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Published by: Prashant Singh Parihar on Nov 15, 2010
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Sections

  • INTRODUCTION
  • HEX CODING
  • LIGHT EMITTING DIODE
  • RESISTOR
  • CAPACITOR
  • CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
  • VOLTAGE REGULATOR
  • CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
  • Serial Communication via RS232 Port
  • HEX INVERTER
  • SWITCH
  • REFERENCES
  • CONCLUSION
  • FUTURE PROSPECT

A Project Report on ³Remote Control for Home Appliances´

Submitted for Partial Fulfillment of Award of Bachelor of Technology Degree By Ms. Khushboo Singh
(0416131028)

Project Incharge Prof. P. K. Srivastava

Project Guide Mrs. Arpita Gupta Lecturer (E&C)

Head Of the Department Prof. K. K. Dangda

Electronics & Communication Engineering (2007-2008)

Krishna Engineering College, Ghaziabad (U.P.)

A Project Report on ³Remote Control for Home Appliances´
Submitted for Partial Fulfillment of Award of Bachelor of Technology Degree By Ms. Archana Sharma
(0416131011)

Project Incharge Prof. P. K. Srivastava

Project Guide Mrs. Arpita Gupta Lecturer (E&C)

Head Of the Department Prof. K. K. Dangda

Electronics & Communication Engineering (2007-2008)

Krishna Engineering College, Ghaziabad (U.P.)

A Project Report on ³Remote Control for Home Appliances´
Submitted for Partial Fulfillment of Award of Bachelor of Technology Degree By

Ms. Nidhi Sharma
(0416131037)

Project Incharge Prof. P. K. Srivastava

Project Guide Mrs. Arpita Gupta Lecturer (E&C)

Head Of the Department Prof. K. K. Dangda

Electronics & Communication Engineering (2007-2008)

Krishna Engineering College, Ghaziabad (U.P.)

Neetika Mehta (0416131035) Project Incharge Prof.A Project Report on ³Remote Control for Home Appliances´ Submitted for Partial Fulfillment of Award of Bachelor of Technology Degree By Ms. Dangda Electronics & Communication Engineering (2007-2008) Krishna Engineering College.P.) . K. Ghaziabad (U. K. P. K. Arpita Gupta Lecturer (E&C) Head Of the Department Prof. Srivastava Project Guide Mrs.

colleagues and teachers for helping me and giving valuable suggestion and moral support. K.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to our project Incharge Prof. Srivastava and project guides Mrs. valuable guidance and encouraging attitude during the preparation of this project. P. I am also highly indebted to all the faculty members and specially for Mr. K. Arpita Gupta for their consistent super vision. Khushboo Singh (0416131028) (Electronics & communication) . Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication) for providing a very congenial atmosphere to avail each and every opportunity. At last but not least I want to thanks my parents.K.

Archana Sharma (0416131011) (Electronics & communication) . Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication) for providing a very congenial atmosphere to avail each and every opportunity. colleagues and teachers for helping me and giving valuable suggestion and moral support.K.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to our project Incharge Prof. At last but not least I want to thanks my parents. P. K. Arpita Gupta for their consistent super vision. I am also highly indebted to all the faculty members and specially for Mr. valuable guidance and encouraging attitude during the preparation of this project. Srivastava and project guides Mrs. K.

valuable guidance and encouraging attitude during the preparation of this project. At last but not least I want to thanks my parents. Arpita Gupta for their consistent super vision. I am also highly indebted to all the faculty members and specially for Mr.K. K. colleagues and teachers for helping me and giving valuable suggestion and moral support.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to our project Incharge Prof. Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication) for providing a very congenial atmosphere to avail each and every opportunity. Srivastava and project guides Mrs. K. P. Nidhi Sharma (0416131037) (Electronics & communication) .

Neetika Mehta (0416131028) (Electronics & communication) . Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication) for providing a very congenial atmosphere to avail each and every opportunity. At last but not least I want to thanks my parents. Srivastava and project guides Mrs.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to our project Incharge Prof. K.K. Arpita Gupta for their consistent super vision. P. K. valuable guidance and encouraging attitude during the preparation of this project. I am also highly indebted to all the faculty members and specially for Mr. colleagues and teachers for helping me and giving valuable suggestion and moral support.

0416131028). is a record of work carried out under my guidance and supervision. K.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled ³REMOTE CONTROL FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ submitted by Khushboo Singh (Roll No. student of Final-Year Electronics and Communication engineering. Srivastava . Arpita Gupta Project Incharge Prof. P. Project Guide Mrs.

P. Arpita Gupta Project Incharge Prof. Project Guide Mrs. Srivastava .CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled ³REMOTE CONTROL FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ submitted by Archana Sharma (Roll No. is a record of work carried out under my guidance and supervision. 0416131011). K. student of Final-Year Electronics and Communication engineering.

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled ³REMOTE CONTROL FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ submitted by Nidhi Sharma (Roll No. is a record of work carried out under my guidance and supervision. 0416131037). student of Final-Year Electronics and Communication engineering. Arpita Gupta Project Incharge Prof. Srivastava . K. P. Project Guide Mrs.

K. P. is a record of work carried out under my guidance and supervision. Srivastava . 0416131035). Arpita Gupta Project Incharge Prof.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled ³REMOTE CONTROL FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ submitted by Neetika Mehta (Roll No. Project Guide Mrs. student of Final-Year Electronics and Communication engineering.

MAIN CIRCUIT  Circuit Description 5. REFERENCES . CONCLUSION 7. INTRODUCTION 2.CONTENTS 1. SOFTWARE  C Programming  Hex Coding 6. FUTURE PROSPECTS 8. BLOCK DIAGRAM 3. COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION          LED Resistor Capacitor Voltage Regulator Crystal oscillator Serial Communication via RS232 port Hex Inverter Switch Microcontroller y AT89C51 y AT89C2051 4.

is a record of work carried out under my guidance and supervision. P.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled ³REMOTE CONTROL FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ submitted by Archana Sharma. K. Neetika Mehta and Nidhi Sharma students of Final-Year Electronics and Communication engineering. Khushboo Singh. Srivastava . Arpita Gupta Project Incharge Prof. Project Guide Mrs.

valuable guidance and encouraging attitude during the preparation of this project. We are also highly indebted to all the faculty members and specially for Mr. Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication) for providing a very congenial atmosphere to avail each and every opportunity. Srivastava and project guides Mrs. K. friends and teachers for helping us and giving valuable suggestion and moral support. P.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to take this opportunity to express our gratitude to our project Incharge Prof. Arpita Gupta for their consistent super vision. Archana Sharma (0416131011) Khushboo Singh (0416131028) Neetika Mehta (0416131035) Nidhi Sharma (0416131037) (4th Year) (Electronics & communication) .K. At last but not least we want to thanks our parents. K.

1 .

Almost all audio and video equipment can be controlled this way nowadays. These capabilities result in higher quality of life. are the enabler of a variety of new features. based on infrared. This opens a whole new world of services. increased convenience and allow us to manage our time in higher efficiency. The cheapest way to remotely control a device within a visible range is via Infra-Red light. nowadays added to home appliances.INTRODUCTION Built-in communication capabilities. thus making it ideal for us to use IR control for our own project. Appliance can be leased with payment per use only model. taking advantage of their enormous customer base. controlling the home appliances with the help of remote control. Due to this wide spread use the required components are quite cheap. manufacturers and service providers alike. Appliance manufacturers have now for the first time. beyond traditional home control beneficial to users. a direct link to the end user. cost saving. 2 . saving customers the need to spend a relatively high down payment. services and exciting usage models. A remote control is an electronic device used for the remote operation of a machine. allowing them to provide remote service and fault diagnostics and additional new services.

The term remote control can be also referred to as "remote" or "controller" when abbreviated. It is known by many other names as well. Commonly, remote controls are used to issue commands from a distance to televisions or other consumer electronics such as stereo systems and DVD players. Remote controls for these devices are usually small wireless handheld objects with an array of buttons for adjusting various settings such as television channel, track number, and volume. In fact, for the majority of modern devices with this kind of control, the remote contains all the function controls while the controlled device itself only has a handful of essential primary controls. Most of these remotes communicate to their respective devices via infrared (IR) signals and a few via radio signals. Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of microwaves. The name means "below red" (from the Latin infra, "below"), red being the color of visible light with the longest wavelength. Infrared radiation has wavelengths between about 750 nm and 1 mm. Humans at normal body temperature can radiate at a wavelength of 10 microns.Infrared imaging is used extensively for both military and civilian purposes. Infra-Red actually is normal light with a particular color. We humans can't see this colour because its wave length is below the visible spectrum. That's one of the reasons why IR is chosen for remote control purposes. Another reason is because IR LEDs are quite easy to make, and therefore can be very cheap.

3

There are many sources of Infra-Red light. The sun is the brightest source of all. Others are: light bulbs, candles, central heating system, and even our body radiates Infra-Red light. In fact everything that radiates heat, does radiate Infra-Red light. Therefore we have to take some precautions to guarantee that our IR message gets across the receiver without errors. Modulation is done to make our signal stand out above the noise. With modulation we make the IR light source blink at a particular frequency. The IR receiver will be tuned to that frequency, so it can ignore everything else.

4

5

IR TX WITH MICRO CONTROLL ER IR RX WITH MICRO CONTROLLER LED1 LED2 Key Pad POWER SUPPLY 6 HEX CODING .

For Transmitter: :0E044F003838383838383838383838383800C7 :1004EB00D297D296D295D294759850758920758DE6 :1004FB00F4D28ED2992097087BFF7A03795F801410 :10050B002096087BFF7A03799F800920950B7BFF50 :10051B007A0379DD12006580DC2094D97BFF7A04A5 :07052B00791D12006580CE6E :030000000205599D :0C055900787FE4F6D8FD7581210204EBE8 :10000300E518240CF8E60518227809300702780C65 :10001300E475F0011204B502045D2000EB7F2ED2DB :10002300008018EF540F2490D43440D4FF30040BD5 :10003300EF24BFB41A0050032461FFE519600215D1 :1000430019051CE51C7002051B30070D7809E475C2 :10005300F0011204B5EF0204A30205327403D207C0 :100063008003E4C207F5188B098A0A890BE4F519A2 :10007300F51BF51CE51960077F2012003E80F5751E :100083001AFFC201C200C202C203C205C206C208ED :1000930012000CFF700D3007057F0012004FAF1CDC :1000A300AE1B22B4255FC2D5C20412000CFF24D0BC :1000B300B40A00501A75F00A781930D50508B6FF4E :1000C3000106C6A426F620D5047002D20380D924E3 :1000D300CFB41A00EF5004C2E5D20402024FD2019A :1000E30080C6D20080C0D20280BCD2D580BAD205ED :1000F30080B47F2012003E2002077401B51900402E :10010300F1120003FF12003E020077D208D20680EC :1001130095120003FB120003FA120003F94A4B7015 :100123000679207A037BFF20022EE519602A7E00E0 :100133008E8275830012047660060EEE651A70F0E7 :10014300C2D5EBC0E0EAC0E0E9C0E0EE120296D00F :10015300E0F9D0E0FAD0E0FB12045DFF60AAEBC047 50 :10016300E0EAC0E0E9C0E012003ED0E02401F9D0A :10017300E03400FAD0E0FBE51A0460DCD51AD9803C .

:10018300877BFF7A027992D202809C791080027970 :1001930008C206C2088008D2D5790A8004790AC247 :1001A300D5E51A047002F51AE4FAFDFEFF12000306 :1001B300FC7B08200113120003FD7B1030000A12A0 :1001C3000003FE120003FF7B20EC3382D592D5504F :1001D30013C3E43000069FFFE49EFEE42001039D69 :1001E300FDE49CFCE4CBF8C201EC700CCFCECDCC8B :1001F300E824F8F870F38017C3EF33FFEE33FEED16 :1002030033FDEC33FCEB33FB994002FB0FD8E9EBF6 :10021300300105F8D0E0C448B201C0E00AEC4D4E0D :100223004F78207B0070C2EAB51A0040BCC0E012D0 :100233000298D0F0D0E0200104C4C0E0C4B201C0F1 :10024300F0120027D0F0D5F0EB0200771204C501BD :100253001453018E5800E54C00E14201924F019A7C :0F02630044019A4900FA4301A0550184460184E1 :100272004501844703405000E92D00ED2E01102B6B :1002820000F123010E20032E2A00A94800000108D4 :100292003F3F3F00790AA2D5200314300509B91067 :1002A200020404B9080104A2D52006025001042068 :1002B20002689202B519005034C0E07F2030031961 :1002C2007F30A20272067205500F1202EFC202C202 :1002D20006C205C2087F30800F300503E9C0E01274 :1002E200003E300503D0E0F9D0E0B519CC30051757 :1002F2007F30B9100C12003E7F583004077F78809F :1003020003B9080312003E3002057F2D02003E7F32 :10031200202008F87F2B2006F322920280CF286E3D :10032200756C6C29002D50434958D20112000330DC :1003320001F8C201781930D50108F60200A91200AD :10034200032403B405004001E49003279312002F15 :0D035200743A12002FD20375190402018EB7 :10045D00BB010689828A83E0225002E722BBFE029D 51 :09046D00E32289828A83E49322D0 :10047600BB010CE58229F582E5833AF583E022503B :1004860006E92582F8E622BBFE06E92582F8E22285 .

:0D049600E58229F582E5833AF583E493229F :1004A300BB010689828A83F0225002F722BBFE0138 :0204B300F32232 :1004B500FAE6FB0808E6F925F0F618E6CA3AF62248 :1004C500D083D082F8E4937012740193700DA3A3C6 :1004D50093F8740193F5828883E4737402936860DA :0604E500EFA3A3A380DFDA :10053200EFB40A07740D12053D740A309811A89998 :10054200B8130CC2983098FDA899C298B811F63029 :0705520099FDC299F5992201 :00000001FF 52 For Receiver: :10002500759850758920758DF4D28ED2A0D2A712FD :04003500000380FB49 .

:100003003098FDAF99C298EF24CA600D14600D14A7 :10001300600D2403700BC2A722D2A722C2A022D252 :01002300A03C :0100240022B9 :03000000020039C2 :0C003900787FE4F6D8FD758109020025EF :00000001FF 53 .

usually called an LED. is a semiconductor diode that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum light when electrically biased in .7 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE A light-emitting diode.

for cathode (yes. or ultraviolet. LEDs are often used as small indicator lights on electronic devices and increasingly in higher power applications such as flashlights and area lighting. No special precautions are needed for soldering most LEDs. for quick testing purposes a 1k resistor is suitable for most LEDs if your supply voltage is 12V or less. for cathode!). and can be infrared.the forward direction of the p-n junction. interesting applications include sterilization of water and disinfection of devices. LEDs can be damaged by heat when soldering. . Example: Circuit symbol: Function LEDs emit light when an electric current passes through them. not c. The color of the emitted light depends on the composition and condition of the semiconducting material used. visible. the diagram may be labeled a or + for anode and k or . LEDs must have a resistor in series to limit the current to a safe value. LEDs can also be used as a regular household light source. The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. This effect is a form of electroluminescence. If you can see inside the LED the cathode is the larger electrode (but this is not an official identification method). Connecting and soldering LEDs must be connected the correct way round. Besides lighting. but the risk is small unless you are very slow. it really is k. 8 Testing an LED Never connect an LED directly to a battery or power supply. It will be destroyed almost instantly because too much current will pass through and burn it out. Remember to connect the LED the correct way round.

20mA). R is given by: R = (VS . 9 9 Working out the LED resistor formula using Ohm's law Ohm's law says that the resistance of the resistor. R = V/I. In fact you may wish to choose a greater resistor value to reduce the current (to increase battery life for example) but this will make the LED less bright. otherwise it will burn out almost instantly. but 4V for blue and white LEDs) I = LED current (e.VL) / I VS = supply voltage VL = LED voltage (usually 2V. where: V = voltage across the resistor (= VS .VL in this case) I = the current through the resistor . so that the current will be a little less than you chose.g.Calculating an LED resistor value An LED must have a resistor connected in series to limit the current through the LED. this must be less than the maximum permitted If the calculated value is not available choose the nearest standard resistor value which is greater. The resistor value.

So R = (VS . yellow. The color of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material. To work out a value for the resistor you must add up all the LED voltages and use this for VL. orange. not by the coloring of the 'package' (the plastic body). All the LEDs connected in series pass the same current so it is best if they are all the same type. green. This prolongs battery life by lighting several LEDs with the same current as just one LED. Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the other colors. . The power supply must have sufficient voltage to provide about 2V for each LED (4V for blue and white) plus at least another 2V for the resistor. LEDs of all colors are available in uncolored packages which may be diffused (milky) or clear (often described as 'water clear'). Although identical LEDs can be successfully connected in parallel with one resistor this rarely offers any useful benefit because resistors are very cheap and the current used is the same as connecting the LEDs individually. blue and white. 10 Avoid connecting LEDs in parallel! Connecting several LEDs in parallel with just one resistor shared between them is generally not a good idea. Connecting LEDs in series If you wish to have several LEDs on at the same time it may be possible to connect them in series. amber.VL) / I Colors of LEDs LEDs are available in red. If LEDs are in parallel each one should have its own resistor. If the LEDs require slightly different voltages only the lowest voltage LED will light and it may be destroyed by the larger current flowing through it. The colored packages are also available as diffused (the standard type) or transparent.

d) Movement sensors. LED performance largely depends on the ambient temperature of the operating environment. toys: a) In optical fiber and Free Space Optics communications b) Movement sensors.Advantages of using LEDs 1. medical applications. LEDs must be supplied with the correct current. 11 Application Of Light Emitting Diode 1. Lighting: a) Large scale video displays b) Backlighting for LCD televisions and displays c) Architectural lighting. This is more efficient and can lower initial costs. such as the Flashflight 2. for example in optical computer mice e) Toys and recreational sporting goods. Light bulbs. Indicators and signs: . clothing. LEDs are Ideal for use in applications that are subject to frequent on-off cycling 4. and Streetlights 3. Over-driving the LED in high ambient temperatures may result in overheating of the LED package. 3. this is useful in battery powered or energy-saving devices. for example in optical computer mice c) Remote controls. Devices. LEDs can emit light of an Intended color without the use of color filters that traditional lighting methods require. Lanterns. LEDs produce more light per watt than incandescent bulbs. 2. eventually leading to device failure. such as for TVs and VCRs. 2. LEDs can be very small and are easily populated onto printed circuit board Disadvantages of using LEDs 1. often use infrared LEDs.

and Continuity indicators 12 RESISTOR A resistor is a two-terminal electrical or electronic component that opposes an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in accordance with Ohm's law Ohm's Law shows the relationship between the voltage (V). current (I) and resistance (R). Railroad crossing signals. It can be written in three ways: I= V V=I×R or R or I R= V where: V = voltage in volts (V) I = current in amps (A) R = resistance in ohms ( ) or: V = voltage in volts (V) I = current in milliamps (mA) R = resistance in kilohms (k ) Example: Circuit symbol: .a) Status indicators on a variety of equipment b) Traffic lights and signals c) Exit signs.

Each color represents a number as shown in the table. The third band indicates the number of zeros. this may be ignored for almost all circuits but further details are given below:. Function Resistors restrict the flow of electric current. for example a resistor is placed in series with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED. The second band gives the second digit. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits.The electrical resistance is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor divided by the current through the resistor while the temperature remains the same. The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the resistor. The Resistor Color Code Color Number Black 0 Brown 1 Red 2 Orange 3 Yellow 4 Green 5 Blue 6 Violet 7 Grey 8 White 9 . 1 is quite small so resistor values are often given in k and M . 1 M = 1000000 . They are not damaged by heat when soldering. the symbol for ohm is an omega . Connecting and soldering Resistors may be connected either way round. 13 Resistor values . Most resistors have 4 bands: y y y y The first band gives the first digit.the resistor color code Resistance is measured in ohms. 1 k = 1000 Resistor values are normally shown using colored bands.

or as Resistors connected in Parallel . R. is given by: Combined resistance in series: R = R1 + R2 This can be extended for more resistors: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 +. Resistors connected in Series When resistors are connected in series their combined resistance is equal to the individual resistances added together.This resistor has red (2). For example if resistors R1 and R2 are connected in series their combined resistance. Resistors used in electronics can have resistances as low as 0. On circuit diagrams the is usually omitted and the value is written 270K. Resistance Resistance is the property of a component which restricts the flow of electric current. yellow (4 zeros) and gold bands. the symbol for ohm is an omega . 14 Resistance is measured in ohms. So its value is 270000 = 270 k .1 high as 10 M . violet (7).. 1 is quite small for electronics so resistances are often given in k and M . Note that the combined resistance in series will always be greater than any of the individual resistances. Energy is used up as the voltage across the component drives the current t hrough it and this energy appears as heat in the component..

resistance. silicon. objects with a smaller cross-section or longer length will have a greater resistance. For a given material. Semiconductors Examples: which have moderate germanium. copper. R: 1 1 1 1 = + + + .. silver etc. Semiconductors and Insulators The resistance of an object depends on its shape and the material from which it is made. This adds up the reciprocal ("one over") of each resistance to give the reciprocal of the combined resistance. y . Materials can be divided into three groups: y Conductors which have low resistance.. Examples: metals ( aluminium. switch contacts and lamp filaments.When resistors are connected in parallel their combined resistance is less than any of the Individual resistances. ) and carbon. Resistors are made from carbon or long coils of thin wire. Metals are used to make connecting wires. Conductors. There is a special equation for the combined resistance of two resistors R1 and R2: R1 × R2 Combined resistance of R= two resistors in parallel: R1 + R2 15 For more than two resistors connected in parallel a more difficult equation must be used. R R1 R2 R3 The simpler equation for two resistors in parallel is much easier to use! Note that the combined resistance in parallel will always be less than any of the individual resistances.

25W or 0. glass. P. 16 y Insulators which have high resistance. PVC is used as an outer covering for wires to prevent them making contact. Power ratings of resistors are rarely quoted High power resistors in parts lists because for most circuits the (5W top. Examples: most plastics such as polythene and PVC (polyvinyl chloride). The power.5W Photographs © Rapid Electronics are suitable. LEDs. these will be circuits using low value resistors (less than about 300 ) or high voltages (more than 15V). Usually the effect is negligible. Power Ratings of Resistors Electrical energy is converted to heat when current flows through a resistor.Semiconductors are used to make diodes. developed in a resistor is given by: P = I² × R where: P = power developed in the resistor in watts (W) or I = current through the resistor in amps (A) P = V² / R R = resistance of the resistor in ohms ( ) V = voltage across the resistor in volts (V) 17 CAPACITOR . transistors and integrated circuits (chips). For the rare cases where a higher power is required it should be clearly specified in the parts list. The resistor must be able to withstand the heating effect and resistors have power ratings to show this. paper. but if the resistance is low (or the voltage across the resistor high) a large current may pass making the resistor become noticeably warm. 25W bottom) standard power ratings of 0.

non-conducting) substance that separates the plates. This property makes them useful in electronic filters. or picofarads (pF). They can also be used to differentiate between high-frequency and low-frequency signals. Capacitors are often used in electric and eletronic circuits as energy-storage devices. but opposite polarity. building up on each plate. It is also proportional to the permittivity of the dielectric (that is. The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is given by: . values of capacitors are usually expressed in microfarads (µF). nanofarads (nF).A capacitor is an electrical/electronic device that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of conductors (called "plates"). Capacitors are occasionally referred to as condensers. 18 The capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the conducting plate and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates. Capacitance The capacitor's capacitance (C) is a measure of the amount of charge (Q) stored on each plate for a given potential difference or voltage (V) which appears between the plates: C = Q/V Where : C = Capacitance in farads(F) Q = Charge in coulombs(C) V = Voltage in volts(V) In SI units. and involves electric charges of equal magnitude. a capacitor has a capacitance of one farad when one coulomb of charge is stored due to one volt applied potential difference across the plates. The process of storing energy in the capacitor is known as "charging". Since the farad is a very large unit.

Ever-increasing work must be done against this ever-increasing electric field as more charge is separated. a process called dielectric polarization. 19 Stored energy As opposite charges accumulate on the plates of a capacitor due to the separation of charge. and therefore the electric field. The energy (measured in joules. The energy stored is given by: . A is the area of the plates and d is the spacing between them. a voltage develops across the capacitor due to the electric field of these charges. This electric field creates a potential difference V = E·d between the plates of this simple parallel-plate capacitor. in SI) stored in a capacitor is equal to the amount of work required to establish the voltage across the capacitor.C§ A/d . an electric field is created in the region between the plates that is proportional to the amount of charge that has been moved from one plate to the other. In the diagram. the rotated molecules create an opposing electric field that partially cancels the field created by the plates. A>> d2 where is the permittivity of the dielectric (see Dielectric constant). When there is a difference in electric charge between the plates.

.EStored =1/2CV2 = 1/2 VQ where V is the voltage across the capacitor. capacitors made with the same dielectric have about the same maximum energy density (joules of energy per cubic meter). for example to smooth a power supply. The maximum energy that can be (safely) stored in a particular capacitor is limited by the maximum electric field that the dielectric can withstand before it breaks down. capacitors connected in series: C C1 C2 C3 Combined capacitance (C) of C = C1 + C2 + C3 + .. Therefore. capacitors connected in parallel: Two or more capacitors are rarely deliberately connected in series in real circuits.. 20 . if the dielectric volume dominates the total volume.. Capacitors in Series and Parallel 1 1 1 1 Combined capacitance (C) of = + + + . but it can be useful to connect capacitors in parallel to obtain a very large capacitance.

at least one of their leads will be marked + or -. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. 1µF +) Examples: Circuit symbol: Electrolytic Capacitors Electrolytic capacitors are polarised and they must be connected the correct way round. up to 1µF) Examples: Circuit symbol: . 21 There are two designs of electrolytic capacitors. axial where the leads are attached to each end (220µF in picture) and radial where both leads are at the same end (10µF in picture). It is easy to find the value of electrolytic capacitors because they are clearly printed with their capacitance and voltage rating. 25V is a sensible minimum for most battery circuits. polarised and unpolarised. Each group has its own circuit symbol. Unpolarised capacitors (small values. choose a capacitor with a rating which is greater than the project's power supply voltage. It the project parts list does not specify a voltage.Figure shows the Capacitors in Series and Parallel There are many types of capacitor but they can be split into two groups. The voltage rating can be quite low (6V for example) and it should always be checked when selecting an electrolytic capacitor. Radial capacitors tend to be a little smaller and they stand upright on the circuit board. Polarised capacitors (large values.

7nF (J means 5% tolerance).7nF. usually 250V or so. except for one unusual type (polystyrene). It can be difficult to find the values of these small capacitors because there are many types of them and several different labeling systems! Many small value capacitors have their value printed but without a multiplier. orange means 10000pF = 10nF = 0.they just indicate tolerance and voltage rating.01µF. . the top three color bands giving the value in pF. The colors should be read like the resistor code. but of course there are many still around. the 2nd number is the 2nd digit. 22 Capacitor Number Code A number code is often used on small capacitors where printing is difficult: y y y y the 1st number is the 1st digit.Small value capacitors are unpolarised and may be connected either way round. For example: brown. black.1µF = 100nF. It is now obsolete. Sometimes the multiplier is used in place of the decimal point: For example: 4n7 means 4. For example: 102 means 1000pF = 1nF (not 102pF!) For example: 472J means 4700pF = 4. so you need to use experience to work out what the multiplier should be! For example 0. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. Ignore the 4th band (tolerance) and 5th band (voltage rating). Ignore any letters . Capacitor Color Code A color code was used on polyester capacitors for many years. They have high voltage ratings of at least 50V.1 means 0. the 3rd number is the number of zeros to give the capacitance in pF.

for example in the tone control of an audio system. Storing energy . Filtering .22µF. y y Smoothing . Coupling . Colour Code Colour Number Black 0 Brown 1 Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 23 Uses of Capacitors Capacitors are used for several purposes: y Timing .for example with a 555 timer IC controlling the charging and discharging.for example between stages of an audio system and to connect a loudspeaker.for example in a radio system.for example in a power supply. yellow means 220nF = 0. For example: wide red. Tuning .for example in a camera flash circuit. Power conditioning Signal processing Power factor correction y y y y y y . so 2 identical bands actually appear as a wide band.Note that there are no gaps between the color bands.

24 .

7 RD WR PSEN ALE/P TXD RXD 89c51 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 L2 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 17 16 29 30 11 10 VCC YELLOW X2 9 RESET 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 INT0 INT1 T0 T1 P1.4 P1.U7 31 19 XL1 18 EA/VP X1 P0.2 P2.4 P2.7 P2.3 P0.1 P2.5 P0.0 P1.1 P1.5 P2.6 P1.0 P2.2 P1.0 P0.4 P0.3 P1.5 P1.6 P2.1 P0.3 P2.6 P0.2 P0.7 L2 RED 47 U9A 74HC14 2 1 7 U8A 74HC14 2 14 7 14 .

49 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION .

50 48 .

Here XX indicates the output voltage. The three terminal voltage regulators category we have positive voltage regulators and negative output voltage regulators. In our project the output voltage is regulated 5 volts.VOLTAGE REGULATOR The power supply which provides a constant output voltage irrespective of variations in the input voltage or load current is called a regulated power supply is called as voltage regulator. The 78XX series is a series of positive voltage regulators and 79XX is the series of negative voltage regulators. A voltage regulator should be capable of providing substantial output current. 78XX Series IC : 78XX series are three terminal positive voltage regulators. The function of a voltage regulator is to provide a stable dc voltage for powering other electronic circuits. a voltage regulato is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. Thus in short. .

25 .

26 A 5V voltage regulator (7805) is used to ensure that no more than 5V is delivered to the Digilab board regardless of the voltage present at the J12 connector (provided that voltage is less than 12VDC). The "fin" on the regulator body (the side that protrudes upward beyond the main body of the part) helps to dissipate excess heat more efficiently. 27 . If the board requires higher currents (due to the use of peripheral devices or larger breadboard circuits). If a power supply provides a voltage higher than 7 or 8 volts. If a DC supply of less than 5V is used. excessive heat will be generated. By securing the regulator tightly to the circuit board. excess heat can be passed to the board and then radiated away. The regulator functions by using a diode to clamp the output voltage at 5VDC regardless of the input voltage . In this case. then the regulator may need to dissipate more heat. the regulator can be secured to the circuit board by fastening it with a screw and nut (see below). If a DC supply of greater than 12V is used. insufficient voltage will be present at the regulators output. the regulator must dissipate significant heat. and the board may be damaged.excess voltage is converted to heat and dissipated through the body of the regulator.

This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches). since all objects have natural resonant frequencies of vibration. elasticity. it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmittes/receivers. and the speed of sound in the material. to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits. molecules. and this can generate a voltage. the quartz will generate an electric field as it returns to its previous shape. When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted. Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a crystal.CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR A crystal oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This property is known as piezoelectricity. with a precise resonant frequency. When the field is removed. The resonant frequency depends on size. repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. capacitor and resistor. or ions are packed in a regularly ordered. shape. with appropriate transducers. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor. 28 APPLICATIONS : . A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms.

signal generators. clocks. Figure shows the symbol of Crystal Oscillator 29 Serial Communication via RS232 Port Introduction to RS-232: . radios. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment.Used in consumer devices such as wristwatches. such as counters. and oscilloscopes. and cellphones. computers.

DTR. The transmit¶ and receive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. CTS. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. the data is transmitted serially. Each word is synchronized using it's start bit. The three links provides transmit¶. which are male connectors on the back of the PC. RS-232 Waveforms:RS-232 communication is asynchronous.RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. receive¶ and common ground. which was recently released. DSR. That is a clock signal is not sent with the data. For this reason. which is slow compared to today¶s standard speed. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specifies a maximum baud rate of 20. i. and RTS. We need a female connector on your communication from Host to Guest computer. The two pins are TXD & RXD.. There are other lines on this port as RTS.000bps. As the name indicates. RI. we have chosen the new RS-232D Standard. 30 . D-TYPE 25 pin connector and D-TYPE 9 pin connector. The RS-232D has existed in two types. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. The 1¶ and 0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links.e.

one at a time. This is when the data line is held in a Logic 0 state for a time long enough to send an entire word. The diagram shows the next bit after the Stop Bit to be Logic 0. then a framing error will occur. Should the Stop Bit be received as a Logic 0. The LSB (Least Significant Bit) is sent first. 31 The above diagram is only relevant for the signal immediately at the UART. A transmission starts with a start bit which Is (Logic 0). 8N1 signifies 8 Data bits. then the receiving end will interpret this as a break signal. No Parity and 1 Stop Bit. This is common. A Stop Bit (Logic 311) is then appended to the signal to make up the transmission. The data sent using this method. If there is no more data coming then the receive line will stay in its idle state (logic 1). The RS-232 line. when idle is in the Mark State (Logic 1). is said to be framed. and this is it's Start Bit. We have encountered something called a "Break" Signal. Then each bit is sent down the line. Figure: Serial Logic Waveform The diagram above shows the expected waveform from the UART when using the common 8N1 format. That is the data is framed between a Start and Stop Bit.and an internal clock on each side. RS-232 logic levels uses +3 to +25 volts to signify a . when both sides are communicating at different speeds. keeps tabs on the timing. This must mean another word is following. Therefore if you don't put the line back into an idle state.

RS-232 Level Converters:Almost all digital devices which we use require either TTL or CMOS logic levels. RTS and RI) are also at RS-232 Logic Levels. in essence are Parallel lines.e. hence the name Serial Port."Space" (Logic 0) and -3 to -25 volts for a "Mark" (logic 1). Each package contains 4 inverters of the one type. Therefore this signal is put through a "RS-232 Level Converter". Therefore the first step to connecting a device to the RS-232 port is to transform the RS-232 levels back into 0 and 5 Volts. CTS.5 to +15v and -7. DTR. either Drivers or Receivers. However the advantages of these I. These lines (RTS. As you could imagine this may pose a problem in many instances where only a single supply of +5V is present. Figure: RS-232 Logic Waveform The above waveform applies to the Transmit and Receive lines on the RS-232 port. These lines carry serial data. There are other lines on the RS-232 port which. shown below. This is the signal present on the RS-232 Port of your computer. The driver requires two supply rails. between +3 and -3 Volts) is undefined. 32 . +7. Any voltage in between these regions (i. DCD.5 to -15v.C's are they are cheap. DSR. Two common RS-232 Level Converters are the 1488 RS-232 Driver and the 1489 RS-232 Receiver.

We don't need to use two chips.Figure Pinouts for the MAX-232. Figure Typical MAX-232 circuit Another device is the MAX-232. which generates +10V and -10V from a single 5v supply. one for the receive line and one for the transmit. However all this convenience comes at a price. RS-232 Driver/Receiver. This is handy in many cases when we only want to use the Transmit and Receive data Lines. It includes a Charge Pump. but compared with the price of designing a new power supply it is very cheap. also includes two receivers and two transmitters in the same package. This I.C. 33 .

Many of these have in built SCI (Serial Communications Interfaces) which can be used to talk to the outside world. Serial Cables can be longer than Parallel cables. There is no need of as many wires as in parallel transmission. 34 . Microcontroller's have also proven to be quite popular recently. 4. Serial transmission is used where one bit is sent at a time.Therefore cable loss is not going to be as much of a problem for serial cables than they are for parallel. Infra Red devices have proven quite popular recently. 2. Only two pins are commonly used. However one must take into account the cost of the interfacing at each end. If device needs to be mounted a far distance away from the computer then 3 core cable (Null Modem Configuration) is going to be a lot cheaper that running 19 or 25 core cable.The advantages of using serial data transfer rather than parallel:1. 3. Many electronic diaries and palmtop computers have infra red capabilities build in. Serial Communication reduces the pin count of these MPU's. Transmit Data (TXD) and Receive Data (RXD) compared with at least 8 pins when used 8 bit Parallel method. The serial port transmits a '1' as -3 to -25 volts and a '0' as +3 to +25 volts where as a parallel port transmits a '0' as 0v and a '1' as 5v. Therefore the serial port can have a maximum swing of 50V compared to the parallel port which has a maximum swing of 5 Volts.

self-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness. in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor (the kind used in a PC). and input/output devices. By reducing the size. cost. such as automobile engine control systems. and input/output interfaces. low power consumption. memory. Microcontrollers are frequently used in automatically controlled products and devices. and will generally have the ability to sleep while waiting for an interesting peripheral event such as a button press to wake them up again to do something. making them ideal for low power and long lasting battery applications. In addition to the usual arithmetic and logic elements of a general purpose microprocessor. and power consumption compared to a design using a separate microprocessor. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing high integration. peripheral devices. . but this is adequate for typical applications. appliances. At clock speeds of as little as a few MHz or even lower. office machines. They consume relatively little power (milliwatts). such as flash for code storage. microcontrollers make it economical to electronically control many more processes. read-only memory. EEPROM for permanent data storage. power tools. microcontrollers often operate at very low speed compared to modern day microprocessors. remote controls. the microcontroller typically integrates additional elements such as read-write memory for data storage. and toys.A microcontroller (also MCU or µC) is a computer-on-a-chip. Power consumption while sleeping may be just nanowatts.

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jitter .HEX INVERTER The 74HC14 and 74HCT14 are high-speed Si-gate CMOS devices and are pin compatible with low power Schottky TTL The 74HC14 and 74HCT14 provide six inverting buffers with Schmitt-trigger action. Features 1) Applications:  Wave and pulse shapers  Astable multivibrators  Monostable multivibrators. 2) Complies with JEDEC standard no. 7A 3) ESD protection: a) HBM EIA/JESD22-A114-A exceeds 2000 V b) MM EIA/JESD22-A115-A exceeds 200 V. They are capable of transforming slowly changing input signals into sharply defined. .free output signals. 4) Specified from -40 to +85º C and -40 to +125 Cº.

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SWITCH A switch is a mechanical device used to connect and disconnect a circuit. mechanical strength. The contact material is chosen for its resistance to corrosion. and separate to break the circuit. because most metals form insulating oxides that would prevent the switch from working. a switch has two pieces of metal called contacts that touch to make a circuit. In the simplest case. low cost and low toxicity. . hardness (resistance to abrasive wear). Contact materials are also chosen on the basis of electrical conductivity.

com/atmel/acrobat/doc0368.nxp.com/light-emitting-diode 5) www.atmel.wikipedia.technologystudent.wikipedia.org/wiki/infrared 8) www.pdf 2) www.com 6) www.com/dyn/resources/proddocuments/doc0265.wikipedia.kpsec.freeuk.com/components/resistance /capacitance .REFERENCES 1) www.com/wiki/switch 4) www.com 3) www.atmel.pdf 7) www.

..........H> 3 4 /* special function register declarations */ /* for the intended 8051 derivative */ .............45 C Programming for Transmitter: 1 /*.*/ 2 #include <AT89X51.

5 #include <stdio. #endif 12 void delay (void). 13 sbit 14 sbit 15 sbit 16 sbit 17 18 19 sw_1 =P1^7. .h-file /* character functions */ */ /* Debugging with Monitor-51 needs */ /* space for serial interrupt if */ char code reserve [3] _at_ 0x23. sw_3 =P1^5. sw_2 =P1^6.h> 9 #ifdef MONITOR51 /* prototype declarations for I/O functions */ /* standard I/O . 46 20 21 22 23 24 void MAIN(void) 25 { 26 1 unsigned char x.h> 6 7 #include <ctype.h> 8 #include <string. sw_4 =P1^4.

40 1 TI = 1. enable rcvr /* TMOD: timer 1. 28 1 sw_2 =1. . 8-bit UART. 29 1 sw_3 =1. 8-bit reload /* TH1: reload value for 2400 */ /* TR1: timer 1 run */ */ */ */ /* TI: set TI to send first char of UART 41 1 #endif 47 42 1 while(1) 43 1 { 44 2 if (sw_1==0) 45 2 printf("555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555 555555"). 37 1 TMOD = 0x20.27 1 sw_1 =1. mode 2. 30 1 sw_4 =1. 31 1 32 1 33 1 34 1 35 1 #ifndef MONITOR51 36 1 SCON = 0x50. 39 1 TR1 = 1. /* SCON: mode 1. 38 1 TH1 = 0xf4.

48 2 49 2 50 2 else if (sw_3==0) 51 2 printf("777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 777777").H> 2 3 4 #include <stdio.h> /* special function register declarations */ /* for the intended 8051 derivative */ /* prototype declarations for I/O functions */ .46 2 else if (sw_2==0) 47 2 printf("666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666 6666"). 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 } } 48 C Programming for Receiver: 1 #include <AT89X51. 52 2 else if (sw_4==0) 53 2 printf("888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 888888").

5 6 #include <ctype. 49 /* define operation */ /* SCON: mode 1. 8-bit reload */ */ 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 1 TR1 = 1. 19 1 TMOD = 0x20. 1 1 1 while (1) { /* repeat forever */ . /* standard I/O . 8-bit UART. 1 red =1. 14 void main (void) 15 { 16 1 /* main program */ 17 1 18 1 SCON = 0x50. enable rcvr /* TMOD: timer 1.h> 8 void rx_buf(void ).h-file /* character functions */ */ 11 12 13 unsigned char r_data.h> 7 #include <string. red =P2^7. 9 sbit 10 sbit yellow =P2^0. 1 1 1 yellow =1.f. 20 1 TH1 = 0xf4. mode 2.

case '6': red=1. 1 1 1 1 1 RI=0. .29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 2 rx_buf(). break. 1 1 1 i=SBUF. 1 1 1 switch(i) { 50 54 1 55 2 56 2 57 2 58 2 59 2 60 2 61 2 case '5': red =0. 1 while(RI==0). 2 2 } 1 1 1 1 } void rx_buf(void ) { 1 1 unsigned char i .

} } 70 2 71 2 72 2 73 2 74 2 75 2 76 1 77 51 CONCLUSION An easy and inexpensive remote control for home appliances are described in this project report. to make the appliances on or off. break. break. It is based on infrared. radio. case '7': yellow=0.The circuit can be activated from upto 10 meters. which verifies the feasibility of this .Connect this circuit to any of the home appliances such as lamp. to regulate their output power. and to set their usage timing. case '8': yellow =1.62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 break. This system was tested and responded successfully. etc. fan.

very cheap and are less prone to the errors. so its become a very cost effective as it is saving electricity and electricity bill¶s . . and concept This project has a very secure In our daily life people often forget to switch off the light. 60 FUTURE PROSPECT The remote control for home appliances which is to be implemented future will have better throughput. so it is a very inexpensive and easy instrument to switch off the various home appliances without any inconvenience. Here we can also control the home appliances with help of personal computer.system's theory structure. mobile phone or land line phones.

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