"q mely zxez zegiyd .jli`e `"lq c"vxz gqtd bg zgiy .bly 'r e"g .ry

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

cl

,mkxca me`vn xy` ze`lzde dlkyddl zeytp zeyrl c"ag iciqg zeayen zelilbl `l` miciqgd oia dne`n elrt `ly cal `ly ,mrnynk mheyt miyexibe mitecbe zetxga k fieerp`R xira dxw xy` dlidand drenyd zvtde miciqgd zecbpzd ici lry z`f cer ¨ ekiynd `le mzxnyn z` eafrie dvnyl eidp wecwcd ixtq 152 ixagn micbpznd oia mb dpd oerny lr milikynd fkxnay dlenrzd cre qinrd ,dlkydd zaehl dlenrzd z` d`ld ¨ zelkke .rpf`il xira m`iype miciqgd zxia z` mb xwaie miciqgd zeayen z` xwaiy jldn z` xikd xak xy` oerny .mgvple ,miciqgd mr megll ji` d`vxde g"ec `iai erqn `ed ik ,envra xriy xwgn ipipra `pliee iciqg mr ryrzyd zeax minrte miciqgd gex ilbxle ,dlenrzd cre zrvd z` law ,ezk`lna gilvi ik dewe dxen`d zegilyl mi`znd z` yrie onfd seq cr miycg dyly jynl dyteg law Ð eilral xn` ok Ð dgtyn ipipr .miciqgd zxiaae miciqgd zeayen z` xwal erqn * * * *

¨ ced mya rpf`iln azkn lifiin n"xe n"ax mipe`bd miciqgd elaw lel` ycga jxrl dltzd xeciq z` aagne miny `xil eze` mix`zn mdy oerny yi`d xy` x"enc` w"k ccevl milikynd gilye xzzqn likyn zn`a edpd eze` `iltne x"enc` w"k ced ly mcia dlriyke eicrv z` xenyle lbxl eilr al eniyie ,dlkydd jlenl mxiardl zeytp .`ed xy`k etevxt z` elbi if` ska eytzl lr ritydy mdipian miqpxt ipy cer `pliee zlidwa aiyedl miciqgd egilvdy zrn dlecb zlrez `iad xacdy s`e ,elek lilbd lka mb `l` `plieea wx `l mgex znxd xzei mipekp minekq eqpkp xak oey`xd ycgae miciqgd zelczyd cvn zeldwd zeqpkda ,c`n dxabzp d`pyde mitixgd micbpznd al z` ai`kd `teb df la` ,mcewn libxd lr dfy zwelgnd dgwlzd aey ik cr dxecnd lr ony etiqed x"dl ixacne likx iklede .dhwyy mipy ylyk my`xae miciqgd cbp mingeld cre ixag izaa yxg ilbxn aiyedl miciqgd ehilgie .mgeld cre y`xa micnerd zcire dzid eziaay qrlrqrR sqei xn 'id `ed ,qppd jexa l`lva gilvd cegiae daexn zlrez miciqgdl d`iad ef dhlgd ivge xer ivg ,miizty lxr ,jgebne mz yi`k 'id ed`xny s`e qrlrqrR zxn zgtynn 'id oeekzn `la el`ke xac jezn xac oiane mkg 'id zn`a la` ,ekxi lr rleve oab ,yxg zaehl lbxne qrlrqrR xnl milawznd miazknd z` `xewe lkd rney ,`vn zr lka `vnp .miciqgd
¨ ¨ ¨ miyexit mr j"pz mdnr cnel 'id ee`wl`fn `ay micnlnd cg`e oeira `xnbl xcg ecqi fieerp`Ra (k xtq izaa cenll mdl zeyxdl mdixed z` eywai xy` micinlzdl cnlnd xn` onf dfi` xaryk .mipey micinlzl zecerz epzp mcenil wg micinlzd exnbyke ,mixend y`x 'id xnekde xira 'idy mixkp ly lka dvetp drenyde mzc z` exinie oeiqpa cenrl elki `l micinlz ipye ,epzp `l micedile mixkpd ¨ ¨ .mzc z` micinlzd exind ee`wl`fn cnlnd zny`a ik lilbd

.iaagn :l"ve` (152

dl

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei
.qrlrqrR xnl eazkn zwzrd 'id oerny ly eceq geztl oey`xd gztnd

¨ miciqgd ayen ixra erqnn oeayge oic xqene `w`xwa zrk `edy ricen `ed eazkna lawzp Ð dleg 'id mini dfi` Ð reayk dny eakrzd ixg`e zeciqgd zxiaa xwia xy`e xdfay `wepi `eddk ea gixd Ð lezida azk Ð xyt` ,ea xikd seqale `iypd lv` oei`xl ik xikd `l df z` la` ,mei eze`a oiltz gipd `l `ede ,y"w e`xw `ly gixdy 153 yecwd dpald `iqex ixra exarae myn rqp dlil eze`ae milikynd gily `edy xikd `edy m` .mdixvanl xecgl dlriy xryl cake c`n cr `id dwfg miciqgd zcnry d`x ilra eplk Ð azek `ed Ð epgp` ik myaekl ji` dlenrz xcqe dvr miqkhn eixage `ed ycwp ilra e` xzke jyicwp ilra m` epl `id zg` `k 'idi `le epi`e 'id `ly dricd .dxe` oxwa mcinrdl mikixve dnd zepyep iwifgn cg`k mlk ik ,154 jvixrpe dn lk ik mircei mziid ip` izi`xy dn mzi`x ele mixivd mixtqny dn mzrny ele ie`xy dn ohw wlg mb eppi` 'ifdd ilra z` mivgele miwirn `plieec mingeld cre ixagy ¨ .dkex`a lkd xtqi `plieel `aiyke rpf`iln iaxd iciqg 'ifdd ilral zeyrl xtqln xdfiy jexa l`lva lr eevie z`fd zxb`d z` `exwl eldap n"nxde n"axd .dlecb zepiznae zerce zevrena epipr lklkie dzec` `edy inl xaclne * * * *

qrlrnext lwifii` 'x eaexw ly egay z` oerny itn n"nxde n"axd erny zeax minrt mr jczyde oeyld zxez aagne wecwcd znkga iwae sixg `edy wv`lR xira ayeid oeyle wecwc mdipa z` cnll egexn mdilr rityde mdly fielwa lltzne miciqg zgtyn ¨ `ed e`ea mewn lka dpd wv`lRl mikenqd mixr dnka miwqr lrae xiyr ezeidle ycewd .mdilr egexn rityn 'x xgeqdl aexw xeza y"xd oernl `eaie ytgzi y"p`n cg`y n"nxde n"axd evriizie exga ef dxhnle mdil` m`iaie oerny iazk lk z` mipenhna ytgie qrlrnext lwifii` © .o`ivpieey xirn Ð xrkrla xrc linlrf 'x Ð ggtd aiil onlf 'x ciqgda miazke zeniyx zexb` ,ci iazk zeliag zeliag `iaie ezegilya gilvd aiil onlf 'x xtq mb eirceine eixknn law xy` 155 z`e eirceine eixknl oerny azk xy` z`n zewzrd ipenhna oenh 'id xy` lkn ,zipeie ziztxv ziwlhi` ,fpky` oeylae ycwd oeyla dlkyd .n"nxe n"axl l"fxd `iad oerny © .y ,157 ficpin ewp`xt iytg .c ,ielqxa .n ,156 likii` wgvie 15 lfiee oia miazknd ztilgn

.d"a `xead ze`ivna dxitkd ezpeek (`k

uitdl dxhnl dl dnyy milikyn ly dxeag ,("sq`ndZ dtya yeniyd z` aigxdle icedid mlera dlkyd ielqxa lcpn mgpn ,lkii` wgvi ecnr dy`xa .zixard .xrcprlcixt lieepfe oerny mig`de .1713Î1792 (157

.` ,etw b"g .(a ,bl) g"it `"g iax zia mb d`x .z`f :zewzrdd '`a :z`e zxagZ bxaqbipwa dnwed 1782 seqa .1756Î1804 zrd azk z` xe`l d`ivedy) "xar oeyl

(153 (154 (155 (156 iyxec

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

el

cg` `ed oerny xy` zrcl egkep 160 xrcprlcixt mig`d ,159 oitil .n ,158 `cpil .a ,54 oeniin dlkydl zeytp zeyrl dlenrzd zcear envr lr gwle dlkydd zrepz y`xa micnerd .`plieec dxezd ixcge zeaiyid icinlz ixiga oian e`vn cid iazk oia ixra milikynd zldpd zgz xy` xtqd izaa cenll oerny glyy mixirvd zniyx (` © ¨ © .bxraqbiprwe ieqqrc ,ielqrxa oilxae fpky`e `ivil`bae `w`xw `yx`ee zelrn ihxta gly xy` micinlzdn cg`e cg` lkl ozp xy` zecerzd wzrd (a .d`ld micenila mxcql ji` drvde elv` ecnly dn d`vxde mdizepexyk Ð mixiv i"r Ð bxraqbiprwne oilxan laiw xy` mitqkdn d`vede dqpkdn g"ec (b .qrlrqrR oec`d cakpd mxag z`n ezeyxl eqpkp xy`e z`xeda micinlzd ixen oiae epia miazkn zetilge micinlzd avnn zehxetn zerici (c dxewnn dwizrd `iteqelitd icenila lig eyri xy` ornl zipeie ziztxv zetyd cenil ipipr rxd oir mik`lna mipin`ne zca miwec`dn milezid ixtq ,e`xwi xy` mixtq zniyxe .zrcn mixrapd micnlnd mda eyixydy zexrad z` maln xewr ornl zerx zegexe micy xteke milikynd ilecbn cg` `ed xy` oerny ly etevxt z` hilad df axd xnegd oziqdl zeninz zeytp ccevl oievn oexyk lrae minkg ixac lr birlne zevne dxeza 'da .dlkydd jlenl oxiardle ogicdle miaxa mqxtl ie`xd xcqa ewizrd xzeia mivegpd z` ,miazkd z` exciq n"nxde n"axd lvpzdl mb s`e yigkdle mipt cinrdl eilbx z`e eici z` `vni `l xy` ote`a `vn zrl .c`n el xwid eceak lwie rleai qrlrqrR xnl mbe * * * *

meve d"x iniae ekxcn oerny xfg d"xra ik n"axl jexa l`lva riced 'ilcb mev meia xy` z` rnyy dn n"nxle n"axl xqn jexa l`lvae qrlrqrRe oerny ecrezd 'ilcb w"k mr el 'idy oei`xd zece`e miciqgd zxiaa exewia zece` qrlrqrRl xtiq oerny eizebdpde eizeltze `iypd zxez ,eig`e `iypd ipa mikiqpd mr ezgiye owfd x"enc` dad`d miciqgd igxte mixirvd iig ,mdizegiye mcenil mzltz miciqgd ipwf zbdpd .miciqgd oia mixxeyd dwfgd zrnynde xcqd deg`de rny miciqgd zxian ze`qxt mirax` miylyk dwegxd wqarhiee xirl ribdyk cer zxcda ceakd zxcd lr `ltzie ,161 opax ikln o`n ,jln zixwa dyrpd lk zece` lr daxd 162 l"ixdn oe`bd mya eze` mi`xewy eig`e `iypd ipan cg` mya mixikfn miciqgd ycw z` ,zeaiz iy`xa wx yexita mny zxkfd ila epxen 163 x`ezd mi`xew `iypd ipa lk z`e

.`"rq ,aq oihib d`x (161 `iqexa) yhiee`p`ia ax aiil dcedi 'x w"dxd (162 'r lirl ezece` d`x .dcedi zix`y q"gnra .(dpald .000 .x`eza :l"ve` (163

iyxec zxagZl etxhvdy mipey`xd on .1759Î1849 (158 .156 dxrd l"pd "xar oeyl (d"xz `pliee) "ytpd oeaygZ q"gn .1826Î1749 (159 .xrhp`l`q i"xd zvr i"tr Ð .156 dxrd lirl d`x (160

fl

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

axd epxen Ð `"gxden mi`xew ipyd z` Ð 164 xraec 'x axd epxen Ð c"xden mi`xew xekad ckp z` mb Ð 166 dyn 'x axd epxen Ð n"xden mi`xew iyilyd z`e Ð 165 mdxa` miig 'x eze` mi`iltne Ð licprn mgpn iax Ð n"nx mya mi`xew 168 ray oak yy oak xrp 167 `iypd .dlecb d`ltda oievn oexyk lrae ielirl zeceb` ik `vnie zeyxcn izae zeiqpk iza daxd xwa wqahieea ddyy minid zylya mdipia miltltzne Ð mikxekn izla Ð miqtcp miqxhpewa micnele miayei zeceb` miwqer cg`k mleke mitetv micner mixirvde miayei mipwfd ,`ziixe`c `gzixa .mcenila qetcl xqnpy xak `l df xy` `iypd ly exeagn wlg dnd miqxhpewd ik el rcep © qitcnd mr dfeg eyr max zxezl miciqgd ly mzweyze mpe`nv lcebne `hiee`lq xira miqxhpew mitl` dyngke mzqtcd itl miqxhpew miqxhpew xtqd z` mdl glyi xy` .lilbde xird liaya elawzp
169

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iz`vn `iypd xvgay q"pkdial mixdvd ixg` ziyyd drya iyingd meia izqpkpyk .cenila gvpnk zeybxzda lelv cli lewe lebira micner miyp` zveaw dcen 'qezd ,riax lebird lr xzi raexn dnk xiaqn cli lew rny`e ip` mb ipf` h`e 'qezd `peqkl`a `yneg ixze `zn` `reaixa `zn` lkc la` rwxwa oiae swida oia i"yxl `ven dz` my xne`y dkeqc oey`x wxta dlebr dkeqc `ibeqa yxtny i"yx lr wleg .oeekn oeaygd oi`y 195 o`ke my xne`e miyneg ipy 'qez reaixay dn` lkl 'qezd ik xne`e eilr 'qezd zeltpzdn i"yx z` livd inr ecnla x"enf`` w"k mpn` cinrd i"yxe xeivda gkenck oeaygd znkg t"r xy` dcicnd iwg lr mdixac ecinrd .xeqz `lc zevn t"r minkg exryy jk lr eixac ckp n"nx `ede eizepy jxr itl zrvenn daeba ohw cli izi`x eletlt z` xnbyke cegiae dcyd z` `ed ade` ik ,dcya liihl enr zkll egihad mikxa`d cg` xy` `iypd xefgi dlgzny enr dpzd jxa`d .`iypd epwf clep my xy` xirl dkenqd dfeg`d zecy oiaexira mixr inegz zcicnc `ibeqd xfge ef reaya cnly dpexg`d `ibeqd dze` miaxa .196 oixarn cvik wxta * * * *

mr ob ,mici agxe lecb xvga cner ,197 iaxd ly ezxic z` miciqgd mi`xew ok ,lkidd .xvga mipey mipipae wxi ly obe zepli` zexey 'ilr eab lre dn` dxyr mizyk agexe zen` ynge mixyrk jxe`a zia `ed lkidd dxicd ,dqipkd xcg wqtda zexic izyl welg ziad .ziad agexk dagxe dn` mixyrk ocr ob el mi`xew miciqgde ohwd q"pkdia l`nyne ,`iypd ly ihxtd epern `id oinin xcg wqtda mixcg ipy 'ilra .zecigil qpkdl mikixvy miyp`d mikgn mye ,198 oezgzd miciqgde ,zecigil miyp` zlaw xcg ipyde `iypd ly zecceazdd xcg `ed cg`d ,`eand .oeilrd ocr ob el mi`xew eze` ze`xl xyt` il rcepy itke `iypd z` ze`xl icia dzlr `l reayd ini jyna `xew envra `ed aexd lr ,oezgzd ocr oba dxez xne`y dryae dxezd z`ixw zrya wx .dliahd zial jledyk zay axrae ,199 dxeza iziide zgcwd ileg ipzfg` xwa iyyd meia izpyn izcnryk la` ,zay axrl izikig
ipevigd xcgd mi`xew eid miciqgdZ :197 dxrday mi`xew eid dhnl ipevigd xcge ,oeilrd r"b Ð 'ilrda eid Ð zeriawa epax zaiyi mewn Ð xcgde .oezgzd r"b ."giynd lkid mi`xew .(000 'r lirl) eh 'r "wqpina lecbd gekieZ d`x (199 .p"ye .(` ,fp) oiaexirae (` ,g) dkeqa = (195 .my oiaexir (196 zegiyd xtq d`x Ð owfd x"enc` ly ezxic c"r (197 .p"ye .1 'r e"vxz xtq .dxr 'r h"g .ary 'r a"g ycewÎzexb` d`x (198 .99 'r e"vxz .164 'r `"vxz .jli`e 16 'r g"txz zegiyd e"vxz zegiyd xtqae .(38 'r) 190 dxrday a"yz

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inq ipwydy `ipqk`d lra ly elnrl zecede ,zelil ylye mini dyly dleg dhna lhen meia izcnr ,rifdl ick zekinyae micbaa ipqkie unega ixya z` sytyie mipey `txn dylegd iptn ilbx lr cenrl izlki `le izhnn Ð reayl ipyd meia Ð iilgl iriaxd .oeilrd ocr oba iaxd z`n lawzdl ily oei`xd xez ribd iriaxd meiae * * * *

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oey`xd `ed df xn`n m`d aiydl izleki `l oaenk ik ,dne`n izipr `le izwzy .cenlzde yxcnd ly i`ad inbzte ixn`na dpr eyre ,204 dz` in edel`y wgvie wgvil eyr qpkpy drya ,xn` wzey ippdy d`xyk dxenb dxikna awril dxekad z` xkn xak `ld ik ,xwy `ede ,204 eyr jxeka jpa ip` eia`l z` lhaie eyr xwy xy` xwyd lr dcxg wgvi cxgie dfn rci wgvie ,fer swez lka oick .eizgz el dgezt mpdib ixd oxwy `edy oeikne ,dlecb dcxg cxg dfne ,dxezd ipic eipir z` gwtie ey`x z` 'iabd k"g` dlgzak eizerexf lr oryp aey ,xacl dlkyke dpd miyp` lawn `edy drya ekxc ok ik Ð oglyd lr ecnry zexpd ipyn cg` xp gwie lkzqie xpd z` 'iabie Ð oglyd lr migpen xdfe yneg xtqe zewlec zexp ipy meia elit` :xn`ie ia © © © ¨ © mipa xiarn fi` orn oree ,xrhen`f ` fi` orn f` hb`f orn oe` xrpliee ` fi` orn oree © © ¨ zeytp dnk ,eizgzn dgezt mpdib fi` ,cnln ` fi` orn f` hb`f orn oe` dlkydd jlenl .oeaeyi `l 'i`a lke zepinl zqtzp xacd ok ,jcxna cner jpde zca` * * * *

ik xird z` aefrle `ipqk`d l` zkll xdn`e oeilrd ocr ob excg z` aefrl izxdn lr megizndy epigelyn dnkl eyry enk il eyri `ly iz`xie gta izltp xy` izi`x .eicinlz z` dwlnd cnlnk ewlie miqpknd z` ecixede oglyd dyy dyngk dpd ,mpeyla oezgzd ocr ob ohwd zqpkd zia z` izxary oeikn mpn` cibdl xzenl .zecigid ilra legna z`vl xvgay zqpkd zia l` ipeagqie ipexhr mikxa` z` aefrl izvtg ylye minrte zgcwd zlgnn yelg oiicr iziid mbe izeybxe icgt z` oebipd zrepz itl dad` jezn itxra dkn mdn cg`e dwfga ia efg` ipky la` lebird .lvrlt xrhet mlv` `xwpd zerixe daig jezn ixeg`a iweya qipkd minrt dnke cr izikg dcrxe ligae ily `ipqk`l izkld rax` lr lgefk dpd legnd xnbpyke xak oeaygd z` Ð `ipqk`d lra liaya oglyd lr zerahn dfi` izgpde xgyd xi`iy lr dxwnd z` izkxae dlbr xeky`e dqxtk jenqd xtkl jl`e ivtg z` gw`e Ð izrxt .ixa` lka mly izhlnp xy` * * * *

¨ ¨ aeall reqpl izxdne ee`bipxryhe wqpin aild`n iklta irqna iziyr zereay dyyk z`f cal dpd miciqgd zcr xy` zhxetn d`vxd mdl izxqne epixag mr izpncfp myy zipkzae mkegn 205 miqkha zexiird z` miyaeke mikled dnd lfxa ilbx lr micner xaky .mixcr mixcr mdixg` xdep micedid oende xceqn dlgza xy`n z`y xzia mxgd z` ycgl mikixv lkd zlgz xy` ehilgd epixag cixgi dfk mxg xy` mdil` axwznde mdnr szzynd lr mxgd xneg z` lihdl xwirde ipira mgix yi`adl dkelnd xirl miyp` gelyle ,mdil` axwzdln xeg` ebeqie oendd z`

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z` `"xbd axiwy aexiwdne mxgd fxked ezricia m` xxal dlr `l `"xbd ly oexg`d enei cr (ak .miciqgd lr mxg fxked xy`n rci `ly 'id xkip `plieeay miciqgd iqpxt

.cirxd :zewzrdd '`a (206

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xtq izal mixirv daxd gly `plieea ayeiy mipyd zrax` jynae dlkydd cenill © .drx zeaxzl e`vi xak mdn daxde fpky`e `ivil`ba milikynd v"ciad cnrnae dldwd mrhn dfxked xy` izax dtq`a q"ndegl oey`xa iriaxd meia lr dnd micirny lewa efixkie dxev ilra miyp` ipy ecnr dcrd icakpe dldwd itel`e zeaiyid icinlz z` gicdl milikynd gily `edy wcwcnd oerny 'x lk ita `xwpd yi`d © mlv` yie ,fpky`ae `ivil`ba milikynd ly xtqd izaa cenll zkll mze` ziqne ceniln mdilr `ivedy minekqde e"pwzÎa"pwz mipyd zrax` jyna ziqdy micinlzd zniyx ci azka aezk exn`y dn lke mdixac mipky dxeng dreaya raydl mipken md xy`e dreaya qrlrqrR xn z` riaydl dnd miyxece eixiag i"zkae gicne ziqnd oerny .xtekd oerny ly zearez dyrndn rceid `edy cibi `l m` dxeng dldwd ixneyn mipy dpd zedez mipira dke dk dpet epcerae drenyd lr ldap oerny oia xrqd ik ldwd edenbxi `ly Ð mcin wngzi `ly Ð edeaaq miciqgd igxtn micg`e Ð zeaiyidl mdipa z`v zrn onfd lk xy` micinlzd ixedn miaxe lecbe jeld mitq`pd zglvdn zericida engpzd dnde dne`n mdn erny `l Ð ziqnd oerny mdl xn`y itk zekinqe epxen zecerz xzka mixhern mze`xl eewe oerny mdl xqn xy` cenila mdipa z` eylz Ð l`xyi llkl `xfl eidy Ð milikynd gta eltp mdipa xy` ernyyke minkg zia zllil dktdp dtq`de mxay lr eppew Ð micinlzd zen` Ð miypde mdiy`x zexry .zexawd dylyk jynae ,mxgd xac z` gikyd xtekde ziqnd oerny mr rxe`ndn yrxd lke oerny ly epernn egwly zexbi`de zeniyxd miazkd z`ixwa v"ciad wqr zereay ly ezelczyd el dlired `le ,dlern dxinya dldwd `lka xeq` oerny 'id onfd jyn Ð fea ly dkeldza xirdn a"a mr eglyl ehtyn uxgp oeygxn rvn`ae qrlrqrR oec`d xaerd ldwd lke 207 "rpewZa meia zery yly mini dyly ecnr ixg` Ð `idd zra bedpk .eipta ewxi xtekd oerny zield oicd wqt miiwzp oeygxn ycgl dylye mixyra iyingd meiae .fea ly dkeldza xird on a"ae * * * *

oa mdxa` 'x oe`bd z`e llka micbpznd zcra eicakn z` eailrd oerny irezrz xag xeza qrlrqrR sqei 'x xiabd uexgd owqrd lr xegy mzk egipde hxta `"xbd .l`xyi zcr ldwa dvnyl eid xy` oilxa ilikyn zayl leki 'id `l Ð f"pwz Ð bgd iniae meil mein rxbed `"xbd ly eze`ixa avn

.xiwd l` eze` zwzexe ex`ev lr dpezp dzid zg` lfxa lkyk dltz zrya de`xl bven `hegd 'id "rpewaZ ,oaenk ,cegia Ð lkde ,zqpkd zial qpkpe `vei ldwd ,eipta miwxei mb e` ea miqlwzn eid Ð miaaeyd mixrpd .efn dlecb xzei zyea jl oi`e

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¨ zcgein zxnyn eyr oif`l`een miig 'x xic`d oe`bd my`xae miwdaend eicinlz .dkeqa sehr 'id meid aex dpd df mre dhna lhen onfd aex 'id bgd xg` xy` oe`bd z` ynyl lr zeltzd lltzn `edy envrl oin`d `l ezeyilg lceb cvne ze`xn edk eipir ,z"eha .dlna dln enr elltziy opgzn 'ide xcqd ely mireawd mixeriyd lka `qxibn 'inet wqt `l dlecbd ezyleg mr aygzd ilan itk ecrena yi` yi` ycwd zxnyna ewifgd mipe`bd eicinlze ,dt lra xzqpae dlbpa .elxeba dlry dvr qkhl dldwd iqpxte v"ciad qpkp eze`ixa zeyilga `"xbd ly eavn rcepyk lltzdl xeava mildz zxin` lilbae `plieeay zeiqpkd iza lka reawl fixkdl ehilgie .eizepye eini jix`ie oe`bdl d`etx z"iyd glyiy dltza miaxa mildz zxin` eraw lilbde `plieea c"ag iciqg ly zeiqpkd izaa mb cre my`xae micbpznd oia miwec`d ipira og `vn `ly dn ,`"xbd mely cra mipepgzae .miciqgd mr mgeld ¨ cg` ly devn zcerqa szzydl oif`l`een miig 'x oe`bdl oncfp minidn cg`a 208 'ihpa g"xbd ipira daygp dgny lrad ia` ly ezyxce `paec dnly 'x icinlzn t"r l"fg ixn`n x`an 'id eizeyxcae enrh bt xy` owf c"yxd 'id `idd zra ,zepinl ziaa ayiyk milikynd zxeagn law xy`n mi`lk iperxf eid mdae xwgnd zeceqi 209 c"yxd ly exe`ia lr enikqdy dl`n eid f"yxbd eig`e g"xbdy zeidle ,o`qlrcprn ¨ .dfn lecb xrva g"xbd 'id egaya ebiltde * * * *

elqk 'k meia dxnbp ezqtcdy Ð mixn` ihewl xtqd lawzp f"pwz zah yceg zlgza ,dgnye dzyn mei erawe `plieea c"ag iciqgl dlecb dgny 'idze ,`pliel Ð 210 f"pwz xacd rcepyk xgnle ,ezyleg lcebl minrt izy `"xbd slrzp `edd dlila xy` oncfpe d`ced zcerq eyr md xy` mdilr dac miciqgd cbp mgeld cre `ived `"xbd zetlrzdn ixtq xtqn dpwe xird z` qrlrqrR sqei xiabd yirxd xzeiae `"xbd ly ezyleg lr mixn` ihewl xtqd z` sexyl oe`bd mya efixkd mgeld cre ixag sexivae mixn` ihewl .q"pkdia xvga ,sxype qnxp ycwd xtq z` ze`xl lecb ikd ma`k mr aygzd ilan `pliee iciqg zcr dldwd ixage miciqgd ildpn zcewt mdilr dtwz ik mipezn zeidl evn`zd miaxa dpd micbpznd zcrn daxd ipira og `vny dn z`fd dlapd dyrn lr biladl miciqgdn ¨ .oif`l`een g"xbd ipira cegiae © raw dpd oiee`yfxrc xxevd xvd zaygn lhal x"enc` w"k ced cia z"iyd gilvd f`n .llkd zaeh ipipra wqrziy y"p`n cgein cre x"enc` w"k ced © ji` elkpzd dninz dpy jynae ehwy `le egp `l milikynd eixiage ihen`fd oerny
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cyg ly qgia Ð mnrh z` epiy mideabd mixyde mikiqpd mdixikny bxeaxhRa c"ag iciqg ci ik epiad micedid oia zebltnde zezkd ipipra mel`y xy` zepey zel`yne Ð mdilr .dpyk mdilr xar dke erci `l edyrn dne `ed in la` miciqgd zrxl zlret dxzqp ciqgd ly dkeqa miciqg zveaw dl dayi g"pwz zpy q"ndegl ipya oey`xd meia edekxa okeqn 'id `"xbd avn ik zeidle ,da`eyd zia zgnya egnye q'l`tx xi`n 'x qpxtd dwrva miciqgd mr mgeld cre ixagn micg` evxtzd mizpia ,miaxa jxay in zkxaa 'ield zryae dlecb 'ixexry eyrie Ð e"g Ð df lr migny mz`e qqeb `"xbd epxen xy` dpyke ,dnwp zreay erayie zelidan zereny miciqgd zcra mgeld cre ixag evitd .c`n egny milikynd eixiage qrlrqrR sqei 'x xiabde mnnf ewitd xy` cr dfa ecar * * * *

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.b"nyz `xwie t"y .f"lyz ¨ ¨ ¨ .miqw`c`hx` mixvep = (234 .epa oa :l"ve` (235 g"nwzz'` Ð mdxa` .d"lx zpya clep yep` (236 .(zexecd xcq) .jli`e `"d `"t f"r 'ld m"anx d`x (237

¨ iax zia Ð ezece` d`x Ð .o`qlrhiit ikcxn 'x (233 c"g c"ewl) a"vxz elqk hi zgiy .(` ,cr) e"kt ` wlg ihewl) ak sirq c"vxz gqtd bg zegiy .(a ,hnyz d`xe .cwz 'r g"g ycewÎzexb` .(` ,alw `"g mixeaic .`"lyz awr t"y .c"iyz da`eyd zia zgny zegiy t"yg` .e"lyz Ð y"dgc 'a meie miyecw t"y `a t"y

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v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

¨ aefrl ywaie ee`xaef ixac z` dyn 'xl xtqie dfn zeidl zelekiy ze`vezd z`e oiprd .dfa zekexkd zerxd ze`vezd z` el xiaqie Ð gex igekiee Ð df ekxc z` .x"enc` w"k cedl oiprd lk z` xtiq n"xd lr myex eyr `l eixac xy` ikcxn 'x ciqgd ,zn` `ed dyn cibd xy` lk ik ikcxn 'xl cibdl li`eie c`na xrhvd x"enc` w"k ced Ð dyecwd ezgiy z` jiyndl siqeie Ð dreyid 'dle ze`vezd lr xrhvn ippd la` `ixagd ipwfn dxyr dtiq`l 240 etq`zp 239 b"nwz zpya `plieea efixkd xy` mxgd 238 ixg` ,r"p `"xbd ciqgd lr dlaw t"r en izin` mxg lihdl ehilgie ,cibnd epxen icinlz `yicw `ixagdn mipy .ezenk t"dkl l"v dxyrdn cg` xy` mdl epre ,minya dl`y eyre cg`e ,ilv` cnre 242 yly oak f` 'id dyn ipa ,fn izivx `le mdnr szzydl il` e`a `yicw 'd rnyi `l ,izxn` .epnn mkl 'idi Ð epnn mi`xi mz`y leligd ,znerxza xn` mipydn .dreyid 'dle * * * *

mikiqpde dlynnd ixy aex xy` rci ezekln `qk lr ezelra 243 xcpqkl` xqiwd © © m`py xy` ztxv icili qrinrc`w`d lka xy` micnelndn mirtyen miliv`de milecbd .micedid mb mdipiae `iqex zpicn iayei minrd lk ly mzrc aexiwe og `vne ytg Ð ,micbpzn miciqg ,micedid axwa opyi zebltn yly xy` ercia xcpqkl` xqiwd xy` fer azkne x"enc` w"k cedl dxenb dyteg ozp (` .mlek z` axwl eal my ,milikyn zyly gly (a .bxeaxhRa ezxic rawi ik el rivie ezpeazk miciqgd zcr ezcr ldpl lkei

yly mdae (g"xe w"yn ueg) oxcqk mei mirax` miprzn yi` a"r ly c"a ,dlawd t"r izin` mxg (en leg ixacn zexidfe dliah .mei lka mireaw mildz ixenfn mr zcgein dltze zevg oewiz mikxer zewqtd izyk dlil cerae dxeza dlild lk miwqer miprzn mcera mirax`d ziprza ziaxr zltz xg` ,w"dla mb oirweze minrt dyly mxgd gqep z` `xew c"ad oia lecbde ycewd oex` oigzet xgyd zelr iptl zery dgpn milltzne dpeeka milltzne milaehe mila`k ux`d lr miayeie milrpnd z` mivlege z"xyz .mine glna zt milke`e dlecb (` :minrt dyly eyr ok ,dlrnl `idy enk eznyp yxyn mxgend z` mizxek l"x dfk mxga (fn dnypd zx`d z` l"x mizxekyke ,`igxt oa ryedi 'x ly ecinlzl (b .xg` Ð ryil`l (a .hap oa mraxil e"g dfk myd lelg lre .ezc z` xini mxgend xy` l"x gxkda dpd dnypd ly dzenvre dyxyn sebay mrpny x"enc` w"k ced lr oileR iwicv zenerxz dzid df xeare mikqdl x"enc` w"k ced leki `l .241dkf xy` mizekfd oia Ð mxg lihdln mrpn xy` Ð z`f ayg x"enc` w"k cede izin` mxg lihdln

.zebetd oi`n mlbx sk jxcn lk lr zpya dzid dtiq`dy ,my `"vxz zegiya (240 e` a"nwz :my c"vxz t"dg zgiya .h"nwzÎg"nwz zegiyd xtqa .(hqy 'r a"g ycewÎzexb` d`xe) b"nwz oia 'idy my ycewÎzexb`a .d"nwz uiw :my e"vxz .h"nwzÎe"nwz mipyd .174 'r `"vxz zegiyd xtq d`x (241 .ek dxrd d`x (242 .1777Î1825 (243

xtq) `"vxz ixyz zegiy d`x Ð onwl `ada (238 mgpn zxez .279 'r (r"yz ,z"dw z`ved) `"vxz zegiyd `"lq c"vxz gqtd bg .(jli`e erw 'r oneid zniyx .jli`e 80 'r e"vxz zegiyd xtq .(` ,nw `"g c"ewl) cqw 'r c"ig ycewÎzexb` .u"gxz daeyz zay zgiy .jli`e xywa 'id dtiq`dy ,my c"vxz t"dg zgiya (239 Îzexb`ae .miciqgd cbp `plieen d`viy dyw dxifbl ix"enc`l mdipt micbpnd eny `idd zra :my ycew mze` mixwec eide ,oild`ea l"vf cibnd axd [i]cinlz

v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

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xizdl milikynd zywa `lin (b .mdipir ze`x itk mwlgl `pliee zldwl milwy mitl` .mixkpd xtq izaa cenll l`xyi iclil x"enc` w"k ced ayi Ð a` mgpn 'iÎixyz g"k Ð mini dxyre miycg dryz ¨ © zeid jynae ,ihxt oerna miycg draye hree`q `pii`hd xvga miycg ipyk ,bxeaxrhrRa .llkd ipipr z` xciq bxeaxrhrRa w"k © ic`il xirl bxeaxhRn dyn sqei 'x mzxyne epae x"enc` w"k ced rqp mini drax` ¨ miyxt ipy mr x"enc` w"k cedl zzl iwqxin`aeil jiqpd cakzd xy` dceak dakxna iyyd meiae ,zeakxn rax`a miaxewnd miciqgdn enr mirqepde ezeell miqeqa miakex ¨ © .aild`n jlt ,244 ic`il xirl `a `"qwz `"pn ycgl xyr drax` ,engp zay axr * * * *

© epa lr qinrde llkd zepwqra ezcear z` wfig ic`l xira x"enc` w"k ced ayiizdyk zexiird lkl micgein mixiv glyie llkd zepwqra dlenrzd xac z` ldpi xy` n"xd dnc`d zceara wqrzdle miaeyiae mixtka zeayizdd zece` lr xxerl dpald `iqexa .dcarl rwxwd lr miayiiznl xefrl icka cegia sqk irvn` sq`e ,aeyide xtkd xgqnae z`n dkinz x"enc` w"k ced lrt bxeaxhRa xy` c"ag iciqgc llkd ipwqr cree i"r dpald `iqexa dnc`d z` cearl rwxwd lr eayiizdy micedi zegtyn ze`nl dlynnd © ¨ © ¨ © © micnln xcqn 'id x"enc` w"k cede ,`ee`hl`Re ee`lq`pixrh`wri iklta `pi`xwe`ae iza licadle zeiqpk iza ,d`xed ixene m"iaey oke ,llkd ipipr ldpn n"xd epa i"r mdipal .zengd ze`eewnd z` owz xak ik Ð dliah * * * *

n"xd w"dxd rqp minrt dfi` dpd df jynae 'ixet dceara mipy xyr exar dk .ecia gilvd z"iyde llkd zepwqra mivegp mipipr ilbxl bxeaxhRl excqiy bxeaxhRa c"ag iciqgn llkd ipwqr cre lr x"enc` w"k ced cwt `"rwz zpya ¨ l`xyi ipa epig`l zeayene o`qxrg jlta dnc` ighy epzpiy dlynnd ibega dlenrz xeza dnc`d zcearl jxhvnd lke g"rae dyixgn ilka dxfr ozz mbe dny ayiizdl .zeipepx`e miqnn exhti zepey`xd mipy yng xy`e mipy xyrk jyna mlyl d`eld zecqenl dywa iazk ekixrie x"enc` w"k ced zcewt z` eniiw llkd ipwqr cre ixag ziztxvd dnglnd gex ilbxl j` ,dfd xaca dlynnd ixy lv` elczyie dlynnd .dlenrzd f` dwqtp a"rwz zpya dxrzqdy * * * *

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v"iixden x"enc` w"k onei

ila `iqex zpicn iagxna xy` micedid lk l` ycw zexb`a x"enc` w"k ced dptie mpenna dlynndl xefrl ecnri cg`k mlk xy` iprk xiyrk ,heicdk odkk ,dbltn lcad al eniyz l`e mkaal jxi l` mz`e 'wd ezxb` z` miiqie .mdl xy` lkae mzceara .`iqex jln cv lr 'idi xenbd oegvpd ik `peyd ly miipnfd zepegvpdl * * * *

© inia ic`il exebn mewn z` aefrl owfd x"enc` w"k ced dvx `l mipipr dnk iptn ¨ ¨ © o`rl`R`p lig xaryk la` ,dpald `iqex icedi ly mgex leti `ly y`xl lkle ,dnglnd aefrl owfd x"enc` w"k gxked ze`qxt miyelyk encwzd cg` meiae `pifrxra xdp z` © .ic`il eayen xir z` epan ueg ,enr ez` mixcd ezgtyn ipa lk z` ,enr ez` gwl owfd x"enc` w"k ced f` 'idy l"ixden w"dxd eig`e `lle` xira epzeg ziaa f` 'id xy` dyn 'x w"dxd xirvd ¨ © .miciqgd ilecbn yi` dxyrk ez` erqie Ð wqarhiee jlt Ð yhiee`p`i xira eziaa xird ipal dev 247 erqp mxhae ,zay axra dlecb zexidna dzid exebn xirn ezriqp dne`n lk xi`ydl ilan dnecke milqtqe zepgley zehn ziad ilk z` mnvrl egwiy ¨ © ziad on exrai miiela Ð lrt`hp`R Ð milcpqe ,oyein elay mipyi micba elit`e ezxica ixtq z` eptie ezxic z` etxyi xirl eqpki `peyd ligd iyp` xy` `wgec zry 'idi m`e .ezia ci lr xy` zqpkd zian dxezd eqpkp miztxvd lig dpde xird z` owfd x"enc` w"k afr xy` zrn zery yly exar `l ¨ ¨ el e`xie yhiee`kex`a Ð llekd ax Ð iax orxbd ly epernl yxc `avd ixyn '`e xirl `xie eixg` miakex dxyrke eqeq lr srie owfd x"enc` w"k ly ezxic my mewn aegxd z` .q"pkdia z` sexyl evie c`na sevwie xrea ziad ik * * * *

¨ ¨ © ced dev 'iqex leab lr cner epcer ezeida eize`av ixy y`x z` o`rl`R`p cwt f`n miyi xy` yilfiin dyn 'x ciqgd oe`bd ,milecb xzeid eixyewnn '` z` owfd x"enc` w"k ¨ ¨ © dxyn lawl lczyd ziztxvd dtya xacn ezeidle o`rl`R`p ze`av ixy gex ikldl eal © © zehlgd zrcl lkei xy` ornl Ð 248 a`hy l`xrpb Ð dnglnd zldpd zeciwt ziaa .'iqex ze`av ixyl me`ivni xy` mipn`p mixivl xeqnie ,mdize`av ixyl `peyd zecewte zty ircei miyp` ixg` eytg `plieele `paewl eqpkie 'iqex leab z` miztxvd exaryk miiceqd zewlgnd zg`a daeh dxyn yilfiin dyn 'x ciqgd mb `vn f` dpd ztxve 'iqex ¨ ¨ © .249 e`elina eilr qnred xy` z` `lnie ,o`rl`R`p zldpd zgz ziy`xd `avd zeciwt ly da xacie ziztxvd dtyd z` rci xy` Ð owfd x"enc` w"k ced oa Ð
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¨ ¨ © xyr mipyk jynae ,`iqex leab z` xar elige ezngln z` o`rl`R`p lgd a`a dryza ¨ ¨ © ¨ o`rl`R`p ze`av ekld `"pn `"k iyingd meiae ,`yx`e wqarhiee ci lr elig 'id xak mei © ¨ ic`il z` ezgtyne owfd x"enc` w"k afr dlil cera `"pn a"k zay axr meiae `yx`n © © .`iqex mipta xirl xirne xtkl xtkn reqpe jeld eklie ,`pq`xw xird lv` xtka ezayie mirax`e d`n ,b"rwz 253 zah ycegl dpeny cr a"rwz 252 `"pn ycegl mipye mixyrn Ð a"a mr mdn Ð yi` miylyk mnr mz`e ezgtyne owfd x"enc` w"k ced 'id ,255 mini .`priiR xtkl e`a xy` cr milhlehn miciqgd ilecbn
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ze`av eaqd xy` oennyde oaxegdn owfd x"enc` w"k cedl eribd zelidan zerici ¨ ¨ © mexira ex`yp i"pan zegtyn itl`e dpald `iqexa miaeyide zexiird lka o`rl`R`p ¨ `av lig `pliee wqarhiee `pee`w iklta dpd df znerle ,mdizeqpxtne mdizan lk xqegae ¨ ¨ © l`xyi zepaa mdipir epzp xwtd iig miigd mdicewte micedid mr rrexzd o`rl`R`p .c`na owfd x"enc` w"k z` xrivy dn mirxn zecerql mpinfdl jlta rweeriinrf xtka mzeida elqk ycegl ixiyra `vie zyxt gn zay i`vena ¨ ¨ ¨ © ¨ © reewq`na o`rl`R`p ly ezltn 'idz ef reaya xy` x"enc` w"k ced xyia ,ee`an`h .xard d"xa elig lre eilr d`xy dn miiewie cr xtkl xtkn erqie rweeriinrf xtk z` eafr elqk ycegl xyr cg`a oey`xd meia ycgl xyr dynga iyingd meiae .dny ezayie `weeriqri xtkl e`a iriaxd meia xy` ezltnl miigl zezyl owfd x"enc` w"k ced xn` hn ziprzd xg` ziaxr zltz xg` elqk
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'r 'r `"g irvn`d x"enc` ycewÎzexb` d`x (257 o`kl il` z`fd drxd drenyd il` ribd meiaeZ) clx mbe . . ezewlzqd zrya zeidl izikf `l ik ,wevprnixw 'id ik ezewlzqd zrya 'id `l mdxa` miig 'x icici ig` jxca iziid ip`eZ) cnx 'r .("mei eze`a iec yxr lr lhen

úîùð éåìéòìå ïåøëæì ä"ò ìãðòî íçðî ìàøùé ø"á òùåäé íééç 'ø ç"äøä øãà 'ä èééöøàé ä"ò íéøôà 'ø úá úéãåäé úøî åúâåæå ïåùç 'ä èééöøàé ùéîòùô ä"ò óñåé åäéìà ø"á øéàî ïøäà 'ø ç"äøäå ïåùç 'è èééöøàé ä"ò åäéøîù 'ø úá ìèàî àãééøô úøî åúâåæå èáù âë èééöøàé øòáà

íãëð é"ò ñôãð ùéîòùô 'éù éëãøî 'ø ç"äøä

,!7IA8C6-gfagij!

ISBN 978-0-8266-5068-9

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