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OxyChem Chlorine Handbook

1 of 32

Page • History and Growth of Chlorine ....................2

17
239.1 172.16 3.17

35.453
+ 1,

-

3, 5, 7

Cl
[Ne]3s2p5

• Production Process ......................................3 • Characteristics..............................................4 • Chlorine Containers......................................4
Cylinders ..................................................5 Ton Containers.........................................8 Tank Cars ...............................................11 Cargo Tank Trucks .................................14

Chlorine

• Handling Equipment ...................................15
Foreword
This handbook outlines the methods for handling, storing, and using chlorine. It also includes information on the manufacture and physical properties of chlorine. Additional information and contacts can be found on the internet at www.oxychem.com Occidental Chemical Corporation Basic Chemicals Group Occidental Tower 5005 LBJ Freeway Dallas, Texas 75244

• Safety and Emergency Information ............17 • Technical Data............................................20

THE INFORMATION PRESENTED HEREIN WAS PREPARED BY TECHNICAL PERSONNEL AND IS TRUE AND ACCURATE TO THE BEST OF OUR KNOWLEDGE. OXYCHEM DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, REGARDING PERFORMANCE, STABILITY OR ANY OTHER CHARACTERISTIC. THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS NOT TO BE CONSTRUED AS AN EXPRESS WARRANTY CONCERNING THE PERFORMANCE, STABILITY OR ANY OTHER CHARACTERISTIC OF ANY OXYCHEM PRODUCT. THIS INFORMATION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE ALL-INCLUSIVE AS TO MANNER OR CONDITIONS OF USE. HANDLING, STORAGE, DISPOSAL AND OTHER ACTIVITIES MAY INVOLVE OTHER OR ADDITIONAL LEGAL, SAFETY OR PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS. WHILE OUR TECHNICAL PERSONNEL WILL RESPOND TO ANY QUESTIONS REGARDING SAFE HANDLING AND USE PROCEDURES, SAFE HANDLING AND USE REMAINS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE CUSTOMER. NO SUGGESTIONS FOR USE ARE INTENDED AS, AND NOTHING HEREIN SHALL BE CONSTRUED AS A RECOMMENDATION TO INFRINGE ANY EXISTING PATENT OR TO VIOLATE ANY FEDERAL, STATE OR LOCAL LAW.
Occidental Chemical Corporation 11/2006

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History and Growth of Chlorine
The eruption of the French Revolution cut short the intellectual ferment begun by Lavoisier and his followers. Lavoisier himself was guillotined in 1793, but his chemistry had crossed the English Channel. Once again, scientific curiosity paralleled commercial necessity. Humphry Davy, the English father of electrolysis, demonstrated that chlorine was an element with properties useful to Britain’s rapidly expanding textile and paper industries. In the 1830’s Michael Faraday, Davy’s lab assistant, produced a definitive work on both the electrolytic generation of chlorine and the ease of its liquefaction. In 1851, Charles Watt obtained the first English patent for an electrolytic chlorine production cell. Through the 1880’s and 1890’s producers in Germany, England, Canada, and the United States refined chlorine technology. Around 1890, German producers learned that, while wet liquid chlorine was almost impossible to package, removal of all water allowed safe shipment in ordinary iron or steel pressure vessels. By the early 1900’s, chlorine was produced in mercury and diaphragm electrolytic cells and shipped in liquid form as a matter of course. A modern chlorine industry had formed. By 1913, the first permanent liquid chlorine water purification system had been installed in Philadelphia. The following year, Altoona, Pennsylvania, became the first city to treat sewage with liquid chlorine. World War I brought added impetus to North American chlorine production. Submarine warfare practically eliminated imports of chemicals from Europe at a time when markets for many chemicals, including chlorine, were growing rapidly. By the end of the war, the United States had a large and firmly entrenched domestic chlorine industry. In the 1930’s, the world’s chemical industry erupted in a period of extraordinary growth that still continues. Bleaching properties of chlorine became just one of its major uses. Its disinfecting properties remained vital to health, but became a minor market for a chemical that would soon affect almost every human activity. Today, we use chlorine as a raw material in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride, a plastic used in fabricating flooring, pipe, wallpaper, clothing, furniture, and a wide range of household products. . We treat our illnesses with complex drugs and spray our crops with insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides which contain chlorine as part of their basic structure. Chlorinated chemicals also enable us to refrigerate and freeze our food, cool our homes, offices and cars, and even insulate our buildings from the heat and cold. One of the most important uses of chlorine is helping produce chemicals that contain no chlorine at all. Chlorine and chlorine chemicals help promote reactions that produce chemicals for antifreeze, textile lubricants, fabric softeners, book-binding pastes, solvents for lacquers, brake fluids, polyester fibers, and a host of other products.

The earliest annals of chemistry mention chlorine compounds. In 77 A.D., Pliny the Elder published one of the first practical collections of chemical reactions. His formula for gold purification generated chlorine as a by-product in the form of hydrogen chloride. But more than 800 years passed before written records showed that the Arabs had learned to react chlorine with water to produce hydrochloric acid. Around 1200 A. D., alchemists discovered that a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids dissolved gold. This procedure generates chlorine, but there is no record that a heavy greenish gas was evolved. In 1630, Belgian Jean Baptiste van Helmont wrote of a “salt gas” that we know contained chlorine, but it wasn’t until 1774 that Swedish apothecary, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, generated, collected, and studied chlorine as an end in itself. Even Scheele’s discovery was nearly accidental. He collected chlorine out of simple curiosity. Perhaps he too would have treated the gas casually if he hadn’t, on some impulse, placed some leaves and flowers into a bottle of chlorine. Within minutes the plants had turned white, and man had the first historical record of the bleaching action of chlorine. Scheele’s discovery came when both modern chemistry and the industrial revolution were taking their first halting steps down paths that would soon change the course of history. Antoine Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, took note of Scheele’s work and quickly became embroiled in a controversy over whether chlorine was an element or a compound. Meanwhile, textile producers in the French town of Javelle heard of the bleaching action of this gas, and in 1789 bubbled it through a potash solution producing eau de Javelle, Javelle Water, the first commercial liquid chlorine bleach.

Production Process
The basic raw material for the process, salt, comes from either mines or underground wells. Mined salt is dissolved with water to form raw brine. In other cases, water is pumped into salt deposits, forming brine in the earth that is tapped and drawn off from the resulting brine well. Raw brine contains impurities that interfere with chlorine-caustic production. They are removed by chemical treatment, settling, and filtration. The purified brine is pumped to the cell room. The cell room contains one of three types of electrolytic cells for decomposing brine into chlorine, caustic soda, and hydrogen. These three cell types are diaphragm, membrane, or mercury cells. The chlorine that leaves the cell is hot and wet, and therefore very corrosive. It must be cooled and dried before it can be processed in ordinary steel equipment. In addition, the chlorine stream is contaminated with air, hydrogen, and some carbon dioxide (due to small amounts of carbon bearing chemicals in the brine).

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Once the chlorine stream is cooled and dried, compressors and refrigeration machines are used to liquefy the gas. Chlorine is most easily handled as a liquid in specially designed pressure containers. Any gaseous contaminants in the chlorine stream are removed. Small amounts of chlorine mixed with them are nearly completely recovered. The recovered chlorine is then returned to the liquefaction process.

Chlorine Process
Chlorine Storage and Shipping Caustic Purification

Chlorine Liquefiers

Chlorine Recovery

Caustic Storage and Shipping Terminal

Raw Brine Production

Chlorine Compressors

Salt Removal Centrifuges (for Diaphragm), Filters, and Coolers

Brine Purification

Chlorine Cooling and Drying

Use as Fuel or Sale

Brine Resaturation

ChlorineCaustic Cell Room

Caustic Solution Storage Hydrogen

Caustic Solution Evaporation (for Diaphragm and Membrane)

Hydrogen Processing

and certain plastics. Containers of these sizes are supplied by independent distributors (Repackagers) and not by OxyChem. Receipt of chlorine by tank car requires special handling and compliance with the Department of Transportation (DOT) Hazardous Materials Regulations. Liquid and gaseous chlorine are nonflammable and will not support combustion in the normal sense. it is found in nature only in combination with other elements. Regardless of the environmental conditions of temperature and humidity. bronze. It tends to accumulate in low places. Since chlorine is very active chemically. Dry chlorine has an extremely high affinity for moisture. At low pressures. and filling of these containers. Because gaseous chlorine is approximately two-and-one-half times as heavy as air. under certain conditions it can embrittle ordinary carbon steels. Since chlorine boils at about -30°F. Liquid chlorine is approximately one-andone-half times as heavy as water. tantalum. and lead. Installations employing wet Chlorine Containers Chlorine is supplied in packages of varying sizes according to the requirements of the customer. In the presence of moisture. pick up sufficient moisture from the atmosphere to cause severe corrosion. Chlorine is an excellent oxidizing agent which accounts for its widespread use as a bleaching agent. testing. Most Repackagers maintain facilities for the inspection. Tank cars are supplied by OxyChem and are available in 90 ton capacities. dry chlorine attacks metals at elevated temperatures. chemical stoneware. steel. Sodium chloride. nickel. copper. chlorine cargo tank trucks with a 15 to 20 ton capacity are in limited use and only available from certain Repackagers. net) can be supplied to consumers requiring intermediate tonnage. brass. can be handled safely in equipment fabricated from iron. However. Ton containers (2000 lbs. wet chlorine can be handled in equipment made of glass. all open ends of chlorine pipelines should be sealed with rubber stoppers or some type of moisture-tight closure when not in use. Chlorine reacts with carbon steel at elevated temperatures. However. within a time interval of only a few minutes. All chlorine containers and fittings are of a type approved by The Chlorine Institute. Chlorine. is widely and abundantly distributed in nature and constitutes the chief source of chlorine. both gaseous and liquid. chlorine will support the combustion of certain materials under special conditions. titanium. certain stainless steels. or other materials of construction should be considered. Monel metal. Platinum. amber-colored liquid. Additionally. is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent and irritating odor. and must comply with the specifications and regulations of the DOT. special carbon steels. 55 ton tank cars are in limited use and will be phased out of service after 2002. Inc. cleaning. Dry chlorine. at ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure. . for example. CFR Title 49.4 of 32 Characteristics chlorine require special care and recommendations can be made only after a thorough and careful investigation. and titanium are some of the metals resistant to moist chlorine. it is slow to diffuse into the air. Operations above 250°F should be avoided. These metals are not aggressively attacked by dry chlorine but the slightest trace of moisture will cause severe corrosion. An open end of a chlorine delivery line will. both gaseous and liquid chlorine are extremely corrosive to common metals of construction. If temperatures below -20°F are expected to occur. Cylinders with a 100 or 150 pound capacity are available to customers needing small quantities. Gaseous chlorine can be liquefied by the application of pressure at reduced temperatures to form a clear.

Figure 1 .10. D.Cylinders Liquid chlorine cylinders are seamless steel construction.59" 53.S. The fusible metal plug is located below the valve seat and cannot be controlled by the valve.75" 10. It must be kept in place whenever the cylinder is not in actual service. For this reason.Cylinder Valve 3/8" Square Monel Metal Stem Dimensions of Cylinders Capacity lbs 100 150 Tare Weight lbs 63 -115 85 -140 Total Height inches 39. The fusible metal plug should not be tampered with under any circumstances. Each cylinder is fitted with a cap to protect the valve mechanism. identifying symbol. Crosssectional drawings of 100-pound and 150-pound cylinders are shown in Figure 1. This safety plug protects the chlorine cylinder against excessive pressure. Cylinders are fitted with valves in compliance with the specifications and regulations of the DOT and approved by The Chlorine Institute.56" Outside Diameter inches 8. is suggested. The chlorine cylinder valve is equipped with a fusible metal plug which is a safety device designed to melt at about 158°F.5 . a special clamp and adapter. Use of another wrench may damage the valve stem and make the valve difficult to close. The use of the clamp and adapter affords greater convenience for the consumer and protects the cylinder valve from excessive wear. To mar or deface these markings is illegal.0. serial number. as shown in Figure 3. Valve Body 3/4" Standard Pipe Thread 3/8" I. 21/4" . Usually the owner’s name or symbol is stamped or embossed in the same area. A cross-sectional drawing of a chlorine cylinder valve is shown in Figure 2. Inc.75" Packing Nut Packing Gland Valve Packing Neck Ring 3/4" Special Straight Thread 47/8" Fusible Plug Outlet Cap Gasket The outlet threads of a chlorine cylinder valve are not standard pipe threads. by melting and allowing the contents of the cylinder to escape when exposed to high temperature. inspector’s official mark. original tare weight.0 .25 . The U.Cylinder 5 of 32 54" Average 54" Average 50" Average 101/2 " 81/2 " 50" Average 150 Pound Cylinder 100 Pound Cylinder Figure 2 .25 . DOT (or Canadian equivalent) specification number. No wrench other than the one shown in Figure 3 should be used to open or close chlorine cylinder valves. and date of hydrostatic is stamped on the metal near the cylinder neck.

Store cylinders so that the oldest shipments of cylinders are used first. Store all cylinders of liquid chlorine in a location which is protected from direct sunlight and from dampness. Storage areas should be kept clean so that accumulated trash does not present a fire hazard. causing leaks when the cylinders are used. Valve packing may harden with prolonged storage.Valve Adapter and Clamp Cylinder Wrench Adapter Clamp Valve Body Tube Lead Gasket Antimony-lead Gasket 5/16" 11/4" 17/32" 3/4" Pipe Thread 1/4" 3/4" Adapter for Pipe Store cylinders of liquid chlorine in a cool place away from steam pipes or other sources of heat. Do not store cylinders where it is possible for leaking vapors to enter a ventilating system.6 of 32 Storage of Cylinders Figure 3 . with their valve outlet caps and valve protective caps in place. Store all cylinders in a vertical position. Store cylinders. . full or empty.

Figure 4 . Ordinary devices are not suitable. If chlorine cylinders are to be lifted. To monitor the consumption of chlorine at any given time. gauges. rope. to remain connected with the process line. Consult your chlorine supplier for advice under such circumstances. notify the distributor from whom the chlorine was purchased. Handle all chlorine cylinders with extreme care. Close valves on chlorine cylinders when chlorine is not being withdrawn in order to prevent moist air or foreign substances from entering the cylinder. and fittings which have been approved for chlorine service. the cylinder must be inverted and clamped securely on a rack set at an angle of about 60° to the horizontal. Use flexible connections between cylinders and piping systems (Figure 4). Replace outlet cap and valve protective cap as soon as the cylinder is disconnected. or magnetic device. If liquid chlorine is to be withdrawn from a cylinder. Do not alter or repair chlorine cylinders or their valves. place the cylinder on a scale. Operate chlorine cylinder valves only with the wrenches shown in Figure 3. Do not drop cylinders or allow them to strike any object with force. Do not lift cylinders by their valve protective caps because they are not designed for this purpose. In such cases liquid could be sucked back into the cylinder causing danger to the operator and damage to the cylinder.Flexible Tubing Connector for Ton Containers and Cylinders Alternate Adapter for Pipe Connection Brass Adapters 21/4" Cylinder Valve Adapter 19/16" 5/16" 1/4" 3/4" 1/4" Pipe Thread Silver Solder 17/32" . These should be properly balanced and have a clamp support at least two-thirds of the way up the cylinder. Always use the correct special clamps and adapters as shown in Figure 3. which has emptied its contents into water or another liquid.Handling and Use of Cylinders It is illegal to ship a leaking chlorine cylinder or a chlorine containing cylinder which has been exposed to fire. Do not apply heat to chlorine cylinders or their valves. 7 of 32 Provide suitable hand trucks for moving cylinders. Do not use a chain. Use valves. giving the cylinder number and the nature of the damage. The difference in weight between measurements will equal the quantity consumed. The cylinder must be in an upright position to remove chlorine as a gas. All threads on all chlorine valves are right-hand threads. If a chlorine cylinder or its valve is found out of order. It is dangerous to allow any chlorine cylinder. Copper tubing capable of withstanding pressures up to 400 pounds per square inch is satisfactory for dry chlorine. Leaks around the valve stem are usually corrected by tightening the packing nut in a clockwise direction. Under no circumstances use a pipe wrench or any wrench longer than six inches. regulators. provide a suitable sling.

and water capacity are stamped in the metal of an unpainted portion of the chime at the valve end of each ton container. allowing proper positioning of a ton container before removing the bonnet.The tare weight of each ton container is stenciled on the end opposite the valves. Inc. Like the cylinders. To mar or deface these markings is illegal. the lower valve will deliver liquid chlorine. With the container placed horizontally so that the two valves are in vertical alignment. The use of the clamp and adapter affords greater convenience for the consumer and protects the ton container valve from excessive wear. The valves are connected to eduction pipes as shown in Figure 5.8 of 32 Ton Containers arrows on the valve end of a ton container indicate the position of the two valves. The average ton container (Figure 5) is about 30 inches in outside diameter and about 82 inches in length. These arrows are visible when the protective bonnet is in place. both of which are located at the same end. A cross section of the ton container valve is shown in Figure 6. Gaseous chlorine from above the liquid level will flow through the upper valve. they are fitted with valves approved by The Chlorine Institute. and in compliance with the specifications and regulations of the DOT. leaving 2000 pounds net weight. The ton container valve is the same as the cylinder valve except that it has a larger discharge port and no fusible metal plug. The sides are crimped inward over the ends to form chimes that provide suitable grips for hooks used in handling. The melting plug prevents build up of excessive pressure when exposed to high temperature. The container number. There are six fusible metal plugs in each ton container. near the center. are suggested. For that reason. dates of hydrostatic tests. The fusible metal plugs should not be tampered with under any circumstances. a special clamp and adapter shown in Figure 3. three on each end. Each container is equipped with two valves. Each end of a ton container is concave. The outlet threads of a ton container valve are not standard pipe threads. Pointed . average gross weight is about 3500 pounds. The ton containers for liquid chlorine are constructed of steel. Average tare weight is about 1500 pounds. The fusible metal in these plugs melts at about 158°F.

Storage Store ton containers of liquid chlorine in a cool place. Store all ton containers. Store ton containers where it is not possible for leaking vapors to enter a ventilating system. full or empty.Ton Container 6'91/2" Valve Packing Neck Ring Straight Thread Gas Eduction Pipe 2'6" Liquid Eduction Pipe Valve Bonnet Three Fusible Plugs at Each End Upper Gas Valve Lower Liquid Valve Outlet Cap Gasket Valve Body Pipe Thread Detail of Fusible Plug Figure 7 . Keep them on the same level.Ton Container Lifting Beam . Figure 6 .Ton Container Valve 3/ 8" Square Monel Metal Stem Packing Nut Packing Gland Figure 5 . adapters. Do not stack ton cylinders to avoid the possibility of the one at the bottom developing a leak and being difficult to remove. A suitable hoist equipped with a lifting beam as shown in Figure 7 is required to remove or replace the containers. Store all ton containers of liquid chlorine in a location which is protected from direct sunlight and from dampness. Store ton containers in a horizontal position on a level rack. and valve wrenches are available from your chlorine distributor. Clamps. away from steam pipes or other sources of heat. with their valve outlet caps and valve protective bonnets in place.Storage of Ton Containers Only the wrench shown in Figure 3 is to be used to open or close a ton container valve. 9 of 32 Do not store ton containers of liquid chlorine near flammable materials.

giving the container number and nature of the damage. to remain connected with the process line. A typical installation is shown in Figure 8. Close valves on ton containers when chlorine is not being withdrawn to prevent moist air or foreign substances from entering the container. Do not apply heat to ton containers or their valves. Leaks around the valve stem usually can be corrected by tightening the packing nut in a clockwise direction. and fittings which have been approved for chlorine service. which has been exposed to fire is illegal. Figure 8 . partially or fully loaded. It is dangerous to allow any chlorine container. Shipping a leaking chlorine container or one. 34 Ft.Typical Construction Liquid Chlorine to Process or Liquid Chlorine to Vaporizer Liquid Chlorine from Ton Container Pressure Gauge Barometric Vacuum Break Loop (Min. (See Figure 3. notify the distributor from whom the chlorine was purchased. Do not drop ton containers or allow them to strike any object with force. Ordinary devices are not suitable. Handle all chlorine ton containers with extreme care.) Chlorine Gas to Process Scale Ton Chlorine Container Ton Container Valve and Clamp Connection Vaporizer Water Overflow Control Valve Flexible Connection Tubing Hot Water . Always have an attendant present when chlorine is being withdrawn from a ton container. Use the lower valve to withdraw liquid chlorine and the upper valve to remove chlorine gas. All threads on all chlorine valves are right-hand threads. regulators. which has emptied its contents into water or other liquid. Place a ton container on a scale as its contents are removed to determine the quantity of chlorine in the container at any time. In such cases. gauges.) Use valves. Always use special clamps and adapters.) Copper tubing capable of withstanding pressures of 400 pounds per square inch is satisfactory for dry chlorine. liquid could be sucked back into the container causing danger to the operator and damage to the container. If a ton container or its valves are found out of order. Ht. Replace outlet caps and valve protective bonnets as soon as the containers are disconnected. (See Figure 4. Do not alter or repair ton containers or their valves. Ton container valves should be operated only with wrenches as shown in Figure 3. Consult your distributor for advice under such circumstances.10 of 32 Handling and Use of Ton Containers Use flexible connections between ton containers and piping systems. Under no circumstances use a pipe wrench or any wrench longer than six inches.

it is designed to initially relieve at a pressure of 225 psig.000 pounds/hour for a 90 ton car. On a 105A500W tank. Any damaged tank car is immediately removed from service until such time as repairs can be made. (See Figure 11. Liquid chlorine is supplied in tank cars with capacities of 55 tons and 90 tons. This outlet is protected by a one-inch pipe plug which must be kept in place whenever the valve is not in use. it is subjected to a rigorous inspection.Tank Cars OxyChem’s large fleet of tank cars comply with all specifications and regulations of the DOT. the valve functions as a regular spring loaded valve set at 213 psig.Standard Arrangement of Valves on Single Unit Tank Car Brake End of Car No. 2 Gas Valve No.Excess Flow Valve with Removable Seat Flow Checked Position No. Figure 9 . the safety valve is designed to initially relieve at a pressure of 375 psig and then it operates as a regular spring loaded valve set to discharge at 360 psig. (Figure 9. The only opening in the tank is in the dome which contains all of the valves on the tank. The excess-flow valves are inspected and cleaned at the same time. Safety valves are removed.) The two angle valves parallel to the length of the tank car deliver liquid chlorine. 3 Liquid Valve Figure 10 . Valve Number 5). 5 Safety Valve No. The angle valve must be fully opened to allow the excess-flow valve to function in case of a ruptured delivery line.Single-Unit Tank Car Valve Figure 11 . 1 Liquid Valve No. reconditioned.000 pounds/hour for a 55 ton capacity car or 15. The excess-flow valves are designed to stop the flow of liquid chlorine if the delivery rate exceeds 7. The tank of most tank cars is of fusion welded steel construction. The liquid valves are connected to eduction pipes which are equipped with excess-flow valves. and subjected to a static test at a pressure far greater than a normal working pressure. built according to DOT specifications 105A300W and 105A500W. Each time a tank car is returned to OxyChem. The outlet of each angle valve on a tank car has one-inch standard tapered female pipe threads. Average Dimensions of Tank Cars Length (between striking plates) 42'8" 45'8" Height (to valve connection) 12'9" 13'6" 11 of 32 Capacity Tons 55 90 Overall Height 14'6" 14'10" Overall Width 10'2" 10'6" The safety valve is located at the center of the dome. (See Figures 9 and 10. 4 Gas Valve Note: Figures 9 and 10 show typical installation for the ACF angle valve. When the angle valves are removed. they are dismantled. Following the initial relief. and tested every two years. Normal Flow Position . The tank is provided with a thick covering of insulating material which in turn is protected by a steel jacket.) The two angle valves at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the tank car will deliver gaseous chlorine or they can be used to apply dry air or nitrogen padding. On DOT 105A300W tanks. Safety valves on chlorine tank cars must never be disturbed or tampered with under any circumstances. completely reconditioned.

12 of 32 Handling and Use of Tank Cars unloading. Paragraph 174. 400 lb. Ht. 34 ft. When a tank car of chlorine is placed on a private siding for Figure 12 . governing the transportation of hazardous materials: “Caution” signs must be placed in such a position on the track or car to warn persons approaching the car from Single-unit tank cars must be unloaded only on the consumer’s protected private track.Typical Installation Liquid Valves 1 & 3 Safety Valve 5 Brake End of Car Forged Steel Ammonia Flanges Gas Valves 2 & 4 Automatic Shut Off Valve Flexible Metal Connection Liquid Chlorine from Car 24" Dia. Globe Valve 1" Extra Heavy Pipe Barometric Vacuum Break Loop (Min.67. CFR Title 49. the brakes must be set and the wheels blocked.) Liquid Chlorine to Process Pressure Gauge Liquid Chlorine to Vaporizer Chlorine Gas to Process Excess Flow Valves Liquid Chlorine Eduction Pipe Insulation Vaporizer Water Overflow Control Valve Hot Water . The following precautions are required by DOT Hazardous Materials Regulation.

The letters must be white on a blue background. Use a flexible metal connection for unloading chlorine as outlined in The Chlorine Institute. 118. Shipping a leaking or defective tank car containing any chlorine is illegal. indicating that the metal ball has fallen back into place. 6. Safe padding pressure limits are defined by the setting of the pressure relief valve and the temperature of the liquid chlorine. Drawing # 201. dry air (dew point of -40°F) must be used. Pamphlet # 66. Tank cars must be protected by a derail at the switch end or ends of a siding. Padding pressure limits for chlorine tank cars can be found in the The Chlorine Institute. Under these conditions. Opening a liquid chlorine valve too rapidly could cause the excessflow valve to function and stop the flow of liquid chlorine. A typical installation is shown in the diagram in Figure 12. Inc. . Signs must be of metal.Handling and Use of Tank Cars the open end or ends of the siding and must be left up until after the car is unloaded and disconnected from the discharge connection. Pamphlet No. at least 12 by 15 inches in size and bear the words “STOP—Tank Car Connected” or “STOP—Men at Work. OxyChem’s 24 hour emergency number is 800/7333665. If a tank car is defective. Inc... In many chlorine handling systems.” The word “STOP” must be in letters at least 4 inches high and the other words in letters at least 2 inches high. DWG No. The excessflow valve can be unchecked by closing the chlorine valve completely and waiting until a noticeable click is heard. additional pressure is necessary for unloading at a normal or accelerated rate. call your supplier. * Dry nitrogen may also be used in most cases.* A separate plant air 13 of 32 drying system is needed for this operation. For additional information on the handling and use of tank cars refer to The Chlorine Institute. Inc.

The two angle valves parallel to the length of the tank will deliver liquid chlorine. dry air (dew point of -40°F) must be used. 49. For this reason. but of a different design. Pamphlet No. The only opening in a chlorine cargo tank truck is in the dome which contains all of the required valves.000 pounds per hour. For additional information on chlorine tank motor vehicles. Under these conditions. the valve functions as a regular spring loaded valve set at 213 psig. They are also equipped with excess-flow valves. . The safety valve is located at the center of the dome. additional pressure is necessary for unloading at a normal or accelerated rate. The liquid valves are connected to eduction pipes which are equipped with excess-flow valves. This outlet is protected by a one-inch pipe plug which should be kept in place whenever the valve is not in use. between the angle valves. chlorine can be shipped in cargo tank trucks only if the contents are to be unloaded at one unloading point. Handling and Use of Chlorine Cargo Tank Trucks In general. The excess-flow valves are designed to stop the flow of liquid chlorine if the delivery rate exceeds 7. Occidental Chemical will assist in any individual study or evaluation to determine if tank truck shipments of chlorine are feasible. It is designed to initially relieve at a pressure of 225 psig. gives the MC331 specification for cargo tank trucks authorized for chlorine use in the United States and Canada. Tank Truck Unloading— Air Padding In many chlorine handling systems.* A separate plant air drying system is needed for this operation. refer to The Chlorine Institute.14 of 32 Cargo Tank Trucks The outlet of each angle valve on a chlorine cargo tank truck has oneinch standard tapered female pipe threads. Inc. Subsequent to relief. * Dry nitrogen may also be used in most cases. Chlorine cargo tank trucks meeting DOT Specification MC331 or MC330 have an approximate capacity of 15 to 20 tons. DOT issued CFR Title 49. The two angle valves at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the tank will deliver gaseous chlorine.

The use of a vaporizer supplies sufficient heat to the liquid chlorine from an outside source so that the temperature of the chlorine supply remains relatively constant. Joints must be welded or flanged. Pamphlet # 6. Valves for chlorine service should be constructed of forged steel.2 1/2" 14. black-iron pipe.6 1. 409. Inc. there is a loss in pressure of about 0. For more information on piping systems. 15 of 32 Pressure Drop in Liquid Chlorine Lines Any liquid passing through a pipeline suffers a loss in pressure due to the resistance to flow offered by the pipeline. In this manner much more gaseous chlorine can be sent to process than would otherwise be possible.9 . Chlorine Vaporizer When large amounts of gaseous chlorine are required for a specific process. Pamphlets # 6 and 60. 9.0 2. consult The Chlorine Institute.. Inc. Pamphlet No.3 12. it is advisable to remove the chlorine from the manufacturer’s container as a liquid and pass it through a vaporizer to convert it to a gas.0 3.635 psi which should be added to the pressure losses due to the resistance of the piping.0 4.Handling Equipment In general. Inc. pipelines for handling chlorine should be fabricated from extra-heavy. For additional information on valves for chlorine service please consult The Chlorine Institute. If liquid chlorine is trapped between two valves.. The use of valves in pipelines must balance minimizing accidental release and reducing fugitive emissions. Rapid removal of gaseous chlorine from a container will cool the remaining liquid chlorine to a point where no chlorine vapor will flow into the process. A further loss in pressure or head is experienced when the liquid is elevated. Equivalent Length of Pipe in Feet Fitting Globe Valve (full open) Angle Valve (full open) Standard T (through the branch) Long Radius Ell 1" 28. The graph on page 16 shows the calculated pressure drop for liquid chlorine flowing through SCH 80 pipe of various dimensions. consult The Chlorine Institute.2 6. Figure 8 shows a typical installation using a vaporizer to obtain gaseous chlorine from a ton container. Liquid chlorine has a high coefficient of thermal expansion. the additional pressure loss can be readily computed by converting the friction loss in the valves and fittings to equivalent lengths of straight pipe. Figure 12 shows a typical installation using a vaporizer to obtain gaseous chlorine from a single-unit tank car. Packing for these valves should be either PTFE or flexible graphite. installed at the highest point in the section may be needed.3 9. For more information on Chlorine Vaporizers. Expansion chambers are fabricated from extra-heavy pipe and have a capacity equal to at least 20 volume percent of the protected section of pipe. For every foot in elevation that liquid chlorine is raised.6 3/4" 21.7 0. Fittings must be eliminated wherever possible. high pressure may develop and lead to a rupture of the line or its fittings. The data below are taken from Crane Company Technical Paper No.8 1. Expansion chambers. When valves and fittings are included in the piping system.

5" XH Steel Pipe 3/4" XH Steel Pipe 1/2" XH Steel Pipe Chlorine Flow. 1000 100 0.1 1 10 100 Pressure Drop./hr.16 of 32 Technical Data Pressure Drop for Liquid Chlorine Flowing in New Steel Pipe 10000 1" XH Steel Pipe 1. psi per 100 feet of pipe . lbs.

The Institute also sponsors a mutual assistance program in which trained teams respond to chlorine emergencies on a 24-hour-a-day. Any person entering a chlorine emergency area must be protected by this respiratory protective equipment. and eyes. Emergency Respiratory Protection Severe exposure to chlorine may occur wherever chlorine is handled or used. Individuals with respiratory problems should consult a physician before working with chlorine. Chlorine emergency kits are maintained by producers and are located strategically throughout the United States and Canada. If it escapes from a container or system. and be equipped with a low pressure warning bell. was formed over 50 years ago by chlorine producers to promote the safe use of chlorine and to standardize chlorine handling equipment. or purchase kit(s) from an approved supplier. Eye Wash Fountains and Deluge Showers Readily accessible eye wash fountains and deluge showers must be provided in strategic locations wherever chlorine is used. chlorine use. Pamphlet No. and use of chlorine. especially at elevated temperatures. respiratory tract. The United States is divided into 32 sectors with CHLOREP teams available from 49 plant sites (one to three plant sites in each sector). It is essential that each individual who may be exposed to chlorine carry. Prolonged exposure to the gas causes coughing. forming hydrochloric acid. it will seek the lowest level in the building or area in which the leak occurs. Training should include the use of safety equipment and first aid procedures. Shower.Safety and Emergency Information All personnel engaged in handling chlorine must be thoroughly instructed in the necessary precautions for the safe handling. which irritates the eyes and skin. 35. and may result in pulmonary edema and death. and clothing. tank cars. CHLOREP is now affiliated with CHEMTREC (The Chemical Transportation Emergency Center) maintained by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) in Washington. In addition. rubber gloves. and is two-and-one-half times as heavy as air. kits are available from other chlorine users and distributors. For re-entry into an emergency area. freezing exposed skin. and a NIOSH approved respirator with an acid gas cartridge where airborne concentrations are expected to exceed exposure limits or when symptoms have been observed that are indicative of overexposure. this response program is known as CHLOREP (Chlorine Emergency Plan). kits are available which can be used to stop leaks. a respirator approved for . storage. Chlorine irritates the mucous membranes. A one to four minute rate of air change is required in an emergency. gagging. 7-daya-week basis. Canada is divided into ten regions with teams available from 13 plant EMPLOYEE PROTECTION Do not breathe chlorine vapors.” Obtain a copy and note the nearest source. Liquid chlorine removes body heat. “Location of Chlorine Emergency Kits. or barges. natural ventilation may be adequate. In some cases. must be provided. such as forced air through a system of ducts. D. in others. Gaseous chlorine hydrolyzes in the presence of moisture. Smoking can aggravate the respiratory symptoms which result from chlorine exposure. skin. OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES The Chlorine Institute. Chlorine is a chemical element. Personnel should test equipment each day before beginning work to ensure adequate water flow. Safety Equipment Use goggles. Therefore. should be located strategically outside chlorine work areas near entrances and away from contamination. Read the MSDS before use. Assistance can be summoned by calling either CHEMTREC (Toll free 1-800-4249300) or the appropriate CHLOREP team. Emergency Kits In an emergency involving chlorine cylinders. Carefully study everything in this manual. self-contained breathing equipment must be used. at all times. It has a penetrating odor. Avoid contact with eyes. Precautions must be taken to avoid discharging chlorine into areas where it can cause damage or personal injury. In the United States. rubber shoes. hard hat. Such equipment shall have a rating of at least 30 minutes use. Inc. self-contained positive pressure breathing apparatus. and the location of these kits can be found in The Chlorine Institute. 17 of 32 EQUIPMENT & EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Ventilation Provide adequate ventilation to reduce the accumulation of liquid or gaseous chlorine in low areas. Wash thoroughly after handling chlorine. Inc.C. The gas is greenish-yellow in color at high concentrations. ton containers. Both react chemically with many substances. Neither the gas nor the liquid alone is explosive or flammable. approved for emergency chlorine use. artificial ventilation. using plenty of soap and water.

forming hydrochloric acid which attacks the metal. HANDLING AND STORAGE Store cylinders and ton containers in a dry. Control pH at the discharge to sewer or the receiving water and comply with all applicable federal. thus enlarging the leak. Water Disposal Absorb chlorine in an alkaline solution (caustic soda. . Chlorine users must accept responsibility for taking all proper precautions to prevent accidents with chlorine. In Canada. since one volume of liquid is equal to about 460 volumes of gas. Shut chlorine supply off at source. or inorganic chemicals. Cool the affected containers with large amounts of water.* Destroy resulting hypochlorite by adding sodium sulfite or treating the basic hypochlorite at 122°-158°F (50°-70°C) in the presence of copper. In both the United States and Canada. nickel. state.18 of 32 Safety and Emergency Information containers are connected for unloading. or iron. assistance is available by calling either the TEAP regional number or the appropriate response team. or hydrated lime) while maintaining an excess of base at all times (see below). Secure self-contained breathing apparatus. Moisture hydrolyzes chlorine. ventilated. soda ash. but it does act as an oxidizer and supports combustion. Use any other extinguishing medium appropriate for the surrounding fire. preferably on high ground. Use self-contained breathing apparatus and full protective equipment. The fact that emergency assistance is available should not encourage carelessness in the use of this chemical. and local regulations. Protect from heat and direct sunlight. In Case of Fire Chlorine itself will not burn. these teams provide assistance in any chlorine emergency whether a transportation incident or a problem at the point of usage. Leaks Do not apply water directly on a chlorine leak. If a container is leaking chlorine. All fires liberate toxic gases. organic. The quantity of escaping chlorine is significantly less from a gas leak than a liquid leak. Chlorine users must have the telephone number of their response team(s) readily available for use in chlorine emergency situations. position the container so that gas escapes instead of liquid. sites as established by TEAP (Transportation Emergency Assistance Plan) of the Canadian Chemical Producers’ Association. Evacuate the area and keep all personnel upwind of leaks. even in the absence of oxygen. fire resistant area separate from metals. All valves must be kept tightly closed until Recommended Alkaline Solutions for Absorbing Chlorine Size of Chlorine Container (Pounds Net) 100 150 2000 100% Caustic Soda Pounds Water (gallons) 125 188 2500 60 90 1200 100% Soda Ash Pounds Water (gallons) 300 450 5980 200 300 4000 100% Hydrated Lime Pounds Water (gallons) 115 175 2325 125 188 2500 * Slurry must be continuously and vigorously agitated if chlorine is to be absorbed 100%.

immediately flush eyes with a directed stream of water (low pressure-high volume) for 15 minutes. Salves and ointments should not be applied unless directed by a physician. There are no specific known antidotes for chlorine. and use of chlorine emergency kits. C) Instruction with periodic drills regarding the locations. has been reported effective in preventing pulmonary edema. This instruction should include procedures for recognizing leaks and other potential problems. purpose. swallowing liquid chlorine is extremely unlikely. limitations. Employees should be thoroughly familiar with the hazards that may result from improper handling of chlorine. Treatment for inhalation must precede first aid given to other body areas affected by exposure to chlorine. and shutdown equipment such as valves and switches. B) Instruction with periodic drills regarding the locations. sneezing. the gas will irritate the mucous membranes and respiratory tract. both normal and emergency.0 ppm depending on the individual. G) Instruction on procedures for conducting inspections before working with equipment. or the closest source of water for use in emergencies. purpose. and periodically during operations. Effective medical management is necessary for relief of symptoms with proper treatment. As a minimum. accompanied by restlessness. EMPLOYEE TRAINING FOR SAFE OPERATIONS Safety in handling chlorine depends. GET MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY Eyes In case of eye contact. GET MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY. purpose. All new employees must be trained in handling and using chlorine before operating equipment. employee training should include the following: A) Instruction with periodic drills regarding the locations. upon the effectiveness of employee education. call a physician immediately. In extreme cases. the individual exhibits excitement. At detectable odor levels. Complete recovery normally occurs. treatment is symptomatic. D) Instruction with periodic drills for specified employees on each work shift/period regarding the locations. and copious salivation. Supervisory personnel are responsible for providing proper instruction and training of employees. Wash clothing before re-use. An eye wash fountain is ideal for this type of treatment. have a trained person administer artificial respiration. (Detectable odor levels range from 0. . and use of personal protective equipment. Skin In case of contact. move the individual to fresh air. Never attempt to neutralize the chlorine with chemicals.) With excessive exposure to chlorine. and the use of proper personal protective equipment. retching. and use of safety showers.3 to 3. effective supervision. and use of emergency respiratory protection and first aid equipment. The effective and immediate relief of symptoms is the primary goal. Notes to Physician Because there is no known antidote for chlorine gas inhalation. if given early. and how to use associated equipment. If breathing is difficult. immediately remove the contaminated clothing and shoes. and even death may occur. Each employee should know emergency and first aid measures. have a trained person administer oxygen. E) Instruction on avoiding inhalation of chlorine gas and contact with the liquid. to a great extent. Steroid therapy. proper safety instructions. Emphasis should be placed on chlorine’s effect on the human body at different exposure levels. pulmonary edema. Prolonged contact produces burns. Liquid chlorine slowly vaporizes to gas in the open atmosphere. Discard contaminated nonrubber shoes. limitations. If respiration stops. Forcibly hold eyelids apart to ensure complete irrigation of all eye and lid tissues. purpose. fire fighting equipment. Training for all employees should be conducted periodically. to reinforce correct methods and to maintain a high degree of competence in handling procedures. F) Instruction on procedures for reporting all equipment failures to the proper authority. fire alarms.Safety and Emergency Information FIRST AID Exposure Symptoms Liquid chlorine is a skin and eye irritant. H) Instruction on the proper actions to take when leaks occur and on procedures for evacuating affected areas. In such an instance. Inhalation If chlorine is inhaled. Flush skin with plenty of water. 19 of 32 Ingestion Due to its physical properties. eye baths.

025 Thermal Conductivity of Chlorine Gas at 1 Atm °C Btu/(hr-ft-°F) -30 0.000145 psi 1 Pa = 9.068522 lb(force)/ft 1 J/m2 = 1000 ergs/cm2 °K = °C+273. -30 0.0230 Physical Properties of Chlorine Atomic weight: 35.1 atm.0103 Thermal Conductivity of Liquid Chlorine °C Btu/(hr-ft-°F) -100 0.05°C (-29.000430 Btu/lb 1 J/kg-°K = 0.0847 100 0.0112 0 0.86 Btu/lb) Conversion of Units Physical Quantity Concentration Density Energy Entropy Pressure Surface Tension Temperature Thermal Conductivity Viscosity Volume Sl Unit kilograms per cubic meter kilograms per cubic meter joules per kilogram joules per kilogram-Kelvin Pascals (Newtons per square meter) joules per square meter Kelvin watts per meter-Kelvin Pascal-second cubic meters per kilogram Conversion 1 = 0.0048 100 0.0086 300 0.0067 200 0.29°F) Freezing point: -100.0126 100 0.0532 144 0.000239 Btu/lb-°F 1 Pa = 0.0185 cu ft/lb kg/m3 .2°F) Critical pressure: 7711 kPa (76.86923x10-6 atm 1 J/m2 = 0.02796 cu ft/lb) Heat of fusion at the melting point: 6405± 5 J/mol (38.021 300 0.20 of 32 Technical Data Viscosity of Chlorine Gas at 1 Atm °C cp. 1118 psi) Critical volume: 1.0169 200 0.745x10-3m3/kg (0.577797 Btu/(hr-ft-°F) 1 Pa-s = 0.453 Boiling point: -34.76°F) Critical temperature: 144.671969 lb/ft-sec 1 Pa-s = 1000 centipoise 1 m3/kg = 16.98°C (-149.15 °C = (°F-32)/1.0042 0 0.0°C (291.062428 lbs/cu ft 1 J/kg = 0.1149 0 0.008345 lbs/gal 1 kg/m3 = 0.8 1 W/m-°K = 0.

26 232.25179 0.78 222..68385 0.2055 1.01 162.22029 0.53206 0.63 154.08 123.38420 0.24 237.57 216.69978 0.930 43.984 28.66061 0.88 601.66545 0.70 101.26920 0.79 225.26 116.34328 0.087 97.71 126.5258 4.0093981 0.74003 0.Thermodynamic Properties of Chlorine.81 224.53 134.27 113.09 147.14533 0.709 88.66 130.59658 0.41 231.48388 0.47656 0.17213 0.58393 0.010248 0.488 80.28732 0.14 325.66 172.63 229.51 145.882 67.41593 0.59 115.48109 0.38201 0.02 107.44 238.015587 0.J.090072 0.20 225.38 185. J.015118 0.40852 0.060 00.41459 0.38901 0.33110 0.77322 0.43757 0.0094727 0.22781 0.014710 0.012758 0.15280 0.80251 1.3457 3.993 63.46252 0. Ann Arbor.47196 0.6313 1.010146 0.28 168.18285 0.69406 0.79065 0.65 237.013208 0.61534 0.0097911 0.46729 0.51537 0.696 63.890 83.276 72.36976 0.09 201.528 44.011132 0.68 546.045948 0.02 102.69 790. Martin.23052 0.73 220.28802 0.48994 0.68148 0.684 85.76 123.606 100.13 135.54958 0.010442 0.0097083 0.72090 0.4156 4.45 139.105 85.098155 0.86 448.64 228.54063 0.63565 0.67915 0.027960 Vapor vg 95.012362 0.048647 0.10221 0.987 14.07 495.84 231.42048 0.305 85.011846 0.36 235.77 Enthalpy (Btu/lb) Vaporization ³h 137.99128 0.31 105.067 90.538 51.11518 0.60582 21 of 32 Entropy (Btu/lb-°R) Vaporization ³s 0.420 92.8336 6.71305 0.88 233.65 218.45 134.35 133.13991 0.5642 4.52786 0.70606 0.96 142. s = 0 for solid Cl2 at 0°R) Absolute Temp (°F) t -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -29.26 238.05 362.011690 0.06 159.987 42.49857 0.406 99.696 18.02 127.012975 0.29 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 291.91 403.012009 0.010053 0.9544 1.012554 0.677 71.016827 0.1996 7.5213 3.57 258.65243 0.44248 0.14637 0.2 Pressure (psi) p 0.034207 0.67233 0.09 232.022862 0.45767 0.66307 0.35 1020.40225 0.62987 0.071598 0.55919 0.33 106.98 137.80 225.83 112.54504 0.65805 0.15 116.99 238.95 111.090340 0.685 95.29228 0.03 214.011399 0.265 61.23 236.20583 0.41 121.55428 0.443 14.022 57.010885 0.70946 0.70 723.43719 0.45271 0.64573 0.32 127.72 134.37472 0.0098761 0.63666 0.010768 0.76 221.329 22.010656 0.80 207.483 93.53631 0.058995 0.738 22.3722 1.11 132. R.16 237.504 34.67 118.018756 0.30854 0.16 236. Michigan (1957).16565 0.53 238.72490 0.52368 0.75 227.61 217. University of Michigan.0099636 0.69138 0.101 9.54 238.150 75.05 119.Technical Data Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated Chlorine (Base: h = 0.49428 0.23555 0.75 237.57004 0.35 235.12947 0.25 176.73335 0.010242 0.33014 0.8 1107.25 120.39956 0.35615 0.193 12.20520 0.5073 8.017729 0.56440 0.28 110.50702 0.51121 0.25934 0.081322 0.21297 0.010340 0.76 237.71 130.68629 0.90 229.68879 0.78 99.11300 0.37 Volume (cu ft/lb) Liquid vl 0.95 125.027960 Liquid hl 78.69686 0.53 230.19 104.31954 0.64926 0.000 Vapor hg 215.11998 0.234 14.80 223.13 180.82 660.82 115.29805 0.67459 0.65 236.99 862.59 122.007 33.75840 0.48555 0.014023 0.54 103.19200 0.19885 0.85030 0.43177 0.50281 0.7643 2.42620 0.8793 2.19 191.44765 0.1625 0. .39575 0.60582 REF: Kapoor.15922 0.16301 0. Engineering Research Institute.86 226.72982 0.0095492 0.42462 0.079352 0.1037 5.713 51.41 238.3613 1.10575 0.66778 0.75181 0.019102 0.92 118.03 290.63 234.13339 0.51902 0.014348 0.12676 0.07 165.43 153.719 102.68 109.776 30.M.011006 0.71686 0.354 79.013728 0.013458 0.20 156.86 207.70 228.069011 0.27842 0.80 177.77 Liquid sl 0.64 108.78158 0.64164 0.011541 0.81 939.060310 0.40 125.18528 0.5462 2.24354 0..6157 11.011263 0.37386 0.759 95.0096277 0.73 150.28 233.70284 0.73474 0.72522 0.162 90.328 82.34 113.74570 0.57635 0.010547 0.65534 0.782 97.000000 Vapor sg 0.69 219.697 88.55346 0.51953 0.76551 0.17866 0.67686 0.00 131.26033 0.02 235.081 16.34 129.66 122.67006 0.016143 0.04 200.5 1118.012181 0.

69209 0.67069 0.81317 0.9256 266.53934 260.60 269.00 257.5486 2.76 0.75488 75 8.72582 0.9°F) h — — — 242.71 0.40 0.74906 0.63 241.16 250.9115 1.76603 0.72879 0.92 253.76506 0.95298 0.05 273.73872 v 0.7892 3.85215 0.5567 249.8077 2.33 275.66 242.13 0.80907 375 12.74207 0.70111 250 0.39 0.3093 275.69816 0.37 0.78 237.5559 1.2426 262.96 259.77942 0.99 263.75471 0.22 243.73928 150 3.8601 1.6898 s 0.19729 0.72139 225 1.60 245.79045 v 2.1503 1.1°F) h — — 241.30 0.40616 241.37687 0.4184 274.56056 263.72245 375 0.20211 0.15 254.70349 0.46 265.1765 s 0.79743 300 11.69048 0.79822 0.7050 5.50165 0.4103 4. enthalpy (Btu/lb).22 of 32 Technical Data Figures in parenthesis under the pressures are the saturation temperatures 14.93 256.76714 400 2.0764 2.7°F) h 232.95 0.75969 0.0321 1.14 237.80 245.9380 252.87041 0.66 250.4339 2.63 240.70510 0.78907 250 10.71011 300 0.82 0.74625 0.2273 6.9466 2.5547 236.6350 239.4735 2.J.42 0.90 275.68733 0.58 275.78015 200 9.43 246.1812 5.71925 125 1.04 267.86 266.63 251.37 0.74965 0.69672 0.1766 4.1412 s 0.1738 2.72338 0.76804 0.0503 1.76 300 psi (152.70558 0.80 242.76 0.79 0.7427 2.82855 0.19 252. s.1540 248.3747 271.70917 0.9465 0.71670 200 1.0246 245.70162 0.15684 0.1574 2.12 258.73510 0.38 0.00 252.68493 0.4773 s 0.22 242.221 270.2556 2.70827 75 1.76594 0.08 266.55 248.13 253.71 254.18 263.54 272.72866 0.78528 Temp.88 272.75374 0.73452 300 1.54 0.7036 2.71 255.8732 248.81273 400 12.601 273.73875 225 2.6190 1.25 269.50 0.0084 7.78574 0.71437 325 0.71031 0.91186 0.78687 0.04 270.92 0.99 0.72750 0.3065 8.07 269.1815 272.15 257.14 0.84017 s — 0.68 253.3305 5.73721 0.40 246.72291 0.92 0.71847 350 0.97 248.6343 237.75870 0.4512 2.69180 0.89 268.72889 100 2.57 260.40 251.76632 300 3.52 20 psi (-16.74597 0.6077 1.4517 1.8610 3.1739 3.95 266.71901 0.55 249.75045 0.51 269.9469 5.2623 232.88072 238.76218 275 3.0915 1.49 266.72972 0.71734 v — — 0.23436 1.8782 229.73799 0.3614 2.29732 s — — 0.73771 0.3474 2.2163 1.8234 1.01 268.70017 REF: Kapoor.73419 125 2.08 0.02 241.4849 3.15 251.27 256.69 70 psi (47.73139 0. 50 psi (°F) (29.26 246.13 0.16 260.81932 0.74919 50 7.10 0.19467 1.71388 100 1.69258 0.1523 1.10 252.78621 0.1983 259. s = 0 for solid Cl2 at 0°R Temp.73822 0.94 231.68723 0.76192 0.92 0.95 238.6°F) t v h s 50 1.26 258.37 0.70841 0.73132 0.8814 1.76926 0.4949 1.76213 0.7944 3.5407 257.5801 3.2865 6.4975 272.60 254.33 259.75777 0.72329 400 0.17 0.68522 0.98167 1.2846 1.29 272.77785 0.981 276.77380 0.92717 241.23 252.69133 200 0.80142 325 11.69982 0.08 261.74942 0.71479 0.71912 0.6850 1.33155 0.80530 350 12.42934 244.77372 0.95 269.73672 0.77364 0.75438 0.9993 2.73 0.77553 0.56 268.67674 0.74522 0.0222 2.70146 125 0.62 267.76106 v — 0.080 261.25 234.74326 25 7.8161 1.78 255.77819 0.699 258.74392 0.71382 0.81629 Temp.2566 4.68641 0.91 244.05 264.45202 247.93 241.7172 4.86 263.3535 2.77 60 psi (38.72936 175 1.75414 0.76550 v 1.9519 251.M.2831 251.74329 0.71492 0.76266 0.71349 0.79445 0.53187 0.82 0.4200 269.18064 0.72942 0.78175 0.23 259.97 260.76556 125 8.81 25 psi (-6.72040 0.70570 275 0.7314 200 1.74453 0.76190 0.81 236.53 249.78320 0.68213 0.33 243.05 248.8704 5.79676 v 2.19 245.65 0.2501 3.29987 0.58 266.7507 1.5852 2.74333 0.61574 0.21230 0.89 261.21139 0.460 264.72275 0.96 263.22479 0.68 0.68262 0.2530 1.59063 0.70675 150 0.0472 8.69961 0.6398 3.1538 256. Michigan (1957).3308 268.5624 4.17 271. entropy (Btu/lb-°R) Base: h = 0.28338 0.54 0.65 247.1398 3.70910 0.0288 237.11487 1.35 0.75791 250 3.73378 0. Ann Arbor.03437 1.49 254.39155 0.58160 266.0536 269.74414 v — 0.70954 0.61 271.75092 0. J.74585 0.60247 270.5656 8.71440 0.69643 0.15 0.92 45 psi (23.1087 257.26230 0.75358 0.75745 0.76985 0.74602 0.42 0.85 0.72883 0.7198 1.73 245.7148 242.75349 0.97 236.0326 3.73483 0.73974 0.75464 0. 90 psi (°F) (63.28585 0.5948 3..40607 s 0.03 Thermodynamic Properties of Superheated Chlorine v.50 264.97317 244.72423 0.72236 0.25 0.6638 1.33 240.70566 0.08 233.8949 242.8247 s 0.74986 0.6923 2.53 268.67098 0.5514 1.696 psi (-29.69803 0.38 0.71701 0.75015 400 1.67764 0. University of Michigan.73549 0.74640 0.34690 0.0°F) h 230. 200 psi (°F) (119. volume (cu ft/lb).51 0.46 0.69608 0.17 0.73283 0.26 246.78952 0.01 275.67 266.27 274.87 0.27419 0.5529 1.99380 1.0136 s — 0.86 273.2868 265.77374 v 1.22 253.2647 263.5501 1.33 0.5010 1.51 251.69576 0.0867 2.67627 0.30 249.07 244.3717 231.49625 254.74181 0.7133 5.4879 6.8°F) h 231.74 270.77 234.25015 0.13 255.30 0.86 269.98 251.30 0.6552 4.7°F) h — 236.5220 5.18 0.2253 s 0.71689 0.31590 0.73416 0.88478 0.66 275.05 255.68 274.72025 0.0116 2.77732 0.49 0.65075 0.03 266.0178 3.79319 0.73342 0.4702 3.75291 0.75875 0.61936 0.71035 0.97 500 psi (200.5991 s — 0.36199 0.91 250.45 237.87 249.77710 v 1.76 231.19158 0.76311 0.26 239.64775 0.08 150 psi (97.74939 0.69109 0.58 257.0956 6.74058 0.77802 375 4.7348 1.75877 0.2086 1.78090 v 1.72048 0.73002 v 4.5748 275.4382 1.76051 0.76646 0.70081 0.80 248.75378 Temp.79057 0.3996 3.3030 1.8°F) h 233.75720 v 0.61 237.69 269.0640 250.7757 1.80545 v 3.7600 1.75349 225 3.74063 0.90 233.73337 0.77 0.59 0.70369 0.75 259.26630 0.12 272.6458 234.78625 0.1290 3.1752 246.72441 150 1.75055 0.69100 0.72937 0.24844 0.07471 1.9663 6.0°F) h 231.42 0.3296 3.1°F) t v h s 75 0.73094 0.4740 233.9487 4.72329 0.27 0.75810 0.77546 175 9.72714 0.8315 s 0.7782 2.90 241.85 0.15485 1.77034 325 3.21 0.71821 0.43 0.2607 2.76456 0.7877 8.74707 0.68149 0.5201 2.01871 247.23192 s — — — 0.74892 200 3.73947 0.72888 0.841 267.72468 0.62 252.74320 250 2.9°F) h 237.78 0.41 0.77015 0.70543 0.97 235.77 0.74642 375 1.48 240.22222 0.72592 250 1.95 272.71182 175 1.7975 263.9°F) h 234.88 239.1868 260.75820 0.3528 1.52 0.47430 250.70659 0.12 0.62 80 psi (55.71540 0.72336 75 2.39 262.6457 2.73504 0.74257 350 1.73945 0.14 0.40 239.78245 0.7548 4.4°F) t v h s 25 2.69 257.32 0.1388 5.56150 0.57 0.0293 3.1°F) h 228.66655 0.27393 s 0.67 260.69592 100 0.28 250.60 234.67231 0.39 100 psi (69.76738 0.77 0.94 242.74449 0.75394 0.3602 3.70859 0.48 261. R.4°F) t v h s 150 0.73789 0.74191 0.68 263.5638 4.96 238.06 264.319 255.63 244.38 261.75 251.65 0.72440 0.75572 325 2.47 263.73588 0.5034 234.77424 350 4.23 240.84 265.70116 0.71885 0.70373 0.74419 175 3.17 249.85 0.33 0.75168 300 2.75580 0.8°F) h — 237.69633 225 0.7934 243.78468 225 10.08 268.00 40 psi (16.68610 175 0.2°F) h 228.83371 235.67 263.5281 7.9832 4.2665 1.7483 7.79 0.74049 0.9361 3.03 239.50 0.70276 0.23 125 psi (84.90 257.71925 0.63 0.1028 4.80 258.96 272.3812 1.62321 273.47 257. Martin.4434 5.13 231.78170 400 4.6966 2.51 243.13 246.46 0.85 257.70788 v — — — 0.74751 275 2.79331 275 11.27 271.74 275.94 254. 10 psi (°F) (-44.72399 0.4023 1.3424 266.71306 0.47 260.71941 0.9186 3.06 276.17 248.71 256.21 266.91 247.4°F) t v h s 0 6.71142 0.87 260.73226 0.0303 254.67584 0.73 239.15 0.3°F) h 229.31 236.1090 253.01 0.77060 150 9.8395 2.91723 0.71350 0.3240 1.80189 0.67 248.73125 0.6456 1.3697 4.72734 0.98 265.79 262.86 245.48 244.6063 2.74 256.62 272.94952 0.51 0.76033 100 8.76946 0.7648 240.73 245.37 400 psi (179.75964 350 2.1015 1.9597 2.71 272.72492 0.23767 0.16 255.4120 254.9185 5.6692 260.4196 1.73029 275 1.57 263.12 258.71597 0.3523 1.0588 2.74 265. Engineering Research Institute.71137 0.78657 0.7941 245.94 234.51792 257.16913 0.1358 2..77352 0.76983 0.9987 1.74221 0.2028 1.75071 v — 0.45 0.2684 7.70393 0.4113 240.74991 0. .76344 375 2.2489 2.Thermodynamic Properties of Chlorine.4864 1.98 276.73861 325 1. h.0235 5.77073 Temp.44 261.17 275.69555 0.73245 0.36 243.57 242.08 35 psi (10.62 238.8°F) h — 235.71759 50 2.46 269.8639 s 0. 30 psi (°F) (2.77151 0.11 247.9045 6.

Technical Data 23 of 32 .

24 of 32 Technical Data Specific Heat (Heat Capacity) of Liquid Chlorine .

Technical Data 25 of 32 .

90 50 80 40 70 60 30 50 40 20 30 20 10 10 0 -130 -80 -30 20 70 120 170 220 270 0 320 Temperature. Fahrenheit Heat of Vaporization. Centigrade -90 150 80 140 -40 10 60 110 160 130 70 120 110 60 100 Heat of Vaporization. ./kg. BTU/lb. kcal.26 of 32 Technical Data Latent Heat of Vaporization of Chlorine Temperature.

12 100.0 690.001 0.00 Partial Pressure.7 1. psia 0.0 35.00 Solubility./cu. kPa 10.94 27 of 32 14 0° F 0.Technical Data Solubility of Chlorine in Water 0.10 1./gal.00 0.0 100. kg.0 0. lbs.00 10 4° F °F 86 °F 68 °F 15 8° F 12 2° 0.010 1.100 F 10. meter °F 50 32 Solubility. 17 6° F .00 10.300 Partial Pressure.

0 0. kPa . Fahrenheit Vapor pressure. psia 100.0 1 1.7 320 Temperature.0 10 10.28 of 32 Technical Data Vapor Pressure of Saturated Chlorine Temperature.0 1000 1000.1 -130 -80 -30 20 70 120 170 220 270 0.0 10000 10000.0 100 Vapor pressure. Centigrade -90 -40 10 60 110 160 69000.

00000 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 Temperature.00055 0.90 0.00040 0.00015 0.40 0.00010 0.00050 0.60 0.00 0.-sec.00035 0.10 0.00020 0.Technical Data Viscosity of Liquid Chlorine Temperature.00065 0. Centigrade -100 1. .10 -50 0 50 100 29 of 32 0. Centipoise 0.00005 0.70 0.20 0./ft.00030 0. lbs.80 0.00 -150 0.50 0.00025 0.00060 0.00045 Viscosity.00070 1. Fahrenheit Viscosity.30 0.

30 of 32 Technical Data .

87. .8 50 -130 -80 -30 20 70 120 170 220 270 27. Centigrade -90 250 -40 10 60 110 31 of 32 160 127.8 100 47. ΔH.8 320 Temperature. ΔH.8 200 107.8 150 67.8 Liquid Enthalpy. Fahrenheit Liquid Enthalpy. BTU/lb. kcal./kg.Technical Data Enthalpy of Liquid Chlorine Temperature.

Ziegler. J.. Suppl. in “Chlorine. L. . Michigan (1957). 229 (1950).32 of 32 Bibliography McBride.. Inc.L. Washington. F. Eng. “Thermodynamic Properties to 6000°K for 210 Substances Involving the First 18 Elements” NASA SP-3001. C. in “Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry of the Elements.J.) ACS Monograph Series No. Stull. J. Cleveland.. Ohio (1963).. J. “IUPAC Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physiochemical Quantities and Units” Pure Appl. New York (1973).: “Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry.A.” Vol. Cleveland. Yaws.) Marcel Dekker. XIII. Svehla.N. Kirkbride. New York (1962). J. Prophet. A. R. Gordon. E. New York (1956). Lewis Research Center. Chem. H.. Ann Arbor..G. Properties and Uses. “JANAF Thermochemical Tables” 2nd Ed. 81 (12) 70 (1974). 22. 154 Reinhold Publishing Corp.J. II. (1971). D. Sect. Ch. H. Martin. S.” Vol.R.N. J. Laubusch. 1 (Ed.: Sconce. S. “Estimated Viscosities and Thermal Conductivities of Gases at High Temperatures” NASA Technical Report R-132 Lewis Research Center. Its Manufacture. “Thermodynamic Properties of Chlorine” Engineering Research Institute. Ehlers. I. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Chem.” Ch. Chem 21..S. Ohio (1962). Tech. Setty..C. M.. B.. G. Faita. in Mellow. Heimel. Smith... 1.. Mussini.L. NSRDS – NBS37 National Bureau of Standards. R. 1 (1970).W. Ing. 3 (Ed.J.: Bard. T.S. Kapoor.J. D.W.D.. University of Michigan. McGlashan.

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